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Sample records for gene gus sob

  1. Transient expression of exogenous gus gene in Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Mei; Wang, Su-Juan; Li, Yao; Shen, Da-Leng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    Electroporation, PEC, PEG plus electroporation and Biolistics methods were tested in gene transformation of P. yezoensis. The exogenous gus was from plasmid of pBI121 and pCAMBIA1301, both contain the CaMV35S promoter. The receptors included the protoplasts, tissues and free-living conchocelis filaments of P. yezoensis. Several factors, for example, the voltage, capacitance and bivalent cations, etc., were studied. Results show that these four methods are all efficient for gene transformation in P. yezoensis; and that PEG is the best one, with transformation efficiency of up to 4×10-5. GUS activity was detected 26 days after transformation by using PEG method.

  2. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  3. Transferring Gus gene into intact rice cells by low energy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengliang, Yu; Jianbo, Yang; Yuejin, Wu; Beijiu, Cheng; Jianjun, He; Yuping, Huo

    1993-06-01

    A new technique of transferring genes by low energy ion beam has been reported in this paper. The Gus and CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) genes, as "foreign" genetic materials, were introduced into the suspension cells and ripe embryos or rice by implantation of 20-30 keV Ar + at doses ranging from 1 × 10 15 to 4 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The activities of CAT and Gus were detected in the cells and embryos after several weeks. The results indicate that the transfer was a success.

  4. Study on transient expression of gus gene in Chlorelia ellipsoidea (Chlorophyta) by using biolistic particle delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Wen-Bin; Bai, Qin-Hua; Sun, Yong-Ru

    1998-03-01

    Study on the transient expression of GUS gene at different growing stage of Chlorella ellipsoidea using high velocity microprojectiles, the effects of osmosis, the distance between microprojectile and target cell, bombardment times, are reported in this paper. The results showed that C. ellipsoidea in exponential phase has higer level of transient expression and that treatment with osmosis can improve the GUS transient expression notably. The effect of distance or bombardment times was not observed.

  5. The sweet potato ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (ibAGP1) promoter confers high-level expression of the GUS reporter gene in the potato tuber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Goo, Young-Min; Lee, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Jung-Myung; Lee, Shin-Woo

    2009-10-01

    Molecular farming refers to the process of creating bioengineered plants with the capability of producing potentially valuable products, such as drugs, vaccines, and chemicals. We have investigated the potential of the sweet potato ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (ibAGP1) promoter and its transit peptide (TP) as an expression system for the mass production of foreign proteins in potato. The ibAGP1 promoter and its TP sequence were transformed into potato along with beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene, and GUS activity was subsequently analyzed in the transgenic potato plants. In tuber tissues, GUS activity in transgenic plants carrying only the ibAGP1 promoter (ibAGP1::GUS) increased up to 15.6-fold compared with that of transgenic plants carrying only the CaMV35S promoter (CaMV35S::GUS). GUS activity in transgenic plants was further enhanced by the addition of the sweetpotato TP to the recombinant vector (ibAGP1::TP::GUS), with tuber tissues showing a 26-fold increase in activity compared with that in the CaMV35S::GUS-transgenic lines. In leaf tissues, the levels of GUS activity found in ibAGP1::GUS-transgenic lines were similar to those in CaMV35S::GUS-lines, but they were significantly enhanced in ibAGP1::TP::GUS-lines. GUS activity gradually increased with increasing tuber diameter in ibAGP1::GUS-transgenic plants, reaching a maximum level when the tuber was 35 mm in diameter. In contrast, extremely elevated levels of GUS activity - up to about 10-fold higher than that found in CaMV35S::GUS-lines - were found in ibAGP1::TP::GUS-transgenic lines at a much earlier stage of tuber development (diameter 4 mm), and these higher levels were maintained throughout the entire tuber developmental stage. These results suggest that the sweetpotato ibAGP1 promoter and its TP are a potentially strong foreign gene expression system that can be used for molecular farming in potato plants.

  6. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using cotyledonary node as explant and a promoterless gus::nptII fusion gene based vector.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, T Swathi; Jami, S K; Datla, R S; Kirti, P B

    2006-06-01

    We have generated putative promoter tagged transgenic lines in Arachis hypogaea cv JL-24 using cotyledonary node (CN) as an explant and a promoterless gus::nptII bifunctional fusion gene mediated by Agrobacterium transformation. MS medium fortified with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 4mg/l in combination with 0.1 mg/l alpha -napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was the most effective out of the various BAP and NAA combinations tested in multiple shoot bud formation. Parameters enhancing genetic transformation viz. seedling age, Agrobacterium genetic background and co-cultivation periods were studied by using the binary vector p35SGUSINT. Genetic transformation with CN explants from 6-day-old seedlings co-cultivated with Agrobacterium GV2260 strain for 3 days resulted in high kanamycin resistant shoot induction percentage (45%); approximately 31% transformation frequency was achieved with p35S GUSINT in beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays. Among the in vivo GUS fusions studied with promoterless gus::nptII construct, GUS-positive sectors occupied 38% of the total transient GUS percentage. We have generated over 141 putative T 0 plants by using the promoterless construct and transferred them to the field. Among these, 82 plants survived well in the green house and 5 plants corresponding to 3.54% showed stable integration of the fusion gene as evidenced by GUS, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Twenty-four plants were positive for GUS showing either tissue-specific expression or blue spots in at least one plant part. The progeny of 15 T 0 plants indicated Mendelian inheritance pattern of segregation for single-copy integration. The tissue-specific GUS expression patterns were more or less similar in both T 0 and corresponding T 1 progeny plants. We present the differential patterns of GUS expression identified in the putative promoter-tagged transgenic lines in the present communication.

  7. The glpD gene is a novel reporter gene for E. coli that is superior to established reporter genes like lacZ and gusA.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Marius; Vogtmann, Kristina; Huber, Madeleine; Laass, Sebastian; Soppa, Jörg

    2016-12-01

    Reporter genes facilitate the characterization of promoter activities, transcript stabilities, translational efficiencies, or intracellular localization. Various reporter genes for Escherichia coli have been established, however, most of them have drawbacks like transcript instability or the inability to be used in genetic selections. Therefore, the glpD gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was introduced as a novel reporter gene for E. coli. The enzymatic assay was optimized, and it was verified that growth on glycerol strictly depends on the presence of GlpD. The 5'-UTRs of three E. coli genes were chosen and cloned upstream of the new reporter gene glpD as well as the established reporter genes lacZ and gusA. Protein and transcript levels were quantified and translational efficiencies were calculated. The lacZ transcript was very unstable and its level highly depended on its translation, compromising its use as a reporter. The results obtained with gusA and glpD were similar, however, only glpD can be used for genetic selections. Therefore, glpD was found to be a superior novel reporter gene compared to the established reporter genes lacZ and gusA.

  8. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  9. The expression of a chimeric Phaseolus vulgaris nodulin 30-GUS gene is restricted to the rhizobially infected cells in transgenic Lotus corniculatus nodules.

    PubMed

    Carsolio, C; Campos, F; Sánchez, F; Rocha-Sosa, M

    1994-12-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris there is a nodulin family, Npv30, of ca. 30 kDa, as detected in an in vitro translation assay [2]. We isolated a gene (npv30-1) for one of the members of this family. The nucleotide sequence of the promoter of npv30-1 contains nodule-specific motifs common to other late nodulin genes. The promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene; this chimeric fusion was introduced into Lotus corniculatus via Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. GUS activity was only detected in the infected cells of the nodules of transgenic plants. By contrast, the expression of a 35S-GUS construct was restricted to the uninfected cells and the vascular tissue.

  10. Specificity of expression of the GUS reporter gene (uidA) driven by the tobacco ASA2 promoter in soybean plants and tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yoshimi; Zhong, Wei Qun; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Widholm, Jack M

    2007-07-01

    Twelve independent lines were transformed by particle bombardment of soybean embryogenic suspension cultures with the tobacco anthranilate synthase (ASA2) promoter driving the uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) reporter gene. ASA2 appears to be expressed in a tissue culture specific manner in tobacco (Song H-S, Brotherton JE, Gonzales RA, Widholm JM. Tissue culture specific expression of a naturally occurring tobacco feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase. Plant Physiol 1998;117:533-43). The transgenic lines also contained the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene and were selected using hygromycin. All the selected cultures or the embryos that were induced from these cultures expressed GUS measured histochemically. However, no histochemical GUS expression could be found in leaves, stems, roots, pods and root nodules of the plants formed from the embryos and their progeny. Pollen from some of the plants and immature and mature seeds and embryogenic cultures initiated from immature cotyledons did show GUS activity. Quantitative 4-methylumbelliferyl-glucuronide (MUG) assays of the GUS activity in various tissues showed that all with observable histochemical GUS activity contained easily measurable activities and leaves and stems that showed no observable histochemical GUS staining did contain very low but measurable MUG activity above that of the untransformed control but orders of magnitude lower than the constitutive 35S-uidA controls used. Low but clearly above background levels of boiling sensitive GUS activity could be observed in the untransformed control immature seeds and embryogenic cultures using the MUG assay. Thus in soybean the ASA2 promoter drives readily observable GUS expression in tissue cultures, pollen and seeds, with only extremely low levels seen in vegetative tissues of the plants. The ASA2 driven expression seen in mature seed was, however, much lower than that seen with the constitutive 35S promoter; less than 2% in seed coats and less than

  11. Functional Analysis of Plant Promoter rpL34 Using the GUS Marker Gene in New Tr,tnsgene Expression Vector pZD428

    SciTech Connect

    Mauzey-Amato, Jacqueline M.; Dai, Ziyu )

    2000-11-01

    Optimization of the transgene expression system is one of the critical steps for the high level production of heterologous proteins in plants, where the promoter is a key component regulating transgene expression. In this study, the activity of the rpL34 promoter was analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NTI calli. A DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and the reporter gene B-D-glucuronidase (GUS) were cloned into binary vector pZD427 to generate the transgene expression vector pZD428. The insertion was verified by enzyme restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. The DNA fragment containing the rpL34 promoter and GUS reporter gene was then integrated into the tobacco genomes via Agrobacterium funiefaciens-mediated NT suspension cell transformation. The transformed CaNi were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) plates containing proper amounts of 2,4-D, cefotoxime, and kanamycin. Two hundred and sixty transformed calli were harvested for GUS activity and protein concentration measurements. GUS activity analyses revealed the specific activity up to 278,358 units per milligram total soluble protein. The GUS activity under the control of the rpL34 promoter is much higher than that under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a commonly used promoter in plant biology. These results suggest that the rpL34 promoter is one of the most active promoters that can be used for heterologous protein production in calli and suspension cells.

  12. Lentiviral-mediated gene therapy results in sustained expression of β-glucuronidase for up to 12 months in the gus(mps/mps) and up to 18 months in the gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse models of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII.

    PubMed

    Derrick-Roberts, Ainslie L K; Pyragius, Carmen E; Kaidonis, Xenia M; Jackson, Matilda R; Anson, Donald S; Byers, Sharon

    2014-09-01

    A number of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) mouse models with different levels of residual enzyme activity have been created replicating the range of clinical phenotypes observed in human MPS VII patients. In this study, a lentivirus encoding murine β-glucuronidase was administered intravenously at birth to both the severe (Gus(mps/mps) strain) and attenuated (Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) strain) mouse models of MPS VII. Circulating enzyme levels were normalized in the Gus(mps/mps) mice and were 3.5-fold higher than normal in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse 12 and 18 months after administration. Tissue β-glucuronidase activity increased over untreated levels in all tissues evaluated in both strains at 12 months, and the elevated level was maintained in Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) tissues at 18 months. These elevated enzyme levels reduced glycosaminoglycan storage in the liver, spleen, kidney, and heart in both models. Bone mineral volume decreased toward normal in both models after 12 months of therapy and after 18 months in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mouse. Open-field exploration was improved in 18-month-old treated Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mice, while spatial learning improved in both 12- and 18-month-old treated Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) mice. Overall, neonatal administration of lentiviral gene therapy resulted in sustained enzyme expression for up to 18 months in murine models of MPS VII. Significant improvements in biochemistry and enzymology as well as functional improvement of bone and behavior deficits in the Gus(tm(L175F)Sly) model were observed. Therapy significantly increased the lifespan of Gus(mps/mps) mice, with 12 months being the longest reported lentiviral treatment for this strain. It is important to assess the long-term outcome on enzyme levels and effect on pathology for lentiviral gene therapy to be a potential therapy for MPS patients.

  13. Development of a transgenic hairy root system in jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) with gusA reporter gene through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated co-transformation.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tirthartha; Roy, Sheuli; Mitra, Adinpunya; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic hairy root system is important in several recalcitrant plants, where Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation and generation of transgenic plants are problematic. Jute (Corchorus spp.), the major fibre crop in Indian subcontinent, is one of those recalcitrant plants where in vitro tissue culture has provided a little success, and hence, Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation remains to be a challenging proposition in this crop. In the present work, a system of transgenic hairy roots in Corchorus capsularis L. has been developed through genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes harbouring two plasmids, i.e. the natural Ri plasmid and a recombinant binary vector derived from the disarmed Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens. Our findings indicate that the system is relatively easy to establish and reproducible. Molecular analysis of the independent lines of transgenic hairy roots revealed the transfer of relevant transgenes from both the T-DNA parts into the plant genome, indicating the co-transformation nature of the event. High level expression and activity of the gusA reporter gene advocate that the transgenic hairy root system, thus developed, could be applicable as gene expression system in general and for root functional genomics in particular. Furthermore, these transgenic hairy roots can be used in future as explants for plantlet regeneration to obtain stable transgenic jute plants.

  14. Cloning of a yeast gene coding for the glutamate synthase small subunit (GUS2) by complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli glutamate auxotrophs.

    PubMed

    González, A; Membrillo-Hernández, J; Olivera, H; Aranda, C; Macino, G; Ballario, P

    1992-02-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutamate auxotroph, lacking NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities, was complemented with a yeast genomic library. Clones were obtained which still lacked NADP-GDH but showed GOGAT activity. Northern analysis revealed that the DNA fragment present in the complementing plasmids coded for a 1.5kb mRNA. Since the only GOGAT enzyme so far purified from S. cerevisiae is made up of a small and a large subunit, the size of the mRNA suggested that the cloned DNA fragment could code for the GOGAT small subunit. Plasmids were purified and used to transform Escherichia coli glutamate auxotrophs. Transformants were only recovered when the recipient strain was an E. coli GDH-less mutant lacking the small GOGAT subunit. These data show that we have cloned the structural gene coding for the yeast small subunit (GUS2). Evidence is also presented indicating that the GOGAT enzyme which is synthesized in the E. coli transformants is a hybrid comprising the large E. coli subunit and the small S. cerevisiae subunit.

  15. Gus Grissom & Milt Thompson With Paresev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Paresev 1-A standing Rogers Dry Lakebed at the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Mercury Astronaut Gus Grissom is at left and NASA test pilot Milton Thompson is at right. The Paresev evaluated a potential replacement for parachutes used on spacecraft. The Paresev was steerable and was evaluated for use on the Gemini spacecraft. The idea was not workable, however.

  16. Production of MPS VII mouse (Gus(tm(hE540A x mE536A)Sly)) doubly tolerant to human and mouse beta-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Orii, Koji O; Vogler, Carole; Grubb, Jeffrey H; Snella, Elizabeth M; Gutierrez, Monica; Dieter, Tatiana; Holden, Christopher C; Sukegawa, Kazuko; Orii, Tadao; Kondo, Naomi; Sly, William S

    2003-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII, Sly syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by beta-glucuronidase (GUS) deficiency. A naturally occurring mouse model of that disease has been very useful for studying experimental approaches to therapy. However, immune responses can complicate evaluation of the long-term benefits of enzyme replacement or gene therapy delivered to adult MPS VII mice. To make this model useful for studying the long-term effectiveness and side effects of experimental therapies delivered to adult mice, we developed a new MPS VII mouse model, which is tolerant to both human and murine GUS. To achieve this, we used homologous recombination to introduce simultaneously a human cDNA transgene expressing inactive human GUS into intron 9 of the murine Gus gene and a targeted active site mutation (E536A) into the adjacent exon 10. When the heterozygote products of germline transmission were bred to homozygosity, the homozygous mice expressed no GUS enzyme activity but expressed inactive human GUS protein highly and were tolerant to immune challenge with human enzyme. Expression of the mutant murine Gus gene was reduced to about 10% of normal levels, but the inactive murine GUS enzyme also conferred tolerance to murine GUS. This MPS VII mouse model should be useful to evaluate therapeutic responses in adult mice receiving repetitive doses of enzyme or mice receiving gene therapy as adults. Heterozygotes expressed only 9.5-26% of wild-type levels of murine GUS instead of the expected 50%, indicating a dominant-negative effect of the mutant enzyme monomers on the activity of GUS tetramers in different tissues. Corrective gene therapy in this model should provide high enough levels of expression of normal GUS monomers to overcome the dominant negative effect of mutant monomers on newly synthesized GUS tetramers in most tissues.

  17. The IRIS-GUS Shuttle Borne Upper Stage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Craig; Houghton, Martin; Bussolino, Luigi; Connors, Paul; Broudeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Italian Research Interim Stage - Gyroscopic Upper Stage (IRIS-GUS) upper stage system that will be used to launch NASA's Triana Observatory from the Space Shuttle. Triana is a pathfinder earth science mission being executed on rapid schedule and small budget, therefore the mission's upper stage solution had to be a system that could be fielded quickly at relatively low cost and risk. The building of the IRIS-GUS system wa necessary because NASA lost the capability to launch moderately sized upper stage missions fro the Space Shuttle when the PAM-D system was retired. The IRIS-GUS system restores this capability. The resulting system is a hybrid which mates the existing, flight proven IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage) airborne support equipment to a new upper stage, the Gyroscopic Upper Stage (GUS) built by the GSFC for Triana. Although a new system, the GUS exploits flight proven hardware and design approaches in most subsystems, in some cases implementing proven design approaches with state-of-the-art electronics. This paper describes the IRIS-GUS upper stage system elements, performance capabilities, and payload interfaces.

  18. Specimen block counter-staining for localization of GUS expression in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, M. K.; Choi, J-W; Jeon, J-H; Franceschi, V. R.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    2002-01-01

    A simple counter-staining procedure has been developed for comparative beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression and anatomical localization in transgenic herbaceous arabidopsis and tobacco. This protocol provides good anatomical visualization for monitoring chimeric gene expression at both the organ and tissue levels. It can be used with different histochemical stains and can be extended to the study of woody species. The specimens are paraffin-embedded, the block is trimmed to reveal internal structure, safranin-O staining solution is briefly applied to the surface of the block, then washed off and, after drying, a drop of immersion oil is placed on the stained surface for subsequent photographic work. This gives tissue counter-staining with good structural preservation without loss of GUS staining product; moreover, sample observation is rapid and efficient compared to existing procedures.

  19. A maize spermine synthase 1 PEST sequence fused to the GUS reporter protein facilitates proteolytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Maruri-López, Israel; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Olivares-Grajales, Juan Elías; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Polyamines are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds involved in various biochemical, cellular and physiological processes in all organisms. In plants, genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism are regulated at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational level. In this research, we focused on the characterization of a PEST sequence (rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine) of the maize spermine synthase 1 (ZmSPMS1). To this aim, 123 bp encoding 40 amino acids of the C-terminal region of the ZmSPMS1 enzyme containing the PEST sequence were fused to the GUS reporter gene. This fusion was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines and onion monolayers transient expression system. The ZmSPMS1 PEST sequence leads to specific degradation of the GUS reporter protein. It is suggested that the 26S proteasome may be involved in GUS::PEST fusion degradation in both onion and Arabidopsis. The PEST sequences appear to be present in plant spermine synthases, mainly in monocots.

  20. GUS expression in sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) driven by three different phloem-specific promoters.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Luzia Yuriko; Harakava, Ricardo; Stipp, Liliane Cristina Libório; Mendes, Beatriz Madalena Januzzi; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; de Assis Alves Mourão Filho, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp., endogenous, sieve tube-restricted bacteria that are transmitted by citrus psyllid insect vectors. Transgenic expression in the phloem of specific genes that might affect Ca. Liberibacter spp. growth and development may be an adequate strategy to improve citrus resistance to HLB. To study specific phloem gene expression in citrus, we developed three different binary vector constructs with expression cassettes bearing the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (uidA) under the control of one of the three different promoters: Citrus phloem protein 2 (CsPP2), Arabidopsis thaliana phloem protein 2 (AtPP2), and Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose transporter 2 (AtSUC2). Transgenic lines of 'Hamlin', 'Pera', and 'Valencia' sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] were produced via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. The epicotyl segments collected from in vitro germinated seedlings were used as explants. The gene nptII, which confers resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin, was used for selection. The transformation efficiency was expressed as the number of GUS-positive shoots over the total number of explants and varied from 1.54 to 6.08 % among the three cultivars and three constructs studied. Several lines of the three sweet orange cultivars analyzed using PCR and Southern blot analysis were genetically transformed with the three constructs evaluated. The histological GUS activity in the leaves indicates that the uidA gene was preferentially expressed in the phloem, which suggests that the use of the three promoters might be adequate for producing HLB-resistant transgenic sweet oranges. The results reported here conclusively demonstrate the preferential expression of GUS in the phloem driven by two heterologous and one homologous gene promoters. Key message The results reported here conclusively demonstrate the preferential expression of GUS in the phloem driven by two heterologous and one homologous

  1. Tissue- and Cell-Specific Cytokinin Activity in Populus × canescens Monitored by ARR5::GUS Reporter Lines in Summer and Winter

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Shanty; Wildhagen, Henning; Janz, Dennis; Teichmann, Thomas; Hänsch, Robert; Polle, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins play an important role in vascular development. But knowledge on the cellular localization of this growth hormone in the stem and other organs of woody plants is lacking. The main focus of this study was to investigate the occurrence and cellular localization of active cytokinins in leaves, roots, and along the stem of Populus × canescens and to find out how the pattern is changed between summer and winter. An ARR5::GUS reporter construct was used to monitor distribution of active cytokinins in different tissues of transgenic poplar lines. Three transgenic lines tested under outdoor conditions showed no influence of ARR5::GUS reporter construct on the growth performance compared with the wild-type, but one line lost the reporter activity. ARR5::GUS activity indicated changes in the tissue- and cell type-specific pattern of cytokinin activity during dormancy compared with the growth phase. ARR5::GUS activity, which was present in the root tips in the growing season, disappeared in winter. In the stem apex ground tissue, ARR5::GUS activity was higher in winter than in summer. Immature leaves from tissue-culture grown plants showed inducible ARR5::GUS activity. Leaf primordia in summer showed ARR5::GUS activity, but not the expanded leaves of outdoor plants or leaf primordia in winter. In stem cross sections, the most prominent ARR5::GUS activity was detected in the cortex region and in the rays of bark in summer and in winter. In the cambial zone the ARR5::GUS activity was more pronounced in the dormant than in growth phase. The pith and the ray cells adjacent to the vessels also displayed ARR5::GUS activity. In silico analyses of the tissue-specific expression patterns of the whole PtRR type-A family of poplar showed that PtRR10, the closest ortholog to the Arabidopsis ARR5 gene, was usually the most highly expressed gene in all tissues. In conclusion, gene expression and tissue-localization indicate high activity of cytokinins not only in summer, but

  2. The stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase promoter (Des) from oil palm confers fruit-specific GUS expression in transgenic tomato.

    PubMed

    Saed Taha, Rima; Ismail, Ismanizan; Zainal, Zamri; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar

    2012-09-01

    The stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase is a plastid-localized enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyl-ACP and plays an important role in the determination of the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. Functional characterization of the fatty acid desaturase genes and their specific promoters is a prerequisite for altering the composition of unsaturated fatty acids of palm oil by genetic engineering. In this paper, the specificity and strength of the oil palm stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene promoter (Des) was evaluated in transgenic tomato plants. Transcriptional fusions between 5' deletions of the Des promoter (Des1-4) and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were generated and their expression analyzed in different tissues of stably transformed tomato plants. Histochemical analysis of the Des promoter deletion series revealed that GUS gene expression was confined to the tomato fruits. No expression was detected in vegetative tissues of the transgenic plants. The highest levels of GUS activity was observed in different tissues of ripe red fruits (vascular tissue, septa, endocarp, mesocarp and columella) and in seeds, which harbored the promoter region located between -590 and +10. A comparison of the promoter-deletion constructs showed that the Des4 promoter deletion (314bp) produced a markedly low level of GUS expression in fruits and seeds. Fluorometric analysis of the GUS activity revealed a 4-fold increase in the activity of the full-length Des promoter compared to the CaMV35S promoter. RNA-hybridization analyses provided additional evidence of increased GUS expression in fruits driven by a Des fragment. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of the Des promoter as a tool for the genetic engineering of oil palms and other species, including dicots, in improving the quality and nutritional value of the fruits.

  3. Draft genome sequence of Thermoactinomyces sp. Gus2-1 isolated from the hot-spring Gusikha in Bargusin Valley (Baikal Rift Zone, Russia).

    PubMed

    Rozanov, Aleksey S; Bryanskaya, Alla V; Kotenko, Anastasia V; Peltek, Sergey E

    2017-03-01

    The Thermoactinomyces sp. strain Gus2-1 was isolated from hot-spring sediments sample from the hot-spring Gusikha in Bargusin Valley (Baikal Rift Zone, Russia). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,623,309 bp and encodes 2513 genes. The draft genome sequence of the Thermoactinomyces sp. strain Gus2-1 has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JPZM01000000 and the sequences could be found at the site https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/JPZM01000000.

  4. Development of GUS for control applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Borland, M.; Kirchman, J.; Decker, G.; Kim, K.

    1994-08-01

    A script-based interpretive shell GUS (General Purpose Data Acquisition for Unix Shell) has been developed for application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control. The primary design objective of GUS is to provide a mechanism for efficient data flow among modularized objects called Data Access Modules (DAMs). GUS consists of four major components: user interface, kernel, built-in command module, and DAMS. It also incorporates the Unix shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. At this time, DAMs have been written for device access through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), data I/O for SDDS (Self-Describing Data Set) files, matrix manipulation, graphics display, digital signal processing, and beam position feedback system control. The modular and object-oriented construction of GUS will facilitate addition of more DAMs with other functions in the future.

  5. Paresev on lakebed with Mercury astronaut Gus Grissom and Dryden test pilot Milt Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Center Paresev 1-A with Mercury Astronaut Gus Grissom (left) and NASA test pilot Milton Thompson. Do you suppose they are wondering if all those clouds will mean a canceled flight?

  6. Subcellular Localization of GUS- and GFP-Tagged Proteins in Onion Epidermal Cells.

    PubMed

    von Arnim, Albrecht

    2007-02-01

    INTRODUCTIONRecombinant tags (i.e., reporter proteins) offer an excellent alternative to antibodies for determining the subcellular localization of proteins. The most user-friendly tags are the ß-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter enzyme from Escherichia coli and fluorescent proteins derived primarily from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. GUS is useful primarily as a tag to address nuclear localization, whereas GFP is more versatile. Moreover, GFP is detectable directly in living cells, whereas GUS is only detected indirectly by staining of fixed tissue. This may lead to artifacts or it may obscure problems with protein solubility. In this protocol, protein localization is routinely assayed after particle-mediated transient transformation of onion epidermal cells. With this method it can be determined rapidly whether a given fusion protein is active, and preliminary targeting data can be obtained.

  7. A novel model of murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII due to an intracisternal a particle element transposition into the beta-glucuronidase gene: clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Vogler, C; Levy, B; Galvin, N; Sands, M S; Birkenmeier, E H; Sly, W S; Barker, J

    2001-03-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic findings in a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis VII (Sly disease) that arose spontaneously in the C3H/HeOuJ mouse strain. Affected gus(mps2J)/gus(mps2J) mice are deficient in beta-glucuronidase because of insertion of an intracisternal A particle element into intron 8 of the gus structural gene. This is the first model of a human lysosomal storage disease caused by an intracisternal A particle element insertion. Mice with the gus(mps2J)/gus(mps2J) genotype have < 1% of normal beta-glucuronidase activity and secondary elevations of other lysosomal enzymes. The phenotype includes shortened life-span, dysmorphic features, and skeletal dysplasia. Lysosomal storage of glycosaminoglycans is widespread and affects the brain, skeleton, eye, ear, heart valves, aorta, and the fixed tissue macrophage system. Thus the phenotypic and pathologic alterations in gus(mps2J)/gus(mps2J) mice are similar to those in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VII. The finding of antibodies to beta-glucuronidase in some older gus(mps2J)/gus(mps2J) mice suggests the mice produce sufficient enzyme to elicit an immune response. The gus(mps2J)/gus(mps2J) model provides another well-defined genetic system for the study of the pathophysiology of mucopolysaccharidosis and for evaluation of experimental therapies for lysosomal storage diseases. The disease in gus(mps2J)/gus(mps2J) mice is less severe than that seen in the previously characterized B6.C-H2(bm1)/ByBir-gus(mps)/gus(mps) mouse model. Furthermore, unlike gus(mps)/gus(mps) mice, gus(mps2J)/gus(mps2J) mice are fertile and breed to produce litters, all of which are mucopolysaccharidosis VII pups. This feature makes them extremely useful for testing intrauterine therapies.

  8. Encounters with Insignificance in Teaching and Learning: Gus Van Sant's "Elephant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlos, Karyn

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how a curriculum of film becomes organized by the teacher's worries about what film may open up in class. The author focuses on her own worries about showing Gus Van Sant's (2003) film, "Elephant," an elliptical and dreamlike study of the murders in 1999 of twelve students and a teacher at Columbine High School, to a class of…

  9. T-shaped trichome-specific expression of monoterpene synthase ADH2 using promoter-β-GUS fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueqing; Shi, Pu; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Weimin; Tang, Yueli; Lv, Zongyou; Yan, Tingxiang; Li, Ling; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-11-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. (sweet wormwood), is extensively used in the treatment of malaria. In order to better understand the metabolism of terpenes in A. annua and the influence of terpene synthases on artemisinin yield, the expression pattern of a monoterpene alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion. ADH2 played a major role in monoterpenoid biosynthesis including carveol, borneol, and artemisia ketone through in vitro biochemical analysis. In this study, the ADH2 promoter was cloned by the genome walking method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted in promoter region, suggesting that the ADH2 is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. ADH2 gene was highly expressed in old leaves, whereas the artemisinin biosynthetic genes were mainly expressed in bud and young leaves. The expression of ADH2 gene increased quickly during leaf development, revealed by qRT-PCR. GUS expression analysis in different tissues of transgenic A. annua demonstrates that ADH2 expression is exclusively located to T-shaped trichome, not glandular secretory trichome.

  10. Using the pER8:GUS reporter system to screen for phytoestrogens from Caesalpinia sappan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wang, Hui-Chun; Chen, Guan-Yu; Yang, Juan-Cheng; Korinek, Michal; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Wu, Chih-Chung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2011-08-26

    Arabidopsis thaliana pER8:GUS, a low-cost, highly efficient, and convenient transgenic plant system, was used to assay the estrogen-like activity of 30 traditional Chinese medicines. The MeOH extract of Caesalpinia sappan exhibited significant bioactivity in this assay, and subsequent bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of one new compound, (S)-3,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (1), and 10 known compounds. Both the plant pER8:GUS and in vitro estrogen response element reporter assays were used to evaluate the estrogenic activity of the isolated compounds, and these two systems produced comparable results. Compounds 6, 8, and 11 showed significant estrogenic activity comparable to genistein. These active compounds were determined to be nontoxic new sources of phytoestrogens. In addition, compounds 2 and 3 inhibited ERE transcription induced by 17β-estradiol. A docking model revealed that compounds 6, 8, and 11 showed high affinity to the estrogen receptor. The pER8:GUS reporter system was demonstrated to be a useful and effective technique in phytoestrogen discovery.

  11. Analysis of Gene Promoters for Two Tomato Polygalacturonases Expressed in Abscission Zones and the Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Sexton, Roy; Tucker, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Ailsa Craig) polygalacturonase genes TAPG1 (LYCes;Pga1;2) and TAPG4 (LYCes;Pga1;5) are abundantly expressed in both abscission zones and the pistils of mature flowers. To further investigate the spatial and temporal expression patterns for these genes, the TAPG gene promoters were ligated to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes and transformed into tomato. GUS expression with both constructs was similar and entirely consistent with the expression patterns of the native gene transcripts. GUS activity was observed in the weakening abscission zones of the leaf petiole, flower and fruit pedicel, flower corolla, and fruit calyx. In leaf petiole and flower pedicel zones this activity was enhanced by ethylene and inhibited by indole-3-acetic acid. On induction of abscission with ethylene, GUS accumulation was much earlier in TAPG4:GUS than in TAPG1:GUS transformants. Moreover, TAPG4:GUS staining appeared to predominate in the vascular bundles relative to surrounding cortex cells whereas TAPG1:GUS was more evenly distributed across the separation layer. Like the native genes, GUS was also expressed in the stigma. Activity was not apparent in pistils until the flowers had opened and was confined to the stigma and style immediately proximal to it. A minimal promoter construct consisting of a 247-bp 5′-upstream element from TAPG1 was found to be sufficient to direct GUS expression in both abscission zones and the stigma. PMID:10889236

  12. Gene and enhancer traps for gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Springer, Patricia S

    2003-01-01

    Gene traps and enhancer traps provide a valuable tool for gene discovery. With this system, genes can be identified based solely on the expression pattern of an inserted reporter gene. The use of a reporter gene, such as beta-glucuoronidase (GUS), provides a very sensitive assay for the identification of tissue- and cell-type specific expression patterns. In this chapter, protocols for examining and documenting GUS reporter gene activity in individual lines are described. Methods for the amplification of sequences flanking transposant insertions and subsequent molecular and genetic characterization of individual insertions are provided.

  13. GUS reporter gene expression from Beta vulgaris root-specific promoters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop transgenic sugar beet with specialized agronomic traits for insect and disease tolerance and enhanced sugar accumulation and storage, a larger arsenal of constitutive, tissue-specific and temporal promoters is required. In the present study, a series of sugar beet promoters were tested f...

  14. First human treatment with investigational rhGUS enzyme replacement therapy in an advanced stage MPS VII patient.

    PubMed

    Fox, Joyce E; Volpe, Linda; Bullaro, Josephine; Kakkis, Emil D; Sly, William S

    2015-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII, Sly syndrome) is a very rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUS), which is required for the degradation of three glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate. Progressive accumulation of these GAGs in lysosomes leads to increasing dysfunction in numerous tissues and organs. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been used successfully for other MPS disorders, but there is no approved treatment for MPS VII. Here we describe the first human treatment with recombinant human GUS (rhGUS), an investigational therapy for MPS VII, in a 12-year old boy with advanced stage MPS VII. Despite a tracheostomy, nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure, and oxygen therapy, significant pulmonary restriction and obstruction led to oxygen dependence and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels in the 60-80mmHg range, eventually approaching respiratory failure (ETCO2 of 100mmHg) and the need for full-time ventilation. Since no additional medical measures could improve his function, we implemented experimental ERT by infusing rhGUS at 2mg/kg over 4h every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. Safety was evaluated by standard assessments and observance for any infusion associated reactions (IARs). Urinary GAG (uGAG) levels, pulmonary function, oxygen dependence, CO2 levels, cardiac valve function, liver and spleen size, and growth velocity were assessed to evaluate response to therapy. rhGUS infusions were well tolerated. No serious adverse events (SAEs) or IARs were observed. After initiation of rhGUS infusions, the patient's uGAG excretion decreased by more than 50%. Liver and spleen size were reduced within 2 weeks of the first infusion and reached normal size by 24 weeks. Pulmonary function appeared to improve during the course of treatment based on reduced changes in ETCO2 after off-ventilator challenges and a reduced oxygen requirement. The patient regained the

  15. Gene fusions of signal sequences with a modified beta-glucuronidase gene results in retention of the beta-glucuronidase protein in the secretory pathway/plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Yan, X; Gonzales, R A; Wagner, G J

    1997-11-01

    Signal sequences and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signals are known to play central roles in targeting and translocation in the secretory pathway, but molecular aspects about their involvement are poorly understood. We tested the effectiveness of deduced signal sequences from various genes (hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein [HRGP] from Phaseolus vulgaris; Serpin from Manduca sexta) to direct a modified beta-glucuronidase (GUS) protein into the secretory pathway in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The reporter protein was not secreted to the cell wall/extracellular space as monitored using extracellular fluid analysis (low- or high-ionic-strength conditions) but occurred in membranes with a density of 1.16 to 1.20 g/mL. Membrane-bound GUS equilibrated with the plasma membrane (PM) and the ER on linear sucrose gradients with or without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, suggesting that GUS associates with the ER and the PM. Confocal microscopy of fixed cultured cells prepared from GUS control and HRGP signal peptide (SP)-GUS-expressing plants suggested only cytosolic localization in GUS-expressing plants but substantial peripheral localization in HRGP SP-GUS plants, which is consistent with GUS being associated with the PM. Aqueous two-phase partitioning of microsomal membranes from HRGP SP-GUS and Serpin SP-GUS transgenic leaves also indicated that GUS activity was enriched in the ER and the PM. These observations, together with hydrophobic moment plot analysis, suggest that properties of the SP-GUS protein result in its retention in the secretory pathway and PM.

  16. Gene fusions of signal sequences with a modified beta-glucuronidase gene results in retention of the beta-glucuronidase protein in the secretory pathway/plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, X; Gonzales, R A; Wagner, G J

    1997-01-01

    Signal sequences and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signals are known to play central roles in targeting and translocation in the secretory pathway, but molecular aspects about their involvement are poorly understood. We tested the effectiveness of deduced signal sequences from various genes (hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein [HRGP] from Phaseolus vulgaris; Serpin from Manduca sexta) to direct a modified beta-glucuronidase (GUS) protein into the secretory pathway in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The reporter protein was not secreted to the cell wall/extracellular space as monitored using extracellular fluid analysis (low- or high-ionic-strength conditions) but occurred in membranes with a density of 1.16 to 1.20 g/mL. Membrane-bound GUS equilibrated with the plasma membrane (PM) and the ER on linear sucrose gradients with or without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, suggesting that GUS associates with the ER and the PM. Confocal microscopy of fixed cultured cells prepared from GUS control and HRGP signal peptide (SP)-GUS-expressing plants suggested only cytosolic localization in GUS-expressing plants but substantial peripheral localization in HRGP SP-GUS plants, which is consistent with GUS being associated with the PM. Aqueous two-phase partitioning of microsomal membranes from HRGP SP-GUS and Serpin SP-GUS transgenic leaves also indicated that GUS activity was enriched in the ER and the PM. These observations, together with hydrophobic moment plot analysis, suggest that properties of the SP-GUS protein result in its retention in the secretory pathway and PM. PMID:9390428

  17. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of S-RNase gene promoter from Chinese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-ying; Wuyun, Ta-na; Zeng, Hong-yan

    2012-09-01

    The 5'-flanking region of the S(12)-, S(13)-, S(21)-RNase with a length of 854 bp, 1448 bp and 1137 bp were successfully isolated by TAIL-PCR from genomic DNA from 'Jinhua', 'Maogong' (Pyrus pyrifolia) and 'Yali' (Pyrus bretschneideri) genomic DNA. Sequence alignment and analysis of S(13)-, S(12)-, S(21)-RNase gene promoter sequences with S(2)-, S(3)-, S(4)-, S(5)-RNase 5'-flanking sequences indicated that a homology region of about 240 bp exists in the regions just upstream of the putative TATA boxes of the seven Chinese/Japanese pear S-RNase genes. Phylogenetic tree suggests that the homology region between the Chinese/Japanese pear and apple S-RNase gene promoter regions reflects the divergence of S-RNase gene was formed before the differentiation of subfamilies. Full length and a series of 5'-deletion fragments-GUS fusions were constructed and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana plants. GUS activity were detected in S(12)-pro-(1 to 5)-GUS-pBll01.2 transgenic pistils and progressively decreased from S(12)-pro-1-GUS-pBI l01.2 to S(12)-pro-5-GUS-pBll01.2. No GUS activity was detected in S(12)-pro-6-GUS-pBll01.2 transgenic pistil and other tissues of non-transformants and all transgenic plants. The result suggested S(12)-RNase promoter is pistil specific expression promoter.

  18. 5' sequences are important positive and negative determinants of the longevity of Chlamydomonas chloroplast gene transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, M L; Klein, U; Bogorad, L

    1993-01-01

    We have found that sequences in the 5' leader of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast rbcL gene, when fused 5' to foreign genes, destabilize transcripts of these chimeric genes in the chloroplast of transgenic Chlamydomonas but that 5' sequences of the rbcL structural gene prevent this destabilization. Transcripts of the chloroplast rbcL gene are about equally abundant at all times in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growing on an alternating 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. However, Chlamydomonas chloroplast transformants, harboring chimeric genes containing the same rbcL promoter with 63 or 92 bp of the rbcL 5' leader sequence fused upstream of the Escherichia coli uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) gene, accumulated GUS transcripts only in the dark. Transcripts disappeared rapidly upon illumination of the cells. The same phenomenon was exhibited by transcripts of chimeric genes in which the GUS gene coding sequence was replaced by other unrelated genes. The precipitous light-induced drop in GUS transcript abundance was found to be due to an approximately 16-fold increase in the rate of degradation of GUS transcripts in light rather than to a decrease in the rate of transcription of the GUS gene. Transcripts of a chimeric rbcL-GUS construct in which the leader sequence of the rbcL gene was replaced by 103 bp of the leader sequence of the atpB gene were stable in illuminated cells. The destabilizing effect of the rbcL 5' leader sequence was reversed by adding 257 bp of the 5' coding region of the rbcL gene. The results show that chloroplast transcript levels in illuminated Chlamydomonas cells--and perhaps in other cases--can be determined, at least to some extent, by sequences and interactions of sequences transcribed from the 5' ends of genes. Images PMID:8434017

  19. GUS expression driven by constitutive and vascular specific promoters in citrus hybrid US-802

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic solutions are being widely explored to develop huanglongbing (HLB) resistance in citrus, and a critical component of the transgenic construct is the promoter, which determines tissue specificity and level of target gene expression. This study compares the characteristics of five promoters...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis STIR-GUS-F2f7, a Highly Virulent Strain Recovered from Diseased Red Nile Tilapia Farmed in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Pär; Wehner, Stefanie; Bekaert, Michaël; Öhrman, Caroline; Metselaar, Matthijs; Thompson, Kimberly Dawn; Richards, Randolph Harvey; Penman, David James; Adams, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A highly virulent strain of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, STIR-GUS-F2f7, was isolated from moribund red Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in Europe. In this communication, the complete genome sequencing of this bacterium is reported. PMID:28302784

  1. Strong Magnetic Field Induced Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.; Klingenberg, B.; Brooks, J. S.; Morgan, A. N.; Yowtak, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2005-07-01

    We review our studies of the biological impact of magnetic field strengths of up to 30 T on transgenic arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Field strengths in excess of 15 T induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. Microarray analyses indicate that such field strengths have a far reaching effect on the genome. Wide spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism are prominent examples.

  2. Preferential expression of an alpha-tubulin gene of Arabidopsis in pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, J L; Ploense, S E; Snustad, D P; Silflow, C D

    1992-01-01

    The pool of tubulin protein in tissues of Arabidopsis is provided by the expression of multiple alpha-tubulin (TUA) and beta-tubulin genes. Whereas most tubulin genes are expressed in many tissues, previous evidence suggested that the TUA1 gene might be expressed primarily in pollen. We now report a detailed analysis of TUA1 expression during Arabidopsis development. In RNA from tissues of dissected flowers, TUA1 transcripts were detected only in stamens and mature pollen. Chimeric genes containing TUA1 5' flanking DNA fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region were used to create transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plants containing a chimeric gene with 533 bp of 5' flanking sequence were analyzed by histochemical assay to localize GUS expression within the plant. The blue product of GUS enzyme activity accumulated very rapidly in postmitotic pollen grains. Much lower levels of GUS activity were detected in anthers with uninucleate pollen grains, in flower receptacles, and in a few vegetative tissues. Analysis of 5' deletions of the TUA1 promoter suggested that 97 bp of 5' flanking DNA is sufficient to drive GUS expression in pollen and young anthers, whereas at least 380 bp is required to detect GUS expression in the receptacle. Examination of the TUA1 promoter sequence revealed several motifs that are repeated within the TUA1 promoter and are similar to sequences in other pollen-specific promoters. PMID:1498610

  3. Characterization of 5'UTR of rice ClpB-C/Hsp100 gene: evidence of its involvement in post-transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Richa; Singh, Amanjot; Tiwari, Lalit Dev; Grover, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) ClpB-C (OsClpB-C) protein is expressed upon heat stress in vegetative tissues and constitutively in seeds. We produced stably transformed Arabidopsis plants carrying β-glucuronidase (Gus) reporter gene downstream to 1-kb OsClpB-C promoter (1kbPro plants). In the 1kbPro plants, expression of Gus transcript and protein followed the expression pattern of OsClpB-C gene in rice plants, i.e., heat induced in vegetative tissues and constitutive in seeds. Next, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing Gus downstream to 862-bp fragment of OsClpB-C promoter [lacking 138 nucleotides from 3' end of the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR); ∆UTR plants). In ∆UTR plants, Gus transcript was expressed in heat-inducible manner, but strikingly, Gus protein levels were negligible after heat treatment. However, Gus protein was expressed in ∆UTR seedlings at levels comparable to 1kbPro seedlings when recovery treatment of 22 °C/2 h was given post heat stress (38 °C/15 min). This suggests that 5'UTR of OsClpB-C gene is involved in its post-transcriptional regulation and is an obligate requirement for protein expression during persistent heat stress. Furthermore, the Gus transcript levels were higher in the polysomal RNA fraction in heat-stressed seedlings of 1kbPro plants as compared to ∆UTR plants, indicating that 5'UTR aids in assembly of ribosomes onto the Gus transcript during heat stress. Unlike the case of seedlings, Gus protein was formed constitutively in ∆UTR seeds at levels comparable to 1kbPro seeds. Hence, the function of 5'UTR of OsClpB-C is dispensable for expression in seeds.

  4. Identification of anther-specific gene expression from T-DNA tagging rice.

    PubMed

    Muthukalianan, Gothandam K; Lee, Sanghyun; Yum, Hyunsik; Ku, Sujin; Kwun, Minjung; Kang, Hong Gyu; An, Gynheung; Chung, Yong-Yoon

    2003-02-28

    We have screened a total of 5,500 T-DNA tagging rice lines in which beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene sequence was randomly inserted as a transgene into the plant genome. Histochemical GUS assays were carried out to select the T-DNA tagging rice lines that show its expression in anther. Of the tagging lines screened, three lines were found to express GUS specifically in the anther that is about 0.05%. Microscopic observation of the anther-expressed lines showed specific expression patterns of GUS in the anther, either gametophytic or sporophytic specificities. Southern blot analysis revealed that the integration copy number of the transgene was 2.3 in average. The detailed expression patterns were analyzed and discussed.

  5. Sugarcane DIRIGENT and O-methyltransferase promoters confer stem-regulated gene expression in diverse monocots.

    PubMed

    Damaj, Mona B; Kumpatla, Siva P; Emani, Chandrakanth; Beremand, Phillip D; Reddy, Avutu S; Rathore, Keerti S; Buenrostro-Nava, Marco T; Curtis, Ian S; Thomas, Terry L; Mirkov, T Erik

    2010-05-01

    Transcription profiling analysis identified Saccharum hybrid DIRIGENT (SHDIR16) and Omicron-Methyltransferase (SHOMT), putative defense and fiber biosynthesis-related genes that are highly expressed in the stem of sugarcane, a major sucrose accumulator and biomass producer. Promoters (Pro) of these genes were isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Transient and stable transgene expression analyses showed that both Pro( DIR16 ):GUS and Pro( OMT ):GUS retain the expression characteristics of their respective endogenous genes in sugarcane and function in orthologous monocot species, including rice, maize and sorghum. Furthermore, both promoters conferred stem-regulated expression, which was further enhanced in the stem and induced in the leaf and root by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate, key regulators of biotic and abiotic stresses. Pro( DIR16 ) and Pro( OMT ) will enable functional gene analysis in monocots, and will facilitate engineering monocots for improved carbon metabolism, enhanced stress tolerance and bioenergy production.

  6. Isolation and characterization of oil palm constitutive promoter derived from ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene.

    PubMed

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2010-09-30

    The ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene was identified as a constitutively expressed gene in oil palm. We have isolated and characterized the 5' region of the oil palm uep1 gene, which contains an 828 bp sequence upstream of the uep1 translational start site. Construction of a pUEP1 transformation vector, which contains gusA reporter gene under the control of uep1 promoter, was carried out for functional analysis of the promoter through transient expression studies. It was found that the 5' region of uep1 functions as a constitutive promoter in oil palm and could drive GUS expression in all tissues tested, including embryogenic calli, embryoid, immature embryo, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and meristematic tissues (shoot tip). This promoter could also be used in dicot systems as it was demonstrated to be capable of driving gusA gene expression in tobacco.

  7. The wheat HMW-glutenin 1Dy10 gene promoter controls endosperm expression in Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grass species Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a model system for the study of gene structure and function in temperate cereals. As a first demonstration of the utility of Brachypodium to study wheat gene promoter function, we transformed it with a T-DNA that included the GUS reporter gene...

  8. Endophytic Herbaspirillum seropedicae expresses nif genes in gramineous plants.

    PubMed

    Roncato-Maccari, Lauren D B; Ramos, Humberto J O; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Alquini, Yedo; Chubatsu, Leda S; Yates, Marshall G; Rigo, Liu U; Steffens, Maria Berenice R; Souza, Emanuel M

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The interactions between maize, sorghum, wheat and rice plants and Herbaspirillum seropedicae were examined microscopically following inoculation with the H. seropedicae LR15 strain, a Nif(+) (Pnif::gusA) mutant obtained by the insertion of a gusA-kanamycin cassette into the nifH gene of the H. seropedicae wild-type strain. The expression of the Pnif::gusA fusion was followed during the association of the diazotroph with the gramineous species. Histochemical analysis of seedlings of maize, sorghum, wheat and rice grown in vermiculite showed that strain LR15 colonized root surfaces and inner tissues. In early steps of the endophytic association, H. seropedicae colonized root exudation sites, such as axils of secondary roots and intercellular spaces of the root cortex; it then occupied the vascular tissue and there expressed nif genes. The expression of nif genes occurred in roots, stems and leaves as detected by the GUS reporter system. The expression of nif genes was also observed in bacterial colonies located in the external mucilaginous root material, 8 days after inoculation. Moreover, the colonization of plant tissue by H. seropedicae did not depend on the nitrogen-fixing ability, since similar numbers of cells were isolated from roots or shoots of the plants inoculated with Nif(+) or Nif(-) strains.

  9. The promoter of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a-5 gene of Chrysanthemum morifolium (CmCCD4a-5) drives petal-specific transcription of a conjugated gene in the developing flower.

    PubMed

    Imai, Ayano; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-15

    Carotenoids comprise one of the major groups of pigments in flowers. Because carotenoids are physiologically indispensable pigments for all photosynthetic plants, their catabolism must be discretely regulated in photosynthetic organs and non-photosynthetic organs such as petals or fruits. In the chrysanthemum, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a (CmCCD4a), which is dominantly expressed in petals, cleaves carotenoid, leading to a white flower. CmCCD4a-5 was recently identified as a new member of the CmCCD4a family, but its detailed expression profile in plant tissues has not yet been established. In this study, we sequenced a 1094-bp region upstream of CmCCD4a-5 and assessed its petal-specific promoter activity. To evaluate the activity of this gene, we constructed two types of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana that possessed, respectively, a fusion gene of a 1090-bp or 505-bp segment of the upstream region plus the β-d-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (1090bUR::GUS and 505bUR::GUS). GUS activity in the 505bUR::GUS strain was observed mainly in the anthers/pollen in flower buds, whereas GUS activity of the 1090bUR::GUS strain was observed in immature petals of the flower buds. Among the cis-acting elements located between positions -505 and -1090, no elements that have previously been reported to enhance the expression in petals or to suppress it in anthers/pollen were detected by PLACE analysis, indicating the existence of unknown cis-element(s). A semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CmCCD4a-5 transcription was prominent in petals but was undetectable in roots, stems and leaves.

  10. The promoter of the nematode resistance gene Hs1pro-1 activates a nematode-responsive and feeding site-specific gene expression in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Thurau, Tim; Kifle, Sirak; Jung, Christian; Cai, Daguang

    2003-06-01

    The Hs1pro-1 gene confers resistance to the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) on the basis of a gene-for-gene relationship. RNA-gel blot analysis revealed that the transcript of Hs1pro-1 was present in uninfected roots of resistant beet at low levels but increased by about fourfold one day after nematode infection. Treatments of plants with external stimuli including salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid as well as wounding or salt stress did not result in changes in the gene transcription, indicating de novo transcription of Hs1pro-1 upon nematode infection specifically. To study transcriptional regulation of Hs1pro-1 expression at the cellular level, a 3082 bp genomic fragment representing the Hs1pro-1 promoter, isolated from the YAC-DNA housing the Hs1pro-1 gene, was fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene (1832prm1::GUS) and transformed into susceptible beet roots and Arabidopsis plants, respectively. Fluorometric and histochemical GUS assays on transgenic beet roots and Arabidopsis plants carrying the 1832prm1::GUS construct demonstrated that the Hs1pro-1 promoter is functional in both species and drives a nematode responsive and feeding site-specific GUS-expression. GUS activity was detected as early as at initiation of the nematode feeding sites and GUS staining was restricted to the nematode feeding sites. To delineate the regulatory domains of the Hs1pro-1 promoter, fusion genes with various 5' deletions of the Hs1pro-1 promoter and the GUS gene were constructed and analysed in transgenic beet roots as well. Cis elements responsible for feeding site-specific gene expression reside between -355 and +247 from the transcriptional initiation site of Hs1pro-1 whereas an enhancer region necessary for higher gene expression is located between -1199 and -705 of the promoter. The Hs1pro-1 promoter drives a nematode feeding site-specific GUS expression in both sugar beet and Arabidopsis

  11. Androgen responsiveness of the murine beta-glucuronidase gene is associated with nuclease hypersensitivity, protein binding, and haplotype-specific sequence diversity within intron 9.

    PubMed Central

    Lund, S D; Gallagher, P M; Wang, B; Porter, S C; Ganschow, R E

    1991-01-01

    The tissue specificity and genetic variability of the murine beta-glucuronidase (GUS) response to androgen provide useful markers for identifying elements which underlie this responsiveness. While GUS is expressed constitutively in all examined cell types, kidney epithelial cells uniquely exhibit a manyfold yet slow rise in GUS mRNA and enzyme levels when stimulated by androgens. Three major phenotypes of this androgen response have been described among inbred strains of mice: (i) a strong response in strains of the Gusa haplotype, (ii) a reduced response in strains of the Gusb and Gush haplotypes, and (iii) no response, as observed in Gusor mice. These response variants define a cis-active element(s) which is tightly linked to the GUS structural gene. Nuclease hypersensitivity scans of kidney chromatin within and surrounding the structural gene revealed an androgen-inducible hypersensitive site in intron 9 of the gene in Gusa but not in Gusor mice. When a radiolabeled fragment of Gusa DNA containing this hypersensitive site was incubated with kidney nuclear extracts and then subjected to gel electrophoresis, two shifted bands were observed whose levels were dramatically higher in extracts of androgen-treated than in those of untreated Gusa mice. The shifted bands reflect binding of a kidney-specific factor(s) to a 57-bp region of complex dyad symmetry in Gusa and Gusor mice which is partially deleted in Gusb and Gush mice. This binding site is located approximately 130 bp downstream of a glucocorticoid response element sequence motif which is totally deleted in [Gus]or mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the androgen responsiveness of GUS in murine kidney epithelial cells is controlled by elements within the proximal end of intron 9 of the GUS structural gene. Images PMID:1922055

  12. Characterization of the sporophyte-preferential gene promoter from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis using transient gene expression.

    PubMed

    Uji, Toshiki; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Saga, Naotsune

    2013-04-01

    The life cycle of plants entails an alternation of generations, the diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte stages. There is little information about the characteristics of gene expression during each phase of marine macroalgae. Promoter analysis is a useful method for understanding transcriptional regulation; however, there is no report of promoter analyses in marine macroalgae. In this study, with the aim of elucidating the differences in the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms between the gametophyte and sporophyte stages in the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we isolated the promoter from the sporophyte preferentially expressed gene PyKPA1, which encodes a sodium pump, and analyzed its promoter using a transient gene expression system with a synthetic β-glucuronidase (PyGUS) reporter. The deletion of -1432 to -768 relative to the transcription start site resulted in decreased GUS activity in sporophytes. In contrast, deletion from -767 to -527 increased GUS activity in gametophytes. Gain-of-function analyses showed that the -1432 to -760 region enhanced the GUS activity of a heterologous promoter in sporophytes, whereas the -767 to -510 region repressed it in gametophytes. Further mutation and gain-of-function analyses of the -767 to -510 region revealed that a 20-bp GC-rich sequence (-633 to -614) is responsible for the gametophyte-specific repressed expression. These results showed that the sporophyte-specific positive regulatory region and gametophyte-specific negative regulatory sequence play a crucial role in the preferential expression of PyKPA1 in P. yezoensis sporophytes.

  13. Versatile gene cassette plasmids to facilitate the construction of generalized and specialized cloning vectors.

    PubMed

    Mongkolsuk, S; Vattanaviboon, P; Rabibhadana, S; Kiatpapan, P

    1993-02-14

    We have built a series of useful gene cassette plasmids to facilitate the construction of generalized and specialized cloning vectors. The gene cassettes consist of two promoter-less genes, cat and gus, a selectable marker gene (tet) and an IncP mob sequence. All of these genes in the cassette vectors are flanked by many unique restriction sites to facilitate their use in the construction of cloning vectors.

  14. Silencing of an α-dioxygenase gene, Ca-DOX, retards growth and suppresses basal disease resistance responses in Capsicum annum.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chi Eun; Ha, Young-Im; Choi, Hyoju; Moon, Ju Yeon; Lee, Jiyoung; Shin, Ah-Young; Park, Chang Jin; Yoon, Gyeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jo, Ick-Hyun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2017-03-01

    Alpha-dioxygenases (α-DOX) catalyzing the primary oxygenation of fatty acids to oxylipins were recently found in plants. Here, the biological roles of the pepper α-DOX (Ca-DOX) gene, which is strongly induced during non-host pathogen infection in chili pepper, were examined. Virus-induced gene silencing demonstrated that down-regulation of Ca-DOX enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens and suppressed the hypersensitive response via the suppression of pathogenesis-related genes such as PR4, proteinase inhibitor II and lipid transfer protein (PR14). Ca-DOX-silenced pepper plants also exhibited more retarded growth with lower epidermal cell numbers and reduced cell wall thickness than control plants. To better understand regulation of Ca-DOX, transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven from a putative Ca-DOX promoter were generated. GUS expression was significantly induced upon avirulent pathogen infection in transgenic Arabidopsis leaves, whereas GUS induction was relatively weak upon virulent pathogen treatment. After treatment with plant hormones, early and strong GUS expression was seen after treatment of salicylic acid, whereas ethylene and methyl jasmonate treatments produced relatively weak and late GUS signals. These results will enable us to further understand the role of α-DOX, which is important in lipid metabolism, defense responses, and growth development in plants.

  15. Optimization of transient gene expression system in Gerbera jemosonii petals.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Gihan M; Abu El-Heba, Ghada A; Abdou, Sara M; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2013-01-01

    Low transformation efficiency and long generation time for production of transgenic Gerbera jemosonii plants leads to vulnerable gene function studies. Thus, transient expression of genes would be an efficient alternative. In this investigation, a transient expression system for gerbera petals based on the Agrobacterium infiltration protocol was developed using the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gus) and green florescence protein (gfp). Results revealed the incapability of using the gfp gene as a reporter gene for transient expression study in gerbera flowers due to the detection of green fluorescent color in the non-infiltrated gerbera flower petals. However, the gus reporter gene was successfully utilized for optimizing and obtaining the suitable agroinfiltration system in gerbera flowers. The expression of GUS was detectable after three days of agroinfiltration in gerbera cultivars "Express" and "White Grizzly" with dark pink and white flower colors, respectively. The vacuum agroinfiltration protocol has been applied on the cultivar "Express" for evaluating the transient expression of the two genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway (iris-dfr and petunia-f3' 5'h), which is responsible for the color in flowers. In comparison to the control, transient expression results showed change in the anthocyanin pigment in all infiltrated flowers with color genes. Additionally, blue color was detected in the stigma and pollen grains in the infiltrated flowers. Moreover, blue colors with variant intensities were observed in produced calli during the routine work of stable transformation with f3' 5'h gene.

  16. Isolation and characterization of an oil palm constitutive promoter derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene.

    PubMed

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ti, Leslie Low Eng

    2011-07-01

    We have characterized an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) constitutive promoter that is derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene. The TCTP promoter was fused transcriptionally with the gusA reporter gene and transferred to monocot and dicot systems in order to study its regulatory role in a transient expression study. It was found that the 5' region of TCTP was capable of driving the gusA expression in all the oil palm tissues tested, including immature embryo, embryogenic callus, embryoid, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and stem. It could also be used in dicot systems as it was also capable of driving gusA expression in tobacco leaves. The results indicate that the TCTP promoter could be used for the production of recombinant proteins that require constitutive expression in the plant system.

  17. Transient expression of minimum linear gene cassettes in onion epidermal cells via direct transformation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yun-Qing; Yang, Jun; Xu, Feng-Ping; An, Li-Jia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Wen

    2009-12-01

    A new method without any special devices for direct transformation of linear gene cassettes was developed. Its feasibility was verified through 5'-fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC)-labeled fluorescent tracing and transient expression of a gus reporter gene. Minimal linear gene cassettes, containing necessary regulation elements and a gus reporter gene, was prepared by polymerase chain reaction and dissolved in transformation buffer solution to 100 ng/mL. The basic transformation solution used was Murashige and Skoog basal salt mixture (MS) liquid medium. Hypertonic pretreatment of explants and transformation cofactors, including Ca(2+), surfactant assistants, Agrobacterium LBA4404 cell culture on transformation efficiency were evaluated. Prior to the incubation of the explants and target linear cassette in each designed transformation solution for 3 h, the onion low epidermal explants were pre-cultured in darkness at 27 degrees C for 48 h and then transferred to MS solid media for 72 h. FITC-labeled linear DNA was used to trace the delivery of DNA entry into the cell and the nuclei. By GUS staining and flow-cytometry-mediated fluorescent detection, a significant increase of the ratios of fluorescent nuclei as well as expression of the gus reporter gene was observed by each designed transformation solution. This potent and feasible method showed prospective applications in plant transgenic research.

  18. Engineering a root-specific, repressor-operator gene complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tehryung; Balish, Rebecca S; Heaton, Andrew C P; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Meagher, Richard B

    2005-11-01

    Strong, tissue-specific and genetically regulated expression systems are essential tools in plant biotechnology. An expression system tool called a 'repressor-operator gene complex' (ROC) has diverse applications in plant biotechnology fields including phytoremediation, disease resistance, plant nutrition, food safety, and hybrid seed production. To test this concept, we assembled a root-specific ROC using a strategy that could be used to construct almost any gene expression pattern. When a modified E. coli lac repressor with a nuclear localization signal was expressed from a rubisco small subunit expression vector, S1pt::lacIn, LacIn protein was localized to the nuclei of leaf and stem cells, but not to root cells. A LacIn repressible Arabidopsis actin expression vector A2pot was assembled containing upstream bacterial lacO operator sequences, and it was tested for organ and tissue specificity using beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and mercuric ion reductase (merA) gene reporters. Strong GUS enzyme expression was restricted to root tissues of A2pot::GUS/S1pt::lacIn ROC plants, while GUS activity was high in all vegetative tissues of plants lacking the repressor. Repression of shoot GUS expression exceeded 99.9% with no evidence of root repression, among a large percentage of doubly transformed plants. Similarly, MerA was strongly expressed in the roots, but not the shoots of A2pot::merA/S1pt::lacIn plants, while MerA levels remained high in both shoots and roots of plants lacking repressor. Plants with MerA expression restricted to roots were approximately as tolerant to ionic mercury as plants constitutively expressing MerA in roots and shoots. The superiority of this ROC over the previously described root-specific tobacco RB7 promoter is demonstrated.

  19. Ammonia-regulated expression of a soybean gene encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase in transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Miao, G H; Hirel, B; Marsolier, M C; Ridge, R W; Verma, D P

    1991-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS), expressed in roots and root nodules of soybean, was isolated by direct complementation of an Escherichia coli gln A- mutant. This sequence is induced in roots by the availability of ammonia. A 3.5-kilobase promoter fragment of a genomic clone (lambda GS15) corresponding to this cDNA was isolated and fused with a reporter [beta-glucuronidase (GUS)] gene. The GS-GUS fusion was introduced into a legume (Lotus corniculatus) and a nonlegume (tobacco) plant by way of Agrobacterium-mediated transformations. This chimeric gene was found to be expressed in a root-specific manner in both tobacco and L. corniculatus, the expression being restricted to the growing root apices and the vascular bundles of the mature root. Treatment with ammonia increased the expression of this chimeric gene in the legume background (i.e., L. corniculatus); however, no induction was observed in tobacco roots. Histochemical localization of GUS activity in ammonia-treated transgenic L. corniculatus roots showed a uniform distribution across all cell types. These data suggest that the tissue specificity of the soybean cytosolic GS gene is conserved in both tobacco and L. corniculatus; however, in the latter case, this gene is ammonia inducible. Furthermore, the ammonia-enhanced GS gene expression in L. corniculatus is due to an increase in transcription. That this gene is directly regulated by externally supplied or symbiotically fixed nitrogen is also evident from the expression of GS-GUS in the infection zone, including the uninfected cells, and the inner cortex of transgenic L. corniculatus nodules, where a flux of ammonia is encountered by this tissue. The lack of expression of GS-GUS in the outer cortex of the nodules suggests that ammonia may not be able to diffuse outside the endodermis.

  20. Definition of constitutive gene expression in plants: the translation initiation factor 4A gene as a model.

    PubMed

    Mandel, T; Fleming, A J; Krähenbühl, R; Kuhlemeier, C

    1995-12-01

    The NeIF-4A10 gene belongs to a family of at least ten genes, all of which encode closely related isoforms of translation initiation factor 4A. The promoter region of NeIF-4A10 was sequenced, and four mRNA 5' ends were determined. Deletions containing 2750, 689 and 188 bp of untranscribed upstream DNA were fused to the GUS reporter gene and introduced into transgenic tobacco. The three constructs mediated GUS expression in all cells of the leaf, stem and shoot apical meristem. Control experiments using in situ hybridization and tissue printing indicated that the observed GUS expression matches the expression patterns of NeIF-4A mRNA and protein. This detailed analysis at the level of mRNA, protein and reporter gene expression shows that NeIF-4A10 is an ideal constitutively expressed control gene. We argue that inclusion of such a control gene in experiments dealing with specifically expressed genes is in many cases essential for the correct interpretation of observed expression patterns.

  1. Regeneration of transgenic plants of Prunus armeniaca containing the coat protein gene of Plum Pox Virus.

    PubMed

    da Câmara Machado, M L; da Câmara Machado, A; Hanzer, V; Weiss, H; Regner, F; Steinkellner, H; Mattanovich, D; Plail, R; Knapp, E; Kalthoff, B; Katinger, H

    1992-02-01

    A system was developed which allows the transfer of foreign genes into apricot cultivars. We report the transformation and regeneration of Prunus armeniaca plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 containing various binary plasmids, pBinGUSint, carrying the marker gene ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and pBinPPVm, carrying the coat protein gene of Plum Pox Virus (PPV). The marker gene GUS was used for optical evaluation of the efficiency of the transformation system. The coat protein gene of PPV was used to introduce coat protein mediated resistance against one of the most important pathogens of stone fruit trees in Europe and the whole Mediterranean area. This is the first report of the successful integration of a viral coat protein gene into a fruit tree species, opening a new perspective on the control of the disease.

  2. Fruit preferential activity of the tomato RIP1 gene promoter in transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Kumar, Rahul; Pareek, Amit; Sharma, Arun K

    2017-02-01

    Isolation and functional characterization of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is beneficial for genetic improvement of economically important crops. Here, we have characterized a putative promoter of a ripening-induced gene RIP1 (Ripening induced protein 1) in tomato. Quantification of the transcript level of RIP1 showed that its expression is fruit preferential, with maximum accumulation in red ripe fruits. To test the promoter activity, we made a reporter construct by cloning 1450 bp putative RIP1 promoter driving the GUS (ß-glucuronidase) gene expression and generated stable transgenic lines in tomato and Arabidopsis. Histochemical and fluorometric assays validated the fruit-specific expression of RIP1 as the highest GUS activity was found in red ripe tomatoes. Similarly, we detected high levels of GUS activity in the siliques of Arabidopsis. On the contrary, weak GUS activity was found in the flower buds in both tomato and Arabidopsis. To characterize the specific regions of the RIP1 promoter that might be essential for its maximum activity and specificity in fruits, we made stable transgenic lines of tomato and Arabidopsis with 5'-deletion constructs. Characterization of these transgenic plants showed that the full length promoter is essential for its function. Overall, we report the identification and characterization of a ripening-induced promoter of tomato, which would be useful for the controlled manipulation of the ripening-related agronomic traits in genetic manipulation studies in future.

  3. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  4. Calmodulin Gene Family in Potato: Developmental and Touch-Induced Expression of the mRNA Encoding a Novel Isoform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takezawa, D.; Liu, Z. H.; An, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1995-01-01

    Eight genomic clones of potato calmodulin (PCM1 to 8) were isolated and characterized. Sequence comparisons of different genes revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of PCM1 had several unique substitutions, especially in the fourth Ca(2+)-binding area. The expression patterns of different genes were studied by northern analysis using the 3'-untranslated regions as probes. The expression of PCM1, 5, and 8 was highest in the stolon tip and it decreased during tuber development. The expression of PCM6 did not vary much in the tissues tested, except in the leaves, where the expression was lower; whereas, the expression of PCM4 was very low in all the tissues. The expression of PCM2 and PCM3 was not detected in any of the tissues tested. Among these genes, only PCM1 showed increased expression following touch stimulation. To study the regulation of PCM1, transgenic potato plants carrying the PCM1 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were produced. GUS expression was found to be developmentally regulated and touch-responsive, indicating a positive correlation between the expression of PCM1 and GUS mRNAs. These results suggest that the 5'-flanking region of PCM1 controls developmental and touch-induced expression. X-Gluc staining patterns revealed that GUS localization is high in meristematic tissues such as the stem apex, stolon tip, and vascular regions.

  5. Functional analysis of BADH gene promoter from Suaeda liaotungensis K.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Yin, Hui; Li, Dan; Zhu, Weiwei; Li, Qiuli

    2008-03-01

    A 1,993 bp region upstream of the gene encoding the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) was isolated from Suaeda liaotungensis K., and the analysis of the promoter sequence has revealed the existence of several putative cis-elements by the PLACE database. In this study, according to the characteristic of the BADH promoter, five chimeric constructs varied in the length of promoter fragments from -1,993, -1,466, -1,084, -573 and -300 to +62 bp relative to the transcriptional start site were placed to the upstream of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum L.cv.89 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated leaf-disc transformation. The functional properties of each promoter fragment were examined by GUS histochemical staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses in the transgenic tobacco leaves treated with different NaCl concentrations for 48 h. The results show that healthy transgenic plants had decreased GUS activity in leaves, whereas a higher GUS activity was observed when the transgenic plants were challenged with sodium chloride (NaCl). Induction levels were proportional to the concentration of NaCl treatment, allowing fine-tuning of protein expression. GUS enzyme activity was enhanced 6.3-fold in transgenic tobacco leaves containing -300 bp promoter fragment in the presence of 400 mmol/l NaCl compared to the noninductive leaves. This suggests that the smallest promoter fragment (-300 to +62 bp) possesses all the essential cis-acting elements and is sufficient for NaCl induction.

  6. Light signalling mediated by phytochrome plays an important role in cold-induced gene expression through the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (C/DRE) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun-Joung; Kim, Yun-Kyoung; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Jungmook

    2002-03-01

    Low temperature induces a number of genes that encode the proteins promoting tolerance to freezing, mediated by ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways in plants. The cis-acting element called C/DRE is known to respond to low temperature independently of ABA action. To investigate the signalling and network of ABA-independent pathways, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated containing several copies of the C/DRE derived from cor15a gene with a minimal promoter fused to a GUS reporter gene. The transgenic plants containing four copies of the C/DRE (4C/DRE-GUS) showed responsiveness to cold and drought treatments and were used for characterization of cold signalling and cross-talk. Cold-induced GUS expression was inhibited by okadaic acid at 1 nM, indicating that protein phosphatase 2A might act as a positive regulator. Light was shown to activate cold- and drought-induced GUS expression. Photo-reversibility of the GUS mRNA by red and far-red light with concomitant cold treatment suggests a role of phytochrome as a photoreceptor in mediating light signalling to activate the cold-induced gene expression through the C/DRE. Furthermore, GUS expression analysis in phyA or phyB or phyAphyB mutant backgrounds showed that phytochrome B is a primary photoreceptor responsible for the activation of cold-stress signalling in response to light. Light enhanced the induction kinetics of CBF1, 2, and 3 encoding the cognate transcription factors, and cor15a, in a consecutive manner compared to the dark condition in the cold, suggesting that the connection point between cold and light signalling mediated by phytochrome is at a higher step than the expression of CBF genes.

  7. Lox-dependent gene expression in transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Shcherbak, N; Kishchenko, O; Sakhno, L; Komarnytsky, I; Kuchuk, M

    2013-01-01

    Lox sites of the Cre/lox recombination system from bacteriophage P1 were analyzed for their ability to affect on transgene expression when inserted upstream from a gene coding sequence adjacent to the right border (RB) of T-DNA. Wild and mutated types of lox sites were tested for their effect upon bar gene expression in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods. Lox-mediated expression of bar gene, recognized by resistance of transgenic plants to PPT, occurred only in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. RT-PCR analysis confirms that PPT-resistant phenotype of transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was caused by activation of bar gene. The plasmid with promoterless gus gene together with the lox site adjacent to the RB was constructed and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum as well. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity and expression of gus gene was detected in plant leaves. Expression of bar gene from the vectors containing lox site near RB allowed recovery of numerous PPT-resistant transformants of such important crops as Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lactuca sativa and Solanum tuberosum. Our results demonstrate that the lox site sequence adjacent to the RB can be used to control bar gene expression in transgenic plants.

  8. Functional study of a salt-inducible TaSR gene in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Cui, Wei-Na; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Hou, Xiao-Na; Li, Dong-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Liang; Shen, Yin-Zhu; Huang, Zhan-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The gene expression chip of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant under salt stress was used to clone a salt-induced gene with unknown functions. This gene was designated as TaSR (Triticum aestivum salt-response gene) and submitted to GenBank under accession number EF580107. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that gene expression was induced by salt stress. Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) plants expressing TaSR presented higher salt tolerance than the controls, whereas AtSR mutant and RNA interference rice plants were more sensitive to salt. Under salt stress, TaSR reduced Na(+) concentration and improved cellular K(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations; this gene was also localized on the cell membrane. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) staining and GUS fluorescence quantitative determination were conducted through fragmentation cloning of the TaSR promoter. Salt stress-responsive elements were detected at 588-1074 bp upstream of the start codon. GUS quantitative tests of the full-length promoter in different tissues indicated that promoter activity was highest in the leaf under salt stress. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and yeast two-hybrid screening further showed the correlation of TaSR with TaPRK and TaKPP. In vitro phosphorylation of TaSR and TaPRK2697 showed that TaPRK2697 did not phosphorylate TaSR. This study revealed that the novel TaSR may be used to improve plant tolerance to salt stress.

  9. Transient gene expression system established in Porphyra yezoensis is widely applicable in Bangiophycean algae.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ryo; Takahashi, Megumu; Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji

    2011-10-01

    The establishment of transient gene expression systems in the marine red macroalga Porphyra yezoensis has been useful for the molecular analysis of cellular processes in this species. However, there has been no successful report about the expression of foreign genes in other red macroalgae, which has impeded the broader understanding of the molecular biology of these species. We therefore examined whether the P. yezoensis transient gene expression system was applicable to other red macroalgae. The results indicated that a codon-optimized GUS, designated PyGUS, and plant-adapted sGFP(S65T) were successfully expressed under the control of the P. yezoensis PyAct1 promoter in gametophytic cells of six Porphyra species and also in Bangia fuscopurpurea, all of which are classified as Bangiophyceae. In contrast, there were no reporter-expressing cells in the Florideophycean algae examined. These results indicate the availability of PyGUS and sGFP as reporters and the 5' upstream region of the PyAct1 gene as a heterologous promoter for transient gene expression in Bangiophycean algae, which could provide a clue to the efficient expression of foreign genes and transformation in marine red macroalgae.

  10. Pollen- and anther-specific chi promoters from petunia: tandem promoter regulation of the chiA gene.

    PubMed Central

    van Tunen, A J; Mur, L A; Brouns, G S; Rienstra, J D; Koes, R E; Mol, J N

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal activities of chalcone flavanone isomerase (chi) A and B gene promoters from petunia. To study the tandem promoter regulation of chiA, various chiA promoter fragments were fused with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of transgenic plants containing these chimeric genes provided definitive proof that the chiA coding region is regulated by two distinct promoters (designated PA1 and PA2). We also showed that both promoters can function independently and that the chiA PA1 promoter is expressed in limb (epidermal and parenchyma cells), tube (inner epidermal and parenchyma cells), seed (seed coat, endosperm, and embryo), sepal, leaf, and stem. The use of chiA and chiB promoters in the regulation of anther- and pollen-specific gene expression has been studied. By analyzing transgenic plants containing chimeric genes consisting of chiA and B promoter fragments and the GUS reporter gene, we were able to identify a 0.44-kilobase chiA PA2 promoter fragment that drives pollen-specific gene expression and a 1.75-kilobase chiB PB promoter fragment that confers anther-specific (pollen and tapetum cells) expression to the GUS gene. PMID:2152165

  11. A strong promoter, PMagpd, provides a tool for high gene expression in entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yueqing; Jiao, Run; Xia, Yuxian

    2012-03-01

    A glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter (PMagpd) was obtained from Metarhizium acridum and its active region analyzed by 5'-deletion strategy using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter. Sequence analysis revealed that typical regulatory elements of PMagpd were included in the 1.7 kb region upstream of the start codon of the Magpd gene. Deletion of the region from -1,691 bp to -1,463 bp, where the gpd box is harbored, did not significantly affect the PMagpd activity. Deletions of the regions upstream of -946 bp and upstream of -684 bp caused a major decrease of GUS activity. Compared with PgpdA (2.2 kb) in Aspergillus nidulans, PMagpd (1.4 kb) had a shorter sequence and significantly higher activity in M. acridum. This study provides an applicable promoter for over-expression of target genes in M. acridum.

  12. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 Represses Genes Associated with Auxin Signaling to Modulate Hypocotyl Growth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Developing seedlings are well equipped to alter their growth in response to external factors in order to maximize their chances of survival. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME B4-#3 (SOB3) and other members of the AT-HOOK MOTIF CONTAINING NUCLEAR LOCALIZED (AHL) family of transcription factors modulate the development of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by repressing hypocotyl elongation in young seedlings growing in light. However, the molecular mechanism behind how AHLs influence seedling development is largely unknown. We have identified genes associated with auxin-mediated hypocotyl elongation as downstream targets of SOB3. We found that YUCCA8 (YUC8) as well as members of the SMALL AUXIN UP-REGULATED RNA19 (SAUR19) subfamily were down-regulated in the short-hypocotyl, gain-of-function SOB3-D mutant and up-regulated in the dominant-negative, tall-hypocotyl sob3-6 mutant. SOB3-D and sob3-6 hypocotyls also exhibited altered sensitivity to the polar auxin transport inhibitor N-1-napthylphthalamic acid, suggesting a critical connection between auxin and the modulation of seedling elongation by SOB3. Finally, we found that overexpression of GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN-SAUR19 in the SOB3-D line partially rescued defects in hypocotyl elongation, and SOB3 bound directly to the promoters of YUC8 and SAUR19 subfamily members. Taken together, these data indicate that SOB3 modulates hypocotyl elongation in young seedlings by directly repressing the transcription of genes associated with auxin signaling. PMID:27342309

  13. Herbicide safener-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    De Veylder, L; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1997-05-01

    The potential use of a new chemical-inducible gene expression system in Arabidopsis thaliana has been examined. The system is based on the maize In2-2 promoter which is activated by benzenesulfonamide herbicide safeners. Plants transformed with the beta-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene under the control of the In2-2 promoter were grown in the presence of different safeners and the induced GUS activity pattern was studied histochemically. In the absence of safeners, the In2-2 promoter was not active. Application of different safeners induced distinct gus expression patterns, including expression in the root, hydathodes, and the shoot apical meristem. Plants maintained continuously on inducing concentrations of the safeners were retarded in growth. The growth inhibition effects of the Sa5 safener could be overcome in a sulfonylurea-resistant background. In2-2 promoter activity could also be induced by the sulfonylurea herbicide chlorsulfuron. In the sulfonylurea-resistant background, which derives from herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase activity, induction of the In2-2 promoter by chlorsulfuron was lower. Furthermore, branched-chain amino acids, known to inhibit acetolactate synthase activity, also induced In2-2 promoter activity. Our data suggest a strong correlation between In2-2 expression and inhibition of the acetolactate synthase activity.

  14. Species-dependent expression of the hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase gene in the pericycle.

    PubMed

    Kanegae, T; Kajiya, H; Amano, Y; Hashimoto, T; Yamada, Y

    1994-06-01

    The tropane alkaloid scopolamine is synthesized in the pericycle of branch roots in certain species of the Solanaceae. The enzyme responsible for the synthesis of scopolamine from hyoscyamine is hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase (H6H). The gene for H6H was isolated from Hyoscyamus niger. It has an exon/intron organization very similar to those for ethylene-forming enzymes, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. The 827-bp 5' flanking region of the H6H gene was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and transferred to three solanaceous species by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems: H. niger and belladonna (Atropa belladonna), which have high and low levels, respectively, of H6H mRNA in the root, and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which has no endogenous H6H gene. Histochemical analysis showed that GUS expression occurred in the pericycle and at the root meristem of transgenic H. niger hairy roots, but only at the root meristem of transgenic H. niger hairy roots, but only at the root meristem of hairy roots and plants of transgenic tobacco. In transgenic hairy roots and regenerated plants of belladonna, the root meristem was stained with GUS activity, except for a few transformants in which the vascular cylinder was also stained. These studies indicate that the cell-specific expression of the H6H gene is controlled by some genetic regulation specific to scopolamine-producing plants.

  15. Mature Luffa Leaves (Luffa cylindrica L.) as a Tool for Gene Expression Analysis by Agroinfiltration

    PubMed Central

    Błażejewska, Kamila; Kapusta, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Elżbieta; Tukaj, Zbigniew; Chincinska, Izabela A.

    2017-01-01

    We exploited the potential of cucurbits for ectopic gene expression. Agroinfiltration is a simple and commonly used method to obtain transient expression of foreign genes in plants. In contrast to in vitro transformation techniques, agroinfiltration can be used for genetic modification of mature plant tissues. Although the cucurbits are commonly used as model plants for molecular biology and biotechnology studies, to date there are no literature sources on the possibility of transient gene expression in mature cucurbit tissues. Our research has shown that mature leaves of Luffa cylindrica L. (luffa), in contrast to other cucurbit species, can be successfully transiently transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We efficiently transformed luffa leaves with a reporter gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS). The GUS activity in transiently transformed leaf tissues was detected within 24 h after the infiltration with bacteria. Additionally, we have shown that the activity of a transiently expressed the GUS gene can be monitored directly in the EDTA-exudates collected from the cut petioles of the agroinfiltrated leaves. The results suggest that luffa leaves can be useful as a plant expression system for studies of physiological and biochemical processes in cucurbits. PMID:28270826

  16. Mature Luffa Leaves (Luffa cylindrica L.) as a Tool for Gene Expression Analysis by Agroinfiltration.

    PubMed

    Błażejewska, Kamila; Kapusta, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Elżbieta; Tukaj, Zbigniew; Chincinska, Izabela A

    2017-01-01

    We exploited the potential of cucurbits for ectopic gene expression. Agroinfiltration is a simple and commonly used method to obtain transient expression of foreign genes in plants. In contrast to in vitro transformation techniques, agroinfiltration can be used for genetic modification of mature plant tissues. Although the cucurbits are commonly used as model plants for molecular biology and biotechnology studies, to date there are no literature sources on the possibility of transient gene expression in mature cucurbit tissues. Our research has shown that mature leaves of Luffa cylindrica L. (luffa), in contrast to other cucurbit species, can be successfully transiently transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We efficiently transformed luffa leaves with a reporter gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS). The GUS activity in transiently transformed leaf tissues was detected within 24 h after the infiltration with bacteria. Additionally, we have shown that the activity of a transiently expressed the GUS gene can be monitored directly in the EDTA-exudates collected from the cut petioles of the agroinfiltrated leaves. The results suggest that luffa leaves can be useful as a plant expression system for studies of physiological and biochemical processes in cucurbits.

  17. Differential expression of three eucalyptus secondary cell wall-related cellulose synthase genes in response to tension stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shanfa; Li, Laigeng; Yi, Xiaoping; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P; Chiang, Vincent L

    2008-01-01

    Trees constitute the majority of lignocellulosic biomass existing on our planet. Trees also serve as important feedstock materials for various industrial products. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of cellulose synthase (CesA) genes of trees. Here, the cloning and characterization of three CesA genes (EgraCesA1, EgraCesA2, and EgraCesA3) from an economically important tree species, Eucalyptus grandis, are reported. All three genes were specifically expressed in xylem cells of eucalyptus undergoing secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The GUS gene, expressed under the control of the EgraCesA2 or EgraCesA3 promoter, was also localized in the secondary xylem in transgenic tobacco stems. However, the EgraCesA1 promoter alone or along with its 5'-UTR introns was insufficient to direct appropriate GUS expression. EgraCesA2 and EgraCesA3 gene expression was up-regulated in tension-stressed eucalyptus xylem cells. Accordingly, GUS expression directed by the EgraCesA2 or EgraCesA3 promoter was also up-regulated. EgraCesA1 had no such response. Thus, it is most unlikely that EgraCesA1 is a subunit of the EgraCesA2-EgraCesA3 complex. The presence of at least two types of cellulose biosynthesis machinery in wood formation is an important clue in deciphering the underpinnings of the perennial growth of trees in various environmental conditions. By analysing GUS gene expression directed by the EgraCesA3 promoter or its deletions, several negative and positive regulatory regions controlling gene expression in xylem or phloem were identified. Also a region which is likely to contain mechanical stress-responsive elements was deduced. These results will guide further studies on identifying cis-regulatory elements directing CesA gene transcription and wood formation regulatory networks.

  18. CaPrx, a Coffea arabica gene encoding a putative class III peroxidase induced by root-knot nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Severino, Fábio E; Brandalise, Marcos; Costa, Carolina S; Wilcken, Sílvia R S; Maluf, Mirian P; Gonçalves, Wallace; Maia, Ivan G

    2012-08-01

    Class III peroxidases (Prxs) are enzymes involved in a multitude of physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Here, we report on the characterization of a putative peroxidase-encoding gene from Coffea arabica (CaPrx) that is expressed in early stages of root-knot nematode (RKN) infection. CaPrx showed enhanced expression in coffee roots inoculated with RKN (at 12 h post-inoculation), but no significant difference in expression was observed between susceptible and resistant plants. Assays using transgenic tobacco plants harboring a promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion revealed that the CaPrx promoter was exclusively active in the galls induced by RKN. In cross sections of galls, GUS staining was predominantly localized in giant cells. Up-regulation of GUS expression in roots of transgenic plants following RKN inoculation was observed within 16 h. Moreover, no increase in GUS expression after treatment with jasmonic acid was detected. Altogether, these results point to a putative role of this peroxidase in the general coffee response to RKN infection.

  19. T-DNA tagging in Brassica napus as an efficient tool for the isolation of new promoters for selectable marker genes.

    PubMed

    Bade, Jacob; van Grinsven, Emiel; Custers, Jerome; Hoekstra, Sietske; Ponstein, Anne

    2003-05-01

    A simple strategy to identify and isolate new promoters suitable for driving the expression of selectable marker genes is described. By employing a Brassica napus hypocotyl transformation protocol and a promoterless gus::nptII tagging construct, a series of 20 kanamycin-resistant tagged lines was produced. Most of the regenerated plants showed hardly any GUS activity in leaf, stem and root tissues. However, expression was readily restored in callus tissue induced on in vitro leaf segments. Genomic sequences upstream of the gus::nptII insertions were isolated via plasmid rescue. Three clones originating from single copy T-DNA lines were selected for further evaluation. The rescued plasmids were cloned as linear fragments in binary vectors and re-transformed to Brassica napus hypocotyl and Solanum tuberosum stem segments. The new sequences maintained their promoter activity, demonstrated by transient and stable GUS activity after transformation. Furthermore, the promoters provided sufficient expression of the nptII gene to yield transgenic plants when using kanamycin as selective agent. Database searching (BLASTN) revealed that the promoters have significant homology with three Arabidopsis BAC clones, one Arabidopsis cDNA and one Brassica napus cDNA. The results presented in this paper illustrate the strength of combined methods for identification, isolation and testing of new plant promoters.

  20. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  1. Transient Gene Expression in Maize, Rice, and Wheat Cells Using an Airgun Apparatus 1

    PubMed Central

    Oard, James H.; Paige, David F.; Simmonds, John A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    An airgun apparatus has been constructed for transient gene expression studies of monocots. This device utilizes compressed air from a commercial airgun to propel macroprojectile and DNA-coated tungsten particles. The β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used to monitor transient expression in three distinct cell types of maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). The highest level of GUS activity in cultured maize cells was observed when distance between stopping plate and target cells was adjusted to 4.3 centimeters. Efficiency of transformation was estimated to be 4.4 × 10−3. In a partial vacuum of 700 millimeters Hg, velocity of macroprojectile was measured at 520 meters per second with a 6% reduction in velocity at atmospheric pressure. A polyethylene film placed in the breech before firing contributed to a 12% increase in muzzle velocity. A 700 millimeters Hg level of vacuum was necessary for maximum number of transfornants. GUS expression was also detected in wheat leaf base tissue of microdissected shoot apices. High levels of transient gene expression were also observed in hard, compact embryogenic callus of rice. These results show that the airgun apparatus is a convenient, safe, and low-cost device for rapid transient gene expression studies in cereals. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667278

  2. Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genes URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  3. Molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of the soxB gene among sulfur-oxidizing bacteria - evolution of the Sox sulfur oxidation enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kuever, Jan

    2007-12-01

    The soxB gene encodes the SoxB component of the periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing Sox enzyme complex, which has been proposed to be widespread among the various phylogenetic groups of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) that convert thiosulfate to sulfate with and without the formation of sulfur globules as intermediate. Indeed, the comprehensive genetic and genomic analyses presented in the present study identified the soxB gene in 121 phylogenetically and physiologically divergent SOB, including several species for which thiosulfate utilization has not been reported yet. In first support of the previously postulated general involvement of components of the Sox enzyme complex in the thiosulfate oxidation process of sulfur-storing SOB, the soxB gene was detected in all investigated photo- and chemotrophic species that form sulfur globules during thiosulfate oxidation (Chromatiaceae, Chlorobiaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, Thiobacillus, invertebrate symbionts and free-living relatives). The SoxB phylogeny reflected the major 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic lineages of the investigated SOB, although topological discrepancies indicated several events of lateral soxB gene transfer among the SOB, e.g. its independent acquisition by the anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic lineages from different chemotrophic donor lineages. A putative scenario for the proteobacterial origin and evolution of the Sox enzyme system in SOB is presented considering the phylogenetic, genomic (sox gene cluster composition) and geochemical data.

  4. RNA-mediated gene silencing signals are not graft transmissible from the rootstock to the scion in greenhouse-grown apple plants Malus sp.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.

  5. Three cotton genes preferentially expressed in flower tissues encode actin-depolymerizing factors which are involved in F-actin dynamics in cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Bao; Xu, Dan; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Huang, Geng-Qing; Luo, Juan; Li, Deng-Di; Zhang, Ze-Ting; Xu, Wen-Liang

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the high expression levels of actin-depolymerizing factor genes are related to pollen development, three GhADF genes (cDNAs) were isolated and characterized in cotton. Among them, GhADF6 and GhADF8 were preferentially expressed in petals, whereas GhADF7 displayed the highest level of expression in anthers, revealing its anther specificity. The GhADF7 transcripts in anthers reached its peak value at flowering, suggesting that its expression is developmentally-regulated in anthers. The GhADF7 gene including the promoter region was isolated from the cotton genome. To demonstrate the specificity of the GhADF7 promoter, the 5'-flanking region, including the promoter and 5'-untranslated region, was fused with the GUS gene. Histochemical assays demonstrated that the GhADF7:GUS gene was specifically expressed in pollen grains. When pollen grains germinated, very strong GUS staining was detected in the elongating pollen tube. Furthermore, overexpression of GhADF7 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced the viable pollen grains and, consequently, transgenic plants were partially male-sterile. Overexpression of GhADF7 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) altered the balance of actin depolymerization and polymerization, leading to the defective cytokinesis and multinucleate formation in the cells. Given all the above results together, it is proposed that the GhADF7 gene may play an important role in pollen development and germination.

  6. Expression of Atropa belladonna putrescine N-methyltransferase gene in root pericycle.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1999-03-01

    The cDNAs encoding putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), which catalyzes the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent N-methylation of putrescine at the first committed step in the biosynthetic pathways of tropane alkaloids, were isolated from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger. These PMTs, however, lacked the N-terminal tandem repeat arrays previously found in Nicotiana PMTs. AbPMT1 RNA was much more abundant in the root of A. belladonna than was AbPMT2 RNA. The 5'-flanking region of the AbPMT1 gene was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and transferred to A. belladonna. Histochemical analysis showed that GUS is expressed specifically in root pericycle cells and that the 0.3-kb 5'-upstream region was sufficient for pericycle-specific expression. Treatment of A. belladonna roots with methyl jasmonate did not up-regulate the expression of GUS or endogenous AbPMT genes. The regulation of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis is discussed and compared with that of nicotine biosynthesis.

  7. An Arabidopsis Tissue-Specific RNAi Method for Studying Genes Essential to Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Rivera, Brunilís; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of the genes in plants can be considered essential in the sense that when absent the plant fails to develop past the first few cell divisions. The fact that angiosperms pass through a haploid gametophyte stage can make it challenging to propagate such mutants even in the heterozygous condition. Here we describe a tissue-specific RNAi method that allows us to visualize cell division phenotypes in petals, which are large dispensable organs. Portions of the APETALA (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) promoters confer early petal-specific expression. We show that when either promoter is used to drive the expression of a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) RNAi transgene in plants uniformly expressing GUS, GUS expression is knocked down specifically in petals. We further tested the system by targeting the essential kinetochore protein CENPC and two different components of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (MAD2 and BUBR1). Plant lines expressing petal-specific RNAi hairpins targeting these genes exhibited an array of petal phenotypes. Cytological analyses of the affected flower buds confirmed that CENPC knockdown causes cell cycle arrest but provided no evidence that either MAD2 or BUBR1 are required for mitosis (although both genes are required for petal growth by this assay). A key benefit of the petal-specific RNAi method is that the phenotypes are not expressed in the lineages leading to germ cells, and the phenotypes are faithfully transmitted for at least four generations despite their pronounced effects on growth. PMID:23236491

  8. Testing the IMEter on rice introns and other aspects of intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Morello, Laura; Gianì, Silvia; Troina, Filippo; Breviario, Diego

    2011-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, spliceosomal introns are able to influence the level and site of gene expression. The mechanism of this Intron Mediated Enhancement (IME) has not yet been elucidated, but regulation of gene expression is likely to occur at several steps during and after transcription. Different introns have different intrinsic enhancing properties, but the determinants of these differences remain unknown. Recently, an algorithm called IMEter, which is able to predict the IME potential of introns without direct testing, has been proposed. A computer program was developed for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa L.), but was only tested experimentally in Arabidopsis by measuring the enhancement effect on GUS expression of different introns inserted within otherwise identical plasmids. To test the IMEter potential in rice, a vector bearing the upstream regulatory sequence of a rice β-tubulin gene (OsTub6) fused to the GUS reporter gene was used. The enhancing intron interrupting the OsTub6 5'-UTR was precisely replaced by seven other introns carrying different features. GUS expression level in transiently transformed rice calli does not significantly correlate with the calculated IMEter score. It was also found that enhanced GUS expression was mainly due to a strong increase in the mRNA steady-state level and that mutations at the splice recognition sites almost completely abolished the enhancing effect. Splicing also appeared to be required for IME in Arabidopsis cell cultures, where failure of the OsTub6 5' region to drive high level gene expression could be rescued by replacing the poorly spliced rice intron with one from Arabidopsis.

  9. Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Campbell, Benjamin; MacKillop, James; Lum, J. Koji; Wilson, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SOB) has been associated with many physiological and psychological traits including novelty seeking and sensation seeking. Similar traits have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system. SOB and dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms may independently and interactively influence similar behaviors through their common effects on the dopaminergic system. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a sample of 195 subjects, we examined whether SOB was associated with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors. Additionally we examined potential interactions of dopamine receptor genes with SOB for the same set of traits. Phenotypes were evaluated using the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Delay Discounting Task. Subjects were also asked about their age at first sex as well as their desired age at the birth of their first child. The dopamine gene polymorphisms examined were Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) TaqI A and D4 (DRD4) 48 bp VNTR. Primary analyses included factorial gender×SOB ANOVAs or binary logistic regression models for each dependent trait. Secondary analysis extended the factorial models by also including DRD2 and DRD4 genotypes as independent variables. Winter-born males were more sensation seeking than non-winter born males. In factorial models including both genotype and season of birth as variables, two previously unobserved effects were discovered: (1) a SOB×DRD4 interaction effect on venturesomeness and (2) a DRD2×DRD4 interaction effect on sensation seeking. Conclusion These results are consistent with past findings that SOB is related to sensation seeking. Additionally, these results provide tentative support for the hypothesis that SOB modifies the behavioral expression of dopaminergic genetic polymorphism. These findings suggest that SOB should be included in future studies of

  10. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  11. Characterization of Pseudomonas putida Genes Responsive to Nutrient Limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, Chris K.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kingsley, Mark T.; Swarup, Sanjay

    2004-06-01

    The low bioavailability of nutrients and oxygen in the soil environment has hampered successful expression of biodegradation/biocontrol genes that are driven by promoters highly active during routine laboratory conditions of high nutrient- and oxygen-availability. Hence, in the present study, expression of the gus-tagged genes in 12 Tn5-gus mutants of the soil microbe Pseudomonas putida PNL-MK25 was examined under various conditions chosen to mimic the soil environment: low carbon, phosphate, nitrate, or oxygen, and in the rhizosphere. Based on their expression profiles, three nutrient-responsive mutant (NRM) strains, NRM5, NRM7, and NRM17, were selected for identification of the tagged genes. In the mutant strain NRM5, expression of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA) gene was increased between 4.9- to 26.4-fold under various low nutrient conditions. In NRM7, expression of the novel NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-like (nql) gene was consistently amongst the highest and was synergistically upregulated by low nutrient and anoxic conditions. The cyoD gene in NRM17, which encodes the fourth subunit of the cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase complex, had decreased expression in low nutrient conditions but its absolute expression levels was still amongst the highest. Additionally, it was independent of oxygen availability, in contrast to that in E. coli.

  12. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units

    PubMed Central

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression. PMID:28334004

  13. Overexpression of a MADS-Box Gene from Birch (Betula platyphylla) Promotes Flowering and Enhances Chloroplast Development in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Guan-Zheng; Zheng, Tangchun; Liu, Guifeng; Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Lina; Liu, Huanzhen; Yang, Chuanping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS), which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla). Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS). In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco. PMID:23691043

  14. A PPO Promoter from Betalain-Producing Red Swiss Chard, Directs Petiole- and Root-Preferential Expression of Foreign Gene in Anthocyanins-Producing Plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Hai; Han, Ya-Nan; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2015-11-12

    A 1670 bp 5'-flanking region of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene was isolated from red Swiss chard, a betalain-producing plant. This region, named promoter BvcPPOP, and its 5'-truncated versions were fused with the GUS gene and introduced into Arabidopsis, an anthocyanins-producing plant. GUS histochemical staining and quantitative analysis of transgenic plants at the vegetative and reproductive stages showed that BvcPPOP could direct GUS gene expression in vegetative organs with root- and petiole-preference, but not in reproductive organs including inflorescences shoot, inflorescences leaf, flower, pod and seed. This promoter was regulated by developmental stages in its driving strength, but not in expression pattern. It was also regulated by the abiotic stressors tested, positively by salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) but negatively by abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), NaCl and OH(-). Its four 5'-truncated versions varied in the driving strength, but not obviously in expression pattern, and even the shortest version (-225 to +22) retained the root- and petiole- preference. This promoter is, to our knowledge, the first PPO promoter cloned and functionally elucidated from the betalain-producing plant, and thus provides not only a useful tool for expressing gene(s) of agricultural interest in vegetative organs, but also a clue to clarify the function of metabolism-specific PPO in betalain biosynthesis.

  15. A PPO Promoter from Betalain-Producing Red Swiss Chard, Directs Petiole- and Root-Preferential Expression of Foreign Gene in Anthocyanins-Producing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhi-Hai; Han, Ya-Nan; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    A 1670 bp 5′-flanking region of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene was isolated from red Swiss chard, a betalain-producing plant. This region, named promoter BvcPPOP, and its 5′-truncated versions were fused with the GUS gene and introduced into Arabidopsis, an anthocyanins-producing plant. GUS histochemical staining and quantitative analysis of transgenic plants at the vegetative and reproductive stages showed that BvcPPOP could direct GUS gene expression in vegetative organs with root- and petiole-preference, but not in reproductive organs including inflorescences shoot, inflorescences leaf, flower, pod and seed. This promoter was regulated by developmental stages in its driving strength, but not in expression pattern. It was also regulated by the abiotic stressors tested, positively by salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) but negatively by abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), NaCl and OH−. Its four 5′-truncated versions varied in the driving strength, but not obviously in expression pattern, and even the shortest version (−225 to +22) retained the root- and petiole- preference. This promoter is, to our knowledge, the first PPO promoter cloned and functionally elucidated from the betalain-producing plant, and thus provides not only a useful tool for expressing gene(s) of agricultural interest in vegetative organs, but also a clue to clarify the function of metabolism-specific PPO in betalain biosynthesis. PMID:26569235

  16. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  17. Characterization of a novel rice metallothionein gene promoter: its tissue specificity and heavy metal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yun; Yu, Shi-Shi; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2010-10-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) metallothionein gene OsMT-I-4b has previously been identified as a type I MT gene. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism involved in its tissue specificity and abiotic induction, we isolated a 1 730 bp fragment of the OsMT-I-4b promoter region. Histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining indicated a precise spacial and temporal expression pattern in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher GUS activity was detected in the roots and the buds of flower stigmas, and relatively lower GUS staining in the shoots was restricted to the trichomes and hydathodes of leaves. No activity was observed in the stems and seeds. Additionally, in the root of transgenic plants, the promoter activity was highly upregulated by various environmental signals, such as abscisic acid, drought, dark, and heavy metals including Cu²(+) , Zn²(+) , Pb²(+) and Al³(+) . Slight induction was observed in transgenic seedlings under salinity stress, or when treated with Co²(+) and Cd²(+) . Promoter analysis of 5'-deletions revealed that the region -583/-1 was sufficient to drive strong GUS expression in the roots but not in the shoots. Furthermore, deletion analysis indicated important promoter regions containing different metal-responsive cis-elements that were responsible for responding to different heavy metals. Collectively, these findings provided important insight into the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the OsMT-I-4b promoter, and the results also gave us some implications for the potential application of this promoter in plant genetic engineering.

  18. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns are altered during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Popp, Michael P.; Gurley, William B.; Guy, Charles; Norwood, Kelly L.; Ferl, Robert J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments results in differential gene expression. A 5-day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β-Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on gene expression patterns initially by using the Adh/GUS transgene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response (Paul, A.L., Daugherty, C.J., Bihn, E.A., Chapman, D.K., Norwood, K.L., Ferl, R.J., 2001. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis, Plant Physiol. 126, 613-621). As a follow-on to the reporter gene analysis, we report here the evaluation of genome-wide patterns of native gene expression within Arabidopsis shoots utilizing the Agilent DNA array of 21,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - Taqman®). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays probed with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to RNA isolated from ground control plants revealed 182 genes that were differentially expressed in response to the spaceflight mission by more than 4-fold, and of those only 50 genes were expressed at levels chosen to support a conservative change call. None of the genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were induced to this level. However, genes related to heat shock were dramatically induced - but in a pattern and under growth conditions that are not easily explained by elevated temperatures. These gene expression data are discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment and with regard to potential future spaceflight experiment

  19. Molecular analysis of a new member of the opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Mendoza, I E; López-Meyer, M; Galef, J R; Burnett, R J; Nessler, C L

    1996-01-01

    An aromatic amino acid decarboxylase DNA fragment was generated from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) genomic DNA by the PCR using primers designed from conserved amino acid sequences of other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes. Using this fragment as a probe, a genomic clone was isolated that encodes a new member of the opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase gene family (TyDC5). The predicted TyDC5 amino acid sequence shares extensive identity with other opium poppy tyrosine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylases (84%), and when expressed in Escherichia coli, it is active against tyrosine and to a lesser extent against 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Ribonuclease protection assays indicate that TyDC5 is expressed primarily in the roots of mature poppy plants. A peak of TyDC5 expression was also observed during germination, coincident with the emergence of the radicle from the seed coat. Parallel results were obtained in transgenic tobacco using a TyDC5 promoter fragment (-2060) translationally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). IN TyDC5::GUS tobacco, GUS activity transiently appeared in all parts of the seedling during germination, but was limited to the roots in older plants. These results indicate that TyDC5 expression is transcriptionally regulated and suggest that the TyDC5 enzyme may play an important role in providing precursors for alkaloid synthesis in the roots and germinating seedlings of opium poppy. PMID:8587993

  20. [Genetic transformation of OSISAP1 gene to onion (Allium cepa L.) mediated by amicroprojectile bombardment].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Jiang; Cui, Cheng-Ri

    2007-06-01

    Microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation method has been developed for onion (Allium cepa L.) using embryogenic calli, induced from stem discs, as target tissue. Zinc-finger protein gene OSISAP1 (Oryza sative subspecies indica stress-associated protein gene) was introduced into the open-pollinated onion cultivar (subs.) 'HG400B'. Bombardment parameters were optimized as: the pressure is 1,100 psi, the distance is 6 cm, two times, the ratio of mass between plasmid DNA and golden particles is 1:320. An efficient microprojectile bombardment-mediated transformation system of onion (Allium cepa L.) callus has been established. The binary vector used carried the nptII gene for kanamycin resistance and the GUS reporter gene. Transgenic cultures were screened for their ability to express the GUS reporter gene and to grow in the presence of kanamycin (150 mg/L). Transient expression of GUS reporter gene was observed through histochemical staining of embryogenic callus transformed by microprojectile bombardment. The putative transgenic plants were analysed at the molecular level using PCR, southern hybridization, and RT-PCR. The results confirmed that the OSISAP1 gene was integrated as one copy into the genome of onion and expression. Transgenic plants were produced efficiently with a transformation frequency of about 10%. Test of salinity-alkali stress showed that sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate at 200 mmol/L effectively killed non-transgenic plants within 1 week of irrigation, while the transgenic plants were completely unaffected by salinity of 400 mmol/L. So transformation with the OSISAP1 gene raised the salinity-alkali-tolerance of the transgenic plants to a high level.

  1. Links between sulphur oxidation and sulphur-oxidising bacteria abundance and diversity in soil microcosms based on soxB functional gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Tourna, Maria; Maclean, Paul; Condron, Leo; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    Sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB) play a key role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulphur in soil ecosystems. However, the ecology of SOB is poorly understood, and there is little knowledge about the taxa capable of sulphur oxidation, their distribution, habitat preferences and ecophysiology. Furthermore, as yet there are no conclusive links between SOB community size or structure and rates of sulphur oxidation. We have developed a molecular approach based on primer design targeting the soxB functional gene of nonfilamentous chemolithotrophic SOB that allows assessment of both abundance and diversity. Cloning and sequencing revealed considerable diversity of known soxB genotypes from agricultural soils and also evidence for previously undescribed taxa. In a microcosm experiment, abundance of soxB genes increased with sulphur oxidation rate in soils amended with elemental sulphur. Addition of elemental sulphur to soil had a significant effect in the soxB gene diversity, with the chemolithotrophic Thiobacillus-like Betaproteobacteria sequences dominating clone libraries 6 days after sulphur application. Using culture-independent methodology, the study provides evidence for links between abundance and diversity of SOB and sulphur oxidation. The methodology provides a new tool for investigation of the ecology and role of SOB in soil sulphur biogeochemistry.

  2. PaCDPK1, a gene encoding calcium-dependent protein kinase from orchid, Phalaenopsis amabilis, is induced by cold, wounding, and pathogen challenge.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Mu; Chen, Ying-Ru; Kao, Tien-Wen; Tsay, Wen-Su; Wu, Chiou-Ping; Huang, Ding-Ding; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chang, Ching-Chun; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2007-10-01

    Signaling pathways, specifically calcium and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK), have been implicated in the regulation of stress and developmental signals in plants. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of an orchid, Phalaenopsis amabilis, CDPK gene, PaCDPK1, by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR technique. The full length cDNA of 2,310 bp contained an open reading frame for PaCDPK1 consisting of 593 amino acid residues. Sequence alignment indicated that PaCDPK1 shared similarities with other plant CDPKs. PaCDPK1 transcripts were expressed strongly in labellum but not in leaves and roots. In addition, the PaCDPK1 gene was transcriptionally activated in response to low temperature, wounding, and pathogen infection. To identify the regulatory role of the PaCDPK1 promoter, a construct containing the PaCDPK1 promoter fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was transferred into Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. GUS staining revealed that PaCDPK1/GUS expression was induced by cold, wounding, and pathogen challenge in leaves and stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. These results suggested that this PaCDPK1 gene promoter could be used as an endogenous promoter for biotechnological purposes in orchids.

  3. Identification of fungus-responsive cis-acting element in the promoter of Brassica juncea chitinase gene, BjCHI1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Zan, Xin-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Lei; Chen, Yu-Ling; Jia, Shuang-Wei; Zhao, Kai-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Chitinases are a group of pathogenesis-related proteins. The Brassica juncea chitinase gene BjCHI1 is highly inducible by pathogenic fungal infection, suggesting that the promoter of BjCHI1 might contain specific cis-acting element responsive to fungal attack. To identify the fungus-responsive element in BjCHI1 promoter (BjC-P), a series of binary plant transformation vectors were constructed by fusing the BjC-P or its deletion-derivatives to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression of the GUS reporter gene was systematically assayed by a transient gene expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves treated with fungal elicitor Hexa-N-Acetyl-Chitohexaose, as well as in transgenic Arabidopsis plants inoculated with fungus Botrytis cinerea. The histochemical and quantitative GUS assays showed that the W-box-like element (GTAGTGACTCAT) in the region (-668 to -657) was necessary for the fungus-response, although there were another five W-box-like elements in BjC-P. In addition, gain-of-function analysis demonstrated that the fragment (-409 to -337) coupled to the W-box-like element was needed for full magnitude of the fungal induction. These results revealed the existence of a novel regulation mechanism of W-box-like element involved in plant pathogenic resistance, and will benefit the potential application of BjC-P in engineering crops.

  4. Quantitative RT-PCR Gene Evaluation and RNA Interference in the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Raman; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Chen, Yuting; Mamidala, Praveen; Zhao, Chaoyang; Michel, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) has emerged as one of the most important invasive insect pests in the United States. Functional genomics in H. halys remains unexplored as molecular resources in this insect have recently been developed. To facilitate functional genomics research, we evaluated ten common insect housekeeping genes (RPS26, EF1A, FAU, UBE4A, ARL2, ARP8, GUS, TBP, TIF6 and RPL9) for their stability across various treatments in H. halys. Our treatments included two biotic factors (tissues and developmental stages) and two stress treatments (RNAi injection and starvation). Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). The qRT-PCR results indicated ARP8 and UBE4A exhibit the most stable expression across tissues and developmental stages, ARL2 and FAU for dsRNA treatment and TBP and UBE4A for starvation treatment. Following the dsRNA treatment, all genes except GUS showed relatively stable expression. To demonstrate the utility of validated reference genes in accurate gene expression analysis and to explore gene silencing in H. halys, we performed RNAi by administering dsRNA of target gene (catalase) through microinjection. A successful RNAi response with over 90% reduction in expression of target gene was observed. PMID:27144586

  5. Transient gene expression in electroporated Solanum protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Jones, H; Ooms, G; Jones, M G

    1989-11-01

    Electroporation was used to evaluate parameters important in transient gene expression in potato protoplasts. The protoplasts were from leaves of wild potato Solanum brevidens, and from leaves, tubers and suspension cells of cultivated Solanum tuberosum cv. Désirée. Reporter enzyme activity, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, depended on the field strength and the pulse duration used for electroporation. Using field pulses of 85 ms duration, the optimum field strengths for maximum CAT activity were: S. brevidens mesophyll protoplasts--250 V/cm; Désirée mesophyll protoplasts--225 V/cm; Désirée suspension culture protoplasts--225 V/cm; and Désirée tuber protoplasts--150 V/cm. The optimum field strengths correlated inversely with the size of the protoplasts electroporated; this is consistent with biophysical theory. In time courses, maximum CAT activity (in Désirée mesophyll protoplasts) occurred 36-48 h after electroporation. Examination at optimised conditions of a chimaeric gene consisting of a class II patatin promoter linked to the beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene, showed expression (at DNA concentrations between 0-10 pmol/ml) comparable to the CaMV 35S promoter in both tuber and mesophyll protoplasts. At higher DNA concentrations (20-30 pmol/ml) the patatin promoter directed 4-5 times higher levels of gus expression. Implications and potential contributions towards studying gene expression, in particular of homologous genes in potato, are discussed.

  6. Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes

    SciTech Connect

    Michelmore, R.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    We are developing a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce to clone genes for resistance to the fungal pathogen, Bremia lactucae. Activity of heterologous transposons is being studied in transgenic plants. Southern analysis of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} plants containing Tam3 from Antirrhinum provided ambiguous results. Multiple endonuclease digests indicated that transposition had occurred; however, in no plant were all endonuclease digests consistent with a simple excision event. Southern or PCR analysis of over 50 plans containing Ac from maize have also failed to reveal clear evidence of transposition; this is contrast to experiments by others with the same constructs who have observed high rates of Ac excision in other plant species. Nearly all of 65 T{sub 2} families containing Ac interrupting a chimeric streptomycin resistance gene (Courtesy J. Jones, Sainsbury Lab., UK) clearly segregated for streptomycin resistance. Southern analyses, however, showed no evidence of transposition, indicating restoration of a functional message by other mechanisms, possibly mRNA processing. Transgenic plants have also been generated containing CaMV 35S or hsp70 promoters fused to transposase coding sequences or a Ds element interrupting a chimeric GUS gene (Courtesy M. Lassner, UC Davis). F{sub 1} plants containing both constructs were analyzed for transposition. Only two plants containing both constructs were obtained from 48 progeny, far fewer than expected, and neither showed evidence of transposition in Southerns and GUS assays. We are currently constructing further chimeric transposase fusions. To test for the stability of the targeted disease resistance genes, 50,000 F{sub 1} plants heterozygous for three resistance genes were generated; no mutants have been identified in the 5000 so far screened.

  7. Development and application of an efficient virus-induced gene silencing system in Nicotiana tabacum using geminivirus alphasatellite*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chang-jun; Zhang, Tong; Li, Fang-fang; Zhang, Xin-yue; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2011-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed technique for characterizing the function of plant genes by gene transcript suppression and is increasingly used to generate transient loss-of-function assays. Here we report that the 2mDNA1, a geminivirus satellite vector, can induce efficient gene silencing in Nicotiana tabacum with Tobacco curly shoot virus. We have successfully silenced the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in GUS transgenic N. tabacum plants and the sulphur desaturase (Su) gene in five different N. tabacum cultivars. These pronounced and severe silencing phenotypes are persistent and ubiquitous. Once initiated in seedlings, the silencing phenotype lasted for the entire life span of the plants and silencing could be induced in a variety of tissues and organs including leaf, shoot, stem, root, and flower, and achieved at any growth stage. This system works well between 18–32 °C. We also silenced the NtEDS1 gene and demonstrated that NtEDS1 is essential for N gene mediated resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus in N. tabacum. The above results indicate that this system has great potential as a versatile VIGS system for routine functional analysis of genes in N. tabacum. PMID:21265040

  8. Cloning and Functional Analysis of the Promoter of an Ascorbate Oxidase Gene from Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Xin, Shan; Tao, Chengcheng; Li, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Apoplastic ascorbate oxidase (AO) plays significant roles in plant cell growth. However, the mechanism of underlying the transcriptional regulation of AO in Gossypium hirsutum remains unclear. Here, we obtained a 1,920-bp promoter sequence from the Gossypium hirsutum ascorbate oxidase (GhAO1) gene, and this GhAO1 promoter included a number of known cis-elements. Promoter activity analysis in overexpressing pGhAO1::GFP-GUS tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) showed that the GhAO1 promoter exhibited high activity, driving strong reporter gene expression in tobacco trichomes, leaves and roots. Promoter 5'-deletion analysis demonstrated that truncated GhAO1 promoters with serial 5'-end deletions had different GUS activities. A 360-bp fragment was sufficient to activate GUS expression. The P-1040 region had less GUS activity than the P-720 region, suggesting that the 320-bp region from nucleotide -720 to -1040 might include a cis-element acting as a silencer. Interestingly, an auxin-responsive cis-acting element (TGA-element) was uncovered in the promoter. To analyze the function of the TGA-element, tobacco leaves transformed with promoters with different 5' truncations were treated with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Tobacco leaves transformed with the promoter regions containing the TGA-element showed significantly increased GUS activity after IAA treatment, implying that the fragment spanning nucleotides -1760 to -1600 (which includes the TGA-element) might be a key component for IAA responsiveness. Analyses of the AO promoter region and AO expression pattern in Gossypium arboreum (Ga, diploid cotton with an AA genome), Gossypium raimondii (Gr, diploid cotton with a DD genome) and Gossypium hirsutum (Gh, tetraploid cotton with an AADD genome) indicated that AO promoter activation and AO transcription were detected together only in D genome/sub-genome (Gr and Gh) cotton. Taken together, these results suggest that the 1,920-bp GhAO1 promoter is a functional sequence with a

  9. Functional analysis of the durum wheat gene TdPIP2;1 and its promoter region in response to abiotic stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Malika; Mieulet, Delphine; Fabre, Denis; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Vernet, Aurore; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2014-06-01

    In a previous work, we demonstrated that expression of TdPIP2;1 in Xenopus oocytes resulted in an increase in Pf compared to water injected oocytes. Phenotypic analyses of transgenic tobacco plants expressing TdPIP2;1 generated a tolerance phenotype towards drought and salinity stresses. To elucidate its stress tolerance mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter region of the TdPIP2;1 gene. A 1060-bp genomic fragment upstream of the TdPIP2;1 translated sequence has been isolated, cloned, and designated as the proTdPIP2;1 promoter. Sequence analysis of proTdPIP2;1 revealed the presence of cis regulatory elements which could be required for abiotic stress responsiveness, for tissue-specific and vascular expression. The proTdPIP2;1 promoter was fused to the β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene and the resulting construct was transferred into rice (cv. Nipponbare). Histochemical analysis of proTdPIP2;1::Gus in rice plants revealed that the GUS activity was observed in leaves, stems and roots of stably transformed rice T3 plants. Histological sections prepared revealed accumulation of GUS products in phloem, xylem and in some cells adjacent to xylem. The transcripts were up-regulated by dehydration. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing proTdPIP2;1 in fusion with TdPIP2;1, showed enhanced drought tolerance, while wild type plants were more sensitive and exhibited symptoms of wilting and chlorosis. These findings suggest that expression of the TdPIP2;1 gene regulated by its own promoter achieves enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

  10. Development and initial validation of The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS).

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Julie R; Grzanka, Patrick R; Miles, Joseph R; Fassinger, Ruth E

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop and validate a measure of beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) that incorporates essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist themes. The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS) is offered as a multidimensional instrument with which to assess a broad range of beliefs about SO, which evidence suggests are highly correlated with positive and negative attitudes about sexual minorities. An initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted in the general population with a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-identified (LGBT) sample (n = 323) and suggested a 4-factor structure of naturalness (α = .86), discreetness (α = .82), entitativity (α = .75), and personal and social importance (α = .68); this 4-factor structure was supported by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with an independent LGBT sample (n = 330; "Form 1"). Additional EFA (n = 183) and CFA (n = 201) in a college student, mostly heterosexual-identified population suggest a slightly different factor structure, whereby group homogeneity (α = .84) and informativeness (α = .77) are salient themes ("Form 2"), and this structure was replicated across SO groups. Finally, a study of test-retest reliability in an undergraduate, mostly heterosexual-identified sample (n = 45) demonstrated strong temporal stability for the SOBS.

  11. The promoter of a plant defensin gene directs specific expression in nematode-induced syncytia in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Shahid; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Szakasits, Dagmar; Kreil, David P; Bohlmann, Holger

    2011-10-01

    The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii induces a feeding site, called syncytium, in roots of host plants. In Arabidopsis, one of the genes whose expression is strongly induced in these structures is Pdf2.1 which codes for an antimicrobial plant defensin. Arabidopsis has 13 plant defensin genes. Besides Pdf2.1, the Pdf2.2 and Pdf2.3 genes were strongly expressed in syncytia and therefore the expression of all three Pdf genes was studied in detail. The promoter of the Pdf2.1 gene turned out to be an interesting candidate to drive a syncytium-specific expression of foreign genes as RT-PCR showed that apart from the feeding site it was only expressed in siliques (seeds). The Pdf2.2 and Pdf2.3 genes were in addition expressed in seedlings, roots, leaves, stems, and flowers. These results were supported by the analysis of promoter::GUS lines. After infection with H. schachtii all GUS lines showed a strong staining in syncytia at 5 and 15 dpi. This expression pattern was confirmed by in situ RT-PCR.

  12. Regeneration of Transgenic Rice with Bacterial ipt Gene Driven by Senescence Specific (SAG12) Promoter by Particle Bombardment.

    PubMed

    Devi, Santosini; Mishra, Manoj K; Elliott, Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    Transgenic rice plants were generated using particle bombardment to introduce the Agrobacterium cytokinin biosynthesis gene driven by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) senescence specific promoter (SAG12) for delaying leaf senescence. Using two plasmids we co-transformed one week old embryogenic calli derived from mature Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) variety Chin Guang. The selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene and the reporter gene B-ß-glucuronidase (uidA), both under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter were placed on the same co-integrate vector whereas the cytokinin biosynthesis gene, isopentenyl transferase (ipt) driven by the SAG12 promoter is supplied in another plasmid. A total of 32 transgenic rice plants were regenerated of which 27 plants were randomly selected for histochemical ß-glucuronidase (GUS) assay, PCR and Southern blot analysis. Co-integration frequencies of 88% and 69% were obtained for two linked genes (uidA and hph) and two unlinked genes (hph and ipt gene) respectively in R0 plants. Southern blot analysis confirmed the results of histochemical GUS assay and PCR amplifications. A complex integration pattern for all the transgenes including the multiple copies integration was predominantly observed.

  13. Controlling the expression of rhizobial genes during nodule development with elements and an inducer of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Box, Jodie; Noel, K Dale

    2011-04-01

    A simple strategy was tested for imposing artificial regulation of rhizobial genes during nodule development. Isopropyl-β-d-1-thiogalactoside (IPTG) was added to liquid root media to sustain expression of rhizobial genes controlled by Escherichia coli lac promoter/operators and repressor gene lacI. Conversely, a rinsing protocol was devised to remove IPTG sufficiently that genes could be repressed after having been induced. gusA under this control exhibited clearly delineated expression and repression in both the determinate Rhizobium etli-Phaseolus vulgaris and the indeterminate Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago sativa symbioses. Apparently, IPTG was taken up in sufficiently undegraded concentrations that gene expression was derepressed even in interior portions of the nodule. Moreover, the rinsing protocol led to obvious repression of gusA. Importantly, no deleterious effects of IPTG on nodule development, infection, or nitrogen fixation were observed. An R. etli CE3 gene required for lipopolysaccharide O antigen and infection on bean was put under this control by means of a two-plasmid construct. When this construct was added to a strain with a null mutation in this gene, infection, nodule development, and nitrogenase activity all depended on the length of time before IPTG was rinsed from the roots after inoculation.

  14. Functional Characterization of the Tau Class Glutathione-S-Transferases Gene (SbGSTU) Promoter of Salicornia brachiata under Salinity and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Patel, Manish Kumar; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are generated in the plant cell during the extreme stress condition, which produces toxic compounds after reacting with the organic molecules. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes play a significant role to detoxify these toxins and help in excretion or sequestration of them. In the present study, we have cloned 1023 bp long promoter region of tau class GST from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and functionally characterized using the transgenic approach in tobacco. Computational analysis revealed the presence of abiotic stress responsive cis-elements like ABRE, MYB, MYC, GATA, GT1 etc., phytohormones, pathogen and wound responsive motifs. Three 5’-deletion constructs of 730 (GP2), 509 (GP3) and 348 bp (GP4) were made from 1023 (GP1) promoter fragment and used for tobacco transformation. The single event transgenic plants showed notable GUS reporter protein expression in the leaf tissues of control as well as treated plants. The expression level of the GUS gradually decreases from GP1 to GP4 in leaf tissues, whereas the highest level of expression was detected with the GP2 construct in root and stem under control condition. The GUS expression was found higher in leaves and stems of salinity or osmotic stress treated transgenic plants than that of the control plants, but, lower in roots. An efficient expression level of GUS in transgenic plants suggests that this promoter can be used for both constitutive as well as stress inducible expression of gene(s). And this property, make it as a potential candidate to be used as an alternative promoter for crop genetic engineering. PMID:26885663

  15. Functional Characterization of the Tau Class Glutathione-S-Transferases Gene (SbGSTU) Promoter of Salicornia brachiata under Salinity and Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Patel, Manish Kumar; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are generated in the plant cell during the extreme stress condition, which produces toxic compounds after reacting with the organic molecules. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes play a significant role to detoxify these toxins and help in excretion or sequestration of them. In the present study, we have cloned 1023 bp long promoter region of tau class GST from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and functionally characterized using the transgenic approach in tobacco. Computational analysis revealed the presence of abiotic stress responsive cis-elements like ABRE, MYB, MYC, GATA, GT1 etc., phytohormones, pathogen and wound responsive motifs. Three 5'-deletion constructs of 730 (GP2), 509 (GP3) and 348 bp (GP4) were made from 1023 (GP1) promoter fragment and used for tobacco transformation. The single event transgenic plants showed notable GUS reporter protein expression in the leaf tissues of control as well as treated plants. The expression level of the GUS gradually decreases from GP1 to GP4 in leaf tissues, whereas the highest level of expression was detected with the GP2 construct in root and stem under control condition. The GUS expression was found higher in leaves and stems of salinity or osmotic stress treated transgenic plants than that of the control plants, but, lower in roots. An efficient expression level of GUS in transgenic plants suggests that this promoter can be used for both constitutive as well as stress inducible expression of gene(s). And this property, make it as a potential candidate to be used as an alternative promoter for crop genetic engineering.

  16. Identification of several soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase transcripts highly or specifically expressed in nodules: expression studies using one of the corresponding genes in transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Marsolier, M C; Debrosses, G; Hirel, B

    1995-01-01

    A DNA fragment containing sequences hybridizing to the 5' region of GS15, a gene encoding soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase, was isolated from a soybean genomic library. Mapping and partial sequence analysis of the genomic clone revealed that it encodes a cytosolic GS gene, GS21, which is different from GS15. In parallel, a number of cDNA clones encoding cytosolic GS were isolated using the coding region of pGS20 as a probe (pGS20 is a cDNA clone which corresponds to a transcript of the GS15 gene). Two new full-length cDNAs designated pGS34 and pGS38 were isolated and sequenced. In the 5' non-coding region a strong homology was found between the two clones and the GS21 gene. However, none of these sequences were identical, which suggests that there are at least three members in this group of genes. In order to determine their relative levels of transcription, specific sequences from pGS34, pGS38 and GS21 were used in an RNAse protection assay. This experiment clearly showed that GS21 and the gene encoding pGS38 are specifically expressed in young or mature nodules, whereas the gene encoding pGS34 is highly transcribed in nodules and constitutively expressed at a lower level in other soybean organs. In order to further analyse the molecular mechanisms controlling GS21 transcription, different fragments of the promoter region were fused to the Escherichia coli reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and the constructs were introduced into Lotus corniculatus via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Analysis of GUS activity showed that the GS21 promoter-GUS constructs were expressed in the vasculature of all vegetative organs. This result is discussed in relation to species-specific metabolic and developmental characteristics of soybean and Lotus.

  17. Characterization of the 11S globulin gene family in the castor plant Ricinus communis L.

    PubMed

    Chileh, Tarik; Esteban-García, Belén; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2010-01-13

    The 11S globulin (legumin) gene family has been characterized in the castor plant Ricinus communis L. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of two diverged subfamilies (RcLEG1 and RcLEG2) comprising a total of nine genes and two putative pseudogenes. The expression of castor legumin genes has been studied, indicating that it is seed specific and developmentally regulated, with a maximum at the stage when cellular endosperm reaches its full expansion (around 40-45 DAP). However, conspicuous differences are appreciated in the expression timing of individual genes. A characterization of the 5'-proximal regulatory regions for two genes, RcLEG1-1 and RcLEG2-1, representative of the two legumin subfamilies, has also been performed by fusion to the GUS reporter gene. The results obtained from heterologous expression in tobacco and transient expression in castor, indicating seed-specific regulation, support the possible utility of these promoters for biotechnological purposes.

  18. Comparisons of Ribosomal Protein Gene Promoters Indicate Superiority of Heterologous Regulatory Sequences for Expressing Transgenes in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Andreeva, Kalina; Khachatoorian, Careen; Judelson, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in Phytophthora research can be hampered by the limited number of known constitutive promoters for expressing transgenes and the instability of transgene activity. We have therefore characterized genes encoding the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Phytophthora and studied their suitability for expressing transgenes in P. infestans. Phytophthora spp. encode a standard complement of 79 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Several genes are duplicated, and two appear to be pseudogenes. Half of the genes are expressed at similar levels during all stages of asexual development, and we discovered that the majority share a novel promoter motif named the PhRiboBox. This sequence is enriched in genes associated with transcription, translation, and DNA replication, including tRNA and rRNA biogenesis. Promoters from the three P. infestans genes encoding ribosomal proteins S9, L10, and L23 and their orthologs from P. capsici were tested for their ability to drive transgenes in stable transformants of P. infestans. Five of the six promoters yielded strong expression of a GUS reporter, but the stability of expression was higher using the P. capsici promoters. With the RPS9 and RPL10 promoters of P. infestans, about half of transformants stopped making GUS over two years of culture, while their P. capsici orthologs conferred stable expression. Since cross-talk between native and transgene loci may trigger gene silencing, we encourage the use of heterologous promoters in transformation studies.

  19. Evidence for the negative regulation of phytase gene expression in Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, Ines; Dulermo, Thierry; Chouayekh, Hichem; Virolle, Marie-Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    Sco7697, a gene encoding a phytase, enzyme able to degrade phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis phosphate), the most abundant phosphorus storing compound in plants is present in the genome of S. coelicolor, a soil born bacteria with a saprophytic lifestyle. The expression of this gene was previously shown to be induced in conditions of Pi limitation by the response regulator PhoP binding to an operator sequence, the PHO box, located upstream of the -35 promoter sequence. A close examination of the promoter region of sco7697 revealed the presence of another putative operator site, a Direct Repeat (DR), located downstream of the -10 promoter sequence. In order to determine whether this DR played a role in regulation of sco7697 expression, different variants of the phytase gene promoter region were transcriptionally fused to the ß-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). As expected, deletion of the PHO box led to abolition of sco7697 induction in conditions of Pi limitation. Interestingly, alteration of the DR correlated with a dramatic increase of GUS expression but only when PhoP was present. These results demonstrated that this DR is the site of strong negative regulation by an unknown repressor. The latter would impede the necessary activation of phytase expression by PhoP.

  20. Developmental and hormonal regulation of the arabidopsis CER2 gene that codes for a nuclear-localized protein required for the normal accumulation of cuticular waxes.

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Y; Nikolau, B J; Schnable, P S

    1997-01-01

    The previously cloned CER2 gene is required for the normal accumulation of cuticular waxes and encodes a novel protein. Earlier reports suggested that the CER2 protein is either a membrane-bound component of the fatty acid elongase complex or a regulatory protein. Cell fractionation and immunoblot analyses using polyclonal antibodies raised against a chemically synthesized peptide with a sequence based on the predicted CER2 protein sequence have demonstrated that the 47-kD CER2 protein is soluble and nuclear localized. These results are consistent with CER2 being a regulatory protein. Detailed studies of plants harboring a CER2 promoter/GUS transgene (CER2-GUS), in combination with immunoblot analyses, revealed that CER2 is expressed and the CER2 protein accumulates in a variety of organs and cell types. Expression is highest early in the development of these organs and is epidermis specific in most tissues. In agreement with the activity of the CER2 promoter in hypocotyls, cuticular wax accumulates on this organ in a CER2-dependent fashion. In leaves CER2 expression is confined to the guard cells, trichomes, and petioles. However, application of the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine induces ectopic expression of CER2-GUS in all cell types of leaves that emerge following treatment. PMID:9390429

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-regulation and circadian-rhythm of the VDE gene promoter from Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenchao; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Xin; Huang, Hongyu; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2012-08-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is prone to photoinhibition under intense sunlight. Excessive light can be dissipated by the xanthophyll cycle, where violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays a critical role in protecting the photosynthesis apparatus from the damage of excessive light. We isolated ~2.0 kb of ginger VDE (GVDE) gene promoter, which contained the circadian box, I-box, G-box and GT-1 motif. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis indicated the GVDE promoter was active in almost all organs, especially green tissues. β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity driven by GVDE promoter was repressed rather than activated by high light. GUS activity was altered by hormones, growth regulators and abiotic stresses, which increased with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and decreased with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, zeatin, salt (sodium chloride) and polyethylene glycol. Interestingly, GUS activities with gibberellin or indole-3-acetic acid increased in the short-term (24 h) and decreased in the long-term (48 and 72 h). Analysis of 5' flank deletion found two crucial functional regions residing in -679 to -833 and -63 to -210. Northern blotting analysis found transcription to be regulated by the endogenous circadian clock. Finally, we found a region necessary for regulating the circadian rhythm and another for the basic promoter activity. Key message A novel promoter, named GVDE promoter, was first isolated and analyzed in this study. We have determined one region crucial for promoter activity and another responsible for keeping circadian rhythms.

  2. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-02

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence.

  3. Flexible tools for gene expression and silencing in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ana I; Viron, Nicolas; Alhagdow, Moftah; Karimi, Mansour; Jones, Matthew; Amsellem, Ziva; Sicard, Adrien; Czerednik, Anna; Angenent, Gerco; Grierson, Donald; May, Sean; Seymour, Graham; Eshed, Yuval; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Rothan, Christophe; Hilson, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    As a genetic platform, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) benefits from rich germplasm collections and ease of cultivation and transformation that enable the analysis of biological processes impossible to investigate in other model species. To facilitate the assembly of an open genetic toolbox designed to study Solanaceae, we initiated a joint collection of publicly available gene manipulation tools. We focused on the characterization of promoters expressed at defined time windows during fruit development, for the regulated expression or silencing of genes of interest. Five promoter sequences were captured as entry clones compatible with the versatile MultiSite Gateway format: PPC2, PG, TPRP, and IMA from tomato and CRC from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Corresponding transcriptional fusions were made with the GUS gene, a nuclear-localized GUS-GFP reporter, and the chimeric LhG4 transcription factor. The activity of the promoters during fruit development and in fruit tissues was confirmed in transgenic tomato lines. Novel Gateway destination vectors were generated for the transcription of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) precursors and hairpin RNAs under the control of these promoters, with schemes only involving Gateway BP and LR Clonase reactions. Efficient silencing of the endogenous phytoene desaturase gene was demonstrated in transgenic tomato lines producing a matching amiRNA under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or PPC2 promoter. Lastly, taking advantage of the pOP/LhG4 two-component system, we found that well-characterized flower-specific Arabidopsis promoters drive the expression of reporters in patterns generally compatible with heterologous expression. Tomato lines and plasmids will be distributed through a new Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre service unit dedicated to Solanaceae resources.

  4. Transgenic resistance in potato plants expressing potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) replicase gene sequences is RNA-mediated and suggests the involvement of post-transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Rovere, C; Asurmendi, S; Hopp, H E

    2001-07-01

    Genetically engineered expression of replicase encoding sequences has been proposed as an efficient system to confer protection against virus diseases by eliciting protection mechanisms in the plant. Potato leaf-roll was one of the first diseases for which this kind of protection was engineered in potato plants. However, details of the protecting mechanism were not reported, so far. The ORF2b of an Argentinean strain of PLRV was cloned and sequenced finding 94% and 97% of homology with Australian and Dutch strains, respectively. To elucidate the mechanism of protection against PLRV infection, three versions of ORF2b (non-translatable sense, translatable sense with an engineered ATG and antisense) were constructed under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter and the nos terminator and introduced in potato plants (cv. Kennebec) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Grafting infection experiments showed that resistant transgenic plants could be obtained with any of the constructs, suggesting that the mechanism of protection is independent of the expression of protein and is RNA mediated. Field trial infection confirmed that resistant transgenic events were obtained. Biolistic transient transformation experiments of leaves derived from transgenic plants using a gene coding for the fusion protein GUS-ORF2b, followed by scoring of the number of GUS expressing leaf spots, supported that the protection is mediated by a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism.

  5. Medium-dependent regulation of proteinase gene expression in Lactococcus lactis: control of transcription initiation by specific dipeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Marugg, J D; Meijer, W; van Kranenburg, R; Laverman, P; Bruinenberg, P G; de Vos, W M

    1995-01-01

    Transcriptional gene fusions with the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase gene (gusA) were used to study the medium- and growth-dependent expression of the divergently transcribed genes involved in proteinase production (prtP and prtM) of Lactococcus lactis SK11. The results show that both the prtP and prtM genes are controlled at the transcriptional level by the peptide content of the medium and, to a lesser extent, by the growth rate. A more than 10-fold regulation in beta-glucuronidase activity was observed for both prtP and prtM promoters in batch and continuous cultures. The level of expression of the prtP and prtM promoters was high in whey permeate medium with relatively low concentrations of peptides, whereas at increased concentrations the expression of the promoters was repressed. The lowest level of expression was observed in peptide- and amino acid-rich laboratory media, such as glucose-M17 and MRS. The addition of specific dipeptides, such as leucylproline and prolylleucine, to the growth medium negatively affected the expression of the prtP-gusA fusions. The repression by dipeptides was not observed in mutants defective in the uptake of di-tripeptides, indicating that the internal concentration of dipeptides or derivatives is important in the regulation of proteinase production. PMID:7768792

  6. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of Catharanthus roseus hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase gene promoter from the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Ginis, Olivia; Courdavault, Vincent; Melin, Céline; Lanoue, Arnaud; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Courtois, Martine; Oudin, Audrey

    2012-05-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle produces monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA) of high interest due to their therapeutical values. The terpenoid moiety of MIA is derived from the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) and seco-iridoid pathways. These pathways are regarded as the limiting branch for MIA biosynthesis in C. roseus cell and tissue cultures. In previous studies, we demonstrated a coordinated regulation at the transcriptional and spatial levels of genes from both pathways. We report here on the isolation of the 5'-flanking region (1,049 bp) of the hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) gene from the MEP pathway. To investigate promoter transcriptional activities, the HDS promoter was fused to GUS reporter gene. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of young tobacco leaves revealed that the cloned HDS promoter displays a tissue-specific GUS staining restricted to the vascular region of the leaves and limited to a part of the vein that encompasses the phloem in agreement with the previous localization of HDS transcripts in C. roseus aerial organs. Further functional characterizations in stably or transiently transformed C. roseus cells allowed us to identify the region that can be consider as the minimal promoter and to demonstrate the induction of HDS promoter by several hormonal signals (auxin, cytokinin, methyljasmonate and ethylene) leading to MIA production. These results, and the bioinformatic analysis of the HDS 5'-region, suggest that the HDS promoter harbours a number of cis-elements binding specific transcription factors that would regulate the flux of terpenoid precursors involved in MIA biosynthesis.

  7. Functional analysis of the Sesbania rostrata leghemoglobin glb3 gene 5'-upstream region in transgenic Lotus corniculatus and Nicotiana tabacum plants.

    PubMed

    Szabados, L; Ratet, P; Grunenberg, B; de Bruijn, F J

    1990-10-01

    Expression of the Sesbania rostrata leghemoglobin glb3 gene was analyzed in transgenic Lotus corniculatus and tobacco plants harboring chimeric glb3-uidA (gus) gene fusions to identify cis-acting elements involved in nodule-specific gene expression and general transcriptional control. A 1.9-kilobase fragment of the glb3 5'-upstream region was found to direct a high level of nodule-specific beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in L. corniculatus, restricted to the Rhizobium-infected cells of the nodules. The same fragment directed a low level of GUS activity in tobacco, restricted primarily to the roots and to phloem cells of the stem and petiole vascular system. A deletion analysis revealed that the region between coordinates -429 and -48 relative to the ATG was sufficient for nodule-specific expression. Replacement of the -161 to -48 region, containing the glb3 CAAT and TATA boxes, with the heterologous truncated promoters delta-p35S and delta-pnos resulted in a loss of nodule specificity and reduction of GUS activity in L. corniculatus but a significant increase in tobacco, primarily in the roots. The same fragment could not direct nodule-specific expression when fused to a heterologous enhancer in cis. This region contains DNA sequences required, but not sufficient, for nodule-specific expression in L. corniculatus that function poorly or may be involved in promoter silencing in tobacco. By fusing further upstream fragments to the delta-p35S and delta-pnos promoters, two positive regulatory regions were delimited between coordinates -1601 and -670, as well as -429 and -162. The former region appears to function as a general enhancer because it significantly increased promoter activity in both orientations in L. corniculatus and tobacco. The latter region could enhance gene expression in both orientations in tobacco, but only in the correct orientation in L. corniculatus. These results show that efficient expression of the S. rostrata glb3 gene in nodules is

  8. Isolation and characterization of rubisco small subunit gene promoter from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Stasolla, Claudio; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Ayele, Belay T

    2015-01-01

    Choice of an appropriate promoter is critical to express target genes in intended tissues and developmental stages. However, promoters capable of directing gene expression in specific tissues and stages are not well characterized in monocot species. To identify such a promoter in wheat, this study isolated a partial sequence of the wheat small subunit of RuBisCO (TarbcS) promoter. In silico analysis revealed the presence of elements that are characteristic to rbcS promoters of other, mainly dicot, species. Transient expression of the TarbcS:GUS in immature wheat embryos and tobacco leaves but not in the wheat roots indicate the functionality of the TarbcS promoter fragment in directing the expression of target genes in green plant tissues.

  9. The regulatory region controlling the nitrate-responsive expression of a nitrate reductase gene, NIA1, in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Mineko; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2011-05-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) is the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of nitrate assimilation. It is well known that the expression of NR genes is rapidly induced in various plants by nitrate. Previously, the activity of a tobacco NR gene promoter was reported to be high in tobacco plants grown on medium containing ammonium as the sole nitrogen source, but low in tobacco plants grown on nitrate-containing medium. This cast some doubt on the role of the NR gene promoter in the nitrate-inducible expression of this gene. Furthermore, in previous studies, transformation with genomic fragments containing NR loci restored the reduced NR activity in NR mutants to a limited extent, suggesting a complex regulation of NR gene expression. Here, we show that although the 1.9 kb promoter of an NR gene in Arabidopsis, NIA1, is not activated by nitrate, the expression of a GUS (β-glucuronidase) reporter gene inserted between the 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences of the NIA1 coding region is strongly induced by nitrate. When the 3'-flanking sequence was fused downstream of the GUS gene under the control of the 35S minimal promoter, its expression was also strongly induced by nitrate. Furthermore, dissection analysis of the 3'-flanking region revealed that the sequence downstream of the transcriptional terminator rather than the 3'-untranslated region plays a role in nitrate-inducible expression, indicating a requirement for the 3'-flanking sequence for the nitrate-inducible transcription of NIA1. We also show that the 2.7 kb promoter sequence of NIA2, another NR gene of Arabidopsis, cannot direct nitrate-inducible expression.

  10. Genetic transformation of Begonia tuberhybrida by Ri rol genes.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, S; Kikuchi, Y; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1996-04-01

    We have developed an Agrobacterium -mediated transformation system for commercial Begonia species. The leaf explants of Begonia semperflorens, Begonia x hiemalis and B. tuberhybrida were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pBI121 which contains rolA, B and C genes of an agropine type Ri plasmid (pRiA4b). Kanamycin resistant shoots of B. tuberhybrida were obtained on MS agar medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA, 0.5 mg/l BA, 500 mg/l claforan and 100 mg/l kanamycin. These shoots exhibited GUS activity and Southern analysis showed a single copy insertion into the genome. When the transgenic plants were transferred to soil, they displayed the phenotype specific to the transgenic plants by A. rhizogenes such as dwarfness, delay of flowering, and wrinkled leaves and petals.

  11. A study on the influence of different promoter and 5'UTR (URM) cassettes from Arabidopsis thaliana on the expression level of the reporter gene β glucuronidase in tobacco and cotton.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Parul; Garg, Varsha; Gautam, Taru; Pillai, Beena; Kanoria, Shaveta; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Several reports of promoters from plants, viral and artificial origin that confer high constitutive expression are known. Among these the CaMV 35S promoter is used extensively for transgene expression in plants. We identified candidate promoters from Arabidopsis based on their transcript levels (meta-analysis of available microarray control datasets) to test their activity in comparison to the CaMV 35S promoter. A set of 11 candidate genes were identified which showed high transcript levels in the aerial tissue (i.e. leaf, shoot, flower and stem). In the initial part of the study binary vectors were developed wherein the promoter and 5'UTR region of these candidate genes (Upstream Regulatory Module, URM) were cloned upstream to the reporter gene β glucuronidase (gus). The promoter strengths were tested in transformed callus of Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum. On the basis of the results obtained from the callus, the influence of the URM cassettes on transgene expression was tested in transgenic tobacco. The URM regions of the genes encoding a subunit of photosystem I (PHOTO) and geranyl geranyl reductase (GGR) in A. thaliana genome showed significantly high levels of GUS activity in comparison to the CaMV 35S promoter. Further, when the 5'UTRs of both the genes were placed downstream to the CaMV 35S promoter it led to a substantial increase in GUS activity in transgenic tobacco lines and cotton callus. The enhancement observed was even higher to that observed with the viral leader sequences like Ω and AMV, known translational enhancers. Our results indicate that the two URM cassettes or the 5'UTR regions of PHOTO and GGR when placed downstream to the CaMV 35S promoter can be used to drive high levels of transgene expression in dicotyledons.

  12. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants. PMID:26340695

  13. Isolation of the endosperm-specific LPAAT gene promoter from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and its functional analysis in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Ye, Rongjian; Zheng, Yusheng; Wang, Zhekui; Zhou, Peng; Lin, Yongjun; Li, Dongdong

    2010-09-01

    As one of the key tropical crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a member of the monocotyledonous family Aracaceae (Palmaceae). In this study, we amplified the upstream region of an endosperm-specific expression gene, Lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAAT), from the coconut genomic DNA by chromosome walking. In this sequence, we found several types of promoter-related elements including TATA-box, CAAT-box and Skn1-motif. In order to further examine its function, three different 5'-deletion fragments were inserted into pBI101.3, a plant expression vector harboring the LPAAT upstream sequence, leading to pBI101.3-L1, pBI101.3-L2 and pBI101.3-L3, respectively. We obtained transgenic plants of rice by Agrobacterium-mediated callus transformation and plant regeneration and detected the expression of gus gene by histochemical staining and fluorometric determination. We found that gus gene driven by the three deletion fragments was specifically expressed in the endosperm of rice seeds, but not in the empty vector of pBI101.3 and other tissues. The highest expression level of GUS was at 15 DAF in pBI101.3-L3 and pBI101.3-L2 transgenic lines, while the same level was detected at 10 DAF in pBI101.3-L1. The expression driven by the whole fragment was up to 1.76- and 2.8-fold higher than those driven by the -817 bp and -453 bp upstream fragments, and 10.7-fold higher than that driven by the vector without the promoter. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that these promoter fragments from coconut have a significant potential in genetically improving endosperm in main crops.

  14. A Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor BpMYB106 of Birch (Betula platyphylla) Confers Increased Photosynthesis and Growth Rate through Up-regulating Photosynthetic Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Li, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    We isolated a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BpMYB106, which regulates photosynthesis in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.). BpMYB106 mainly expresses in the leaf and shoot tip of birch, and its protein is localized in the nucleus. We further fused isolated a 1588 bp promoter of BpMYB106 and analyzed it by PLACE, which showed some cis-acting elements related to photosynthesis. BpMYB106 promoter β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion studies gene, the result, showed the GUS reporter gene in transgenic birch with BpMYB106 promoter showed strong activities in shoot tip, cotyledon margins, and mature leaf trichomes. The overexpression of BpMYB106 in birch resulted in significantly increased trichome density, net photosynthetic rate, and growth rate as compared with the wild-type birch. RNA-Seq profiling revealed the upregulation of several photosynthesis-related genes in the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in the leaves of transgenic plants. Yeast one-hybrid analysis, coupled with transient assay in tobacco, revealed that BpMYB106 binds a MYB binding site MYB2 in differentially expressed gene promoters. Thus, BpMYB106 may directly activate the expression of a range of photosynthesis related genes through interacting with the MYB2 element in their promoters. Our study demonstrating the overexpression of BpMYB106-a R2R3-MYB transcription factor-upregulates the genes of the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways to improve photosynthesis.

  15. Root-specific expression of opine genes and opine accumulation in some cultivars of the naturally occurring genetically modified organism Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; de Borne, François Dorlhac; Julio, Emilie; Obszynski, Julie; Pale, Patrick; Otten, Léon

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that Nicotiana tabacum contains three Agrobacterium-derived T-DNA sequences inherited from its paternal ancestor Nicotiana tomentosiformis. Among these, the TB locus carries an intact mannopine synthase 2' gene (TB-mas2'). This gene is similar to the Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4-mas2' gene that encodes the synthesis of the Amadori compound deoxyfructosyl-glutamine (DFG or santhopine). In this study we show that TB-mas2' is expressed at very low levels in N. tomentosiformis and in most N. tabacum cultivars; however, some cultivars show high TB-mas2' expression levels. The TB-mas2' promoter sequences of low- and high-expressing cultivars are identical. The low/high level of expression segregates as a single Mendelian factor in a cross between a low- and a high-expression cultivar. pTB-mas2'-GUS and pA4-mas2'-GUS reporter genes were stably introduced in N. benthamiana. Both were mainly expressed in the root expansion zone and leaf vasculature. Roots of tobacco cultivars with high TB-mas2' expression contain detectable levels of DFG.

  16. Expression and function of AtMBD4L, the single gene encoding the nuclear DNA glycosylase MBD4L in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nota, Florencia; Cambiagno, Damián A; Ribone, Pamela; Alvarez, María E

    2015-06-01

    DNA glycosylases recognize and excise damaged or incorrect bases from DNA initiating the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Methyl-binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) is a member of the HhH-GPD DNA glycosylase superfamily, which has been well studied in mammals but not in plants. Our knowledge on the plant enzyme is limited to the activity of the Arabidopsis recombinant protein MBD4L in vitro. To start evaluating MBD4L in its biological context, we here characterized the structure, expression and effects of its gene, AtMBD4L. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AtMBD4L belongs to one of the seven families of HhH-GPD DNA glycosylase genes existing in plants, and is unique on its family. Two AtMBD4L transcripts coding for active enzymes were detected in leaves and flowers. Transgenic plants expressing the AtMBD4L:GUS gene confined GUS activity to perivascular leaf tissues (usually adjacent to hydathodes), flowers (anthers at particular stages of development), and the apex of immature siliques. MBD4L-GFP fusion proteins showed nuclear localization in planta. Interestingly, overexpression of the full length MBD4L, but not a truncated enzyme lacking the DNA glycosylase domain, induced the BER gene LIG1 and enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. These results suggest that endogenous MBD4L acts on particular tissues, is capable of activating BER, and may contribute to repair DNA damage caused by oxidative stress.

  17. Exonic sequences are required for elicitor and light activation of a plant defense gene, but promoter sequences are sufficient for tissue specific expression.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, C J; Hauffe, K D; Ites-Morales, M E; Ellard, M; Paszkowski, U; Hahlbrock, K; Dangl, J L

    1991-01-01

    The parsley 4CL-1 gene encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, a key enzyme of general phenylpropanoid metabolism. As well as being transcriptionally activated by such stresses as pathogen infection, UV-irradiation, and wounding, expression of 4CL-1 is developmentally regulated. In this paper we present evidence that 4CL-1 cis-acting elements which control stress-induced and developmental expression are physically separated. The ability of a series of 4CL gene constructions to respond to elicitor and light in stably or transiently transformed parsley cells was tested. While inducible expression was observed from all templates in which the 4CL-1 structural gene was fused to the 4CL-1 promoter, fusions of the promoter to the GUS reporter gene were completely unresponsive. The element(s) required for responsiveness appear to be exonic, since 4CL-1 introns and 3' flanking DNA had no effect on inducibility. Furthermore, this unconventional regulatory mode operates in transgenic tobacco plants, where we show that a 4CL-1 promoter fragment specifies correct cell-specific expression when fused to GUS yet is unresponsive to elicitor and light. Images PMID:2050114

  18. Laser Microdissection and Spatiotemporal Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase Gene Expression Assign the Cell Layer-Specific Accumulation of Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside in Flaxseed Coats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jingjing; Ramsay, Aïna; Renouard, Sullivan; Hano, Christophe; Lamblin, Frédéric; Chabbert, Brigitte; Mesnard, François; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) found in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is higher than that found in any other plant. It exists in flaxseed coats as an SDG-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid oligomer complex. A laser microdissection method was applied to harvest material from different cell layers of seed coats of mature and developing flaxseed to detect the cell-layer specific localization of SDG in flaxseed; NMR and HPLC were used to identify and quantify SDG in dissected cell layers after alkaline hydrolysis. The obtained results were further confirmed by a standard molecular method. The promoter of one pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene of L. usitatissimum (LuPLR1), which is a key gene involved in SDG biosynthesis, was fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, and the spatio-temporal regulation of LuPLR1 gene expression in flaxseed was determined by histochemical and activity assays of GUS. The result showed that SDG was synthesized and accumulated in the parenchymatous cell layer of the outer integument of flaxseed coats. PMID:27917190

  19. Isopentenyl transferase gene (ipt) downstream transcriptionally fused with gene expression improves the growth of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Chun; Duan, Rui-Jun; Hu, Xin-Wen; Li, Kai-Mian; Fu, Shao-Ping

    2010-04-01

    This research reports a promising approach to increase a plant's physiological cytokinin content. This approach also enables the increase to play a role in plant growth and development by introducing the ipt gene to downstream transcriptionally fuse with other genes under the control of a CaMV35S promoter, in which the ipt gene is far from the 35S promoter. According to Kozak's ribosome screening model, expression of the ipt gene is reduced by the terminal codon of the first gene and the internal untranslated nucleotides between the fused genes. In the transgenic plants pVKH35S-GUS-ipt, pVKH35S-AOC-ipt, and pVKH35S-AtGolS2-ipt, cytokinins were increased only two to threefold, and the plants grew more vigorously than the pVKH35S-AOC or pVKH35S-AtGolS2 transgenic plants lacking the ipt gene. The vigorous growth was reflected in rapid plant growth, a longer flowering period, a greater number of flowers, more seed product, and increased chlorophyll synthesis. The AOC and AtGolS2 genes play a role in a plant's tolerance of salt or cold, respectively. When the ipt gene transcriptionally fuses with AOC or AtGolS2 in the frame of AOC-ipt and AtGolS2-ipt, slight cytokinin increases were obtained in their transgenic plants; furthermore, those increases played a positive role in improvements of plant growth. Notably, an increased cytokinin volume at the physiological level, in concert with AtGolS2 expression, enhances a plant's tolerance to cold.

  20. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  1. Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Gene Flow from Genetically Engineered Plum Prunus domestica

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Ralph; Kriss, Alissa B.; Callahan, Ann M.; Webb, Kevin; Demuth, Mark; Gottwald, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Pollen flow from a 0.46 ha plot of genetically engineered (GE) Prunus domestica located in West Virginia, USA was evaluated from 2000–2010. Sentinel plum trees were planted at distances ranging from 132 to 854 m from the center of the GE orchard. Plots of mixed plum varieties and seedlings were located at 384, 484 and 998 m from the GE plot. Bee hives (Apis mellifera) were dispersed between the GE plum plot and the pollen flow monitoring sites. Pollen-mediated gene flow from out of the GE plum plot to non-GE plums under the study conditions was low, only occurring at all in 4 of 11 years and then in only 0.31% of the 12,116 seeds analyzed. When it occurred, gene flow, calculated as the number of GUS positive embryos/total embryos sampled, ranged from 0.215% at 132 m from the center of the GE plum plot (28 m from the nearest GE plum tree) to 0.033–0.017% at longer distances (384–998 m). Based on the percentage of GUS positive seeds per individual sampled tree the range was 0.4% to 12%. Within the GE field plot, gene flow ranged from 4.9 to 39%. Gene flow was related to distance and environmental conditions. A single year sample from a sentinel plot 132 m from the center of the GE plot accounted for 65% of the total 11-year gene flow. Spatial modeling indicated that gene flow dramatically decreased at distances over 400 m from the GE plot. Air temperature and rainfall were, respectively, positively and negatively correlated with gene flow, reflecting the effects of weather conditions on insect pollinator activity. Seed-mediated gene flow was not detected. These results support the feasibility of coexistence of GE and non-GE plum orchards. PMID:24098374

  2. Spatial and temporal assessment of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow from genetically engineered plum Prunus domestica.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Ralph; Kriss, Alissa B; Callahan, Ann M; Webb, Kevin; Demuth, Mark; Gottwald, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Pollen flow from a 0.46 ha plot of genetically engineered (GE) Prunus domestica located in West Virginia, USA was evaluated from 2000-2010. Sentinel plum trees were planted at distances ranging from 132 to 854 m from the center of the GE orchard. Plots of mixed plum varieties and seedlings were located at 384, 484 and 998 m from the GE plot. Bee hives (Apis mellifera) were dispersed between the GE plum plot and the pollen flow monitoring sites. Pollen-mediated gene flow from out of the GE plum plot to non-GE plums under the study conditions was low, only occurring at all in 4 of 11 years and then in only 0.31% of the 12,116 seeds analyzed. When it occurred, gene flow, calculated as the number of GUS positive embryos/total embryos sampled, ranged from 0.215% at 132 m from the center of the GE plum plot (28 m from the nearest GE plum tree) to 0.033-0.017% at longer distances (384-998 m). Based on the percentage of GUS positive seeds per individual sampled tree the range was 0.4% to 12%. Within the GE field plot, gene flow ranged from 4.9 to 39%. Gene flow was related to distance and environmental conditions. A single year sample from a sentinel plot 132 m from the center of the GE plot accounted for 65% of the total 11-year gene flow. Spatial modeling indicated that gene flow dramatically decreased at distances over 400 m from the GE plot. Air temperature and rainfall were, respectively, positively and negatively correlated with gene flow, reflecting the effects of weather conditions on insect pollinator activity. Seed-mediated gene flow was not detected. These results support the feasibility of coexistence of GE and non-GE plum orchards.

  3. The RADICLELESS1 gene is required for vascular pattern formation in rice.

    PubMed

    Scarpella, Enrico; Rueb, Saskia; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2003-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms through which the complex patterns of plant vascular tissues are established are largely unknown. The highly ordered, yet simple, striate array of veins of rice leaves represents an attractive system to study the dynamics underlying pattern formation. Here we show that mutation in the RADICLELESS1 (RAL1) gene results in distinctive vascular pattern defects. In ral1 embryonic scutella, secondary veins are absent and in the prematurely aborted and discontinuous primary veins, cells are misaligned to each other. In ral1 leaves, longitudinal and commissural (transverse) veins display altered spacing and the commissural veins additionally show atypical branching and interruptions in their continuity. The vascular pattern alterations of ral1 occur in the context of normally shaped leaf primordia. Anatomical inspection and analysis of the expression of the procambium specification marker Oshox1-GUS and of the auxin-inducible reporter DR5-GUS demonstrates that all the vascular patterning aberrations of ral1 originate from defects in the procambium, which represents the earliest identifiable stage of vascular development. Furthermore, the ral1 mutant is unique in that procambium formation in leaf primordium development is delayed. Finally, the ral1 vascular patterning distortions are associated with a defective response to auxin and with an enhanced sensitivity to cytokinin. ral1 is the first mutant impaired in both procambium development and vascular patterning to be isolated in a monocot species.

  4. Molecular character of a phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene relation to stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihong; Li, Xiushan; He, Zhimin; Zhao, Xiaoying; Wang, Qiming; Zhou, Bo; Yu, Dashi; Huang, Xinqun; Tang, Dongying; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Xuanming

    2013-03-01

    Protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) from group A, which includes the ABI1/HAB1 and PP2CA branches, are key negative regulators of ABA signaling. HAI-1 gene had been shown to affect both seed and vegetative responses to ABA, which is one of PP2Cs clade A in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic plants containing pHAI-1::GUS (β-glucuronidase) displayed GUS activity existing in the vascular system of leave veins, stems and petioles. Green fluorescent protein fused HAI-1 (HAI-1-GFP) was found in the nucleus through transient transformation assays with onion epidermal cells. The water-loss assays indicated the loss-of-function mutants did not show symptoms of wilting and they had still turgid green rosette leaves. The assays of seed germination by exogenous ABA and NaCl manifested that the loss-of-function mutants displayed higher insensitivity than wild-type plants. Taken together, the final results suggest that the HAI-1 (AT5G59220) encoded a nuclear protein and it can be highly induced by ABA and wound in Arabidposis, the stress-tolerance phenotype showed a slightly improvement when HAI-1 gene was disrupted.

  5. Heat-shock-mediated elimination of the nptII marker gene in transgenic apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Herzog, Katja; Flachowsky, Henryk; Deising, Holger B; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-04-25

    Production of marker-free genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the major challenges of molecular fruit breeding. Employing clean vector technologies, allowing the removal of undesired DNA sequences from GM plants, this goal can be achieved. The present study describes the establishment of a clean vector system in apple Malus×domestica Borkh., which is based on the use of the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) as selectable marker gene and kanamycin/paramomycin as selective agent. The nptII gene can be removed after selection of GM shoots via site-specific excision mediated by heat-shock-inducible expression of the budding yeast FLP recombinase driven by the soybean Gmhsp17.5-E promoter. We created a monitoring vector containing the nptII and the flp gene as a box flanked by two direct repeats of the flp recognition target (FRT) sites. The FRT-flanked box separates the gusA reporter gene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter. Consequently, GUS expression does only occur after elimination of the FRT-flanked box. Transformation experiments using the monitoring vector resulted in a total of nine transgenic lines. These lines were investigated for transgenicity by PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Among different temperature regimes tested, exposure to 42 °C for 3.5 to 4h led to efficient induction of FLP-mediated recombination and removal of the nptII marker gene. A second round of shoot regeneration from leaf explants led to GM apple plants completely free of the nptII gene.

  6. Identifying a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4a Gene and Its Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation in Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Mohan; Hemachandran, Hridya; Anantharaman, Amirtha; Babu, Subramanian; Madrid, Renata Rivera; C, George Priya Doss; Fulzele, Devanand P; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are metabolized to apocarotenoids through the pathway catalysed by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). The apocarotenoids are economically important as it is known to have therapeutic as well as industrial applications. For instance, bixin from Bixa orellana and crocin from Crocus sativus are commercially used as a food colourant and cosmetics since prehistoric time. In our present study, CCD4a gene has been identified and isolated from leaves of B. orellana for the first time and named as BoCCD4a; phylogenetic analysis was carried out using CLUSTAL W. From sequence analysis, BoCCD4a contains two exons and one intron, which was compared with the selected AtCCD4, RdCCD4, GmCCD4 and CmCCD4a gene. Further, the BoCCD4a gene was cloned into pCAMBIA 1301, transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain and subsequently transferred into hypocotyledons and callus of B. orellana by agro-infection. Selection of stable transformation was screened on the basis of PCR detection by using GUS and hptII specific primer, which was followed by histochemical characterization. The percent transient GUS expression in hypocotyledons and callus was 84.4 and 80 %, respectively. The expression of BoCCD4a gene in B. orellana was confirmed through RT-PCR analysis. From our results, the sequence analysis of BoCCD4a gene of B. orellana was closely related to the CsCCD4 gene of C. sativus, which suggests this gene may have a role in various processes such as fragrance, insect attractant and pollination.

  7. Homologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana SHI/STY/LRP1 genes control auxin biosynthesis and affect growth and development in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Eklund, D Magnus; Thelander, Mattias; Landberg, Katarina; Ståldal, Veronika; Nilsson, Anders; Johansson, Monika; Valsecchi, Isabel; Pederson, Eric R A; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Ljung, Karin; Ronne, Hans; Sundberg, Eva

    2010-04-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays fundamental roles in vascular plants. Although exogenous auxin also stimulates developmental transitions and growth in non-vascular plants, the effects of manipulating endogenous auxin levels have thus far not been reported. Here, we have altered the levels and sites of auxin production and accumulation in the moss Physcomitrella patens by changing the expression level of homologues of the Arabidopsis SHI/STY family proteins, which are positive regulators of auxin biosynthesis genes. Constitutive expression of PpSHI1 resulted in elevated auxin levels, increased and ectopic expression of the auxin response reporter GmGH3pro:GUS, and in an increased caulonema/chloronema ratio, an effect also induced by exogenous auxin application. In addition, we observed premature ageing and necrosis in cells ectopically expressing PpSHI1. Knockout of either of the two PpSHI genes resulted in reduced auxin levels and auxin biosynthesis rates in leafy shoots, reduced internode elongation, delayed ageing, a decreased caulonema/chloronema ratio and an increased number of axillary hairs, which constitute potential auxin biosynthesis sites. Some of the identified auxin functions appear to be analogous in vascular and non-vascular plants. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal expression of the PpSHI genes and GmGH3pro:GUS strongly overlap, suggesting that local auxin biosynthesis is important for the regulation of auxin peak formation in non-vascular plants.

  8. Genomic analysis and gene structure of the plant carotenoid dioxygenase 4 family: a deeper study in Crocus sativus and its allies.

    PubMed

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Trapero, Almudena; Gómez, M Dolores; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-10-01

    The plastoglobule-targeted enzyme carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD4) mediates the formation of volatile C13 ketones, such as β-ionone, by cleaving the C9-C10 and C9'-C10' double bonds of cyclic carotenoids. Here, we report the isolation and analysis of CCD4 genomic DNA regions in Crocus sativus. Different CCD4 alleles have been identified: CsCCD4a which is found with and without an intron and CsCCD4b that showed the presence of a unique intron. The presence of different CCD4 alleles was also observed in other Crocus species. Furthermore, comparison of the locations of CCD4 introns within the coding region with CCD4 genes from other plant species suggests that independent gain/losses have occurred. The comparison of the promoter region of CsCCD4a and CsCCD4b with available CCD4 gene promoters from other plant species highlighted the conservation of cis-elements involved in light response, heat stress, as well as the absence and unique presence of cis-elements involved in circadian regulation and low temperature responses, respectively. Functional characterization of the Crocus sativus CCD4a promoter using Arabidopsis plants stably transformed with a DNA fragment of 1400 base pairs (P-CsCCD4a) fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene showed that this sequence was sufficient to drive GUS expression in the flower, in particular high levels were detected in pollen.

  9. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  10. Expression and evolution of functionally distinct haemoglobin genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P W; Watts, R A; Trevaskis, B; Llewelyn, D J; Burnell, J; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    2001-11-01

    Haemoglobin genes have been found in a number of plant species, but the number of genes known has been too small to allow effective evolutionary inferences. We present nine new non-symbiotic haemoglobin sequences from a range of plants, including class 1 haemoglobins from cotton, Citrus and tomato, class 2 haemoglobins from cotton, tomato, sugar beet and canola and two haemoglobins from the non-vascular plants, Marchantia polymorpha (a liverwort) and Physcomitrella patens (a moss). Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of all currently known non-symbiotic haemoglobin genes and a selection of symbiotic haemoglobins have confirmed the existence of two distinct classes of haemoglobin genes in the dicots. It is likely that all dicots have both class 1 and class 2 non-symbiotic haemoglobin genes whereas in monocots we have detected only class 1 genes. The symbiotic haemoglobins from legumes and Casuarina are related to the class 2 non-symbiotic haemoglobins, whilst the symbiotic haemoglobin from Parasponia groups with the class 1 non-symbiotic genes. Probably, there have been two independent recruitments of symbiotic haemoglobins. Although the functions of the two non-symbiotic haemoglobins remain unknown, their patterns of expression within plants suggest different functions. We examined the expression in transgenic plants of the two non-symbiotic haemoglobins from Arabidopsis using promoter fusions to a GUS reporter gene. The Arabidopsis GLB1 and GLB2 genes are likely to be functionally distinct. The class 2 haemoglobin gene (GLB2) is expressed in the roots, leaves and inflorescence and can be induced in young plants by cytokinin treatment in contrast to the class 1 gene (GLB1) which is active in germinating seedlings and can be induced by hypoxia and increased sucrose supply, but not by cytokinin treatment.

  11. A mechanism for negative gene regulation in Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leisy, D.J.; Rasmussen, C.; Owusu, E.O.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) ie-1 gene product (IE-1) is thought to play a central role in stimulating early viral transcription. IE-1 has been demonstrated to activate several early viral gene promoters and to negatively regulate the promoters of two other AcMNPV regulatory genes, ie-0 and ie-2. Our results indicate that IE-1 negatively regulates the expression of certain genes by binding directly, or as part of a complex, to promoter regions containing a specific IE-1-binding motif (5'-ACBYGTAA-3') near their mRNA start sites. The IE-1 binding motif was also found within the palindromic sequences of AcMNPV homologous repeat (hr) regions that have been shown to bind IE-1. The role of this IE-1 binding motif in the regulation of the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters was examined by introducing mutations in these promoters in which the central 6 bp were replaced with Bg/II sites. GUS reporter constructs containing ie-2 and pe-38 promoter fragments with and without these specific mutations were cotransfected into Sf9 cells with various amounts of an ie-1-containing plasmid (ple-1). Comparisons of GUS expression produced by the mutant and wild-type constructs demonstrated that the IE-1 binding motif mediated a significant decrease in expression from the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters in response to increasing pIe-1 concentrations. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with pIe-1-transfected cell extracts and supershift assays with IE-1- specific antiserum demonstrated that IE-1 binds to promoter fragments containing the IE-1 binding motif but does not bind to promoter fragments lacking this motif.

  12. Harness That S.O.B.: Distributing Remote Sensing Analysis in a Small Office/Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, J.; Combe, J.; McCord, T. B.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers in a small office/business (SOB) operate with limited funding, equipment, and software availability. To mitigate these issues, we developed a distributed computing framework that: 1) leverages open source software to implement functionality otherwise reliant on proprietary software and 2) harnesses the unused power of (semi-)idle office computers with mixed operating systems (OSes). This abstract outlines some reasons for the effort, its conceptual basis and implementation, and provides brief speedup results. The Multiple-Endmember Linear Spectral Unmixing Model (MELSUM)1 processes remote-sensing (hyper-)spectral images. The algorithm is computationally expensive, sometimes taking a full week or more for a 1 million pixel/100 wavelength image. Analysis of pixels is independent, so a large benefit can be gained from parallel processing techniques. Job concurrency is limited by the number of active processing units. MELSUM was originally written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL). Despite its multi-threading capabilities, an IDL instance executes on a single machine, and so concurrency is limited by the machine's number of central processing units (CPUs). Network distribution can access more CPUs to provide a greater speedup, while also taking advantage of (often) underutilized extant equipment. appropriately integrating open source software magnifies the impact by avoiding the purchase of additional licenses. Our method of distribution breaks into four conceptual parts: 1) the top- or task-level user interface; 2) a mid-level program that manages hosts and jobs, called the distribution server; 3) a low-level executable for individual pixel calculations; and 4) a control program to synchronize sequential sub-tasks. Each part is a separate OS process, passing information via shell commands and/or temporary files. While the control and low-level executables are short-lived, the top-level program and distribution server run (at least) for the entirety of

  13. Bioreactor performance and functional gene analysis of microbial community in a limited-oxygen fed bioreactor for co-reduction of sulfate and nitrate with high organic input.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-jun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Ai-jie; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Xu; Guo, Hong-liang; Yuan, Ye; Lee, Duu-jong; Zhou, Jizhong; Ren, Nan-qi

    2014-08-15

    Limited-oxygen mediated synergistic relationships between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB, including nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria NR-SOB) were predicted to simultaneously remove contaminants of nitrate, sulfate and high COD, and eliminate sulfide generation. A lab-scale experiment was conducted to examine the impact of limited oxygen on these oxy-anions degradation, sulfide oxidation and associated microbial functional responses. In all scenarios tested, the reduction of both nitrate and sulfate was almost complete. When limited-oxygen was fed into bioreactors, S(0) formation was significantly improved up to ∼ 70%. GeoChip 4.0, a functional gene microarray, was used to determine the microbial gene diversity and functional potential for nitrate and sulfate reduction, and sulfide oxidation. The diversity of the microbial community in bioreactors was increased with the feeding of limited oxygen. Whereas the intensities of the functional genes involved in sulfate reduction did not show a significant difference, the abundance of the detected denitrification genes decreased in limited oxygen samples. More importantly, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria may alter their populations/genes in response to limited oxygen potentially to function more effectively in sulfide oxidation, especially to elemental sulfur. The genes fccA/fccB from nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), such as Paracoccus denitrificans, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Beggiatoa sp., Thiomicrospira sp., and Thioalkalivibrio sp., were more abundant under limited-oxygen condition.

  14. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase genes as a functional marker for chemolithoautotrophic halophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline habitats.

    PubMed

    Tourova, Tatjana P; Kovaleva, Olga L; Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Muyzer, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    The presence and diversity of the cbb genes encoding the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) (a key enzyme of the Calvin-Benson cycle of autotrophic CO(2) assimilation) were investigated in pure cultures of seven genera of halophilic chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and in sediments from a hypersaline lake in which such bacteria have been recently discovered. All of the halophilic SOB strains (with the exception of Thiohalomonas nitratireducens) possessed the cbbL gene encoding RuBisCO form I, while the cbbM gene encoding RuBisCO form II was detected only in some of the pure cultures. The general topologies of the CbbL/CbbM trees and the 16S rRNA gene tree were different, but both markers showed that the halophilic SOB genera formed independent lineages in the Gammaproteobacteria. In some cases, such as with several strains of the genus Thiohalospira and with Thioalkalibacter halophilus, the cbbL clustering was incongruent with the positions of these strains on the ribosomal tree. In the cbbM tree, the clustering of Thiohalospira and Thiohalorhabdus strains was incongruent with their branching in both cbbL and 16S rRNA gene trees. cbbL and cbbM genes related to those found in the analysed halophilic SOB were also detected in a sediment from a hypersaline lake in Kulunda Steppe (Russia). Most of the cbbL and cbbM genes belonged to members of the genus Thiohalorhabdus. In the cbbL clone library, sequences related to those of Halothiobacillus and Thiohalospira were detected as minor components. Some of the environmental cbbM sequences belonged to as yet unknown phylotypes, representing deep lineages of halophilic autotrophs.

  15. Characterization of the 5' flanking region of lipase gene from Penicillium expansum and its application in molecular breeding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Peng, Ying; Yu, Qingsheng; Wang, Jieliang; Tang, Kexuan

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for further promotion of lipase productivity in Penicillium expansum PE-12 is to find a suitable promoter that can function efficiently in this industrial strain. In this study, the 5' flanking region of P. expansum lipase (Ppel) containing a putative novel promoter sequence was characterized by fusing to β-glucuronidase (GUS) and subsequently introducing into P. expansum. As a result, all the transformants showed blue color quickly after incubation in GUS detection buffer, suggesting a strong promoter activity of this fragment. Glucose repression was identified for the promoter, whereas olive oil acted as a positive regulator. Facilitated by this novel promoter, P. expansum PE-12 was genetically modified, with an improved lipase yield, via a recombinant plasmid with P. expansum lipase gene (PEL) under the control of Ppel promoter and TtrpC terminator. The highest lipase yield among the modified strains could attain 2,100 U/mL, which is more than twofold of the previous industrial strain (900 U/mL). The engineered strain through molecular breeding method as well as this new promoter has great value in lipase industry.

  16. Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite as a plant gene delivery vector trans-activated by taxonomically diverse geminiviruses.

    PubMed

    Kharazmi, S; Behjatnia, S A A; Hamzehzarghani, H; Niazi, A

    2012-07-01

    Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) replicates in tobacco, tomato and datura plants in the presence of the helper viruses tomato leaf curl virus-Australia, Iranian isolates of tomato yellow leaf curl virus, tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus, and beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV). Infectious recombinant CLCuMB constructs were made in which segments of either the CaMV 35S or the petunia ChsA promoter replaced the CLCuMB βC1 ORF, and these were designated pBinβΔC1-35S and pBinβΔC1-ChsA, respectively. Inoculation of tobacco plants containing a functional 35S-GUS transgene with pBinβΔC1-35S, and normal petunia plants with pBinβΔC1-ChsA, in the presence of helper viruses resulted in silencing of GUS and ChsA activities in transgenic tobacco and non-transgenic petunia plants, respectively. Replication of CLCuMB with different geminiviruses, especially BSCTV, a curtovirus with a broad host range, makes it a valuable gene delivery vector to the large number of host plant species of geminiviruses that support CLCuMB.

  17. Identification of the specific sequence recognized by Penicillium citrinum MlcR, a GAL4-type transcriptional activator of ML-236B (compactin) biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Nihira, T; Hosobuchi, M

    2008-09-01

    MlcR is a pathway-specific transcriptional activator of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes in Penicillium citrinum. The MlcR-binding sequences were identified by an in vitro gel-shift assay and an in vivo reporter assay for the region between mlcA and mlcC as a model. The gel-shift assay showed that recombinant MlcR bound to the DNA sequence 5'-ACGGCGTTATTCGG-3' and most of the bases in this motif were required for the interaction between MlcR and DNA. In the reporter assay using beta-glucuronidase (GUS), substitution of the bases in this binding sequence resulted in the drastic reduction of GUS activities. These data clearly indicate that this MlcR-binding sequence is essential for the transcriptional activation of mlcA and mlcC in P. citrinum. Similar motifs were found in other loci of the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster and the consensus-binding motif for MlcR was predicted to be a direct repeat, 5'-WCGG-N(6)-TCGG-3'.

  18. Polyamine Resistance Is Increased by Mutations in a Nitrate Transporter Gene NRT1.3 (AtNPF6.4) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Wurina; Imai, Akihiro; Tabata, Ryo; Shigenobu, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Yamada, Masashi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Sawa, Shinichiro; Motose, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines are small basic compounds present in all living organisms and act in a variety of biological processes. However, the mechanism of polyamine sensing, signaling and response in relation to other metabolic pathways remains to be fully addressed in plant cells. As one approach, we isolated Arabidopsis mutants that show increased resistance to spermine in terms of chlorosis. We show here that two of the mutants have a point mutation in a nitrate transporter gene of the NRT1/PTR family (NPF), NRT1.3 (AtNPF6.4). These mutants also exhibit increased resistance to putrescine and spermidine while loss-of-function mutants of the two closest homologs of NRT1.3, root-specific NRT1.1 (AtNPF6.3) and petiole-specific NRT1.4 (AtNPF6.2), were shown to have a normal sensitivity to polyamines. When the GUS reporter gene was expressed under the control of the NRT1.3 promoter, GUS staining was observed in leaf mesophyll cells and stem cortex cells but not in the epidermis, suggesting that NRT1.3 specifically functions in parenchymal tissues. We further found that the aerial part of the mutant seedling has normal levels of polyamines but shows reduced uptake of norspermidine compared with the wild type. These results suggest that polyamine transport or metabolism is associated with nitrate transport in the parenchymal tissue of the shoot. PMID:27379127

  19. The tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) subfamily of Eucalyptus grandis: Characterization of EgTIP2, a root-specific and osmotic stress-responsive gene.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcela I; Bravo, Juliana P; Sassaki, Flávio T; Severino, Fábio E; Maia, Ivan G

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins have important roles in various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, a gene encoding a root-specific tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) from Eucalyptus grandis (named EgTIP2) was investigated. The root-specific expression of EgTIP2 was validated over a panel of five eucalyptus organ/tissues. In eucalyptus roots, EgTIP2 expression was significantly induced by osmotic stress imposed by PEG treatment. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco lines (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) harboring an EgTIP2 promoter:GUS reporter cassette revealed major GUS staining in the vasculature and in root tips. Consistent with its osmotic-stress inducible expression in eucalyptus, EgTIP2 promoter activity was up-regulated by mannitol treatment, but was down-regulated by abscisic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that EgTIP2 might be involved in eucalyptus response to drought. Additional searches in the eucalyptus genome revealed the presence of four additional putative TIP coding genes, which could be individually assigned to the classical TIP1-5 groups.

  20. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Calcineurin B-like gene (PbCBL1) and its promoter in birch-leaf pear (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge).

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Y; Li, H; Lin, J; Li, X G; Chang, Y H

    2015-12-14

    Calcium plays a critical role in regulating abiotic stress responses in plants. Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins are calcium sensors in calcium signaling pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium signaling remain to be elucidated. In this study, the CBL1 gene, which codes for the CBL protein, was isolated from the birch-leaf pear. One 2,969-bp sequence was cloned using PCR, and using the cloned 2,027-bp sequence was isolated from pear genomic DNA via genome walking. Sequencing analysis revealed that the 4,996-bp sequence was a PbCBL1 gene consisting of eight exons and seven introns, and the 2,027-bp sequence was identified as the promoter of the PbCBL1 gene, which contains the basic promoter elements TATA and CAAT boxes. In addition, some other cis-acting elements including heat, cold, drought, and hormone responsive elements were also present. To further investigate the activity of this promoter, the sequence was used to drive a GUS fusion gene into leaf discs of tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. GUS gene expression could be regulated by the PbCBL1 promoter following induction by GA, ABA, SA, and MeJA. Furthermore, the results of real-time RT-qPCR indicate that the PbCBL1 gene can respond to changes in the intracellular calcium concentration, and that it can be induced by cold, heat, drought, and stress by several hormones including GA, ABA, SA, and MeJA. PbCBL1 gene may be involved in several signal transduction pathways, and play an important role in the condition of adversity stress in pear.

  2. An Atropa belladonna hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase gene is differentially expressed in the root pericycle and anthers.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Yun, D J; Chen, X Y; Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1999-05-01

    The AbH6H gene for hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase (H6H), which converts hyoscyamine to scopolamine, was isolated from Atropa belladonna. This plant also possesses a related sequence, Ab psiH6H, which appears to be a non-functional pseudo-gene. AbH6H RNA was detected in cultured root, native root and anther, but not in stem, leaf, pistil, petal, and sepal tissues. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and promoter::GUS transgene analysis showed that AbH6H is expressed specifically in root pericycle cells, and in tapetum and pollen mother cells. A 671 bp 5'-upstream region from AbH6H was sufficient for pericycle-specific expression in hairy roots of A. belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger, which both produce scopolamine, but cell-specific regulation was severely compromised in tobacco hairy roots, which do not produce scopolamine.

  3. Probing for pH-regulated genes in Sinorhizobium medicae using transcriptional analysis.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ravi P; Reeve, Wayne G; Fenner, Beau J; Dilworth, Michael J; Glenn, Andrew R; Howieson, John G

    2004-01-01

    The low pH sensitivity of Sinorhizobium species is one of the major causes of reduced productivity of Medicago species (such as lucerne) sown in acidic soils. To investigate the pH response of an acid-tolerant Sinorhizobium medicae strain, a pool of random promoter fusions to gusA was created using minitransposon insertional mutagenesis. Acid-activated expression was identified in 11 mutants; rhizobial DNA flanking insertions in 10 mutants could be cloned and the DNA sequences obtained were used to interrogate the genome database of Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021. Acid activated expression was detected for fixNO, kdpC, lpiA, and phrR and for genes encoding a putative lipoprotein, two ABC-transporter components, a putative DNA ligase and a MPA1-family protein. These findings implicate cytochrome synthesis, potassium ion cycling, lipid biosynthesis and transport processes as key components of pH response in S. medicae.

  4. The characterization of six auxin-induced tomato GH3 genes uncovers a member, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Dehua; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Aiqun; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Jianjian; Liu, Junli; Gu, Mian; Sun, Shubin; Xu, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    In plants, the GH3 gene family is widely considered to be involved in a broad range of plant physiological processes, through modulation of hormonal homeostasis. Multiple GH3 genes have been functionally characterized in several plant species; however, to date, limited works to study the GH3 genes in tomato have been reported. Here, we characterize the expression and regulatory profiles of six tomato GH3 genes, SlGH3.2, SlGH3.3, SlGH3.4, SlGH3.7, SlGH3.9 and SlGH3.15, in response to different phytohormone applications and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization. All six GH3 genes showed inducible responses to external IAA, and three members were significantly up-regulated in response to AM symbiosis. In particular, SlGH3.4, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal growth conditions, was strongly activated in the IAA-treated and AM fungal-colonized roots. A comparison of the SlGH3.4 expression in wild-type plants and M161, a mutant with a defect in AM symbiosis, confirmed that SlGH3.4 expression is highly correlated to mycorrhizal colonization. Histochemical staining demonstrated that a 2,258 bp SlGH3.4 promoter fragment could drive β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression strongly in root tips, steles and cortical cells of IAA-treated roots, but predominantly in the fungal-colonized cells of mycorrhizal roots. A truncated 654 bp promoter failed to direct GUS expression in IAA-treated roots, but maintained the symbiosis-induced activity in mycorrhizal roots. In summary, our results suggest that a mycorrhizal signaling pathway that is at least partially independent of the auxin signaling pathway has evolved for the co-regulation of the auxin- and mycorrhiza-activated GH3 genes in plants.

  5. Synergistic activation of the pathogenicity-related proline iminopeptidase gene in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris by HrpX and a LuxR homolog.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxi; Kan, Jinhong; Zhang, Jieqiong; Guo, Ping; Chen, Xiaoying; Fang, Rongxiang; Jia, Yantao

    2012-10-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strain 8004 contains an orphan quorum-sensing (QS) locus, xccR-pip(Xcc), in which the proline iminopeptidase (pip(Xcc)) gene (where "Xcc" indicates that the pip gene is from X. campestris pv. campestris) is positively regulated by the LuxR homologue XccR by binding to the luxXc box of the pip(Xcc) promoter. The disruption of pip(Xcc) significantly attenuated the virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris. An imperfect plant-inducible promoter (PIP) box is located in the upstream region of the pip(Xcc) promoter, which is the putative binding site of the transcriptional activator HrpX. To explore whether the expression of the pip(Xcc) gene is regulated by HrpX, the expression level of a pip(Xcc) promoter-gusA fusion gene was assayed in an hrpX disruption mutant. The results showed that the lack of HrpX dramatically decreased the β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity. Further analyses using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR indicated that the imperfect PIP box in X. campestris pv. campestris is specifically bound to HrpX. These data demonstrated that the pip(Xcc) gene belongs to the hrp regulon and that the imperfect PIP box of the pip(Xcc) promoter could be a cis element for the HrpX protein. We further showed in a pulldown assay that XccR can bind HrpX, suggesting that these two regulatory proteins coactivate the virulence factor by binding to the different cis elements of the pip(Xcc) gene and adapt to the host environment during X. campestris pv. campestris infection.

  6. A polymorphic (GA/CT)n- SSR influences promoter activity of Tryptophan decarboxylase gene in Catharanthus roseus L. Don

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) of polypurine-polypyrimidine type motifs occur very frequently in the 5′ flanks of genes in plants and have recently been implicated to have a role in regulation of gene expression. In this study, 2 accessions of Catharanthus roseus having (CT)8 and (CT)21 varying motifs in the 5′UTR of Tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc) gene, were investigated for its role in regulation of gene expression. Extensive Tdc gene expression analysis in the 2 accessions was carried out both at the level of transcription and translation. Transcript abundance was estimated using Northern analysis and qRT-PCR, whereas the rate of Tdc gene transcription was assessed using in-situ nuclear run-on transcription assay. Translation status of Tdc gene was monitored by quantification of polysome associated Tdc mRNA using qRT-PCR. These observations were validated through transient expression analysis using the fusion construct [CaM35S:(CT)8–21:GUS]. Our study demonstrated that not only does the length of (CT)n -SSRs influences the promoter activity, but the presence of SSRs per se in the 5′-UTR significantly enhances the level of gene expression. We termed this phenomenon as “microsatellite mediated enhancement” (MME) of gene expression. Results presented here will provide leads for engineering plants with enhanced amounts of medicinally important alkaloids. PMID:27623355

  7. Shortening tobacco life cycle accelerates functional gene identification in genomic research.

    PubMed

    Ning, G; Xiao, X; Lv, H; Li, X; Zuo, Y; Bao, M

    2012-11-01

    Definitive allocation of function requires the introduction of genetic mutations and analysis of their phenotypic consequences. Novel, rapid and convenient techniques or materials are very important and useful to accelerate gene identification in functional genomics research. Here, over-expression of PmFT (Prunus mume), a novel FT orthologue, and PtFT (Populus tremula) lead to shortening of the tobacco life cycle. A series of novel short life cycle stable tobacco lines (30-50 days) were developed through repeated self-crossing selection breeding. Based on the second transformation via a gusA reporter gene, the promoter from BpFULL1 in silver birch (Betula pendula) and the gene (CPC) from Arabidopsis thaliana were effectively tested using short life cycle tobacco lines. Comparative analysis among wild type, short life cycle tobacco and Arabidopsis transformation system verified that it is optional to accelerate functional gene studies by shortening host plant material life cycle, at least in these short life cycle tobacco lines. The results verified that the novel short life cycle transgenic tobacco lines not only combine the advantages of economic nursery requirements and a simple transformation system, but also provide a robust, effective and stable host system to accelerate gene analysis. Thus, shortening tobacco life cycle strategy is feasible to accelerate heterologous or homologous functional gene identification in genomic research.

  8. The pathogen-inducible promoter of defense-related LsGRP1 gene from Lilium functioning in phylogenetically distinct species of plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Chen, Chao-Ying

    2017-01-01

    A suitable promoter greatly enhances the efficiency of target gene expression of plant molecular breeding and farming; however, only very few promoters are available for economically important non-graminaceous ornamental monocots. In this study, an 868-bp upstream region of defense-related LsGRP1 of Lilium, named PLsGRP1, was cloned by genome walking and proven to exhibit promoter activity in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lilium 'Stargazer' as assayed by agroinfiltration-based β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression system. Many putative biotic stress-, abiotic stress- and physiological regulation-related cis-acting elements were found in PLsGRP1. Serial deletion analysis of PLsGRP1 performed in Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin 38 accompanied with types of treatments indicated that 868-bp PLsGRP1 was highly induced upon pathogen challenges and cold stress while the 131-bp 3'-end region of PLsGRP1 could be dramatically induced by many kinds of abiotic stresses, biotic stresses and phytohormone treatments. Besides, transient GUS expression in a fern, gymnosperms, monocots and dicots revealed good promotor activity of PLsGRP1 in many phylogenetically distinct plant species. Thus, pathogen-inducible PLsGRP1 and its 131-bp 3'-end region are presumed potential as tools for plant molecular breeding and farming.

  9. The MOSS Physcomitrella patens reproductive organ development is highly organized, affected by the two SHI/STY genes and by the level of active auxin in the SHI/STY expression domain.

    PubMed

    Landberg, Katarina; Pederson, Eric R A; Viaene, Tom; Bozorg, Behruz; Friml, Jirí; Jönsson, Henrik; Thelander, Mattias; Sundberg, Eva

    2013-07-01

    In order to establish a reference for analysis of the function of auxin and the auxin biosynthesis regulators SHORT INTERNODE/STYLISH (SHI/STY) during Physcomitrella patens reproductive development, we have described male (antheridial) and female(archegonial) development in detail, including temporal and positional information of organ initiation. This has allowed us to define discrete stages of organ morphogenesis and to show that reproductive organ development in P. patens is highly organized and that organ phyllotaxis differs between vegetative and reproductive development. Using the PpSHI1 and PpSHI2 reporter and knockout lines, the auxin reporters GmGH3(pro):GUS and PpPINA(pro):GFP-GUS, and the auxin-conjugating transgene PpSHI2(pro):IAAL, we could show that the PpSHI genes, and by inference also auxin, play important roles for reproductive organ development in moss. The PpSHI genes are required for the apical opening of the reproductive organs, the final differentiation of the egg cell, and the progression of canal cells into a cell death program. The apical cells of the archegonium, the canal cells, and the egg cell are also sites of auxin responsiveness and are affected by reduced levels of active auxin, suggesting that auxin mediates PpSHI function in the reproductive organs.

  10. Identification of a 467 bp Promoter of Maize Phosphatidylinositol Synthase Gene (ZmPIS) Which Confers High-Level Gene Expression and Salinity or Osmotic Stress Inducibility in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongli; Hou, Jiajia; Jiang, Pingping; Qi, Shoumei; Xu, Changzheng; He, Qiuxia; Ding, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhiwu; Zhang, Kewei; Li, Kunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Salinity and drought often affect plant growth and crop yields. Cloning and identification of salinity and drought stress inducible promoters is of great significance for their use in the genetic improvement of crop resistance. Previous studies showed that phosphatidylinositol synthase is involved in plant salinity and drought stress responses but its promoter has not been characterized by far. In the study, the promoter (pZmPIS, 1834 bp upstream region of the translation initiation site) was isolated from maize genome. To functionally validate the promoter, eight 5′ deletion fragments of pZmPIS in different lengths were fused to GUS to produce pZmPIS::GUS constructs and transformed into tobacco, namely PZ1–PZ8. The transcription activity and expression pattern obviously changed when the promoter was truncated. Previous studies have demonstrated that NaCl and PEG treatments are usually used to simulate salinity and drought treatments. The results showed that PZ1–PZ7 can respond well upon NaCl and PEG treatments, while PZ8 not. PZ7 (467 bp) displayed the highest transcription activity in all tissues of transgenic tobacco amongst 5′ deleted promoter fragments, which corresponds to about 20 and 50% of CaMV35S under normal and NaCl or PEG treatment, respectively. This implied that PZ7 is the core region of pZmPIS which confers high-level gene expression and NaCl or PEG inducible nature. The 113 bp segment between PZ7 and PZ8 (-467 to -355 bp) was considered as the key sequence for ZmPIS responding to NaCl or PEG treatment. GUS transient assay in tobacco leaves showed that this segment was sufficient for the NaCl or PEG stress response. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the 113 bp sequence may contain new elements that are crucial for ZmPIS response to NaCl or PEG stress. These results promote our understanding on transcriptional regulation mechanism of ZmPIS and the characterized PZ7 promoter fragment would be an ideal candidate for the overexpression of

  11. Studying Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Area What are genes? Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making the molecules—many ... material in an organism. This includes genes and DNA elements that control the activity of genes. Does ...

  12. Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien Dung; Moon, Sunok; Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Gho, Yunsil; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Soh, Moon-Soo; Song, Jong Tae; An, Gynheung; Oh, Sung Aeong; Park, Soon Ki; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant.

  13. Differential expression of a novel gene EaF82a in green and yellow sectors of variegated Epipremnum aureum leaves is related to uneven distribution of auxin.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Umstead, Makendra L; Chen, Jianjun; Holliday, Bronwyn M; Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Henny, Richard J; Burkey, Kent O; Xie, Jiahua

    2014-12-01

    EaF82, a gene identified in previous studies of the variegated plant Epipremnum aureum, exhibited a unique expression pattern with greater transcript abundance in yellow sectors than green sectors of variegated leaves, but lower abundance in regenerated pale yellow plants than in green plants derived from leaf tissue culture. Studies of its full-length cDNA and promoter region revealed two members with only the EaF82a expressed. Immunoblotting confirmed that EaF82a encodes a 12 kDa protein and its accumulation consistent with its gene expression patterns in different color tissues. Transient expression of EaF82a-sGFP fusion proteins in protoplasts showed that EaF82a seems to be present in the cytosol as unidentified spots. Sequence motif search reveals a potential auxin responsive element in promoter region. Using transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings carrying EaF82a promoter driving the bacterial uidA (GUS) gene, an increased GUS activity was observed when IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) concentration was elevated. In E. aureum, EaF82a is more abundant at the site where axillary buds emerge and at the lower side of bending nodes where more IAA accumulates relative to the upper side. The measurement of endogenous IAA levels in different color tissues revealed the same pattern of IAA distribution as that of EaF82a expression, further supporting that EaF82a is an IAA responsive gene. EaF82a expression in etiolated transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings responded to IAA under the influence of light suggesting a microenvironment of uneven light condition affects the EaF82a transcript levels and protein accumulation in variegated leaves.

  14. Identification and characterization of a siderophore regulatory gene (pfrA) of Pseudomonas putida WCS358: homology to the alginate regulatory gene algQ of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Venturi, V; Ottevanger, C; Leong, J; Weisbeek, P J

    1993-10-01

    Genes encoding biosynthesis of pseudobactin 358 (a microbial iron transport agent) and its cognate outer membrane receptor protein, PupA, are transcribed only under iron limitation in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida WCS358. Two cosmid clones were identified from a gene bank of WCS358 DNA which could independently and in an iron-dependent manner activate transcription from a WCS358 siderophore gene promoter in heterologous Pseudomonas strain A225. The functional region of one of the clones was localized by subcloning, transposon Tn3Gus mutagenesis, and DNA sequencing. Genomic transposon insertion mutants in the functional region lost the capacity to activate a siderophore gene promoter fusion transcriptionally; furthermore, these mutants no longer produced pseudobactin 358. The activating region consisted of a single gene designated pfrA (Pseudomonas ferric regulator). The pfrA gene codes for a single polypeptide, PfrA, of approximately 18 kDa, which has 58% identity to AlgQ (also known as AlgR2), a positive regulator involved in transcriptionally regulating alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cross-complementation studies between the pfrA gene of P. putida and the algQ gene of P. aeruginosa revealed that pfrA can restore mucoidy (alginate production) in an algQ mutant and that algQ could poorly complement a pfrA genomic mutant. It is concluded that PfrA is involved in the positive regulation of siderophore biosynthetic genes in response to iron limitation; furthermore, pfrA and algQ appeared to be interchangeable between P. putida and P. aeruginosa.

  15. A Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor BpMYB106 of Birch (Betula platyphylla) Confers Increased Photosynthesis and Growth Rate through Up-regulating Photosynthetic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenguang; Li, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    We isolated a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BpMYB106, which regulates photosynthesis in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.). BpMYB106 mainly expresses in the leaf and shoot tip of birch, and its protein is localized in the nucleus. We further fused isolated a 1588 bp promoter of BpMYB106 and analyzed it by PLACE, which showed some cis-acting elements related to photosynthesis. BpMYB106 promoter β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion studies gene, the result, showed the GUS reporter gene in transgenic birch with BpMYB106 promoter showed strong activities in shoot tip, cotyledon margins, and mature leaf trichomes. The overexpression of BpMYB106 in birch resulted in significantly increased trichome density, net photosynthetic rate, and growth rate as compared with the wild-type birch. RNA-Seq profiling revealed the upregulation of several photosynthesis-related genes in the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in the leaves of transgenic plants. Yeast one-hybrid analysis, coupled with transient assay in tobacco, revealed that BpMYB106 binds a MYB binding site MYB2 in differentially expressed gene promoters. Thus, BpMYB106 may directly activate the expression of a range of photosynthesis related genes through interacting with the MYB2 element in their promoters. Our study demonstrating the overexpression of BpMYB106—a R2R3-MYB transcription factor—upregulates the genes of the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways to improve photosynthesis. PMID:27047502

  16. A WRKY Transcription Factor Recruits the SYG1-Like Protein SHB1 to Activate Gene Expression and Seed Cavity Enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaojun; Li, Wei; Zhou, Yun; Ni, Min

    2013-01-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis and in many dicots involves an early proliferation of the endosperm to form a large embryo sac or seed cavity close to the size of the mature seed, followed by a second phase during which the embryo grows and replaces the endosperm. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) is a member of the SYG1 protein family in fungi, Caenorhabditis elegans, flies, and mammals. SHB1 gain-of-function enhances endosperm proliferation, increases seed size, and up-regulates the expression of the WRKY transcription factor gene MINISEED3 (MINI3) and the LRR receptor kinase gene HAIKU2 (IKU2). Mutations in either IKU2 or MINI3 retard endosperm proliferation and reduce seed size. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of the seed cavity and hence the seed size remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of MINI3 and IKU2 is repressed before fertilization and after 4 days after pollination (DAP), but is activated by SHB1 from 2 to 4 DAP prior to the formation of the seed cavity. SHB1 associates with their promoters but without a recognizable DNA binding motif, and this association is abolished in mini3 mutant. MINI3 binds to W-boxes in, and recruits SHB1 to, its own and IKU2 promoters. Interestingly, SHB1, but not MINI3, activates transcription of pMINI3::GUS or pIKU2::GUS. We reveal a critical developmental switch through the activation of MINI3 expression by SHB1. The recruitment of SHB1 by MINI3 to its own and IKU2 promoters represents a novel two-step amplification to counter the low expression level of IKU2, which is a trigger for endosperm proliferation and seed cavity enlargement. PMID:23505389

  17. The effects of a stimulating intron on the expression of heterologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Emami, Shahram; Arumainayagam, Dinah; Korf, Ian; Rose, Alan B

    2013-06-01

    Introns are often added to transgenes to increase expression, although the mechanism through which introns stimulate gene expression in plants and other eukaryotes remains mysterious. While introns vary in their effect on expression, it is unknown whether different genes respond similarly to the same stimulatory intron. Furthermore, the degree to which gene regulation is preserved when expression is increased by an intron has not been thoroughly investigated. To test the effects of the same intron on the expression of a range of genes, GUS translational fusions were constructed using the promoters of eight Arabidopsis genes whose expression was reported to be constitutive (GAE1, CNGC2 and ROP10), tissue specific (ADL1A, YAB3 and AtAMT2) or regulated by light (ULI3 and MSBP1). For each gene, a fusion containing the first intron from the UBQ10 gene was compared to fusions containing the gene's endogenous first intron (if the gene has one) or no intron. In every case, the UBQ10 intron increased expression relative to the intronless control, although the magnitude of the change and the level of expression varied. The UBQ10 intron also changed the expression patterns of the CNGC2 and YAB3 fusions to include strong activity in roots, indicating that tissue specificity was disrupted by this intron. In contrast, the regulation of the ULI3 and MSBP1 genes by light was preserved when their expression was stimulated by the intron. These findings have important implications for biotechnology applications in which a high level of transgene expression in only certain tissues is desired.

  18. Embryo and anther regulation of the mabinlin II sweet protein gene in Capparis masaikai Lévl.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Wen; Liu, Si-Xin; Guo, Jian-Chun; Li, Ji-Tao; Duan, Rui-Jun; Fu, Shao-Ping

    2009-08-01

    Mabinlin II is one of the major sweet proteins stored in the seeds of Capparis masaikai Lévl. Its promoter region (779 bp) located 5' upstream of the mabinlin II gene has been isolated and named as MBL-779 (GenBank accession number, EU014073). This promoter contains two typical TATA box regions and a series of motifs related to seed-specific promoters, such as ACGT motifs, RY motif, napin motif, and G box. The MBL-779 promoter drove GUS gene to transiently express in the embryos of bean, maize, and rice seeds or to constantly express in the embryos and anthers of the transgenic Arabidopsis. The MBL-779 promoter regulated gene expression from approximately the 12th day and peaked on approximately the 16th day after flowering in Arabidopsis. The -300-bp promoter region is a minimal sequence required to functionally regulate gene expression. The CAATs at -325 to -322 bp and -419 to -416 bp and the region at -485 to -770 bp play a role in the quantitative regulation of gene expression. The RY motif, CATGAC, at -117 to -112 bp and the ACGT within the G box (CACGTG) at -126 to -123 bp positively regulate gene expression.

  19. Glyphosate-tolerant CP4 and GOX genes as a selectable marker in wheat transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Arrowsmith, J W; Fromm, M E; Hironaka, C M; Taylor, M L; Rodriguez, D; Pajeau, M E; Brown, S M; Santino, C G; Fry, J E

    1995-12-01

    The lack of alternative selectable markers in crop transformation has been a substantial barrier for commercial application of agricultural biotechnology. We have developed an efficient selection system for wheat transformation using glyphosate-tolerant CP4 and GOX genes as a selectable marker. Immature embryos of the wheat cultivar Bobwhite were bombarded with two separate plasmids harboring the CP4/GOX and GUS genes. After a 1 week delay, the bombarded embryos were transferred to a selection medium containing 2 mM glyphosate. Embryo-derived calli were subcultured onto the same selection medium every 3 weeks consecutively for 9-12 weeks, and were then regenerated and rooted on selection media with lower glyphosate concentrations. Transgenic plants tolerant to glyphosate were recovered. ELISA assay confirmed expression of the CP4 and GOX genes in R0 plants. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the transgenes were integrated into the wheat genomes and transmitted to the following generation. The use of CP4 and GOX genes as a selectable marker provides an efficient, effective, and alternative transformation selection system for wheat.

  20. Construction and Expression of Sugar Kinase Transcriptional Gene Fusions by Using the Sinorhizobium meliloti ORFeome▿

    PubMed Central

    Humann, Jodi L.; Schroeder, Brenda K.; Mortimer, Michael W.; House, Brent L.; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Maloney, Scott C.; Ward, Kristel L.; Fallquist, Heather M.; Ziemkiewicz, Hope T.; Kahn, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti ORFeome project cloned 6,314 open reading frames (ORFs) into a modified Gateway entry vector system from which the ORFs could be transferred to destination vectors in vivo via bacterial conjugation. In this work, a reporter gene destination vector, pMK2030, was constructed and used to generate ORF-specific transcriptional fusions to β-glucuronidase (gusA) and green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter genes. A total of 6,290 ORFs were successfully transferred from the entry vector library into pMK2030. To demonstrate the utility of this system, reporter plasmids corresponding to 30 annotated sugar kinase genes were integrated into the S. meliloti SM1021 and/or SM8530 genome. Expression of these genes was measured using a high-throughput β-glucuronidase assay to track expression on nine different carbon sources. Six ORFs integrated into SM1021 and SM8530 had different basal levels of expression in the two strains. The annotated activities of three other sugar kinases were also confirmed. PMID:18791020

  1. The wheat HMW-glutenin 1Dy10 gene promoter controls endosperm expression in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Thilmony, Roger; Guttman, Mara E; Lin, Jeanie W; Blechl, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    The grass species Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a model system for the study of gene structure and function in temperate cereals. As a first demonstration of the utility of Brachypodium to study wheat gene promoter function, we transformed it with a T-DNA that included the uidA reporter gene under control of a wheat High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit (HMW-GS) gene promoter and transcription terminator. For comparison, the same expression cassette was introduced into wheat by biolistics. Histochemical staining for β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity showed that the wheat promoter was highly expressed in the endosperms of all the seeds of Brachypodium and wheat homozygous plants. It was not active in any other tissue of transgenic wheat, but showed variable and sporadic activity in a minority of styles of the pistils of four homozygous transgenic Brachypodium lines. The ease of obtaining transgenic Brachypodium plants and the overall faithfulness of expression of the wheat HMW-GS promoter in those plants make it likely that this model system can be used for studies of other promoters from cereal crop species that are difficult to transform.

  2. A chimeric gene encoding the methionine-rich 2S albumin of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) is stably expressed and inherited in transgenic grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, I; Pickardt, T; Machemehl, F; Saalbach, G; Schieder, O; Müntz, K

    1994-01-01

    The coding region of the 2S albumin gene of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) was completely synthesized, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and inserted into the binary vector plasmid pGSGLUC1, thus giving rise to pGSGLUC1-2S. This was used for transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havanna) and of the grain legume Vicia narbonensis L., mediated by the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101. Putative transformants were selected by screening for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. Transgenic plants were grown until flowering and fruiting occurred. The presence of the foreign gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. GUS activity was found in all organs of the regenerated transgenic tobacco and legume plants, including the seeds. In the legume, the highest expression levels of the CaMV 35S promoter-controlled 2S albumin gene were observed in leaves and roots. 2S albumin was localized in the vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco. The Brazil nut protein was present in the 2S fraction after gel filtration chromatography of the legume seed proteins and could be clearly identified by immunoblotting. Analysis of seeds from the R2 progenies of the legume and of transgenic tobacco plants revealed Mendelian inheritance of the foreign gene. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain RifR 15834 harbouring the binary vector pGSGLUC1-2S was also used to transform Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Hairy roots expressed the 2S albumin-specific gene. Several shoots were raised but they never completely rooted and no fertile plants were obtained from these transformants.

  3. Identification of gravitropic response indicator genes in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Moritaka; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao

    2014-01-01

    Differential organ growth during gravitropic response is caused by differential accumulation of auxin, that is, relative higher auxin concentration in lower flanks than in upper flanks of responding organs. Auxin responsive reporter systems such as DR5::GUS and DR5::GFP have usually been used as indicators of gravitropic response in roots and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis. However, in the inflorescence stems, the reporter systems don't work well to monitor gravitropic response. Here, we aim to certify appropriate gravitropic response indicators (GRIs) in inflorescence stems. We performed microarray analysis comparing gene expression profiles between upper and lower flanks of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems after gravistimulation. Thirty genes showed > 2-fold differentially increased expression in lower flanks at 30 min, of which 19 were auxin response genes. We focused on IAA5 and IAA2 and verified whether they are appropriate GRIs by real-time qRT-PCR analyses. Transcript levels of IAA5 and IAA2 were remarkably higher in lower flanks than in upper flanks after gravistimulation. The biased IAA5 or IAA2 expression is disappeared in sgr2-1 mutant which is defective in gravity perception, indicating that gravity perception process is essential for formation of the biased gene expression during gravitropism. IAA5 expression was remarkably increased in lower flanks at 30 min after gravistimulation, whereas IAA2 expression was gradually decreased in upper flanks in a time-dependent manner. Therefore, we conclude that IAA5 is a sensitive GRI to monitor asymmetric auxin signaling caused by gravistimulation in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.

  4. A genome-wide survey of HD-Zip genes in rice and analysis of drought-responsive family members.

    PubMed

    Agalou, Adamantia; Purwantomo, Sigit; Overnäs, Elin; Johannesson, Henrik; Zhu, Xiaoyi; Estiati, Amy; de Kam, Rolf J; Engström, Peter; Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Mei; Xiong, Lizhong; Meijer, Annemarie H; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F

    2008-01-01

    The homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) genes encode transcription factors that have diverse functions in plant development and have often been implicated in stress adaptation. The HD-Zip genes are the most abundant group of homeobox (HB) genes in plants and do not occur in other eukaryotes. This paper describes the complete annotation of the HD-Zip families I, II and III from rice and compares these gene families with Arabidopsis in a phylogeny reconstruction. Orthologous pairs of rice and Arabidopsis HD-Zip genes were predicted based on neighbour joining and maximum parsimony (MP) trees with support of conserved intron-exon organization. Additionally, a number of HD-Zip genes appeared to be unique to rice. Searching of EST and cDNA databases and expression analysis using RT-PCR showed that 30 out of 31 predicted rice HD-Zip genes are expressed. Most HD-Zip genes were broadly expressed in mature plants and seedlings, but others showed more organ specific patterns. Like in Arabidopsis and other dicots, a subset of the rice HD-Zip I and II genes was found to be regulated by drought stress. We identified both drought-induced and drought-repressed HD-Zip genes and demonstrate that these genes are differentially regulated in drought-sensitive versus drought-tolerant rice cultivars. The drought-repressed HD-Zip family I gene, Oshox4, was selected for promoter-GUS analysis, showing that drought-responsiveness of Oshox4 is controlled by the promoter and that Oshox4 expression is predominantly vascular-specific. Loss-of-function analysis of Oshox4 revealed no specific phenotype, but overexpression analysis suggested a role for Oshox4 in elongation and maturation processes.

  5. “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” Prophage Late Genes May Limit Host Range and Culturability

    PubMed Central

    Fleites, Laura A.; Jain, Mukesh; Zhang, Shujian

    2014-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” is an uncultured alphaproteobacterium that systemically colonizes its insect host both inter- and intracellularly and also causes a severe, crop-destroying disease of citrus called huanglongbing, or citrus “greening.” In planta, “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” is also systemic but phloem limited. “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” strain UF506 carries two predicted prophages, SC1 and SC2. Bacteriophage particles have been observed in experimentally “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected periwinkle but not in any other host. Comparative gene expression analysis of predicted SC1 late genes showed a much higher level of late gene expression, including holin transcripts (SC1_gp110), in “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected periwinkle relative to “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected citrus. To functionally characterize predicted holin and endolysin activity, SC1_gp110 and two predicted endolysins, one within SC1 (SC1_gp035) and another well outside the predicted prophage region (CLIBASIA_04790), were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both SC1 genes inhibited bacterial growth consistent with holin and endolysin function. The holin (SC1_gp110) promoter region was fused with a uidA reporter on pUFR071, a wide bacterial host range (repW) replicon, and used to transform Liberibacter crescens strain BT-1 by electroporation. BT-1 is the only liberibacter strain cultured to date and was used as a proxy for “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus.” pUFR071 was >95% stable without selection in BT-1 for over 20 generations. The reporter construct exhibited strong constitutive glucuronidase (GUS) activity in culture-grown BT-1 cells. However, GUS reporter activity in BT-1 was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by crude aqueous extracts from psyllids. Taken together with plant expression data, these observations indicate that “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” prophage activation may limit “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” host

  6. Promoter analyses and transcriptional profiling of eggplant polyphenol oxidase 1 gene (SmePPO1) reveal differential response to exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Santoshkumar M; Chandrashekar, Arun; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-05-01

    The transcriptional regulation of multigenic eggplant (Solanum melongena) polyphenol oxidase genes (SmePPO) is orchestrated by their corresponding promoters which mediate developmentally regulated expression in response to myriad biotic and abiotic factors. However, information on structural features of SmePPO promoters and modulation of their expression by plant defense signals are lacking. In the present study, SmePPOPROMOTERs were cloned by genome walking, and their transcription start sites (TSS) were determined by RLM-RACE. Extensive sequence analyses revealed the presence of evolutionarily conserved and over-represented putative cis-acting elements involved in light-regulated transcription, biosynthetic pathways (phenylpropanoid/flavonoid), hormone signaling (abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and salicylate), elicitor and stress responses (cold/dehydration responses), sugar metabolism and plant defense signaling (W-BOX/WRKY) that are common to SmePPOPROMOTER1 and 2. The TSS for SmePPO genes are located 9-15bp upstream of ATG with variable lengths of 5' untranslated regions. Transcriptional profiling of SmePPOs in eggplant seedlings has indicated differential response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or salicylic acid (SA) treatment. In planta, while MeJA elicited expression of all the six SmePPOs, SA was only able to induce the expression of SmePPO4-6. Interestingly, in dual treatment, SA considerably repressed the MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOs. Functional dissection of SmePPOPROMOTER1 by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in tobacco leaves has shown that MeJA enhances the SmePPOPROMOTER1-β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in vivo, while SA does not. Histochemical and quantitative GUS assays have also indicated the negative effect of SA on MeJA-induced expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1. By combining in silico analyses, transcriptional profiling and expression of SmePPOPROMOTER1-GUS fusions, the role of SA on the modulation

  7. Cultivar-specific gene modulation in Vitis vinifera: analysis of the promoters regulating the expression of WOX transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Boccacci, Paolo; Mela, Anita; Pavez Mina, Catalina; Chitarra, Walter; Perrone, Irene; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gambino, Giorgio

    2017-03-30

    The family of Wuschel-related Homeobox (WOX) genes is a class of transcription factors involved in the early stages of embryogenesis and organ development in plants. Some of these genes have shown different transcription levels in embryogenic tissues and mature organs in two different cultivars of Vitis vinifera: 'Chardonnay' (CH) and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (CS). Therefore, we investigated the genetic basis responsible for these differences by cloning and sequencing in both the cultivars the promoter regions (~2000 bp) proximal to the transcription start site of five VvWOX genes. We then introduced these promoters into Arabidopsis thaliana for expression pattern characterisation using the GUS reporter gene. In the transgenic Arabidopsis, two promoters isolated from CS (pVvWOX13C_CS and pVvWOX6_CS) induced increased expression compared to the sequence isolated in CH, confirming the data obtained in grapevine tissues. These results were corroborated by transient expression assays using the agroinfiltration approach in grapevine somatic embryos. Truncated versions of pVvWOX13C demonstrated that few nucleotide differences between the sequences isolated from CH and CS are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation of VvWOX13C. Analysis of promoters using heterologous and homologous systems appear to be effective for exploring gene modulation linked with intervarietal sequence variation in grapevine.

  8. Cultivar-specific gene modulation in Vitis vinifera: analysis of the promoters regulating the expression of WOX transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Boccacci, Paolo; Mela, Anita; Pavez Mina, Catalina; Chitarra, Walter; Perrone, Irene; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gambino, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    The family of Wuschel-related Homeobox (WOX) genes is a class of transcription factors involved in the early stages of embryogenesis and organ development in plants. Some of these genes have shown different transcription levels in embryogenic tissues and mature organs in two different cultivars of Vitis vinifera: ‘Chardonnay’ (CH) and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (CS). Therefore, we investigated the genetic basis responsible for these differences by cloning and sequencing in both the cultivars the promoter regions (~2000 bp) proximal to the transcription start site of five VvWOX genes. We then introduced these promoters into Arabidopsis thaliana for expression pattern characterisation using the GUS reporter gene. In the transgenic Arabidopsis, two promoters isolated from CS (pVvWOX13C_CS and pVvWOX6_CS) induced increased expression compared to the sequence isolated in CH, confirming the data obtained in grapevine tissues. These results were corroborated by transient expression assays using the agroinfiltration approach in grapevine somatic embryos. Truncated versions of pVvWOX13C demonstrated that few nucleotide differences between the sequences isolated from CH and CS are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation of VvWOX13C. Analysis of promoters using heterologous and homologous systems appear to be effective for exploring gene modulation linked with intervarietal sequence variation in grapevine. PMID:28358354

  9. Island cotton Gbve1 gene encoding a receptor-like protein confers resistance to both defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baolong; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Yu, Wengui; Liu, Tingli; Li, Hongjuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Ren, Yongzhe; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Li; Dou, Daolong; Chang, Youhong

    2012-01-01

    Verticillium wilt caused by soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. Here, we cloned a tomato Ve homologous gene, Gbve1, from an island cotton cultivar that is resistant to Verticillium wilt. We found that the Gbve1 gene was induced by V. dahliae and by phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, but not by abscisic acid. The induction of Gbve1 in resistant cotton was quicker and stronger than in Verticillium-susceptible upland cotton following V. dahliae inoculation. Gbve1 promoter-driving GUS activity was found exclusively in the vascular bundles of roots and stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Virus-induced silencing of endogenous genes in resistant cotton via targeting a fragment of the Gbve1 gene compromised cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Furthermore, we transformed the Gbve1 gene into Arabidopsis and upland cotton through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of the Gbve1 gene endowed transgenic Arabidopsis and upland cotton with resistance to high aggressive defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of V. dahliae. And HR-mimic cell death was observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrate that the Gbve1 gene is responsible for resistance to V. dahliae in island cotton and can be used for breeding cotton varieties that are resistant to Verticillium wilt.

  10. Genome-wide prediction and functional validation of promoter motifs regulating gene expression in spore and infection stages of Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sourav; Kagda, Meenakshi; Judelson, Howard S

    2013-03-01

    Most eukaryotic pathogens have complex life cycles in which gene expression networks orchestrate the formation of cells specialized for dissemination or host colonization. In the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen, major shifts in mRNA profiles during developmental transitions were identified using microarrays. We used those data with search algorithms to discover about 100 motifs that are over-represented in promoters of genes up-regulated in hyphae, sporangia, sporangia undergoing zoosporogenesis, swimming zoospores, or germinated cysts forming appressoria (infection structures). Most of the putative stage-specific transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) thus identified had features typical of TFBSs such as position or orientation bias, palindromy, and conservation in related species. Each of six motifs tested in P. infestans transformants using the GUS reporter gene conferred the expected stage-specific expression pattern, and several were shown to bind nuclear proteins in gel-shift assays. Motifs linked to the appressoria-forming stage, including a functionally validated TFBS, were over-represented in promoters of genes encoding effectors and other pathogenesis-related proteins. To understand how promoter and genome architecture influence expression, we also mapped transcription patterns to the P. infestans genome assembly. Adjacent genes were not typically induced in the same stage, including genes transcribed in opposite directions from small intergenic regions, but co-regulated gene pairs occurred more than expected by random chance. These data help illuminate the processes regulating development and pathogenesis, and will enable future attempts to purify the cognate transcription factors.

  11. Transcriptional activation of the Azotobacter vinelandii polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic genes phbBAC by PhbR and RpoS.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Eligio, Alberto; Castellanos, Mildred; Moreno, Soledad; Espín, Guadalupe

    2011-11-01

    We previously showed that in Azotobacter vinelandii, accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) occurs mainly during the stationary phase, and that a mutation in phbR, encoding a transcriptional regulator of the AraC family, reduces PHB accumulation. In this study, we characterized the roles of PhbR and RpoS, a central regulator during stationary phase in bacteria, in the regulation of expression of the PHB biosynthetic operon phbBAC and phbR. We showed that inactivation of rpoS reduced PHB accumulation, similar to the phbR mutation, and inactivation of both rpoS and phbR resulted in an inability to produce PHB. We carried out expression studies with the wild-type, and the rpoS, phbR and double rpoS-phbR mutant strains, using quantitative RT-PCR, as well as phbB : : gusA and phbR : : gusA gene fusions. These studies showed that both PhbR and RpoS act as activators of phbB and phbR, and revealed a role for PhbR as an autoactivator. We also demonstrated that PhbR binds specifically to two almost identical 18 bp sites, TGTCACCAA-N(4)-CACTA and TGTCACCAA-N(4)-CAGTA, present in the phbB promoter region. The activation of phbB and phbR transcription by RpoS reported here is in agreement with the observation that accumulation of PHB in A. vinelandii occurs mainly during the stationary phase.

  12. Wheat TaSP gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoli; Cui, Weina; Liang, Wenji; Huang, Zhanjing

    2015-12-01

    A novel salt-induced gene with unknown functions was cloned through analysis of gene expression profile of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 under salt stress. The gene was named Triticum aestivum salt-related protein (TaSP) and deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KF307326). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that TaSP expression was induced under salt, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSP was mainly localized in cell membrane. Overexpression of TaSP in Arabidopsis could improve salt tolerance of 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis lines after salt stress presented better physiological indexes than the control group. In the non-invasive micro-test (NMT), an evident Na(+) excretion was observed at the root tip of salt-stressed 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. TaSP promoter was cloned, and its beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities before and after ABA, salt, cold, heat, and salicylic acid (SA) stresses were determined. Full-length TaSP promoter contained ABA and salt response elements.

  13. Downregulation of RWA genes in hybrid aspen affects xylan acetylation and wood saccharification.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Ratke, Christine; Balasubramanian, Vimal K; Chong, Sun-Li; Gandla, Madhavi Latha; Adriasola, Mathilda; Sparrman, Tobias; Hedenström, Mattias; Szwaj, Klaudia; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Gaertner, Cyril; Mouille, Gregory; Ezcurra, Ines; Tenkanen, Maija; Jönsson, Leif J; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2017-03-03

    High acetylation of angiosperm wood hinders its conversion to sugars by glycoside hydrolases, subsequent ethanol fermentation and (hence) its use for biofuel production. We studied the REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) gene family of the hardwood model Populus to evaluate its potential for improving saccharification. The family has two clades, AB and CD, containing two genes each. All four genes are expressed in developing wood but only RWA-A and -B are activated by master switches of the secondary cell wall PtNST1 and PtMYB21. Histochemical analysis of promoter::GUS lines in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) showed activation of RWA-A and -B promoters in the secondary wall formation zone, while RWA-C and -D promoter activity was diffuse. Ectopic downregulation of either clade reduced wood xylan and xyloglucan acetylation. Suppressing both clades simultaneously using the wood-specific promoter reduced wood acetylation by 25% and decreased acetylation at position 2 of Xylp in the dimethyl sulfoxide-extracted xylan. This did not affect plant growth but decreased xylose and increased glucose contents in the noncellulosic monosaccharide fraction, and increased glucose and xylose yields of wood enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment. Both RWA clades regulate wood xylan acetylation in aspen and are promising targets to improve wood saccharification.

  14. Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your DNA — the code that controls much of your body's form and function, from making you grow taller to regulating your body systems. Genes that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds ...

  15. A mutation in the uvi4 gene promotes progression of endo-reduplication and confers increased tolerance towards ultraviolet B light.

    PubMed

    Hase, Yoshihiro; Trung, Khuat Huu; Matsunaga, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2006-04-01

    We have isolated and characterized a new ultraviolet B (UV-B)-resistant mutant, uvi4 (UV-B-insensitive 4), of Arabidopsis. The fresh weight (FW) of uvi4 plants grown under supplemental UV-B light was more than twice that of the wild-type. No significant difference was found in their ability to repair the UV-B-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, or in the amount of UV-B absorptive compounds, both of which are well-known factors that contribute to UV sensitivity. Positional cloning revealed that the UVI4 gene encodes a novel basic protein of unknown function. We found that the hypocotyl cells in uvi4 undergo one extra round of endo-reduplication. The uvi4 mutation also promoted the progression of endo-reduplication during leaf development. The UVI4 gene is expressed mainly in actively dividing cells. In the leaves of P(UVI4)::GUS plants, the GUS signal disappeared in basipetal fashion as the leaf developed. The total leaf blade area was not different between uvi4 and the wild-type through leaf development, while the average cell area in the adaxial epidermis was considerably larger in uvi4, suggesting that the uvi4 leaves have fewer but larger epidermal cells. These results suggest that UVI4 is necessary for the maintenance of the mitotic state, and the loss of UVI4 function stimulated endo-reduplication. Tetraploid Arabidopsis was hyper-resistant to UV-B compared to diploid Arabidopsis, suggesting that the enhanced polyploidization is responsible for the increased UV-B tolerance of the uvi4 mutant.

  16. Regulation, overexpression, and target gene identification of Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) – a class-I KNOX gene in potato

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ameya S.; Kondhare, Kirtikumar R.; Rajabhoj, Mohit P.; Kumar, Amit; Ghate, Tejashree; Ravindran, Nevedha; Habib, Farhat; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Banerjee, Anjan K.

    2016-01-01

    Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) is a KNOX-I (Knotted1-like homeobox) family gene in potato that is orthologous to Shoot Meristemless (STM) in Arabidopsis. Despite numerous reports on KNOX genes from different species, studies in potato are limited. Here, we describe photoperiodic regulation of POTH15, its overexpression phenotype, and identification of its potential targets in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena). qRT-PCR analysis showed a higher abundance of POTH15 mRNA in shoot tips and stolons under tuber-inducing short-day conditions. POTH15 promoter activity was detected in apical and axillary meristems, stolon tips, tuber eyes, and meristems of tuber sprouts, indicating its role in meristem maintenance and leaf development. POTH15 overexpression altered multiple morphological traits including leaf and stem development, leaflet number, and number of nodes and branches. In particular, the rachis of the leaf was completely reduced and leaves appeared as a bouquet of leaflets. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of 35S::GUS and two POTH15 overexpression lines identified more than 6000 differentially expressed genes, including 2014 common genes between the two overexpression lines. Functional analysis of these genes revealed their involvement in responses to hormones, biotic/abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. qRT-PCR of selected candidate target genes validated their differential expression in both overexpression lines. Out of 200 randomly chosen POTH15 targets, 173 were found to have at least one tandem TGAC core motif, characteristic of KNOX interaction, within 3.0kb in the upstream sequence of the transcription start site. Overall, this study provides insights to the role of POTH15 in controlling diverse developmental processes in potato. PMID:27217546

  17. Glutathione peroxidase genes in Arabidopsis are ubiquitous and regulated by abiotic stresses through diverse signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Milla, Miguel A; Maurer, Alberto; Rodriguez Huete, Alicia; Gustafson, J Perry

    2003-12-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are a group of enzymes that protect cells against oxidative damage generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The presence of GPXs in plants has been reported by several groups, but the roles of individual members of this family in a single plant species have not been studied. A family of seven related proteins named AtGPX1- AtGPX7 in Arabidopsis was identified, and the genomic organization of this family was reported. The putative subcellular localizations of the encoded proteins are the cytosol, chloroplast, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for all the genes except AtGPX7 were identified. Expression analysis of AtGPX genes in Arabidopsis tissues was performed, and different patterns were detected. Interestingly, several genes were up-regulated coordinately in response to abiotic stresses. AtGPX6, like human phospholipid hydroperoxide GPX (PHGPX), possibly encodes mitochondrial and cytosolic isoforms by alternative initiation. In addition, this gene showed the strongest responses under most abiotic stresses tested. AtGPX6::GUS analysis in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that AtGPX6 is highly expressed throughout development in most tissues, thus supporting an important role for this gene in protection against oxidative damage. The different effects of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and auxin on the expression of the genes indicate that the AtGPX family is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. Analysis of the upstream region of the AtGPX genes revealed the presence of multiple conserved motifs, and some of them resembled antioxidant-responsive elements found in plant and human promoters. The potential regulatory role of specific sequences is discussed.

  18. The 3' untranslated region of the two cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS(1)) genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) regulates transcript stability in response to glutamine.

    PubMed

    Simon, Bindu; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2010-10-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to produce glutamine. The GS enzyme is located either in the chloroplast (GS(2)) or in the cytoplasm (GS(1)). GS(1) is encoded by a small gene family and the members exhibit differential expression pattern mostly attributed to transcriptional regulation. Based on our recent finding that a soybean GS(1) gene, Gmglnβ ( 1 ) is subject to its 3'UTR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation as a transgene in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) we have raised the question of whether the 3'UTR-mediated transcript destabilization is a more universal phenomenon. Gene constructs consisting of the CaMV35S promoter driving the reporter gene, GUS, followed by the 3'UTRs of the two alfalfa GS(1) genes, MsGSa and MsGSb, were introduced into alfalfa and tobacco. The analysis of these transformants suggests that while both the 3'UTRs promote transcript turnover, the MsGSb 3'UTR is more effective than the MsGSa 3'UTR. However, both the 3'UTRs along with Gmglnβ ( 1 ) 3'UTR respond to nitrate as a trigger in transcript turnover. More detailed analysis points to glutamine rather than nitrate as the mediator of transcript turnover. Our data suggests that the 3'UTR-mediated regulation of GS(1) genes at the level of transcript turnover is probably universal and is used for fine-tuning the expression in keeping with the availability of the substrates.

  19. The upstream regulatory sequence of the light harvesting complex Lhcf2 gene of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum enhances transcription in an orientation- and distance-independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Russo, Monia Teresa; Annunziata, Rossella; Sanges, Remo; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; Falciatore, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are a key phytoplankton group in the contemporary ocean, showing extraordinary adaptation capacities to rapidly changing environments. The recent availability of whole genome sequences from representative species has revealed distinct features in their genomes, like novel combinations of genes encoding distinct metabolisms and a significant number of diatom-specific genes. However, the regulatory mechanisms driving diatom gene expression are still largely uncharacterized. Considering the wide variety of fields of study orbiting diatoms, ranging from ecology, evolutionary biology to biotechnology, it is thus essential to increase our understanding of fundamental gene regulatory processes such as transcriptional regulation. To this aim, we explored the functional properties of the 5'-flanking region of the Phaeodatylum tricornutum Lhcf2 gene, encoding a member of the Light Harvesting Complex superfamily and we showed that this region enhances transcription of a GUS reporter gene in an orientation- and distance-independent fashion. This represents the first example of a cis-regulatory sequence with enhancer-like features discovered in diatoms and it is instrumental for the generation of novel genetic tools and diatom exploitation in different areas of study.

  20. Characterization of the promoter and 5'-UTR intron of oleic acid desaturase (FAD2) gene in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Zhen Qian; Yin, Chang Fa; Liu, Rui Yang; Wu, Xian Meng; Tan, Tai Long; Chen, She Yuan; Lu, Chang Ming; Guan, Chun Yun

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, we characterized the transcriptional regulatory region (KF038144) controlling the expression of a constitutive FAD2 in Brassica napus. There are multiple FAD2 gene copies in B. napus genome. The FAD2 gene characterized and analyzed in the study is located on chromosome A5 and was designated as BnFAD2A5-1. BnFAD2A5-1 harbors an intron (1,192 bp) within its 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). This intron demonstrated promoter activity. Deletion analysis of the BnFAD2A5-1 promoter and intron through the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter system revealed that the -220 to -1 bp is the minimum promoter region, while -220 to -110 bp and +34 to +285 bp are two important regions conferring high-levels of transcription. BnFAD2 transcripts were induced by light, low temperature, and abscisic acid (ABA). These observations demonstrated that not only the promoter but also the intron are involved in controlling the expression of the BnFAD2A5-1 gene. The intron-mediated regulation is an essential aspect of the gene expression regulation.

  1. Gene Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Ferrai, Carmelo; de Castro, Inês Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defined foci that promote preferred higher-order chromatin arrangements. The positioning of genes within the nuclear landscape relative to specific functional landmarks plays an important role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:20484389

  2. pSiM24 Is a Novel Versatile Gene Expression Vector for Transient Assays As Well As Stable Expression of Foreign Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a small and highly efficient binary Ti vector pSiM24 for plant transformation with maximum efficacy. In the pSiM24 vector, the size of the backbone of the early binary vector pKYLXM24 (GenBank Accession No. HM036220; a derivative of pKYLX71) was reduced from 12.8 kb to 7.1 kb. The binary vector pSiM24 is composed of the following genetic elements: left and right T-DNA borders, a modified full-length transcript promoter (M24) of Mirabilis mosaic virus with duplicated enhancer domains, three multiple cloning sites, a 3′rbcsE9 terminator, replication functions for Escherichia coli (ColE1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pRK2-OriV) and the replicase trfA gene, selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance (nptII) and ampicillin resistance (bla). The pSiM24 plasmid offers a wide selection of cloning sites, high copy numbers in E. coli and a high cloning capacity for easily manipulating different genetic elements. It has been fully tested in transferring transgenes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) both transiently (agro-infiltration, protoplast electroporation and biolistic) and stably in plant systems (Arabidopsis and tobacco) using both agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistic procedures. Not only reporter genes, several other introduced genes were also effectively expressed using pSiM24 expression vector. Hence, the pSiM24 vector would be useful for various plant biotechnological applications. In addition, the pSiM24 plasmid can act as a platform for other applications, such as gene expression studies and different promoter expressional analyses. PMID:24897541

  3. Gene doping.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2010-01-01

    Gene doping abuses the legitimate approach of gene therapy. While gene therapy aims to correct genetic disorders by introducing a foreign gene to replace an existing faulty one or by manipulating existing gene(s) to achieve a therapeutic benefit, gene doping employs the same concepts to bestow performance advantages on athletes over their competitors. Recent developments in genetic engineering have contributed significantly to the progress of gene therapy research and currently numerous clinical trials are underway. Some athletes and their staff are probably watching this progress closely. Any gene that plays a role in muscle development, oxygen delivery to tissues, neuromuscular coordination, or even pain control is considered a candidate for gene dopers. Unfortunately, detecting gene doping is technically very difficult because the transgenic proteins expressed by the introduced genes are similar to their endogenous counterparts. Researchers today are racing the clock because assuring the continued integrity of sports competition depends on their ability to develop effective detection strategies in preparation for the 2012 Olympics, which may mark the appearance of genetically modified athletes.

  4. Gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B

    1982-07-29

    Gene therapy is not yet possible, but may become feasible soon, particularly for well understood gene defects. Although treatment of a patient raises no ethical problems once it can be done well, changing the genes of an early embryo is more difficult, controversial and unlikely to be required clinically.

  5. Dissecting the complex molecular evolution and expression of polygalacturonase gene family in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Yu, Youjian; Shen, Xiuping; Dong, Heng; Lyu, Meiling; Xu, Liai; Ma, Zhiming; Liu, Tingting; Cao, Jiashu

    2015-12-01

    Polygalacturonases (PGs) participate in pectin disassembly of cell wall and belong to one of the largest hydrolase families in plants. In this study, we identified 99 PG genes in Brassica rapa. Comprehensive analysis of phylogeny, gene structures, physico-chemical properties and coding sequence evolution demonstrated that plant PGs should be classified into seven divergent clades and each clade's members had specific sequence and structure characteristics, and/or were under specific selection pressures. Genomic distribution and retention rate analysis implied duplication events and biased retention contributed to PG family's expansion. Promoter divergence analysis using "shared motif method" revealed a significant correlation between regulatory and coding sequence evolution of PGs, and proved Clades A and E were of ancient origin. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that expression patterns of PGs displayed group specificities in B. rapa. Particularly, nearly half of PG family members, especially those of Clades C, D and F, closely relates to reproductive development. Most duplicates showed similar expression profiles, suggesting dosage constraints accounted for preservation after duplication. Promoter-GUS assay further indicated PGs' extensive roles and possible redundancy during reproductive development. This work can provide a scientific classification of plant PGs, dissect the internal relationships between their evolution and expressions, and promote functional researches.

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) with yeast HAL2 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) is the most commonly used Citrus rootstock in south Asia. It is extremely sensitive to salt stress that decreases the growth and yield of Citrus crops in many areas worldwide. Over expression of the yeast halotolerant gene (HAL2) results in increasing the level of salt tolerance in transgenic plants. Results Transformation of rough lemon was carried out by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 harboring plasmid pJRM17. Transgenic shoots were selected on kanamycin 100 mg L-1 along with 250 mg L-1 each of cefotaxime and vancomycin for effective inhibition of Agrobacterium growth. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 200 μM acetoseryngone (AS) proved to be the best inoculation and co-cultivation medium for transformation. MS medium supplemented with 3 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) showed maximum regeneration efficiency of the transformed explants. The final selection of the transformed plants was made on the basis of PCR and Southern blot analysis. Conclusion Rough lemon has been successfully transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with β-glucuronidase (GUS) and HAL2. Various factors affecting gene transformation and regeneration efficiency were also investigated. PMID:22691292

  7. Long-term stability of marker gene expression in Prunus subhirtella: a model fruit tree species.

    PubMed

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood Ali; Katinger, Hermann; Laimer, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic trees currently are being produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistics. Since trees are particularly suited for long-term evaluations of the impact of the technology, Prunus subhirtella autumno rosa (PAR) was chosen as model fruit tree species and transformed with a reporter gene (uidA) under the control of the 35S promoter. Using Southern and GUS fluorometric techniques, we compared transgene copy numbers and observed stability of transgene expression levels in 34 different transgenic plants, grown under in vitro, greenhouse and screenhouse conditions, over a period of 9 years. An influence of grafting on gene expression was not observed. No silenced transgenic plant was detected. Overall, these results suggest that transgene expression in perennial species, such as fruit trees, remains stable in time and space, over extended periods and in different organs, confirming the value of PAR as model species to study season-dependent regulation in mature stone fruit tissues. While the Agrobacterium-derived Prunus transformants contained one to two copies of the transgenes, 91% of the transgenic events also contained various lengths of the bacterial plasmid backbone, indicating that the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is not as precise as previously perceived. The implications for public acceptance and future applications are discussed.

  8. [Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of LJAMP2 gene into 'Red Sun' kiwifruit and its molecular identification].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Xupeng; Wu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Keming; Tang, Shaohu

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Actinidiae is one of the most important diseases of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) and leads to considerable yield losses. In order to obtain transgenic plants with resistance for 'Red Sun' kiwifruit to canker disease, a non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein gene (LJAMP2) from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus) was introduced into 'Red Sun' kiwifruit through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After two days of co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring 35S:LJAMP2, the transformed explants were transferred to the selection medium containing 25 mg/L kanamycin+3.0 mg/L BA+1.0 mg/L NAA. The regeneration efficiency of kanamycin-resistant shoots reached to 85%. All (100%) of kanamycin-resistant shoots rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.8 mg/L IBA and a total of 40 regenerated plantlets were obtained. PCR and histochemical GUS activity analysis show that 23 of 40 lines (57.50%) were positive, suggesting that the LJAMP2 gene was integrated into the genome of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit. Taken together, we established an efficient genetic transformation method for 'Red Sun' kiwifruit using A. tumefaciens and the transformation frequency reached 5.11%. This protocol will be useful for the genetic breeding of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit for improvement of disease resistance.

  9. The AAP gene family for amino acid permeases contributes to development of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in roots of Arabidopsis☆

    PubMed Central

    Elashry, Abdelnaser; Okumoto, Sakiko; Siddique, Shahid; Koch, Wolfgang; Kreil, David P.; Bohlmann, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii is able to infect Arabidopsis plants and induce feeding sites in the root. These syncytia are the only source of nutrients for the nematodes throughout their life and are a nutrient sink for the host plant. We have studied here the role of amino acid transporters for nematode development. Arabidopsis contains a large number of different amino acid transporters in several gene families but those of the AAP family were found to be especially expressed in syncytia. Arabidopsis contains 8 AAP genes and they were all strongly expressed in syncytia with the exception of AAP5 and AAP7, which were slightly downregulated. We used promoter::GUS lines and in situ RT-PCR to confirm the expression of several AAP genes and LHT1, a lysine- and histidine-specific amino acid transporter, in syncytia. The strong expression of AAP genes in syncytia indicated that these transporters are important for the transport of amino acids into syncytia and we used T-DNA mutants for several AAP genes to test for their influence on nematode development. We found that mutants of AAP1, AAP2, and AAP8 significantly reduced the number of female nematodes developing on these plants. Our study showed that amino acid transport into syncytia is important for the development of the nematodes. PMID:23831821

  10. Two short sequences in OsNAR2.1 promoter are necessary for fully activating the nitrate induced gene expression in rice roots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Feng, Huimin; Huang, Daimin; Song, Miaoquan; Fan, Xiaorong; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is an essential nitrogen source and serves as a signal to control growth and gene expression in plants. In rice, OsNAR2.1 is an essential partner of multiple OsNRT2 nitrate transporters for nitrate uptake over low and high concentration range. Previously, we have reported that −311 bp upstream fragment from the translational start site in the promoter of OsNAR2.1 gene is the nitrate responsive region. To identify the cis-acting DNA elements necessary for nitrate induced gene expression, we detected the expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter in the transgenic rice driven by the OsNAR2.1 promoter with different lengths and site mutations of the 311 bp region. We found that −129 to −1 bp region is necessary for the nitrate-induced full activation of OsNAR2.1. Besides, the site mutations showed that the 20 bp fragment between −191 and −172 bp contains an enhancer binding site necessary to fully drive the OsNAR2.1 expression. Part of the 20 bp fragment is commonly presented in the sequences of different promoters of both the nitrate induced NAR2 genes and nitrite reductase NIR1 genes from various higher plants. These findings thus reveal the presence of conserved cis-acting element for mediating nitrate responses in plants. PMID:26150107

  11. The tRNA-Derived Small RNAs Regulate Gene Expression through Triggering Sequence-Specific Degradation of Target Transcripts in the Oomycete Pathogen Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinhu; Li, Tingting; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolong; Quan, Junli; Jin, Weibo; Zhang, Meixiang; Fan, Guangjin; Wang, Ming-Bo; Shan, Weixing

    2016-01-01

    Along with the well-studied microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a new class of transfer RNA-derived small RNA (tsRNA), which has recently been detected in multiple organisms and is implicated in gene regulation. However, while miRNAs and siRNAs are known to repress gene expression through sequence-specific RNA cleavage or translational repression, how tsRNAs regulate gene expression remains unclear. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of tsRNAs in the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. We show that multiple tRNAs are processed into abundant tsRNAs, which accumulate in a similar developmental stage-specific manner and are negatively correlated with the expression of predicted target genes. Degradome sequencing and 5′ RLM RACE experiments indicate tsRNAs can trigger degradation of target transcripts. Transient expression assays using GUS sensor constructs confirmed the requirement of sequence complementarity in tsRNA-mediated RNA degradation in P. sojae. Our results show that the tsRNA are a class of functional endogenous sRNAs and suggest that tsRNA regulate gene expression through inducing sequence-specific degradation of target RNAs in oomycetes. PMID:28066490

  12. Isolation of a phylogenetically conserved and testis-specific gene using a monoclonal antibody against the serological H-Y antigen.

    PubMed

    Su, H; Kozak, C A; Veerhuis, R; Lau, Y F; Wiberg, U

    1992-04-01

    Several cDNA clones of a gene termed male-enhanced antigen-2 (Mea-2), have been isolated from a mouse testicular expression cDNA library using a monoclonal histocompatability Y (H-Ys) antibody which detects specific protein(s) present in the mouse testis but not the ovary. The Mea-2 gene is phylogenetically conserved among various mammalian species examined, and is expressed at high levels in adult mouse testis. The expression pattern of Mea-2 is very similar to that of another gene, the male-enhanced antigen-1 (Mea-1), previously isolated using a polyclonal H-Ys antibody. Northern blotting and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that Mea-2 is also expressed in other adult and fetal mouse organs at low levels. The testis-enhanced expression of this gene is associated with germ cell development at mid- to late-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Analysis of an intersubspecies mouse backcross has assigned this gene to chromosome 5, between the loci Gus and Hnf-1.

  13. MsPG3, a Medicago sativa polygalacturonase gene expressed during the alfalfa–Rhizobium meliloti interaction

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Jose A.; Coronado, Carmen; Pérez-Hormaeche, Javier; Kondorosi, Adam; Ratet, Pascal; Palomares, Antonio J.

    1998-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the most important enzymes associated with plant cell wall degradation. It has been proposed to participate in the early steps of the Rhizobium–legume interaction. We have identified two classes of cDNA fragments corresponding to two classes of PG genes in the Medicago genome. One of this class, represented by E2 in M. truncatula and Pl1 in M. sativa, seems to be related to previously characterized plant PG genes expressed in pollen. We have isolated the genomic clone containing the entire gene corresponding to the second class (E3). We showed that MsPG3 is a single gene in the Medicago genome coding for PG. By reverse transcription-PCR, MsPG3 expression was detected in roots 1 day after Rhizobium inoculation. The early induction of the MsPG3, as also seen by in situ hybridization experiments, supports its involvement in the early stages of the Rhizobium-legume infection process. In addition, by analyzing the expression of a MsPG3 promoter-gus construct in Vicia hirsuta-transgenic root nodules, we showed that MsPG3 was expressed in all cells of nodule primordia and in the cells of the invasion zone. By Northern blot, MsPG3 transcripts are not detected in various Medicago tissues, indicating that the function of this gene is related closely to symbiosis. Thus, our results strongly suggest the involvement of MsPG3 gene during meristem formation and/or in the infection process, probably by facilitating cell wall rearrangement, penetration of the bacteria through the root hair wall, or infection thread formation and release of bacteria in plant cells. MsPG3 represents a class of PG genes, distinct from the pollen-specific genes, and it is the first pectic encoded enzyme demonstrated to be involved in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. PMID:9689142

  14. Spliceosomal introns in the 5′ untranslated region of plant BTL RING-H2 ubiquitin ligases are evolutionary conserved and required for gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Introns located close to the 5′ end of a gene or in the 5′ untranslated region often exert positive effects on gene expression. This effect, known as intron-mediated enhancement (IME), has been observed in diverse eukaryotic organisms, including plants. The sequences involved in IME seem to be spread across the intron and function in an additive manner. The IMEter algorithm was developed to predict plant introns that may enhance gene expression. We have identified several plant members of the BTL class of E3s, which may have orthologs across eukaryotes, that contain a 5′UTR intron. The RING finger E3 ligases are key enzymes of the ubiquitination system that mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrates. Results In this study, we retrieved BTL sequences from several angiosperm species and found that 5′UTR introns showing a strong IMEter score were predicted, suggesting that they may be conserved by lineage. Promoter-GUS fusion lines were used to confirm the IME effect of these 5′UTR introns on gene expression. IMEter scores of BTLs were compared with the 5′UTR introns of two gene families MHX and polyubiquitin genes. Conclusions Analysis performed in two Arabidopsis BTL E3 ligases genes indicated that the 5′UTR introns were essential for gene expression in all the tissues tested. Comparison of the average 5′UTR intron size on three gene families in ten angiosperm species suggests that a prevalent size for a 5′UTR intron is in the range of 600 nucleotides, and that the overall IMEter score within a gene family is preserved across several angiosperms. Our results indicated that gene expression dependent on a 5′UTR intron is an efficient regulatory mechanism in BTL E3 ligases that has been preserved throughout plant evolution. PMID:24228887

  15. Knockout of GH3 genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens leads to increased IAA levels at elevated temperature and in darkness.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Jennifer; Gabrielyan, Anastasia; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-12-01

    Two proteins of the GRETCHEN HAGEN3 (GH3) family of acyl acid amido synthetases from the moss Physcomitrella patens conjugate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to a series of amino acids. The possible function of altered auxin levels in the moss in response to two different growth perturbations, elevated temperatures and darkness, was analyzed using a) the recently described double knockout lines in both P. patens GH3 genes (GH3-doKO) and b) a previously characterized line harboring an auxin-inducible soybean GH3 promoter::reporter fused to β-glucuronidase (G1-GUS). The GUS activity as marker of the auxin response increased at higher temperatures and after cultivation in the darkness for a period of up to four weeks. Generally, the double knockout plants grew more slowly than the wild type (WT). The altered growth conditions influenced the phenotypes of the double knockout lines differently from that of WT moss. Higher temperatures negatively affected GH3-doKO plants compared to WT which was shown by stronger loss of chlorophyll. On the other hand, a positive effect was found on the concentrations of free IAA which increased at 28 °C in the GH3-doKO lines compared to WT plants. A different factor, namely darkness vs. a light/dark cycle caused the adverse phenotype concerning chlorophyll concentrations. Mutant moss plants showed higher chlorophyll concentrations than WT and these correlated with higher free IAA in the plant population that was classified as green. Our data show that growth perturbations result in higher free IAA levels in the GH3-doKO mutants, but in one case - growth in darkness - the mutants could cope better with the condition, whereas at elevated temperatures the mutants were more sensitive than WT. Thus, GH3 function in P. patens WT could lie in the regulation of IAA concentrations under unfavorable environmental conditions.

  16. Overexpression of carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene generates a broad-spectrum tolerance to abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Wi, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Park, Ky Young

    2006-10-01

    Polyamines (PAs), such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are present in all living organism and implicate in a wide range of cellular physiological processes. We have used transgenic technology in an attempt to evaluate their potential for mitigating the adverse effects of several abiotic stresses in plants. Sense construct of full-length cDNA for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a key enzyme in PA biosynthesis, from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Several transgenic lines overexpressing SAMDC gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated soluble total PAs by 2.2 (S16-S-4) to 3.1 (S16-S-1) times than wild-type plants. The transgenic tobacco did not show any difference in organ phenotype compared to the wild-type. The number and weight of seeds increased, and net photosynthetic rate also increased in transgenic plants. Stress-induced damage was attenuated in these transgenic plants, in the symptom of visible yellowing and chlorophyll degradation after all experienced stresses such as salt stress, cold stress, acidic stress, and abscisic acid treatment. H2O2-induced damage was attenuated by spermidine treatment. Transcripts for antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, manganase superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase) in transgenic plants and GUS activity transformed with SAMDC promoter::GUS fusion were induced more significantly by stress treatment, compared to control. These results that the transgenic plants with sense SAMDC cDNA are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than wild-type plants suggest that PAs may play an important role in contributing stress tolerance in plants.

  17. Isolation and promoter analysis of anther-specific genes encoding putative arabinogalactan proteins in Malus x domestica.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon-Ok; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Sanghyeob; Kim, Sunggil; Yoon, Gi-Bo; Kim, Hyojeong; Lee, Young-Pyo; Yu, Gyung-Hee; Hyung, Nam-In; Sung, Soon-Kee

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we searched for anther-specific genes involved in male gametophyte development in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) by differential display-PCR. Three full-length cDNAs were isolated, and the corresponding genomic sequences were determined by genome walking. The identified genes showed intronless 228- to 264-bp open reading frames and shared 82-90% nucleotide sequence. Sequence analysis identified that they encoded a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP) and were designated MdAGP1, MdAGP2, and MdAGP3, respectively. RT (reverse transcriptase)-PCR revealed that the MdAGP genes were selectively expressed in the stamen. Promoter analysis confirmed that the MdAGP3 promoter was capable of directing anther- or pollen-specific expression of the GUS reporter in tobacco and apple. Furthermore, expression of ribosome-inactivating protein under the control of the MdAGP3 promoter induced complete sporophytic male sterility as we had expected.

  18. The tobacco Ntann12 gene, encoding an annexin, is induced upon Rhodoccocus fascians infection and during leafy gall development.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Olivier; Lowe, Yves Oukouomi; Burssens, Sylvia; VAN Raemdonck, Damien; Hutin, David; Boniver, Delphine; Geelen, Danny; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2007-03-01

    SUMMARY Annexins are calcium-binding proteins that have been associated in plants with different biological processes such as responses to abiotic stress and early nodulation stages. Until now, the implication of annexins during plant-pathogen interactions has not been reported. Here, a novel plant annexin gene induced in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures infected with the phytopathogenic bacterium Rhodococcus fascians (strain D188) has been identified. Expression of this gene, called Ntann12, is also induced, but to a lower extent, by a strain (D188-5) that is unable to induce leafy gall formation. This gene was also induced in BY-2 cells infected with Pseudomonas syringae but not in cells infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Escherichia coli. Ntann12 expression was also found to be stimulated by abiotic stress, including NaCl and abscissic acid, confirming a putative role in stress signal transduction pathways. In addition, promoter-GUS analyses using homozygous transgenic tobacco seedlings showed that the developmentally controlled expression of Ntann12 is altered upon R. fascians infection. Finally, up-regulation of Ntann12 during leafy gall ontogenesis was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Discussion is focused on the potential role of Ntann12 in biotic and abiotic stress responses and in plant development, both processes that may involve Ca(2+)-dependent signalling.

  19. Germin-like protein 2 gene promoter from rice is responsive to fungal pathogens in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Munir, Faiza; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad Saqlan; Mahmood, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Controlled transgene expression via a promoter is particularly triggered in response to pathogen infiltration. This is significant for eliciting disease-resistant features in crops through genetic engineering. The germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are known to be associated with plant and developmental stages. The 1107-bp Oryza sativa root GLP2 (OsRGLP2) gene promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was transformed into potato plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The OsRGLP2 promoter was activated in response to Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed 4-5-fold increase in promoter activity every 24 h following infection. There was a 15-fold increase in OsRGLP2 promoter activity after 72 h of F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. treatment and a 12-fold increase observed with A. solani Sorauer. Our results confirmed that the OsRGLP2 promoter activity was enhanced under fungal stress. Furthermore, a hyperaccumulation of H2O2 in transgenic plants is a clear signal for the involvement of OsRGLP2 promoter region in the activation of specific genes in the potato genome involved in H2O2-mediated defense response. The OsRGLP2 promoter evidently harbors copies of GT-I and Dof transcription factors (AAAG) that act in response to elicitors generated in the wake of pathogen infection.

  20. A Rosa canina WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene, RcWOX1, is involved in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Wen, Chao; Fan, Lusheng; Kou, Yaping; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2014-12-01

    Homeobox (HB) proteins are important transcription factors that regulate the developmental decisions of eukaryotes. WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors, known as a plant-specific HB family, play a key role in plant developmental processes. Our previous work has indicated that rhizoids are induced by auxin in rose (Rosa spp.), which acts as critical part of an efficient plant regeneration system. However, the function of WOX genes in auxin-induced rhizoid formation remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene from Rosa canina, RcWOX1, containing a typical homeodomain with 65 amino acid residues. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that RcWOX1 was expressed in the whole process of callus formation and in the early stage of rhizoid formation. Moreover, its expression was induced by auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing the RcWOX1pro::GUS and 35S::GFP-RcWOX1, RcWOX1 was specifically expressed in roots and localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of RcWOX1 in Arabidopsis increased lateral root density and induced upregulation of PIN1 and PIN7 genes. Therefore, we postulated that RcWOX1 is a functional transcription factor that plays an essential role in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

  1. A Clade-Specific Arabidopsis Gene Connects Primary Metabolism and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dallas C.; Zheng, Wenguang; Huang, Sheng; Du, Chuanlong; Zhao, Xuefeng; Yennamalli, Ragothaman M.; Sen, Taner Z.; Nettleton, Dan; Wurtele, Eve S.; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Nearly immobile, plants have evolved new components to be able to respond to changing environments. One example is Qua Quine Starch (QQS, AT3G30720), an Arabidopsis thaliana-specific orphan gene that integrates primary metabolism with adaptation to environment changes. SAQR (Senescence-Associated and QQS-Related, AT1G64360), is unique to a clade within the family Brassicaceae; as such, the gene may have arisen about 20 million years ago. SAQR is up-regulated in QQS RNAi mutant and in the apx1 mutant under light-induced oxidative stress. SAQR plays a role in carbon allocation: overexpression lines of SAQR have significantly decreased starch content; conversely, in a saqr T-DNA knockout (KO) line, starch accumulation is increased. Meta-analysis of public microarray data indicates that SAQR expression is correlated with expression of a subset of genes involved in senescence, defense, and stress responses. SAQR promoter::GUS expression analysis reveals that SAQR expression increases after leaf expansion and photosynthetic capacity have peaked, just prior to visible natural senescence. SAQR is expressed predominantly within leaf and cotyledon vasculature, increasing in intensity as natural senescence continues, and then decreasing prior to death. In contrast, under experimentally induced senescence, SAQR expression increases in vasculature of cotyledons but not in true leaves. In SAQR KO line, the transcript level of the dirigent-like disease resistance gene (AT1G22900) is increased, while that of the Early Light Induced Protein 1 gene (ELIP1, AT3G22840) is decreased. Taken together, these data indicate that SAQR may function in the QQS network, playing a role in integration of primary metabolism with adaptation to internal and environmental changes, specifically those that affect the process of senescence. PMID:27462324

  2. Gene dispensability.

    PubMed

    Korona, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    Genome-wide mutagenesis studies indicate that up to about 90% of genes in bacteria and 80% in eukaryotes can be inactivated individually leaving an organism viable, often seemingly unaffected. Several strategies are used to learn what these apparently dispensable genes contribute to fitness. Assays of growth under hundreds of physical and chemical stresses are among the most effective experimental approaches. Comparative studies of genomic DNA sequences continue to be valuable in discriminating between the core bacterial genome and the more variable niche-specific genes. The concept of the core genome appears currently unfeasible for eukaryotes but progress has been made in understanding why they contain numerous gene duplicates.

  3. Analysis of gene-disruption mutants of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene in rice, OsSPS1, shows the importance of sucrose synthesis in pollen germination.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tatsuro; Hashida, Yoichi; Aoki, Naohiro; Okamura, Masaki; Yonekura, Madoka; Ohto, Chikara; Terao, Tomio; Ohsugi, Ryu

    2014-08-01

    The molecular function of an isoform of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in rice, OsSPS1, was investigated using gene-disruption mutant lines generated by retrotransposon insertion. The progeny of the heterozygote of disrupted OsSPS1 (SPS1(+/-)) segregated into SPS1(+/+), SPS1(+/-), and SPS1(-/-) at a ratio of 1:1:0. This distorted segregation ratio, together with the expression of OsSPS1 in the developing pollen revealed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion assay, suggested that the disruption of OsSPS1 results in sterile pollen. This hypothesis was reinforced by reciprocal crosses of SPS1(+/-) plants with wild-type plants in which the disrupted OsSPS1 was not paternally transmitted to the progeny. While the pollen grains of SPS(+/-) plants normally accumulated starch during their development, pollen germination on the artificial media was reduced to half of that observed in the wild-type control. Overall, our data suggests that sucrose synthesis via OsSPS1 is essential in pollen germination in rice.

  4. AtMRP6/AtABCC6, an ATP-Binding Cassette transporter gene expressed during early steps of seedling development and up-regulated by cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Stéphane; Jacquet, Hélène; Vavasseur, Alain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Forestier, Cyrille

    2008-01-01

    Background ABC proteins constitute one of the largest families of transporters found in all living organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 120 genes encoding ABC transporters have been identified. Here, the characterization of one member of the MRP subclass, AtMRP6, is described. Results This gene, located on chromosome 3, is bordered by AtMRP3 and AtMRP7. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR) and the GUS reporter gene, we found that this gene is essentially expressed during early seedling development, in the apical meristem and at initiation point of secondary roots, especially in xylem-opposite pericycle cells where lateral roots initiate. The level of expression of AtMRP6 in response to various stresses was explored and a significant up-regulation after cadmium (Cd) treatment was detected. Among the three T-DNA insertion lines available from the Salk Institute library, two knock-out mutants, Atmrp6.1 and Atmrp6.2 were invalidated for the AtMRP6 gene. In the presence of Cd, development of leaves was more affected in the mutants than wild-type plants, whereas root elongation and ramification was comparable. Conclusion The position of AtMRP6 on chromosome 3, flanked by two other MRP genes, (all of which being induced by Cd) suggests that AtMRP6 is part of a cluster involved in metal tolerance, although additional functions in planta cannot be discarded. PMID:18307782

  5. Trichoderma genes

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  6. Genetic analysis of the regulation of TCH gene expression, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Janet

    2008-10-28

    investigation of CML24 function and regulation led to the finding that CML24 has a critical role in nitric oxide regulation. Distinct tilling mutant alleles demonstrated that CML24 can act as a switch in the response to day length perception. Because of potential redundancy with the related CML23 gene, CML23 T-DNA insertion mutants were identified and characterized. Together, CML23 and CML24 impact the autonomous regulatory pathway of the transition to flowering. Nitric oxide levels are elevated in cml23/cml24 double mutants. Therefore, CML23 and CML24 are potential calcium sensors regulate nitric oxide accumulation. In collaboration with Drs. McCann and Carpita, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to assess, verify and classify wall architectural changes that occur as a result of single XTH insertion mutations. Thirty-four homozygous mutant lines of Arabidopsis representing 21 members of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase gene family provided a set of mutants to characterize. Kohonen networks classified cell wall architectures of xth mutant lines and previously characterized cell wall mutants. The xth mutants were found to have chemical changes in their cell walls not detectable as phenotypic growth and development changes, consistent with the existence of feed-back loops that modify wall composition in response to a life-long deficiency of a cell wall enzyme. To gain insight into the potential physiological relevance of the distinct members of the XTH family, GUS reporter fusion genes were constructed, and plants expressing these transgenes were characterized to reveal spatial and temporal patterns of expression. In addition, Genevestigator sources were mined for comprehensive and comparative XTH expression regulation analysis. These data revealed that the Arabidopsis XTHs are likely expressed in every developmental stage from seed germination through flowering. All organs showed XTH::GUS expression and most, if not all, are found to express

  7. Ectopic over-expression of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-08-15

    Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene (SbpAPX) of an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata imparts abiotic stress endurance and plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress. The cloned SbpAPX gene was transformed to local variety of peanut and about 100 transgenic plants were developed using optimized in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation method. The T0 transgenic plants were confirmed for the gene integration; grown under controlled condition in containment green house facility; seeds were harvested and T1 plants were raised. Transgenic plants (T1) were further confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and histochemical GUS assay. About 40 transgenic plants (T1) were selected randomly and subjected for salt stress tolerance study. Transgenic plants remained green however non-transgenic plants showed bleaching and yellowish leaves under salt stress conditions. Under stress condition, transgenic plants continued normal growth and completed their life cycle. Transgenic peanut plants exhibited adequate tolerance under salt stress condition and thus could be explored for the cultivation in salt affected areas for the sustainable agriculture.

  8. The intergenic region of the maize defensin-like protein genes Def1 and Def2 functions as an embryo-specific asymmetric bidirectional promoter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Wenzhu; Li, Ye; Li, Suzhen; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhao, Qianqian; Fan, Yunliu; Lin, Min; Chen, Rumei

    2016-01-01

    Bidirectional promoters are identified in diverse organisms with widely varied genome sizes, including bacteria, yeast, mammals, and plants. However, little research has been done on any individual endogenous bidirectional promoter from plants. Here, we describe a promoter positioned in the intergenic region of two defensin-like protein genes, Def1 and Def2 in maize (Zea mays). We examined the expression profiles of Def1 and Def2 in 14 maize tissues by qRT-PCR, and the results showed that this gene pair was expressed abundantly and specifically in seeds. When fused to either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes, P ZmBD1, P ZmDef1, and P ZmDef2 were active and reproduced the expression patterns of both Def1 and Def2 genes in transformed immature maize embryos, as well as in developing seeds of transgenic maize. Comparative analysis revealed that PZmBD1 shared most of the expression characteristics of the two polar promoters, but displayed more stringent embryo specificity, delayed expression initiation, and asymmetric promoter activity. Moreover, a truncated promoter study revealed that the core promoters only exhibit basic bidirectional activity, while interacting with necessary cis-elements, which leads to polarity and different strengths. The sophisticated interaction or counteraction between the core promoter and cis-elements may potentially regulate bidirectional promoters. PMID:27279278

  9. Different functions of the histone acetyltransferase HAC1 gene traced in the model species Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boycheva, Irina; Vassileva, Valya; Revalska, Miglena; Zehirov, Grigor; Iantcheva, Anelia

    2017-03-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetyltransferases regulate the acetylation of histones and transcription factors, affecting chromatin structural organization, transcriptional regulation, and gene activation. To assess the role of HAC1, a gene encoding for a histone acetyltransferase in Medicago truncatula, stable transgenic lines with modified HAC1 expression in the model plants M. truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and used for functional analyses. Histochemical, transcriptional, flow cytometric, and morphological analyses demonstrated the involvement of HAC1 in plant growth and development, responses to internal stimuli, and cell cycle progression. Expression patterns of a reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused to the HAC1 promoter sequence were associated with young tissues comprised of actively dividing cells in different plant organs. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, driven by the HAC1 promoter, was detected in the nuclei and cytoplasm of root cells. Transgenic lines with HAC1 overexpression and knockdown showed a wide range of phenotypic deviations and developmental abnormalities, which provided lines of evidence for the role of HAC1 in plant development. Synchronization of A. thaliana root tips in a line with HAC1 knockdown showed the involvement of this gene in the acetylation of two core histones during S phase of the plant cell cycle.

  10. Gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Drugan, A; Miller, O J; Evans, M I

    1987-01-01

    Severe genetic disorders are potentially correctable by the addition of a normal gene into tissues. Although the technical problems involving integration, stable expression, and insertional damage to the treated cell are not yet fully solved, enough scientific progress has already been made to consider somatic cell gene therapy acceptable from both the ethical and scientific viewpoints. The resolutions to problems evolving from somatic cell gene therapy will help to overcome the technical difficulties encountered presently with germ line gene manipulation. This procedure would then become morally permissible as it will cause, in time, a reduction in the pool of abnormal genes in the population. Enhancement genetic engineering is technically feasible but morally unacceptable. Eugenic genetic engineering is not technically possible or ethically permissible in the foreseeable future.

  11. Variation in Rubisco activase (RCAβ) gene promoters and expression in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Deyue

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of Rubisco activase (RCA) gene regulation and altering its expression levels to optimize Rubisco activation may provide an approach to enhance plant productivity. However, the genetic mechanisms and the effect of RCA expression on phenotype are still unknown in soybean. This work analysed the expression of RCA genes and demonstrated that two RCA isoforms presented different expression patterns. Compared with GmRCAα, GmRCAβ was expressed at higher mRNA and protein levels. In addition, GmRCAα and GmRCAβ were positively correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and seed yield, suggesting that changes in expression of RCA has a potential applicability in breeding for enhanced soybean productivity. To identify the genetic factors that cause expression level variation of GmRCAβ, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping was combined with allele mining in a natural population including 219 landraces. The eQTL mapping showed that a combination of both cis- and trans-acting eQTLs might control GmRCAβ expression. As promoters can affect both cis- and trans-acting eQTLs by altering cis-acting regulatory elements or transcription factor binding sites, this work subsequently focused on the promoter region of GmRCAβ. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the GmRCAβ promoter were identified and shown to correlate with expression level diversity. These SNPs were classified into two groups, A and B. Further transient expression showed that GUS expression driven by the group A promoter was stronger than that by the group B promoter, suggesting that promoter sequence types could influence gene expression levels. These results would improve understanding how variation within promoters affects gene expression and, ultimately, phenotypic diversity in natural populations. PMID:24170743

  12. [Gene and gene sequence patenting].

    PubMed

    Bergel, S D

    1998-01-01

    According to the author, the patenting of elements isolated or copied from the human body boils down to the issue of genes and gene sequences. He describes the current situation from the comparative law standpoint (U.S. and Spanish law mainly) and then esamines the biotechnology industry's position.

  13. Effects of sponge bleaching on ammonia-oxidizing Archaea: distribution and relative expression of ammonia monooxygenase genes associated with the barrel sponge Xestospongia muta.

    PubMed

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Erwin, Patrick M; Pawlik, Joseph R; Song, Bongkeun

    2010-10-01

    Sponge-mediated nitrification is an important process in the nitrogen cycle, however, nothing is known about how nitrification and symbiotic Archaea may be affected by sponge disease and bleaching events. The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is a prominent species on Caribbean reefs that contains cyanobacterial symbionts, the loss of which results in two types of bleaching: cyclic, a recoverable condition; and fatal, a condition associated with the disease-like sponge orange band (SOB) syndrome and sponge death. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses, clone libraries, and relative mRNA quantification of ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) were performed using a RNA transcript-based approach to characterize the active ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) community present in bleached, non-bleached, and SOB tissues of cyclically and fatally bleached sponges. We found that non-bleached and cyclically bleached tissues of X. muta harbored a unique Crenarchaeota community closely related to those reported for other sponges. In contrast, bleached tissue from the most degraded sponge contained a Crenarchaeota community that was more similar to those found in sediment and sand. Although there were no significant differences in amoA expression among the different tissues, amoA expression was higher in the most deteriorated tissues. Results suggest that a shift in the Crenarchaeota community precedes an increase in amoA gene expression in fatally bleached sponges, while cyclic bleaching did not alter the AOA community structure and its amoA gene expression.

  14. Stress Tolerance and Glucose Insensitive Phenotypes in Arabidopsis Overexpressing the CpMYB10 Transcription Factor Gene1

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos, Miguel Angel; Bartels, Dorothea; Iturriaga, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum has the ability to survive complete dehydration. In an attempt to further understand desiccation tolerance in this plant, the CpMYB10 transcription factor gene was functionally characterized. CpMYB10 is rapidly induced by dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in leaves and roots, but no expression was detected in fully hydrated tissues. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments showed binding of rCpMYB10 to specific mybRE elements within the LEA Cp11-24 and CpMYB10 promoters. Localization of CpMYB10 transcript by in situ reverse transcription-PCR reactions showed expression in vascular tissues, parenchyma, and epidermis both in leaves and roots in response to ABA. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants transformed with CpMYB10 promoter fused to GUS gene showed reporter expression under ABA and stress conditions in several organs. Overexpression of CpMYB10 cDNA in Arabidopsis led to desiccation and salt tolerance of transgenics lines. Interestingly, it was found that plants overexpressing CpMYB10 exhibited Glc-insensitive and ABA hypersensitive phenotypes. Therefore, our results indicate that CpMYB10 in Arabidopsis is mediating stress tolerance and altering ABA and Glc signaling responses. PMID:15122027

  15. Characterization of Arabidopsis FPS isozymes and FPS gene expression analysis provide insight into the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors in seeds.

    PubMed

    Keim, Verónica; Manzano, David; Fernández, Francisco J; Closa, Marta; Andrade, Paola; Caudepón, Daniel; Bortolotti, Cristina; Vega, M Cristina; Arró, Montserrat; Ferrer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes encoding farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase (FPS), the prenyl diphoshate synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of FPP from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In this study, we provide evidence that the two Arabidopsis short FPS isozymes FPS1S and FPS2 localize to the cytosol. Both enzymes were expressed in E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Despite FPS1S and FPS2 share more than 90% amino acid sequence identity, FPS2 was found to be more efficient as a catalyst, more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of NaCl, and more resistant to thermal inactivation than FPS1S. Homology modelling for FPS1S and FPS2 and analysis of the amino acid differences between the two enzymes revealed an increase in surface polarity and a greater capacity to form surface salt bridges of FPS2 compared to FPS1S. These factors most likely account for the enhanced thermostability of FPS2. Expression analysis of FPS::GUS genes in seeds showed that FPS1 and FPS2 display complementary patterns of expression particularly at late stages of seed development, which suggests that Arabidopsis seeds have two spatially segregated sources of FPP. Functional complementation studies of the Arabidopsis fps2 knockout mutant seed phenotypes demonstrated that under normal conditions FPS1S and FPS2 are functionally interchangeable. A putative role for FPS2 in maintaining seed germination capacity under adverse environmental conditions is discussed.

  16. Genes V.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, B.

    1994-12-31

    This fifth edition book encompasses a wide range of topics covering 1,272 pages. The book is arranged into nine parts with a total of 36 chapters. These nine parts include Introduction; DNA as a Store of Information; Translation; Constructing Cells; Control of Prokaryotypic Gene Expression; Perpetuation of DNA; Organization of the Eukaryotypic Genome; Eukaryotypic Transcription and RNA Processing; The Dynamic Genome; and Genes in Development.

  17. Regulation of flagellar, motility and chemotaxis genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum by the VisN/R-Rem cascade.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Del Bel, Kate L; Bustard, Denise E; Greenwood, Paige R; Steedman, Audrey E; Hynes, Michael F

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the regulatory roles of VisN, VisR and Rem in the expression of flagellar, motility and chemotaxis genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae strains VF39SM and 3841. Individual mutations in the genes encoding these proteins resulted in a loss of motility and an absence of flagella, indicating that these regulatory genes are essential for flagellar synthesis and function. Transcriptional experiments involving gusA-gene fusions in wild-type and mutant backgrounds were performed to identify the genes under VisN/R and Rem regulation. Results showed that the chemotaxis and motility genes of R. leguminosarum could be separated into two groups: one group under VisN/R-Rem regulation and another group that is independent of this regulation. VisN and VisR regulate the expression of rem, while Rem positively regulates the expression of flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, motA, motB, che1 and mcpD. All of these genes except mcpD are located within the main motility and chemotaxis gene cluster of R. leguminosarum. Other chemotaxis and motility genes, which are found outside of the main motility gene cluster (che2 operon, flaH for VF39SM, and flaG) or are plasmid-borne (flaE and mcpC), are not part of the VisN/R-Rem regulatory cascade. In addition, all genes exhibited the same regulation pattern in 3841 and in VF39SM, except flaE and flaH. flaE is not regulated by VisN/R-Rem in 3841 but it is repressed by Rem in VF39SM. flaH is under VisN/R-Rem regulation in 3841, but not in VF39SM. A kinetics experiment demonstrated that a subset of the flagellar genes is continuously expressed in all growth phases, indicating the importance of continuous motility for R. leguminosarum under free-living conditions. On the other hand, motility is repressed under symbiotic conditions. Nodulation experiments showed that the transcriptional activators VisN and Rem are dramatically downregulated in the nodules, suggesting that the symbiotic downregulation of motility-related genes

  18. Identification of two novel Rhizoctonia solani-inducible cis-acting elements in the promoter of the maize gene, GRMZM2G315431

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Chen, Jing; Yang, Fangfang; Wei, Shutong; Kong, Lingguang; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to myriad pathogen stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these stress signals are perceived and transduced are poorly understood. In this study, the maize gene GRMZM2G315431 was identified to be highly inducible by Rhizoctonia solani infection, suggesting that the promoter of GRMZM2G315431 (pGRMZM2G315431) might contain a specific cis-acting element responsive to R. solani attack. To identify the R. solani-responsive element in pGRMZM2G315431, a series of binary plant transformation vectors were constructed by fusing pGRMZM2G315431 or its deletion-derivatives with the reporter genes. In the transient gene expression system of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves inoculated with R. solani, GUS quantification suggested that the DNA fragment contains the unknown pathogen-inducible cis-elements in the −1323 to −1212 region. Furthermore, detailed quantitative assays showed that two novel cis-elements, GTTGA in the −1243 to −1239 region and TATTT in the −1232 to −1228 region, were responsible for the R. solani-inducible activity. These two cis-elements were also identified to have R. solani-specific-inducible activity in stable transgenic rice plants, suggesting the existence of a novel regulation mechanism involved in the interaction between R. solani and Zea mays. PMID:28163300

  19. Overexpression of MusaMYB31, a R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene indicate its role as a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in banana

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lignin and polyphenols are important cellular components biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is regulated by some important transcription factors including R2R3 MYB transcription factors. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a banana R2R3-MYB transcription factor (MusaMYB31) by overexpression in transgenic banana plants and evaluated its potential role in regulating biosynthesis of lignin and polyphenols. Sequence analysis of MusaMYB31 indicated its clustering with members of subgroup 4 (Sg4) of R2R3MYB family which are well known for their role as repressors of lignin biosynthesis. Expression analysis indicated higher expression of MusaMYB31 in corm and root tissue, known for presence of highly lignified tissue than other organs of banana. Overexpression of MusaMYB31 in banana cultivar Rasthali was carried out and four transgenic lines were confirmed by GUS histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blot. Histological and biochemical analysis suggested reduction of cell wall lignin in vascular elements of banana. Transgenic lines showed alteration in transcript levels of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes including lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Reduction of total polyphenols content in transgenic lines was in line with the observation related to repression of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. This study suggested the potential role of MusaMYB31 as repressor of lignin and polyphenols biosynthesis in banana. PMID:28234982

  20. Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X; Sardana, R; Kaplan, H; Altosaar, I

    1998-03-17

    Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, the CaMV35S promoter, and the Brassica Bp10 gene promoter to achieve high and tissue-specific expression of the lepidopteran-specific delta-endotoxins. The integration, expression, and inheritance of these genes were demonstrated in R0 and R1 generations by Southern, Northern, and Western analyses and by other techniques. Accumulation of high levels (up to 3% of soluble proteins) of CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) proteins was detected in R0 plants. Bioassays with R1 transgenic plants indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to two major rice insect pests, striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) and yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with mortalities of 97-100% within 5 days after infestation, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in transgenic rice plants.

  1. Overexpression of MusaMYB31, a R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene indicate its role as a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in banana.

    PubMed

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-01-01

    Lignin and polyphenols are important cellular components biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is regulated by some important transcription factors including R2R3 MYB transcription factors. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a banana R2R3-MYB transcription factor (MusaMYB31) by overexpression in transgenic banana plants and evaluated its potential role in regulating biosynthesis of lignin and polyphenols. Sequence analysis of MusaMYB31 indicated its clustering with members of subgroup 4 (Sg4) of R2R3MYB family which are well known for their role as repressors of lignin biosynthesis. Expression analysis indicated higher expression of MusaMYB31 in corm and root tissue, known for presence of highly lignified tissue than other organs of banana. Overexpression of MusaMYB31 in banana cultivar Rasthali was carried out and four transgenic lines were confirmed by GUS histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blot. Histological and biochemical analysis suggested reduction of cell wall lignin in vascular elements of banana. Transgenic lines showed alteration in transcript levels of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes including lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Reduction of total polyphenols content in transgenic lines was in line with the observation related to repression of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. This study suggested the potential role of MusaMYB31 as repressor of lignin and polyphenols biosynthesis in banana.

  2. Ectopic expression of the mycorrhiza-specific chitinase gene Mtchit 3-3 in Medicago truncatula root-organ cultures stimulates spore germination of glomalean fungi.

    PubMed

    Elfstrand, Malin; Feddermann, Nadja; Ineichen, Kurt; Nagaraj, Vinay Jantakahalli; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas; Salzer, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Expression of Mtchit 3-3, a class III chitinase gene, is specifically induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula and its transcripts accumulate in cells containing arbuscules. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed roots and root-organ cultures of M. truncatula were used to study effects of Mtchit 3-3 on AM fungi. * This work provides evidence for enzymatic activity of the Mtchit 3-3 gene product and shows with promoter:gus fusions that a 2 kb fragment located 5' upstream from the translational start codon of Mtchit 3-3 is sufficient to confer arbuscule-dependent gene expression. By fusing the Mtchit 3-3 coding region to the CaMV 35S promoter the expression pattern was disrupted. Surprisingly, disruption stimulated spore germination of Glomus intraradices and Glomus constrictum, and in the case of G. intraradices resulted in a higher probability of root colonization and spore formation. However, no effect on the abundance of arbuscules within colonized roots became apparent. These observations demonstrate that disruption of the tight arbuscule-dependent expression pattern of Mtchit 3-3 has effects on the early interaction between roots and AM fungi.

  3. Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

    2010-05-01

    A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava.

  4. Systematic mutagenesis of all predicted gntR genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris reveals a GntR family transcriptional regulator controlling hypersensitive response and virulence.

    PubMed

    An, Shi-Qi; Lu, Guang-Tao; Su, Hui-Zhao; Li, Rui-Fang; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2011-09-01

    The GntR family is one of the most abundant and widely distributed groups of helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulators in bacteria. Six open reading frames in the genome of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris were predicted to encode GntR regulators. All six of the predicted GntR-encoding genes were individually mutagenized and mutants from five of them were successfully obtained. Plant disease response assays revealed that one, whose product belongs to the YtrA subfamily and has been named HpaR1, is involved in the hypersensitive response (HR) and virulence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and in vitro transcription assays revealed that HpaR1 could repress its own transcription level through binding to its promoter sequence, indicating an autoregulatory feedback inhibition mechanism for HpaR1 expression. Promoter-gusA reporter and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that HpaR1 positively and negatively affects the expression of HR and pathogenicity (hrp) genes in host plant and standard media, respectively. Constitutive expression of the key hrp regulator, hrpG, in the hpaR1 mutant could bypass the requirement of HpaR1 for the induction of wild-type HR, suggesting that HpaR1 regulates the expression of hrp genes that encode the type III secretion system via hrpG.

  5. Attention Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  6. Designer Genes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

    1983-01-01

    Genetic technologies may soon help fill some of the most important needs of humanity from food to energy to health care. The research of major designer genes companies and reasons why the initial mad rush for biotechnology has slowed are reviewed. (SR)

  7. Production of MPS VII mouse (Gustm(hE540A·mE536A)Sly) doubly tolerant to human and mouse β-glucuronidase

    PubMed Central

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Orii, Koji O.; Vogler, Carole; Grubb, Jeffrey H.; Snella, Elizabeth M.; Gutierrez, Monica; Dieter, Tatiana; Holden, Christopher C.; Sukegawa, Kazuko; Orii, Tadao; Kondo, Naomi; Sly, William S.

    2006-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII, Sly syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by β-glucuronidase (GUS) deficiency. A naturally occurring mouse model of that disease has been very useful for studying experimental approaches to therapy. However, immune responses can complicate evaluation of the long-term benefits of enzyme replacement or gene therapy delivered to adult MPS VII mice. To make this model useful for studying the long-term effectiveness and side effects of experimental therapies delivered to adult mice, we developed a new MPS VII mouse model, which is tolerant to both human and murine GUS. To achieve this, we used homologous recombination to introduce simultaneously a human cDNA transgene expressing inactive human GUS into intron 9 of the murine Gus gene and a targeted active site mutation (E536A) into the adjacent exon 10. When the heterozygote products of germline transmission were bred to homozygosity, the homozygous mice expressed no GUS enzyme activity but expressed inactive human GUS protein highly and were tolerant to immune challenge with human enzyme. Expression of the mutant murine Gus gene was reduced to about 10% of normal levels, but the inactive murine GUS enzyme also conferred tolerance to murine GUS. This MPS VII mouse model should be useful to evaluate therapeutic responses in adult mice receiving repetitive doses of enzyme or mice receiving gene therapy as adults. Heterozygotes expressed only 9.5–26% of wild-type levels of murine GUS instead of the expected 50%, indicating a dominant-negative effect of the mutant enzyme monomers on the activity of GUS tetramers in different tissues. Corrective gene therapy in this model should provide high enough levels of expression of normal GUS monomers to overcome the dominant negative effect of mutant monomers on newly synthesized GUS tetramers in most tissues. PMID:12700165

  8. The promoter of the wheat puroindoline-a gene (PinA) exhibits a more complex pattern of activity than that of the PinB gene and is induced by wounding and pathogen attack in rice.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Alexandre; Meynard, Donaldo; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Joudrier, Philippe; Gautier, Marie-Françoise

    2007-01-01

    Puroindolines form the molecular basis of wheat grain hardness. However, little is known about puroindoline gene regulation. We previously reported that the Triticum aestivum puroindoline-b gene (PinB) promoter directs beta-glucuronidase gene (uidA) seed-specific expression in transgenic rice. In this study, we isolated a puroindoline-a gene (PinA), analyzed PinA promoter activity by 5' deletions and compared PinA and PinB promoters in transgenic rice. Seeds of PinA-1214 and PinB-1063 transgenic plants strongly expressed uidA in endosperm, in the aleurone layer and in epidermis cells in a developmentally regulated manner. The GUS activity was also observed in PinA-1214 embryos. Whereas the PinB promoter is seed specific, the PinA promoter also directed, but to a lower level, uidA expression in roots of seedlings and in the vascular tissues of palea and pollen grains of dehiscent anthers during flower development. In addition, the PinA promoter was induced by wounding and by Magnaporthe grisea. By deletion analysis, we showed that the "390-bp" PinA promoter drives the same expression pattern as the "1214-bp" promoter. Moreover, the "214-bp" PinA promoter drives uidA expression solely in pollen grains of dehiscent anthers. The presence of putative cis-regulatory elements that may be related to PinA expression is discussed from an evolutionary point of view. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we showed that putative cis-elements (WUN-box, TCA motifs and as-1-like binding sites) whose presence in the PinA promoter may be related to wounding and/or the pathogen response form complexes with nuclear extracts isolated from wounded wheat leaves.

  9. Genetic diversity of Guernsey population using pedigree data and gene-dropping simulations.

    PubMed

    Melka, M G; Sargolzaei, M; Miglior, F; Schenkel, F

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the trend of within-breed genetic diversity and identify major causes leading to loss of genetic diversity in Guernsey breed in three countries. Pedigree files of Canadian (GCN), South African (GSA) and American (GUS) Guernsey populations containing 130 927, 18 593 and 1 851 624 records, respectively, were analyzed. Several parameters derived from the in-depth pedigree analyses were used to measure trends and current levels of genetic diversity. Pedigree completeness index of GCN, GSA and GUS populations, in the most recent year (2007), was 97%, 74% and 79%, respectively, considering four generations back in the analysis. The rate of inbreeding in each population was 0.19%, 0.16% and 0.17% between 2002 and 2007, respectively. For the same period, the estimated effective population size for GCN, GSA and GUS was 46, 57 and 46, respectively. The estimated percentage of genetic diversity lost within each population over the last four decades was 8%, 3% and 5%, respectively. The relative proportion of genetic diversity lost due to random genetic drift in the three populations was 93%, 91% and 86%, respectively. In conclusion, the results suggested that GCN and GUS have lost more genetic diversity than GSA over the past four decades, and this loss is gaining momentum due to increasing rates of inbreeding. Therefore, strategies such as optimum contribution selection and migration of genetic material are advised to increase effective population size, particularly in GCN and GUS.

  10. Isolation and characterization of two putative cytokinin oxidase genes related to grain number per spike phenotype in wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Liu, Weihua; Yang, Xinming; Gao, Ainong; Li, Xiuquan; Wu, Xiaoyang; Li, Lihui

    2011-04-01

    Cytokinin oxidases are involved in the regulation of plant cytokinin levels, which are important in regulating plant growth and development, and may affect the yield of cereals. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two putative cytokinin oxidase genes, TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2, from wheat. Both TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 are mapped to the 0.24-0.55 region of the short arm of wheat chromosome 3D and their coding proteins are most closely related to OsCKX2. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 belong to the clustered clade I of monocot plants. Tissue expression pattern show that both TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 genes are highly expressed in young spikes and culms of wheat. The detailed spatial expression pattern of TaCKX2.1 were further conducted by in situ hybridization and promoter-fused GUS expression in Arabidopsis experiments. A collection of 12 typical common wheat varieties exhibiting grain number per spike ranging from 31 to 139 were used for the transcription abundance detection of two TaCKX2 genes. A significantly positive correlation between expression level of two TaCKX2 genes and grain number per spike suggests that TaCKX2.1 and TaCKX2.2 on wheat chromosome 3DS may play an important role in wheat spike morphogenesis.

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of yam (Dioscorea rotundata): an important tool for functional study of genes and crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans; Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Manoharan, Rajesh; Tripathi, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Although genetic transformation of clonally propagated crops has been widely studied as a tool for crop improvement and as a vital part of the development of functional genomics resources, there has been no report of any existing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of yam (Dioscorea spp.) with evidence of stable integration of T-DNA. Yam is an important crop in the tropics and subtropics providing food security and income to over 300 million people. However, yam production remains constrained by increasing levels of field and storage pests and diseases. A major constraint to the development of biotechnological approaches for yam improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Dioscorea rotundata using axillary buds as explants. Two cultivars of D. rotundata were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vectors containing selectable marker and reporter genes. After selection with appropriate concentrations of antibiotic, shoots were developed on shoot induction and elongation medium. The elongated antibiotic-resistant shoots were subsequently rooted on medium supplemented with selection agent. Successful transformation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analysis, and reporter genes assay. Expression of gusA gene in transgenic plants was also verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Transformation efficiency varied from 9.4 to 18.2% depending on the cultivars, selectable marker genes, and the Agrobacterium strain used for transformation. It took 3–4 months from Agro-infection to regeneration of complete transgenic plant. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of D. rotundata using axillary buds as explants, which provides a useful platform for future genetic engineering studies in this economically important

  12. Endothelial Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization re- Cancer: principles and practice of oncology. Philadelphia: Lippincott- vealed an RNA sequence (GenBank accession...Lau YC, Campbell AP, et al. Suppression subtractive hybridization : A method for generating differentially regulated or tissue-tissues, EG-1 appears to...this gene, we investigated its interaction with Src and members of the called suppression subtractive hybridization (12). In human mitogen-activated

  13. Stable genetic transformation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) via particle gun-mediated gene transfer using embryo axes from mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, M; Tarakeswari, M; Sujatha, M

    2008-09-01

    The first successful attempt to produce stably transformed castor plants through direct gene transfer using particle gun (BioRad) is described. Decotyledonated embryos from mature seeds were germinated and the embryonic axis was induced to proliferate on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ) and subjected to bombardment after 5-7 days of pre-incubation. The physical parameters for transient transformation were optimized using the UidA gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene and with hygromycin-phosphotransferase (hptII) gene as selectable marker. Statistical analysis revealed that helium pressure, target distance, osmoticum, microcarrier type and size, DNA quantity, explant type and number of bombardments had significant influence on transformation efficiency, while the effect of genotype was non-significant. Of the different variables evaluated, embryonic axes from mature seeds, a target distance of 6.0 cm, helium pressure of 1,100 psi, 0.6 microm gold microcarriers, single time bombardment and with both pre- and post-osmoticum were found ideal. Selection of putative transformants was done on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) BA and hygromycin (20, 40 and 60 mg l(-1)) for 3 cycles. The stable integration of the incorporated gene into castor genome was confirmed with PCR and Southern analysis of T0 and T1 plants. Transformation frequency in terms of plants grown to maturity and showing the presence of the introduced genes was 1.4%. The present results demonstrate the possibility of transformation of embryonic meristematic tissues of castor through particle delivery system.

  14. The association of homeobox gene expression with stem cell formation and morphogenesis in cultured Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Chen, S-K; Kurdyukov, S; Kereszt, A; Wang, X-D; Gresshoff, P M; Rose, R J

    2009-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is induced in vitro in Medicago truncatula 2HA by auxin and cytokinin but rarely in wild type Jemalong. The putative WUSCHEL (MtWUS), CLAVATA3 (MtCLV3) and the WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene WOX5 (MtWOX5) were investigated in M. truncatula (Mt) and identified by the similarity to Arabidopsis WUS, CLV3 and WOX5 in amino acid sequence, phylogeny and in planta and in vitro expression patterns. MtWUS was induced throughout embryogenic cultures by cytokinin after 24-48 h and maximum expression occurred after 1 week, which coincides with the induction of totipotent stem cells. During this period there was no MtCLV3 expression to suppress MtWUS. MtWUS expression, as illustrated by promoter-GUS studies, subsequently localised to the embryo, and there was then the onset of MtCLV3 expression. This suggests that the expression of the putative MtCLV3 coincides with the WUS-CLAVATA feedback loop becoming operational. RNAi studies showed that MtWUS expression is essential for callus and somatic embryo production. Based on the presence of MtWUS promoter binding sites, MtWUS may be required for the induction of MtSERF1, postulated to have a key role in the signalling required for SE induced in 2HA. MtWOX5 expressed in auxin-induced root primordia and root meristems and appears to be involved in pluripotent stem cell induction. The evidence is discussed that the homeobox genes MtWUS and MtWOX5 are "hijacked" for stem cell induction, which is key to somatic embryo and de novo root induction. In relation to SE, a role for WUS in the signalling involved in induction is discussed.

  15. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions.

  16. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412

  17. The sugar beet gene encoding the sodium/proton exchanger 1 (BvNHX1) is regulated by a MYB transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Adler, Guy; Blumwald, Eduardo; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2010-06-01

    Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX) are key players in the plant response to salinity and have a central role in establishing ion homeostasis. NHXs can be localized in the tonoplast or plasma membranes, where they exchange sodium ions for protons, resulting in sodium ions being removed from the cytosol into the vacuole or extracellular space. The expression of most plant NHX genes is modulated by exposure of the organisms to salt stress or water stress. We explored the regulation of the vacuolar NHX1 gene from the salt-tolerant sugar beet plant (BvNHX1) using Arabidopsis plants transformed with an array of constructs of BvHNX1::GUS, and the expression patterns were characterized using histological and quantitative assays. The 5 UTR of BvNHX1, including its intron, does not modulate the activity of the promoter. Serial deletions show that a 337 bp promoter fragment sufficed for driving activity that indistinguishable from that of the full-length (2,464 bp) promoter. Mutating four putative cis-acting elements within the 337 bp promoter fragment revealed that MYB transcription factor(s) are involved in the activation of the expression of BvNHX1 upon exposure to salt and water stresses. Gel mobility shift assay confirmed that the WT but not the mutated MYB binding site is bound by nuclear protein extracted from salt-stressed Beta vulgaris leaves.

  18. Isolation and characterization of the organ-specific and light-inducible promoter of the gene encoding rubisco activase in potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Qu, D; Song, Y; Li, W M; Pei, X W; Wang, Z X; Jia, S R; Zhang, Y Q

    2011-04-12

    Constitutive promoters have been widely used in crop biotechnology applications. Tissue-specific or inducible promoters, however, have advantages in some cases. We isolated the 731-bp 5' flanking sequence of a potato (Solanum tuberosum) gene, encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) activase (RCA), which was isolated by genome walking. By using GUS as a reporter and with Northern blot analysis, the 702-bp fragment (referred to as StRCAp), ranging from nt -731 to -30 relative to the initiation code of the RCA gene, was analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants. The activity of StRCAp in leaves was 0.4-fold less than that of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and was expressed throughout the green part of the light-grown transgenic T(1) seedlings, including cytoledons, leaves and young stems, but not roots. Further deletion analysis revealed that a shorter fragment (nt -249 to -30, StRCAp2) retained light-inducible features in cytoledons and leaves, but showed no detectable activity in young stems and roots. Although the activity of StRCAp2 in leaves was reduced significantly compared with that of StRCAp, the overall data indicated that cis-elements sufficient to regulate organ-specific and light-inducible transcription are within the 220-bp fragment. There is potential for application of StRCAp in plant genetic engineering.

  19. Cellular localization of the embryo-specific hybrid PRP from Zea mays, and characterization of promoter regulatory elements of its gene.

    PubMed

    Jose-Estanyol, M; Puigdomènech, P

    2012-10-01

    The expression, regulation and cellular localization of ZmHyPRP, a gene marker of embryo differentiation whose expression declines after ABA induction, was studied. ZmHyPRP is a proline-rich protein with a C-terminal domain having eight cysteines in a CM8 pattern. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells, transformed with a 2x35S::ZmHyPRP-GFP construction, indicated the protein is present in vesicles lining the membrane of the cell. The ZmHyPRP gene expression is under the control of classic promoter seed-specific regulatory elements such as Sph/RY and G-boxes, suggesting regulation by B3 and b-ZIP transcription factors. Promoter deletion analysis, by particle-bombardment transient transformation of maize immature embryos with serial deletions of the promoter fused to GUS, showed the presence of two negative regulatory elements, NE1 (-2070 to -1280) and NE2 (-232 to -178), in the ZmHyPRP promoter. By selective deletion or mutation of ZmHyPRP regulatory promoter elements we conclude that the promoter expression is attenuated by the NE2 element as well as by the G-box2 and the Sph1-2 box together with the G-box2.

  20. Development of a bipartite ecdysone-responsive gene switch for the oomycete Phytophthora infestans and its use to manipulate transcription during axenic culture and plant infection.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Judelson, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression systems have been proven to be useful tools for the elucidation of gene function in many taxa. Here, we report the development of the first useful inducible promoter system for an oomycete, based on an ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the ecdysone analogue methoxyfenozide. In Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen, a monopartite transactivator containing the VP16 activation domain from herpes simplex virus, the GAL4 DNA-binding domain from yeast and the EcR receptor domain from the spruce budworm enabled high levels of expression of a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, but unacceptable basal activity in the absence of the methoxyfenozide inducer. Greatly improved performance was obtained using a bipartite system in which transcription is activated by a heterodimer between a chimera of VP16 and the migratory locust retinoid X receptor, and a separate EcR-DNA-binding domain chimera. Transformants were obtained that exhibited >100-fold activation of the reporter by methoxyfenozide, with low basal levels of expression and induced activity approaching that of the strong ham34 promoter. Performance varied between transformants, probably as a result of position effects. The addition of methoxyfenozide enabled strong induction during hyphal growth, zoosporogenesis and colonization of tomato. No significant effects of the inducer or transactivators on growth, development or pathogenicity were observed. The technology should therefore be a useful addition to the arsenal of methods for the study of oomycete plant pathogens.

  1. The Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS is expressed primarily in regions of cell proliferation and encodes a nuclear protein that regulates LEAFY expression.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, M J; Lee, I; Weigel, D; Amasino, R M

    1999-04-01

    Mutations in the LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis) confer a late-flowering phenotype, indicating that LD normally functions to promote the floral transition. RNA and protein blot analyses, along with the analysis of transgenic plants containing a fusion between a genomic fragment of LD and the reporter gene uidA (GUS), indicate that LD is expressed primarily ipical proliferative regions of the shoot and root, including the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia. Subcellular localization studies indicate that LD is a nuclear protein, consistent with its previously proposed transcriptional regulatory role. We have also found that in an apetala1 cauliflower (ap1 cal) background the ld mutation converts the reproductive shoot apex to a more vegetative state, a phenotype that is similar to that seen for the leafy (lfy) mutant. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis indicates that LFY levels are drastically reduced at the apex of ld ap1 cal plants after bolting. These data are consistent with the idea that at least one function of LD is to participate in the regulation of LFY.

  2. odd-skipped genes and lines organize the notum anterior-posterior axis using autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Del Signore, Steven J; Hayashi, Teru; Hatini, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The growth and patterning of Drosophila wing and notum primordia depend on their subdivision into progressively smaller domains by secreted signals that emanate from localized sources termed organizers. While the mechanisms that organize the wing primordium have been studied extensively, those that organize the notum are incompletely understood. The genes odd-skipped (odd), drumstick (drm), sob, and bowl comprise the odd-skipped family of C(2)H(2) zinc finger genes, which has been implicated in notum growth and patterning. Here we show that drm, Bowl, and eyegone (eyg), a gene required for notum patterning, accumulate in nested domains in the anterior notum. Ectopic drm organized the nested expression of these anterior notum genes and downregulated the expression of posterior notum genes. The cell-autonomous induction of Bowl and Eyg required bowl, while the non-autonomous effects were independent of bowl. The homeodomain protein Bar is expressed along the anterior border of the notum adjacent to cells expressing the Notch (N) ligand Delta (Dl). bowl was required to promote Bar and repress Dl expression to pattern the anterior notum in a cell-autonomous manner, while lines acted antagonistically to bowl posterior to the Bowl domain. Our data suggest that the odd-skipped genes act at the anterior notum border to organize the notum anterior-posterior (AP) axis using both autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

  3. Construction of efficient and effective transformation vectors for palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Bhore, Subhash Janardhan; Shah, Farida Habib

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil obtained from E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera is known to have about 44% of palmitic acid (C16:0). Palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase (PATE) is one of the key enzymes involved in plastidial fatty acid biosynthesis; and it determines the level of the C16:0 assimilation in oilseeds. This enzyme's activity in oil palm is responsible for high (> 44 % in E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera and 25 % in E. oleifera) content of C16:0 in its oil. By post-transcriptional PATE gene silencing, C16:0 content can be minimized for nutritional value improvement of the palm oil. The objective of this study was the construction of novel transformation vectors for PATE gene silencing. Six different transformation vectors targeted against PATE gene were constructed using 619 bp long PATE gene (5' region) fragment (from GenBank AF507115). In one set of three transformation vectors, PATE gene fragment was fused with CaMV 35S promoter in antisense, intron-spliced inverted repeat (ISIR), and inverted repeat (IR) orientations to generate antisense mRNA and hair-pin RNAs (hpRNA). In another set of three transformation vectors with same design, CaMV 35S was replaced with Oil palm mesocarp tissue-specific promoter (MSP). The expression cassette of antisense, ISIR, and IR of PATE gene fragments were constructed in primary cloning vector, pHANNIBAL or its derivative/s. Finally, all 6 expression cassettes were sub-cloned into pCAMBIA 1301 which contains the Hygromycinr and the GUS reporter genes for transformant selection and transformation detection respectively. The results of the RE analyses of the constructs and sequence analyses of PATE and MSP shows and confirms the orientation, size and locations of all the components from constructs. We hypothesize that 4 (pISIRPATE-PC, pIRPATE-PC, pMISIRPATE-PC and pMIRPATE-PC) out of 6 transformation vectors constructed in this study will be efficient and effective in palmitoyl-ACP thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm. Abbreviations anti

  4. Histone acetylation accompanied with promoter sequences displaying differential expression profiles of B-class MADS-box genes for phalaenopsis floral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Pei-Shan; Chen, Tien-Chih; Yu, Chun-Wei; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Wu, Keqiang; Wu, Wen-Luan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Five B-class MADS-box genes, including four APETALA3 (AP3)-like PeMADS2∼5 and one PISTILLATA (PI)-like PeMADS6, specify the spectacular flower morphology in orchids. The PI-like PeMADS6 ubiquitously expresses in all floral organs. The four AP3-like genes, resulted from two duplication events, express ubiquitously at floral primordia and early floral organ stages, but show distinct expression profiles at late floral organ primordia and floral bud stages. Here, we isolated the upstream sequences of PeMADS2∼6 and studied the regulatory mechanism for their distinct gene expression. Phylogenetic footprinting analysis of the 1.3-kb upstream sequences of AP3-like PeMADS2∼5 showed that their promoter regions have sufficiently diverged and contributed to their subfunctionalization. The amplified promoter sequences of PeMADS2∼6 could drive beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression in all floral organs, similar to their expression at the floral primordia stage. The promoter sequence of PeMADS4, exclusively expressed in lip and column, showed a 1.6∼3-fold higher expression in lip/column than in sepal/petal. Furthermore, we noted a 4.9-fold increase in histone acetylation (H3K9K14ac) in the translation start region of PeMADS4 in lip as compared in petal. All these results suggest that the regulation via the upstream sequences and increased H3K9K14ac level may act synergistically to display distinct expression profiles of the AP3-like genes at late floral organ primordia stage for Phalaenopsis floral morphogenesis.

  5. An invariant aspartic acid in the DNA glycosylase domain of DEMETER is necessary for transcriptional activation of the imprinted MEDEA gene

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeonhee; Harada, John J.; Goldberg, Robert B.; Fischer, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Helix-hairpin-helix DNA glycosylases are typically small proteins that initiate repair of DNA by excising damaged or mispaired bases. An invariant aspartic acid in the active site is involved in catalyzing the excision reaction. Replacement of this critical residue with an asparagine severely reduces catalytic activity but preserves enzyme stability and structure. The Arabidopsis DEMETER (DME) gene encodes a large 1,729-aa polypeptide with a 200-aa DNA glycosylase domain. DME is expressed primarily in the central cell of the female gametophyte. DME activates maternal allele expression of the imprinted MEDEA (MEA) gene in the central cell and is required for seed viability. We mutated the invariant aspartic acid at position 1304 in DME to asparagine (D1304N) to determine whether the catalytic activity of the DNA glycosylase domain is required for DME function in vivo. Transgenes expressing wild-type DME in the central cell rescue seed abortion caused by a mutation in the endogenous DME gene and activate maternal MEA:GFP transcription. However, transgenes expressing the D1304N mutant DME do not rescue seed abortion or activate maternal MEA:GFP transcription. Whereas ectopic expression of the wild-type DME polypeptide in pollen is sufficient to activate ectopic paternal MEA and MEA:GUS expression, equivalent expression of the D1304N mutant DME in pollen failed to do so. These results show that the conserved aspartic acid residue is necessary for DME to function in vivo and suggest that an active DNA glycosylase domain, normally associated with DNA repair, promotes gene transcription that is essential for gene imprinting. PMID:15128940

  6. Interaction of a rhizobial DNA-binding protein with the promoter region of a plant leghemoglobin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Welters, P.; Metz, B.; Felix, G.; Palme, K. ); Szczyglowski, K. ); Bruijn, F.J. de Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI )

    1993-08-01

    A nucleotide sequence was identified approximately 650 bp upstream of the Sesbania rostrata leghemoglobin gene Srglb3 start codon, which interacts specifically with a proteinaceous DNA-binding factor found in nodule extracts but not in extracts from leaves or root. The binding site for this factor was delimited using footprinting techniques. The DNA-binding activity of this factor was found to be heat stable, dependent on divalent cations, and derived from the (infecting) Azorhizobium caulinodans bacteria or bacteroids (A. caulinodans bacterial binding factor 1, AcBBF1). A 9- to 10-kD protein was isolated from a free-living culture of A. caulinodans that co-purifies with the DNA-binding activity (A. caulinodans bacterial binding protein 1, AcBBP1) and interacts specifically with its target (S. rostrata bacterial binding site 1, SrBBS1). The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal 27 residues of AcBBP1 was determined and was found to share significant similarity (46% identity; 68% similarity) with a domain of the herpes simplex virus major DNA-binding protein infected cell protein 8(ICP8). An insertion mutation in the SrBBS1 was found to result in a substantial reduction of the expression of a Srglb3-gus reporter gene fusion in nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants, suggesting a role for this element in Srglb3 promoter activity. Based on these results, the authors propose that (a) bacterial transacting factor(s) may play a role in infected cell-specific expression of the symbiotically induced plant lb genes. 70 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Eventos de Desconexão no Cometa P/Halley sob a Ótica do Modelo de Reconexão Magnética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1998-08-01

    531 imagens contidas no The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (Brandt et al., 1992) cobrindo o período de setembro de 1985 a julho de 1986 foram analisadas visando identificar, caracterizar as propriedades e correlacionar estruturas morfológicas da cauda de plasma do cometa P/Halley. A análise revelou 47 eventos de desconexão (DEs) (Niedner & Brandt, 1979; Jockers, 1985; Celnik et al., 1988; Delva et al., 1991). A análise completa de todas as imagens encontra-se publicada em Voelzke & Matsuura, 1998. A distribuição dos DEs na distância heliocêntrica apresenta um caráter bimodal possivelmente associado com a distribuição espacial das fronteiras de setor magnético do meio interplanetário. Os 47 DEs fotografados em 47 imagens distintas permitiram determinar 19 origens de DEs, ou seja, o instante em que supostamente o cometa cruzou a fronteira entre setores magnéticos do vento solar. Tais dados cometários foram comparados com dados do vento solar provenientes de medidas realizadas in situ pelas sondas IMP-8, ICE e PVO, que mediram a variação da velocidade do vento solar, da densidade e da pressão dinâmica durante o intervalo analisado. Os dados destas sondas espaciais em conjunto com os da sonda Vega 1 foram usados para determinar o tempo das passagens do lençol de corrente. Com base nos dados das sondas foram calculadas as coordenadas heliográficas retroativas do lençol de corrente na "superfície fonte" dos mapas sinóticos do campo magnético de Hoeksema, 1989. O cálculo retroativo é feito através de um modelo simples de expressão do vento solar com velocidade uniforme, sendo considerada a co-rotação da magnetosfera com o Sol. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados desta comparação e a análise cinemática da origem dos DEs, determinada sob a hipótese que o plasma desconectado de um dado DE afasta-se com velocidade constante do núcleo cometário (Voelzke & Matsuura, 1998) e compara esta análise com outras que

  8. Bill and Gus Go Fishing: Discovering "Tintern Abbey" along the Banks of "The River Why."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Describes how pairing Wordsworth's poem ("Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey") with a contemporary novel ("The River Why" by David James Duncan) makes the classic poem come alive for students. Argues that, regardless of the poem, Duncan's novel is ideally suited for classroom study. (SR)

  9. Compare Gene Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-31

    Compare Gene Profiles (CGP) performs pairwise gene content comparisons among a relatively large set of related bacterial genomes. CGP performs pairwise BLAST among gene calls from a set of input genome and associated annotation files, and combines the results to generate lists of common genes, unique genes, homologs, and genes from each genome that differ substantially in length from corresponding genes in the other genomes. CGP is implemented in Python and runs in a Linux environment in serial or parallel mode.

  10. Ectopic localization of auxin and cytokinin in tobacco seedlings by the plant-oncogenic AK-6b gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens AKE10.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Sato, Rui; Takahashi, Miho; Hashiba, Noriko; Ogawa, Atsushi; Toyofuku, Kyoko; Sawata, Taiki; Ohsawa, Yuki; Ueda, Kenji; Wabiko, Hiroetsu

    2013-10-01

    The oncogenic 6b gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces a number of morphological and metabolic alterations in plants. Although molecular functions associated with the 6b genes have been proposed, including auxin transport, sugar transport, transcriptional regulation, and miRNA metabolism, so far an unequivocal conclusion has not been obtained. We investigated the association between auxin accumulation and tumor development of the tobacco seedlings expressing the AK-6b gene under the control of the dexamethasone-inducible promoter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) localization was examined by immunochemical staining with monoclonal antibody against IAA and by histochemical analysis using the IAA-specific induced construct, DR5::GUS (β-glucuronidase). Both procedures indicated that IAA preferentially accumulated in the tumorous protrusions as well as in newly developing vascular bundles in the tumors. Furthermore, true leaves also showed abaxial IAA localization, leading to altered leaves in which the adaxial and abaxial identities were no longer evident. Co-localization of cytokinin and auxin in the abaxial tumors was verified by immunochemical staining with an antibody against cytokinin. Treatment of AK-6b-seedlings with N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, promoted the morphological severity of phenotypes, whereas 1-naphthoxyacetic acid, a specific auxin influx carrier inhibitor, induced tumor regression on cotyledons and new tumorous proliferations on hypocotyls. Prominent accumulation of both auxin and cytokinin was observed in both regressed and newly developing tumors. We suggest from these results that modulation of auxin/cytokinin localization as a result of AK-6b gene expression is responsible for the tumorous proliferation.

  11. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-cyclase Gene Promoter from Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Suwen; Zhang, Yin; Zheng, Xiongjie; Zhu, Kaijie; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene β-cyclases are key enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of LCYb1 in citrus with abundant carotenoid accumulation are still unclear. To understand the molecular basis of CsLCYb1 expression, we isolated and functionally characterized the 5′ upstream sequences of CsLCYb1 from citrus. The full-length CsLCYb1 promoter and a series of its 5′ deletions were fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and transferred into different plants (tomato, Arabidopsis and citrus callus) to test the promoter activities. The results of all transgenic species showed that the 1584 bp upstream region from the translational start site displayed maximal promoter activity, and the minimal promoter containing 746 bp upstream sequences was sufficient for strong basal promoter activity. Furthermore, the CsLCYb1 promoter activity was developmentally and tissue-specially regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis, and it was affected by multiple hormones and environmental cues in transgenic citrus callus under various treatments. Finer deletion analysis identified an enhancer element existing as a tandem repeat in the promoter region between -574 to -513 bp and conferring strong promoter activity. The copy numbers of the enhancer element differed among various citrus species, leading to the development of a derived simple sequence repeat marker to distinguish different species. In conclusion, this study elucidates the expression characteristics of the LCYb1 promoter from citrus and further identifies a novel enhancer element required for the promoter activity. The characterized promoter fragment would be an ideal candidate for genetic engineering and seeking of upstream trans-acting elements. PMID:27679644

  12. Beak-shaped grain 1/TRIANGULAR HULL 1, a DUF640 gene, is associated with grain shape, size and weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dawei; Zhou, Ya; Ye, Shenghai; Zeng, Longjun; Zhang, Xiaoming; He, Zuhua

    2013-03-01

    Grain shape and size both determine grain weight and therefore crop yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling grain shape and size are still largely unknown. Here, we isolated a rice mutant, beak-shaped grain1 (bsg1), which produced beak-shaped grains of decreased width, thickness and weight with a loosely interlocked lemma and palea that were unable to close tightly. Starch granules were also irregularly packaged in the bsg1 grains. Consistent with the lemma and palea shapes, the outer parenchyma cell layers of these bsg1 tissues developed fewer cells with decreased size. Map-based cloning revealed that BSG1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein, TRIANGULAR HULL 1, of unknown function. Quantitative PCR and GUS fusion reporter assays showed that BSG1 was expressed mainly in the young panicle and elongating stem. The BSG1 mutation affected the expression of genes potentially involved in the cell cycle and GW2, an important regulator of grain size in rice. Our results suggest that BSG1 determines grain shape and size probably by modifying cell division and expansion in the grain hull.

  13. The IDA/IDA-LIKE and PIP/PIP-LIKE gene families in Arabidopsis: phylogenetic relationship, expression patterns, and transcriptional effect of the PIPL3 peptide

    PubMed Central

    Vie, Ane Kjersti; Najafi, Javad; Liu, Bin; Winge, Per; Butenko, Melinka A.; Hornslien, Karina S.; Kumpf, Robert; Aalen, Reidunn B.; Bones, Atle M.; Brembu, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Peptide ligands play crucial roles in the life cycle of plants by modulating the innate immunity against pathogens and regulating growth and developmental processes. One well-studied example is INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA), which controls floral organ abscission and lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis thaliana. IDA belongs to a family of five additional IDA-LIKE (IDL) members that have all been suggested to be involved in regulation of Arabidopsis development. Here we present three novel members of the IDL subfamily and show that two of them are strongly and rapidly induced by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, we provide data that the recently identified PAMP-INDUCED SECRETED PEPTIDE (PIP) and PIP-LIKE (PIPL) peptides, which show similarity to the IDL and C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) peptides, are not only involved in innate immune response in Arabidopsis but are also induced by abiotic stress. Expression patterns of the IDA/IDL and PIP/PIPL genes were analysed using in silico data, qRT-PCR and GUS promoter lines. Transcriptomic responses to PIPL3 peptide treatment suggested a role in regulation of biotic stress responses and cell wall modification. PMID:26062745

  14. Characterization of the β-1,3-glucanase gene in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by cloning and genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L X; Ding, X; Wang, H C; Sui, J M; Wang, J-S

    2014-03-17

    Plant β-1,3-glucanases are commonly involved in disease resistance. This report describes the cloning and genetic transformation of a β-1,3-glucanase gene from peanut. The gene was isolated from both the genomic DNA and cDNA of peanut variety Huayu20 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The DNA sequence contained 1471 bp including two exons and one intron, and the coding sequence contained 1047 bp that coded for a 348-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 38.8 kDa. The sequence was registered in NCBI (GenBank accession No. JQ801335) and was designated as Ah-Glu. As determined by BLAST analysis, the Ah-Glu protein has 42-90% homology with proteins from Oryza sativa (BAC83070.1), Zea mays (NP_001149308), Arabidopsis thaliana (NP_200470.1), Medicago sativa (ABD91577.1), and Glycine max (XP_003530515.1). The over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-Glu containing Ah-Glu was constructed, confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and transformed into peanut variety Huayu22 by Agrobacterium EHA105-mediated transformation. The putative transformed plants (T0) were confirmed by PCR amplification. RT-PCR analysis and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the transferred Ah-Glu was expressed as mRNA and protein. In a laboratory test, the transgenic plants were found to be more resistant to the fungal pathogen Cercospora personata than the non-transgenic plants were.

  15. Jasmonate-responsive expression of paclitaxel biosynthesis genes in Taxus cuspidata cultured cells is negatively regulated by the bHLH transcription factors TcJAMYC1, TcJAMYC2, and TcJAMYC4

    PubMed Central

    Lenka, Sangram K.; Nims, N. Ezekiel; Vongpaseuth, Kham; Boshar, Rosemary A.; Roberts, Susan C.; Walker, Elsbeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Taxus cell suspension culture is a sustainable technology for the industrial production of paclitaxel (Taxol®), a highly modified diterpene anti-cancer agent. The methyl jasmonate (MJ)-mediated paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway is not fully characterized, making metabolic engineering efforts difficult. Here, promoters of seven genes (TASY, T5αH, DBAT, DBBT, PAM, BAPT, and DBTNBT), encoding enzymes of the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway were isolated and used to drive MJ-inducible expression of a GUS reporter construct in transiently transformed Taxus cells, showing that elicitation of paclitaxel production by MJ is regulated at least in part at the level of transcription. The paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway promoters contained a large number of E-box sites (CANNTG), similar to the binding sites for the key MJ-inducible transcription factor AtMYC2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Three MJ-inducible MYC transcription factors similar to AtMYC2 (TcJAMYC1, TcJAMYC2, and TcJAMYC4) were identified in Taxus. Transcriptional regulation of paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway promoters by transient over expression of TcJAMYC transcription factors indicated a negative rather than positive regulatory role of TcJAMYCs on paclitaxel biosynthetic gene expression. PMID:25767476

  16. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    PubMed

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place.

  17. Autism and Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

  18. Compare Gene Calls

    SciTech Connect

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-07-05

    Compare Gene Calls (CGC) is a Python code used for combining and comparing gene calls from any number of gene callers. A gene caller is a computer program that predicts the extends of open reading frames within genomes of biological organisms.

  19. Isolation and Functional Validation of Salinity and Osmotic Stress Inducible Promoter from the Maize Type-II H+-Pyrophosphatase Gene by Deletion Analysis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; He, Qiuxia; Xu, Changzheng; Ding, Zhaohua; Zhang, Kewei; Li, Kunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Salinity and drought severely affect both plant growth and productivity, making the isolation and characterization of salinity- or drought-inducible promoters suitable for genetic improvement of crop resistance highly desirable. In this study, a 1468-bp sequence upstream of the translation initiation codon ATG of the promoter for ZmGAPP (maize Type-II H+-pyrophosphatase gene) was cloned. Nine 5´ deletion fragments (D1–D9) of different lengths of the ZmGAPP promoter were fused with the GUS reporter and translocated into tobacco. The deletion analysis showed that fragments D1–D8 responded well to NaCl and PEG stresses, whereas fragment D9 and CaMV 35S did not. The D8 segment (219 bp; -219 to -1 bp) exhibited the highest promoter activity of all tissues, with the exception of petals among the D1–D9 transgenic tobacco, which corresponds to about 10% and 25% of CaMV 35S under normal and NaCl or PEG stress conditions, respectively. As such, the D8 segment may confer strong gene expression in a salinity and osmotic stress inducible manner. A 71-bp segment (-219 to -148 bp) was considered as the key region regulating ZmGAPP response to NaCl or PEG stress, as transient transformation assays demonstrated that the 71-bp sequence was sufficient for the salinity or osmotic stress response. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating ZmGAPP expression, and that the D8 promoter would be an ideal candidate for moderating expression of drought and salinity response genes in transgenic plants. PMID:27101137

  20. Use of the VvMybA1 gene for non-destructive quantification of promoter activity via color histogram analysis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a convenient plant-based reporter system to analyze promoters and facilitate selection of genetically engineered plants. The VvMybA1 gene of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) regulates the last metabolic step of anthocyanin biosynthesis and its ectopic expression leads to anthocyanin production in otherwise non-pigmented cells. To develop an anthocyanin-based quantitative reporter system, the VvMybA1 gene was isolated from V. vinifera 'Merlot' and placed under control of three promoters to test its ability to distinguish different activity levels. Promoters included a double enhanced CaMV35S (d35S) promoter, a double enhanced CsVMV (dCsVMV) promoter or a bi-directional dual promoter (BDDP), resulting in transformation vectors DAT, CAT and DEAT, respectively. These vectors were introduced into grapevine and tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for transient and stable expression analysis. A linear relationship between the mean red brightness (MRB) and optical density (OD) values with a 0.99 regression coefficient was identified in a dilution series of anthocyanin, thus allowing the use of histogram data for non-destructive and real-time assessment of transcriptional activity. Results of histogram-based analysis of color images from transformed grapevine somatic embryos (SE) and various tissues of transgenic tobacco showed a consistent six to sevenfold promoter activity increase of DEAT over DAT. This expression increase was verified by spectroscopic measurement of anthocyanin concentrations in sepal tissue of transgenic tobacco plants. These results were congruent with previously findings of promoter activity derived from GUS fluorometric assay, thus demonstrating for the first time that the VvMybA1 gene could offer a simple, versatile and reliable plant-based alternative for quantitative promoter analysis in plants.

  1. 4-Coumarate-CoA Ligase-Like Gene OsAAE3 Negatively Mediates the Rice Blast Resistance, Floret Development and Lignin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Guo, Zhenhua; Gu, Fengwei; Ke, Shanwen; Sun, Dayuan; Dong, Shuangyu; Liu, Wei; Huang, Ming; Xiao, Wuming; Yang, Guili; Liu, Yongzhu; Guo, Tao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jiafeng; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Although adenosine monophosphate (AMP) binding domain is widely distributed in multiple plant species, detailed molecular functions of AMP binding proteins (AMPBPs) in plant development and plant-pathogen interaction remain unclear. In the present study, we identified an AMPBP OsAAE3 from a previous analysis of early responsive genes in rice during Magnaporthe oryzae infection. OsAAE3 is a homolog of Arabidopsis AAE3 in rice, which encodes a 4-coumarate-Co-A ligase (4CL) like protein. A phylogenetic analysis showed that OsAAE3 was most likely 4CL-like 10 in an independent group. OsAAE3 was localized to cytoplasm, and it could be expressed in various tissues. Histochemical staining of transgenic plants carrying OsAAE3 promoter-driven GUS (β-glucuronidase) reporter gene suggested that OsAAE3 was expressed in all tissues of rice. Furthermore, OsAAE3-OX plants showed increased susceptibility to M. Oryzae, and this finding was attributable to decreased expression of pathogen-related 1a (PR1) and low level of peroxidase (POD) activity. Moreover, OsAAE3 over-expression resulted in increased content of H2O2, leading to programmed cell-death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, OsAAE3 over-expression repressed the floret development, exhibiting dramatically twisted glume and decreased fertility rate of anther. Meanwhile, the expressions of lignin biosynthesis genes were significantly decreased in OsAAE3-OX plants, thereby leading to reduced lignin content. Taken together, OsAAE3 functioned as a negative regulator in rice blast resistance, floret development, and lignin biosynthesis. Our findings further expanded the knowledge in functions of AMBPs in plant floret development and the regulation of rice-fungus interaction. PMID:28119718

  2. Epilepsy-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Liu; Xu, Hai-Qing; Shi, Yi-Wu; Yi, Yong-Hong; He, Na; Liao, Wei-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Development in genetic technology has led to the identification of an increasing number of genes associated with epilepsy. These discoveries will both provide the basis for including genetic tests in clinical practice and improve diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. By searching through several databases (OMIM, HGMD, and EpilepsyGene) and recent publications on PubMed, we found 977 genes that are associated with epilepsy. We classified these genes into 4 categories according to the manifestation of epilepsy in phenotypes. We found 84 genes that are considered as epilepsy genes: genes that cause epilepsies or syndromes with epilepsy as the core symptom. 73 genes were listed as neurodevelopment-associated genes: genes associated with both brain-development malformations and epilepsy. Several genes (536) were epilepsy-related: genes associated with both physical or other systemic abnormalities and epilepsy or seizures. We found 284 additional genes putatively associated with epilepsy; this requires further verification. These integrated data will provide new insights useful for both including genetic tests in the clinical practice and evaluating the results of genetic tests. We also summarized the epilepsy-associated genes according to their function, with the goal to better characterize the association between genes and epilepsies and to further understand the mechanisms underlying epilepsy.

  3. Gene regulation in cancer gene therapy strategies.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Ian; Lehouritis, Panos; Niculescu-Duvaz, Ion; Marais, Richard; Springer, Caroline J

    2003-10-01

    Regulation of expression in gene therapy is considered to be a very desirable goal, preventing toxic effects and improving biological efficacy. A variety of systems have been reported in an ever widening range of applications, this paper describes these systems with specific reference to cancer gene therapy.

  4. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  5. Human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, J S; Keating, A; Hozumi, N

    1997-01-01

    Human gene therapy and its application for the treatment of human genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, cancer, and other diseases, are discussed. Gene therapy is a technique in which a functioning gene is inserted into a human cell to correct a genetic error or to introduce a new function to the cell. Many methods, including retroviral vectors and non-viral vectors, have been developed for both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer into cells. Vectors need to be developed that efficiently transfer genes to target cells, and promoter systems are required that regulate gene expression according to physiologic needs of the host cell. There are several safety and ethical issues related to manipulating the human genome that need to be resolved. Current gene therapy efforts focus on gene insertion into somatic cells only. Gene therapy has potential for the effective treatment of genetic disorders, and gene transfer techniques are being used for basic research, for example, in cancer, to examine the underlying mechanism of disease. There are still many technical obstacles to be overcome before human gene therapy can become a routine procedure. The current human genome project provides the sequences of a vast number of human genes, leading to the identification, characterization, and understanding of genes that are responsible for many human diseases.

  6. Molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase-encoding genes (aprBA) among sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2007-10-01

    Dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (AprBA) is a key enzyme of the dissimilatory sulfate-reduction pathway. Homologues have been found in photo- and chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes (SOP), in which they are postulated to operate in the reverse direction, oxidizing sulfite to APS. Newly developed PCR assays allowed the amplification of 92-93 % (2.1-2.3 kb) of the APS reductase locus aprBA. PCR-based screening of 116 taxonomically divergent SOP reference strains revealed a distribution of aprBA restricted to photo- and chemotrophs with strict anaerobic or at least facultative anaerobic lifestyles, including Chlorobiaceae, Chromatiaceae, Thiobacillus, Thiothrix and invertebrate symbionts. In the AprBA-based tree, the SOP diverge into two distantly related phylogenetic lineages, Apr lineages I and II, with the proteins of lineage II (Chlorobiaceae and others) in closer affiliation to the enzymes of the sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). This clustering is discordant with the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB) phylogeny and indicates putative lateral aprBA gene transfer from SRP to the respective SOB lineages. In support of lateral gene transfer (LGT), several beta- and gammaproteobacterial species harbour both aprBA homologues, the DsrAB-congruent 'authentic' and the SRP-related, LGT-derived gene loci, while some relatives possess exclusively the SRP-related apr genes as a possible result of resident gene displacement by the xenologue. The two-gene state might be an intermediate in the replacement of the resident essential gene. Collected genome data demonstrate the correlation between the AprBA tree topology and the composition/arrangement of the apr gene loci (occurrence of qmoABC or aprM genes) from SRP and SOP of lineages I and II. The putative functional role of the SRP-related APS reductases in photo- and chemotrophic SOP is discussed.

  7. Characterization of a Maize Wip1 Promoter in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengxue; Lian, Yun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yunjun; Wang, Guoying

    2013-01-01

    The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1) several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2) the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3) the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4) the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5) there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6) the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5′-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5′-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5′-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity. PMID:24322445

  8. Gene therapy for blindness.

    PubMed

    Sahel, José-Alain; Roska, Botond

    2013-07-08

    Sight-restoring therapy for the visually impaired and blind is a major unmet medical need. Ocular gene therapy is a rational choice for restoring vision or preventing the loss of vision because most blinding diseases originate in cellular components of the eye, a compartment that is optimally suited for the delivery of genes, and many of these diseases have a genetic origin or genetic component. In recent years we have witnessed major advances in the field of ocular gene therapy, and proof-of-concept studies are under way to evaluate the safety and efficacy of human gene therapies. Here we discuss the concepts and recent advances in gene therapy in the retina. Our review discusses traditional approaches such as gene replacement and neuroprotection and also new avenues such as optogenetic therapies. We conjecture that advances in gene therapy in the retina will pave the way for gene therapies in other parts of the brain.

  9. Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162265.html Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene Discovery might one day lead to drugs to ... HealthDay News) -- Scientists say they've identified a gene variant that dampens the desire to drink alcohol. ...

  10. Genes and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gametes (reproductive cells). One gamete will carry the mutant form of the gene of interest, and the ... by having parents who are heterozygous carriers for mutant forms of the gene in question but are ...

  11. RhEXPA4, a rose expansin gene, modulates leaf growth and confers drought and salt tolerance to Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lü, Peitao; Kang, Mei; Jiang, Xinqiang; Dai, Fanwei; Gao, Junping; Zhang, Changqing

    2013-06-01

    Drought and high salinity are major environmental conditions limiting plant growth and development. Expansin is a cell-wall-loosening protein known to disrupt hydrogen bonds between xyloglucan and cellulose microfibrils. The expression of expansin increases in plants under various abiotic stresses, and plays an important role in adaptation to these stresses. We aimed to investigate the role of the RhEXPA4, a rose expansin gene, in response to abiotic stresses through its overexpression analysis in Arabidopsis. In transgenic Arabidopsis harboring the Pro RhEXPA4 ::GUS construct, RhEXPA4 promoter activity was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), drought and salt, particularly in zones of active growth. Transgenic lines with higher RhEXPA4 level developed compact phenotypes with shorter stems, curly leaves and compact inflorescences, while the lines with relatively lower RhEXPA4 expression showed normal phenotypes, similar to the wild type (WT). The germination percentage of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was higher than that of WT seeds under salt stress and ABA treatments. Transgenic plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses: they displayed higher survival rates after drought, and exhibited more lateral roots and higher content of leaf chlorophyll a under salt stress. Moreover, high-level RhEXPA4 overexpressors have multiple modifications in leaf blade epidermal structure, such as smaller, compact cells, fewer stomata and midvein vascular patterning in leaves, which provides them with more tolerance to abiotic stresses compared to mild overexpressors and the WT. Collectively, our results suggest that RhEXPA4, a cell-wall-loosening protein, confers tolerance to abiotic stresses through modifying cell expansion and plant development in Arabidopsis.

  12. Isolation and functional characterization of cold-regulated promoters, by digitally identifying peach fruit cold-induced genes from a large EST dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tittarelli, Andrés; Santiago, Margarita; Morales, Andrea; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Background Cold acclimation is the process by which plants adapt to the low, non freezing temperatures that naturally occur during late autumn or early winter. This process enables the plants to resist the freezing temperatures of winter. Temperatures similar to those associated with cold acclimation are also used by the fruit industry to delay fruit ripening in peaches. However, peaches that are subjected to long periods of cold storage may develop chilling injury symptoms (woolliness and internal breakdown). In order to better understand the relationship between cold acclimation and chilling injury in peaches, we isolated and functionally characterized cold-regulated promoters from cold-inducible genes identified by digitally analyzing a large EST dataset. Results Digital expression analyses of EST datasets, revealed 164 cold-induced peach genes, several of which show similarities to genes associated with cold acclimation and cold stress responses. The promoters of three of these cold-inducible genes (Ppbec1, Ppxero2 and Pptha1) were fused to the GUS reporter gene and characterized for cold-inducibility using both transient transformation assays in peach fruits (in fruta) and stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana. These assays demonstrate that the promoter Pptha1 is not cold-inducible, whereas the Ppbec1 and Ppxero2 promoter constructs are cold-inducible. Conclusion This work demonstrates that during cold storage, peach fruits differentially express genes that are associated with cold acclimation. Functional characterization of these promoters in transient transformation assays in fruta as well as stable transformation in Arabidopsis, demonstrate that the isolated Ppbec1 and Ppxero2 promoters are cold-inducible promoters, whereas the isolated Pptha1 promoter is not cold-inducible. Additionally, the cold-inducible activity of the Ppbec1 and Ppxero2 promoters suggest that there is a conserved heterologous cold-inducible regulation of these promoters in

  13. The rose (Rosa hybrida) NAC transcription factor 3 gene, RhNAC3, involved in ABA signaling pathway both in rose and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guimei; Jiang, Xinqiang; Lü, Peitao; Liu, Jitao; Gao, Junping; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Plant transcription factors involved in stress responses are generally classified by their involvement in either the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent or the ABA-independent regulatory pathways. A stress-associated NAC gene from rose (Rosa hybrida), RhNAC3, was previously found to increase dehydration tolerance in both rose and Arabidopsis. However, the regulatory mechanism involved in RhNAC3 action is still not fully understood. In this study, we isolated and analyzed the upstream regulatory sequence of RhNAC3 and found many stress-related cis-elements to be present in the promoter, with five ABA-responsive element (ABRE) motifs being of particular interest. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the putative RhNAC3 promoter sequence fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene revealed that RhNAC3 is expressed at high basal levels in leaf guard cells and in vascular tissues. Moreover, the ABRE motifs in the RhNAC3 promoter were observed to have a cumulative effect on the transcriptional activity of this gene both in the presence and absence of exogenous ABA. Overexpression of RhNAC3 in A. thaliana resulted in ABA hypersensitivity during seed germination and promoted leaf closure after ABA or drought treatments. Additionally, the expression of 11 ABA-responsive genes was induced to a greater degree by dehydration in the transgenic plants overexpressing RhNAC3 than control lines transformed with the vector alone. Further analysis revealed that all these genes contain NAC binding cis-elements in their promoter regions, and RhNAC3 was found to partially bind to these putative NAC recognition sites. We further found that of 219 A. thaliana genes previously shown by microarray analysis to be regulated by heterologous overexpression RhNAC3, 85 are responsive to ABA. In rose, the expression of genes downstream of the ABA-signaling pathways was also repressed in RhNAC3-silenced petals. Taken together, we propose that the rose RhNAC3 protein

  14. Myocardial gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isner, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy is proving likely to be a viable alternative to conventional therapies in coronary artery disease and heart failure. Phase 1 clinical trials indicate high levels of safety and clinical benefits with gene therapy using angiogenic growth factors in myocardial ischaemia. Although gene therapy for heart failure is still at the pre-clinical stage, experimental data indicate that therapeutic angiogenesis using short-term gene expression may elicit functional improvement in affected individuals.

  15. Reading and Generalist Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading…

  16. Characterization of a pollen-preferential gene OSIAGP from rice (Oryza sativa L. subspecies indica) coding for an arabinogalactan protein homologue, and analysis of its promoter activity during pollen development and pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Anand, Saurabh; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2010-06-01

    During differential screening of inflorescence-specific cDNA libraries from Oryza sativa indica, an arabinogalactan protein (OSIAGP) cDNA (586 bp) expressing preferentially in the inflorescence has been isolated. It encodes an arabinogalactan protein of 59 amino acids (6.4 kDa) with a transmembrane domain and a secretory domain at the N terminus. The protein shows homology with AGP23 from Arabidopsis, and its homologue in japonica rice is located on chromosome 6. OSIAGP transcripts also accumulate in shoots and roots of rice seedling grown in the dark, but light represses expression of the gene. Analysis of a genomic clone of OSIAGP revealed that its promoter contains several pollen-specificity and light-regulatory elements. The promoter confers pollen-preferential activity on gus, starting from the release of microspores to anther dehiscence in transgenic tobacco, and is also active during pollen tube growth. Analysis of pollen preferential activity of the promoter in the transgenic rice system revealed that even the approximately 300 bp fragment has activity in pollen and the anther wall and further deletion down to approximately 100 bp completely abolishes this activity, which is consistent with in-silico analysis of the promoter. Arabinogalactan proteins have been shown to be involved in the cell elongation process. The homology of OSIAGP with AGP23 and the fact that seedling growth in the dark and pollen tube growth are events based on cell elongation strengthen the possibility of OSIAGP performing a similar function.

  17. FIT interacts with AtbHLH38 and AtbHLH39 in regulating iron uptake gene expression for iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Youxi; Wu, Huilan; Wang, Ning; Li, Jie; Zhao, Weina; Du, Juan; Wang, Daowen; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2008-03-01

    Iron is an essential element for plant growth and development. Iron homeostasis in plants is tightly regulated at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. Several bHLH transcription factors involved in iron homeostasis have been identified recently. However, their regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that the transcription factor FIT interacted with AtbHLH38 and AtbHLH39 and directly conferred the expression regulation of iron uptake genes for iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that AtbHLH38 or AtbHLH39 interacted with FIT, a central transcription factor involved in iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Expression of FIT/AtbHLH38 or FIT/AtbHLH39 in yeast cells activated GUS expression driven by ferric chelate reductase (FRO2) and ferrous transporter (IRT1) promoters. Overexpression of FIT with either AtbHLH38 or AtbHLH39 in plants converted the expression of the iron uptake genes FRO2 and IRT1 from induced to constitutive. Further analysis revealed that FRO2 and IRT1 were not regulated at the posttranscriptional level in these plants because IRT1 protein accumulation and high ferric chelate reductase activity were detected in the overexpression plants under both iron deficiency and iron sufficiency. The double overexpression plants accumulated more iron in their shoots than wild type or the plants overexpressing either AtbHLH38, AtbHLH39 or FIT. Our data support that ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and ferrous-transporter IRT1 are the targets of the three transcription factors and the transcription of FRO2 and IRT1 is directly regulated by a complex of FIT/AtbHLH38 or FIT/AtbHLH39.

  18. Promoter isolation and characterization of GhAO-like1, a Gossypium hirsutum gene similar to multicopper oxidases that is highly expressed in reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Lambret-Frotté, Julia; Artico, Sinara; Muniz Nardeli, Sarah; Fonseca, Fernando; Brilhante Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fatima; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most economically important cultivated crops. It is the major source of natural fiber for the textile industry and an important target for genetic modification for both biotic stress and herbicide tolerance. Therefore, the characterization of genes and regulatory regions that might be useful for genetic transformation is indispensable. The isolation and characterization of new regulatory regions is of great importance to drive transgene expression in genetically modified crops. One of the major drawbacks in cotton production is pest damage; therefore, the most promising, cost-effective, and sustainable method for pest control is the development of genetically resistant cotton lines. Considering this scenario, our group isolated and characterized the promoter region of a MCO (multicopper oxidase) from Gossypium hirsutum, named GhAO-like1 (ascorbate oxidase-like1). The quantitative expression, together with the in vivo characterization of the promoter region reveals that GhAO-like1 has a flower- and fruit-specific expression pattern. The GUS activity is mainly observed in stamens, as expected considering that the GhAO-like1 regulatory sequence is enriched in cis elements, which have been characterized as a target of reproductive tissue specific transcription factors. Both histological and quantitative analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana have confirmed flower (mainly in stamens) and fruit expression of GhAO-like1. In the present paper, we isolated and characterized both in silico and in vivo the promoter region of the GhAO-like1 gene. The regulatory region of GhAO-like1 might be useful to confer tissue-specific expression in genetically modified plants.

  19. Ectopic Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of an NB-ARC Encoding Putative Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhifeng; Yao, Liping; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Liu, Chonghuai; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession “Baihe-35-1,” which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw.), a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084), increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase) analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine. PMID:26697041

  20. Gene hunting in autoinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Steady progress in our understanding of the genetic basis of autoinflammatory diseases has been made over the past 16 years. Since the discovery of the familial Mediterranean fever gene MEFV (also known as marenostrin) in 1997, 18 other genes responsible for monogenic autoinflammatory diseases have been identified to date. The discovery of these genes was made through the utilisation of many genetic mapping techniques, including next generation sequencing platforms. This review article clearly describes the gene hunting approaches, methods of data analysis and the technological platforms used, which has relevance to all those working within the field of gene discovery for Mendelian disorders. PMID:24070009

  1. Gene therapy review.

    PubMed

    Moss, Joseph Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The use of genes to treat disease, more commonly known as gene therapy, is a valid and promising tool to manage and treat diseases that conventional drug therapies cannot cure. Gene therapy holds the potential to control a wide range of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and blood diseases. This review assesses the current status of gene therapy, highlighting therapeutic methodologies and applications, terminology, and imaging strategies. This article presents an overview of roadblocks associated with each therapeutic methodology, along with some of the scientific, social, and ethical issues associated with gene therapy.

  2. Regulated Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Breger, Ludivine; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Quintino, Luis; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of monogenic and multifactorial neurological disorders. It can be used to replace a missing gene and mutated gene or downregulate a causal gene. Despite the versatility of gene therapy, one of the main limitations lies in the irreversibility of the process: once delivered to target cells, the gene of interest is constitutively expressed and cannot be removed. Therefore, efficient, safe and long-term gene modification requires a system allowing fine control of transgene expression.Different systems have been developed over the past decades to regulate transgene expression after in vivo delivery, either at transcriptional or post-translational levels. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on current regulatory system used in the context of gene therapy for neurological disorders. Systems using external regulation of transgenes using antibiotics are commonly used to control either gene expression using tetracycline-controlled transcription or protein levels using destabilizing domain technology. Alternatively, specific promoters of genes that are regulated by disease mechanisms, increasing expression as the disease progresses or decreasing expression as disease regresses, are also examined. Overall, this chapter discusses advantages and drawbacks of current molecular methods for regulated gene therapy in the central nervous system.

  3. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  4. Genes, dreams, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sikora, K

    1994-05-07

    There have been tremendous advances in our understanding of cancer from the application of molecular biology over the past decade. The disease is caused by a series of defects in the genes that accelerate growth--oncogenes--and those that slow down cellular turnover--tumour suppressor genes. The proteins they encode provide a promising hunting ground in which to design and test new anticancer drugs. Several treatment strategies are now under clinical trial entailing direct gene transfer. These include the use of gene marking to detect minimal residual disease, the production of novel cancer vaccines by the insertion of genes which uncloak cancer cells so making them visible to the host's immune system, the isolation and coupling of cancer specific molecular switches upstream of drug activating genes, and the correction of aberrant oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes. The issues in these approaches are likely to have a profound impact on the management of cancer patients as we enter the next century.

  5. Conventional murine gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Albert G; Sun, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Murine gene knockout models engineered over the last two decades have continued to demonstrate their potential as invaluable tools in understanding the role of gene function in the context of normal human development and disease. The more recent elucidation of the human and mouse genomes through sequencing has opened up the capability to elucidate the function of every human gene. State-of-the-art mouse model generation allows, through a multitude of experimental steps requiring careful standardization, gene function to be reliably and predictably ablated in a live model system. The application of these standardized methodologies to directly target gene function through murine gene knockout has to date provided comprehensive and verifiable genetic models that have contributed tremendously to our understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways underlying normal and disease states in humans. The ensuing chapter provides an overview of the latest steps and procedures required to ablate gene function in a murine model.

  6. Primetime for Learning Genes.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Joyce

    2017-02-11

    Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. In this review, studies of the epigenetic regulation of learning genes in neurons, particularly the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF), by methylation/demethylation and chromatin modifications in the context of learning and memory will be highlighted. Because of the unique function of learning genes in the mature brain, it is proposed that bivalent domains are a characteristic feature of the chromatin landscape surrounding their promoters. This allows them to be "poised" for rapid response to activate or repress gene expression depending on environmental stimuli.

  7. Human HOX gene disorders.

    PubMed

    Quinonez, Shane C; Innis, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    The Hox genes are an evolutionarily conserved family of genes, which encode a class of important transcription factors that function in numerous developmental processes. Following their initial discovery, a substantial amount of information has been gained regarding the roles Hox genes play in various physiologic and pathologic processes. These processes range from a central role in anterior-posterior patterning of the developing embryo to roles in oncogenesis that are yet to be fully elucidated. In vertebrates there are a total of 39 Hox genes divided into 4 separate clusters. Of these, mutations in 10 Hox genes have been found to cause human disorders with significant variation in their inheritance patterns, penetrance, expressivity and mechanism of pathogenesis. This review aims to describe the various phenotypes caused by germline mutation in these 10 Hox genes that cause a human phenotype, with specific emphasis paid to the genotypic and phenotypic differences between allelic disorders. As clinical whole exome and genome sequencing is increasingly utilized in the future, we predict that additional Hox gene mutations will likely be identified to cause distinct human phenotypes. As the known human phenotypes closely resemble gene-specific murine models, we also review the homozygous loss-of-function mouse phenotypes for the 29 Hox genes without a known human disease. This review will aid clinicians in identifying and caring for patients affected with a known Hox gene disorder and help recognize the potential for novel mutations in patients with phenotypes informed by mouse knockout studies.

  8. Primetime for Learning Genes

    PubMed Central

    Keifer, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. In this review, studies of the epigenetic regulation of learning genes in neurons, particularly the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF), by methylation/demethylation and chromatin modifications in the context of learning and memory will be highlighted. Because of the unique function of learning genes in the mature brain, it is proposed that bivalent domains are a characteristic feature of the chromatin landscape surrounding their promoters. This allows them to be “poised” for rapid response to activate or repress gene expression depending on environmental stimuli. PMID:28208656

  9. Do Housekeeping Genes Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bingyun

    2015-01-01

    The searching of human housekeeping (HK) genes has been a long quest since the emergence of transcriptomics, and is instrumental for us to understand the structure of genome and the fundamentals of biological processes. The resolved genes are frequently used in evolution studies and as normalization standards in quantitative gene-expression analysis. Within the past 20 years, more than a dozen HK-gene studies have been conducted, yet none of them sampled human tissues completely. We believe an integration of these results will help remove false positive genes owing to the inadequate sampling. Surprisingly, we only find one common gene across 15 examined HK-gene datasets comprising 187 different tissue and cell types. Our subsequent analyses suggest that it might not be appropriate to rigidly define HK genes as expressed in all tissue types that have diverse developmental, physiological, and pathological states. It might be beneficial to use more robustly identified HK functions for filtering criteria, in which the representing genes can be a subset of genome. These genes are not necessarily the same, and perhaps need not to be the same, everywhere in our body. PMID:25970694

  10. The Density and Length of Root Hairs Are Enhanced in Response to Cadmium and Arsenic by Modulating Gene Expressions Involved in Fate Determination and Morphogenesis of Root Hairs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Ramin; Kim, Dong G.; Kim, Jin A.; Hwang, Seongbin

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular outgrowths that originate from epidermal cells. Exposure of Arabidopsis to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic [arsenite, As(III)] increases root hair density and length. To examine the underlying mechanism, we measured the expression of genes involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs. Cd and As(III) downregulated TTG1 and GL2 (negative regulators of fate determination) and upregulated GEM (positive regulator), suggesting that root hair fate determination is stimulated by Cd and As(III). Cd and As(III) increased the transcript levels of genes involved in root hair initiation (RHD6 and AXR2) and root hair elongation (AUX1, AXR1, ETR1, and EIN2) except CTR1. DR5::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed a higher DR5 expression in the root tip, suggesting that Cd and As(III) increased the auxin content in the root tip. Knockdown of TTG1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased root hair density and decreased root hair length compared with the control (Col-0) on 1/2 MS media. This phenotype may be attributed to the downregulation of GL2 and CTR1 and upregulation of RHD6. By contrast, gem mutant plants displayed a decrease in root hair density and length with reduced expression of RHD6, AXR2, AUX1, AXR1, ETR1, CTR1, and EIN2. Taken together, our results indicate that fate determination, initiation, and elongation of root hairs are stimulated in response to Cd and As(III) through the modulation of the expression of genes involved in these processes in Arabidopsis. PMID:27933081

  11. Parkinson's disease: gene therapies.

    PubMed

    Coune, Philippe G; Schneider, Bernard L; Aebischer, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    With the recent development of effective gene delivery systems, gene therapy for the central nervous system is finding novel applications. Here, we review existing viral vectors and discuss gene therapy strategies that have been proposed for Parkinson's disease. To date, most of the clinical trials were based on viral vectors to deliver therapeutic transgenes to neurons within the basal ganglia. Initial trials used genes to relieve the major motor symptoms caused by nigrostriatal degeneration. Although these new genetic approaches still need to prove more effective than existing symptomatic treatments, there is a need for disease-modifying strategies. The investigation of the genetic factors implicated in Parkinson's disease is providing precious insights in disease pathology that, combined with innovative gene delivery systems, will hopefully offer novel opportunities for gene therapy interventions to slow down, or even halt disease progression.

  12. Green genes gleaned.

    PubMed

    Beale, Samuel I

    2005-07-01

    A recent paper by Ayumi Tanaka and colleagues identifying an Arabidopsis thaliana gene for 3,8-divinyl(proto)chlorophyllide 8-vinyl reductase brings a satisfying conclusion to the hunt for genes encoding enzymes for the steps in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. Now, at least in angiosperm plants represented by Arabidopsis, genes for all 15 steps in the pathway from glutamyl-tRNA to chlorophylls a and b have been identified.

  13. Gene-Category Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Gene-category analysis is one important knowledge integration approach in biomedical sciences that combines knowledge bases such as Gene Ontology with lists of genes or their products, which are often the result of high-throughput experiments, gained from either wet-lab or synthetic experiments. In this chapter, we will motivate this class of analyses and describe an often used variant that is based on Fisher's exact test. We show that this approach has some problems in the context of Gene Ontology of which users should be aware. We then describe some more recent algorithms that try to address some of the shortcomings of the standard approach.

  14. Antiangiogenic Eye Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Corydon, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    The idea of treating disease in humans with genetic material was conceived over two decades ago and with that a promising journey involving development and efficacy studies in cells and animals of a large number of novel therapeutic reagents unfolded. In the footsteps of this process, successful gene therapy treatment of genetic conditions in humans has shown clear signs of efficacy. Notably, significant advancements using gene supplementation and silencing strategies have been made in the field of ocular gene therapy, thereby pinpointing ocular gene therapy as one of the compelling "actors" bringing gene therapy to the clinic. Most of all, this success has been facilitated because of (1) the fact that the eye is an effortlessly accessible, exceedingly compartmentalized, and immune-privileged organ offering a unique advantage as a gene therapy target, and (2) significant progress toward efficient, sustained transduction of cells within the retina having been achieved using nonintegrating vectors based on recombinant adeno-associated virus and nonintegrating lentivirus vectors. The results from in vivo experiments and trials suggest that treatment of inherited retinal dystrophies, ocular angiogenesis, and inflammation with gene therapy can be both safe and effective. Here, the progress of ocular gene therapy is examined with special emphasis on the potential use of RNAi- and protein-based antiangiogenic gene therapy to treat exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  15. History of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality.

  16. Towards Consensus Gene Ages

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  17. Cell and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rajesh C; Zacks, David N

    2014-01-01

    Replacement or repair of a dysfunctional gene combined with promoting cell survival is a two-pronged approach that addresses an unmet need in the therapy of retinal degenerative diseases. In this chapter, we discuss various strategies toward achieving both goals: transplantation of wild-type cells to replace degenerating cells and to rescue gene function, sequential gene and cell therapy, and in vivo reprogramming of rods to cones. These approaches highlight cutting-edge advances in cell and gene therapy, and cellular lineage conversion in order to devise new therapies for various retinal degenerative diseases.

  18. Genome-wide investigation and expression analysis suggest diverse roles and genetic redundancy of Pht1 family genes in response to Pi deficiency in tomato

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major nutrient stresses limiting plant growth. The uptake of P by plants is well considered to be mediated by a number of high-affinity phosphate (Pi) transporters belonging to the Pht1 family. Although the Pht1 genes have been extensively identified in several plant species, there is a lack of systematic analysis of the Pht1 gene family in any solanaceous species thus far. Results Here, we report the genome-wide analysis, phylogenetic evolution and expression patterns of the Pht1 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). A total of eight putative Pht1 genes (LePT1 to 8), distributed on three chromosomes (3, 6 and 9), were identified through extensive searches of the released tomato genome sequence database. Chromosomal organization and phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that the six Pht1 paralogues, LePT1/3, LePT2/6 and LePT4/5, which were assigned into three pairs with very close physical distance, were produced from recent tandem duplication events that occurred after Solanaceae splitting with other dicot families. Expression analysis of these Pht1 members revealed that except LePT8, of which the transcript was undetectable in all tissues, the other seven paralogues showed differential but partial-overlapping expression patterns. LePT1 and LePT7 were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, and their transcripts were induced abundantly in response to Pi starvation; LePT2 and LePT6, the two paralogues harboring identical coding sequence, were predominantly expressed in Pi-deficient roots; LePT3, LePT4 and LePT5 were strongly activated in the roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under low-P, but not high-P condition. Histochemical analysis revealed that a 1250-bp LePT3 promoter fragment and a 471-bp LePT5 promoter fragment containing the two elements, MYCS and P1BS, were sufficient to direct the GUS reporter expression in mycorrhizal roots and were limited to distinct cells harboring AM fungal

  19. Smart Genes, Stupid Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randerson, Sherman; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1983-01-01

    Because many people still believe that specific, identifiable genes dictate the level of human intelligence and that the number/quality of these genes can be evaluated, presents evidence from human genetics (related to nervous system development) to counter this view. Also disputes erroneous assumptions made in "heritability studies" of human…

  20. Genes, genome and Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2005-03-31

    According to Gestalt thinking, biological systems cannot be viewed as the sum of their elements, but as processes of the whole. To understand organisms we must start from the whole, observing how the various parts are related. In genetics, we must observe the genome over and above the sum of its genes. Either loss or addition of one gene in a genome can change the function of the organism. Genomes are organized in networks of genes, which need to be well integrated. In the case of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), for example, soybeans, rats, Anopheles mosquitoes, and pigs, the insertion of an exogenous gene into a receptive organism generally causes disturbance in the networks, resulting in the breakdown of gene interactions. In these cases, genetic modification increased the genetic load of the GMO and consequently decreased its adaptability (fitness). Therefore, it is hard to claim that the production of such organisms with an increased genetic load does not have ethical implications.

  1. [Gene therapy and ethics].

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Rehmann-Sutter, C

    1995-01-10

    Gene therapy represents a new strategy to treat human disorders. It was originally conceived as a cure for severe monogenetic disorders. Since its conception, the spectrum of possible application for gene therapy has been to include the treatment of acquired diseases, such as various forms of cancer and some viral infections, most notably human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus. Since somatic gene therapy does not cause substantially new ethical problems, it has gained broad approval. This is by no means the case with germ-line gene therapy. Practically all bodies who were evaluating the related ethical aspects wanted to ban its medical application on grounds of fundamental and pragmatic considerations. In this review, practical and ethical views concerning gene therapy are summarized which were presented at the "Junitagung 1994" of the Swiss Society for Biomedical Ethics in Basle.

  2. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Multiple Patterns of Regulation and Overexpression of a Ribonuclease-Like Pathogenesis-Related Protein Gene, OsPR10a, Conferring Disease Resistance in Rice and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    He, Siou-Luan; Chen, Jyh-Lang; Jiang, Jian-Zhi; Chen, Bo-Hong; Hou, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Ho, Shin-Lon

    2016-01-01

    An abundant 17 kDa RNase, encoded by OsPR10a (also known as PBZ1), was purified from Pi-starved rice suspension-cultured cells. Biochemical analysis showed that the range of optimal temperature for its RNase activity was 40–70°C and the optimum pH was 5.0. Disulfide bond formation and divalent metal ion Mg2+ were required for the RNase activity. The expression of OsPR10a::GUS in transgenic rice was induced upon phosphate (Pi) starvation, wounding, infection by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), leaf senescence, anther, style, the style-ovary junction, germinating embryo and shoot. We also provide first evidence in whole-plant system, demonstrated that OsPR10a-overexpressing in rice and Arabidopsis conferred significant level of enhanced resistance to infection by the pathogen Xoo and Xanthomona campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), respectively. Transgenic rice and Arabidopsis overexpressing OsPR10a significantly increased the length of primary root under phosphate deficiency (-Pi) condition. These results showed that OsPR10a might play multiple roles in phosphate recycling in phosphate-starved cells and senescing leaves, and could improve resistance to pathogen infection and/or against chewing insect pests. It is possible that Pi acquisition or homeostasis is associated with plant disease resistance. Our findings suggest that gene regulation of OsPR10a could act as a good model system to unravel the mechanisms behind the correlation between Pi starvation and plant-pathogen interactions, and also provides a potential application in crops disease resistance. PMID:27258121

  4. Reverse genetic characterization of two paralogous acetoacetyl CoA thiolase genes in Arabidopsis reveals their importance in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huanan; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-06-01

    Acetoacetyl CoA thiolase (AACT, EC 2.3.1.9) catalyzes the condensation of two acetyl CoA molecules to form acetoacetyl CoA. Two AACT-encoding genes, At5g47720 (AACT1) and At5g48230 (AACT2), were functionally identified in the Arabidopsis genome by direct enzymological assays and functional expression in yeast. Promoter::GUS fusion experiments indicated that AACT1 is primarily expressed in the vascular system and AACT2 is highly expressed in root tips, young leaves, top stems and anthers. Characterization of T-DNA insertion mutant alleles at each AACT locus established that AACT2 function is required for embryogenesis and for normal male gamete transmission. In contrast, plants lacking AACT1 function are completely viable and show no apparent growth phenotypes, indicating that AACT1 is functionally redundant with respect to AACT2 function. RNAi lines that express reduced levels of AACT2 show pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduced apical dominance, elongated life span and flowering duration, sterility, dwarfing, reduced seed yield and shorter root length. Microscopic analysis reveals that the reduced stature is caused by a reduction in cell size and fewer cells, and male sterility is caused by loss of the pollen coat and premature degeneration of the tapetal cells. Biochemical analyses established that the roots of AACT2 RNAi plants show quantitative and qualitative alterations in phytosterol profiles. These phenotypes and biochemical alterations are reversed when AACT2 RNAi plants are grown in the presence of mevalonate, which is consistent with the role of AACT2 in generating the bulk of the acetoacetyl CoA precursor required for the cytosol-localized, mevalonate-derived isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway.

  5. Reverse genetic characterization of two paralogous acetoacetyl CoA thiolase genes in Arabidopsis reveals their importance in plant growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Huanan; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.

    2012-03-31

    Acetoacetyl CoA thiolase (AACT, EC 2.3.1.9) catalyzes the condensation of two acetyl CoA molecules to form acetoacetyl CoA. Two AACT‐encoding genes, At5g47720 (AACT1) and At5g48230 (AACT2), were functionally identified in the Arabidopsis genome by direct enzymological assays and functional expression in yeast. Promoter::GUS fusion experiments indicated that AACT1 is primarily expressed in the vascular system and AACT2 is highly expressed in root tips, young leaves, top stems and anthers. Characterization of T‐DNA insertion mutant alleles at each AACT locus established that AACT2 function is required for embryogenesis and for normal male gamete transmission. In contrast, plants lacking AACT1 function are completely viable and show no apparent growth phenotypes, indicating that AACT1 is functionally redundant with respect to AACT2 function. RNAi lines that express reduced levels of AACT2 show pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduced apical dominance, elongated life span and flowering duration, sterility, dwarfing, reduced seed yield and shorter root length. Microscopic analysis reveals that the reduced stature is caused by a reduction in cell size and fewer cells, and male sterility is caused by loss of the pollen coat and premature degeneration of the tapetal cells. Biochemical analyses established that the roots of AACT2 RNAi plants show quantitative and qualitative alterations in phytosterol profiles. These phenotypes and biochemical alterations are reversed when AACT2 RNAi plants are grown in the presence of mevalonate, which is consistent with the role of AACT2 in generating the bulk of the acetoacetyl CoA precursor required for the cytosol‐localized, mevalonate‐derived isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway.

  6. Multiple Patterns of Regulation and Overexpression of a Ribonuclease-Like Pathogenesis-Related Protein Gene, OsPR10a, Conferring Disease Resistance in Rice and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Hung; He, Siou-Luan; Chen, Jyh-Lang; Jiang, Jian-Zhi; Chen, Bo-Hong; Hou, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Ruey-Shyang; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Ho, Shin-Lon

    2016-01-01

    An abundant 17 kDa RNase, encoded by OsPR10a (also known as PBZ1), was purified from Pi-starved rice suspension-cultured cells. Biochemical analysis showed that the range of optimal temperature for its RNase activity was 40-70°C and the optimum pH was 5.0. Disulfide bond formation and divalent metal ion Mg2+ were required for the RNase activity. The expression of OsPR10a::GUS in transgenic rice was induced upon phosphate (Pi) starvation, wounding, infection by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), leaf senescence, anther, style, the style-ovary junction, germinating embryo and shoot. We also provide first evidence in whole-plant system, demonstrated that OsPR10a-overexpressing in rice and Arabidopsis conferred significant level of enhanced resistance to infection by the pathogen Xoo and Xanthomona campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), respectively. Transgenic rice and Arabidopsis overexpressing OsPR10a significantly increased the length of primary root under phosphate deficiency (-Pi) condition. These results showed that OsPR10a might play multiple roles in phosphate recycling in phosphate-starved cells and senescing leaves, and could improve resistance to pathogen infection and/or against chewing insect pests. It is possible that Pi acquisition or homeostasis is associated with plant disease resistance. Our findings suggest that gene regulation of OsPR10a could act as a good model system to unravel the mechanisms behind the correlation between Pi starvation and plant-pathogen interactions, and also provides a potential application in crops disease resistance.

  7. OsSIZ1, a SUMO E3 Ligase Gene, is Involved in the Regulation of the Responses to Phosphate and Nitrogen in Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huadun; Sun, Rui; Cao, Yue; Pei, Wenxia; Sun, Yafei; Zhou, Hongmin; Wu, Xueneng; Zhang, Fang; Luo, Le; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Guohua; Sun, Shubin

    2015-12-01

    SIZ1-mediated SUMOylation regulates hormone signaling as well as abiotic and biotic stress responses in plants. Here, we investigated the expression profile of OsSIZ1 in rice using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and pOsSIZ1-GUS transgenic plants, and the function of OsSIZ1 in the responses to phosphate and nitrogen using a reverse genetics approach. OsSIZ1 is constitutively expressed throughout the vegetative and reproductive growth of rice, with stronger promoter activities in vascular bundles of culms. ossiz1 mutants had shorter primary roots and adventitious roots than wild-type plants, suggesting that OsSIZ1 is associated with the regulation of root system architecture. Total phosphorus (P) and phosphate (Pi) concentrations in both roots and shoots of ossiz1 mutants were significantly increased irrespective of Pi supply conditions compared with the wild type. Pi concentration in the xylem sap of ossiz1 mutants was significantly higher than that of the wild type under a Pi-sufficient growth regime. Total nitrogen (N) concentrations in the most detected tissues of ossiz1 mutants were significantly increased compared with the wild type. Analysis of mineral contents in ossiz1 mutants indicated that OsSIZ1 functions specifically in Pi and N responses, not those of other nutrients examined, in rice. Further, qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression of multiple genes involved in Pi starvation signaling and N transport and assimilation were altered in ossiz1 mutants. Together, these results suggested that OsSIZ1 may act as a regulator of the Pi (N)-dependent responses in rice.

  8. Spontaneous mutagenesis of a plant potyvirus genome after insertion of a foreign gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dolja, V V; Herndon, K L; Pirone, T P; Carrington, J C

    1993-01-01

    The RNA genome of tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) was engineered to express bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused to the virus helper component proteinase (HC-Pro). It was shown previously that prolonged periods (approximately 1 month) of TEV-GUS propagation in plants resulted in the appearance of spontaneous deletion variants. Nine deletion mutants were identified by nucleotide sequence analysis of 40 cDNA clones obtained after polymerase chain reaction amplification. The mutants were missing between 1,741 and 2,074 nucleotides from TEV-GUS, including the sequences coding for most of GUS and the N-terminal region of HC-Pro. This region of HC-Pro contains determinants involved in helper component activity during aphid transmission, as well as a highly conserved series of cysteine residues. The deletion variants were shown to replicate and move systemically without the aid of a helper virus. Infectious viruses harboring the two largest HC-Pro deletions (termed TEV-2del and TEV-7del) were reconstructed by subcloning the corresponding mutated regions into full-length DNA copies of the TEV genome. Characterization of these and additional variants derived by site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that deletion of sequences coding for the HC-Pro N-terminal domain had a negative effect on accumulation of viral RNA and coat protein. The TEV-2del variant possessed an aphid-nontransmissible phenotype that could be rescued partially by prefeeding of aphids on active HC-Pro from another potyvirus. These data suggest that the N-terminal domain of HC-Pro or its coding sequence enhances virus replication or genome expression but does not provide an activity essential for these processes. The function of this domain, as well as a proposed deletion mechanism involving nonhomologous recombination, is discussed. Images PMID:8371351

  9. Engineering Complex Microbial Phenotypes with Continuous Genetic Integration and Plasmid Based Multi-gene Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-09

    control LoxSp strains under ethanol stress were investigated to determine if the generated strain had enhanced tolerance in alcohol . It must be...the control plasmid (pDEST-gus) with 3 different alcohols . (A) Cells were grown in LB medium with 50 g/l ethanol . (B) Cells were grown in LB medium... ethanol tolerance Examined effects of iron transporters on oxidative stress in E. coli Impact: Significant improvements in alcohol and oxidative

  10. Fecundity genes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, G H

    2004-07-01

    Since 1980 there has been increasing interest in the identification and utilisation of major genes for prolificacy in sheep. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. DNA tests enable some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  11. Gene therapy for hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Chuah, M K; Evens, H; VandenDriessche, T

    2013-06-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked monogenic disorders resulting from deficiencies of factor VIII and FIX, respectively. Purified clotting factor concentrates are currently intravenously administered to treat hemophilia, but this treatment is non-curative. Therefore, gene-based therapies for hemophilia have been developed to achieve sustained high levels of clotting factor expression to correct the clinical phenotype. Over the past two decades, different types of viral and non-viral gene delivery systems have been explored for hemophilia gene therapy research with a variety of target cells, particularly hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, skeletal muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Lentiviral and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are among the most promising vectors for hemophilia gene therapy. In preclinical hemophilia A and B animal models, the bleeding phenotype was corrected with these vectors. Some of these promising preclinical results prompted clinical translation to patients suffering from a severe hemophilic phenotype. These patients receiving gene therapy with AAV vectors showed long-term expression of therapeutic FIX levels, which is a major step forwards in this field. Nevertheless, the levels were insufficient to prevent trauma or injury-induced bleeding episodes. Another challenge that remains is the possible immune destruction of gene-modified cells by effector T cells, which are directed against the AAV vector antigens. It is therefore important to continuously improve the current gene therapy approaches to ultimately establish a real cure for hemophilia.

  12. Differentially Coexpressed Disease Gene Identification Based on Gene Coexpression Network.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Han; Quan, Xiongwen

    2016-01-01

    Screening disease-related genes by analyzing gene expression data has become a popular theme. Traditional disease-related gene selection methods always focus on identifying differentially expressed gene between case samples and a control group. These traditional methods may not fully consider the changes of interactions between genes at different cell states and the dynamic processes of gene expression levels during the disease progression. However, in order to understand the mechanism of disease, it is important to explore the dynamic changes of interactions between genes in biological networks at different cell states. In this study, we designed a novel framework to identify disease-related genes and developed a differentially coexpressed disease-related gene identification method based on gene coexpression network (DCGN) to screen differentially coexpressed genes. We firstly constructed phase-specific gene coexpression network using time-series gene expression data and defined the conception of differential coexpression of genes in coexpression network. Then, we designed two metrics to measure the value of gene differential coexpression according to the change of local topological structures between different phase-specific networks. Finally, we conducted meta-analysis of gene differential coexpression based on the rank-product method. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of DCGN and the superior performance of DCGN over other popular disease-related gene selection methods through real-world gene expression data sets.

  13. Differentially Coexpressed Disease Gene Identification Based on Gene Coexpression Network

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Xiongwen

    2016-01-01

    Screening disease-related genes by analyzing gene expression data has become a popular theme. Traditional disease-related gene selection methods always focus on identifying differentially expressed gene between case samples and a control group. These traditional methods may not fully consider the changes of interactions between genes at different cell states and the dynamic processes of gene expression levels during the disease progression. However, in order to understand the mechanism of disease, it is important to explore the dynamic changes of interactions between genes in biological networks at different cell states. In this study, we designed a novel framework to identify disease-related genes and developed a differentially coexpressed disease-related gene identification method based on gene coexpression network (DCGN) to screen differentially coexpressed genes. We firstly constructed phase-specific gene coexpression network using time-series gene expression data and defined the conception of differential coexpression of genes in coexpression network. Then, we designed two metrics to measure the value of gene differential coexpression according to the change of local topological structures between different phase-specific networks. Finally, we conducted meta-analysis of gene differential coexpression based on the rank-product method. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of DCGN and the superior performance of DCGN over other popular disease-related gene selection methods through real-world gene expression data sets. PMID:28042568

  14. Genes and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gene E; Fernald, Russell D; Clayton, David F

    2008-11-07

    What genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of neural circuits and molecular pathways in the brain that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate brain activity? Here, we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key "vectors of influence" that link genes, the brain, and social behavior: (i) Social information alters gene expression in the brain to influence behavior, and (ii) genetic variation influences brain function and social behavior. We also discuss how evolutionary changes in genomic elements influence social behavior and outline prospects for a systems biology of social behavior.

  15. Drug-Encoded Biomarkers for Monitoring Biological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bedenk, Kristina; Zhang, Qian; Frentzen, Alexa; Cappello, Joseph; Fischer, Utz; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2015-01-01

    Blood tests are necessary, easy-to-perform and low-cost alternatives for monitoring of oncolytic virotherapy and other biological therapies in translational research. Here we assessed three candidate proteins with the potential to be used as biomarkers in biological fluids: two glucuronidases from E. coli (GusA) and Staphylococcus sp. RLH1 (GusPlus), and the luciferase from Gaussia princeps (GLuc). The three genes encoding these proteins were inserted individually into vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 genome under the control of an identical promoter. The three resulting recombinant viruses were used to infect tumor cells in cultures and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. In contrast to the actively secreted GLuc, the cytoplasmic glucuronidases GusA and GusPlus were released into the supernatants only as a result of virus-mediated oncolysis. GusPlus resulted in the most sensitive detection of enzyme activity under controlled assay conditions in samples containing as little as 1 pg/ml of GusPlus, followed by GusA (25 pg/ml) and GLuc (≥375 pg/ml). Unexpectedly, even though GusA had a lower specific activity compared to GusPlus, the substrate conversion in the serum of tumor-bearing mice injected with the GusA-encoding virus strains was substantially higher than that of GusPlus. This was attributed to a 3.2 fold and 16.2 fold longer half-life of GusA in the blood stream compared to GusPlus and GLuc respectively, thus a more sensitive monitor of virus replication than the other two enzymes. Due to the good correlation between enzymatic activity of expressed marker gene and virus titer, we conclude that the amount of the biomarker protein in the body fluid semiquantitatively represents the amount of virus in the infected tumors which was confirmed by low light imaging. We found GusA to be the most reliable biomarker for monitoring oncolytic virotherapy among the three tested markers. PMID:26348361

  16. A Non-specific Setaria italica Lipid Transfer Protein Gene Plays a Critical Role under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yanlin; Li, Jianrui; Jiao, Licong; Li, Cong; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a class of cysteine-rich soluble proteins having small molecular weights. LTPs participate in flower and seed development, cuticular wax deposition, also play important roles in pathogen and abiotic stress responses. A non-specific LTP gene (SiLTP) was isolated from a foxtail millet (Setaria italica) suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for differentially expressed genes after abiotic stress treatments. A semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that SiLTP was expressed in all foxtail millet tissues. Additionally, the SiLTP promoter drove GUS expression in root tips, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques of transgenic Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the SiLTP expression was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and abscisic acid (ABA). SiLTP was localized in the cytoplasm of tobacco leaf epidermal cells and maize protoplasts. The ectopic expression of SiLTP in tobacco resulted in higher levels of salt and drought tolerance than in the wild type (WT). To further assess the function of SiLTP, SiLTP overexpression (OE) and RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic foxtail millet were obtained. SiLTP-OE lines performed better under salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. In contrast, the RNAi lines were much more sensitive to salt and drought compared than WT. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrids indicated that the transcription factor ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein (SiARDP) could bind to the dehydration-responsive element of SiLTP promoter in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Moreover, the SiLTP expression levels were higher in SiARDP-OE plants compared than the WT. These results confirmed that SiLTP plays important roles in improving salt and drought stress tolerance of foxtail millet, and may partly be upregulated by SiARDP. SiLTP may provide an effective genetic resource for molecular breeding in crops to enhance salt and drought

  17. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Nitric Oxide Synthase Associated Gene1 (CsNOA1) Plays a Role in Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingwang; Liu, Bin; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanlinq; Qi, Wenzhu; Jian, Chen; Xu, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants, transducing information as a result of exposure to low temperatures. However, the underlying molecular mechanism linking NO with chilling stress is not well understood. Here, we functionally characterized the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) nitric oxide synthase-associated gene, NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (CsNOA1). Expression analysis of CsNOA1, using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assay, revealed that it is expressed mainly in the root and shoot apical meristem (SAM), and that expression is up-regulated by low temperatures. A CsNOA1-GFP fusion protein was found to be localized in the mitochondria, and ectopic expression of CsNOA1 in the A. thaliana noa1 mutant partially rescued the normal phenotype. When overexpressing CsNOA1 in the Atnoa1 mutant under normal condition, no obvious phenotypic differences was observed between its wild type and transgenic plants. However, the leaves from mutant plant grown under chilling conditions showed hydrophanous spots and wilting. Physiology tolerance markers, chlorophyll fluorescence parameter (Fv/Fm), and electrolyte leakage, were observed to dramatically change, compared mutant to overexpressing lines. Transgenic cucumber plants revealed that the gene is required by seedlings to tolerate chilling stress: constitutive over-expression of CsNOA1 led to a greater accumulation of soluble sugars, starch, and an up-regulation of Cold-regulatory C-repeat binding factor3 (CBF3) expression as well as a lower chilling damage index (CI). Conversely, suppression of CsNOA1 expression resulted in the opposite phenotype and a reduced NO content compared to wild type plants. Those results suggest that CsNOA1 regulates cucumber seedlings chilling tolerance. Additionally, under normal condition, we took several classic inhibitors to perform, and detect endogenous NO levels in wild type cucumber seedling. The results

  18. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  19. Genes underlying altruism.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Graham J; Hurd, Peter L; Crespi, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article, we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism and describe the first candidate genes affecting altruism from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically based trade-offs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between alleles for altruism and alleles for non-social cognition. Such trade-offs between self-oriented and altruistic behaviour may influence the evolution of phenotypic diversity across all social animals.

  20. Clock genes and sleep.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Dominic; Shostak, Anton; Oster, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    In most species--from cyanobacteria to humans--endogenous clocks have evolved that drive 24-h rhythms of behavior and physiology. In mammals, these circadian rhythms are regulated by a hierarchical network of cellular oscillators controlled by a set of clock genes organized in a system of interlocked transcriptional feedback loops. One of the most prominent outputs of the circadian system is the synchronization of the sleep-wake cycle with external (day-) time. Clock genes also have a strong impact on many other biological functions, such as memory formation, energy metabolism, and immunity. Remarkably, large overlaps exist between clock gene and sleep (loss) mediated effects on these processes. This review summarizes sleep clock gene interactions for these three phenomena, highlighting potential mediators linking sleep and/or clock function to physiological output in an attempt to better understand the complexity of diurnal adaptation and its consequences for health and disease.

  1. GeneLab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Thompson, Terri G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GeneLab is expected to capture and distribute omics data and experimental and process conditions most relevant to research community in their statistical and theoretical analysis of NASAs omics data.

  2. Evolutionary Fingerprinting of Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Scheffler, Konrad; Gravenor, Michael B.; Poon, Art F.Y.; Frost, Simon D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Over time, natural selection molds every gene into a unique mosaic of sites evolving rapidly or resisting change—an “evolutionary fingerprint” of the gene. Aspects of this evolutionary fingerprint, such as the site-specific ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), are commonly used to identify genetic features of potential biological interest; however, no framework exists for comparing evolutionary fingerprints between genes. We hypothesize that protein-coding genes with similar protein structure and/or function tend to have similar evolutionary fingerprints and that comparing evolutionary fingerprints can be useful for discovering similarities between genes in a way that is analogous to, but independent of, discovery of similarity via sequence-based comparison tools such as Blast. To test this hypothesis, we develop a novel model of coding sequence evolution that uses a general bivariate discrete parameterization of the evolutionary rates. We show that this approach provides a better fit to the data using a smaller number of parameters than existing models. Next, we use the model to represent evolutionary fingerprints as probability distributions and present a methodology for comparing these distributions in a way that is robust against variations in data set size and divergence. Finally, using sequences of three rapidly evolving RNA viruses (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus, and influenza A virus), we demonstrate that genes within the same functional group tend to have similar evolutionary fingerprints. Our framework provides a sound statistical foundation for efficient inference and comparison of evolutionary rate patterns in arbitrary collections of gene alignments, clustering homologous and nonhomologous genes, and investigation of biological and functional correlates of evolutionary rates. PMID:19864470

  3. Cystic fibrosis modifier genes.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jane; Alton, Eric; Griesenbach, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Since the recognition that CFTR genotype was not a good predictor of pulmonary disease severity in CF, several candidate modifier genes have been identified. It is unlikely that a single modifier gene will be found, but more probable that several haplotypes in combination may contribute, which in itself presents a major methodological challenge. The aims of such studies are to increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis, to aid prognosis and ultimately to lead to the development of novel treatments. PMID:16025767

  4. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  5. GeneClinics

    PubMed Central

    Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Shannon, Paul; Baskin, Patty; Espeseth, Miriam; Pagon, Roberta A.

    2000-01-01

    GeneClinics is an online genetic information resource consisting of descriptions of specific inherited disorders (“disease profiles”) as well as information on the role of genetic testing in the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with these inherited conditions. GeneClinics is intended to promote the use of genetic services in medical care and personal decision making by providing health care practitioners and patients with information on genetic testing for specific inherited disorders. GeneClinics is implemented as an object-oriented database containing a combination of data and semistructured text that is rendered as HTML for publishing a given “disease profile” on the Web. Content is acquired from authors via templates, converted to an XML document reflecting the underlying database schema (with tagging of embedded data), and then loaded into the database and subjected to peer review. The initial implementation of a production system and the first phase of population of the GeneClinics database content are complete. Further expansion of the content to cover more disease, significant scaling up of rate of content creation, and evaluation redesign are under way. The ultimate goal is to have an entry in GeneClinics for each entry in the GeneTests directory of medical genetics laboratories—that is, for each disease for which clinical genetic testing is available. PMID:10833163

  6. Gene therapy for newborns.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D B; Parkman, R

    1997-07-01

    Application of gene therapy to treat genetic and infectious diseases may have several advantages if performed in newborns. Because of the minimal adverse effect of the underlying disease on cells of the newborn, the relatively small size of infants, and the large amount of future growth, gene therapy may be more successful in newborns than in older children or adults. The presence of umbilical cord blood from newborns provides a unique and susceptible target for the genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells. In our first trial of gene therapy in newborns, we inserted a normal adenosine deaminase gene into umbilical cord blood cells of three neonates with a congenital immune deficiency. The trial demonstrated the successful transduction and engraftment of stem cells, which continue to contribute to leukocyte production more than 3 years later. A similar approach may be taken to insert genes that inhibit replication of HIV-1 into umbilical cord blood cells of HIV-1-infected neonates. Many other metabolic and infectious disorders could be treated by gene therapy during the neonatal period if prenatal diagnoses are made and the appropriate technical and regulatory requirements have been met.

  7. Gene indexing: characterization and analysis of NLM's GeneRIFs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Joyce A; Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Folk, Lillian C; Humphrey, Susanne M; Ward, Janice M

    2003-01-01

    We present an initial analysis of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Gene Indexing initiative. Gene Indexing occurs at the time of indexing for all 4600 journals and over 500,000 articles added to PubMed/MEDLINE each year. Gene Indexing links articles about the basic biology of a gene or protein within eight model organisms to a specific record in the NLM's LocusLink database of gene products. The result is an entry called a Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF) within the LocusLink database. We analyzed the numbers of GeneRIFs produced in the first year of GeneRIF production. 27,645 GeneRIFs were produced, pertaining to 9126 loci over eight model organisms. 60% of these were associated with human genes and 27% with mouse genes. About 80% discuss genes with an established MeSH Heading or other MeSH term. We developed a prototype functional alerting system for researchers based on the GeneRIFs, and a strategy to find all of the literature related to genes. We conclude that the Gene Indexing initiative adds considerable value to the life sciences research community.

  8. Harnessing gene expression networks to prioritize candidate epileptic encephalopathy genes.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Karen L; Lukic, Vesna; Thorne, Natalie P; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Bahlo, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We apply a novel gene expression network analysis to a cohort of 182 recently reported candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes to identify those most likely to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. These candidate genes were identified as having single variants of likely pathogenic significance discovered in a large-scale massively parallel sequencing study. Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes were prioritized according to their co-expression with 29 known Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. We utilized developing brain and adult brain gene expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA) and compared this to data from Celsius: a large, heterogeneous gene expression data warehouse. We show replicable prioritization results using these three independent gene expression resources, two of which are brain-specific, with small sample size, and the third derived from a heterogeneous collection of tissues with large sample size. Of the nineteen genes that we predicted with the highest likelihood to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, two (GNAO1 and GRIN2B) have recently been independently reported and confirmed. We compare our results to those produced by an established in silico prioritization approach called Endeavour, and finally present gene expression networks for the known and candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. This highlights sub-networks of gene expression, particularly in the network derived from the adult AHBA gene expression dataset. These networks give clues to the likely biological interactions between Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, potentially highlighting underlying mechanisms and avenues for therapeutic targets.

  9. 5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP PLANT IS AT CENTER WITH ADMINISTRATIVE COMPLEX IN FOREGROUND AND RESIDENTIAL AREA BEYOND PLANT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Reversible heat-induced inactivation of chimeric beta-glucuronidase in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Almoguera, Concepción; Rojas, Anabel; Jordano, Juan

    2002-05-01

    We compared the expression patterns in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) of two chimeric genes: a translational fusion to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and a transcriptional fusion, both with the same promoter and 5'-flanking sequences of Ha hsp17.7 G4, a small heat shock protein (sHSP) gene from sunflower (Helianthus annuus). We found that immediately after heat shock, the induced expression from the two fusions in seedlings was similar, considering chimeric mRNA or GUS protein accumulation. Surprisingly, we discovered that the chimeric GUS protein encoded by the translational fusion was mostly inactive in such conditions. We also found that this inactivation was fully reversible. Thus, after returning to control temperature, the GUS activity was fully recovered without substantial changes in GUS protein accumulation. In contrast, we did not find differences in the in vitro heat inactivation of the respective GUS proteins. Insolubilization of the chimeric GUS protein correlated with its inactivation, as indicated by immunoprecipitation analyses. The inclusion in another chimeric gene of the 21 amino-terminal amino acids from a different sHSP lead to a comparable reversible inactivation. That effect not only illustrates unexpected post-translational problems, but may also point to sequences involved in interactions specific to sHSPs and in vivo heat stress conditions.

  11. Classification of genes based on gene expression analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Angelova, M. Myers, C. Faith, J.

    2008-05-15

    Systems biology and bioinformatics are now major fields for productive research. DNA microarrays and other array technologies and genome sequencing have advanced to the point that it is now possible to monitor gene expression on a genomic scale. Gene expression analysis is discussed and some important clustering techniques are considered. The patterns identified in the data suggest similarities in the gene behavior, which provides useful information for the gene functionalities. We discuss measures for investigating the homogeneity of gene expression data in order to optimize the clustering process. We contribute to the knowledge of functional roles and regulation of E. coli genes by proposing a classification of these genes based on consistently correlated genes in expression data and similarities of gene expression patterns. A new visualization tool for targeted projection pursuit and dimensionality reduction of gene expression data is demonstrated.

  12. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-08-05

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73,000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards' unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene's functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite. Database

  13. Two tobacco AP1-like gene promoters with highly specific, tightly regulated and uniquely expressed activity during floral transition, initiation and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotech engineering of agronomic traits requires an array of highly specific and tightly regulated promoters in flower or other tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two tobacco AP1-like promoters (termed NtAP1La and NtAP1Lb1) in transgenic plants using GUS reporter and tissue-speci...

  14. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Hurst, Laurence D

    2015-07-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene's expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking.

  15. Nuclear targeting of the maize R protein requires two nuclear localization sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, M.W.; Raikhel, N.V. ); Wessler, S.R. )

    1993-02-01

    Previous genetic and structural evidence indicates that the maize R gene encodes a nuclear transcriptional activating factor. In-frame carboxyl- and amino-terminal fusions of the R gene to the reporter gene encoding [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS) were sufficient to direct GUS to the nucleus of the transiently transformed onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Further analysis of chimeric constructs containing regions of the R gene fused to the GUS cDNA revealed three specific nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) that were capable of redirecting the GUS protein to the nucleus. Amino-terminal NLS-A (amino acids 100-109, GDRRAAPARP) contained several arginine residues; a similar localization signal is found in only a few viral proteins. The medial NLS-M (amino acids 419-428, MSERKRREKL) is a simian virus 40 large T antigen-type NLS, and the carboxyl-terminal NLS-C (amino acids 598-610, MISESLRKAIGKR) is a mating type [alpha]2 type. NLSs M and C are independently sufficient to direct the GUS protein to the nucleus when it is fused at the amino terminus of GUS, whereas NLS-A fused to GUS partitioned between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Similar partitioning was observed when localization signals NLS-A and NLS-C were independently fused to the carboxy-terminal portion of GUS. A sequential deletion of the localization signals indicated that the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal fusions of R and GUS were redirected to the nucleus only when both NLS-A and -M, or NLS-C and -M, were present. These results indicate that multiple localization signals are necessary for nuclear targeting of this protein. The conservation of the localization signals within the alleles of R and similar proteins from other organisms is also discussed. 45 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Hox genes and evolution.

    PubMed

    Hrycaj, Steven M; Wellik, Deneen M

    2016-01-01

    Hox proteins are a deeply conserved group of transcription factors originally defined for their critical roles in governing segmental identity along the antero-posterior (AP) axis in Drosophila. Over the last 30 years, numerous data generated in evolutionarily diverse taxa have clearly shown that changes in the expression patterns of these genes are closely associated with the regionalization of the AP axis, suggesting that Hox genes have played a critical role in the evolution of novel body plans within Bilateria. Despite this deep functional conservation and the importance of these genes in AP patterning, key questions remain regarding many aspects of Hox biology. In this commentary, we highlight recent reports that have provided novel insight into the origins of the mammalian Hox cluster, the role of Hox genes in the generation of a limbless body plan, and a novel putative mechanism in which Hox genes may encode specificity along the AP axis. Although the data discussed here offer a fresh perspective, it is clear that there is still much to learn about Hox biology and the roles it has played in the evolution of the Bilaterian body plan.

  17. Selenoprotein Gene Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N; Arnér, Elias S; Berry, Marla J; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Bruford, Elspeth A; Burk, Raymond F; Carlson, Bradley A; Castellano, Sergi; Chavatte, Laurent; Conrad, Marcus; Copeland, Paul R; Diamond, Alan M; Driscoll, Donna M; Ferreiro, Ana; Flohé, Leopold; Green, Fiona R; Guigó, Roderic; Handy, Diane E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Hesketh, John; Hoffmann, Peter R; Holmgren, Arne; Hondal, Robert J; Howard, Michael T; Huang, Kaixun; Kim, Hwa-Young; Kim, Ick Young; Köhrle, Josef; Krol, Alain; Kryukov, Gregory V; Lee, Byeong Jae; Lee, Byung Cheon; Lei, Xin Gen; Liu, Qiong; Lescure, Alain; Lobanov, Alexei V; Loscalzo, Joseph; Maiorino, Matilde; Mariotti, Marco; Sandeep Prabhu, K; Rayman, Margaret P; Rozovsky, Sharon; Salinas, Gustavo; Schmidt, Edward E; Schomburg, Lutz; Schweizer, Ulrich; Simonović, Miljan; Sunde, Roger A; Tsuji, Petra A; Tweedie, Susan; Ursini, Fulvio; Whanger, Philip D; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-11

    The human genome contains 25 genes coding for selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins). These proteins are involved in a variety of functions, most notably redox homeostasis. Selenoprotein enzymes with known functions are designated according to these functions: TXNRD1, TXNRD2, and TXNRD3 (thioredoxin reductases), GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, and GPX6 (glutathione peroxidases), DIO1, DIO2, and DIO3 (iodothyronine deiodinases), MSRB1 (methionine sulfoxide reductase B1), and SEPHS2 (selenophosphate synthetase 2). Selenoproteins without known functions have traditionally been denoted by SEL or SEP symbols. However, these symbols are sometimes ambiguous and conflict with the approved nomenclature for several other genes. Therefore, there is a need to implement a rational and coherent nomenclature system for selenoprotein-encoding genes. Our solution is to use the root symbol SELENO followed by a letter. This nomenclature applies to SELENOF (selenoprotein F, the 15-kDa selenoprotein, SEP15), SELENOH (selenoprotein H, SELH, C11orf31), SELENOI (selenoprotein I, SELI, EPT1), SELENOK (selenoprotein K, SELK), SELENOM (selenoprotein M, SELM), SELENON (selenoprotein N, SEPN1, SELN), SELENOO (selenoprotein O, SELO), SELENOP (selenoprotein P, SeP, SEPP1, SELP), SELENOS (selenoprotein S, SELS, SEPS1, VIMP), SELENOT (selenoprotein T, SELT), SELENOV (selenoprotein V, SELV), and SELENOW (selenoprotein W, SELW, SEPW1). This system, approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, also resolves conflicting, missing, and ambiguous designations for selenoprotein genes and is applicable to selenoproteins across vertebrates.

  18. Engineered Gene Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasty, Jeff

    2003-03-01

    Uncovering the structure and function of gene regulatory networks has become one of the central challenges of the post-genomic era. Theoretical models of protein-DNA feedback loops and gene regulatory networks have long been proposed, and recently, certain qualitative features of such models have been experimentally corroborated. This talk will focus on model and experimental results that demonstrate how a naturally occurring gene network can be used as a ``parts list'' for synthetic network design. The model formulation leads to computational and analytical approaches relevant to nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics, and the utility of such a formulation will be demonstrated through the consideration of specific design criteria for several novel genetic devices. Fluctuations originating from small molecule-number effects will be discussed in the context of model predictions, and the experimental validation of these stochastic effects underscores the importance of internal noise in gene expression. Potential biotech applications will be highlighted within the framework of cellular control schemes. Specifically, the coupling of an oscillating cellular process to a synthetic oscillator will be considered, and the resulting model behavior will be analyzed in the context of synchronization. The underlying methodology highlights the utility of engineering-based methods in the design of synthetic gene regulatory networks.

  19. Hox genes and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hrycaj, Steven M.; Wellik, Deneen M.

    2016-01-01

    Hox proteins are a deeply conserved group of transcription factors originally defined for their critical roles in governing segmental identity along the antero-posterior (AP) axis in Drosophila. Over the last 30 years, numerous data generated in evolutionarily diverse taxa have clearly shown that changes in the expression patterns of these genes are closely associated with the regionalization of the AP axis, suggesting that Hox genes have played a critical role in the evolution of novel body plans within Bilateria. Despite this deep functional conservation and the importance of these genes in AP patterning, key questions remain regarding many aspects of Hox biology. In this commentary, we highlight recent reports that have provided novel insight into the origins of the mammalian Hox cluster, the role of Hox genes in the generation of a limbless body plan, and a novel putative mechanism in which Hox genes may encode specificity along the AP axis. Although the data discussed here offer a fresh perspective, it is clear that there is still much to learn about Hox biology and the roles it has played in the evolution of the Bilaterian body plan. PMID:27239281

  20. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    PubMed

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  1. FunGene: the functional gene pipeline and repository

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Jordan A.; Chai, Benli; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C. Titus; Tiedje, James M.; Cole, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer. While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/) offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes. PMID:24101916

  2. Gene Therapy for Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gorell, Emily; Nguyen, Ngon; Lane, Alfred; Siprashvili, Zurab

    2014-01-01

    The skin possesses qualities that make it desirable for gene therapy, and studies have focused on gene therapy for multiple cutaneous diseases. Gene therapy uses a vector to introduce genetic material into cells to alter gene expression, negating a pathological process. This can be accomplished with a variety of viral vectors or nonviral administrations. Although results are promising, there are several potential pitfalls that must be addressed to improve the safety profile to make gene therapy widely available clinically. PMID:24692191

  3. Characterizing gene family evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene families are widely used in comparative genomics, molecular evolution, and in systematics. However, they are constructed in different manners, their data analyzed and interpreted differently, with different underlying assumptions, leading to sometimes divergent conclusions. In systematics, concepts like monophyly and the dichotomy between homoplasy and homology have been central to the analysis of phylogenies. We critique the traditional use of such concepts as applied to gene families and give examples of incorrect inferences they may lead to. Operational definitions that have emerged within functional genomics are contrasted with the common formal definitions derived from systematics. Lastly, we question the utility of layers of homology and the meaning of homology at the character state level in the context of sequence evolution. From this, we move forward to present an idealized strategy for characterizing gene family evolution for both systematic and functional purposes, including recent methodological improvements. PMID:19461954

  4. Alphaviruses in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors present an attractive approach for gene therapy applications due to the rapid and simple recombinant virus particle production and their broad range of mammalian host cell transduction. Mainly three types of alphavirus vectors, namely naked RNA, recombinant particles and DNA/RNA layered vectors, have been subjected to preclinical studies with the goal of achieving prophylactic or therapeutic efficacy, particularly in oncology. In this context, immunization with alphavirus vectors has provided protection against challenges with tumor cells. Moreover, alphavirus intratumoral and systemic delivery has demonstrated substantial tumor regression and significant prolonged survival rates in various animal tumor models. Recent discoveries of the strong association of RNA interference and disease have accelerated gene therapy based approaches, where alphavirus-based gene delivery can play an important role. PMID:25961488

  5. Virus induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis gene homologues in wheat identify genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat, functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for wheat breeding. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited tra...

  6. GeneTIER: prioritization of candidate disease genes using tissue-specific gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Antanaviciute, Agne; Daly, Catherine; Crinnion, Laura A.; Markham, Alexander F.; Watson, Christopher M.; Bonthron, David T.; Carr, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: In attempts to determine the genetic causes of human disease, researchers are often faced with a large number of candidate genes. Linkage studies can point to a genomic region containing hundreds of genes, while the high-throughput sequencing approach will often identify a great number of non-synonymous genetic variants. Since systematic experimental verification of each such candidate gene is not feasible, a method is needed to decide which genes are worth investigating further. Computational gene prioritization presents itself as a solution to this problem, systematically analyzing and sorting each gene from the most to least likely to be the disease-causing gene, in a fraction of the time it would take a researcher to perform such queries manually. Results: Here, we present Gene TIssue Expression Ranker (GeneTIER), a new web-based application for candidate gene prioritization. GeneTIER replaces knowledge-based inference traditionally used in candidate disease gene prioritization applications with experimental data from tissue-specific gene expression datasets and thus largely overcomes the bias toward the better characterized genes/diseases that commonly afflict other methods. We show that our approach is capable of accurate candidate gene prioritization and illustrate its strengths and weaknesses using case study examples. Availability and Implementation: Freely available on the web at http://dna.leeds.ac.uk/GeneTIER/. Contact: umaan@leeds.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25861967

  7. Genes encoding the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Wei-Bo; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Hong; Guan, Rong-Zhan; Wang, Jing-Qiao; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2011-03-01

    Comparative genomics is a useful tool to investigate gene and genome evolution. Biotin carboxylase (BC), an important subunit of heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) that is a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, catalyzes ATP, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and CO2 to form carboxybiotin carboxyl carrier protein. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding BC from Brassica napus L. (namely BnaC.BC.a, BnaC.BC.b, BnaA.BC.a, and BnaA.BC.b), and two were cloned from each of the two parental species Brassica rapa L. (BraA.BC.a and BraA.BC.b) and Brassica oleracea L. (BolC.BC.a and BolC.BC.b). Sequence analyses revealed that in B. napus the genes BnaC.BC.a and BnaC.BC.b were from the C genome of B. oleracea, whereas BnaA.BC.a and BnaA.BC.b were from the A genome of B. rapa. Comparative and cluster analysis indicated that these genes were divided into two major groups, BnaC.BC.a, BnaA.BC.a, BraA.BC.a, and BolC.BC.a in group-1 and BnaC.BC.b, BnaA.BC.b, BraA.BC.b, and BolC.BC.b in group-2. The divergence of group-1 and group-2 genes occurred in their common ancestor 13-17 million years ago (MYA), soon after the divergence of Arabidopsis and Brassica (15-20 MYA). This time of divergence is identical to the previously reported triplicated time of paralogous subgenomes of diploid Brassica species and the divergence date of group-1 and group-2 genes of α-carboxyltransferase, another subunit of heteromeric ACCase, in Brassica. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression level of group-1 and group-2 genes varied in different organs, and the expression patterns of the two groups of genes were similar in different organs, except in flower. However, two paralogs of group-2 BC genes from B. napus could express differently in mature plants tested by generating BnaA.BC.b and BnaC.BC.b promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusions. The amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by these genes were highly conserved, except the sequence encoding

  8. Genes and functions controlled by floral organ identity genes.

    PubMed

    Sablowski, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Floral organ identity genes specify the identity of floral organs in a manner analogous to the specification of body segments by Hox genes in animals. Different combinations of organ identity genes co-ordinate the expression of genes required for the development of each type of floral organ, from organ initiation until final differentiation. Here, I review what is known about the genes and functions subordinate to the organ identity genes. The sets of target genes change as organ development progresses and ultimately organ identity genes modify the expression of thousands of genes with a multitude of predicted functions, particularly in reproductive organs. However, genes involved in transcriptional control and hormone functions feature prominently among the early and direct targets. Functional analysis showed that control of organ-specific tissues and structures can be delegated to specialised intermediate regulators, but organ identity genes also fine-tune genes with general roles in shoot organ development, consistent with the notion that organ identity genes modify a core leaf-like developmental program. Future challenges include obtaining data with cellular resolution, predictive modelling of the regulatory network, and quantitative analysis of how organ identity genes and their targets control cell behaviour and ultimately organ shape.

  9. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy and ... by a "bad" gene. continue Two Types of Gene Therapy The two forms of gene therapy are: Somatic ...

  10. Genes and Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Could a mutation in a single gene be the evolutionary lynchpin supporting the development of human language? A rare mutation in the molecule known as FOXP2 discovered in a human family seemed to suggest so, and its sequence phylogeny reinforced a Chomskian view that language emerged wholesale in humans. Spurred by this discovery, research in primates, rodents and birds suggests that FoxP2 and other language-related genes are interactors in the neuromolecular networks that underlie subsystems of language, such symbolic understanding, vocal learning and theory of mind. The whole picture will only come together through comparative and integrative study into how the human language singularity evolved. PMID:19913899

  11. The gene tree delusion.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  12. Gene network biological validity based on gene-gene interaction relevance.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vela, Francisco; Díaz-Díaz, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, gene networks have become one of the most useful tools for modeling biological processes. Many inference gene network algorithms have been developed as techniques for extracting knowledge from gene expression data. Ensuring the reliability of the inferred gene relationships is a crucial task in any study in order to prove that the algorithms used are precise. Usually, this validation process can be carried out using prior biological knowledge. The metabolic pathways stored in KEGG are one of the most widely used knowledgeable sources for analyzing relationships between genes. This paper introduces a new methodology, GeneNetVal, to assess the biological validity of gene networks based on the relevance of the gene-gene interactions stored in KEGG metabolic pathways. Hence, a complete KEGG pathway conversion into a gene association network and a new matching distance based on gene-gene interaction relevance are proposed. The performance of GeneNetVal was established with three different experiments. Firstly, our proposal is tested in a comparative ROC analysis. Secondly, a randomness study is presented to show the behavior of GeneNetVal when the noise is increased in the input network. Finally, the ability of GeneNetVal to detect biological functionality of the network is shown.

  13. Gene therapy in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Xue; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Zhong, Ying-Qiang

    2014-10-07

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease and notoriously difficult to treat. Only a small proportion of PC patients are eligible for surgical resection, whilst conventional chemoradiotherapy only has a modest effect with substantial toxicity. Gene therapy has become a new widely investigated therapeutic approach for PC. This article reviews the basic rationale, gene delivery methods, therapeutic targets and developments of laboratory research and clinical trials in gene therapy of PC by searching the literature published in English using the PubMed database and analyzing clinical trials registered on the Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website (http://www. wiley.co.uk/genmed/ clinical). Viral vectors are main gene delivery tools in gene therapy of cancer, and especially, oncolytic virus shows brighter prospect due to its tumor-targeting property. Efficient therapeutic targets for gene therapy include tumor suppressor gene p53, mutant oncogene K-ras, anti-angiogenesis gene VEGFR, suicide gene HSK-TK, cytosine deaminase and cytochrome p450, multiple cytokine genes and so on. Combining different targets or combination strategies with traditional chemoradiotherapy may be a more effective approach to improve the efficacy of cancer gene therapy. Cancer gene therapy is not yet applied in clinical practice, but basic and clinical studies have demonstrated its safety and clinical benefits. Gene therapy will be a new and promising field for the treatment of PC.

  14. Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Models of ancestral gene order reconstruction have progressively integrated different evolutionary patterns and processes such as unequal gene content, gene duplications, and implicitly sequence evolution via reconciled gene trees. These models have so far ignored lateral gene transfer, even though in unicellular organisms it can have an important confounding effect, and can be a rich source of information on the function of genes through the detection of transfers of clusters of genes. Result We report an algorithm together with its implementation, DeCoLT, that reconstructs ancestral genome organization based on reconciled gene trees which summarize information on sequence evolution, gene origination, duplication, loss, and lateral transfer. DeCoLT optimizes in polynomial time on the number of rearrangements, computed as the number of gains and breakages of adjacencies between pairs of genes. We apply DeCoLT to 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacteria genomes. Conclusion DeCoLT is able to reconstruct adjacencies in 35 ancestral bacterial genomes with a thousand gene families in a few hours, and detects clusters of co-transferred genes. DeCoLT may also be used with any relationship between genes instead of adjacencies, to reconstruct ancestral interactions, functions or complexes. Availability http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/DeCoLT/ PMID:24564205

  15. Genes and Vocal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Could a mutation in a single gene be the evolutionary lynchpin supporting the development of human language? A rare mutation in the molecule known as FOXP2 discovered in a human family seemed to suggest so, and its sequence phylogeny reinforced a Chomskian view that language emerged wholesale in humans. Spurred by this discovery, research in…

  16. Gene stacking by recombinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient methods of stacking genes into plant genomes are needed to expedite transfer of multigenic traits into diverse crops grown in a variety of environments. Over two decades of research has identified several site-specific recombinases that carry out efficient cis and trans recombination betw...

  17. Genes in mammalian reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gwatkin, R.B.L.

    1996-11-01

    This is an informative book which deals mainly with genomic imprinting, the role of steroid hormones in development, the expression of a variety of genes during development and the link to hereditary diseases. It is an up-to-date review in a field that is quickly changing and provides valuable basic information and current research trends.

  18. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  19. Naming genes beyond Caenorhabditis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nomenclature of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans is based on long-standing, successful guidelines established in the late 1970s. Over time these guidelines have matured into a comprehensive, systematic nomenclature that is easy to apply, descriptive and therefore highly informative. Recently, a f...

  20. Gene-Environment Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Behavioural genetics was initially concerned with partitioning population variance into that due to genetics and that due to environmental influences. The implication was that the two were separate and it was assumed that gene-environment interactions were usually of so little importance that they could safely be ignored. Theoretical…

  1. Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Maglott, Donna; Ostell, Jim; Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Entrez Gene (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene) is NCBI's database for gene-specific information. Entrez Gene includes records from genomes that have been completely sequenced, that have an active research community to contribute gene-specific information or that are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content of Entrez Gene represents the result of both curation and automated integration of data from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), from collaborating model organism databases and from other databases within NCBI. Records in Entrez Gene are assigned unique, stable and tracked integers as identifiers. The content (nomenclature, map location, gene products and their attributes, markers, phenotypes and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is provided via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programing utilities (E-Utilities), and for bulk transfer by ftp.

  2. Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Maglott, Donna; Ostell, Jim; Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) is National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s database for gene-specific information. Entrez Gene maintains records from genomes which have been completely sequenced, which have an active research community to submit gene-specific information, or which are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content represents the integration of curation and automated processing from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology and other databases within NCBI. Records in Entrez Gene are assigned unique, stable and tracked integers as identifiers. The content (nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, markers, phenotypes and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities) and for bulk transfer by FTP.

  3. Endovascular Gene Delivery from a Stent Platform: Gene- Eluting Stents.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Ilia; Chorny, Michael; Adamo, Richard F; Forbes, Scott P; Corrales, Ricardo A; Alferiev, Ivan S; Levy, Robert J

    A synergistic impact of research in the fields of post-angioplasty restenosis, drug-eluting stents and vascular gene therapy over the past 15 years has shaped the concept of gene-eluting stents. Gene-eluting stents hold promise of overcoming some biological and technical problems inherent to drug-eluting stent technology. As the field of gene-eluting stents matures it becomes evident that all three main design modules of a gene-eluting stent: a therapeutic transgene, a vector and a delivery system are equally important for accomplishing sustained inhibition of neointimal formation in arteries treated with gene delivery stents. This review summarizes prior work on stent-based gene delivery and discusses the main optimization strategies required to move the field of gene-eluting stents to clinical translation.

  4. Endovascular Gene Delivery from a Stent Platform: Gene- Eluting Stents

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Ilia; Chorny, Michael; Adamo, Richard F; Forbes, Scott P; Corrales, Ricardo A; Alferiev, Ivan S; Levy, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A synergistic impact of research in the fields of post-angioplasty restenosis, drug-eluting stents and vascular gene therapy over the past 15 years has shaped the concept of gene-eluting stents. Gene-eluting stents hold promise of overcoming some biological and technical problems inherent to drug-eluting stent technology. As the field of gene-eluting stents matures it becomes evident that all three main design modules of a gene-eluting stent: a therapeutic transgene, a vector and a delivery system are equally important for accomplishing sustained inhibition of neointimal formation in arteries treated with gene delivery stents. This review summarizes prior work on stent-based gene delivery and discusses the main optimization strategies required to move the field of gene-eluting stents to clinical translation. PMID:26225356

  5. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  6. Immunotherapy and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    The Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy meeting of the Academy of Medical Sciences reviewed the state-of-the-art and translational prospects for therapeutic interventions aimed at killing tumor cells, correcting genetic defects and developing vaccines for chronic infections. Crucial basic science concepts and information about dendritic cells, the structure and function of T-cell receptors, and manipulation of the immune response by cytokine antagonists and peptides were presented. This information underpins vaccine design and delivery, as well as attempts to immunomodulate autoimmune disease. Results from studies using anticancer DNA vaccines, which include appropriate signals for both the innate and adaptive immune response, were presented in several talks. The vaccines incorporated helper epitopes and cancer target epitopes such as immunoglobulin idiotypes (for lymphomas and myelomas), melanoma-associated antigens (for melanoma and other solid tumors) and minor histocompatibility antigens (for leukemia). The results of using vaccines employing similar principles and designed to reduce viral load in HIV/AIDS patients were also presented. The introduction of suicide genes incorporating the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase gene (ntr) targeted at tumor cells prior to administration of the prodrug CB-1954, converted by ntr into a toxic alkylating agent, was discussed against the background of clinical trials and improved suicide gene design. The introduction into hematopoietic stem cells of missing genes for the common gamma-chain, deficiency of which causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), used similar retroviral transduction. The outcome of treating six SCID patients in the UK, and ten in France was successful immune reconstitution in the majority of patients, but in two of the French cases a complication of lymphoproliferative disease due to insertional mutagenesis was observed. The adoptive transfer of T-cells specific for minor histocompatibility antigens (for

  7. Cloning of the Bacillus subtilis recE/sup +/ gene and functional expression of recE/sup +/ in B. subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, R.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    By use of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage cloning vehicle Phi 105J23, B. subtilis chromosomal MboI fragments have been cloned that alleviate the pleiotropic effects of the recE4 mutation. The recombinant bacteriophages Phi 105Rec Phi1 (3.85-kilobase insert) and Phi 105Rec Phi4 (3.3-kilobase insert) both conferred on the recE4 strain YB1015 resistance to ethylmethane sulfonate, methylmethane sulfonate, mitomycin C, and UV irradiation comparable with the resistance observed in recE/sup +/ strains. While strain YB1015 (recE4) and its derivatives lysogenized with bacteriophage Phi105J23 were not transformed to prototrophy by B. subtilis chromosomal DNA, strain YB1015 lysogenized with either Phi 105Rec Phi 1 or Phi 105RecPhi 4 was susceptible to transformation with homologous B. subtilis chromosomal DNA. The heteroimmune prophages Phi 105 and SPO2 were essentially uninducible in strain YB1015. Significantly, both recombinant prophages Phi 105RecPhi 1 and Phi 105Rec Phi 4 were fully inducible and allowed the spontaneous and mitomycin C-dependent induction of a coresident SPO2 prophage in a recE4 host. The presence of the recombinant prophages also restored the ability of din genes to be induced in strains carrying the recE4 mutation. Finally, both recombinant bacteriophages elaborated a mitomycin C-inducible, 45-kilodalton protein that was immunoreactive with Escherichia coli recA/sup +/ gene product antibodies. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the recE/sup +/ gene has been cloned and that this gene elaborates the 45-kilodalton protein that is involved in SOB induction and homologous recombination.

  8. Gene Testing for Hereditary Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a family history of ataxia, but diagnostic tests for known ataxia genes cannot explain the ataxia in their family. In recent years, scientists have developed technologies to sequence thousands of genes at the same ...

  9. Chapter 15: Disease Gene Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing aberrations in the normal function of a gene define that gene as a disease gene. Proving a causal link between a gene and a disease experimentally is expensive and time-consuming. Comprehensive prioritization of candidate genes prior to experimental testing drastically reduces the associated costs. Computational gene prioritization is based on various pieces of correlative evidence that associate each gene with the given disease and suggest possible causal links. A fair amount of this evidence comes from high-throughput experimentation. Thus, well-developed methods are necessary to reliably deal with the quantity of information at hand. Existing gene prioritization techniques already significantly improve the outcomes of targeted experimental studies. Faster and more reliable techniques that account for novel data types are necessary for the development of new diagnostics, treatments, and cure for many diseases. PMID:23633938

  10. SOX genes: architects of development.

    PubMed

    Prior, H M; Walter, M A

    1996-07-01

    Development in higher organisms involves complex genetic regulation at the molecular level. The emerging picture of development control includes several families of master regulatory genes which can affect the expression of down-stream target genes in developmental cascade pathways. One new family of such development regulators is the SOX gene family. The SOX genes are named for a shared motif called the SRY box a region homologous to the DNA-binding domain of SRY, the mammalian sex determining gene. Like SRY, SOX genes play important roles in chordate development. At least a dozen human SOX genes have been identified and partially characterized (Tables 1 and 2). Mutations in SOX9 have recently been linked to campomelic dysplasia and autosomal sex reversal, and other SOX genes may also be associated with human disease.

  11. Brains, Genes and Primates

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  12. Graphene based gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liangzhu; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhuang

    2011-03-01

    Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI-10k polymer. The positively charged GO-PEI complexes are able to further bind with plasmid DNA (pDNA) for intracellular transfection of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene in HeLa cells. While EGFP transfection with PEI-1.2k appears to be ineffective, high EGFP expression is observed using the corresponding GO-PEI-1.2k as the transfection agent. On the other hand, GO-PEI-10k shows similar EGFP transfection efficiency but lower toxicity compared with PEI-10k. Our results suggest graphene to be a novel gene delivery nano-vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, promising for future applications in non-viral based gene therapy.Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI

  13. Beyond the Gene

    PubMed Central

    Fox Keller, Evelyn; Harel, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a response to the increasing difficulty biologists find in agreeing upon a definition of the gene, and indeed, the increasing disarray in which that concept finds itself. After briefly reviewing these problems, we propose an alternative to both the concept and the word gene—an alternative that, like the gene, is intended to capture the essence of inheritance, but which is both richer and more expressive. It is also clearer in its separation of what the organism statically is (what it tangibly inherits) and what it dynamically does (its functionality and behavior). Our proposal of a genetic functor, or genitor, is a sweeping extension of the classical genotype/phenotype paradigm, yet it appears to be faithful to the findings of contemporary biology, encompassing many of the recently emerging—and surprisingly complex—links between structure and functionality. PMID:18043738

  14. Genes and nerves.

    PubMed

    Dieu, Tam; Johnstone, Bruce R; Newgreen, Don F

    2005-04-01

    The unpredictability of a brachial plexus graft, a median nerve repair, or a facial-nerve reconstruction is well known. No matter how precise the technical skills, a perfect recovery from a peripheral-nerve lesion is elusive. To resolve this problem, understanding of the normal development of the peripheral nervous system is needed. Presently, the development of the innervation in the upper limb is complex and not fully understood. However, many of the genes involved in this process are now known, and the link between anatomy and genetics is becoming clearer. This short review aims to acquaint the clinical surgeon with some of the main genes. The principal steps in the establishment of neural circuits will be summarized, in particular, the specification and development of neurons and glia, the pathfinding of cells and axons towards their target, and the downstream molecules that control the circuitry of these neurons.

  15. Gene therapy in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Farjadnia, Mahgol; Naderan, Mohammad; Mohammadpour, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common ectasia of the cornea and is a common reason for corneal transplant. Therapeutic strategies that can arrest the progression of this disease and modify the underlying pathogenesis are getting more and more popularity among scientists. Cumulating data represent strong evidence of a genetic role in the pathogenesis of KC. Different loci have been identified, and certain mutations have also been mapped for this disease. Moreover, Biophysical properties of the cornea create an appropriate candidate of this tissue for gene therapy. Immune privilege, transparency and ex vivo stability are among these properties. Recent advantage in vectors, besides the ability to modulate the corneal milieu for accepting the target gene for a longer period and fruitful translation, make a big hope for stupendous results reasonable. PMID:25709266

  16. The sulfatase gene family.

    PubMed

    Parenti, G; Meroni, G; Ballabio, A

    1997-06-01

    During the past few years, molecular analyses have provided important insights into the biochemistry and genetics of the sulfatase family of enzymes, identifying the molecular bases of inherited diseases caused by sulfatase deficiencies. New members of the sulfatase gene family have been identified in man and other species using a genomic approach. These include the gene encoding arylsulfatase E, which is involved in X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata, a disorder of cartilage and bone development. Another important breakthrough has been the discovery of the biochemical basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a severe of all sulfatase activities. These discoveries, together with the resolution of the crystallographic structure of sulfatases, have improved our understanding of the function and evolution of this fascinating family of enzymes.

  17. RNA-mediated gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Alan L; Slack, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has become a new paradigm in biology. RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways have been studied extensively, revealing diverse epigenetic and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In contrast, the roles of ncRNAs in activating gene expression remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gene activation by small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and enhancer-derived RNAs, with an emphasis on epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24185374

  18. Gene Porter Bridwell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Gene Porter Bridwell served as the director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from January 6, 1994 until February 3, 1996, when he retired from NASA after thirty-four years service. Bridwell, a Marshall employee since 1962, had been Marshall's Space Shuttle Projects Office Director and Space Station Redesign Team deputy manager. Under Bridwell, Marshall worked to develop its role as a Center of Excellence for propulsion and for providing access to space.

  19. [Patenting human genes].

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    2002-05-10

    The problem of patenting of human genes, which was discussed at the Workshop organized by OECD, has become very actual due to granted patents that concern testing of genetic disposition for breast cancer. Companies that had made large investments into this research clearly support patenting of their discoveries. But such patents can reduce general accessibility of genetic testing. Existing laws, and namely the Directive of the European Council unfortunately are not unambiguous and allow rather free explanation.

  20. Pure genes, pure genius.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Steven L

    2012-09-14

    The 2012 Albert Lasker Special Achievement Award in Medical Science will be shared by Donald Brown and Tom Maniatis for their scientific work leading to the purification and study of single genes by physical and molecular biological methodologies. Brown and Maniatis are also recognized for their extraordinary commitment and generosity in promoting the careers of young scientists. The impact of these accomplishments has transformed biological and medical science over the past four decades.

  1. Genealogy and gene trees.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  2. nanosheets for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  3. [Basic principles of gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Vieweg, J

    1996-09-01

    The rapid development of recombinant DNA technology and our enhanced understanding of the genetic basis of human disease has facilitated the development of new molecular therapeutic modalities, termed gene therapy. Gene therapy involves the transfer of functional genes into somatic cells and their expression in target tissues in order to replace absent genes, correct defective genes, or induce antitumoral activity in the tumor-bearing host. Currently, an increasing number of gene therapy strategies are being investigated in experimental and clinical trials. Despite substantial progress, a number of technical and logistical hurdles must still be overcome before gene therapy can be safety and effectively applied in the human patient. Since gene therapy involves complex cell processing and can be time consuming and costly, simplifications or even alternative approaches will be necessary in order to establish this therapy as suitable for clinical use. This report reviews various gene therapy strategies and gene delivery techniques currently under clinical or experimental investigation. Special emphasis is given to cytokine gene therapy using gene-modified tumor vaccines for cancer treatment.

  4. Gene therapy for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fillat, Cristina; Altafaj, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The presence of an additional copy of HSA21 chromosome in Down syndrome (DS) individuals leads to the overexpression of 30-50% of HSA21 genes. This upregulation can, in turn, trigger a deregulation on the expression of non-HSA21 genes. Moreover, the overdose of HSA21 microRNAs (miRNAs) may result in the downregulation of its target genes. Additional complexity can also arise from epigenetic changes modulating gene expression. Thus, a myriad of transcriptional and posttranscriptional alterations participate to produce abnormal phenotypes in almost all tissues and organs of DS individuals. The study of the physiological roles of genes dysregulated in DS, as well as their characterization in murine models with gene(s) dosage imbalance, pointed out several genes, and functional noncoding elements to be particularly critical in the etiology of DS. Recent findings indicate that gene therapy strategies-based on the introduction of genetic elements by means of delivery vectors-toward the correction of phenotypic abnormalities in DS are also very promising tool to identify HSA21 and non-HSA21 gene candidates, contributing to DS phenotype. In this chapter, we focus on the impact of normalizing the expression levels of up or downregulated genes to rescue particular phenotypes of DS. Attempts toward gene-based treatment approaches in mouse models will be discussed as new opportunities to ameliorate DS alterations.

  5. Independent Gene Discovery and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palsule, Vrushalee; Coric, Dijana; Delancy, Russell; Dunham, Heather; Melancon, Caleb; Thompson, Dennis; Toms, Jamie; White, Ashley; Shultz, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of basic gene structure is critical when teaching molecular genetics, the central dogma and the biological sciences. We sought to create a gene-based teaching project to improve students' understanding of gene structure and to integrate this into a research project that can be implemented by instructors at the secondary level…

  6. Optimal gene partition into operons correlates with gene functional order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Mayo, Avi; Ronen, Michal; Alon, Uri

    2006-09-01

    Gene arrangement into operons varies between bacterial species. Genes in a given system can be on one operon in some organisms and on several operons in other organisms. Existing theories explain why genes that work together should be on the same operon, since this allows for advantageous lateral gene transfer and accurate stoichiometry. But what causes the frequent separation into multiple operons of co-regulated genes that act together in a pathway? Here we suggest that separation is due to benefits made possible by differential regulation of each operon. We present a simple mathematical model for the optimal distribution of genes into operons based on a balance of the cost of operons and the benefit of regulation that provides 'just-when-needed' temporal order. The analysis predicts that genes are arranged such that genes on the same operon do not skip functional steps in the pathway. This prediction is supported by genomic data from 137 bacterial genomes. Our work suggests that gene arrangement is not only the result of random historical drift, genome re-arrangement and gene transfer, but has elements that are solutions of an evolutionary optimization problem. Thus gene functional order may be inferred by analyzing the operon structure across different genomes.

  7. The post-transcriptional regulator rsmA/csrA activates T3SS by stabilizing the 5' UTR of hrpG, the master regulator of hrp/hrc genes, in Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Maxuel O; Farah, Chuck S; Wang, Nian

    2014-02-01

    The RsmA/CsrA family of the post-transcriptional regulators of bacteria is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including pathogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that rsmA not only is required for the full virulence of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC) but also contributes to triggering the hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants. Deletion of rsmA resulted in significantly reduced virulence in the host plant sweet orange and a delayed and weakened HR in the non-host plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Microarray, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, western-blotting, and GUS assays indicated that RsmA regulates the expression of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The regulation of T3SS by RsmA is a universal phenomenon in T3SS-containing bacteria, but the specific mechanism seems to depend on the interaction between a particular bacterium and its hosts. For Xanthomonads, the mechanism by which RsmA activates T3SS remains unknown. Here, we show that RsmA activates the expression of T3SS-encoding hrp/hrc genes by directly binding to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of hrpG, the master regulator of the hrp/hrc genes in XCC. RsmA stabilizes hrpG mRNA, leading to increased accumulation of HrpG proteins and subsequently, the activation of hrp/hrc genes. The activation of the hrp/hrc genes by RsmA via HrpG was further supported by the observation that ectopic overexpression of hrpG in an rsmA mutant restored its ability to cause disease in host plants and trigger HR in non-host plants. RsmA also stabilizes the transcripts of another T3SS-associated hrpD operon by directly binding to the 5' UTR region. Taken together, these data revealed that RsmA primarily activates T3SS by acting as a positive regulator of hrpG and that this regulation is critical to the pathogenicity of XCC.

  8. The Post-transcriptional Regulator rsmA/csrA Activates T3SS by Stabilizing the 5′ UTR of hrpG, the Master Regulator of hrp/hrc Genes, in Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Maxuel O.; Farah, Chuck S.; Wang, Nian

    2014-01-01

    The RsmA/CsrA family of the post-transcriptional regulators of bacteria is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including pathogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that rsmA not only is required for the full virulence of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC) but also contributes to triggering the hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants. Deletion of rsmA resulted in significantly reduced virulence in the host plant sweet orange and a delayed and weakened HR in the non-host plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Microarray, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, western-blotting, and GUS assays indicated that RsmA regulates the expression of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The regulation of T3SS by RsmA is a universal phenomenon in T3SS-containing bacteria, but the specific mechanism seems to depend on the interaction between a particular bacterium and its hosts. For Xanthomonads, the mechanism by which RsmA activates T3SS remains unknown. Here, we show that RsmA activates the expression of T3SS-encoding hrp/hrc genes by directly binding to the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of hrpG, the master regulator of the hrp/hrc genes in XCC. RsmA stabilizes hrpG mRNA, leading to increased accumulation of HrpG proteins and subsequently, the activation of hrp/hrc genes. The activation of the hrp/hrc genes by RsmA via HrpG was further supported by the observation that ectopic overexpression of hrpG in an rsmA mutant restored its ability to cause disease in host plants and trigger HR in non-host plants. RsmA also stabilizes the transcripts of another T3SS-associated hrpD operon by directly binding to the 5′ UTR region. Taken together, these data revealed that RsmA primarily activates T3SS by acting as a positive regulator of hrpG and that this regulation is critical to the pathogenicity of XCC. PMID:24586158

  9. Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, H. J.; Ferl, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

  10. The ethics of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sarah; Harris, John

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments have progressed in areas of science that pertain to gene therapy and its ethical implications. This review discusses the current state of therapeutic gene technologies, including stem cell therapies and genetic modification, and identifies ethical issues of concern in relation to the science of gene therapy and its application, including the ethics of embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning, the risks associated with gene therapy, and the ethics of clinical research in developing new therapeutic technologies. Additionally, ethical issues relating to genetic modification itself are considered: the significance of the human genome, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, and concerns regarding gene therapy as a eugenic practice.

  11. Gene Therapy for Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Randy J.; Venditti, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Gene therapy has recently shown great promise as an effective treatment for a number of metabolic diseases caused by genetic defects in both animal models and human clinical trials. Most of the current success has been achieved using a viral mediated gene addition approach, but gene-editing technology has progressed rapidly and gene modification is being actively pursued in clinical trials. This review focuses on viral mediated gene addition approaches, because most of the current clinical trials utilize this approach to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:27853673

  12. Gene Therapy for Autoimmune Disease.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shang-An; Wang, Jinjun; Tao, Mi-Hua; Leung, Patrick S C

    2015-10-01

    Advances in understanding the immunological and molecular basis of autoimmune diseases have made gene therapy a promising approach to treat the affected patients. Gene therapy for autoimmune diseases aims to regulate the levels of proinflammatory cytokines or molecules and the infiltration of lymphocytes to the effected sites through successful delivery and expression of therapeutic genes in appropriate cells. The ultimate goal of gene therapy is to restore and maintain the immune tolerance to the relevant autoantigens and improve clinical outcomes for patients. Here, we summarize the recent progress in identifying genes responsible for autoimmune diseases and present examples where gene therapy has been applied as treatments or prevention in autoimmune diseases both in animal models and the clinical trials. Discussion on the advantages and pitfalls of gene therapy strategies employed is provided. The intent of this review is to inspire further studies toward the development of new strategies for successful treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  13. RANGE: Gene Transfer of Reversibly Controlled Polycistronic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiwei; Cao, Liji; Luo, Chonglin; Ditzel, Désirée AW; Peter, Jörg; Sprengel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We developed a single vector recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) expression system for spatial and reversible control of polycistronic gene expression. Our approach (i) integrates the advantages of the tetracycline (Tet)-controlled transcriptional silencer tTSKid and the self-cleaving 2A peptide bridge, (ii) combines essential regulatory components as an autoregulatory loop, (iii) simplifies the gene delivery scheme, and (iv) regulates multiple genes in a synchronized manner. Controlled by an upstream Tet-responsive element (TRE), both the ubiquitous chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) and the neuron-specific synapsin-1 promoter (Syn) could regulate expression of tTSKid together with two 2A-linked reporter genes. Transduction in vitro exhibited maximally 50-fold regulation by doxycycline (Dox). Determined by gene delivery method as well as promoter, highly specific tissues were transduced in vivo. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) visualized reversible “ON/OFF” gene switches over repeated “Doxy-Cycling” in living mice. Thus, the reversible rAAV-mediated N-cistronic gene expression system, termed RANGE, may serve as a versatile tool to achieve reversible polycistronic gene regulation for the study of gene function as well as gene therapy. PMID:23571608

  14. Diseases originate and terminate by genes: unraveling nonviral gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Khan, Wahid; Ramakrishna, Sistla

    2013-12-01

    The world is driving in to the era of transformation of chemical therapeutic molecules to biological genetic material therapeutics, and that is where the biological drugs especially "genes" come into existence. These genes worked as "magical bullets" to specifically silence faulty genes responsible for progression of diseases. Viral gene delivery research is far ahead of nonviral gene delivery technique. However, with more advancement in polymer science, new ways are opening for better and efficient nonviral gene delivery. But efficient delivery method is always considered as a bottleneck for gene delivery as success of which will decide the fate of gene in cells. During the past decade, it became evident that extracellular as well as intracellular barriers compromise the transfection efficiency of nonviral vectors. The challenge for gene therapy research is to pinpoint the rate-limiting steps in this complex process and implement strategies to overcome the biological physiochemical and metabolic barriers encountered during targeting. The synergy between studies that investigate the mechanism of breaking in and breaking out of nonviral gene delivery carrier through various extracellular and intracellular barriers with desired characteristics will enable the rational design of vehicles and revolutionize the treatment of various diseases.

  15. Network analysis reveals crosstalk between autophagy genes and disease genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji-Ye; Yao, Wei-Xuan; Wang, Yun; Fan, Yi-lei; Wu, Jian-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a protective and life-sustaining process in which cytoplasmic components are packaged into double-membrane vesicles and targeted to lysosomes for degradation. Accumulating evidence supports that autophagy is associated with several pathological conditions. However, research on the functional cross-links between autophagy and disease genes remains in its early stages. In this study, we constructed a disease-autophagy network (DAN) by integrating known disease genes, known autophagy genes and protein-protein interactions (PPI). Dissecting the topological properties of the DAN suggested that nodes that both autophagy and disease genes (inter-genes), are topologically important in the DAN structure. Next, a core network from the DAN was extracted to analyze the functional links between disease and autophagy genes. The genes in the core network were significantly enriched in multiple disease-related pathways, suggesting that autophagy genes may function in various disease processes. Of 17 disease classes, 11 significantly overlapped with autophagy genes, including cancer diseases, metabolic diseases and hematological diseases, a finding that is supported by the literatures. We also found that autophagy genes have a bridging role in the connections between pairs of disease classes. Altogether, our study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases and the autophagy process. PMID:28295050

  16. Identification of genes and gene products necessary for bacterial bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Engebrecht, J; Silverman, M

    1984-07-01

    Expression of luminescence in Escherichia coli was recently achieved by cloning genes from the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. One DNA fragment on a hybrid plasmid encoded regulatory functions and enzymatic activities necessary for light production. We report the results of a genetic analysis to identify the luminescence genes (lux) that reside on this recombinant plasmid. lux gene mutations were generated by hydroxylamine treatment, and these mutations were ordered on a linear map by complementation in trans with a series of polar transposon insertions on other plasmids. lux genes were defined by complementation of lux gene defects on pairs of plasmids in trans in E. coli. Hybrid plasmids were also used to direct the synthesis of polypeptides in the E. coli minicell system. Seven lux genes and the corresponding gene products were identified from the complementation analysis and the minicell programing experiments. These genes, in the order of their position on a linear map, and the apparent molecular weights of the gene products are luxR (27,000), luxI (25,000), luxC (53,000), luxD (33,000), luxA (40,000), luxB (38,000), and luxE (42,000). From the luminescence phenotypes of E. coli containing mutant plasmids, functions were assigned to these genes: luxA, luxB, luxC, luxD, and luxE encode enzymes for light production and luxR and luxI encode regulatory functions.

  17. [Obtaining transgenic rice plants and their progenies using Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    PubMed

    Yin, Z C; Yang, F; Xu, Y; Li, B J

    1998-12-01

    Rice (Oriza sativa L.) suspension cells of Taipei 309 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens stran EHA101 harbouring binary vector pBYT2 for 3 days in the presence of vir inducer, 100 mumol/L acetosyringone (AS). After 2 months of continuous selection, 17 stable hygromycin-resistant, GUS-positive calli were recovered from 364 suspension cell clusters co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens. 10 putative transgenic R0 plants obtained from 8 tansformed calli and their progenies were analyzed for the integration and expression of foreign genes. Southern blot analysis of R0 and R1 generations indicated that foreign genes had been stably integrated in the genome of transgenic rice and sexually transmitted. One of the transgenic lines showed 5 copies of T-DNA integration, while the others had only one copy. Histochemical staining observation and fluorometric assay of GUS activity in transgenic rice cells and plants showed ubiquitin promoter from maize was highly effective in driving the expression of gus reporter gene in transgenic rice cells. GUS protein and its activity were also investigated through ndPAGE-X-Gluc staining assay, and it was found that the GUS protein in transgenic rice cells was smaller in size than the standard GUS protein (Sigma Co. G0786) but as large as that from E.coli HB101 (pBI121). This study suggested that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plant is an efficient and reliable method to introduce foreign genes into rice.

  18. Gene Circuit Analysis of the Terminal Gap Gene huckebein

    PubMed Central

    Ashyraliyev, Maksat; Siggens, Ken; Janssens, Hilde; Blom, Joke; Akam, Michael; Jaeger, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The early embryo of Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful model system to study the role of genes in pattern formation. The gap gene network constitutes the first zygotic regulatory tier in the hierarchy of the segmentation genes involved in specifying the position of body segments. Here, we use an integrative, systems-level approach to investigate the regulatory effect of the terminal gap gene huckebein (hkb) on gap gene expression. We present quantitative expression data for the Hkb protein, which enable us to include hkb in gap gene circuit models. Gap gene circuits are mathematical models of gene networks used as computational tools to extract regulatory information from spatial expression data. This is achieved by fitting the model to gap gene expression patterns, in order to obtain estimates for regulatory parameters which predict a specific network topology. We show how considering variability in the data combined with analysis of parameter determinability significantly improves the biological relevance and consistency of the approach. Our models are in agreement with earlier results, which they extend in two important respects: First, we show that Hkb is involved in the regulation of the posterior hunchback (hb) domain, but does not have any other essential function. Specifically, Hkb is required for the anterior shift in the posterior border of this domain, which is now reproduced correctly in our models. Second, gap gene circuits presented here are able to reproduce mutants of terminal gap genes, while previously published models were unable to reproduce any null mutants correctly. As a consequence, our models now capture the expression dynamics of all posterior gap genes and some variational properties of the system correctly. This is an important step towards a better, quantitative understanding of the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of the gap gene network. PMID:19876378

  19. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  20. Gene Discoveries Offer New Height Insights

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Child Development Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Development Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  1. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  2. Cardiac gene therapy: optimization of gene delivery techniques in vivo.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michael G; Swain, JaBaris D; White, Jennifer D; Low, David; Stedman, Hansell; Bridges, Charles R

    2010-04-01

    Vector-mediated cardiac gene therapy holds tremendous promise as a translatable platform technology for treating many cardiovascular diseases. The ideal technique is one that is efficient and practical, allowing for global cardiac gene expression, while minimizing collateral expression in other organs. Here we survey the available in vivo vector-mediated cardiac gene delivery methods--including transcutaneous, intravascular, intramuscular, and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques--with consideration of the relative merits and deficiencies of each. Review of available techniques suggests that an optimal method for vector-mediated gene delivery to the large animal myocardium would ideally employ retrograde and/or anterograde transcoronary gene delivery,extended vector residence time in the coronary circulation, an increased myocardial transcapillary gradient using physical methods, increased endothelial permeability with pharmacological agents, minimal collateral gene expression by isolation of the cardiac circulation from the systemic, and have low immunogenicity.

  3. Vectors for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Russell, S J

    1996-09-01

    Many viral and non-viral vector systems have now been developed for gene therapy applications. In this article, the pros and cons of these vector systems are discussed in relation to the different cancer gene therapy strategies. The protocols used in cancer gene therapy can be broadly divided into six categories including gene transfer to explanted cells for use as cell-based cancer vaccines; gene transfer to a small number of tumour cells in situ to achieve a vaccine effect; gene transfer to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) lining the blood vessels of the tumour to interfere with tumour angiogenesis; gene transfer to T lymphocytes to enhance their antitumour effector capability; gene transfer to haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to enhance their resistance to cytotoxic drugs and gene transfer to a large number of tumour cells in situ to achieve nonimmune tumour reduction with or without bystander effect. Each of the six strategies makes unique demands on the vector system and these are discussed with reference to currently available vectors. Aspects of vector biology that are in need of further development are discussed in some detail. The final section points to the potential use of replicating viruses as delivery vehicles for efficient in vivo gene transfer to disseminated cancers.

  4. Reverse engineering transcriptional gene networks.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; di Bernardo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is a step-by-step guide on how to infer gene networks from gene expression profiles. The definition of a gene network is given in Subheading 1, where the different types of networks are discussed. The chapter then guides the readers through a data-gathering process in order to build a compendium of gene expression profiles from a public repository. Gene expression profiles are then discretized and a statistical relationship between genes, called mutual information (MI), is computed. Gene pairs with insignificant MI scores are then discarded by applying one of the described pruning steps. The retained relationships are then used to build up a Boolean adjacency matrix used as input for a clustering algorithm to divide the network into modules (or communities). The gene network can then be used as a hypothesis generator for discovering gene function and analyzing gene signatures. Some case studies are presented, and an online web-tool called Netview is described.

  5. Identifying driver genes in cancer by triangulating gene expression, gene location, and survival data.

    PubMed

    Rouam, Sigrid; Miller, Lance D; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Driver genes are directly responsible for oncogenesis and identifying them is essential in order to fully understand the mechanisms of cancer. However, it is difficult to delineate them from the larger pool of genes that are deregulated in cancer (ie, passenger genes). In order to address this problem, we developed an approach called TRIAngulating Gene Expression (TRIAGE through clinico-genomic intersects). Here, we present a refinement of this approach incorporating a new scoring methodology to identify putative driver genes that are deregulated in cancer. TRIAGE triangulates - or integrates - three levels of information: gene expression, gene location, and patient survival. First, TRIAGE identifies regions of deregulated expression (ie, expression footprints) by deriving a newly established measure called the Local Singular Value Decomposition (LSVD) score for each locus. Driver genes are then distinguished from passenger genes using dual survival analyses. Incorporating measurements of gene expression and weighting them according to the LSVD weight of each tumor, these analyses are performed using the genes located in significant expression footprints. Here, we first use simulated data to characterize the newly established LSVD score. We then present the results of our application of this refined version of TRIAGE to gene expression data from five cancer types. This refined version of TRIAGE not only allowed us to identify known prominent driver genes, such as MMP1, IL8, and COL1A2, but it also led us to identify several novel ones. These results illustrate that TRIAGE complements existing tools, allows for the identification of genes that drive cancer and could perhaps elucidate potential future targets of novel anticancer therapeutics.

  6. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria.

  7. Gene-gene interaction between tuberculosis candidate genes in a South African population.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Erika; van der Merwe, Lize; van Helden, Paul D; Hoal, Eileen G

    2011-02-01

    In a complex disease such as tuberculosis (TB) it is increasingly evident that gene-gene interactions play a far more important role in an individual's susceptibility to develop the disease than single polymorphisms on their own, as one gene can enhance or hinder the expression of another gene. Gene-gene interaction analysis is a new approach to elucidate susceptibility to TB. The possibility of gene-gene interactions was assessed, focusing on 11 polymorphisms in nine genes (DC-SIGN, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, IL-8, IL-1Ra, MBL, NRAMP1, RANTES, and SP-D) that have been associated with TB, some repeatedly. An optimal model, which best describes and predicts TB case-control status, was constructed. Significant interactions were detected between eight pairs of variants. The models fitted the observed data extremely well, with p < 0.0001 for all eight models. A highly significant interaction was detected between INFGR1 and NRAMP1, which is not surprising because macrophage activation is greatly enhanced by IFN-γ and IFN-γ response elements that are present in the human NRAMP1 promoter region, providing further evidence for their interaction. This study enabled us to test the theory that disease outcome may be due to interaction of several gene effects. With eight instances of statistically significant gene-gene interactions, the importance of epistasis is clearly identifiable in this study. Methods for studying gene-gene interactions are based on a multilocus and multigene approach, consistent with the nature of complex-trait diseases, and may provide the paradigm for future genetic studies of TB.

  8. Conotoxin Gene Superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    Conotoxins are the peptidic components of the venoms of marine cone snails (genus Conus). They are remarkably diverse in terms of structure and function. Unique potency and selectivity profiles for a range of neuronal targets have made several conotoxins valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics, and has resulted in a concerted and increasing drive to identify and characterise new conotoxins. Conotoxins are translated from mRNA as peptide precursors, and cDNA sequencing is now the primary method for identification of new conotoxin sequences. As a result, gene superfamily, a classification based on precursor signal peptide identity, has become the most convenient method of conotoxin classification. Here we review each of the described conotoxin gene superfamilies, with a focus on the structural and functional diversity present in each. This review is intended to serve as a practical guide to conotoxin superfamilies and to facilitate interpretation of the increasing number of conotoxin precursor sequences being identified by targeted-cDNA sequencing and more recently high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. PMID:25522317

  9. Genes and causation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2008-09-13

    Relating genotypes to phenotypes is problematic not only owing to the extreme complexity of the interactions between genes, proteins and high-level physiological functions but also because the paradigms for genetic causality in biological systems are seriously confused. This paper examines some of the misconceptions, starting with the changing definitions of a gene, from the cause of phenotype characters to the stretches of DNA. I then assess whether the 'digital' nature of DNA sequences guarantees primacy in causation compared to non-DNA inheritance, whether it is meaningful or useful to refer to genetic programs, and the role of high-level (downward) causation. The metaphors that served us well during the molecular biological phase of recent decades have limited or even misleading impacts in the multilevel world of systems biology. New paradigms are needed if we are to succeed in unravelling multifactorial genetic causation at higher levels of physiological function and so to explain the phenomena that genetics was originally about. Because it can solve the 'genetic differential effect problem', modelling of biological function has an essential role to play in unravelling genetic causation.

  10. XLMR genes: Update 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lubs, H.A.; Tranebjaerg, L.; Arena, J.F.

    1996-07-12

    A current list of all known forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and a slightly revised classification are presented. The number of known disorders has not increased because 6 disorders have been combined based on new molecular data or on clinical grounds and only 6 newly described XLMR disorders have been reported. Of the current 105 XLMR disorders, 34 have been mapped, and 18 disorders and 1 non-specific XLMR (FRAXE) have been cloned. The number of families with nonspecific XLMR with a LOD score of {ge}2.0 has more than doubled, with 42 (including FRAXE) now being known. A summary of the localization of presumed nonspecific mental retardation (MR) genes from well-studied X-chromosomal translocations and deletions is also included. Only 10-12 nonoverlapping loci are required to explain all localizations of non-specific MR from both approaches. These new trends mark the beginning of a significantly improved understanding of the role of genes on the X chromosome in producing MR. Continued close collaboration between clinical and molecular investigators will be required to complete the process. 105 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  12. Regulation of gene expression by Goodwin's loop with many genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielewiesiuk, Jan; Łopaciuk, Agata

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a simple analysis of a long Goodwin's loop containing many genes. The genes form a closed series. The rate of transcription of any gene is up or down regulated by theprotein product of the preceding gene. We describe the loop with a system of ordinary differential equations of order s. Oscillatory solutions of the system are possible at the odd number of repressions and any number of inductions if the product of all Hill's coefficients, related to both repressions and inductions, is larger than:

  13. Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Maglott, Donna; Ostell, Jim; Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Entrez Gene (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene) is NCBI's database for gene-specific information. It does not include all known or predicted genes; instead Entrez Gene focuses on the genomes that have been completely sequenced, that have an active research community to contribute gene-specific information, or that are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content of Entrez Gene represents the result of curation and automated integration of data from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), from collaborating model organism databases, and from many other databases available from NCBI. Records are assigned unique, stable and tracked integers as identifiers. The content (nomenclature, map location, gene products and their attributes, markers, phenotypes, and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is updated as new information becomes available. Entrez Gene is a step forward from NCBI's LocusLink, with both a major increase in taxonomic scope and improved access through the many tools associated with NCBI Entrez.

  14. Gene: a gene-centered information resource at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garth R; Hem, Vichet; Katz, Kenneth S; Ovetsky, Michael; Wallin, Craig; Ermolaeva, Olga; Tolstoy, Igor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Pruitt, Kim D; Maglott, Donna R; Murphy, Terence D

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) Gene database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) integrates gene-specific information from multiple data sources. NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) genomes for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the primary foundation for Gene records in that they form the critical association between sequence and a tracked gene upon which additional functional and descriptive content is anchored. Additional content is integrated based on the genomic location and RefSeq transcript and protein sequence data. The content of a Gene record represents the integration of curation and automated processing from RefSeq, collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology, and other databases within NCBI. Records in Gene are assigned unique, tracked integers as identifiers. The content (citations, nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, phenotypes, sequences, interactions, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities and Entrez Direct) and for bulk transfer by FTP.

  15. Gene repair and transposon-mediated gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul D; Augustin, Lance B; Kren, Betsy T; Steer, Clifford J

    2002-01-01

    The main strategy of gene therapy has traditionally been focused on gene augmentation. This approach typically involves the introduction of an expression system designed to express a specific protein in the transfected cell. Both the basic and clinical sciences have generated enough information to suggest that gene therapy would eventually alter the fundamental practice of modern medicine. However, despite progress in the field, widespread clinical applications and success have not been achieved. The myriad deficiencies associated with gene augmentation have resulted in the development of alternative approaches to treat inherited and acquired genetic disorders. One, derived primarily from the pioneering work of homologous recombination, is gene repair. Simply stated, the process involves targeting the mutation in situ for gene correction and a return to normal gene function. Site-specific genetic repair has many advantages over augmentation although it too is associated with significant limitations. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of gene correction. In particular, we discuss technologies based on chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides, single-stranded and triplex-forming oligonucleotides, and small fragment homologous replacement. While each of these approaches is different, they all share a number of common characteristics, including the need for efficient delivery of nucleic acids to the nucleus. In addition, we review the potential application of a novel and exciting nonviral gene augmentation strategy--the Sleeping Beauty transposon system.

  16. Stratified gene expression analysis identifies major amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ashley R; Troakes, Claire; King, Andrew; Sahni, Vibhu; De Jong, Simone; Bossers, Koen; Papouli, Efterpi; Mirza, Muddassar; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Shaw, Christopher E; Shaw, Pamela J; Kirby, Janine; Veldink, Jan H; Macklis, Jeffrey D; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons resulting in progressive paralysis. Gene expression studies of ALS only rarely identify the same gene pathways as gene association studies. We hypothesized that analyzing tissues by matching on degree of disease severity would identify different patterns of gene expression from a traditional case-control comparison. We analyzed gene expression changes in 4 postmortem central nervous system regions, stratified by severity of motor neuron loss. An overall comparison of cases (n = 6) and controls (n = 3) identified known ALS gene, SOX5, as showing differential expression (log2 fold change = 0.09, p = 5.5 × 10(-5)). Analyses stratified by disease severity identified expression changes in C9orf72 (p = 2.77 × 10(-3)), MATR3 (p = 3.46 × 10(-3)), and VEGFA (p = 8.21 × 10(-4)), all implicated in ALS through genetic studies, and changes in other genes in pathways involving RNA processing and immune response. These findings suggest that analysis of gene expression stratified by disease severity can identify major ALS genes and may be more efficient than traditional case-control comparison.

  17. β-Glucuronidase from Lactobacillus brevis useful for baicalin hydrolysis belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 30.

    PubMed

    Sakurama, Haruko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Uchibori, Yoshie; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ashida, Hisashi; Kita, Keiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Baicalin (baicalein 7-O-β-D-glucuronide) is one of the major flavonoid glucuronides found in traditional herbal medicines. Because its aglycone, baicalein, is absorbed more quickly and shows more effective properties than baicalin, the conversion of baicalin into baicalein by β-glucuronidase (GUS) has drawn the attention of researchers. Recently, we have found that Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans can convert baicalin to baicalein. Therefore, we aimed to identify and characterize the converting enzyme from L. brevis subsp. coagulans. First, we purified this enzyme from the cell-free extracts of L. brevis subsp. coagulans and cloned its gene. Surprisingly, this enzyme was found to be a GUS belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 30 (designated as LcGUS30), and its amino acid sequence has little similarity with any GUS belonging to GH families 1, 2, and 79 that have been reported so far. We then established a high-level expression and simple purification system of the recombinant LcGUS30 in Escherichia coli. The detailed analysis of the substrate specificity revealed that LcGUS30 has strict specificity toward glycon but not toward aglycones. Interestingly, LcGUS30 prefers baicalin rather than estrone 3-(β-D-glucuronide), one of the human endogenous steroid hormones. These results indicated that L. brevis subsp. coagulans and LcGUS30 should serve as powerful tools for the construction of a safe bioconversion system for baicalin. In addition, we propose that this novel type of GUS forms a new group in subfamily 3 of GH family 30.

  18. Characterization of a highly active promoter, PBbgpd, in Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-gang; Fang, Wei-guo; Zhang, Yong-jun; Fan, Yan-hua; Wu, Xing-wei; Zhou, Qun; Pei, Yan

    2008-08-01

    The promoter of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene from Aspergillus nidulans (PgpdA) is widely used to direct expression of target genes constitutively in fungi. However, in some species, a heterogeneous promoter is found to be of low efficiency. To obtain a high-efficiency promoter for transformation of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus widely used as an mycoinsecticide, a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (Bbgpd) promoter, was cloned and characterized. Four deletion constructs (-2118, -1153, -726, and -354) of the 5'-upstream sequence of Bbgpd linked to a bar::gus fusion gene (phosphinothricin-resistance::beta-glucuronidase fused gene), which were used as selected marker gene and report gene, respectively, were generated. GUS activities of transgenic strains harboring -726, -1153, and -2118 deletion constructs were much stronger than that of the promoter of Aspergillus nidulans gpdA (PgpdA), with a twofold to threefold increase over that in the PgpdA construct. The -726 fragment was necessary to direct GUS expression in B. bassiana. No -354 transgenic progenies were obtained, possibly because it failed to initiate the transcription of bar::gus fusion gene. A remarkable increase of GUS activity was found between the -1153 and -726 constructs, indicating that some active transcriptional elements were located in this region. With a high expression level and relatively short sequence, PBbgpd can be used to drive target genes in B. bassiana transgenic research.

  19. Gene replacement in Lactobacillus helveticus.

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmik, T; Fernández, L; Steele, J L

    1993-01-01

    An efficient method for gene replacement in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 was developed by utilizing pSA3 as an integration vector. This plasmid is stably maintained in CNRZ32 at 37 degrees C but is unstable at 45 degrees C. This method consisted of a two-step gene-targeting technique: (i) chromosomal integration of a plasmid carrying an internal deletion in the gene of interest via homologous recombination and (ii) excision of the vector and the wild-type gene via homologous recombination, resulting in gene replacement. By using this procedure, the chromosomal X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase gene (pepXP) of CNRZ32 was successfully inactivated. Images PMID:8104928

  20. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed.

  1. Gene therapy for malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Okura, Hidehiro; Smith, Christian A; Rutka, James T

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and devastating primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current treatment modalities, such as surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, only modest improvements in median survival have been achieved. Frequent recurrence and invasiveness of GBM are likely due to the resistance of glioma stem cells to conventional treatments; therefore, novel alternative treatment strategies are desperately needed. Recent advancements in molecular biology and gene technology have provided attractive novel treatment possibilities for patients with GBM. Gene therapy is defined as a technology that aims to modify the genetic complement of cells to obtain therapeutic benefit. To date, gene therapy for the treatment of GBM has demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in pre-clinical studies and promising safety profiles in clinical studies. However, while this approach is obviously promising, concerns still exist regarding issues associated with transduction efficiency, viral delivery, the pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Tumor development and progression involve alterations in a wide spectrum of genes, therefore a variety of gene therapy approaches for GBM have been proposed. Improved viral vectors are being evaluated, and the potential use of gene therapy alone or in synergy with other treatments against GBM are being studied. In this review, we will discuss the most commonly studied gene therapy approaches for the treatment of GBM in preclinical and clinical studies including: prodrug/suicide gene therapy; oncolytic gene therapy; cytokine mediated gene therapy; and tumor suppressor gene therapy. In addition, we review the principles and mechanisms of current gene therapy strategies as well as advantages and disadvantages of each.

  2. Gene therapy in metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sevin, C; Cartier-Lacave, N; Aubourg, P

    2009-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A. Deficiency of this enzyme results in intralysosomal storage of sphingolipid cerebroside 3-sulfates (sulfatides), which are abundant in myelin and neurons. A pathological hallmark of MLD is demyelination and neurodegeneration, causing various and ultimately lethal neurological symptoms. This review discusses the potential therapeutic application of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy and intracerebral gene transfer (brain gene therapy) in patients with MLD.

  3. A genetic ensemble approach for gene-gene interaction identification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has now become clear that gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions are ubiquitous and fundamental mechanisms for the development of complex diseases. Though a considerable effort has been put into developing statistical models and algorithmic strategies for identifying such interactions, the accurate identification of those genetic interactions has been proven to be very challenging. Methods In this paper, we propose a new approach for identifying such gene-gene and gene-environment interactions underlying complex diseases. This is a hybrid algorithm and it combines genetic algorithm (GA) and an ensemble of classifiers (called genetic ensemble). Using this approach, the original problem of SNP interaction identification is converted into a data mining problem of combinatorial feature selection. By collecting various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) subsets as well as environmental factors generated in multiple GA runs, patterns of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions can be extracted using a simple combinatorial ranking method. Also considered in this study is the idea of combining identification results obtained from multiple algorithms. A novel formula based on pairwise double fault is designed to quantify the degree of complementarity. Conclusions Our simulation study demonstrates that the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm has comparable identification power to Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) and is slightly better than Polymorphism Interaction Analysis (PIA), which are the two most popular methods for gene-gene interaction identification. More importantly, the identification results generated by using our genetic ensemble algorithm are highly complementary to those obtained by PIA and MDR. Experimental results from our simulation studies and real world data application also confirm the effectiveness of the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm, as well as the potential benefits of combining identification

  4. A seed coat-specific promoter for canola.

    PubMed

    El-Mezawy, Aliaa; Wu, Limin; Shah, Saleh

    2009-12-01

    The canola industry generates more than $11 billion of yearly income to the Canadian economy. One problem of meal quality is the dark polyphenolic pigments that accumulate in the seed coat. Seed coat-specific promoters are a pre-requisite to regulate the genes involved in seed coat development and metabolism. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used to test an Arabidopsis promoter in developing and mature seeds of canola (Brassica napus). The promoter tested is the regulatory region of the laccase gene (AtLAC15) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The AtLAC15 promoter::GUS construct was inserted into canola double haploid line DH12075 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot analysis using a 536 bp GUS probe showed variation among the transformed plants in the T-DNA copy numbers and the position of the insertion in their genomes. Histochemical assay of the GUS enzyme in different tissues (roots, leaves, stem, pollen grains, flowers, siliques, embryos and seed coats) showed ascending GUS activity only in the seed coat from 10 days after pollination (DAP) to the fully mature stage (35 DAP). GUS stain was observed in the mucilage cell layer, in the outer integument layer of the seed coat but not in the inner integument. The AtLAC15 promoter exhibited a specificity and expression level that is useful as a seed coat-specific promoter for canola.

  5. Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Sciences - Basic Discoveries for Better Health Site Map Staff Search My Order ... > Science Education > Inside Life Science > Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Inside Life Science View All ...

  6. MEIS homeobox genes in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Dirk; Revet, Ingrid; Jorritsma, Gerda; Schilderink, Nathalie; Versteeg, Rogier

    2005-10-18

    The common pediatric tumor neuroblastoma originates from primitive neural crest-derived precursor cells of the peripheral nervous system. Neuroblastoma especially affects very young children, and can already be present at birth. Its early onset and cellular origin predict the involvement of developmental control genes in neuroblastoma etiology. These genes are indispensable for the tight regulation of normal embryonic development but as a consequence cause cancer and congenital diseases upon mutation or aberrant expression. To date however, the connotation of these genes in neuroblastoma pathogenesis is scant. This review recapitulates data on the MEIS homeobox control genes in cancer and focuses on neuroblastoma.

  7. The search for essential genes.

    PubMed

    Reich, K A

    2000-06-01

    The bacterial genomic era began with the publication of the chromosomal sequence of Haemophilus influenzae. As few of the observed genes had been examined experimentally, functional assignments were made by comparative analysis and for many genes no annotation could be made. This mini-review briefly describes the genomic-scale experimental approaches being used to identify genes required for the growth of microorganisms. Identifying 'essential genes', the simplest possible annotation for the unknown open reading frames, is important for antibacterial and antifungal research and is a first step to defining the minimum functional requirement for autonomous growth.

  8. Discovering modulators of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Babur, Özgün; Demir, Emek; Gönen, Mithat; Sander, Chris; Dogrusoz, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    Proteins that modulate the activity of transcription factors, often called modulators, play a critical role in creating tissue- and context-specific gene expression responses to the signals cells receive. GEM (Gene Expression Modulation) is a probabilistic framework that predicts modulators, their affected targets and mode of action by combining gene expression profiles, protein–protein interactions and transcription factor–target relationships. Using GEM, we correctly predicted a significant number of androgen receptor modulators and observed that most modulators can both act as co-activators and co-repressors for different target genes. PMID:20466809

  9. Copyright and gene technology.

    PubMed

    Coke, Sue

    2002-08-01

    The rapid growth of gene technology and its commercialisation raises concerns for scientific researchers and research institutions wishing to place information in the public domain. This article examines whether copyright laws in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia provide any protection for genetically modified DNA, proteins, and genetically modified organisms, in contrast with any copyright protection extending to a record of the lettering of a sequence representing a series of nucleotides of modified DNA or the amino acids comprising a protein. Whilst it is arguable that protection may be available in the United States and the United Kingdom, it is submitted that it would be difficult to persuade a court in Australia that genetically modified DNA and genetically modified organisms directly constitute "literary" or "artistic" works.

  10. Introduction: Cancer Gene Networks.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Constructing, evaluating, and interpreting gene networks generally sits within the broader field of systems biology, which continues to emerge rapidly, particular with respect to its application to understanding the complexity of signaling in the context of cancer biology. For the purposes of this volume, we take a broad definition of systems biology. Considering an organism or disease within an organism as a system, systems biology is the study of the integrated and coordinated interactions of the network(s) of genes, their variants both natural and mutated (e.g., polymorphisms, rearrangements, alternate splicing, mutations), their proteins and isoforms, and the organic and inorganic molecules with which they interact, to execute the biochemical reactions (e.g., as enzymes, substrates, products) that reflect the function of that system. Central to systems biology, and perhaps the only approach that can effectively manage the complexity of such systems, is the building of quantitative multiscale predictive models. The predictions of the models can vary substantially depending on the nature of the model and its inputoutput relationships. For example, a model may predict the outcome of a specific molecular reaction(s), a cellular phenotype (e.g., alive, dead, growth arrest, proliferation, and motility), a change in the respective prevalence of cell or subpopulations, a patient or patient subgroup outcome(s). Such models necessarily require computers. Computational modeling can be thought of as using machine learning and related tools to integrate the very high dimensional data generated from modern, high throughput omics technologies including genomics (next generation sequencing), transcriptomics (gene expression microarrays; RNAseq), metabolomics and proteomics (ultra high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry), and "subomic" technologies to study the kinome, methylome, and others. Mathematical modeling can be thought of as the use of ordinary

  11. Genes, evolution and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties-intelligence-is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

  12. Gene therapy for hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geoffrey L; Herzog, Roland W

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors.

  13. Gene therapy for deafness.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, D C; Raphael, Y

    2013-12-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit in humans and can result from genetic, environmental or combined etiologies that prevent normal function of the cochlea, the peripheral sensory organ. Recent advances in understanding the genetic pathways that are critical for the development and maintenance of cochlear function, as well as the molecular mechanisms that underlie cell trauma and death, have provided exciting opportunities for modulating these pathways to correct genetic mutations, to enhance the endogenous protective pathways for hearing preservation and to regenerate lost sensory cells with the possibility of ameliorating hearing loss. A number of recent animal studies have used gene-based therapies in innovative ways toward realizing these goals. With further refinement, some of the protective and regenerative approaches reviewed here may become clinically applicable.

  14. Gene-gene Interaction Analyses for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Honghuang; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Smith, Albert V.; Arking, Dan E.; Barnard, John; Bartz, Traci M.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Lohman, Kurt; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Trompet, Stella; Niemeijer, Maartje N.; Kacprowski, Tim; Chasman, Daniel I.; Klarin, Derek; Sinner, Moritz F.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Meitinger, Thomas; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chen, Lin Y.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Xie, Zhijun; Hendricks, Audrey E.; Ding, Jingzhong; Delgado, Graciela E.; Verweij, Niek; van der Harst, Pim; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Ford, Ian; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André; Heeringa, Jan; Franco, Oscar H.; Kors, Jan A.; Weiss, Stefan; Völzke, Henry; Rose, Lynda M.; Natarajan, Pradeep; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kääb, Stefan; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Alonso, Alvaro; Chung, Mina K.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Rienstra, Michiel; Jukema, J. Wouter; Stricker, Bruno H.; Dörr, Marcus; Albert, Christine M.; Ellinor, Patrick T.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heritable disease that affects more than thirty million individuals worldwide. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of genetic determinants of AF. The objective of our study is to examine the effect of gene-gene interaction on AF susceptibility. We performed a large-scale association analysis of gene-gene interactions with AF in 8,173 AF cases, and 65,237 AF-free referents collected from 15 studies for discovery. We examined putative interactions between genome-wide SNPs and 17 known AF-related SNPs. The top interactions were then tested for association in an independent cohort for replication, which included more than 2,363 AF cases and 114,746 AF-free referents. One interaction, between rs7164883 at the HCN4 locus and rs4980345 at the SLC28A1 locus, was found to be significantly associated with AF in the discovery cohorts (interaction OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.27–1.65, P = 4.3 × 10–8). Eight additional gene-gene interactions were also marginally significant (P < 5 × 10–7). However, none of the top interactions were replicated. In summary, we did not find significant interactions that were associated with AF susceptibility. Future increases in sample size and denser genotyping might facilitate the identification of gene-gene interactions associated with AF. PMID:27824142

  15. Why are essential genes essential? - The essentiality of Saccharomyces genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaojie; Ren, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes are defined as required for the survival of an organism or a cell. They are of particular interests, not only for their essential biological functions, but also in practical applications, such as identifying effective drug targets to pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has approximately 6,000 open reading frames, 15 to 20% of which are deemed as essential. Some of the essential genes, however, appear to perform non-essential functions, such as aging and cell death, while many of the non-essential genes play critical roles in cell survival. In this paper, we reviewed and analyzed the levels of essentiality of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes and have grouped the genes into four categories: (1) Conditional essential: essential only under certain circumstances or growth conditions; (2) Essential: required for survival under optimal growth conditions; (3) Redundant essential: synthetic lethal due to redundant pathways or gene duplication; and (4) Absolute essential: the minimal genes required for maintaining a cellular life under a stress-free environment. The essential and non-essential functions of the essential genes were further analyzed. PMID:28357303

  16. Apoptotic genes in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Opalka, Bertram; Dickopp, Alexandra; Kirch, Hans-Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis in malignant cells is a major goal of cancer therapy in general and of certain cancer gene therapy strategies in particular. Numerous apoptosis-regulating genes have been evaluated for this purpose. Besides the most prominent p53 gene others include p16, p21, p27, E2F genes, FHIT, PTEN and CASPASE genes. Recently, the potential for therapy of an adenoviral gene, E1A, known for a long time for its apoptosis-inducing activity, has been discovered. In experimental settings, these genes have proven their tumor-suppressive and apoptosis-inducing activity. Clinical trials are currently being performed with selected genes. By far the most studies transfer the p53 gene using retro- or adenoviral vectors. Disease stabilization or other benefits were observed in a limited number of patients when p53 was applied alone or in combination with cytotoxic drugs. A second proapoptotic gene that has entered clinical trials is adenovirus E1A. Here, too, disease stabilization as well as/or local regression in one case have been demonstrated in selected patients. In all cases, side effects were tolerable. To further improve E1A as a therapeutic transgene, we have deleted transforming domains from the adenovirus 5 and 12 13S cDNAs. Mutants were derived which had completely lost their transforming activity in combination with the E1B oncogene but retained a pronounced tumor-suppressive activity. Cells transduced with these constructs showed a highly reduced ability to grow in soft agar, and tumor growth in nude mice could be substantially suppressed. Outgrowing tumors had lost E1A expression when analyzed in Western blots. These E1A constructs may represent valuable tools for cancer gene therapy in the future.

  17. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity. PMID:15712599

  18. Gene therapy on the move

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Büning, Hildegard; Galy, Anne; Schambach, Axel; Grez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The first gene therapy clinical trials were initiated more than two decades ago. In the early days, gene therapy shared the fate of many experimental medicine approaches and was impeded by the occurrence of severe side effects in a few treated patients. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to treatment- and/or vector-associated setbacks has resulted in the development of highly sophisticated gene transfer tools with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy. Employing these advanced tools, a series of Phase I/II trials were started in the past few years with excellent clinical results and no side effects reported so far. Moreover, highly efficient gene targeting strategies and site-directed gene editing technologies have been developed and applied clinically. With more than 1900 clinical trials to date, gene therapy has moved from a vision to clinical reality. This review focuses on the application of gene therapy for the correction of inherited diseases, the limitations and drawbacks encountered in some of the early clinical trials and the revival of gene therapy as a powerful treatment option for the correction of monogenic disorders. PMID:24106209

  19. HOX genes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Zoë L; Michael, Agnieszka; Butler-Manuel, Simon; Pandha, Hardev S; Morgan, Richard Gl

    2011-09-09

    The HOX genes are a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cellular identity during development. Here we review a number of recent studies showing that HOX genes are strongly expressed in ovarian cancer, and that in some cases the expression of specific HOX genes is sufficient to confer a particular identity and phenotype upon cancer cells. We also review the recent advances in elucidating the different functions of HOX genes in ovarian cancer. A literature search was performed using the search terms HOX genes (including specific HOX genes), ovarian cancer and oncogenesis. Articles were accessed through searches performed in ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed and ScienceDirect. Taken together, these studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in the oncogenesis of ovarian cancer and function in the inhibition of apoptosis, DNA repair and enhanced cell motility. The function of HOX genes in ovarian cancer oncogenesis supports their potential role as prognostic and diagnostic markers, and as therapeutic targets in this disease.

  20. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K.; Frost, John W.; Long, Sharon R.

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  1. The flow of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Misteli, Tom

    2004-03-01

    Gene expression is a highly interconnected multistep process. A recent meeting in Iguazu Falls, Argentina, highlighted the need to uncover both the molecular details of each single step as well as the mechanisms of coordination among processes in order to fully understand the expression of genes.

  2. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    PubMed

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-08

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/.

  3. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  4. On meme--gene coevolution.

    PubMed

    Bull, L; Holland, O; Blackmore, S

    2000-01-01

    In this article we examine the effects of the emergence of a new replicator, memes, on the evolution of a pre-existing replicator, genes. Using a version of the NKCS model we examine the effects of increasing the rate of meme evolution in relation to the rate of gene evolution, for various degrees of interdependence between the two replicators. That is, the effects of memes' (suggested) more rapid rate of evolution in comparison to that of genes is investigated using a tunable model of coevolution. It is found that, for almost any degree of interdependence between the two replicators, as the rate of meme evolution increases, a phase transition-like dynamic occurs under which memes have a significantly detrimental effect on the evolution of genes, quickly resulting in the cessation of effective gene evolution. Conversely, the memes experience a sharp increase in benefit from increasing their rate of evolution. We then examine the effects of enabling genes to reduce the percentage of gene-detrimental evolutionary steps taken by memes. Here a critical region emerges as the comparative rate of meme evolution increases, such that if genes cannot effectively select memes a high percentage of the time, they suffer from meme evolution as if they had almost no selective capability.

  5. Multifunctional nanorods for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Aliasger K.; Searson, Peter C.; Leong, Kam W.

    2003-10-01

    The goal of gene therapy is to introduce foreign genes into somatic cells to supplement defective genes or provide additional biological functions, and can be achieved using either viral or synthetic non-viral delivery systems. Compared with viral vectors, synthetic gene-delivery systems, such as liposomes and polymers, offer several advantages including ease of production and reduced risk of cytotoxicity and immunogenicity, but their use has been limited by the relatively low transfection efficiency. This problem mainly stems from the difficulty in controlling their properties at the nanoscale. Synthetic inorganic gene carriers have received limited attention in the gene-therapy community, the only notable example being gold nanoparticles with surface-immobilized DNA applied to intradermal genetic immunization by particle bombardment. Here we present a non-viral gene-delivery system based on multisegment bimetallic nanorods that can simultaneously bind compacted DNA plasmids and targeting ligands in a spatially defined manner. This approach allows precise control of composition, size and multifunctionality of the gene-delivery system. Transfection experiments performed in vitro and in vivo provide promising results that suggest potential in genetic vaccination applications.

  6. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  7. Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sha; Leach, John C.; Ye, Kaiming

    Nonviral gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. Although the efficacy of DNA transfection, which is a major concern, is low in nonviral vector-mediated gene transfer compared with viral ones, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to prepare, less immunogenic and oncogenic, and have no potential of virus recombination and no limitation on the size of a transferred gene. The ability to incorporate genetic materials such as plasmid DNA, RNA, and siRNA into functionalized nanoparticles with little toxicity demonstrates a new era in pharmacotherapy for delivering genes selectively to tissues and cells. In this chapter, we highlight the basic concepts and applications of nonviral gene delivery using super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and functionalized silica nanoparticles. The experimental protocols related to these topics are described in the chapter.

  8. Nanoparticles for Retinal Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Shannon M.; Naash, Muna I.

    2010-01-01

    Ocular gene therapy is becoming a well-established field. Viral gene therapies for the treatment of Leber’s congentinal amaurosis (LCA) are in clinical trials, and many other gene therapy approaches are being rapidly developed for application to diverse ophthalmic pathologies. Of late, development of non-viral gene therapies has been an area of intense focus and one technology, polymer-compacted DNA nanoparticles, is especially promising. However, development of pharmaceutically and clinically viable therapeutics depends not only on having an effective and safe vector but also on a practical treatment strategy. Inherited retinal pathologies are caused by mutations in over 220 genes, some of which contain over 200 individual disease-causing mutations, which are individually very rare. This review will focus on both the progress and future of nanoparticles and also on what will be required to make them relevant ocular pharmaceutics. PMID:20452457

  9. [Activity of the corn Spm transposon system in transgenic plants Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz obtained by both direct transfer of DNA to protoplasts and agrobacterial transformation of root explants].

    PubMed

    Sakhno, L A; Sytnik, E S; Cherep, N N; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V; Klimiuk, V I

    2002-01-01

    Transposon mediated insertional mutagenesis is one of the approaches for the unique gene cloning. A wild species of Cruciferae family Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz, which is of interest for practical breeding as a donor of improved plant oil, was an object of the investigation. Plasmid construction used in the experiments included selective NPT II gene, reported GUS gene serving as an excision marker, structural BAR gene located within the dSpm element and Spm transposase. The GUS gene of this plasmid had not his own promoter and became functional only after Spm-transposition. Transformed Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz. plants were obtained by direct mesophyll protoplast transformation as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated root explant transformation. Gene transfer and the transposition event were confirmed by the GUS activity and the PCR analysis. Relative transformation efficiency using protoplasts was 5.8%.

  10. Gene-gene interactions in gastrointestinal cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changwon; Kang, Suk-Jo

    2016-01-01

    Cancer arises from complex, multi-layer interactions between diverse genetic and environmental factors. Genetic studies have identified multiple loci associated with tumor susceptibility. However, little is known about how germline polymorphisms interact with one another and with somatic mutations within a tumor to mediate acquisition of cancer traits. Here, we survey recent studies showing gene-gene interactions, also known as epistases, affecting genetic susceptibility in colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers. We also catalog epistasis types and cancer hallmarks with respect to the interacting genes. A total of 22 gene variation pairs displayed all levels of statistical epistasis, including synergistic, redundant, suppressive and co-suppressive interactions. Five genes primarily involved in base excision repair formed a linear topology in the interaction network, MUTYH-OGG1-XRCC1-PARP1-MMP2, and three genes in mTOR cell-proliferation pathway formed another linear network, PRKAG2-RPS6KB1-PIK3CA. Discrete pairwise epistasis was also found in nucleotide excision repair, detoxification, proliferation, TP53, TGF-β and other pathways. We propose that three modes of biological interaction underlie the molecular mecha