Science.gov

Sample records for gene mention recognition

  1. Anatomical entity mention recognition at literature scale

    PubMed Central

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Anatomical entities ranging from subcellular structures to organ systems are central to biomedical science, and mentions of these entities are essential to understanding the scientific literature. Despite extensive efforts to automatically analyze various aspects of biomedical text, there have been only few studies focusing on anatomical entities, and no dedicated methods for learning to automatically recognize anatomical entity mentions in free-form text have been introduced. Results: We present AnatomyTagger, a machine learning-based system for anatomical entity mention recognition. The system incorporates a broad array of approaches proposed to benefit tagging, including the use of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)- and Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)-based lexical resources, word representations induced from unlabeled text, statistical truecasing and non-local features. We train and evaluate the system on a newly introduced corpus that substantially extends on previously available resources, and apply the resulting tagger to automatically annotate the entire open access scientific domain literature. The resulting analyses have been applied to extend services provided by the Europe PubMed Central literature database. Availability and implementation: All tools and resources introduced in this work are available from http://nactem.ac.uk/anatomytagger. Contact: sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24162468

  2. NTTMUNSW BioC modules for recognizing and normalizing species and gene/protein mentions.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Su, Emily Chia-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of published biomedical articles has increased as researchers have focused on biological domains to investigate the functions of biological objects, such as genes and proteins. However, the ambiguous nature of genes and their products have rendered the literature more complex for readers and curators of molecular interaction databases. To address this challenge, a normalization technique that can link variants of biological objects to a single, standardized form was applied. In this work, we developed a species normalization module, which recognizes species names and normalizes them to NCBI Taxonomy IDs. Unlike most previous work, which ignored the prefix of a gene name that represents an abbreviation of the species name to which the gene belongs, the recognition results of our module include the prefixed species. The developed species normalization module achieved an overall F-score of 0.954 on an instance-level species normalization corpus. For gene normalization, two separate modules were respectively employed to recognize gene mentions and normalize those mentions to their Entrez Gene IDs by utilizing a multistage normalization algorithm developed for processing full-text articles. All of the developed modules are BioC-compatible .NET framework libraries and are publicly available from the NuGet gallery.Database URL: https://sites.google.com/site/hjdairesearch/Projects/isn-corpus.

  3. Combinatorial methods for gene recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pevzner, P.A.

    1997-10-29

    The major result of the project is the development of a new approach to gene recognition called spliced alignment algorithm. They have developed an algorithm and implemented a software tool (for both IBM PC and UNIX platforms) which explores all possible exon assemblies in polynomial time and finds the multi-exon structure with the best fit to a related protein. Unlike other existing methods, the algorithm successfully performs exons assemblies even in the case of short exons or exons with unusual codon usage; they also report correct assemblies for the genes with more than 10 exons provided a homologous protein is already known. On a test sample of human genes with known mammalian relatives the average overlap between the predicted and the actual genes was 99%, which is remarkably well as compared to other existing methods. At that, the algorithm absolute correctly reconstructed 87% of genes. The rare discrepancies between the predicted and real axon-intron structures were restricted either to extremely short initial or terminal exons or proved to be results of alternative splicing. Moreover, the algorithm performs reasonably well with non-vertebrate and even prokaryote targets. The spliced alignment software PROCRUSTES has been in extensive use by the academic community since its announcement in August, 1996 via the WWW server (www-hto.usc.edu/software/procrustes) and by biotech companies via the in-house UNIX version.

  4. Gene prediction by pattern recognition and homology search

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Uberbacher, E.C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for combining pattern recognition-based exon prediction and database homology search in gene model construction. The goal is to use homologous genes or partial genes existing in the database as reference models while constructing (multiple) gene models from exon candidates predicted by pattern recognition methods. A unified framework for gene modeling is used for genes ranging from situations with strong homology to no homology in the database. To maximally use the homology information available, the algorithm applies homology on three levels: (1) exon candidate evaluation, (2) gene-segment construction with a reference model, and (3) (complete) gene modeling. Preliminary testing has been done on the algorithm. Test results show that (a) perfect gene modeling can be expected when the initial exon predictions are reasonably good and a strong homology exists in the database; (b) homology (not necessarily strong) in general helps improve the accuracy of gene modeling; (c) multiple gene modeling becomes feasible when homology exists in the database for the involved genes.

  5. Development of the first-mention bias*

    PubMed Central

    HARTSHORNE, JOSHUA K.; NAPPA, REBECCA; SNEDEKER, JESSE

    2015-01-01

    In many contexts, pronouns are interpreted as referring to the character mentioned first in the previous sentence, an effect called the ‘first-mention bias’. While adults can rapidly use the first-mention bias to guide pronoun interpretation, it is unclear when this bias emerges during development. Curiously, experiments with children between two and three years old show successful use of order of mention, while experiments with older children (four to five years old) do not. While this could suggest U-shaped development, it could also reflect differences in the methodologies employed. We show that children can indeed use first-mention information, but do so too slowly to have been detected in previous work reporting null results. Comparison across the present and previously published studies suggests that the speed at which children deploy first-mention information increases greatly during the preschool years. PMID:24735525

  6. The advantage of first mention in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

  7. Spliced alignment: A new approach to gene recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, M.S.; Mironov, A.A.; Pevzner, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    Gene structure prediction is one of the most important problems in computational molecular biology. Previous attempts to solve this problem were based on statistics and artificial intelligence and, surprisingly enough, applications of theoretical computer science methods for gene recognition were almost unexplored. Recent advances in large-scale cDNA sequencing open a way towards a new combinatorial approach to gene recognition. This paper describes a spliced alignment algorithm and a software tool which explores all possible exon assemblies in polynomial time and finds the multi-exon structure with the best fit to a related protein. Unlike other existing methods, the algorithm successfully recognizes genes even in the case of short exons or exons with unusual codon usage; the authors also report correct assemblies for genes with more than 10 exons. On a test sample of human genes with known mammalian relatives the average correlation between the predicted and the actual genes was 99%, which is a very high accuracy as compared with other existing methods. The algorithm correctly reconstructed 87% of genes and the rare discrepancies between the predicted and real exon-intron structures were caused by either (i) extremely short (less than 5 amino acids) initial or terminal exons, or (ii) alternative splicing, or (iii) errors in database feature tables. 38 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Candidate genes for individual recognition in Polistes fuscatus paper wasps.

    PubMed

    Berens, A J; Tibbetts, E A; Toth, A L

    2016-02-01

    Few animals are known to individually recognize conspecifics, i.e. learn and recall unique individuals during subsequent encounters, and nearly all are social vertebrates. Remarkably, the social paper wasp Polistes fuscatus has recently been discovered to possess this ability, which is useful for remembering identities during competitive social interactions. We analyzed brain gene expression in staged encounters between pairs of individuals to explore potential mechanisms underlying wasps' ability to recall familiar individuals using real-time qRT-PCR. We identified four candidate genes (IP3K, IP3R, Nckx30C and Su(var)2-10) that were down-regulated in the presence of familiar individuals compared to single wasps and pairs of wasps meeting for the first time. These candidate genes are related to calcium signaling, therefore, we treated wasps with lithium chloride, a pharmacological agent that inhibits calcium signaling in neurons. This treatment decreased aggression in paper wasps, but did not affect expression of genes related to calcium signaling. The results suggest calcium signaling differences may be related to individual memory recall in wasps, and we present four promising candidate genes for future study. These data suggest genes associated with dominance behavior may be co-opted for individual recognition, but further work is needed to establish a causal association with the behavior.

  9. Coenzyme Recognition and Gene Regulation by a Flavin Mononucleotide Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Serganov, A.; Huang, L; Patel, D

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthesis of several protein cofactors is subject to feedback regulation by riboswitches. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-specific riboswitches also known as RFN elements, direct expression of bacterial genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and related compounds. Here we present the crystal structures of the Fusobacterium nucleatum riboswitch bound to FMN, riboflavin and antibiotic roseoflavin. The FMN riboswitch structure, centred on an FMN-bound six-stem junction, does not fold by collinear stacking of adjacent helices, typical for folding of large RNAs. Rather, it adopts a butterfly-like scaffold, stapled together by opposingly directed but nearly identically folded peripheral domains. FMN is positioned asymmetrically within the junctional site and is specifically bound to RNA through interactions with the isoalloxazine ring chromophore and direct and Mg{sup 2+}-mediated contacts with the phosphate moiety. Our structural data, complemented by binding and footprinting experiments, imply a largely pre-folded tertiary RNA architecture and FMN recognition mediated by conformational transitions within the junctional binding pocket. The inherent plasticity of the FMN-binding pocket and the availability of large openings make the riboswitch an attractive target for structure-based design of FMN-like antimicrobial compounds. Our studies also explain the effects of spontaneous and antibiotic-induced deregulatory mutations and provided molecular insights into FMN-based control of gene expression in normal and riboflavin-overproducing bacterial strains.

  10. ORF Organization and Gene Recognition in the Yeast Genome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Lirong

    2003-01-01

    Some rules on gene recognition and ORF organization in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome are demonstrated by statistical analyses of sequence data. This study includes: (a) The random frame rule—that the six reading frames W1, W2, W3, C1, C2 and C3 in the double-stranded genome are randomly occupied by ORFs (related phenomena on ORF overlapping are also discussed). (b) The inhomogeneity rule—coding and non-coding ORFs differ in inhomogeneity of base composition in the three codon positions. By use of the inhomogeneity index (IHI), one can make a distinction between coding (IHI > 14) and non-coding (IHI ≤ 14) ORFs at 95% accuracy. We find that ‘spurious’ ORFs (with IHI ≤ 14) are distributed mainly in three classes of ORFs, namely, those with ‘similarity to unknown proteins’, those with ‘no similarity’, or ‘questionable ORFs’. The total number of spurious ORFs (which are unlikely to be regarded as coding ORFs) is estimated to be 470. (c) The evaluation of ORF length distribution shows that below 200 amino acids the occurrence of ATG initiator ORFs is close to random. PMID:18629282

  11. Computerized system for recognition of autism on the basis of gene expression microarray data.

    PubMed

    Latkowski, Tomasz; Osowski, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a means to recognize a case of autism using gene expression microarrays. The crucial task is to discover the most important genes which are strictly associated with autism. The paper presents an application of different methods of gene selection, to select the most representative input attributes for an ensemble of classifiers. The set of classifiers is responsible for distinguishing autism data from the reference class. Simultaneous application of a few gene selection methods enables analysis of the ill-conditioned gene expression matrix from different points of view. The results of selection combined with a genetic algorithm and SVM classifier have shown increased accuracy of autism recognition. Early recognition of autism is extremely important for treatment of children and increases the probability of their recovery and return to normal social communication. The results of this research can find practical application in early recognition of autism on the basis of gene expression microarray analysis.

  12. Women in Music Education in the United States: Names Mentioned in History Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Identifies those women mentioned most frequently in general U.S. music education history books and examines the contexts in which the books discussed their work. Surveys individuals interested in music education history to determine name recognition of these women and opinions regarding the importance of their contributions. (MJP)

  13. Twelve- and 16-Month-Old Infants Recognize Properties of Mentioned Absent Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.

    2004-01-01

    Absent reference comprehension is a critical achievement of early development, yet little is known about its emergence. In the current study, 12- and 16-month-old infants' recognition of properties of mentioned absent things was used as an index of absent reference comprehension. Infants were presented with displays matching the color and prior…

  14. The Advantage of First Mention in Korean The Temporal Contributions of Syntactic, Semantic, and Pragmatic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-il; Lee, Jae-ho; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Using Korean, we investigated how syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic factors influence the representation of a sentence, in particular, the relative accessibility of different components of a sentence representation. In six experiments, participants performed a probe recognition task after reading each of a series of sentences. We manipulated the rate at which each word of the sentence was presented (250 and 500 ms) and the interval between the sentence-final word and the probe-recognition test word (immediate, 500 ms delay, and 1000 ms delay). We also manipulated the syntactic position (subject versus object), semantic role (agent versus patient), and order of mention (first- versus second-mentioned participant) of the probed item. Pragmatic factors (the order of mention) strongly influenced accessibility immediately and through the longest delay, whereas syntactic and semantic factors had little effect. PMID:15614990

  15. Recognition- and defense-related gene expression at 3 resynthesis stages in lichen symbionts.

    PubMed

    Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and defense responses are early events in plant-pathogen interactions and between lichen symbionts. The effect of elicitors on responses between lichen symbionts is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the difference in recognition- and defense-related gene expression as a result of culture extracts (containing secreted water-soluble elicitors) from compatible and incompatible interactions at each of 3 resynthesis stages in the symbionts of Cladonia rangiferina. This study investigated gene expression by quantitative PCR in cultures of C. rangiferina and its algal partner, Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis, after incubation with liquid extracts from cultures of compatible and incompatible interactions at 3 early resynthesis stages. Recognition-related genes were significantly upregulated only after physical contact, demonstrating symbiont recognition in later resynthesis stages than expected. One of 3 defense-related genes, chit, showed significant downregulation in early resynthesis stages and upregulation in the third resynthesis stage, demonstrating a need for the absence of chitinase early in thallus formation and a need for its presence in later stages as an algal defense reaction. This study revealed that recognition- and defense-related genes are triggered by components in culture extracts at 3 stages of resynthesis, and some defense-related genes may be induced throughout thallus growth. The parasitic nature of the interaction shows parallels between lichen symbionts and plant pathogenic systems.

  16. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E.; Lee, Anna W.; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85–100%) and low (40–60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. PMID:22079582

  17. Drosophila GRAIL: An intelligent system for gene recognition in Drosophila DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ying; Einstein, J.R.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Helt, G.; Rubin, G.

    1995-06-01

    An AI-based system for gene recognition in Drosophila DNA sequences was designed and implemented. The system consists of two main modules, one for coding exon recognition and one for single gene model construction. The exon recognition module finds a coding exon by recognition of its splice junctions (or translation start) and coding potential. The core of this module is a set of neural networks which evaluate an exon candidate for the possibility of being a true coding exon using the ``recognized`` splice junction (or translation start) and coding signals. The recognition process consists of four steps: generation of an exon candidate pool, elimination of improbable candidates using heuristic rules, candidate evaluation by trained neural networks, and candidate cluster resolution and final exon prediction. The gene model construction module takes as input the clustered exon candidates and builds a ``best`` possible single gene model using an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. 129 Drosophila sequences consisting of 441 coding exons including 216358 coding bases were extructed from GenBank and used to build statistical matrices and to train the neural networks. On this training set the system recognized 97% of the coding messages and predicted only 5% false messages. Among the ``correctly`` predicted exons, 68% match the actual exon exactly and 96% have at least one edge predicted correctly. On an independent test set consisting of 30 Drosophila sequences, the system recognized 96% of the coding messages and predicted 7% false messages.

  18. Las Vegas algorithms for gene recognition: Suboptimal and error-tolerant spliced alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, Sing-Hoi; Pevzner, P.A.

    1997-12-01

    Recently, Gelfand, Mironov and Pevzner proposed a spliced alignment approach to gene recognition that provides 99% accurate recognition of human gene if a related mammalian protein is available. However, even 99% accurate gene predictions are insufficient for automated sequence annotation in large-scale sequencing projects and therefore have to be complemented by experimental gene verification. 100% accurate gene predictions would lead to a substantial reduction of experimental work on gene identification. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that either predicts an exon assembly with accuracy sufficient for sequence annotation or warns a biologist that the accuracy of a prediction is insufficient and further experimental work is required. We study suboptimal and error-tolerant spliced alignment problems as the first steps towards such an algorithm, and report an algorithm which provides 100% accurate recognition of human genes in 37% of cases (if a related mammalian protein is available). For 52% of genes, the algorithm predicts at least one exon with 100% accuracy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. A Genetic Approach to Promoter Recognition during Trans Induction of Viral Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coen, Donald M.; Weinheimer, Steven P.; McKnight, Steven L.

    1986-10-01

    Viral infection of mammalian cells entails the regulated induction of viral gene expression. The induction of many viral genes, including the herpes simplex virus gene encoding thymidine kinase (tk), depends on viral regulatory proteins that act in trans. Because recognition of the tk promoter by cellular transcription factors is well understood, its trans induction by viral regulatory proteins may serve as a useful model for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. A comprehensive set of mutations was therefore introduced into the chromosome of herpes simplex virus at the tk promoter to directly analyze the effects of promoter mutations on tk transcription. The promoter domains required for efficient tk expression under conditions of trans induction corresponded to those important for recognition by cellular transcription factors. Thus, trans induction of tk expression may be catalyzed initially by the interaction of viral regulatory proteins with cellular transcription factors.

  20. Medical Treatment and Medicinal Charms Mentioned in the Atharvanic Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The ancient Vedic texts Provides us with valuable information and guide lines on various multi-faced aspects of human life. The present discussion is limited to the medical treatment and medicinal charms mentioned in the Atharvanic literature with specific consideration to Kausikasutra for better understanding of the rites and actions mentioned in Atharvanaveda. PMID:22556455

  1. Network Security via Biometric Recognition of Patterns of Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular biology provides the ability to implement forms of information and network security completely outside the bounds of legacy security protocols and algorithms. This paper addresses an approach which instantiates the power of gene expression for security. Molecular biology provides a rich source of gene expression and regulation mechanisms, which can be adopted to use in the information and electronic communication domains. Conventional security protocols are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to more intensive, highly capable attacks on the underlying mathematics of cryptography. Security protocols are being undermined by social engineering and substandard implementations by IT organizations. Molecular biology can provide countermeasures to these weak points with the current security approaches. Future advances in instruments for analyzing assays will also enable this protocol to advance from one of cryptographic algorithms to an integrated system of cryptographic algorithms and real-time expression and assay of gene expression products.

  2. Network Security via Biometric Recognition of Patterns of Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular biology provides the ability to implement forms of information and network security completely outside the bounds of legacy security protocols and algorithms. This paper addresses an approach which instantiates the power of gene expression for security. Molecular biology provides a rich source of gene expression and regulation mechanisms, which can be adopted to use in the information and electronic communication domains. Conventional security protocols are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to more intensive, highly capable attacks on the underlying mathematics of cryptography. Security protocols are being undermined by social engineering and substandard implementations by IT (Information Technology) organizations. Molecular biology can provide countermeasures to these weak points with the current security approaches. Future advances in instruments for analyzing assays will also enable this protocol to advance from one of cryptographic algorithms to an integrated system of cryptographic algorithms and real-time assays of gene expression products.

  3. Differential DNA sequence recognition is a determinant of specificity in homeotic gene action.

    PubMed Central

    Ekker, S C; von Kessler, D P; Beachy, P A

    1992-01-01

    The homeotic genes of Drosophila encode transcriptional regulatory proteins that specify distinct segment identities. Previous studies have implicated the homeodomain as a major determinant of biological specificity within these proteins, but have not established the physical basis of this specificity. We show here that the homeodomains encoded by the Ultrabithorax and Deformed homeotic genes bind optimally to distinct DNA sequences and have mapped the determinants responsible for differential recognition. We further show that relative transactivation by these two proteins in a simple in vivo system can differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. Such differences in DNA sequence recognition and target activation provide a biochemical basis for at least part of the biological specificity of homeotic gene action. Images PMID:1356765

  4. Recognition deficits in mice carrying mutations of genes encoding BLOC-1 subunits pallidin or dysbindin.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, S; Chiu, A; James, A S; Jentsch, J D; Karlsgodt, K H

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies have implicated DTNBP1, the gene encoding dystrobrevin-binding protein or dysbindin, as a candidate risk gene for schizophrenia, though this relationship remains somewhat controversial. Variation in dysbindin, and its location on chromosome 6p, has been associated with cognitive processes, including those relying on a complex system of glutamatergic and dopaminergic interactions. Dysbindin is one of the seven protein subunits that comprise the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). Dysbindin protein levels are lower in mice with null mutations in pallidin, another gene in the BLOC-1, and pallidin levels are lower in mice with null mutations in the dysbindin gene, suggesting that multiple subunit proteins must be present to form a functional oligomeric complex. Furthermore, pallidin and dysbindin have similar distribution patterns in a mouse and human brain. Here, we investigated whether the apparent correspondence of pallid and dysbindin at the level of gene expression is also found at the level of behavior. Hypothesizing a mutation leading to underexpression of either of these proteins should show similar phenotypic effects, we studied recognition memory in both strains using the novel object recognition task (NORT) and social novelty recognition task (SNRT). We found that mice with a null mutation in either gene are impaired on SNRT and NORT when compared with wild-type controls. These results support the conclusion that deficits consistent with recognition memory impairment, a cognitive function that is impaired in schizophrenia, result from either pallidin or dysbindin mutations, possibly through degradation of BLOC-1 expression and/or function.

  5. Giving Good Directions: Order of Mention Reflects Visual Salience.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Alasdair D F; Elsner, Micha; Rohde, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    In complex stimuli, there are many different possible ways to refer to a specified target. Previous studies have shown that when people are faced with such a task, the content of their referring expression reflects visual properties such as size, salience, and clutter. Here, we extend these findings and present evidence that (i) the influence of visual perception on sentence construction goes beyond content selection and in part determines the order in which different objects are mentioned and (ii) order of mention influences comprehension. Study 1 (a corpus study of reference productions) shows that when a speaker uses a relational description to mention a salient object, that object is treated as being in the common ground and is more likely to be mentioned first. Study 2 (a visual search study) asks participants to listen to referring expressions and find the specified target; in keeping with the above result, we find that search for easy-to-find targets is faster when the target is mentioned first, while search for harder-to-find targets is facilitated by mentioning the target later, after a landmark in a relational description. Our findings show that seemingly low-level and disparate mental "modules" like perception and sentence planning interact at a high level and in task-dependent ways.

  6. Giving Good Directions: Order of Mention Reflects Visual Salience

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alasdair D. F.; Elsner, Micha; Rohde, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    In complex stimuli, there are many different possible ways to refer to a specified target. Previous studies have shown that when people are faced with such a task, the content of their referring expression reflects visual properties such as size, salience, and clutter. Here, we extend these findings and present evidence that (i) the influence of visual perception on sentence construction goes beyond content selection and in part determines the order in which different objects are mentioned and (ii) order of mention influences comprehension. Study 1 (a corpus study of reference productions) shows that when a speaker uses a relational description to mention a salient object, that object is treated as being in the common ground and is more likely to be mentioned first. Study 2 (a visual search study) asks participants to listen to referring expressions and find the specified target; in keeping with the above result, we find that search for easy-to-find targets is faster when the target is mentioned first, while search for harder-to-find targets is facilitated by mentioning the target later, after a landmark in a relational description. Our findings show that seemingly low-level and disparate mental “modules” like perception and sentence planning interact at a high level and in task-dependent ways. PMID:26696914

  7. Self-recognition in social amoebae is mediated by allelic pairs of tiger genes.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shigenori; Benabentos, Rocio; Ho, Hsing-I; Kuspa, Adam; Shaulsky, Gad

    2011-07-22

    Free-living cells of the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum can aggregate and develop into multicellular fruiting bodies in which many die altruistically as they become stalk cells that support the surviving spores. Dictyostelium cells exhibit kin discrimination--a potential defense against cheaters, which sporulate without contributing to the stalk. Kin discrimination depends on strain relatedness, and the polymorphic genes tgrB1 and tgrC1 are potential components of that mechanism. Here, we demonstrate a direct role for these genes in kin discrimination. We show that a matching pair of tgrB1 and tgrC1 alleles is necessary and sufficient for attractive self-recognition, which is mediated by differential cell-cell adhesion. We propose that TgrB1 and TgrC1 proteins mediate this adhesion through direct binding. This system is a genetically tractable ancient model of eukaryotic self-recognition.

  8. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene influences ERP old/new effects during recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert S.; Medrano, Paolo; Boyle, Kaitlin; Smolen, Andrew; Curran, Tim; Nyhus, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Recognition memory is defined as the ability to recognize a previously encountered stimulus and has been associated with spatially and temporally distinct event related potentials (ERPs). Allelic variations of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have recently been shown to impact memory performance. Common variants of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) of the SLC6A4 gene result in long (l) and short (s) allelic variants with carriers of the s allele having lowered transcriptional efficiency. Thus, the current study examines the effects polymorphisms of the SLC6A4 gene have on performance and ERP amplitudes commonly associated with recognition memory. Electroencephalogram (EEG), genetic, and behavioral data were collected from sixty participants as they performed an item and source memory recognition task. In both tasks, participants studied and encoded 200 words, which were then mixed with 200 new words during retrieval. Participants were monitored with EEG during the retrieval portion of each memory task. EEG electrodes were grouped into four ROIs, left anterior superior, right anterior superior, left posterior superior, and right posterior superior. ERP mean amplitudes during hits in the item and source memory task were compared to correctly recognizing new items (correct rejections). Results show that s-carriers have decreased mean hit amplitudes in both the right anterior superior ROI 1000–1500 ms post stimulus during the source memory task and the left anterior superior ROI 300–500 ms post stimulus during the item memory task. These results suggest that individual differences due to genetic variation of the serotonin transporter gene influences recognition memory. PMID:26423665

  9. Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene modulates the influence of informational masking on speech recognition

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zilong; Maddox, W. Todd; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2014-01-01

    Listeners vary substantially in their ability to recognize speech in noisy environments. Here we examined the role of genetic variation on individual differences in speech recognition in various noise backgrounds. Background noise typically varies in the levels of energetic masking (EM) and informational masking (IM) imposed on target speech. Relative to EM, release from IM is hypothesized to place greater demand on executive function to selectively attend to target speech while ignoring competing noises. Recent evidence suggests that the long allele variant in exon III of the DRD4 gene, primarily expressed in the prefrontal cortex, may be associated with enhanced selective attention to goal-relevant high-priority information even in the face of interference. We investigated the extent to which this polymorphism is associated with speech recognition in IM and EM conditions. In an unscreened adult sample (Experiment 1) and a larger screened replication sample (Experiment 2), we demonstrate that individuals with the DRD4 long variant show better recognition performance in noise conditions involving significant IM, but not in EM conditions. In Experiment 2, we also obtained neuropsychological measures to assess the underlying mechanisms. Mediation analyses revealed that this listening condition-specific advantage was mediated by enhanced executive attention/working memory capacity in individuals with the long allele variant. These findings suggest that DRD4 may contribute specifically to individual differences in speech recognition ability in noise conditions that place demands on executive function. PMID:25497692

  10. Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene modulates the influence of informational masking on speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zilong; Maddox, W Todd; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Listeners vary substantially in their ability to recognize speech in noisy environments. Here we examined the role of genetic variation on individual differences in speech recognition in various noise backgrounds. Background noise typically varies in the levels of energetic masking (EM) and informational masking (IM) imposed on target speech. Relative to EM, release from IM is hypothesized to place greater demand on executive function to selectively attend to target speech while ignoring competing noises. Recent evidence suggests that the long allele variant in exon III of the DRD4 gene, primarily expressed in the prefrontal cortex, may be associated with enhanced selective attention to goal-relevant high-priority information even in the face of interference. We investigated the extent to which this polymorphism is associated with speech recognition in IM and EM conditions. In an unscreened adult sample (Experiment 1) and a larger screened replication sample (Experiment 2), we demonstrate that individuals with the DRD4 long variant show better recognition performance in noise conditions involving significant IM, but not in EM conditions. In Experiment 2, we also obtained neuropsychological measures to assess the underlying mechanisms. Mediation analysis revealed that this listening condition-specific advantage was mediated by enhanced executive attention/working memory capacity in individuals with the long allele variant. These findings suggest that DRD4 may contribute specifically to individual differences in speech recognition ability in noise conditions that place demands on executive function.

  11. Common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with human social recognition skills

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, David H.; Lori, Adriana; Cubells, Joseph F.; Lee, Irene; Conneely, Karen N.; Puura, Kaija; Lehtimäki, Terho; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are evolutionarily conserved regulators of social perception and behavior. Evidence is building that they are critically involved in the development of social recognition skills within rodent species, primates, and humans. We investigated whether common polymorphisms in the genes encoding the oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors influence social memory for faces. Our sample comprised 198 families, from the United Kingdom and Finland, in whom a single child had been diagnosed with high-functioning autism. Previous research has shown that impaired social perception, characteristic of autism, extends to the first-degree relatives of autistic individuals, implying heritable risk. Assessments of face recognition memory, discrimination of facial emotions, and direction of gaze detection were standardized for age (7–60 y) and sex. A common SNP in the oxytocin receptor (rs237887) was strongly associated with recognition memory in combined probands, parents, and siblings after correction for multiple comparisons. Homozygotes for the ancestral A allele had impairments in the range −0.6 to −1.15 SD scores, irrespective of their diagnostic status. Our findings imply that a critical role for the oxytocin system in social recognition has been conserved across perceptual boundaries through evolution, from olfaction in rodents to visual memory in humans. PMID:24367110

  12. Recognition of cloned vesicular stomatitis virus internal and external gene products by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    It has generally been assumed that most if not all CTL specific for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells recognize the viral glycoprotein (G), an integral membrane protein abundantly expressed on infected cell surfaces. Using recombinant vaccinia viruses containing copies of cloned VSV genes to examine CTL recognition of VSV, we have confirmed that G is recognized by VSV-specific CTL. More interestingly, however, we have also found that nucleocapsid protein (N), an internal virion protein, can be detected on infected cell surfaces using mAb, and serves as a major target antigen for VSV-specific CTL. In contrast to the highly serotype-specific recognition of G, N is recognized by a major population of CTL able to lyse cells infected with either the Indiana or New Jersey VSV serotypes. Using target cells expressing a cloned MHC class I gene, we could directly show that CTL recognition of N occurs in the context of the MHC Ld molecule. PMID:3011949

  13. Exploring brand-name drug mentions on Twitter for pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Pablo; Mayer, Miguel A; Bravo, Àlex

    2015-01-01

    Twitter has been proposed by several studies as a means to track public health trends such as influenza and Ebola outbreaks by analyzing user messages in order to measure different population features and interests. In this work we analyze the number and features of mentions on Twitter of drug brand names in order to explore the potential usefulness of the automated detection of drug side effects and drug-drug interactions on social media platforms such as Twitter. This information can be used for the development of predictive models for drug toxicity, drug-drug interactions or drug resistance. Taking into account the large number of drug brand mentions that we found on Twitter, it is promising as a tool for the detection, understanding and monitoring the way people manage prescribed drugs.

  14. Neural Androgen Receptors Modulate Gene Expression and Social Recognition But Not Social Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Sara A.; Studer, Erik; Kettunen, Petronella; Westberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The role of sex and androgen receptors (ARs) for social preference and social memory is rather unknown. In this study of mice we compared males, females and males lacking ARs specifically in the nervous system, ARNesDel, with respect to social preference, assessed with the three-chambered apparatus test, and social recognition, assessed with the social discrimination procedure. In the social discrimination test we also evaluated the tentative importance of the sex of the stimulus animal. Novel object recognition and olfaction were investigated to complement the results from the social tests. Gene expression analysis was performed to reveal molecules involved in the effects of sex and androgens on social behaviors. All three test groups showed social preference in the three-chambered apparatus test. In both social tests an AR-independent sexual dimorphism was seen in the persistence of social investigation of female conspecifics, whereas the social interest toward male stimuli mice was similar in all groups. Male and female controls recognized conspecifics independent of their sex, whereas ARNesDel males recognized female but not male stimuli mice. Moreover, the non-social behaviors were not affected by AR deficiency. The gene expression analyses of hypothalamus and amygdala indicated that Oxtr, Cd38, Esr1, Cyp19a1, Ucn3, Crh, and Gtf2i were differentially expressed between the three groups. In conclusion, our results suggest that ARs are required for recognition of male but not female conspecifics, while being dispensable for social investigation toward both sexes. In addition, the AR seems to regulate genes related to oxytocin, estrogen and William’s syndrome. PMID:27014003

  15. A Scalable Framework to Detect Personal Health Mentions on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Daniel; Rosenbloom, S Trent

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical research has traditionally been conducted via surveys and the analysis of medical records. However, these resources are limited in their content, such that non-traditional domains (eg, online forums and social media) have an opportunity to supplement the view of an individual’s health. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a scalable framework to detect personal health status mentions on Twitter and assess the extent to which such information is disclosed. Methods We collected more than 250 million tweets via the Twitter streaming API over a 2-month period in 2014. The corpus was filtered down to approximately 250,000 tweets, stratified across 34 high-impact health issues, based on guidance from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We created a labeled corpus of several thousand tweets via a survey, administered over Amazon Mechanical Turk, that documents when terms correspond to mentions of personal health issues or an alternative (eg, a metaphor). We engineered a scalable classifier for personal health mentions via feature selection and assessed its potential over the health issues. We further investigated the utility of the tweets by determining the extent to which Twitter users disclose personal health status. Results Our investigation yielded several notable findings. First, we find that tweets from a small subset of the health issues can train a scalable classifier to detect health mentions. Specifically, training on 2000 tweets from four health issues (cancer, depression, hypertension, and leukemia) yielded a classifier with precision of 0.77 on all 34 health issues. Second, Twitter users disclosed personal health status for all health issues. Notably, personal health status was disclosed over 50% of the time for 11 out of 34 (33%) investigated health issues. Third, the disclosure rate was dependent on the health issue in a statistically significant manner (P<.001). For instance, more than 80% of the tweets about

  16. Molecular Recognition Enables Nanosubstrate-Mediated Delivery of Gene-Encapsulated Nanoparticles with High Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Substrate-mediated gene delivery is a promising method due to its unique ability to preconcentrate exogenous genes onto designated substrates. However, many challenges remain to enable continuous and multiround delivery of the gene using the same substrates without depositing payloads and immobilizing cells in each round of delivery. Herein we introduce a gene delivery system, nanosubstrate-mediated delivery (NSMD) platform, based on two functional components with nanoscale features, including (1) DNA⊂SNPs, supramolecular nanoparticle (SNP) vectors for gene encapsulation, and (2) Ad-SiNWS, adamantane (Ad)-grafted silicon nanowire substrates. The multivalent molecular recognition between the Ad motifs on Ad-SiNWS and the β-cyclodextrin (CD) motifs on DNA⊂SNPs leads to dynamic assembly and local enrichment of DNA⊂SNPs from the surrounding medium onto Ad-SiNWS. Subsequently, once cells settled on the substrate, DNA⊂SNPs enriched on Ad-SiNWS were introduced through the cell membranes by intimate contact with individual nanowires on Ad-SiNWS, resulting in a highly efficient delivery of exogenous genes. Most importantly, sequential delivery of multiple batches of exogenous genes on the same batch cells settled on Ad-SiNWS was realized by sequential additions of the corresponding DNA⊂SNPs with equivalent efficiency. Moreover, using the NSMD platform in vivo, cells recruited on subcutaneously transplanted Ad-SiNWS were also efficiently transfected with exogenous genes loaded into SNPs, validating the in vivo feasibility of this system. We believe that this nanosubstrate-mediated delivery platform will provide a superior system for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery and can be further used for the encapsulation and delivery of other biomolecules. PMID:24708312

  17. Differential Expression of Genes Involved in Host Recognition, Attachment, and Degradation in the Mycoparasite Tolypocladium ophioglossoides

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, C. Alisha; Di, Yanming; Elser, Justin; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a fungus to infect novel hosts is dependent on changes in gene content, expression, or regulation. Examining gene expression under simulated host conditions can explore which genes may contribute to host jumping. Insect pathogenesis is the inferred ancestral character state for species of Tolypocladium, however several species are parasites of truffles, including Tolypocladium ophioglossoides. To identify potentially crucial genes in this interkingdom host switch, T. ophioglossoides was grown on four media conditions: media containing the inner and outer portions of its natural host (truffles of Elaphomyces), cuticles from an ancestral host (beetle), and a rich medium (Yeast Malt). Through high-throughput RNASeq of mRNA from these conditions, many differentially expressed genes were identified in the experiment. These included PTH11-related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) hypothesized to be involved in host recognition, and also found to be upregulated in insect pathogens. A divergent chitinase with a signal peptide was also found to be highly upregulated on media containing truffle tissue, suggesting an exogenous degradative activity in the presence of the truffle host. The adhesin gene, Mad1, was highly expressed on truffle media as well. A BiNGO analysis of overrepresented GO terms from genes expressed during each growth condition found that genes involved in redox reactions and transmembrane transport were the most overrepresented during T. ophioglossoides growth on truffle media, suggesting their importance in growth on fungal tissue as compared to other hosts and environments. Genes involved in secondary metabolism were most highly expressed during growth on insect tissue, suggesting that their products may not be necessary during parasitism of Elaphomyces. This study provides clues into understanding genetic mechanisms underlying the transition from insect to truffle parasitism. PMID:26801645

  18. Health-Promoting Verses as mentioned in the Holy Quran.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Basil H

    2016-06-01

    The Quran is regarded as both the spiritual and behavioral guidance for all Muslims. This narrative study was designed at examining relevant health-promoting verses in the Quran and to identify the chapters and verses where keywords and phrases are mentioned relevant to health promotion and behavior. Twenty-eight verses were identified, with a focus on diet and nutrition, personal hygiene, alcohol abstention, and the importance of a healthy lifestyle. These results suggest that the Quran could serve as an influential medium for culturally competent public health practitioners in diverse populations, particularly in Muslim communities, for improving and maintaining healthy behaviors.

  19. Combining classifiers generated by multi-gene genetic programming for protein fold recognition using genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bardsiri, Mahshid Khatibi; Eftekhari, Mahdi; Mousavi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this study the problem of protein fold recognition, that is a classification task, is solved via a hybrid of evolutionary algorithms namely multi-gene Genetic Programming (GP) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Our proposed method consists of two main stages and is performed on three datasets taken from the literature. Each dataset contains different feature groups and classes. In the first step, multi-gene GP is used for producing binary classifiers based on various feature groups for each class. Then, different classifiers obtained for each class are combined via weighted voting so that the weights are determined through GA. At the end of the first step, there is a separate binary classifier for each class. In the second stage, the obtained binary classifiers are combined via GA weighting in order to generate the overall classifier. The final obtained classifier is superior to the previous works found in the literature in terms of classification accuracy.

  20. Quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum: DNA recognition and gene regulation by the CviR receptor.

    PubMed

    Stauff, Devin L; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2011-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum uses a LuxIR-type quorum-sensing system to detect and respond to changes in cell population density. CviI synthesizes the autoinducer C(10)-homoserine lactone (C(10)-HSL), and CviR is a cytoplasmic DNA binding transcription factor that activates gene expression following binding to C(10)-HSL. A number of behaviors are controlled by quorum sensing in C. violaceum. However, few genes have been shown to be directly controlled by CviR, in part because the DNA motif bound by CviR is not well characterized. Here, we define the DNA sequence required for promoter recognition by CviR. Using in vivo data generated from a library of point mutations in a CviR-regulated promoter, we find that CviR binds to a palindrome with the ideal sequence CTGNCCNNNNGGNCAG. We constructed a position weight matrix using these in vivo data and scanned the C. violaceum genome to predict CviR binding sites. We measured direct activation of the identified promoters by CviR and found that CviR controls the expression of the promoter for a chitinase, a type VI secretion-related gene, a transcriptional regulator gene, a guanine deaminase gene, and cviI. Indeed, regulation of cviI expression by CviR generates a canonical quorum-sensing positive-feedback loop.

  1. Antibodies Raised Against Chlamydial Lipopolysaccharide Antigens Reveal Convergence in Germline Gene Usage and Differential Epitope Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Cory L; Müller-Loennies, Sven; Borisova, Svetlana N.; Brade, Lore; Kosma, Paul; Hirama, Tomoko; MacKenzie, C. Roger; Brade, Helmut; Evans, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore monoclonal antibody recognition carbohydrate antigens, several structures from two monoclonal antibodies directed against carbohydrate epitopes derived from chlamydial LPS have been solved to high resolution. With the exception of CDR H3, antibodies S54-10 and S73-2 are both derived from the same set of germline gene segments as the previously reported structures S25-2 and S45-18. Despite this similarity, the antibodies differ in specificity and the mechanism by which they recognize their cognate antigen. S54-10 uses an unrelated CDR H3 to recognize its antigen in a fashion analogous to S45-18; however, S73-2 recognizes the same antigen as S45-18 and S54-10 in a wholly unrelated manner. Together, these antibody-antigen structures provide snapshots into how the immune system uses the same set of inherited germline gene segments to generate multiple possible specificities that allow for differential recognition of epitopes, and how unrelated CDR H3 sequences can result in convergent binding of clinically-relevant bacterial antigens. PMID:20000757

  2. Cloning and characterization of the peptidoglycan recognition protein genes in the mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Songjie; Conant, Gavin C; Ou, Ruguang; Beerntsen, Brenda T

    2012-05-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for the recognition and, in some cases, binding of peptidoglycan (PGN), a unique cell wall component of bacteria, and initiation of immune responses to various types of pathogens. In the current study, full-length cDNA sequences of multiple PGRPs, identified via a database search, were cloned in the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett). During cloning, a novel transcript variant (isoform) of AsPGRP-LC (As: Ar. subalbatus) was also identified that shares a large 5' end fragment with AsPGRP-LC. All four AsPGRP genes (six transcripts) contain a conserved PGRP domain, an ortholog of the amidase-2 domain. Based on predicted functional domain, the six Ar. subalbatus PGRPs resemble both short (AsPGRP-S1) and long (AsPGRP-LBa, AsPGRP-LBb, AsPGRP-LCa, AsPGRP-LCb, and AsPGRP-LE) forms of PGRPs as in other insects. Sequence alignments showed that PGRPs are conserved across Dipterans. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PGRPs represent an ancient gene family that has primarily diverged through speciation events among these Dipterans, with only a limited number of lineage specific gene duplications. Developmental profiling of the six AsPGRP transcripts using real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that AsPGRP-LCa and AsPGRP-LCb are constitutively expressed at high levels in all developmental stages, while AsPGRP-S1, AsPGRP-LBa, AsPGRP-LBb, and AsPGRP-LE transcripts have low expression in most of the life stages and are increased only at certain times. Tissue profiling of the six AsPGRP transcripts showed that they are expressed in various patterns, even between the different isoforms of the same PGRP gene, indicating that these AsPGRPs may play different functions.

  3. Surface EMG-based Sketching Recognition Using Two Analysis Windows and Gene Expression Programming

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhongliang; Chen, Yumiao

    2016-01-01

    Sketching is one of the most important processes in the conceptual stage of design. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of sketching process and outcomes; whereas surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals associated with sketching have received little attention. In this study, we propose a method in which 11 basic one-stroke sketching shapes are identified from the sEMG signals generated by the forearm and upper arm muscles from 4 subjects. Time domain features such as integrated electromyography, root mean square and mean absolute value were extracted with analysis windows of two length conditions for pattern recognition. After reducing data dimensionality using principal component analysis, the shapes were classified using Gene Expression Programming (GEP). The performance of the GEP classifier was compared to the Back Propagation neural network (BPNN) and the Elman neural network (ENN). Feature extraction with the short analysis window (250 ms with a 250 ms increment) improved the recognition rate by around 6.4% averagely compared with the long analysis window (2500 ms with a 2500 ms increment). The average recognition rate for the eleven basic one-stroke sketching patterns achieved by the GEP classifier was 96.26% in the training set and 95.62% in the test set, which was superior to the performance of the BPNN and ENN classifiers. The results show that the GEP classifier is able to perform well with either length of the analysis window. Thus, the proposed GEP model show promise for recognizing sketching based on sEMG signals. PMID:27790083

  4. Surface EMG-based Sketching Recognition Using Two Analysis Windows and Gene Expression Programming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongliang; Chen, Yumiao

    2016-01-01

    Sketching is one of the most important processes in the conceptual stage of design. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of sketching process and outcomes; whereas surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals associated with sketching have received little attention. In this study, we propose a method in which 11 basic one-stroke sketching shapes are identified from the sEMG signals generated by the forearm and upper arm muscles from 4 subjects. Time domain features such as integrated electromyography, root mean square and mean absolute value were extracted with analysis windows of two length conditions for pattern recognition. After reducing data dimensionality using principal component analysis, the shapes were classified using Gene Expression Programming (GEP). The performance of the GEP classifier was compared to the Back Propagation neural network (BPNN) and the Elman neural network (ENN). Feature extraction with the short analysis window (250 ms with a 250 ms increment) improved the recognition rate by around 6.4% averagely compared with the long analysis window (2500 ms with a 2500 ms increment). The average recognition rate for the eleven basic one-stroke sketching patterns achieved by the GEP classifier was 96.26% in the training set and 95.62% in the test set, which was superior to the performance of the BPNN and ENN classifiers. The results show that the GEP classifier is able to perform well with either length of the analysis window. Thus, the proposed GEP model show promise for recognizing sketching based on sEMG signals.

  5. Practical applicability of Nyayas - (Maxims) mentioned in Chakrapani Tika.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    The Nyayas - (Maxims) are of two types: (1) Loukika Nyaya and (2) Shastriya Nyaya. Loukika Nyayas are the one which are used by the common public in day today life whereas Shastriya Nyayas are the one which are used by the authors of the treatise to explore their concepts. Most commonly by using the meaning and gist of Loukika Nyaya, the Shastriya Nyayas were put forth by the Granthakaras. Moreover, notion of Nyaya depends upon the situation, place, and topic of explanation mainly. To explain the meaning of the topic, these Nyayas helped since Vaidika Kala. They teach hidden meaning correctly. As like Vedas, these Nyayas are also a part of other Shastras and so as in Ayurveda Shastra too. While explaining the Nidana, Chikitsa, etc., these Nyayas were utilized by the Acharyas of Ayurveda. To discern these Nyayas in their entirety at one place with examples is necessary for easy understanding of the Shastra. Here is an attempt to explore such Nyayas mentioned in Ayurveda for the benefit of easy understanding of the subject.

  6. Practical applicability of Nyayas – (Maxims) mentioned in Chakrapani Tika

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    The Nyayas – (Maxims) are of two types: (1) Loukika Nyaya and (2) Shastriya Nyaya. Loukika Nyayas are the one which are used by the common public in day today life whereas Shastriya Nyayas are the one which are used by the authors of the treatise to explore their concepts. Most commonly by using the meaning and gist of Loukika Nyaya, the Shastriya Nyayas were put forth by the Granthakaras. Moreover, notion of Nyaya depends upon the situation, place, and topic of explanation mainly. To explain the meaning of the topic, these Nyayas helped since Vaidika Kala. They teach hidden meaning correctly. As like Vedas, these Nyayas are also a part of other Shastras and so as in Ayurveda Shastra too. While explaining the Nidana, Chikitsa, etc., these Nyayas were utilized by the Acharyas of Ayurveda. To discern these Nyayas in their entirety at one place with examples is necessary for easy understanding of the Shastra. Here is an attempt to explore such Nyayas mentioned in Ayurveda for the benefit of easy understanding of the subject. PMID:26664230

  7. Preliminary evidence of association between EFHC2, a gene implicated in fear recognition, and harm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Carolina; Moorjani, Priya; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gonçalves, Leonardo; Weiss, Lauren A; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G; Smoller, Jordan W

    2009-03-06

    Genetic variation at the EF-hand domain containing 2 gene (EFHC2) locus has been associated with fear recognition in Turner syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine whether EFHC2 variants are associated with non-syndromic anxiety-related traits [harm avoidance (HA) and behavioral inhibition (BI)] and with panic disorder (PD). Our sample comprised 127 PD patients and 132 controls without psychiatric disorder. We genotyped nine SNPs within the EFHC2 locus and used PLINK to perform association analyses. An intronic SNP (rs1562875) was associated with HA (permuted p=0.031) accounting alone for over 3% of variance in this trait. This same SNP was nominally, but not empirically, associated with BI (r(2)=0.022; nominal p=0.022) and PD (OR=2.64; nominal p=0.009). The same association was found in a subsample of only females. In sum, we observed evidence of association between a variant in EFHC2, a gene previously associated with the processing of fear and social threat, and HA. Larger studies are warranted to confirm this association.

  8. The mouse and human genes encoding the recognition component of the N-end rule pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Tae; Reiss, Yuval; Fried, Victor A.; Hershko, Avram; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; Gonda, David K.; Sangan, Pitchai; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Varshavsky, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. The N-end rule pathway is one proteolytic pathway of the ubiquitin system. The recognition component of this pathway, called N-recognin or E3, binds to a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a substrate protein and participates in the formation of a substrate-linked multiubiquitin chain. We report the cloning of the mouse and human Ubr1 cDNAs and genes that encode a mammalian N-recognin called E3α. Mouse UBR1p (E3α) is a 1,757-residue (200-kDa) protein that contains regions of sequence similarity to the 225-kDa Ubr1p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mouse and human UBR1p have apparent homologs in other eukaryotes as well, thus defining a distinct family of proteins, the UBR family. The residues essential for substrate recognition by the yeast Ubr1p are conserved in the mouse UBR1p. The regions of similarity among the UBR family members include a putative zinc finger and RING-H2 finger, another zinc-binding domain. Ubr1 is located in the middle of mouse chromosome 2 and in the syntenic 15q15-q21.1 region of human chromosome 15. Mouse Ubr1 spans ≈120 kilobases of genomic DNA and contains ≈50 exons. Ubr1 is ubiquitously expressed in adults, with skeletal muscle and heart being the sites of highest expression. In mouse embryos, the Ubr1 expression is highest in the branchial arches and in the tail and limb buds. The cloning of Ubr1 makes possible the construction of Ubr1-lacking mouse strains, a prerequisite for the functional understanding of the mammalian N-end rule pathway. PMID:9653112

  9. Gene polymorphisms in pattern recognition receptors and susceptibility to idiopathic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosentul, Diana C.; Delsing, Corine E.; Jaeger, Martin; Plantinga, Theo S.; Oosting, Marije; Costantini, Irene; Venselaar, Hanka; Joosten, Leo A. B.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Dupont, Bertrand; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Sobel, Jack D.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Approximately 5% of women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). It has been hypothesized that genetic factors play an important role in the susceptibility to RVVC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of genetic variants of genes encoding for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on susceptibility to RVVC. Study design: For the study, 119 RVVC patients and 263 healthy controls were recruited. Prevalence of polymorphisms in five PRRs involved in recognition of Candida were investigated in patients and controls. In silico and functional studies were performed to assess their functional effects. Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR1, TLR4, CLEC7A, and CARD9 did not affect the susceptibility to RVVC. In contrast, a non-synonymous polymorphism in TLR2 (rs5743704, Pro631His) increased the susceptibility to RVVC almost 3-fold. Furthermore, the TLR2 rs5743704 SNP had deleterious effects on protein function as assessed by in silico analysis, and in vitro functional assays suggested that it reduces production of IL-17 and IFNγ upon stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with Candida albicans. No effects were observed on serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations. Condensation: This study demonstrates the association of susceptibility to RVVC with genetic variation in TLR2, most likely caused by decreased induction of mucosal antifungal host defense. Conclusion: Genetic variation in TLR2 may significantly enhance susceptibility to RVVC by modulating host defense mechanisms against Candida. Additional studies are warranted to assess systematically the role of host genetic variation for susceptibility to RVVC. PMID:25295030

  10. Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein Genes and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Samuel M.; Kamel, Freya; Ross, G. Webster; Jewell, Sarah A.; Marras, Connie; Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; Bhudhikanok, Grace S.; Meng, Cheryl; Korell, Monica; Comyns, Kathleen; Hauser, Robert A.; Jankovic, Joseph; Factor, Stewart A.; Bressman, Susan; Lyons, Kelly E.; Sandler, Dale P.; Langston, J. William; Tanner, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    Increased gut permeability, inflammation, and colonic α-synuclein pathology are present in early Parkinson’s disease (PD) and have been proposed to contribute to PD pathogenesis. Peptidoglycan is a structural component of the bacterial cell wall. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) maintain healthy gut microbial flora by regulating the immune response to both commensal and harmful bacteria. We tested the hypothesis that variants in genes that encode PGRPs are associated with PD risk. Participants in two independent case-control studies were genotyped for 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four PGLYRP genes. Using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounding variables, we conducted analyses in each study, separately and pooled. One SNP failed the assay, and three had little to no variation. The ORs were similar in both study populations. In pooled analyses, three of seven PGLYRP2 SNPs (rs3813135, rs733731, rs892145), one of five PGLYRP3 SNPs (rs2987763), and six of nine PGLYRP4 SNPs (rs10888557, rs12063091, rs3006440, rs3006448, rs3006458, and rs3014864) were significantly associated with PD risk. Association was strongest for PGLYRP4 5’untranslated region (UTR) SNP rs10888557 (GG reference, CG OR 0.6 [95%CI 0.4–0.9], CC OR 0.15 [95%CI 0.04–0.6]; log-additive P-trend, 0.0004). Common variants in PGLYRP genes are associated with PD risk in two independent studies. These results require replication, but they are consistent with hypotheses of a causative role for the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal immune response in PD. PMID:24838182

  11. Molecular recognition of genomic DNA in a condensate with a model surfactant for potential gene-delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priya; Choudhury, Susobhan; Chandra, Goutam Kumar; Lemmens, Peter; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The functionality of a gene carrying nucleic acid in an artificial gene-delivery system is important for the overall efficiency of the vehicle in vivo. Here, we have studied a well-known artificial gene-delivery system, which is a condensate of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with a model cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to investigate the molecular recognition of the genomic DNA in the condensate. While dynamic light scattering (DLS) and circular dichroism (CD) reveal structural aspects of the condensate and the constituting DNA respectively, picosecond resolved polarization gated spectroscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) reveal molecular recognition of the genomic DNA in the condensate. We have considered ethidium bromide (EB) and crystal violet (CV), which are well known DNA-binding agents through intercalative (specific) and electrostatic (non-specific) interactions, respectively, as model ligands for the molecular recognition studies. A fluorescent cationic surfactant, Nonyl Acridine Orange (NAO) is considered to be a mimic of CTAB in the condensate. The polarization gated fluorescence of NAO at various temperatures has been used to investigate the local microviscosity of the condensate. The excellent spectral overlap of NAO emission and the absorption spectra of both EB and CV allow us to investigate FRET-distances of the ligands with respect to NAO in the condensate at various temperatures and thermal stability of ligand-binding of the genomic DNA. The thermodynamic properties of the molecular recognition have also been explored using Van't Hoff equation. We have also extended our studies to molecular recognition of the genomic DNA in the condensate as dried thin films. This has important implications for its application in bioelectronics.

  12. Image Recognition Based on Biometric Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuliang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Chenglian; Guo, Yongning; Lin, Xueyun

    2011-09-01

    A new method, biomimetric pattern recognition, is mentioned to recognize images. At first, the image is pretreatment and feature extraction, then a high vector is got. A biomimetric pattern recognition model is designed. The judgment function is used to discriminate the classification of the samples. It is showed that the method is effective for little samples by experiment. It would be useful in many fields in future.

  13. Peptidoglycan recognition protein genes and their roles in the innate immune pathways of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hiroaki; Kato, Daiki; Minakuchi, Chieka; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Yokoi, Kakeru; Miura, Ken

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the functional Toll and IMD innate immune pathways indeed exist in the model beetle, Tribolium castaneum while the beetle's pathways have broader specificity in terms of microbial activation than that of Drosophila. To elucidate the molecular basis of this broad microbial activation, we here focused on potential upstream sensors of the T. castaneum innate immune pathways, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs). Our phenotype analyses utilizing RNA interference-based comprehensive gene knockdown followed by bacterial challenge suggested: PGRP-LA functions as a pivotal sensor of the IMD pathway for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; PGRP-LC acts as an IMD pathway-associated sensor mainly for Gram-negative bacteria; PGRP-LE also has some roles in Gram-negative bacterial recognition of the IMD pathway. On the other hand, we did not obtain clear phenotype changes by gene knockdown of short-type PGRP genes, probably because of highly inducible nature of these genes. Our results may collectively account for the promiscuous bacterial activation of the T. castaneum innate immune pathways at least in part.

  14. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    E Rajakumara; Z Wang; H Ma; L Hu; H Chen; Y Lin; R Guo; F Wu; H Li; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  15. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2011-08-29

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  16. Inferring gene structures in genomic sequences using pattern recognition and expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Mural, R J; Uberbacher, E C

    1997-01-01

    Computational methods for gene identification in genomic sequences typically have two phases: coding region prediction and gene parsing. While there are many effective methods for predicting coding regions (exons), parsing the predicted exons into proper gene structures, to a large extent, remains an unsolved problem. This paper presents an algorithm for inferring gene structures from predicted exon candidates, based on Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) and biological intuition/rules. The algorithm first finds all the related ESTs in the EST database (dbEST) for each predicted exon, and infers the boundaries of one or a series of genes based on the available EST information and biological rules. Then it constructs gene models within each pair of gene boundaries, that are most consistent with the EST information. By exploiting EST information and biological rules, the algorithm can (1) model complicated multiple gene structures, including embedded genes, (2) identify falsely-predicted exons and locate missed exons, and (3) make more accurate exon boundary predictions. The algorithm has been implemented and tested on long genomic sequences with a number of genes. Test results show that very accurate (predicted) gene models can be expected when related ESTs exist for the predicted exons.

  17. Inferring gene structures in genomic sequences using pattern recognition and expressed sequence tags

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Mural, R.; Uberbacher, E.

    1997-02-01

    Computational methods for gene identification in genomic sequences typically have two phases: coding region prediction and gene parsing. While there are many effective methods for predicting coding regions (exons), parsing the predicted exons into proper gene structures, to a large extent, remains an unsolved problem. This paper presents an algorithm for inferring gene structures from predicted exon candidates, based on Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) and biological intuition/rules. The algorithm first finds all the related ESTs in the EST database (dbEST) for each predicted exon, and infers the boundaries of one or a series of genes based on the available EST information and biological rules. Then it constructs gene models within each pair of gene boundaries, that are most consistent with the EST information. By exploiting EST information and biological rules, the algorithm can (1) model complicated multiple gene structures, including embedded genes, (2) identify falsely-predicted exons and locate missed exons, and (3) make more accurate exon boundary predictions. The algorithm has been implemented and tested on long genomic sequences with a number of genes. Test results show that very accurate (predicted) gene models can be expected when related ESTs exist for the predicted exons.

  18. Genomic clusters, putative pathogen recognition molecules, and antimicrobial genes are induced by infection of C. elegans with M. nematophilum

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Delia; Baban, Dilair; Demidova, Maria; Mott, Richard; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Microbacterium nematophilum, provides a model for an innate immune response in nematodes. This pathogen adheres to the rectal and post-anal cuticle of the worm, causing slowed growth, constipation, and a defensive swelling response of rectal hypodermal cells. To explore the genomic responses that the worm activates after pathogenic attack we used microarray analysis of transcriptional changes induced after 6-h infection, comparing virulent with avirulent infection. We defined 89 genes with statistically significant expression changes of at least twofold, of which 68 were up-regulated and 21 were down-regulated. Among the former, those encoding C-type lectin domains were the most abundant class. Many of the 89 genes exhibit genomic clustering, and we identified one large cluster of 62 genes, of which most were induced in response to infection. We tested 41 of the induced genes for involvement in immunity using mutants or RNAi, finding that six of these are required for the swelling response and five are required more generally for defense. Our results indicate that C-type lectins and other putative pathogen-recognition molecules are important for innate immune defense in C. elegans. We also found significant induction of genes encoding lysozymes, proteases, and defense-related proteins, as well as various domains of unknown function. The genes induced during infection by M. nematophilum appear largely distinct from genes induced by other pathogens, suggesting that C. elegans mounts pathogen-specific responses to infection. PMID:16809667

  19. Challenges in the association of human single nucleotide polymorphism mentions with unique database identifiers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most information on genomic variations and their associations with phenotypes are covered exclusively in scientific publications rather than in structured databases. These texts commonly describe variations using natural language; database identifiers are seldom mentioned. This complicates the retrieval of variations, associated articles, as well as information extraction, e. g. the search for biological implications. To overcome these challenges, procedures to map textual mentions of variations to database identifiers need to be developed. Results This article describes a workflow for normalization of variation mentions, i.e. the association of them to unique database identifiers. Common pitfalls in the interpretation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mentions are highlighted and discussed. The developed normalization procedure achieves a precision of 98.1 % and a recall of 67.5% for unambiguous association of variation mentions with dbSNP identifiers on a text corpus based on 296 MEDLINE abstracts containing 527 mentions of SNPs. The annotated corpus is freely available at http://www.scai.fraunhofer.de/snp-normalization-corpus.html. Conclusions Comparable approaches usually focus on variations mentioned on the protein sequence and neglect problems for other SNP mentions. The results presented here indicate that normalizing SNPs described on DNA level is more difficult than the normalization of SNPs described on protein level. The challenges associated with normalization are exemplified with ambiguities and errors, which occur in this corpus. PMID:21992066

  20. The expression pattern of the murine Hoxa-10 gene and the sequence recognition of its homeodomain reveal specific properties of Abdominal B-like genes.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, G V; Nguyen, T H; Maas, R L

    1995-01-01

    Homeobox genes of the Abdominal B (AbdB) family constitute a distinct subset of vertebrate Hox genes. Analysis of the murine Hoxa-10 gene, one member of this family, revealed several properties specific to this class. Two transcripts of Hoxa-10, a10-1 and a10-2, encode homeodomain proteins of 55 kDa (399 amino acids) and 16 kDa (96 amino acids), respectively. These proteins have identical homeodomains and C-terminal regions encoded by a common 3' exon but differ significantly in the sizes of their N-terminal regions because of the usage of alternative 5' exons. The 5' exon of the a10-2 form is also present in transcripts of Hoxa-9, the next 3' gene, indicating that splicing can occur between adjacent AbdB Hox genes within a cluster. Both Hoxa-10 transcripts demonstrated identical patterns of expression in the posterior body and proximal limb bud, differentiating them from AbdB morphogenetic and regulatory transcripts and suggesting a role with other AbdB Hox genes in the patterning of these structures. Finally, a binding site selection identified the sequence AA(A/T)TTTTATTAC as the Hoxa-10 homeodomain consensus binding site, with a TTAT core sequence. Preferential recognition of a TTAT core therefore differentiates the AbdB class from Antennapedia (Antp) class gene products which bind a TAAT core. Thus, in vertebrates, structural similarities, coordinate transcriptional regulation, sites of expression, and binding site preferences all serve to distinguish AbdB from Antp Hox genes. PMID:7862151

  1. Recognition of chimeric small-subunit ribosomal DNAs composed of genes from uncultivated microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopczynski, E. D.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    When PCR was used to recover small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes from a hot spring cyanobacterial mat community, chimeric SSU rRNA sequences which exhibited little or no secondary structural abnormality were recovered. They were revealed as chimeras of SSU rRNA genes of uncultivated species through separate phylogenetic analysis of short sequence domains.

  2. [HNF1B-related disease: paradigm of a developmental gene and unexpected recognition of a new renal disease].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Dominique; Faguer, Stanislas; Bandin, Flavio; Guigonis, Vincent; Chassaing, Nicolas; Decramer, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    HNF1B encodes for a transcription factor involved in the early development of the kidney, pancreas, liver and genital tract. Mutations in HNF1B are dominantly inherited and consist of whole-gene deletion, or small mutation. De novo mutation occurs in half of tested kindreds. HNF1B-related disease combines renal and non-renal manifestations. Renal involvement is heterogeneous and may escape early recognition. During fetal life and childhood, it mostly consists of hyperechogenic kidneys or bilateral renal cystic hypodysplasia. The adult phenotype encompasses tubulointerstitial profile at presentation and slowly progressive renal decline (-2 ml/min/year). Renal involvement includes renal cysts (mostly few cortical cysts), a solitary kidney, pelvi-caliceal abnormalities, hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia related to tubular leak, and more rarely, Fanconi syndrome and chromophobe renal carcinoma. The latter warrants ultrasound screening. Extrarenal phenotype consists of diabetes mellitus (MODY-5), exocrine pancreas failure and pancreas atrophy; fluctuation liver tests abnormalities; diverse genital tract abnormalities in females or infertility in males; and mild mental retardation in rare individuals. Phenotype heterogeneity within families is striking. Individuals progressing to end-stage renal disease are eligible for kidney transplantation (or combined pancreas and kidney transplantation for diabetic individuals). While HNF1B disease was still unknown one decade ago, it has emerged as the second most prevalent dominantly inherited kidney disease. Data available pave the way for early recognition and improved specific management, including genetic counselling.

  3. Hemagglutinin gene shuffling among Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D yields distinct sugar recognition of the botulinum toxin complex.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Keita; Suzuki, Tomonori; Hayashi, Shintaro; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Sagane, Yoshimasa

    2015-10-01

    Clostridium botulinum strains produce a large-sized toxin complex (TC) that is composed of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), non-toxic non-hemagglutinin and three different hemagglutinins (HA-70, HA-33 and HA-17). HA components enhance toxin delivery across the intestinal cell wall in a sugar chain-dependent manner. Here we characterized the sugar recognition of serotype D strain 1873 (D-1873) botulinum L-TC. Most L-TCs produced by serotype C and D strains bind to cells via interactions between HA-33 and cell surface sialo-oligosaccharides. However, like the previously reported L-TC produced by serotype C strain Yoichi (C-Yoichi), D-1873 L-TC binds only to cells that have been treated with neuraminidase, indicating that they recognize asialo-oligosaccharides. The D-1873 HA-33 amino acid sequence is similar to that of C-Yoichi, but had lower similarity to the majority of serotype C and D HA-33s. A comparison of TC component primary structures for 12 serotype C and D strains suggested that at least three types of HA-33 genes exist, and these are shuffled among the serotype C and D strains independently of BoNT serotype. This shuffling produces the distinct sugar recognition of serotype C and D botulinum TCs.

  4. Bioenergetics and gene silencing approaches for unraveling nucleotide recognition by the human EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Al-Taher, Abdullah; Nakashima, Remi; Sakaguchi, Tomoya; Kandeel, Ali; Nagaya, Yuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kitade, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Gene silencing and RNA interference are major cellular processes that control gene expression via the cleavage of target mRNA. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C2 (EIF2C2, Argonaute protein 2, Ago2) is considered to be the major player of RNAi as it is the core component of RISC complexes. While a considerable amount of research has focused on RNA interference and its associated mechanisms, the nature and mechanisms of nucleotide recognition by the PAZ domain of EIF2C2/Ago2 have not yet been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain has an inherent lack of binding to adenine nucleotides, a feature that highlights the poor binding of 3'-adenylated RNAs with the PAZ domain as well as the selective high trimming of the 3'-ends of miRNA containing adenine nucleotides. We further show that the PAZ domain selectively binds all ribonucleotides (except adenosine), whereas it poorly recognizes deoxyribonucleotides. In this context, the modification of dTMP to its ribonucleotide analogue gave a drastic improvement of binding enthalpy and, hence, binding affinity. Additionally, higher in vivo gene silencing efficacy was correlated with the stronger PAZ domain binders. These findings provide new insights into the nature of the interactions of the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain.

  5. NAAG peptidase inhibitors and deletion of NAAG peptidase gene enhance memory in novel object recognition test

    PubMed Central

    Janczura, Karolina J.; Olszewski, Rafal T.; Bzdega, Tomasz; Bacich, Dean J.; Heston, Warren D.; Neale, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is inactivated by the extracellular enzyme glutamate carboxypeptidase II. Inhibitors of this enzyme reverse dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced impairment of short-term memory in the novel object recognition test. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that NAAG peptidase inhibition enhances the long-term (24 hr delay) memory of C57BL mice in this test. These mice and mice in which glutamate carboxypeptidase II had been knocked out were presented with two identical objects to explore for 10 minutes on day 1 and tested with one of these familiar objects and one novel object on day 2. Memory was assessed as the degree to which the mice recalled the familiar object and explored the novel object to a greater extent on day 2. Uninjected mice or mice injected with saline prior to the acquisition session on day 1 demonstrated a lack of memory of the acquisition experience by exploring the familiar and novel objects to the same extent on day 2. Mice treated with glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibitors ZJ43 or 2-PMPA prior to the acquisition trial explored the novel object significantly more time than the familiar object on day 2. Consistent with these results, mice in which glutamate carboxypeptidase II had been knocked out distinguished the novel from the familiar object on day 2 while their heterozygous colony mates did not. Inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II enhances recognition memory, a therapeutic action that might be useful in treatment of memory deficits related to age and neurological disorders. PMID:23200894

  6. CLK-dependent exon recognition and conjoined gene formation revealed with a novel small molecule inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Tyler; Tasaki, Shinya; Oloumi, Arusha; Araki, Shinsuke; Kong, Esther; Yap, Damian; Nakayama, Yusuke; Hughes, Christopher S; Cheng, S-W Grace; Tozaki, Hirokazu; Iwatani, Misa; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ohashi, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Tohru; Morishita, Nao; Morishita, Daisuke; Ogasawara-Shimizu, Mari; Ohori, Momoko; Nakao, Shoichi; Karashima, Masatoshi; Sano, Masaya; Murai, Aiko; Nomura, Toshiyuki; Uchiyama, Noriko; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Hara, Ryujiro; Nakanishi, Osamu; Shumansky, Karey; Rosner, Jamie; Wan, Adrian; McKinney, Steven; Morin, Gregg B; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Shah, Sohrab; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Aparicio, Samuel

    2017-12-01

    CDC-like kinase phosphorylation of serine/arginine-rich proteins is central to RNA splicing reactions. Yet, the genomic network of CDC-like kinase-dependent RNA processing events remains poorly defined. Here, we explore the connectivity of genomic CDC-like kinase splicing functions by applying graduated, short-exposure, pharmacological CDC-like kinase inhibition using a novel small molecule (T3) with very high potency, selectivity, and cell-based stability. Using RNA-Seq, we define CDC-like kinase-responsive alternative splicing events, the large majority of which monotonically increase or decrease with increasing CDC-like kinase inhibition. We show that distinct RNA-binding motifs are associated with T3 response in skipped exons. Unexpectedly, we observe dose-dependent conjoined gene transcription, which is associated with motif enrichment in the last and second exons of upstream and downstream partners, respectively. siRNA knockdown of CLK2-associated genes significantly increases conjoined gene formation. Collectively, our results reveal an unexpected role for CDC-like kinase in conjoined gene formation, via regulation of 3'-end processing and associated splicing factors.The phosphorylation of serine/arginine-rich proteins by CDC-like kinase is a central regulatory mechanism for RNA splicing reactions. Here, the authors synthesize a novel small molecule CLK inhibitor and map CLK-responsive alternative splicing events and discover an effect on conjoined gene transcription.

  7. Analysis of gene expression profiles of Lactobacillus paracasei induced by direct contact with Saccharomyces cerevisiae through recognition of yeast mannan

    PubMed Central

    YAMASAKI-YASHIKI, Shino; SAWADA, Hiroshi; KINO-OKA, Masahiro; KATAKURA, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Co-culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast induces specific responses that are not observed in pure culture. Gene expression profiles of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 co-cultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0216 were analyzed by DNA microarray, and the responses induced by direct contact with the yeast cells were investigated. Coating the LAB cells with recombinant DnaK, which acts as an adhesive protein between LAB and yeast cells, enhanced the ratio of adhesion of the LAB cells to the yeast cells. The signals induced by direct contact were clarified by removal of the LAB cells unbound to the yeast cells. The genes induced by direct contact with heat-inactivated yeast cells were very similar to both those induced by the intact yeast cells and those induced by a soluble mannan. The top 20 genes upregulated by direct contact with the heat-inactivated yeast cells mainly encoded proteins related to exopolysaccharide synthesis, modification of surface proteins, and transport systems. In the case of the most upregulated gene, LSEI_0669, encoding a protein that has a region homologous to polyprenyl glycosylphosphotransferase, the expression level was upregulated 7.6-, 11.0-, and 8.8-fold by the heat-inactivated yeast cells, the intact yeast cells, and the soluble mannan, respectively, whereas it was only upregulated 1.8-fold when the non-adherent LAB cells were not removed before RNA extraction. Our results indicated that the LAB responded to direct contact with the yeast cells through recognition of mannan on the surface of the yeast. PMID:28243547

  8. The Markyt visualisation, prediction and benchmark platform for chemical and gene entity recognition at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, Martin; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gael; Rabal, Obdulia; Vazquez, Miguel; Oyarzabal, Julen; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Valencia, Alfonso; Krallinger, Martin; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical text mining methods and technologies have improved significantly in the last decade. Considerable efforts have been invested in understanding the main challenges of biomedical literature retrieval and extraction and proposing solutions to problems of practical interest. Most notably, community-oriented initiatives such as the BioCreative challenge have enabled controlled environments for the comparison of automatic systems while pursuing practical biomedical tasks. Under this scenario, the present work describes the Markyt Web-based document curation platform, which has been implemented to support the visualisation, prediction and benchmark of chemical and gene mention annotations at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge. Creating this platform is an important step for the systematic and public evaluation of automatic prediction systems and the reusability of the knowledge compiled for the challenge. Markyt was not only critical to support the manual annotation and annotation revision process but also facilitated the comparative visualisation of automated results against the manually generated Gold Standard annotations and comparative assessment of generated results. We expect that future biomedical text mining challenges and the text mining community may benefit from the Markyt platform to better explore and interpret annotations and improve automatic system predictions. Database URL: http://www.markyt.org, https://github.com/sing-group/Markyt PMID:27542845

  9. Recognition of Scared Faces and the Serotonin Transporter Gene in Young Children: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Eszter; Herba, Catherine M.; Arp, Pascal P.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hudziak, James J.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research highlights the significance of a functional polymorphism located in the promoter region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene in emotional behaviour. This study examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on emotion processing in a large number of healthy preschoolers. Methods: The 5-HTTLPR genotype was…

  10. The Origin Recognition Complex Interacts with a Subset of Metabolic Genes Tightly Linked to Origins of Replication

    PubMed Central

    Shor, Erika; Warren, Christopher L.; Tietjen, Joshua; Hou, Zhonggang; Müller, Ulrika; Alborelli, Ilaria; Gohard, Florence H.; Yemm, Adrian I.; Borisov, Lev; Broach, James R.; Weinreich, Michael; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Ansari, Aseem Z.; Fox, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) marks chromosomal sites as replication origins and is essential for replication initiation. In yeast, ORC also binds to DNA elements called silencers, where its primary function is to recruit silent information regulator (SIR) proteins to establish transcriptional silencing. Indeed, silencers function poorly as chromosomal origins. Several genetic, molecular, and biochemical studies of HMR-E have led to a model proposing that when ORC becomes limiting in the cell (such as in the orc2-1 mutant) only sites that bind ORC tightly (such as HMR-E) remain fully occupied by ORC, while lower affinity sites, including many origins, lose ORC occupancy. Since HMR-E possessed a unique non-replication function, we reasoned that other tight sites might reveal novel functions for ORC on chromosomes. Therefore, we comprehensively determined ORC “affinity” genome-wide by performing an ORC ChIP–on–chip in ORC2 and orc2-1 strains. Here we describe a novel group of orc2-1–resistant ORC–interacting chromosomal sites (ORF–ORC sites) that did not function as replication origins or silencers. Instead, ORF–ORC sites were comprised of protein-coding regions of highly transcribed metabolic genes. In contrast to the ORC–silencer paradigm, transcriptional activation promoted ORC association with these genes. Remarkably, ORF–ORC genes were enriched in proximity to origins of replication and, in several instances, were transcriptionally regulated by these origins. Taken together, these results suggest a surprising connection among ORC, replication origins, and cellular metabolism. PMID:19997491

  11. Human genes and pseudogenes for the 7SL RNA component of signal recognition particle.

    PubMed Central

    Ullu, E; Weiner, A M

    1984-01-01

    Of the several hundred 7SL RNA-like sequences that are dispersed in human DNA, no more than four are likely to represent genes for 7SL RNA; the majority are 7SL pseudogenes which appear to result from the reverse flow of genetic information from 7SL RNA back into genomic DNA. We present the sequence of five 7SL pseudogenes displaying an unprecedented diversity of structures. All are truncated copies of 7SL RNA, but the site of truncation can occur at either the 5' end, the 3' end or at both ends of the RNA sequence. We suggest that such diverse 7SL pseudogenes are generated by different but related pathways. In particular, we argue that two of the loci are secondary 7SL pseudogenes which derive from RNA polymerase III transcripts of primary (preexisting) 7SL pseudogenes. We also report the isolation and characterisation of a human genomic clone carrying two linked 7SL RNA coding regions, 7L30.1 and 7L30.2. The 7L30.2 locus differs by several single base changes from the known human 7SL RNA sequences and does not appear to be expressed at a detectable level in HeLa cells. The 7L30.1 locus is an authentic 7SL RNA gene encoding one of the three sequence variants of human 7SL RNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6084597

  12. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. CAMERA IS IN DOORWAY MENTIONED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. CAMERA IS IN DOORWAY MENTIONED IN ID-33-G-175 AND LOOKS EAST INTO ANNEX, BUILT AS A SPECIAL TRITIUM LAB. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-25-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Variation in genes of β-glucan recognition pathway and susceptibility to opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Rosentul, Diana C; Plantinga, Theo S; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Joosten, Leo A B; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Venselaar, Hanka; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Netea, Mihai G

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are the main cause of morbidity and death among HIV-positive patients. Most of these infections are linked to the immunodeficiency due to low CD4+ counts. However, not all patients with low CD4+ counts are equally susceptible to infections, and we hypothesize that variability in genes of innate immunity may also play an important role. The dectin-1/CARD9 pathway is crucial for recognition of both fungal and bacterial pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between the occurrence of opportunistic infections and single nucleotide polymorphisms in DECTIN-1 and CARD9 in a cohort of 187 HIV-infected patients. The incidence of oropharyngeal candidiasis and other opportunistic infections was not influenced by either the Y238X DECTIN-1 or the S12N CARD9 polymorphism. Surprisingly however, the prevalence of pneumonia was significantly higher in patients bearing the defective variant DECTIN-1 allele. These results suggest a role of dectin-1 in the host defense against respiratory bacterial infections, and future studies are warranted to confirm this association.

  14. Characterization of Choristoneura fumiferana genes of the sixth subunit of the origin recognition complex: CfORC6.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xaiochun; Carstens, Eric B; Feng, Qili

    2006-11-30

    A new protein was cloned and identified as the sixth subunit of Choristoneura fumiferana origin recognition complex (CfORC6). The newly identified 43 kDa protein CfORC6 is much bigger than DmORC6 (25.7 kDa) and HsORC6 (28.1 kDa), though itos 23.85% identical to DmORC6 and 23.81% identical to HsORC6. Although the molecular weight of CfORC6 is close to ScORc6 (50 kDa), CfORC6 is only 14.03% identical to ScORC6. By alignment, it was found that the N-terminal of CfORC6 has about 30% identities with other ORC6s, but about 100aa of C-terminal of CfORC6 has no identity with other ORC6s. Like ScORC6, CfORC6 has many potential phosphorylation sites, (S/T)PXK. Like DmORC6, CfORC6 has leucine-rich region in the relevant site. Northern Blot showed that CfORC6 mRNA is about 2,000nt. Southern Blot confirmed that there is one copy of CfORC6 gene in spruce budworm genome. Western blot showed that infection of Cf124T cells with CfMNPV didnot affect the expression levels of CfORC6, at least up to 26 hr post infection.

  15. Text and Structural Data Mining of Influenza Mentions in Web and Social Media

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Cook, Diane; Mikler, Armin R.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-02-22

    Text and structural data mining of Web and social media (WSM) provides a novel disease surveillance resource and can identify online communities for targeted public health communications (PHC) to assure wide dissemination of pertinent information. WSM that mention influenza are harvested over a 24-week period, 5-October-2008 to 21-March-2009. Link analysis reveals communities for targeted PHC. Text mining is shown to identify trends in flu posts that correlate to real-world influenza-like-illness patient report data. We also bring to bear a graph-based data mining technique to detect anomalies among flu blogs connected by publisher type, links, and user-tags.

  16. Green Team Recognized with HHS Green Champion Award Honorable Mention | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Courtesy of the NCI at Frederick Green Team The NCI at Frederick Green Team received a Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Green Champion Award honorable mention in June for the team’s plant swap initiative, begun in October 2012.  “The Green Team has been doing a great job this past year, and it is wonderful that their efforts have been recognized by the HHS through the Green Champion Awards,” said Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director of the NCI Office of Scientific Operations (OSO). 

  17. Time and Causation in Discourse: Temporal Proximity, Implicit Causality, and Re-mention Biases.

    PubMed

    Dery, Jeruen E; Bittner, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Using referential processing in discourse featuring implicit causality verbs as a test case, we demonstrate how a discourse's causal and temporal dimensions interact. We show that referential processing is affected by multiple discourse biases, and that these biases do not have uniform effects. In three discourse continuation experiments, we show that the bias to re-mention a particular referent in discourse involving implicit causality verbs is not only affected by the verb's implicit causality bias, but also by the discourse's temporal structure, which at times, can even override the implicit causality bias. Our results add to the growing number of studies that show how various discourse dimensions interact in discourse processing.

  18. Text and structural data mining of influenza mentions in Web and social media.

    PubMed

    Corley, Courtney D; Cook, Diane J; Mikler, Armin R; Singh, Karan P

    2010-02-01

    Text and structural data mining of web and social media (WSM) provides a novel disease surveillance resource and can identify online communities for targeted public health communications (PHC) to assure wide dissemination of pertinent information. WSM that mention influenza are harvested over a 24-week period, 5 October 2008 to 21 March 2009. Link analysis reveals communities for targeted PHC. Text mining is shown to identify trends in flu posts that correlate to real-world influenza-like illness patient report data. We also bring to bear a graph-based data mining technique to detect anomalies among flu blogs connected by publisher type, links, and user-tags.

  19. Text and Structural Data Mining of Influenza Mentions in Web and Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Courtney D.; Cook, Diane J.; Mikler, Armin R.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-01-01

    Text and structural data mining of web and social media (WSM) provides a novel disease surveillance resource and can identify online communities for targeted public health communications (PHC) to assure wide dissemination of pertinent information. WSM that mention influenza are harvested over a 24-week period, 5 October 2008 to 21 March 2009. Link analysis reveals communities for targeted PHC. Text mining is shown to identify trends in flu posts that correlate to real-world influenza-like illness patient report data. We also bring to bear a graph-based data mining technique to detect anomalies among flu blogs connected by publisher type, links, and user-tags. PMID:20616993

  20. Identification of an amino acid residue required for differential recognition of a viral movement protein by the Tomato mosaic virus resistance gene Tm-2(2).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Yamamoto-Katou, Ayako; Katou, Shinpei; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    The Tm-2 gene of tomato and its allelic gene, Tm-2(2), confer resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and encode a member of the coiled-coil/nucleotide binding-ARC/leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein class of plant resistance (R) genes. Despite exhibiting only four amino acid differences between the products of Tm-2 and Tm-2(2), Tm-2(2) confers resistance to ToMV mutant B7, whereas Tm-2 is broken by ToMV-B7. An Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system was used to study the mechanism of differential recognition of the movement proteins (MPs), an avirulence factor for ToMV resistance, of ToMV-B7 by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2). Although resistance induced by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) is not usually accompanied by hypersensitive response (HR), Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) induced HR-like cell death by co-expression with MP of a wild-type ToMV, a strain that causes resistance for these R genes, and Tm-2(2) but not Tm-2 induced cell death with B7-MP in this system. Site-directed amino acid mutagenesis revealed that Tyr-767 in the LRR of Tm-2(2) is required for the specific recognition of the B7-MP. These results suggest that the Tyr residue in LRR contributes to the recognition of B7-MP, and that Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) are involved in HR cell death.

  1. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, sugars and tocopherols. After analyzing thirteen yogurts containing fruit pieces and a natural one (control), the most interesting were yogurts with pieces of berries (for phenolics, flavonoids and 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), pineapple (for reducing power), blackberry (for β-carotene bleaching inhibition), blackberry “antioxidant” (for tocopherols) and cherry (for sugars). The mention of “antioxidant” in the label was relevant for tocopherols, sugars, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. No synergisms were observed in yogurts prepared with pieces of different fruits. Nevertheless, the addition of fruit pieces to yogurt was favorable for antioxidant content, increasing the protection of the consumer against diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:26787624

  2. Rice MEL2, the RNA recognition motif (RRM) protein, binds in vitro to meiosis-expressed genes containing U-rich RNA consensus sequences in the 3'-UTR.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Saori; Sato, Yutaka; Asano, Tomoya; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi

    2015-10-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA recognition motif (RRM) proteins through binding to cis-elements in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) is widely used in eukaryotes to complete various biological processes. Rice MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE2 (MEL2) is the RRM protein that functions in the transition to meiosis in proper timing. The MEL2 RRM preferentially associated with the U-rich RNA consensus, UUAGUU[U/A][U/G][A/U/G]U, dependently on sequences and proportionally to MEL2 protein amounts in vitro. The consensus sequences were located in the putative looped structures of the RNA ligand. A genome-wide survey revealed a tendency of MEL2-binding consensus appearing in 3'-UTR of rice genes. Of 249 genes that conserved the consensus in their 3'-UTR, 13 genes spatiotemporally co-expressed with MEL2 in meiotic flowers, and included several genes whose function was supposed in meiosis; such as Replication protein A and OsMADS3. The proteome analysis revealed that the amounts of small ubiquitin-related modifier-like protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor3-like protein were dramatically altered in mel2 mutant anthers. Taken together with transcriptome and gene ontology results, we propose that the rice MEL2 is involved in the translational regulation of key meiotic genes on 3'-UTRs to achieve the faithful transition of germ cells to meiosis.

  3. Pattern mining for extraction of mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions from user comments.

    PubMed

    Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela H

    2011-01-01

    Rapid growth of online health social networks has enabled patients to communicate more easily with each other. This way of exchange of opinions and experiences has provided a rich source of information about drugs and their effectiveness and more importantly, their possible adverse reactions. We developed a system to automatically extract mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) from user reviews about drugs in social network websites by mining a set of language patterns. The system applied association rule mining on a set of annotated comments to extract the underlying patterns of colloquial expressions about adverse effects. The patterns were tested on a set of unseen comments to evaluate their performance. We reached to precision of 70.01% and recall of 66.32% and F-measure of 67.96%.

  4. Phonetic spelling filter for keyword selection in drug mention mining from social media.

    PubMed

    Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Patki, Apurv; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Social media postings are rich in information that often remain hidden and inaccessible for automatic extraction due to inherent limitations of the site's APIs, which mostly limit access via specific keyword-based searches (and limit both the number of keywords and the number of postings that are returned). When mining social media for drug mentions, one of the first problems to solve is how to derive a list of variants of the drug name (common misspellings) that can capture a sufficient number of postings. We present here an approach that filters the potential variants based on the intuition that, faced with the task of writing an unfamiliar, complex word (the drug name), users will tend to revert to phonetic spelling, and we thus give preference to variants that reflect the phonemes of the correct spelling. The algorithm allowed us to capture 50.4 - 56.0 % of the user comments using only about 18% of the variants.

  5. SkipCor: Skip-Mention Coreference Resolution Using Linear-Chain Conditional Random Fields

    PubMed Central

    Žitnik, Slavko; Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Coreference resolution tries to identify all expressions (called mentions) in observed text that refer to the same entity. Beside entity extraction and relation extraction, it represents one of the three complementary tasks in Information Extraction. In this paper we describe a novel coreference resolution system SkipCor that reformulates the problem as a sequence labeling task. None of the existing supervised, unsupervised, pairwise or sequence-based models are similar to our approach, which only uses linear-chain conditional random fields and supports high scalability with fast model training and inference, and a straightforward parallelization. We evaluate the proposed system against the ACE 2004, CoNLL 2012 and SemEval 2010 benchmark datasets. SkipCor clearly outperforms two baseline systems that detect coreferentiality using the same features as SkipCor. The obtained results are at least comparable to the current state-of-the-art in coreference resolution. PMID:24956272

  6. Pattern Mining for Extraction of mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions from User Comments

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela H.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid growth of online health social networks has enabled patients to communicate more easily with each other. This way of exchange of opinions and experiences has provided a rich source of information about drugs and their effectiveness and more importantly, their possible adverse reactions. We developed a system to automatically extract mentions of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) from user reviews about drugs in social network websites by mining a set of language patterns. The system applied association rule mining on a set of annotated comments to extract the underlying patterns of colloquial expressions about adverse effects. The patterns were tested on a set of unseen comments to evaluate their performance. We reached to precision of 70.01% and recall of 66.32% and F-measure of 67.96%. PMID:22195162

  7. Microtask crowdsourcing for disease mention annotation in PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Good, Benjamin M; Nanis, Max; Wu, Chunlei; Su, Andrew I

    2015-01-01

    Identifying concepts and relationships in biomedical text enables knowledge to be applied in computational analyses. Many biological natural language processing (BioNLP) projects attempt to address this challenge, but the state of the art still leaves much room for improvement. Progress in BioNLP research depends on large, annotated corpora for evaluating information extraction systems and training machine learning models. Traditionally, such corpora are created by small numbers of expert annotators often working over extended periods of time. Recent studies have shown that workers on microtask crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) can, in aggregate, generate high-quality annotations of biomedical text. Here, we investigated the use of the AMT in capturing disease mentions in PubMed abstracts. We used the NCBI Disease corpus as a gold standard for refining and benchmarking our crowdsourcing protocol. After several iterations, we arrived at a protocol that reproduced the annotations of the 593 documents in the 'training set' of this gold standard with an overall F measure of 0.872 (precision 0.862, recall 0.883). The output can also be tuned to optimize for precision (max = 0.984 when recall = 0.269) or recall (max = 0.980 when precision = 0.436). Each document was completed by 15 workers, and their annotations were merged based on a simple voting method. In total 145 workers combined to complete all 593 documents in the span of 9 days at a cost of $.066 per abstract per worker. The quality of the annotations, as judged with the F measure, increases with the number of workers assigned to each task; however minimal performance gains were observed beyond 8 workers per task. These results add further evidence that microtask crowdsourcing can be a valuable tool for generating well-annotated corpora in BioNLP. Data produced for this analysis are available at http://figshare.com/articles/Disease_Mention_Annotation_with_Mechanical_Turk/1126402.

  8. Sequence-Based Appraisal of the Genes Encoding Neck and Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Conglutinin in Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Sasmita; Sidappa, Chandra Mohan; Saini, Mohini; Doreswamy, Ramesh; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K.; Gupta, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    Conglutinin, a collagenous C-type lectin, acts as soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in recognition of pathogens. In the present study, genes encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD) of conglutinin in goat and blackbuck were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The obtained 488 bp ORFs encoding NCRD were submitted to NCBI with accession numbers KC505182 and KC505183. Both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were analysed with sequences of other ruminants retrieved from NCBI GenBank using DNAstar and Megalign5.2 software. Sequence analysis revealed maximum similarity of blackbuck sequence with wild ruminants like nilgai and buffalo, whereas goat sequence displayed maximum similarity with sheep sequence at both nucleotide and amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated clear divergence of wild ruminants from the domestic ruminants in separate clusters. The predicted secondary structures of NCRD protein in goat and blackbuck using SWISSMODEL ProtParam online software were found to possess 6 beta-sheets and 3 alpha-helices which are identical to the result obtained in case of sheep, cattle, buffalo, and nilgai. However, quaternary structure in goat, sheep, and cattle was found to differ from that of buffalo, nilgai, and blackbuck, suggesting a probable variation in the efficiency of antimicrobial activity among wild and domestic ruminants. PMID:25028649

  9. RPS2, an Arabidopsis disease resistance locus specifying recognition of Pseudomonas syringae strains expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2.

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, B N; Bent, A F; Dahlbeck, D; Innes, R W; Staskawicz, B J

    1993-01-01

    A molecular genetic approach was used to identify and characterize plant genes that control bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis. A screen for mutants with altered resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2 resulted in the isolation of four susceptible rps (resistance to P. syringae) mutants. The rps mutants lost resistance specifically to bacterial strains expressing avrRpt2 as they retained resistance to Pst strains expressing the avirulence genes avrB or avrRpm1. Genetic analysis indicated that in each of the four rps mutants, susceptibility was due to a single mutation mapping to the same locus on chromosome 4. Identification of a resistance locus with specificity for a single bacterial avirulence gene suggests that this locus, designated RPS2, controls specific recognition of bacteria expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2. Ecotype Wü-0, a naturally occurring line that is susceptible to Pst strains expressing avrRpt2, appears to lack a functional allele at RPS2, demonstrating that there is natural variation at the RPS2 locus among wild populations of Arabidopsis. PMID:8400869

  10. Concept of Sukha (comfort) mentioned in Dhatusarata (tissue excellence) w.s.r. to vocational guidance

    PubMed Central

    Waghulade, Hemangini; Harit, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Agni (digestive fire), Prakruti (constitution), Dhatusarata (tissue excellence), Dosha (bio–energies) are the specialties of Ayurveda on which diagnosis, treatment and research are based. The description of Dhatusarata (tissue excellence) has been given under Dashavidha Pariksha (tenfold examination) in Charak Samhita, Viman Sthana, 8th chapter. Some qualities, which are mentioned in Dhatusarata are difficult to assess, e.g. Sukha, Aishwarya, Upabhoga, Bala, etc., There is a need to develop some quantitative parameters to measure these qualities according to tissue excellence i.e. Dhatusarata. By assessing Dhatu Sarata, one can judge the true strength of a particular Dhatu but only the ability or strength is not enough to get success; the liking or interest is also essential to achieve success. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the concept of Dhatusarata and reveal different aspects of Sukha according to the quality of that particular Dhatu in context of vocational guidance. It will help to establish interrelationship between Dhatusarata and vocational guidance. It will be assessed whether this Sukha quality is merely happiness or having different shades according to the excellence of Dhatus and whether this study is useful in guiding the person to choose appropriate profession, which will be according to his liking and ability. It has been concluded that shades of Sukha quality varies with particular Dhatusaras, which may be helpful in guiding a suitable profession to an individual which will be according to his ability and liking i.e. Sukha for intimate success. PMID:26195895

  11. Therapeutic significance and pharmacological activities of antidiarrheal medicinal plants mention in Ayurveda: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ashish; Seth, Ankit; Maurya, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious problem affecting 3-5 billion people per year around the world, especially children of below 5 years. 70% of the world population uses traditional and indigenous medicine for their primary health care. The facts of these indigenous remedies are passed verbally and sometimes as documents. Since ancient time, Ayurveda is the main system of healing in South East Asian countries. Indian literature from ayurvedic texts and other books claim the potency of several plants in the treatment of diarrhea. As the global prospective of ayurvedic medicine is increasing, interest regarding the scientific basis of their action is parallely increasing. Researchers are doing experiments to establish the relation between the claimed action and observed pharmacological activities. In the present article, an attempt was made to compile the scientific basis of medicinal plants used to cure diarrhea in Ayurveda. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google Scholar) from published articles that reports antidiarrheal activity of plants that were mentioned in Ayurveda classics. A total of 109 plant species belonging to 58 families were reported for their antidiarrheal activity. Several Indian medicinal plants have demonstrated promising antidiarrheal effects, but the studies on the antidiarrheal potentials of these plants are not taken beyond proof of concept stage. It is hoped that the article would stimulate future clinical studies because of the paucity of knowledge in this area. PMID:27366356

  12. Genetic Affinity of the Bhil, Kol and Gond Mentioned in Epic Ramayana.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kadian, Anurag; Bala, Saroj; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Kol, Bhil and Gond are some of the ancient tribal populations known from the Ramayana, one of the Great epics of India. Though there have been studies about their affinity based on classical and haploid genetic markers, the molecular insights of their relationship with other tribal and caste populations of extant India is expected to give more clarity about the the question of continuity vs. discontinuity. In this study, we scanned >97,000 of single nucleotide polymorphisms among three major ancient tribes mentioned in Ramayana, namely Bhil, Kol and Gond. The results obtained were then compared at inter and intra population levels with neighboring and other world populations. Using various statistical methods, our analysis suggested that the genetic architecture of these tribes (Kol and Gond) was largely similar to their surrounding tribal and caste populations, while Bhil showed closer affinity with Dravidian and Austroasiatic (Munda) speaking tribes. The haplotype based analysis revealed a massive amount of genome sharing among Bhil, Kol, Gond and with other ethnic groups of South Asian descent. On the basis of genetic component sharing among different populations, we anticipate their primary founding over the indigenous Ancestral South Indian (ASI) component has prevailed in the genepool over the last several thousand years.

  13. Genetic Affinity of the Bhil, Kol and Gond Mentioned in Epic Ramayana

    PubMed Central

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kadian, Anurag; Bala, Saroj; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Kol, Bhil and Gond are some of the ancient tribal populations known from the Ramayana, one of the Great epics of India. Though there have been studies about their affinity based on classical and haploid genetic markers, the molecular insights of their relationship with other tribal and caste populations of extant India is expected to give more clarity about the the question of continuity vs. discontinuity. In this study, we scanned >97,000 of single nucleotide polymorphisms among three major ancient tribes mentioned in Ramayana, namely Bhil, Kol and Gond. The results obtained were then compared at inter and intra population levels with neighboring and other world populations. Using various statistical methods, our analysis suggested that the genetic architecture of these tribes (Kol and Gond) was largely similar to their surrounding tribal and caste populations, while Bhil showed closer affinity with Dravidian and Austroasiatic (Munda) speaking tribes. The haplotype based analysis revealed a massive amount of genome sharing among Bhil, Kol, Gond and with other ethnic groups of South Asian descent. On the basis of genetic component sharing among different populations, we anticipate their primary founding over the indigenous Ancestral South Indian (ASI) component has prevailed in the genepool over the last several thousand years. PMID:26061398

  14. Therapeutic significance and pharmacological activities of antidiarrheal medicinal plants mention in Ayurveda: A review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish; Seth, Ankit; Maurya, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious problem affecting 3-5 billion people per year around the world, especially children of below 5 years. 70% of the world population uses traditional and indigenous medicine for their primary health care. The facts of these indigenous remedies are passed verbally and sometimes as documents. Since ancient time, Ayurveda is the main system of healing in South East Asian countries. Indian literature from ayurvedic texts and other books claim the potency of several plants in the treatment of diarrhea. As the global prospective of ayurvedic medicine is increasing, interest regarding the scientific basis of their action is parallely increasing. Researchers are doing experiments to establish the relation between the claimed action and observed pharmacological activities. In the present article, an attempt was made to compile the scientific basis of medicinal plants used to cure diarrhea in Ayurveda. Literature was collected via electronic search (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google Scholar) from published articles that reports antidiarrheal activity of plants that were mentioned in Ayurveda classics. A total of 109 plant species belonging to 58 families were reported for their antidiarrheal activity. Several Indian medicinal plants have demonstrated promising antidiarrheal effects, but the studies on the antidiarrheal potentials of these plants are not taken beyond proof of concept stage. It is hoped that the article would stimulate future clinical studies because of the paucity of knowledge in this area.

  15. Origin of the diversity in DNA recognition domains in phasevarion associated modA genes of pathogenic Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Beatson, Scott A; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Phase variable restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified in a range of pathogenic bacteria. In some it has been demonstrated that the random switching of the mod (DNA methyltransferase) gene mediates the coordinated expression of multiple genes and constitutes a phasevarion (phase variable regulon). ModA of Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae contain a highly variable, DNA recognition domain (DRD) that defines the target sequence that is modified by methylation and is used to define modA alleles. 18 distinct modA alleles have been identified in H. influenzae and the pathogenic Neisseria. To determine the origin of DRD variability, the 18 modA DRDs were used to search the available databases for similar sequences. Significant matches were identified between several modA alleles and mod gene from distinct bacterial species, indicating one source of the DRD variability was via horizontal gene transfer. Comparison of DRD sequences revealed significant mosaicism, indicating exchange between the Neisseria and H. influenzae modA alleles. Regions of high inter- and intra-allele similarity indicate that some modA alleles had undergone recombination more frequently than others, generating further diversity. Furthermore, the DRD from some modA alleles, such as modA12, have been transferred en bloc to replace the DRD from different modA alleles.

  16. Categorization of Cathartic (Purgative) Medicines Mentioned in TPM Resources According to Their Specific Function

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) resources, the human digestive system includes four steps. In the first step, gastric digestion, the ingested food pours into the stomach and changes into the leachate called chylous due to the heat produced in the stomach. In the second step, hepatic digestion, the chylous enters in the liver through mesenteric vessels and transforms into the quadruple humors, sanguine, phlegm, bile and black bile due to the liver heat. In the case of humor predominance, using moshel or cathartic medicines is considered as a strategic medical plan. In this study, we introduce cathartic (purgative) medicines mentioned in TPM resources according to their specific function. Methods: Literature review of TPM resources, including Canon of Medicine and Aghili’s Makhzan-ul-Adwiah was performed in order to find cathartics cited in the aforementioned books, prescribed specifically for different humor’s predominance in the body. Results: The survey found that the cathartics are categorized into eight groups: Cathartic of “balgham” such as “Citrullus colocynthis and Colchicum autumnale”Cathartic of bile such as “Prunus domestica and Alhagi Camelorum A. maurorum”Cathartic of “sovda” such as “lajward stone and Armenian stone”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar” such as “Marrubium vulgarre and Rivand extract”Cathartic of melancholy and phlegm such as “Cuscuta epithymum and Adiantum capillus venerisCathartic of bile and phlegm such as “Nepeta menthoides and Fumaria parviflora”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar and phlegm such as Urtica dioica and Qsa’alhmarCathartic of all mucus such as “Cassia acutifolia” and “kharbaghe Aswad” Conclusion: Medical students of traditional Persian medicine should be familiar with cathartics and purgatives specific for each humor. In this study, cathartics has classified into main cathartics of phlegm, bile, black bile, Ma’a-e-asfar, black bile and phlegm, Ma

  17. Categorization of Cathartic (Purgative) Medicines Mentioned in TPM Resources According to Their Specific Function

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) resources, the human digestive system includes four steps. In the first step, gastric digestion, the ingested food pours into the stomach and changes into the leachate called chylous due to the heat produced in the stomach. In the second step, hepatic digestion, the chylous enters in the liver through mesenteric vessels and transforms into the quadruple humors, sanguine, phlegm, bile and black bile due to the liver heat. In the case of humor predominance, using moshel or cathartic medicines is considered as a strategic medical plan. In this study, we introduce cathartic (purgative) medicines mentioned in TPM resources according to their specific function. Methods: Literature review of TPM resources, including Canon of Medicine and Aghili’s Makhzan-ul-Adwiah was performed in order to find cathartics cited in the aforementioned books, prescribed specifically for different humor’s predominance in the body. Results: The survey found that the cathartics are categorized into eight groups: Cathartic of “balgham” such as “Citrullus colocynthis and Colchicum autumnale”Cathartic of bile such as “Prunus domestica and Alhagi Camelorum A. maurorum”Cathartic of “sovda” such as “lajward stone and Armenian stone”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar” such as “Marrubium vulgarre and Rivand extract”Cathartic of melancholy and phlegm such as “Cuscuta epithymum and Adiantum capillus venerisCathartic of bile and phlegm such as “Nepeta menthoides and Fumaria parviflora”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar and phlegm such as Urtica dioica and Qsa’alhmarCathartic of all mucus such as “Cassia acutifolia” and “kharbaghe Aswad” Conclusion: Medical students of traditional Persian medicine should be familiar with cathartics and purgatives specific for each humor. In this study, cathartics has classified into main cathartics of phlegm, bile, black bile, Ma’a-e-asfar, black bile and phlegm, Ma

  18. Sequence variation and recognition specificity of the avirulence gene AvrPiz-t in Magnaporthe oryzae field populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast pathogen, causes significant annual yield loss of rice worldwide. Currently, the most effective disease control approach is deployment of host resistance through introduction of resistance (R) genes into elite cultivars. The function of each R gene relies on the sp...

  19. Core-sigma interaction: probing the interaction of the bacteriophage T4 gene 55 promoter recognition protein with E.coli RNA polymerase core.

    PubMed Central

    Léonetti, J P; Wong, K; Geiduschek, E P

    1998-01-01

    The bacterial RNA polymerase sigma subunits are key participants in the early steps of RNA synthesis, conferring specificity of promoter recognition, facilitating promoter opening and promoter clearance, and responding to diverse transcriptional regulators. The T4 gene 55 protein (gp55), the sigma protein of the bacteriophage T4 late genes, is one of the smallest and most divergent members of this family. Protein footprinting was used to identify segments of gp55 that become buried upon binding to RNA polymerase core, and are therefore likely to constitute its interface with the core enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis in two parts of this contact surface generated gene 55 proteins that are defective in polymerase-binding to different degrees. Alignment with the sequences of the sigma proteins and with a recently determined structure of a large segment of sigma70 suggests that the gp55 counterpart of sigma70 regions 2.1 and 2.2 is involved in RNA polymerase core binding, and that sigma70 and gp55 may be structurally similar in this region. The diverse phenotypes of the mutants implicate this region of gp55 in multiple aspects of sigma function. PMID:9482743

  20. Co-expression of the mating-type genes involved in internuclear recognition is lethal in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, E; Debuchy, R

    2000-01-01

    In the heterothallic filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, four mating-type genes encoding transcriptional factors have been characterized: FPR1 in the mat+ sequence and FMR1, SMR1, and SMR2 in the alternative mat- sequence. Fertilization is controlled by FPR1 and FMR1. After fertilization, male and female nuclei, which have divided in the same cell, form mat+/mat- pairs during migration into the ascogenous hyphae. Previous data indicate that the formation of mat+/mat- pairs is controlled by FPR1, FMR1, and SMR2. SMR1 was postulated to be necessary for initial development of ascogenous hyphae. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional control of the mat genes by seeking mat transcripts during the vegetative and sexual phase and fusing their promoter to a reporter gene. The data indicate that FMR1 and FPR1 are expressed in both mycelia and perithecia, whereas SMR1 and SMR2 are transcribed in perithecia. Increased or induced vegetative expression of the four mat genes has no effect when the recombined gene is solely in the wild-type strain. However, the combination of resident FPR1 with deregulated SMR2 and overexpressed FMR1 in the same nucleus is lethal. This lethality is suppressed by the expression of SMR1, confirming that SMR1 operates downstream of the other mat genes. PMID:10835389

  1. Annotated Gene and Proteome Data Support Recognition of Interconnections Between the Results of Different Experiments in Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Johann; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Sickmann, Albert; Weber, Gerhard; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    In a series of studies, human thyroid and endothelial cells exposed to real or simulated microgravity were analyzed in terms of changes in gene expression patterns or protein content. Due to the limitation of available cells in many space research experiments, comparative and control experiments had to be done in a serial manner. Therefore, detected genes or proteins were annotated with gene names and SwissProt numbers, in order to allow searches for interconnections between results obtained in different experiments by different methods. A crosscheck of several studies on the behavior of cytoskeletal genes and proteins suggested that clusters of cytoskeletal components change differently under the influence of microgravity and/or vibration in different cell types. The result that LOX and ISG15 gene expression were clearly altered during the Shenzhou-8 spaceflight mission could be estimated by comparison with the results of other experiments. The more than 100-fold down-regulation of LOX supports our hypothesis that the amount and stability of extracellular matrix have a great influence on the formation of three-dimensional aggregates under microgravity. The approximately 40-fold up-regulation of ISG15 cannot yet be explained in detail, but strongly suggests that ISGylation, an alternative form of posttranslational modification, plays a role in longterm cultures.

  2. Sequence divergence and loss-of-function phenotypes of S locus F-box brothers genes are consistent with non-self recognition by multiple pollen determinants in self-incompatibility of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Kakui, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masaki; Ushijima, Koichiro; Kitaguchi, Miyoko; Kato, Shu; Sassa, Hidenori

    2011-12-01

    The S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) of Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae is controlled by at least two tightly linked genes located at the complex S locus; the highly polymorphic S-RNase for pistil specificity and the F-box gene (SFB/SLF) for pollen. Self-incompatibility in Prunus (Rosaceae) is considered to represent a 'self recognition by a single factor' system, because loss-of-function of SFB is associated with self-compatibility, and allelic divergence of SFB is high and comparable to that of S-RNase. In contrast, Petunia (Solanaceae) exhibits 'non-self recognition by multiple factors'. However, the distribution of 'self recognition' and 'non-self recognition' SI systems in different taxa is not clear. In addition, in 'non-self recognition' systems, a loss-of-function phenotype of pollen S is unknown. Here we analyze the divergence of SFBB genes, the multiple pollen S candidates, of a rosaceous plant Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and show that intrahaplotypic divergence is high and comparable to the allelic diversity of S-RNase while interhaplotypic divergence is very low. Next, we analyzed loss-of-function of the SFBB1 type gene. Genetic analysis showed that pollen with the mutant haplotype S(4sm) lacking SFBB1-S(4) is rejected by pistils with an otherwise compatible S(1) while it is accepted by other non-self pistils. We found that the S(5) haplotype encodes a truncated SFBB1 protein, even though S(5) pollen is accepted normally by pistils with S(1) and other non-self haplotypes. These findings suggest that Japanese pear has a 'non-self recognition by multiple factors' SI system, although it is a species of Rosaceae to which Prunus also belongs.

  3. A sex recognition glycoprotein is encoded by the plus mating-type gene fus1 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, P J; Woessner, J P; Goodenough, U W

    1996-01-01

    Sexual fusion between plus and minus gametes of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii entails adhesion between plus-specific and minus-specific "fringe" proteins displayed on the plasma membrane of gametic mating structures. We report the identification of the gene (fus1) encoding the plus fringe glycoprotein, which resides in a unique domain of the mating-type plus (mt+) locus, and which was identified by transposon insertions in three fusion-defective mutant strains. Transformation with fus1+ restores fringe and fusion competence to these mutants and to the pseudo-plus mutant imp11 mt-, defective in minus differentiation. The fus1 gene is remarkable in lacking the codon bias found in all other nuclear genes of C. reinhardtii. Images PMID:8856667

  4. Bringing sketch recognition into your hands.

    PubMed

    Nataneli, G; Faloutsos, P

    2011-01-01

    The paper mentions that a flexible method of sketch recognition works consistently across a variety of software and hardware platforms, including mobile devices such as the Nintendo DS and iPhone. An example application employs this method to drive facial expressions.

  5. The wheat Snn7 gene confers susceptibility upon recognition of the Parastagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effector SnTox7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parastagonospora nodorum is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes the disease Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) on wheat. The fungus produces necrotrophic effectors (NEs), that when recognized by corresponding host genes, cause cell death, which ultimately leads to disease. To date, eight host ge...

  6. Gene expression values of pattern-recognition receptors in porcine leukocytes and their response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Osvaldova, Alena; Stepanova, Hana; Faldyna, Martin; Matiasovic, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play an important role in triggering innate immune responses. PRRs distribution and function is well documented in mice and humans, but studies in pigs are scarce. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is common pathogen found in pigs and was used as a model for interaction with PRRs. This study investigated expression of PRRs in porcine leukocyte subpopulations at the mRNA level. Eight subpopulations of leukocytes comprising NK cells, Th, Tc, double positive T cells and γδ T cells, B cells, monocytes and neutrophils were sorted, and the expression of 12 PRRs was measured, including selected Toll-like receptors and their co-receptors, NOD-like receptor NOD2, RP-105, CD14, and dectin. The highest expression rates of most PRRs were observed in monocytes and neutrophils. The B cells expressed high levels of TLR1, TLR6, TLR9, TLR10, and RP-105. Only monocytes and γδ T cells were found to respond to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection by intensification of PRRs expression. In Th and B cells, PRRs mRNA down-regulation was detected after infection.

  7. Recognition of H3K9 methylation by GLP is required for efficient establishment of H3K9 methylation, rapid target gene repression, and mouse viability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Jiang, Yonghua; Meng, Lingjun; Xiong, Jun; Zhao, Zuodong; Zhou, Xiaohua; Li, Jia; Li, Hong; Zheng, Yong; Chen, She; Cai, Tao; Gao, Shaorong

    2015-01-01

    GLP and G9a are major H3K9 dimethylases and are essential for mouse early embryonic development. GLP and G9a both harbor ankyrin repeat domains that are capable of binding H3K9 methylation. However, the functional significance of their recognition of H3K9 methylation is unknown. Here, we report that the histone methyltransferase activities of GLP and G9a are stimulated by neighboring nucleosomes that are premethylated at H3K9. These stimulation events function in cis and are dependent on the H3K9 methylation binding activities of ankyrin repeat domains of GLP and G9a. Disruption of the H3K9 methylation-binding activity of GLP in mice causes growth retardation of embryos, ossification defects of calvaria, and postnatal lethality due to starvation of the pups. In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) harboring a mutant GLP that lacks H3K9me1-binding activity, critical pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, display inefficient establishment of H3K9me2 and delayed gene silencing during differentiation. Collectively, our study reveals a new activation mechanism for GLP and G9a that plays an important role in ESC differentiation and mouse viability. PMID:25637356

  8. Computational analysis of siRNA recognition by the Ago2 PAZ domain and identification of the determinants of RNA-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Kitade, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly specialized process of protein-siRNA interaction that results in the regulation of gene expression and cleavage of target mRNA. The PAZ domain of the Argonaute proteins binds to the 3' end of siRNA, and during RNAi the attaching end of the siRNA switches between binding and release from its binding pocket. This biphasic interaction of the 3' end of siRNA with the PAZ domain is essential for RNAi activity; however, it remains unclear whether stronger or weaker binding with PAZ domain will facilitate or hinder the overall RNAi process. Here we report the correlation between the binding of modified siRNA 3' overhang analogues and their in vivo RNAi efficacy. We found that higher RNAi efficacy was associated with the parameters of lower Ki value, lower total intermolecular energy, lower free energy, higher hydrogen bonding, smaller total surface of interaction and fewer van der Waals interactions. Electrostatic interaction was a minor contributor to compounds recognition, underscoring the presence of phosphate groups in the modified analogues. Thus, compounds with lower binding affinity are associated with better gene silencing. Lower binding strength along with the smaller interaction surface, higher hydrogen bonding and fewer van der Waals interactions were among the markers for favorable RNAi activity. Within the measured parameters, the interaction surface, van der Waals interactions and inhibition constant showed a statistically significant correlation with measured RNAi efficacy. The considerations provided in this report will be helpful in the design of new compounds with better gene silencing ability.

  9. Is R. S. Peters' Way of Mentioning Women in His Texts Detrimental to Philosophy of Education? Some Considerations and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion in this article considers the unfortunate way R.S. Peters made mention of women when it was pertinent to his argumentation: portraying them, directly or indirectly, as abuse-able (murderable), deficient, aberrant, clueless and inconstant. It is argued that the high profile and esteem within which Peter's texts are held within philosophy…

  10. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Bum; Seronello, Scott; Mayer, Wasima; Ojcius, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) actively evades host interferon (IFN) responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP) from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and poly(IC). The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain) were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity. PMID:27404108

  11. Public hospital quality report awareness: evidence from National and Californian Internet searches and social media mentions, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Huesch, Marco D; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth; Doctor, Jason N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Publicly available hospital quality reports seek to inform consumers of important healthcare quality and affordability attributes, and may inform consumer decision-making. To understand how much consumers search for such information online on one Internet search engine, whether they mention such information in social media and how positively they view this information. Setting and design A leading Internet search engine (Google) was the main focus of the study. Google Trends and Google Adwords keyword analyses were performed for national and Californian searches between 1 August 2012 and 31 July 2013 for keywords related to ‘top hospital’, best hospital’, and ‘hospital quality’, as well as for six specific hospital quality reports. Separately, a proprietary social media monitoring tool was used to investigate blog, forum, social media and traditional media mentions of, and sentiment towards, major public reports of hospital quality in California in 2012. Primary outcome measures (1) Counts of searches for keywords performed on Google; (2) counts of and (3) sentiment of mentions of public reports on social media. Results National Google search volume for 75 hospital quality-related terms averaged 610 700 searches per month with strong variation by keyword and by state. A commercial report (Healthgrades) was more commonly searched for nationally on Google than the federal government's Hospital Compare, which otherwise dominated quality-related search terms. Social media references in California to quality reports were generally few, and commercially produced hospital quality reports were more widely mentioned than state (Office of Statewide Healthcare Planning and Development (OSHPD)), or non-profit (CalHospitalCompare) reports. Conclusions Consumers are somewhat aware of hospital quality based on Internet search activity and social media disclosures. Public stakeholders may be able to broaden their quality dissemination initiatives by

  12. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    PubMed

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % (n = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  13. Conjoint Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Mojardin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews some limiting properties of the process-dissociation model as it applies to the study of dual-process conceptions of memory. A second-generation model (conjoint recognition) is proposed to address these limitations and supply additional capabilities. Worked applications to data are provided. (Author/GCP)

  14. Conjoint recognition.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Mojardin, A H

    1999-01-01

    The process-dissociation model has stimulated important advances in the study of dual-process conceptions of memory. The authors review some limiting properties of that model and consider the degree of support for its parent theory (the recollection-familiarity distinction). A 2nd-generation model (conjoint recognition) is proposed that addresses these limitations and supplies additional capabilities, such as goodness-of-fit tests, the ability to measure dual processes for false-memory responses, and statistical procedures for testing within- and between-conditions hypotheses about its parameters. The conjoint-recognition model also implements an alternative theoretical interpretation (the identity-similarity distinction of fuzzy-trace theory). Worked applications to data are provided.

  15. Word Order and World Order: Titles of Intergroup Conflicts May Increase Ethnocentrism by Mentioning the In-Group First.

    PubMed

    Oeberst, Aileen; Matschke, Christina

    2017-04-03

    The title of a historical event is usually the first thing we learn about that event. This article investigates whether group order in supposedly neutral conflict titles (e.g., Polish-Russian War) is systematically biased toward naming the in-group first (e.g., Polish-Russian War in Polish; Russian-Polish War in Russian) and whether group order affects perceptions of the groups involved. Based on linguistic evidence that individuals have the tendency to name themselves first, we expected and found a systematic tendency to name the in-group first in N = 172 real-world titles of historical conflicts from more than 40 languages (Study 1), under controlled conditions with participants from different cultures (Studies 2a and 2b), and in a minimal group experiment (Study 3), which identifies group membership as a crucial factor and rules out alternative explanations. Furthermore, based on findings on perception, it is predicted and found in 3 studies (Study 4, 5a, and 5b) that a group is perceived as more important when mentioned first rather than second. This effect depended, however, on group order in the questions asked. Additionally, the first group was consistently associated with more power. Combined, seemingly neutral conflict titles may therefore increase ethnocentrism as it is the in-group that is mostly mentioned first and because of that perceived as more important. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. What Can We Learn about Mental Health Needs from Tweets Mentioning Dementia on World Alzheimer’s Day?

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sunmoo

    2017-01-01

    Background Twitter can address the mental health challenges of dementia care. The aims of this study is to explore the contents and user interactions of tweets mentioning dementia to gain insights for dementia care. Methods We collected 35,260 tweets mentioning Alzheimer’s or dementia on World Alzheimer’s Day, September 21st in 2015. Topic modeling and social network analysis were applied to uncover content and structure of user communication. Results Global users generated keywords related to mental health and care including #psychology and #mental health. There were similarities and differences between the UK and the US in tweet content. The macro-level analysis uncovered substantial public interest on dementia. The meso-level network analysis revealed that top leaders of communities were spiritual organizations and traditional media. Conclusions The application of topic modeling and multi-level network analysis while incorporating visualization techniques can promote a global level understanding regarding public attention, interests, and insights regarding dementia care and mental health. PMID:27803262

  17. [Productivity of doctoral programs in Psychology with Quality Mention in journal articles included in Journal Citation Reports].

    PubMed

    Musi-Lechuga, Bertha; Olivas-Ávila, José; Castro, Angel

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to classify doctoral programs with Quality Mention in Psychology based on their scientific productivity. For this purpose, articles in the Web of Science published by professors teaching in these doctoral programs were analyzed. In addition, we analyzed scientific journals in which these professors tend to publish more papers and the evolution in the number of papers published until 2009. Results showed that the most productive doctoral program was the Neurosciences program at the University of Oviedo. This program showed a ratio of 40 articles--published in journals included in Journal Citation Reports--by each professor. In contrast, other programs did not reach a ratio of 10 articles per professor. Regarding journals, results showed that 9 out of the 20 most popular journals are Hispanic and a gradual increase in the number of published papers was also observed. Lastly, results and implications for quality assessment are discussed.

  18. Recognition Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode (“tethered molecule-pair” configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the “free analyte” configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. PMID:20522930

  19. Pharmacovigilance from social media: mining adverse drug reaction mentions using sequence labeling with word embedding cluster features

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Abeed; O’Connor, Karen; Ginn, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks, particularly for pharmacovigilance, via the use of natural language processing (NLP) techniques. However, the language in social media is highly informal, and user-expressed medical concepts are often nontechnical, descriptive, and challenging to extract. There has been limited progress in addressing these challenges, and thus far, advanced machine learning-based NLP techniques have been underutilized. Our objective is to design a machine learning-based approach to extract mentions of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from highly informal text in social media. Methods We introduce ADRMine, a machine learning-based concept extraction system that uses conditional random fields (CRFs). ADRMine utilizes a variety of features, including a novel feature for modeling words’ semantic similarities. The similarities are modeled by clustering words based on unsupervised, pretrained word representation vectors (embeddings) generated from unlabeled user posts in social media using a deep learning technique. Results ADRMine outperforms several strong baseline systems in the ADR extraction task by achieving an F-measure of 0.82. Feature analysis demonstrates that the proposed word cluster features significantly improve extraction performance. Conclusion It is possible to extract complex medical concepts, with relatively high performance, from informal, user-generated content. Our approach is particularly scalable, suitable for social media mining, as it relies on large volumes of unlabeled data, thus diminishing the need for large, annotated training data sets. PMID:25755127

  20. tmChem: a high performance approach for chemical named entity recognition and normalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemical compounds and drugs are an important class of entities in biomedical research with great potential in a wide range of applications, including clinical medicine. Locating chemical named entities in the literature is a useful step in chemical text mining pipelines for identifying the chemical mentions, their properties, and their relationships as discussed in the literature. We introduce the tmChem system, a chemical named entity recognizer created by combining two independent machine learning models in an ensemble. We use the corpus released as part of the recent CHEMDNER task to develop and evaluate tmChem, achieving a micro-averaged f-measure of 0.8739 on the CEM subtask (mention-level evaluation) and 0.8745 f-measure on the CDI subtask (abstract-level evaluation). We also report a high-recall combination (0.9212 for CEM and 0.9224 for CDI). tmChem achieved the highest f-measure reported in the CHEMDNER task for the CEM subtask, and the high recall variant achieved the highest recall on both the CEM and CDI tasks. We report that tmChem is a state-of-the-art tool for chemical named entity recognition and that performance for chemical named entity recognition has now tied (or exceeded) the performance previously reported for genes and diseases. Future research should focus on tighter integration between the named entity recognition and normalization steps for improved performance. The source code and a trained model for both models of tmChem is available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmChem. The results of running tmChem (Model 2) on PubMed are available in PubTator: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/PubTator PMID:25810774

  1. Named entity recognition and classification in biomedical text using classifier ensemble.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sriparna; Ekbal, Asif; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition and Classification (NERC) is an important task in information extraction for biomedicine domain. Biomedical Named Entities include mentions of proteins, genes, DNA, RNA, etc. which, in general, have complex structures and are difficult to recognise. In this paper, we propose a Single Objective Optimisation based classifier ensemble technique using the search capability of Genetic Algorithm (GA) for NERC in biomedical texts. Here, GA is used to quantify the amount of voting for each class in each classifier. We use diverse classification methods like Conditional Random Field and Support Vector Machine to build a number of models depending upon the various representations of the set of features and/or feature templates. The proposed technique is evaluated with two benchmark datasets, namely JNLPBA 2004 and GENETAG. Experiments yield the overall F- measure values of 75.97% and 95.90%, respectively. Comparisons with the existing systems show that our proposed system achieves state-of-the-art performance.

  2. Immune recognition of protein antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Laver, W.G.; Air, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 33 papers. Some of the titles are: Antigenic Structure of Influenze Virus Hemagglutinin; Germ-line and Somatic Diversity in the Antibody Response to the Influenza Virus A/PR/8/34 Hemagglutinin; Recognition of Cloned Influenza A Virus Gene Products by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes; Antigenic Structure of the Influenza Virus N2 Neuraminidase; and The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Antigenic Variation in Gonococcal Pillin.

  3. Temporal regulation of kin recognition maintains recognition-cue diversity and suppresses cheating.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsing-I; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-05-28

    Kin recognition, the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin, can facilitate cooperation between relatives. Evolutionary theory predicts that polymorphism in recognition cues, which is essential for effective recognition, would be unstable. Individuals carrying rare recognition cues would benefit less from social interactions than individuals with common cues, leading to loss of the genetic-cue diversity. We test this evolutionary hypothesis in Dictyostelium discoideum, which forms multicellular fruiting bodies by aggregation and utilizes two polymorphic membrane proteins to facilitate preferential cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that rare recognition variants are tolerated and maintain their frequencies among incompatible majority during development. Although the rare variants are initially excluded from the aggregates, they subsequently rejoin the aggregate and produce spores. Social cheating is also refrained in late development, thus limiting the cost of chimerism. Our results suggest a potential mechanism to sustain the evolutionary stability of kin-recognition genes and to suppress cheating.

  4. Complexity reduction with recognition rate maintained for online handwritten Japanese text recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinfeng; Zhu, Bilan; Nakagawa, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents complexity reduction of an on-line handwritten Japanese text recognition system by selecting an optimal off-line recognizer in combination with an on-line recognizer, geometric context evaluation and linguistic context evaluation. The result is that a surprisingly small off-line recognizer, which alone is weak, produces nearly the best recognition rate in combination with other evaluation factors in remarkably small space and time complexity. Generally speaking, lower dimensions with less principle components produce a smaller set of prototypes, which reduce memory-cost and time-cost. It degrades the recognition rate, however, so that we need to compromise them. In an evaluation function with the above-mentioned multiple factors combined, the configuration of only 50 dimensions with as little as 5 principle components for the off-line recognizer keeps almost the best accuracy 97.87% (the best accuracy 97.92%) for text recognition while it suppresses the total memory-cost from 99.4 MB down to 32 MB and the average time-cost of character recognition for text recognition from 0.1621 ms to 0.1191 ms compared with the traditional offline recognizer with 160 dimensions and 50 principle components.

  5. How many scientific papers are mentioned in policy-related documents? An empirical investigation using Web of Science and Altmetric data.

    PubMed

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    In this short communication, we provide an overview of a relatively newly provided source of altmetrics data which could possibly be used for societal impact measurements in scientometrics. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy-related documents. Using data from Altmetric, we study how many papers indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) are mentioned in policy-related documents. We find that less than 0.5% of the papers published in different subject categories are mentioned at least once in policy-related documents. Based on our results, we recommend that the analysis of (WoS) publications with at least one policy-related mention is repeated regularly (annually) in order to check the usefulness of the data. Mentions in policy-related documents should not be used for impact measurement until new policy-related sites are tracked.

  6. Does the Child's Actual Participation Make a Difference? Positive and Negative Emotion States Mentioned by Mothers of Young Children during Narrative Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Rivka; Yanay, Niza; Eshel, Yohanan; Ben-Aaron, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the rate that mothers mentioned positive and negative emotion states and emotion calls during narrative construction from a text-free children's picture book illustrating happy and emotionally charged situations. Ninety-three mothers of 3- to 4-year-old kibbutz children were divided into three groups: (1) the child was not…

  7. Recognition of a core fragment of Beauveria bassiana hydrophobin gene promoter (P hyd1) and its special use in improving fungal biocontrol potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-01-01

    To identify a suitable promoter for use in engineering fungal entomopathogens to improve heterologous gene expression and fungal biocontrol potential, a 1798 bp promoter (Phyd1) upstream of Beauveria bassiana class I hydrophobin gene (hyd1) was optimized by upstream truncation and site-directed mutation. A truncated 1290 bp fragment (Phyd1-t1) drove eGFP expression in B. bassiana much more efficiently than full-length Phyd1. Further truncating Phyd1-t1 to 1179, 991 and 791 bp or mutating one of the binding domains of three transcription factors in Phyd1-t1 reduced significantly the expression of eGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein). Under Phyd1-t1 control, eGFP was expressed more abundantly in conidiogenic cells and conidia than in mycelia. Therefore, Phyd1-t1 was used to integrate a bacterium-derived, insect midgut-specific toxin (vip3Aa1) gene into B. bassiana, yielding a transgenic strain (BbHV8) expressing 9.8-fold more toxin molecules in conidia than a counterpart strain (BbV28) expressing the toxin under the control of PgpdA, a promoter widely used for gene expression in fungi. Consequently, BbHV8 showed much higher per os virulence to Spodoptera litura larvae than BbV28 in standardized bioassays with normal conidia for both cuticle penetration and ingestion or heat-killed conidia for ingestion only. Conclusively, Phyd1-t1 is a useful tool for enhancing beneficial protein expression, such as vip3Aa1, in fungal conidia, which are the active ingredients of mycoinsecticides. PMID:22639846

  8. Recognition of a core fragment ofBeauveria bassiana hydrophobin gene promoter (P hyd1) and its special use in improving fungal biocontrol potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-01-01

    To identify a suitable promoter for use in engineering fungal entomopathogens to improve heterologous gene expression and fungal biocontrol potential, a 1798 bp promoter (P hyd1) upstream of Beauveria bassiana class I hydrophobin gene (hyd1) was optimized by upstream truncation and site-directed mutation. A truncated 1290 bp fragment (P hyd1-t1) drove eGFP expression in B. bassiana much more efficiently than full-length P hyd1. Further truncating P hyd1-t1 to 1179, 991 and 791 bp or mutating one of the binding domains of three transcription factors in P hyd1-t1 reduced significantly the expression of eGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein). Under P hyd1-t1 control, eGFP was expressed more abundantly in conidiogenic cells and conidia than in mycelia. Therefore, P hyd1-t1 was used to integrate a bacterium-derived, insect midgut-specific toxin (vip3Aa1) gene into B. bassiana, yielding a transgenic strain (BbHV8) expressing 9.8-fold more toxin molecules in conidia than a counterpart strain (BbV28) expressing the toxin under the control of P gpdA, a promoter widely used for gene expression in fungi. Consequently, BbHV8 showed much higher per os virulence to Spodoptera litura larvae than BbV28 in standardized bioassays with normal conidia for both cuticle penetration and ingestion or heat-killed conidia for ingestion only. Conclusively, P hyd1-t1 is a useful tool for enhancing beneficial protein expression, such as vip3Aa1, in fungal conidia, which are the active ingredients of mycoinsecticides.

  9. Optical Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  10. History of Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism for signaling pregnancy recognition is highly variable among species, and the signaling molecule itself varies between estrogens in pigs to chorionic gonadotrophin in primates. This chapter provides insight into the menstrual cycle of women and estrous cycles of rodents, dog, cat, pigs, sheep, rabbits, and marsupials, as well as the hormones required for pregnancy recognition. Pregnancy recognition involves specific hormones such as prolactin in rodents or interferons in ruminants and estrogens in pigs that in their own way ensure the maintenance of the corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone which is the hormone of pregnancy. However, these pregnancy recognition signals may also modify gene expression in a cell-specific and temporal manner to ensure the growth and development of the conceptus. This chapter provides some historical aspects of the development of understanding of mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in several species of mammals.

  11. Recognition and rejection of self in plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, June B

    2002-04-12

    Plant self-incompatibility (SI) systems are unique among self/nonself recognition systems in being based on the recognition of self rather than nonself. SI in crucifer species is controlled by highly polymorphic and co-evolving genes linked in a complex. Self recognition is based on allele-specific interactions between stigma receptors and pollen ligands that result in the arrest of pollen tube development. Commonalities and differences between SI and other self/nonself discrimination systems are discussed.

  12. Kin Recognition in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wall, Daniel

    2016-09-08

    The ability of bacteria to recognize kin provides a means to form social groups. In turn these groups can lead to cooperative behaviors that surpass the ability of the individual. Kin recognition involves specific biochemical interactions between a receptor(s) and an identification molecule(s). Recognition specificity, ensuring that nonkin are excluded and kin are included, is critical and depends on the number of loci and polymorphisms involved. After recognition and biochemical perception, the common ensuing cooperative behaviors include biofilm formation, quorum responses, development, and swarming motility. Although kin recognition is a fundamental mechanism through which cells might interact, microbiologists are only beginning to explore the topic. This review considers both molecular and theoretical aspects of bacterial kin recognition. Consideration is also given to bacterial diversity, genetic relatedness, kin selection theory, and mechanisms of recognition.

  13. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  14. Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genes URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  15. Moreland Recognition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland Elementary School District, San Jose, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Recognition for special effort and achievement has been noted as a component of effective schools. Schools in the Moreland School District have effectively improved standards of discipline and achievement by providing forty-six different ways for children to receive positive recognition. Good…

  16. Phospholipid-nucleic acid recognition: energetics of DNA-Mg2+-phosphatidylcholine ternary complex formation and its further compaction as a gene delivery formulation.

    PubMed

    Süleymanoglu, Erhan

    2006-01-01

    Thermodynamic features related to the preparation and use of self-assemblies formed between multilamellar and unilamellar zwitterionic liposomes and polynucleotides with various conformation and sizes are presented. The divalent metal cation-induced adsorption, aggregation, and adhesion between single- and double-stranded polyribonucleotides and phosphatidylcholine vesicles was followed by differential adiabatic scanning microcalorimetry. Nucleic acid condensation and compaction mediated by Mg2+ was followed, with regard to interfacial interaction with unilamellar vesicles. Microcalorimetric measurements of synthetic phospholipid vesicles and poly(ribo)nucleotides and their ternary complexes with inorganic cations were used to build the thermodynamic model of their structural transitions. The increased thermal stability of the phospholipid bilayers is achieved by affecting their melting transition temperature by nucleic acid-induced electrostatic charge screening. Measurements give evidence for the stabilization of polynucleotide helices upon their association with liposomes in the presence of divalent metal cations. Such an induced aggregation of vesicles leads either to heterogeneous multilamellar DNA-lipid arrangements or to DNA-induced bilayer destabilization and lipid fusion. The further employment of these polyelectrolyte nanostructures as improved formulations in therapeutic gene delivery trials, as well as in DNA chromatography, is discussed.

  17. Recognition as a challenging label-free optical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauglitz, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly used in application areas of environmental analysis, healthcare and food safety. The quality of the biosensor's results depends on the interaction layer, the detection principles, and evaluation strategies, not only on the biopolymer layer but also especially on recognition elements. Using label-free optical sensing, non-specific interaction between sample and transducer has to be reduced, and the selectivity of recognition elements has to be improved. For this reason, strategies to avoid non-specific interaction even in blood and milk are discussed, a variety of upcoming recognition is given. Based on the classification of direct optical detection methods, some examples for the above mentioned applications are reviewed. Trends as well as advantages of parallel multisport detection for kinetic evaluation are also part of the lecture.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE GENUS ISHIGE (ISHIGEALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN WITH RECOGNITION OF ISHIGE FOLIACEA BASED ON PLASTID rbcl AND MITOCHONDRIAL cox3 GENE SEQUENCES(1).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Min; Boo, Ga Hun; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Shin, Jong-Ahm; Boo, Sung Min

    2009-08-01

    The taxonomy and biogeography of a genus with species that occur in geographically isolated regions is interesting. The brown algal genus Ishige Yendo is a good example, with species that apparently inhabit warm regions of both the northwestern and northeastern Pacific Ocean. We determined the sequences of mitochondrial cox3 and plastid rbcL genes from specimens of the genus collected over its distributional range. Analyses of the 86 cox3 and 97 rbcL sequences resulted in congruent trees in which Ishige sinicola (Setch. et N. L. Gardner) Chihara consisted of two distinct clades: one comprising samples from Korea and Japan, and the other comprising samples from the Gulf of California. Additional observations of the morphology and anatomy of the specimens agree with the molecular data. On the basis of results, we reinstated Ishige foliacea S. Okamura (considered a synonym of I. sinicola from the Gulf of California) for plants from the northwest Pacific region and designated a specimen in the Yendo Herbarium (SAP) as the lectotype. I. foliacea is distinguished by large (up to 20 cm) and wide (up to 20 mm) thalli, with a cortex of 4-7 cells, and a medulla composed of long, tangled hyphal cells. Both cox3 and rbcL sequence data strongly support the sister-area relationship between the northwest Pacific region and the Gulf of California. A likely explanation for this pattern would be the presence of a species ancestral to contemporary species of Ishige in both regions during the paleogeological period, with descendants later isolated by distance.

  19. The Recognition of Web Pages' Hyperlinks by People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Tania; Bessa, Maximino; Goncalves, Martinho; Cabral, Luciana; Godinho, Francisco; Peres, Emanuel; Reis, Manuel C.; Magalhaes, Luis; Chalmers, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: One of the most mentioned problems of web accessibility, as recognized in several different studies, is related to the difficulty regarding the perception of what is or is not clickable in a web page. In particular, a key problem is the recognition of hyperlinks by a specific group of people, namely those with intellectual…

  20. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  1. Innate immune recognition of cancer.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seng-Ryong; Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    The observation that a subset of cancer patients show evidence for spontaneous CD8+ T cell priming against tumor-associated antigens has generated renewed interest in the innate immune pathways that might serve as a bridge to an adaptive immune response to tumors. Manipulation of this endogenous T cell response with therapeutic intent-for example, using blocking antibodies inhibiting PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1) interactions-is showing impressive clinical results. As such, understanding the innate immune mechanisms that enable this T cell response has important clinical relevance. Defined innate immune interactions in the cancer context include recognition by innate cell populations (NK cells, NKT cells, and γδ T cells) and also by dendritic cells and macrophages in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Recent evidence has indicated that the major DAMP driving host antitumor immune responses is tumor-derived DNA, sensed by the stimulator of interferon gene (STING) pathway and driving type I IFN production. A deeper knowledge of the clinically relevant innate immune pathways involved in the recognition of tumors is leading toward new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

  2. Multiclass Cancer Classification by Using Fuzzy Support Vector Machine and Binary Decision Tree With Gene Selection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the problems of multiclass cancer classification with gene selection from gene expression data. Two different constructed multiclass classifiers with gene selection are proposed, which are fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) with gene selection and binary classification tree based on SVM with gene selection. Using F test and recursive feature elimination based on SVM as gene selection methods, binary classification tree based on SVM with F test, binary classification tree based on SVM with recursive feature elimination based on SVM, and FSVM with recursive feature elimination based on SVM are tested in our experiments. To accelerate computation, preselecting the strongest genes is also used. The proposed techniques are applied to analyze breast cancer data, small round blue-cell tumors, and acute leukemia data. Compared to existing multiclass cancer classifiers and binary classification tree based on SVM with F test or binary classification tree based on SVM with recursive feature elimination based on SVM mentioned in this paper, FSVM based on recursive feature elimination based on SVM can find most important genes that affect certain types of cancer with high recognition accuracy. PMID:16046822

  3. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  4. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  5. Units of Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Carol M.; And Others

    Both psychologists and reading specialists have been interested in whether words are processed letter by letter or in larger units. A reaction time paradigm was used to evaluate these options with interest focused on potential units of word recognition which might be functional within single syllable words. The basic paradigm involved presenting…

  6. Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  7. Automated Optical Target Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    A multi-resolution signal processing approach to object recognition is presented using an optical correlator for generating a wavelet transform . The...This report presents an overview of continuous and discrete wavelet transforms. Both digital and optical implementations of the discrete wavelet ... transform are discussed. Examples of typical wavelet basis functions are compared and the constraints imposed by optical implementations are discussed

  8. Teaching Word Recognition Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Mildred A., Comp.

    A series of articles with the chief emphasis on phonics as a means of analyzing words is presented. Various articles pertain to elementary, secondary, and college level instruction. The first of the five parts into which the volume is divided is comprised of a single article which gives an excellent overview of the field of word recognition. Part…

  9. View Invariant Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Richard D.; Goffredo, Michela; Carter, John N.; Nixon, Mark S.

    Recognition by gait is of particular interest since it is the biometric that is available at the lowest resolution, or when other biometrics are (intentionally) obscured. Gait as a biometric has now shown increasing recognition capability. There are many approaches and these show that recognition can achieve excellent performance on current large databases. The majority of these approaches are planar 2D, largely since the early large databases featured subjects walking in a plane normal to the camera view. To extend deployment capability, we need viewpoint invariant gait biometrics. We describe approaches where viewpoint invariance is achieved by 3D approaches or in 2D. In the first group, the identification relies on parameters extracted from the 3D body deformation during walking. These methods use several video cameras and the 3D reconstruction is achieved after a camera calibration process. On the other hand, the 2D gait biometric approaches use a single camera, usually positioned perpendicular to the subject’s walking direction. Because in real surveillance scenarios a system that operates in an unconstrained environment is necessary, many of the recent gait analysis approaches are orientated toward view-invariant gait recognition.

  10. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  11. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  12. Perceived Task-Difficulty Recognition from Log-File Information for the Use in Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janning, Ruth; Schatten, Carlotta; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Recognising students' emotion, affect or cognition is a relatively young field and still a challenging task in the area of intelligent tutoring systems. There are several ways to use the output of these recognition tasks within the system. The approach most often mentioned in the literature is using it for giving feedback to the students. The…

  13. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  14. International Recognition of Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Bradford W.

    Certain issues are relevant to the international recognition of vocational qualifications: (1) the assumption that each country does or should value vocational education and training; (2) the quality of the national system and the implications for international recognition of qualifications, including recognition of the accrediting and awarding…

  15. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  16. Speech Recognition: A General Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sopena, Luis

    Speech recognition is one of five main areas in the field of speech processing. Difficulties in speech recognition include variability in sound within and across speakers, in channel, in background noise, and of speech production. Speech recognition can be used in a variety of situations: to perform query operations and phone call transfers; for…

  17. Is Early Word-form Processing Stress-full? How Natural Variability Supports Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bortfeld, Heather; Morgan, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In a series of studies, we examined how mothers naturally stress words across multiple mentions in speech to their infants and how this marking influences infants’ recognition of words in fluent speech. We first collected samples of mothers’ infant-directed speech using a technique that induced multiple repetitions of target words. Acoustic analyses revealed that mothers systematically alternated between emphatic and nonemphatic stress when talking to their infants. Using the headturn preference procedure, we then tested 7.5-month-old infants on their ability to detect familiarized bisyllabic words in fluent speech. Stress of target words (emphatic and nonemphatic) was systematically varied across familiarization and recognition phases of four experiments. Results indicated that, although infants generally prefer listening to words produced with emphatic stress, recognition was enhanced when the degree of emphatic stress at familiarization matched the degree of emphatic stress at recognition. PMID:20159653

  18. Improving the recognition of fingerprint biometric system using enhanced image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharif, Salim; El-Saba, Aed; Stripathi, Reshma

    2010-04-01

    Fingerprints recognition systems have been widely used by financial institutions, law enforcement, border control, visa issuing, just to mention few. Biometric identifiers can be counterfeited, but considered more reliable and secure compared to traditional ID cards or personal passwords methods. Fingerprint pattern fusion improves the performance of a fingerprint recognition system in terms of accuracy and security. This paper presents digital enhancement and fusion approaches that improve the biometric of the fingerprint recognition system. It is a two-step approach. In the first step raw fingerprint images are enhanced using high-frequency-emphasis filtering (HFEF). The second step is a simple linear fusion process between the raw images and the HFEF ones. It is shown that the proposed approach increases the verification and identification of the fingerprint biometric recognition system, where any improvement is justified using the correlation performance metrics of the matching algorithm.

  19. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  20. Recognition of teaching excellence.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-11-10

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs.

  1. Taxa and names in Cynoglossum sensu lato (Boraginaceae, Cynoglosseae): an annotated, synonymic inventory, with links to the protologues and mention of original material

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    , types and original specimens, especially when their digital images are available online, are mentioned with their locations and accession numbers. Comments are added whenever appropriate, especially to explain nomenclatural assessments that are not self-evident. PMID:25941451

  2. Homology recognition funnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dominic; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2009-10-01

    The recognition of homologous sequences of DNA before strand exchange is considered to be the most puzzling stage of homologous recombination. A mechanism for two homologous dsDNAs to recognize each other from a distance in electrolytic solution without unzipping had been proposed in an earlier paper [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 366 (2001)]. In that work, the difference in the electrostatic interaction energy between homologous duplexes and between nonhomologous duplexes, termed the recognition energy, has been calculated. That calculation was later extended in a series of papers to account for torsional elasticity of the molecules. A recent paper [A. A. Kornyshev and A. Wynveen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 4683 (2009)] investigated the form of the potential well that homologous DNA molecules may feel when sliding along each other. A simple formula for the shape of the well was obtained. However, this latter study was performed under the approximation that the sliding molecules are torsionally rigid. Following on from this work, in the present article we investigate the effect of torsional flexibility of the molecules on the shape of the well. A variational approach to this problem results in a transcendental equation that is easily solved numerically. Its solutions show that at large interaxial separations the recognition well becomes wider and shallower, whereas at closer distances further unexpected features arise related to an abrupt change in the mean azimuthal alignment of the molecules. The energy surface as a function of interaxial separation and the axial shift defines what we call the recognition funnel. We show that it depends dramatically on the patterns of adsorption of counterions on DNA.

  3. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C; Bex, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia--a perceived distortion of visual space--is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment.

  4. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  5. Graph optimized Laplacian eigenmaps for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornaika, F.; Assoum, A.; Ruichek, Y.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a variety of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques (NLDR) have been proposed in the literature. They aim to address the limitations of traditional techniques such as PCA and classical scaling. Most of these techniques assume that the data of interest lie on an embedded non-linear manifold within the higher-dimensional space. They provide a mapping from the high-dimensional space to the low-dimensional embedding and may be viewed, in the context of machine learning, as a preliminary feature extraction step, after which pattern recognition algorithms are applied. Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE) is a nonlinear graph-based dimensionality reduction method. It has been successfully applied in many practical problems such as face recognition. However the construction of LE graph suffers, similarly to other graph-based DR techniques from the following issues: (1) the neighborhood graph is artificially defined in advance, and thus does not necessary benefit the desired DR task; (2) the graph is built using the nearest neighbor criterion which tends to work poorly due to the high-dimensionality of original space; and (3) its computation depends on two parameters whose values are generally uneasy to assign, the neighborhood size and the heat kernel parameter. To address the above-mentioned problems, for the particular case of the LPP method (a linear version of LE), L. Zhang et al.1 have developed a novel DR algorithm whose idea is to integrate graph construction with specific DR process into a unified framework. This algorithm results in an optimized graph rather than a predefined one.

  6. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  7. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  8. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  9. Sparsity Motivated Automated Target Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-29

    been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of such methods for automatic target...Sparsity-based methods have recently been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of...have recently been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of such methods for

  10. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  11. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Cotí, Karla K.; Benítez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John-Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmielli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2010-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication.

  12. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  13. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  14. A modular framework for biomedical concept recognition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concept recognition is an essential task in biomedical information extraction, presenting several complex and unsolved challenges. The development of such solutions is typically performed in an ad-hoc manner or using general information extraction frameworks, which are not optimized for the biomedical domain and normally require the integration of complex external libraries and/or the development of custom tools. Results This article presents Neji, an open source framework optimized for biomedical concept recognition built around four key characteristics: modularity, scalability, speed, and usability. It integrates modules for biomedical natural language processing, such as sentence splitting, tokenization, lemmatization, part-of-speech tagging, chunking and dependency parsing. Concept recognition is provided through dictionary matching and machine learning with normalization methods. Neji also integrates an innovative concept tree implementation, supporting overlapped concept names and respective disambiguation techniques. The most popular input and output formats, namely Pubmed XML, IeXML, CoNLL and A1, are also supported. On top of the built-in functionalities, developers and researchers can implement new processing modules or pipelines, or use the provided command-line interface tool to build their own solutions, applying the most appropriate techniques to identify heterogeneous biomedical concepts. Neji was evaluated against three gold standard corpora with heterogeneous biomedical concepts (CRAFT, AnEM and NCBI disease corpus), achieving high performance results on named entity recognition (F1-measure for overlap matching: species 95%, cell 92%, cellular components 83%, gene and proteins 76%, chemicals 65%, biological processes and molecular functions 63%, disorders 85%, and anatomical entities 82%) and on entity normalization (F1-measure for overlap name matching and correct identifier included in the returned list of identifiers: species 88

  15. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  16. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  17. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  18. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply.

  19. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  20. Coordinate Transformations in Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Markus

    2006-01-01

    A basic problem of visual perception is how human beings recognize objects after spatial transformations. Three central classes of findings have to be accounted for: (a) Recognition performance varies systematically with orientation, size, and position; (b) recognition latencies are sequentially additive, suggesting analogue transformation…

  1. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  2. Computer image processing and recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic introduction to the concepts and techniques of computer image processing and recognition is presented. Consideration is given to such topics as image formation and perception; computer representation of images; image enhancement and restoration; reconstruction from projections; digital television, encoding, and data compression; scene understanding; scene matching and recognition; and processing techniques for linear systems.

  3. Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Wright, R; Reyna, V F; Mojardin, A H

    2001-03-01

    A new methodology for measuring illusory conscious experience of the "presentation" of unstudied material (phantom recollection) is evaluated that extracts measurements directly from recognition responses, rather than indirectly from introspective reports. Application of this methodology in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Experiments 1 and 2) and in a more conventional paradigm (Experiment 3) showed that 2 processes (phantom recollection and familiarity) contribute to false recognition of semantically related distractors. Phantom recollection was the larger contributor to false recognition of critical distractors in the DRM paradigm, but surprisingly, it was also the larger contributor to false recognition of other types of distractors. Variability in false recognition was tied to variability in phantom recollection. Experimental control of phantom recollection was achieved with manipulations that were motivated by fuzzy-trace theory's hypothesis that the phenomenon is gist-based.

  4. Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D

    2013-11-01

    A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before.

  5. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera)

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Terry W; Shearer, Tonya L; Smith, Hilary A; Kubanek, Julia; Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David B Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the product of a chemosensory gene, a glycoprotein on the body surface of females called the mate recognition pheromone. The mate recognition pheromone has been biochemically characterized, but little was known about the gene(s). We describe the isolation and characterization of the mate recognition pheromone gene through protein purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, identification of the mate recognition pheromone gene from a cDNA library, sequencing, and RNAi knockdown to confirm the functional role of the mate recognition pheromone gene in rotifer mating. Results A 29 kD protein capable of eliciting rotifer male circling was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Two transcript types containing the N-terminal sequence were identified in a cDNA library; further characterization by screening a genomic library and by polymerase chain reaction revealed two genes belonging to each type. Each gene begins with a signal peptide region followed by nearly perfect repeats of an 87 to 92 codon motif with no codons between repeats and the final motif prematurely terminated by the stop codon. The two Type A genes contain four and seven repeats and the two Type B genes contain three and five repeats, respectively. Only the Type B gene with three repeats encodes a peptide with a molecular weight of 29 kD. Each repeat of the Type B gene products contains three asparagines as potential sites for N-glycosylation; there are no asparagines in the Type A genes. RNAi with Type A double-stranded RNA did not result in less circling than in the phosphate-buffered saline control, but transfection with Type B double-stranded RNA significantly reduced male circling by 17%. The very low divergence between repeat units, even at synonymous positions

  6. Macromolecular recognition: Recognition of polymer side chains by cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of cyclodextrins (CD) with water soluble polymers possessing guest residues has been investigated as model systems in biological molecular recognition. The selectivity of interaction of CD with polymer-carrying guest residues is controlled by polymer chains, i.e., the steric effect of polymer main chain, the conformational effect of polymer main chain, and multi-site interaction. Macroscopic assemblies have been also realized based on molecular recognition using polyacrylamide-based gels possessing CD and guest residues.

  7. Protospacer recognition motifs

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shiraz A.; Erdmann, Susanne; Mojica, Francisco J.M.; Garrett, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) were originally characterized for CRISPR-Cas systems that were classified on the basis of their CRISPR repeat sequences. A few short 2–5 bp sequences were identified adjacent to one end of the protospacers. Experimental and bioinformatical results linked the motif to the excision of protospacers and their insertion into CRISPR loci. Subsequently, evidence accumulated from different virus- and plasmid-targeting assays, suggesting that these motifs were also recognized during DNA interference, at least for the recently classified type I and type II CRISPR-based systems. The two processes, spacer acquisition and protospacer interference, employ different molecular mechanisms, and there is increasing evidence to suggest that the sequence motifs that are recognized, while overlapping, are unlikely to be identical. In this article, we consider the properties of PAM sequences and summarize the evidence for their dual functional roles. It is proposed to use the terms protospacer associated motif (PAM) for the conserved DNA sequence and to employ spacer acqusition motif (SAM) and target interference motif (TIM), respectively, for acquisition and interference recognition sites. PMID:23403393

  8. Recognition of speech spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Greene, B G; Pisoni, D B; Carrell, T D

    1984-07-01

    The performance of eight naive observers in learning to identify speech spectrograms was studied over a 2-month period. Single tokens from a 50-word phonetically balanced (PB) list were recorded by several talkers and displayed on a Spectraphonics Speech Spectrographic Display system. Identification testing occurred immediately after daily training sessions. After approximately 20 h of training, naive subjects correctly identified the 50 PB words from a single talker over 95% of the time. Generalization tests with the same words were then carried out with different tokens from the original talker, new tokens from another male talker, a female talker, and finally, a synthetic talker. The generalization results for these talkers showed recognition performance at 91%, 76%, 76%, and 48%, respectively. Finally, generalization tests with a novel set of PB words produced by the original talker were also carried out to examine in detail the perceptual strategies and visual features that subjects abstracted from the training set. Our results demonstrate that even without formal training in phonetics or acoustics naive observers can learn to identify visual displays of speech at very high levels of accuracy. Analysis of subjects' performance in a verbal protocol task demonstrated that they rely on salient visual correlates of many phonetic features in speech.

  9. Genetic determinants of self identity and social recognition in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Karine A; Urbanowski, Mark L; Greenberg, E Peter

    2008-07-11

    The bacterium Proteus mirabilis is capable of movement on solid surfaces by a type of motility called swarming. Boundaries form between swarming colonies of different P. mirabilis strains but not between colonies of a single strain. A fundamental requirement for boundary formation is the ability to discriminate between self and nonself. We have isolated mutants that form boundaries with their parent. The mutations map within a six-gene locus that we term ids for identification of self. Five of the genes in the ids locus are required for recognition of the parent strain as self. Three of the ids genes are interchangeable between strains, and two encode specific molecular identifiers.

  10. Expression of intron-containing C. elegans heat shock genes in mouse cells demonstrates divergence of 3' splice site recognition sequences between nematodes and vertebrates, and an inhibitory effect of heat shock on the mammalian splicing apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, R J; Russnak, R H; Jones, D; Mathias, C; Candido, E P

    1987-01-01

    Splicing of a pair of intron-containing heat shock genes from Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied in transfected mouse cells. The hsp16-1 and hsp16-48 genes of C. elegans encode 16,000 Da heat shock polypeptides. Each gene contains a short intron of 52 (hsp16-1) or 55 (hsp16-48) base pairs. When these genes were introduced into mouse cells, they were efficiently induced following heat shock, but splicing of the introns was abnormal. In mouse cells, cleavage of the hsp16 transcripts occurred at the correct 5' splice sites, but the 3' splice sites were located at AG dinucleotides downstream of the correct sites. This aberrant splicing was not solely due to the small size of the C. elegans introns, since a hsp16-1 gene containing an intron enlarged by tandem duplication showed exactly the same splicing pattern. The mouse cells thus seem to be unable to recognize the natural 3' splice sites of the C. elegans transcripts. The efficiency of splicing was greatly reduced under heat shock conditions, and unspliced transcripts accumulated in the nucleus. During a subsequent recovery period at 37 degrees C, these transcripts were spliced and transported to the cytoplasm. Images PMID:3588308

  11. Emotion recognition from physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Gouizi, K; Bereksi Reguig, F; Maaoui, C

    2011-01-01

    Emotion recognition is one of the great challenges in human-human and human-computer interaction. Accurate emotion recognition would allow computers to recognize human emotions and therefore react accordingly. In this paper, an approach for emotion recognition based on physiological signals is proposed. Six basic emotions: joy, sadness, fear, disgust, neutrality and amusement are analysed using physiological signals. These emotions are induced through the presentation of International Affecting Picture System (IAPS) pictures to the subjects. The physiological signals of interest in this analysis are: electromyogram signal (EMG), respiratory volume (RV), skin temperature (SKT), skin conductance (SKC), blood volume pulse (BVP) and heart rate (HR). These are selected to extract characteristic parameters, which will be used for classifying the emotions. The SVM (support vector machine) technique is used for classifying these parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology provides in general a recognition rate of 85% for different emotional states.

  12. Gesture recognition on smart cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziri, Aziz; Chevobbe, Stephane; Darouich, Mehdi

    2013-02-01

    Gesture recognition is a feature in human-machine interaction that allows more natural interaction without the use of complex devices. For this reason, several methods of gesture recognition have been developed in recent years. However, most real time methods are designed to operate on a Personal Computer with high computing resources and memory. In this paper, we analyze relevant methods found in the literature in order to investigate the ability of smart camera to execute gesture recognition algorithms. We elaborate two hand gesture recognition pipelines. The first method is based on invariant moments extraction and the second on finger tips detection. The hand detection method used for both pipeline is based on skin color segmentation. The results obtained show that the un-optimized versions of invariant moments method and finger tips detection method can reach 10 fps on embedded processor and use about 200 kB of memory.

  13. Effective indexing for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  14. The Molecular Recognition Paradigm of Environmental Chemicals with Biomacromolecules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pan, Liumeng; Wang, Haifei; Lv, Xuan; Ding, Keke

    2017-01-01

    The interactions of ligands with biomacromolecules play a fundamental role in almost all bioprocesses occuring in living organisms. The binding of ligands can cause the conformational changes of biomacromolecules, possibly affecting their physiological functions. The interactions of ligands with biomacromolecules are thus becoming a research hotspot. However, till now, there still lacks a systematic compilation of review with the focus on the interactions between environmental chemicals and biomacromolecules. In this review, we focus on the molecular recognition paradigm of environmental chemicals with biomacromolecules and chemical basis for driving the complex formation. The state-of-the-art review on in vitro and in silico studies on interaction of organic chemicals with transport proteins, nuclear receptors and CYP450 enzymes was provided, and the enantioselective interactions of chiral environmental chemicals was also mentioned.

  15. 3D object recognition in TOF data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Holger; Albrecht, Martin; Grothof, Markus; Hussmann, Stephan; Oikonomidis, Nikolaos; Schwarte, Rudolf

    2003-08-01

    In the last years 3D-Vision systems based on the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) principle have gained more importance than Stereo Vision (SV). TOF offers a direct depth-data acquisition, whereas SV involves a great amount of computational power for a comparable 3D data set. Due to the enormous progress in TOF-techniques, nowadays 3D cameras can be manufactured and be used for many practical applications. Hence there is a great demand for new accurate algorithms for 3D object recognition and classification. This paper presents a new strategy and algorithm designed for a fast and solid object classification. A challenging example - accurate classification of a (half-) sphere - demonstrates the performance of the developed algorithm. Finally, the transition from a general model of the system to specific applications such as Intelligent Airbag Control and Robot Assistance in Surgery are introduced. The paper concludes with the current research results in the above mentioned fields.

  16. Thermal to Visible Face Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    recognition has been an active area of research for the past two decades due its wide range of applications in law enforcement and verification...an ideal modality for nighttime tasks, but the large disparateness between the thermal IR and visible spectrums results in a wide modality gap that...CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK In this study, we investigated the thermal-to-visible face recognition problem, which has a wide modality gap. We showed

  17. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  18. Computer Recognition of Facial Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    effective in identifying those feature vectors which are of most importance in the recognition process . Thus the training procedure generally produces...ga Ente#lodI- i COMPUTER RECOGNITTON OF FACIAL PROFILES iU A Thesis i Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of... thesis , the suggestion that the state of the art in pattern recognition was sufficient to enable a machine capable of recognizing human faces to be built

  19. [Recognition and identification of unknown infectious agents].

    PubMed

    Berche, P

    1994-04-01

    The recognition and the identification of previously unrecognized infectious agents require a multidisciplinary approach to specify the nosologic entity of the disease and the epidemiological data, especially the modes of transmission and the risk factors, as well as to discover the microorganism in the laboratory. In the past 20 years, significant breakthroughs have been achieved in cellular cultures (growth factors), in immunology (monoclonal antibodies), and moreover in molecular biology, which have been widely used in the field of infectious diseases. Whereas the classical methods used to grow microorganisms remain of major interest in many cases, innovating strategies have been recently designed to identify previously unknown pathogens. The genomic amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of highly conserved bacterial genes (as those coding for ribosomal RNA), from tissue biopsies for example, allow to recognize unknown bacteria. The evolutionary distance between a newly recognized pathogen and known microorganisms can be calculated through sequencing of these genes, as described for Rochalimaea henselae or Tropheryma whipplelii. The constitution of cDNA banks from infected tissues is also a novel approach allowing to clone and sequence viral genes, such as those from hepatitis C or from hepatitis E. In the near future, noteworthy improvements will be achieved to rapidly detect microorganisms with highly sensitive and specific tests using monoclonal antibodies, molecular probes (including branched DNA) and with PCR (including Q beta replicase and ligase chain reaction), and to determine the genetic diversity of microbial pathogens by new methods as pulse field gel electrophoresis or arbitrarily primed PCR. This will result in a better knowledge of the pathophysiology of infectious diseases, in a better recognition of a typical, previously unrecognized clinical expression of pathogenicity, and also in a more precise assessment of the actual impact of a

  20. The role of dynamic conformational ensembles in biomolecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Boehr, David D; Nussinov, Ruth; Wright, Peter E

    2009-11-01

    Molecular recognition is central to all biological processes. For the past 50 years, Koshland's 'induced fit' hypothesis has been the textbook explanation for molecular recognition events. However, recent experimental evidence supports an alternative mechanism. 'Conformational selection' postulates that all protein conformations pre-exist, and the ligand selects the most favored conformation. Following binding the ensemble undergoes a population shift, redistributing the conformational states. Both conformational selection and induced fit appear to play roles. Following binding by a primary conformational selection event, optimization of side chain and backbone interactions is likely to proceed by an induced fit mechanism. Conformational selection has been observed for protein-ligand, protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA and RNA-ligand interactions. These data support a new molecular recognition paradigm for processes as diverse as signaling, catalysis, gene regulation and protein aggregation in disease, which has the potential to significantly impact our views and strategies in drug design, biomolecular engineering and molecular evolution.

  1. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  2. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task.The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and aF-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  3. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task. The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and a F-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  4. Recognition Failure: Another Case of Retrieval Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Jan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of recognition failure and a presentation of seven experiments investigating performance. Recognition failure is reduced when a more stringent recognition criterion is used, essentially eliminated when the proper access test is used and significantly reduced when variability in recognition performance is…

  5. A genetic screen for novel components of the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway that interact with the yan gene of Drosophila identifies split ends, a new RNA recognition motif-containing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Rebay, I; Chen, F; Hsiao, F; Kolodziej, P A; Kuang, B H; Laverty, T; Suh, C; Voas, M; Williams, A; Rubin, G M

    2000-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathway is used reiteratively during the development of all multicellular organisms. While the core RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling cassette has been studied extensively, little is known about the nature of the downstream targets of the pathway or how these effectors regulate the specificity of cellular responses. Drosophila yan is one of a few downstream components identified to date, functioning as an antagonist of the RTK/Ras/MAPK pathway. Previously, we have shown that ectopic expression of a constitutively active protein (yan(ACT)) inhibits the differentiation of multiple cell types. In an effort to identify new genes functioning downstream in the Ras/MAPK/yan pathway, we have performed a genetic screen to isolate dominant modifiers of the rough eye phenotype associated with eye-specific expression of yan(ACT). Approximately 190,000 mutagenized flies were screened, and 260 enhancers and 90 suppressors were obtained. Among the previously known genes we recovered are four RTK pathway components, rolled (MAPK), son-of-sevenless, Star, and pointed, and two genes, eyes absent and string, that have not been implicated previously in RTK signaling events. We also isolated mutations in five previously uncharacterized genes, one of which, split ends, we have characterized molecularly and have shown to encode a member of the RRM family of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:10655223

  6. Selective Recognition of H3.1K36 Dimethylation/H4K16 Acetylation Facilitates the Regulation of All-trans-retinoic Acid (ATRA)-responsive Genes by Putative Chromatin Reader ZMYND8*

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Santanu; Sanyal, Sulagna; Basu, Moitri; Sengupta, Isha; Sen, Sabyasachi; Srivastava, Dushyant Kumar; Roy, Siddhartha; Das, Chandrima

    2016-01-01

    ZMYND8 (zinc finger MYND (Myeloid, Nervy and DEAF-1)-type containing 8), a newly identified component of the transcriptional coregulator network, was found to interact with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex. Previous reports have shown that ZMYND8 is instrumental in recruiting the NuRD complex to damaged chromatin for repressing transcription and promoting double strand break repair by homologous recombination. However, the mode of transcription regulation by ZMYND8 has remained elusive. Here, we report that through its specific key residues present in its conserved chromatin-binding modules, ZMYND8 interacts with the selective epigenetic marks H3.1K36Me2/H4K16Ac. Furthermore, ZMYND8 shows a clear preference for canonical histone H3.1 over variant H3.3. Interestingly, ZMYND8 was found to be recruited to several developmental genes, including the all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-responsive ones, through its modified histone-binding ability. Being itself inducible by ATRA, this zinc finger transcription factor is involved in modulating other ATRA-inducible genes. We found that ZMYND8 interacts with transcription initiation-competent RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at Ser-5 in a DNA template-dependent manner and can alter the global gene transcription. Overall, our study identifies that ZMYND8 has CHD4-independent functions in regulating gene expression through its modified histone-binding ability. PMID:26655721

  7. Beyond econophysics (not to mention mainstream economics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegati, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Econophysics has produced innovative and empirically relevant results in at least four areas of research: financial markets, growth and distribution of firms and countries, the distribution of income and wealth, and contagion, robustness and resilience of networks. All these results are inexplicable by the actual mainstream economic model. Yet econophysics requires not only a new economy, but also a "new" physics, which is based on non-ergodicity, on social dynamics whose elementary constituents are heterogeneous interacting social agents linked by networks.

  8. Document Form and Character Recognition using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Sung; Shin, Young-Geun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ahn, Dong-Kyu; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Because of development of computer and information communication, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) has been developing. There is OCR (Optical Character Recognition) of Pattern recognition technology for EDI. OCR contributed to changing many manual in the past into automation. But for the more perfect database of document, much manual is needed for excluding unnecessary recognition. To resolve this problem, we propose document form based character recognition method in this study. Proposed method is divided into document form recognition part and character recognition part. Especially, in character recognition, change character into binarization by using SVM algorithm and extract more correct feature value.

  9. ClusType: Effective Entity Recognition and Typing by Relation Phrase-Based Clustering.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Wang, Chi; Tao, Fangbo; Voss, Clare R; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    Entity recognition is an important but challenging research problem. In reality, many text collections are from specific, dynamic, or emerging domains, which poses significant new challenges for entity recognition with increase in name ambiguity and context sparsity, requiring entity detection without domain restriction. In this paper, we investigate entity recognition (ER) with distant-supervision and propose a novel relation phrase-based ER framework, called ClusType, that runs data-driven phrase mining to generate entity mention candidates and relation phrases, and enforces the principle that relation phrases should be softly clustered when propagating type information between their argument entities. Then we predict the type of each entity mention based on the type signatures of its co-occurring relation phrases and the type indicators of its surface name, as computed over the corpus. Specifically, we formulate a joint optimization problem for two tasks, type propagation with relation phrases and multi-view relation phrase clustering. Our experiments on multiple genres-news, Yelp reviews and tweets-demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of ClusType, with an average of 37% improvement in F1 score over the best compared method.

  10. ClusType: Effective Entity Recognition and Typing by Relation Phrase-Based Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiang; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Wang, Chi; Tao, Fangbo; Voss, Clare R.; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity recognition is an important but challenging research problem. In reality, many text collections are from specific, dynamic, or emerging domains, which poses significant new challenges for entity recognition with increase in name ambiguity and context sparsity, requiring entity detection without domain restriction. In this paper, we investigate entity recognition (ER) with distant-supervision and propose a novel relation phrase-based ER framework, called ClusType, that runs data-driven phrase mining to generate entity mention candidates and relation phrases, and enforces the principle that relation phrases should be softly clustered when propagating type information between their argument entities. Then we predict the type of each entity mention based on the type signatures of its co-occurring relation phrases and the type indicators of its surface name, as computed over the corpus. Specifically, we formulate a joint optimization problem for two tasks, type propagation with relation phrases and multi-view relation phrase clustering. Our experiments on multiple genres—news, Yelp reviews and tweets—demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of ClusType, with an average of 37% improvement in F1 score over the best compared method. PMID:26705503

  11. Bidirectional Modulation of Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jonathan W; Poeta, Devon L; Jacobson, Tara K; Zolnik, Timothy A; Neske, Garrett T; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2015-09-30

    Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects. For example, animals and humans with perirhinal damage are unable to distinguish familiar from novel objects in recognition memory tasks. In the normal brain, perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by increasing or decreasing firing rates. Recent work also implicates oscillatory activity in the low-beta and low-gamma frequency bands in sensory detection, perception, and recognition. Using optogenetic methods in a spontaneous object exploration (SOR) task, we altered recognition memory performance in rats. In the SOR task, normal rats preferentially explore novel images over familiar ones. We modulated exploratory behavior in this task by optically stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing perirhinal neurons at various frequencies while rats looked at novel or familiar 2D images. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz during looking caused rats to treat a familiar image as if it were novel by increasing time looking at the image. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz was not effective in increasing exploration of novel images. Stimulation at 10-15 Hz caused animals to treat a novel image as familiar by decreasing time looking at the image, but did not affect looking times for images that were already familiar. We conclude that optical stimulation of PER at different frequencies can alter visual recognition memory bidirectionally. Significance statement: Recognition of novelty and familiarity are important for learning, memory, and decision making. Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects, but how novelty and familiarity are encoded and transmitted in the brain is not known. Perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by changing firing rates, but recent work suggests that brain oscillations may also be important for recognition. In this study, we showed that stimulation of

  12. Disease named entity recognition by combining conditional random fields and bidirectional recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V.Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html.

  13. Disease named entity recognition by combining conditional random fields and bidirectional recurrent neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V. Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html PMID:27777244

  14. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  15. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  16. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  17. Cystic fibrosis modifier genes.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jane; Alton, Eric; Griesenbach, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Since the recognition that CFTR genotype was not a good predictor of pulmonary disease severity in CF, several candidate modifier genes have been identified. It is unlikely that a single modifier gene will be found, but more probable that several haplotypes in combination may contribute, which in itself presents a major methodological challenge. The aims of such studies are to increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis, to aid prognosis and ultimately to lead to the development of novel treatments. PMID:16025767

  18. Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-04-12

    Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We

  19. Genome filtering using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes with six-base pair recognition sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The large fraction of repetitive DNA in many plant genomes has complicated all aspects of DNA sequencing and assembly, and thus techniques that enrich for genes and low-copy sequences have been employed to isolate gene space. Methyl sensitive restriction enzymes with six base pair recognition sites...

  20. Mandarin recognition over the telephone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Yuhung

    1996-06-01

    Mandarin Chinese is the official language in China and Taiwan, it is the native language of a quarter of the world population. As the services enabled by speech recognition technology (e.g. telephone voice dialing, information query) become more popular in English, we would like to extend this capability to other languages. Mandarin is one of the major languages under research in our laboratory. This paper describes how we extend our work in English speech recognition into Mandarin. We will described the corpus: Voice Across Taiwan, the training of a complete set of Mandarin syllable models, preliminary performance results and error analysis. A fast prototyping system was built, where a user can write any context free grammar with no restriction of vocabulary, then the grammar can be compiled into recognition models. It enables user to quickly test the performance of a new vocabulary.

  1. Early development of visual recognition.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio; Domenella, Rosaria Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The most important ability of the human vision is object recognition, yet it is exactly the less understood aspect of the vision system. Computational models have been helpful in progressing towards an explanation of this obscure cognitive ability, and today it is possible to conceive more refined models, thanks to the new availability of neuroscientific data about the human visual cortex. This work proposes a model of the development of the object recognition capability, under a different perspective with respect to the most common approaches, with a precise theoretical epistemology. It is assumed that the main processing functions involved in recognition are not genetically determined and hardwired in the neural circuits, but are the result of interactions between epigenetic influences and the basic neural plasticity mechanisms. The model is organized in modules related with the main visual biological areas, and is implemented mainly using the LISSOM architecture, a recent self-organizing algorithm closely reflecting the essential behavior of cortical circuits.

  2. Diverse functions of WD40 repeat proteins in histone recognition

    PubMed Central

    Suganuma, Tamaki; Pattenden, Samantha G.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    WD40 repeat proteins have been shown to bind the histone H3 tail at the center of their β-propeller structure. In contrast, in this issue of Genes & Development, Song and colleagues (pp. 1313–1318) demonstrate that the WD40 repeat protein p55 binds a structured region of H4 through a novel binding pocket on the side of β-propeller, illustrating a diversity of histone recognition by WD40 repeat proteins. PMID:18483215

  3. Furin gene (fur) regulation in differentiating human megakaryoblastic Dami cells: involvement of the proximal GATA recognition motif in the P1 promoter and impact on the maturation of furin substrates.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Marie-Hélène; Grondin, Francine; Cayer, Pauline; McDonald, Patrick P; Dubois, Claire M

    2002-11-15

    The convertase furin is involved in the maturation of key growth/aggregation mediators synthesized by the platelet producers, megakaryocytes, but the regulation of furin in these cells remains unknown. Computer-assisted search of the furin promoter sequence revealed multiple potential binding motifs for GATA-1, suggesting that furin is expressed and regulated in these cells. Using megakaryoblastic Dami cells, we observed that fur mRNA expression increased gradually on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced differentiation, reaching maximum levels (8.3-fold increase) at 10 days. Transient transfections with P1, P1A, or P1B fur-LUC-promoter constructs revealed that in Dami cells, the P1 promoter is the strongest and the most sensitive to forced expression of GATA-1. Coexpression of GATA-1 and its comodulator, Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1), resulted in a cooperative increase in P1 activity. Deletion analysis indicated that important GATA-1-regulated sequences are located in the most proximal region of the P1 promoter. Further analysis revealed 2 potential GATA-binding motifs at positions -66 and +62. Point mutation of each of the 2 motifs indicated that the intactness of the first GATA site is required for full basal and GATA-1-stimulated promoter activity. Finally, the inhibition of furin activity through gene transfer of the inhibitor alpha1-AT-PDX led to a block in maturation of the furin substrates transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelet-derived growth factor. Taken together, these results indicate that the most proximal GATA element in the P1 promoter is needed for fur gene expression in megakaryoblastic cells. They also suggest that proper regulation of the fur gene in megakaryocytes has an impact on the activation of furin substrates involved in megakaryocyte maturation and platelet functions.

  4. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  5. Iris Recognition for Human Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alandkar, Lajari; Gengaje, Sachin

    2010-11-01

    Iris recognition system is the biometric identification system. Iris has an intricate structure, uniqueness, stability, and natural protection. Due to these features of the iris it can be used for biometric identification. This system gives better performance than other biometric identification systems. A novel eyelash removal method for preprocessing of human iris images in a human iris recognition system is presented.. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) method is used for feature extraction. For matching of two-iris code Hamming distance calculation is used. EER value must be less for the optimum performance of the system.

  6. Sequence selective recognition of double-stranded RNA using triple helix-forming peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Zengeya, Thomas; Gupta, Pankaj; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are attractive targets for molecular recognition because of the central role they play in gene expression. Since most noncoding RNAs are in a double-helical conformation, recognition of such structures is a formidable problem. Herein, we describe a method for sequence-selective recognition of biologically relevant double-helical RNA (illustrated on ribosomal A-site RNA) using peptide nucleic acids (PNA) that form a triple helix in the major grove of RNA under physiologically relevant conditions. Protocols for PNA preparation and binding studies using isothermal titration calorimetry are described in detail.

  7. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen MG; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos’ responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  8. Interval Recognition in Minimal Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzkin, Merton

    1984-01-01

    Music majors were asked to identify interval when it was either preceded or followed by a tone moving in the same direction. Difficulties in interval recognition in context appear to be an effect not just of placement within the context or of tonality, but of particular combinations of these aspects. (RM)

  9. Response Reversals in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Trisha; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a dynamic sequential sampling model and a recently proposed model for confidence judgments in recognition memory (T. Van Zandt, 2000b), the authors examine the tendency for rememberers to reverse their responses after a primary decision. In 4 experiments, speeded "old"-"new" decisions were made under bias followed by a 2nd response', either…

  10. Letter Recognition and Sound Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jennifer

    This lesson, which is most appropriate for kindergartners, reviews letter names and their sounds through a group letter recognition activity, a picture book activity, and alphabet practice with several online activities. During three 30-minute sessions, students will: identify the letters of the alphabet; identify the sounds of letters; identify…

  11. Intelligent Scene Analysis and Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-30

    in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2005, pp. 688–695. [15] J. Vogel and B. Schiele , “A semantic typicality measure for...Computer Vision, vol. 60, pp. 63–86, 2004. [54] M. Stark, M. Goesele, and B. Schiele , “A shape-based object class model for knowledge trans- fer,” in In

  12. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  13. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-02-25

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos' responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species.

  14. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour.

  15. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    inherent in the model. The high gesture recognition rates and quick network retraining times found in the present study suggest that a neural network approach to gesture recognition be further evaluated.

  16. Method and System for Object Recognition Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor); Stubberud, Allen R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for object recognition using shape and color features of the object to be recognized. An adaptive architecture is used to recognize and adapt the shape and color features for moving objects to enable object recognition.

  17. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran R; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-04-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia.

  18. Environmental Recognition and Guidance Control for Autonomous Vehicles using Dual Vision Sensor and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, Katsumi; Koike, Issei; Sano, Tsuyoshi; Fukunaga, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Katsuyuki

    We propose a new method of environmental recognition around an autonomous vehicle using dual vision sensor and navigation control based on binocular images. We consider to develop a guide robot that can play the role of a guide dog as the aid to people such as the visually impaired or the aged, as an application of above-mentioned techniques. This paper presents a recognition algorithm, which finds out the line of a series of Braille blocks and the boundary line between a sidewalk and a roadway where a difference in level exists by binocular images obtained from a pair of parallelarrayed CCD cameras. This paper also presents a tracking algorithm, with which the guide robot traces along a series of Braille blocks and avoids obstacles and unsafe areas which exist in the way of a person with the guide robot.

  19. Pattern-Recognition Receptors and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3), a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA-5), are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14) and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8) signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy

  20. Photoreceptor-mediated kin recognition in plants.

    PubMed

    Crepy, María A; Casal, Jorge J

    2015-01-01

    Although cooperative interactions among kin have been established in a variety of biological systems, their occurrence in plants remains controversial. Plants of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in rows of either a single or multiple accessions. Plants recognized kin neighbours and horizontally reoriented leaf growth, a response not observed when plants were grown with nonkin. Plant kin recognition involved the perception of the vertical red/far-red light and blue light profiles. Disruption of the light profiles, mutations at the PHYTOCHROME B, CRYPTOCHROME 1 or 2, or PHOTOTROPIN 1 or 2 photoreceptor genes or mutations at the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS1 gene required for auxin (growth hormone) synthesis impaired the response. The leaf-position response increases plant self-shading, decreases mutual shading between neighbours and increases fitness. Light signals from neighbours are known to shape a more competitive plant body. Here we show that photosensory receptors mediate cooperative rather than competitive interactions among kin neighbours by reducing the competition for local pools of resources.

  1. Continuous speech recognition for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Zafar, A; Overhage, J M; McDonald, C J

    1999-01-01

    The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute "twice a day" for "bid" when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal "usable" hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a "speech quality" sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in the system lagging

  2. Continuous Speech Recognition for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Atif; Overhage, J. Marc; McDonald, Clement J.

    1999-01-01

    The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute “twice a day” for “bid” when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal “usable” hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a “speech quality” sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in

  3. Which way up? Recognition of homologous DNA segments in parallel and antiparallel alignments.

    PubMed

    O' Lee, Dominic J; Wynveen, Aaron; Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei A

    2015-01-28

    Homologous gene shuffling between DNA molecules promotes genetic diversity and is an important pathway for DNA repair. For this to occur, homologous genes need to find and recognize each other. However, despite its central role in homologous recombination, the mechanism of homology recognition has remained an unsolved puzzle of molecular biology. While specific proteins are known to play a role at later stages of recombination, an initial coarse grained recognition step has, however, been proposed. This relies on the sequence dependence of the DNA structural parameters, such as twist and rise, mediated by intermolecular interactions, in particular, electrostatic ones. In this proposed mechanism, sequences that have the same base pair text, or are homologous, have lower interaction energy than those sequences with uncorrelated base pair texts. The difference between the two energies is termed the "recognition energy." Here, we probe how the recognition energy changes when one DNA fragment slides past another, and consider, for the first time, homologous sequences in antiparallel alignment. This dependence on sliding is termed the "recognition well." We find there is a recognition well for anti-parallel, homologous DNA tracts, but only a very shallow one, so that their interaction will differ little from the interaction between two nonhomologous tracts. This fact may be utilized in single molecule experiments specially targeted to test the theory. As well as this, we test previous theoretical approximations in calculating the recognition well for parallel molecules against MC simulations and consider more rigorously the optimization of the orientations of the fragments about their long axes upon calculating these recognition energies. The more rigorous treatment affects the recognition energy a little, when the molecules are considered rigid. When torsional flexibility of the DNA molecules is introduced, we find excellent agreement between the analytical

  4. Which way up? Recognition of homologous DNA segments in parallel and antiparallel alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Lee, Dominic J.; Wynveen, Aaron; Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2015-01-01

    Homologous gene shuffling between DNA molecules promotes genetic diversity and is an important pathway for DNA repair. For this to occur, homologous genes need to find and recognize each other. However, despite its central role in homologous recombination, the mechanism of homology recognition has remained an unsolved puzzle of molecular biology. While specific proteins are known to play a role at later stages of recombination, an initial coarse grained recognition step has, however, been proposed. This relies on the sequence dependence of the DNA structural parameters, such as twist and rise, mediated by intermolecular interactions, in particular, electrostatic ones. In this proposed mechanism, sequences that have the same base pair text, or are homologous, have lower interaction energy than those sequences with uncorrelated base pair texts. The difference between the two energies is termed the "recognition energy." Here, we probe how the recognition energy changes when one DNA fragment slides past another, and consider, for the first time, homologous sequences in antiparallel alignment. This dependence on sliding is termed the "recognition well." We find there is a recognition well for anti-parallel, homologous DNA tracts, but only a very shallow one, so that their interaction will differ little from the interaction between two nonhomologous tracts. This fact may be utilized in single molecule experiments specially targeted to test the theory. As well as this, we test previous theoretical approximations in calculating the recognition well for parallel molecules against MC simulations and consider more rigorously the optimization of the orientations of the fragments about their long axes upon calculating these recognition energies. The more rigorous treatment affects the recognition energy a little, when the molecules are considered rigid. When torsional flexibility of the DNA molecules is introduced, we find excellent agreement between the analytical

  5. Robust Optical Recognition of Cursive Pashto Script Using Scale, Rotation and Location Invariant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Riaz; Naz, Saeeda; Afzal, Muhammad Zeshan; Amin, Sayed Hassan; Breuel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a large number of unique shapes called ligatures in cursive languages, along with variations due to scaling, orientation and location provides one of the most challenging pattern recognition problems. Recognition of the large number of ligatures is often a complicated task in oriental languages such as Pashto, Urdu, Persian and Arabic. Research on cursive script recognition often ignores the fact that scaling, orientation, location and font variations are common in printed cursive text. Therefore, these variations are not included in image databases and in experimental evaluations. This research uncovers challenges faced by Arabic cursive script recognition in a holistic framework by considering Pashto as a test case, because Pashto language has larger alphabet set than Arabic, Persian and Urdu. A database containing 8000 images of 1000 unique ligatures having scaling, orientation and location variations is introduced. In this article, a feature space based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) along with a segmentation framework has been proposed for overcoming the above mentioned challenges. The experimental results show a significantly improved performance of proposed scheme over traditional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA). PMID:26368566

  6. Robust Optical Recognition of Cursive Pashto Script Using Scale, Rotation and Location Invariant Approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Riaz; Naz, Saeeda; Afzal, Muhammad Zeshan; Amin, Sayed Hassan; Breuel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a large number of unique shapes called ligatures in cursive languages, along with variations due to scaling, orientation and location provides one of the most challenging pattern recognition problems. Recognition of the large number of ligatures is often a complicated task in oriental languages such as Pashto, Urdu, Persian and Arabic. Research on cursive script recognition often ignores the fact that scaling, orientation, location and font variations are common in printed cursive text. Therefore, these variations are not included in image databases and in experimental evaluations. This research uncovers challenges faced by Arabic cursive script recognition in a holistic framework by considering Pashto as a test case, because Pashto language has larger alphabet set than Arabic, Persian and Urdu. A database containing 8000 images of 1000 unique ligatures having scaling, orientation and location variations is introduced. In this article, a feature space based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) along with a segmentation framework has been proposed for overcoming the above mentioned challenges. The experimental results show a significantly improved performance of proposed scheme over traditional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA).

  7. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  8. Molecular Recognition and Ligand Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We review recent developments in our understanding of molecular recognition and ligand association, focusing on two major viewpoints: (a) studies that highlight new physical insight into the molecular recognition process and the driving forces determining thermodynamic signatures of binding and (b) recent methodological advances in applications to protein-ligand binding. In particular, we highlight the challenges posed by compensating enthalpic and entropic terms, competing solute and solvent contributions, and the relevance of complex configurational ensembles comprising multiple protein, ligand, and solvent intermediate states. As more complete physics is taken into account, computational approaches increase their ability to complement experimental measurements, by providing a microscopic, dynamic view of ensemble-averaged experimental observables. Physics-based approaches are increasingly expanding their power in pharmacology applications.

  9. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  10. Quantum-Limited Image Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    middle of the range, as was done here. This accounts for the majority of the error between thoery and experiment shown in Figs. 5.5 and 5.6. Note that even... USERS Unclassified 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL G. Michael Morris 716-275-5140 D0 FORM...utilized in a cluttered environment. iv The estimation of moment invariants for image recognition is also considered. Experiments are performed that

  11. Speech Recognition in 7 Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    best monolingual cross-lingual [10] F. Weng, H. Bratt, L. Neumeyer, and A. Stol- recognizers could not always be tested. cke. A Study of Multilingual ...are r the same tm the proaches, namely portation, cross-lingual and simul- two languages are recognized at the same time, the taneous multilingual ...in cross-lingual will present experiments and results for different ap- recognition for different baseline systems and found proaches of multilingual

  12. Receptive Field Structures for Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    that such statistics might be useful for pattern recognition is not new, indeed Julesz (Julesz 1975) suggested that ‘ needle statistics’ could be useful...Gaussians to be manipulated independently of either one’s spatial constant (Figure 4) In so doing, we lose the ability to create ‘ steerable ’ filters...the goal of sensory coding?" Neural Computation 6: 559-601. Freeman, W. T. and E. H. Adelson (1991). "The design and use of steerable filters

  13. Perceptual Organization and Visual Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    spatial relations are detected directly amtong two-dimensional image features. A basic requirement of the recognition process is that perceptual organi... excellent facilities that made this work possible, and made many important contributions to the content of this thesis. Chapter 5 is based largely on his...Mackworth, who gave me an excellent grounding in computer vision while I was an undergraduatc at the University of British Columbia and has continued

  14. Gender recognition from vocal source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, V. N.; Makarov, I. S.

    2008-07-01

    Efficiency of automatic recognition of male and female voices based on solving the inverse problem for glottis area dynamics and for waveform of the glottal airflow volume velocity pulse is studied. The inverse problem is regularized through the use of analytical models of the voice excitation pulse and of the dynamics of the glottis area, as well as the model of one-dimensional glottal airflow. Parameters of these models and spectral parameters of the volume velocity pulse are considered. The following parameters are found to be most promising: the instant of maximum glottis area, the maximum derivative of the area, the slope of the spectrum of the glottal airflow volume velocity pulse, the amplitude ratios of harmonics of this spectrum, and the pitch. On the plane of the first two main components in the space of these parameters, an almost twofold decrease in the classification error relative to that for the pitch alone is attained. The male voice recognition probability is found to be 94.7%, and the female voice recognition probability is 95.9%.

  15. Face Recognition Incorporating Ancillary Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Ki; Toh, Kar-Ann; Lee, Sangyoun

    2007-12-01

    Due to vast variations of extrinsic and intrinsic imaging conditions, face recognition remained to be a challenging computer vision problem even today. This is particularly true when the passive imaging approach is considered for robust applications. To advance existing recognition systems for face, numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to overcome the almost inevitable performance degradation due to external factors such as pose, expression, occlusion, and illumination. In particular, the recent part-based method has provided noticeable room for verification performance improvement based on the localized features which have good tolerance to variation of external conditions. The part-based method, however, does not really stretch the performance without incorporation of global information from the holistic method. In view of the need to fuse the local information and the global information in an adaptive manner for reliable recognition, in this paper we investigate whether such external factors can be explicitly estimated and be used to boost the verification performance during fusion of the holistic and part-based methods. Our empirical evaluations show noticeable performance improvement adopting the proposed method.

  16. Fingerprint recognition using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dholay, Surekha; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-06-01

    Finger Print Recognition is concerned with the difficult task of matching the images of finger print of a person with the finger print present in the database efficiently. Finger print Recognition is used in forensic science which helps in finding the criminals and also used in authentication of a particular person. Since, Finger print is the only thing which is unique among the people and changes from person to person. The present paper describes finger print recognition methods using various edge detection techniques and also how to detect correct finger print using a camera images. The present paper describes the method that does not require a special device but a simple camera can be used for its processes. Hence, the describe technique can also be using in a simple camera mobile phone. The various factors affecting the process will be poor illumination, noise disturbance, viewpoint-dependence, Climate factors, and Imaging conditions. The described factor has to be considered so we have to perform various image enhancement techniques so as to increase the quality and remove noise disturbance of image. The present paper describe the technique of using contour tracking on the finger print image then using edge detection on the contour and after that matching the edges inside the contour.

  17. Automatic speech recognition technology development at ITT Defense Communications Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, George M.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the applications of automatic speech recognition to defense communication systems is presented. Future research efforts include investigations into the following areas: (1) dynamic programming; (2) recognition of speech degraded by noise; (3) speaker independent recognition; (4) large vocabulary recognition; (5) word spotting and continuous speech recognition; and (6) isolated word recognition.

  18. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy.

  19. Thermodynamic Modeling of Donor Splice Site Recognition in pre-mRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalberts, Daniel P.; Garland, Jeffrey A.

    2004-03-01

    When eukaryotic genes are edited by the spliceosome, the first step in intron recognition is the binding of a U1 snRNA with the donor (5') splice site. We model this interaction thermodynamically to identify splice sites. Applied to a set of 65 annotated genes, our Finding with Binding method achieves a significant separation between real and false sites. Analyzing binding patterns allows us to discard a large number of decoy sites. Our results improve statistics-based methods for donor site recognition, demonstrating the promise of physical modeling to find functional elements in the genome.

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of donor splice site recognition in pre-mRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Jeffrey A.; Aalberts, Daniel P.

    2004-04-01

    When eukaryotic genes are edited by the spliceosome, the first step in intron recognition is the binding of a U1 small nuclear RNA with the donor ( 5' ) splice site. We model this interaction thermodynamically to identify splice sites. Applied to a set of 65 annotated genes, our “finding with binding” method achieves a significant separation between real and false sites. Analyzing binding patterns allows us to discard a large number of decoy sites. Our results improve statistics-based methods for donor site recognition, demonstrating the promise of physical modeling to find functional elements in the genome.

  1. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  2. Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John; Wildasin, Michael; Chaltain, Sam

    2002-01-01

    Tells about schools rewarded for upholding First Amendment protections. Discusses the Let Freedom Ring Award. Considers how even the prestige and honor associated with winning national awards for freedom in the schools does not guarantee success in the ongoing fight to practice what the United States Constitution guarantees and educational logic…

  3. Speech recognition technology: a critique.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, S E

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces the session on advanced speech recognition technology. The two papers comprising this session argue that current technology yields a performance that is only an order of magnitude in error rate away from human performance and that incremental improvements will bring us to that desired level. I argue that, to the contrary, present performance is far removed from human performance and a revolution in our thinking is required to achieve the goal. It is further asserted that to bring about the revolution more effort should be expended on basic research and less on trying to prematurely commercialize a deficient technology. PMID:7479808

  4. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchterman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

  5. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  6. Automatic face recognition in HDR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Manuela; Moreno, Juan-Carlos; Proença, Hugo; Pinheiro, António M. G.

    2014-05-01

    The gaining popularity of the new High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging systems is raising new privacy issues caused by the methods used for visualization. HDR images require tone mapping methods for an appropriate visualization on conventional and non-expensive LDR displays. These visualization methods might result in completely different visualization raising several issues on privacy intrusion. In fact, some visualization methods result in a perceptual recognition of the individuals, while others do not even show any identity. Although perceptual recognition might be possible, a natural question that can rise is how computer based recognition will perform using tone mapping generated images? In this paper, a study where automatic face recognition using sparse representation is tested with images that result from common tone mapping operators applied to HDR images. Its ability for the face identity recognition is described. Furthermore, typical LDR images are used for the face recognition training.

  7. Foreign Language Analysis and Recognition (FLARE) Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Cleared 29 April 2015 14. ABSTRACT This interim report provides research results in the areas of automatic speech recognition (ASR) and information...retrieval (IR). 15. SUBJECT TERMS Automatic speech recognition (ASR), information retrieval (IR). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...period 1 October 2012 to 30 November 2014 under contract FA8650-09-D-6939. The following tasks were completed on Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR

  8. Gesture Recognition Development for the Interactive Datawall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2007-280 Final Technical Report January 2008 GESTURE RECOGNITION DEVELOPMENT FOR THE INTERACTIVE DATAWALL...DATES COVERED (From - To) Sep 05 – Sep 07 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-05-C-0257 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GESTURE RECOGNITION DEVELOPMENT... gesture recognition technology. Also, due to the large screen size (12’ x 3’) of the DataWall, oftentimes, it is difficult to precisely identify what

  9. Performance Improvements of the Phoneme Recognition Algorithm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    present time, there are commercially available speech recognition machines that perform limited speech recognition. There are still major drawbacks to...to recognize. Even though the training period has been made fairly painless to the user, it still severely limits the vocabulary the machine can...this information to perform the recognition routines. 47 ..- 7f Alterations to the templates’ spectrum file was limited to changing values in the

  10. Face Recognition Performance: Role of Demographic Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    BTAS). His other research interests include pattern recognition and computer vision . Mark J. Burge is a scientist with The MITRE Corporation, McLean... Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2037–2041, 2006. [23] X. Tan and B. Triggs, “Enhanced local texture feature sets for face recognition ...wavelets for face recognition ,” Pattern Analysis & Applications, vol. 9, pp. 273–292, 2006. [25] M. Riesenhuber and T. Poggio, “Hierarchical models of

  11. Sparsity-motivated automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal M; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Chellappa, Rama

    2011-04-01

    We present an automatic target recognition algorithm using the recently developed theory of sparse representations and compressive sensing. We show how sparsity can be helpful for efficient utilization of data for target recognition. We verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm in terms of the recognition rate and confusion matrices on the well known Comanche (Boeing-Sikorsky, USA) forward-looking IR data set consisting of ten different military targets at different orientations.

  12. Characterization of molecular recognition in gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hierlemann, A.; Ricco, A.J.; Bodenhoefer, K.; Goepel, W.

    1998-08-01

    Molecular recognition is an important topic when searching for new, selective coating materials for chemical sensing. Recently, the general idea of molecular recognition in the gas phase was challenged by Grate et al. However, in earlier thickness-shear mode resonator (TSMR) investigations, convincing evidence was presented for specific recognition of particular analyte target molecules. In this study, the authors systematically investigated coatings previously shown to be highly selective, such as the bucket-like cyclodextrins for chiral recognition, Ni-camphorates for the specific detection of the bases pyridine and DMMP (dimethylmethylphosphonate), and phthalocyanines to specifically detect benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX).

  13. Toward the ultimate synthesis/recognition system.

    PubMed

    Furui, S

    1995-10-24

    This paper predicts speech synthesis, speech recognition, and speaker recognition technology for the year 2001, and it describes the most important research problems to be solved in order to arrive at these ultimate synthesis and recognition systems. The problems for speech synthesis include natural and intelligible voice production, prosody control based on meaning, capability of controlling synthesized voice quality and choosing individual speaking style, multilingual and multidialectal synthesis, choice of application-oriented speaking styles, capability of adding emotion, and synthesis from concepts. The problems for speech recognition include robust recognition against speech variations, adaptation/normalization to variations due to environmental conditions and speakers, automatic knowledge acquisition for acoustic and linguistic modeling, spontaneous speech recognition, naturalness and ease of human-machine interaction, and recognition of emotion. The problems for speaker recognition are similar to those for speech recognition. The research topics related to all these techniques include the use of articulatory and perceptual constraints and evaluation methods for measuring the quality of technology and systems.

  14. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  15. Ordinal measures for iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2009-12-01

    Images of a human iris contain rich texture information useful for identity authentication. A key and still open issue in iris recognition is how best to represent such textural information using a compact set of features (iris features). In this paper, we propose using ordinal measures for iris feature representation with the objective of characterizing qualitative relationships between iris regions rather than precise measurements of iris image structures. Such a representation may lose some image-specific information, but it achieves a good trade-off between distinctiveness and robustness. We show that ordinal measures are intrinsic features of iris patterns and largely invariant to illumination changes. Moreover, compactness and low computational complexity of ordinal measures enable highly efficient iris recognition. Ordinal measures are a general concept useful for image analysis and many variants can be derived for ordinal feature extraction. In this paper, we develop multilobe differential filters to compute ordinal measures with flexible intralobe and interlobe parameters such as location, scale, orientation, and distance. Experimental results on three public iris image databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ordinal feature models.

  16. Dynamic Features for Iris Recognition.

    PubMed

    da Costa, R M; Gonzaga, A

    2012-08-01

    The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises.

  17. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  18. Sonority contours in word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Sean

    2003-04-01

    Contrary to the Generativist distinction between competence and performance which asserts that speech or perception errors are due to random, nonlinguistic factors, it seems likely that errors are principled and possibly governed by some of the same constraints as language. A preliminary investigation of errors modeled after the child's ``Chain Whisper'' game (a degraded stimulus task) suggests that a significant number of recognition errors can be characterized as an improvement in syllable sonority contour towards the linguistically least-marked, voiceless-stop-plus-vowel syllable. An independent study of sonority contours showed that approximately half of the English lexicon can be uniquely identified by their contour alone. Additionally, ``sororities'' (groups of words that share a single sonority contour), surprisingly, show no correlation to familiarity or frequency in either size or membership. Together these results imply that sonority contours may be an important factor in word recognition and in defining word ``neighborhoods.'' Moreover, they suggest that linguistic markedness constraints may be more prevalent in performance-related phenomena than previously accepted.

  19. Automatic testing of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Speech reception tests are commonly administered by manually scoring the oral response of the subject. This requires a test supervisor to be continuously present. To avoid this, a subject can type the response, after which it can be scored automatically. However, spelling errors may then be counted as recognition errors, influencing the test results. We demonstrate an autocorrection approach based on two scoring algorithms to cope with spelling errors. The first algorithm deals with sentences and is based on word scores. The second algorithm deals with single words and is based on phoneme scores. Both algorithms were evaluated with a corpus of typed answers based on three different Dutch speech materials. The percentage of differences between automatic and manual scoring was determined, in addition to the mean difference in speech recognition threshold. The sentence correction algorithm performed at a higher accuracy than commonly obtained with these speech materials. The word correction algorithm performed better than the human operator. Both algorithms can be used in practice and allow speech reception tests with open set speech materials over the internet.

  20. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  1. Dynamic chemistry of anion recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu

    2012-01-01

    In the past 40 years, anion recognition by synthetic receptors has grown into a rich and vibrant research topic, developing into a distinct branch of Supramolecular Chemistry. Traditional anion receptors comprise organic scaffolds functionalized with complementary binding groups that are assembled by multistep organic synthesis. Recently, a new approach to anion receptors has emerged, in which the host is dynamically self-assembled in the presence of the anionic guest, via reversible bond formation between functional building units. While coordination bonds were initially employed for the self-assembly of the anion hosts, more recent studies demonstrated that reversible covalent bonds can serve the same purpose. In both cases, due to their labile connections, the molecular constituents have the ability to assemble, dissociate, and recombine continuously, thereby creating a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) of receptors. The anionic guests, through specific molecular recognition, may then amplify (express) the formation of a particular structure among all possible combinations (real or virtual) by shifting the equilibria involved towards the most optimal receptor. This approach is not limited to solution self-assembly, but is equally applicable to crystallization, where the fittest anion-binding crystal may be selected. Finally, the pros and cons of employing dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) vs molecular design for developing anion receptors, and the implications of both approaches to selective anion separations, will be discussed.

  2. Sequence Recognition in the Pairing of DNA Duplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, A. A.; Leikin, S.

    2001-04-01

    Pairing of DNA fragments with homologous sequences occurs in gene shuffling, DNA repair, and other vital processes. While chemical individuality of base pairs is hidden inside the double helix, x ray and NMR revealed sequence-dependent modulation of the structure of DNA backbone. Here we show that the resulting modulation of the DNA surface charge pattern enables duplexes longer than ~50 base pairs to recognize sequence homology electrostatically at a distance of up to several water layers. This may explain the local recognition observed in pairing of homologous chromosomes and the observed length dependence of homologous recombination.

  3. Pose-Encoded Spherical Harmonics for Face Recognition and Synthesis Using a Single Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Wenyi; Chellappa, Rama

    2007-12-01

    Face recognition under varying pose is a challenging problem, especially when illumination variations are also present. In this paper, we propose to address one of the most challenging scenarios in face recognition. That is, to identify a subject from a test image that is acquired under different pose and illumination condition from only one training sample (also known as a gallery image) of this subject in the database. For example, the test image could be semifrontal and illuminated by multiple lighting sources while the corresponding training image is frontal under a single lighting source. Under the assumption of Lambertian reflectance, the spherical harmonics representation has proved to be effective in modeling illumination variations for a fixed pose. In this paper, we extend the spherical harmonics representation to encode pose information. More specifically, we utilize the fact that 2D harmonic basis images at different poses are related by close-form linear transformations, and give a more convenient transformation matrix to be directly used for basis images. An immediate application is that we can easily synthesize a different view of a subject under arbitrary lighting conditions by changing the coefficients of the spherical harmonics representation. A more important result is an efficient face recognition method, based on the orthonormality of the linear transformations, for solving the above-mentioned challenging scenario. Thus, we directly project a nonfrontal view test image onto the space of frontal view harmonic basis images. The impact of some empirical factors due to the projection is embedded in a sparse warping matrix; for most cases, we show that the recognition performance does not deteriorate after warping the test image to the frontal view. Very good recognition results are obtained using this method for both synthetic and challenging real images.

  4. Dreaming and waking consciousness: a character recognition study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, D; Stickgold, R; Pace-Schott, E F; Hobson, J A

    2000-12-01

    The formal features of dream characters were studied in a sample of 320 dream reports submitted by 33 adult subjects (13 male, 20 female) of varying ages in a university extension course. Subjects were queried by questionnaire about dream characters immediately after recording their dreams upon awakening in their normal home setting. It was found that 48% of characters represented a named personage known to the dreamer, 35% were generically identified by their social role (e.g., policeman) or abstract relation to the dreamer (e.g., a friend) while only 16% were wholly novel. Seventy-seven percent of characters were pseudosensorily present in the dream whereas 23% were present only by mention or thought. Subjects were allowed to endorse one or more of four bases of recognition and, among named characters, 32% were identified by 'appearance', 21% by 'behavior', 45% by 'face', and 44% by 'just knowing' (with the respective percentages for generic characters being 39%, 38%, 9% and 40%). Fourteen percent of named and generic characters had associated some element of bizarreness most frequently consisting of an incongruous feature. Comparing the 25 longest and 25 shortest reports, named subjects were significantly more common in the shortest reports whereas generic and unknown characters were more common in the longest reports. Results are interpreted in neurocognitive terms as possibly reflecting a decrease during dreaming relative to waking in the exchange of information between inferotemporal face identification areas and prefrontal areas subserving logic and working memory.

  5. Geometry Of Discrete Sets With Applications To Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Divyendu

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present a new framework for discrete black and white images that employs only integer arithmetic. This framework is shown to retain the essential characteristics of the framework for Euclidean images. We propose two norms and based on them, the permissible geometric operations on images are defined. The basic invariants of our geometry are line images, structure of image and the corresponding local property of strong attachment of pixels. The permissible operations also preserve the 3x3 neighborhoods, area, and perpendicularity. The structure, patterns, and the inter-pattern gaps in a discrete image are shown to be conserved by the magnification and contraction process. Our notions of approximate congruence, similarity and symmetry are similar, in character, to the corresponding notions, for Euclidean images [1]. We mention two discrete pattern recognition algorithms that work purely with integers, and which fit into our framework. Their performance has been shown to be at par with the performance of traditional geometric schemes. Also, all the undesired effects of finite length registers in fixed point arithmetic that plague traditional algorithms, are non-existent in this family of algorithms.

  6. Data compressor designed to improve recognition of magnetic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, E. E.; Saravia, G.; Cortez, L. V.

    2012-02-01

    Data compressors available in the web have been used to determine magnetic phases for two-dimensional (2D) systems [E. Vogel, G. Saravia, F. Bachmann, B. Fierro, J. Fischer, Phase transitions in Edwards-Anderson model by means of information theory, Physica A 388 2009 4075-4082]. In the present work, we push this line forward along four different directions. First, the compressor itself: we design a new data compressor, named wlzip, optimized for the recognition of information having physical (or scientific) information instead of the random digital information usually compressed. Second, for the first time we extend the data compression analysis to the 3D Ising ferromagnetic model using wlzip. Third, we discuss the tuning possibilities of wlzip in terms of the number of digits considered in the compression to yield maximum definition; in this way, the transition temperature of both 2D and 3D Ising ferromagnets can be reported with very good resolution. Fourth, the extension of the time window through which the data file is actually compressed is also considered to get optimum accuracy. The paper is focused on the new compressor, its algorithm in general and the way to apply it. Advantages and disadvantages of wlzip are discussed. Toward the end, we mention other possible applications of this technique to recognize stable and unstable regimes in the evolution of variables in meteorology (such as pollution content or atmospheric pressure), biology (blood pressure) and econophysics (prices of the stock market).

  7. Appearance and Reality: Does a Recognition Test Really Improve Subsequent Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandler, George; Rabinowitz, Jan C.

    1981-01-01

    That additional exposure to memorial material improves subsequent retrieval probabilities was explored. The effect of a recognition test on subsequent recall and recognition of categorized lists was studied. Prior recognition tests increased recall of original items, but also increased intrusions. Similarly, prior exposure increased hit rates and…

  8. A Neural Basis of Facial Action Recognition in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramprakash; Golomb, Julie D.

    2016-01-01

    By combining different facial muscle actions, called action units, humans can produce an extraordinarily large number of facial expressions. Computational models and studies in cognitive science and social psychology have long hypothesized that the brain needs to visually interpret these action units to understand other people's actions and intentions. Surprisingly, no studies have identified the neural basis of the visual recognition of these action units. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an innovative machine learning analysis approach, we identify a consistent and differential coding of action units in the brain. Crucially, in a brain region thought to be responsible for the processing of changeable aspects of the face, multivoxel pattern analysis could decode the presence of specific action units in an image. This coding was found to be consistent across people, facilitating the estimation of the perceived action units on participants not used to train the multivoxel decoder. Furthermore, this coding of action units was identified when participants attended to the emotion category of the facial expression, suggesting an interaction between the visual analysis of action units and emotion categorization as predicted by the computational models mentioned above. These results provide the first evidence for a representation of action units in the brain and suggest a mechanism for the analysis of large numbers of facial actions and a loss of this capacity in psychopathologies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Computational models and studies in cognitive and social psychology propound that visual recognition of facial expressions requires an intermediate step to identify visible facial changes caused by the movement of specific facial muscles. Because facial expressions are indeed created by moving one's facial muscles, it is logical to assume that our visual system solves this inverse problem. Here, using an innovative machine learning method and

  9. Mammalian social odours: attraction and individual recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Peter A; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian social systems rely on signals passed between individuals conveying information including sex, reproductive status, individual identity, ownership, competitive ability and health status. Many of these signals take the form of complex mixtures of molecules sensed by chemosensory systems and have important influences on a variety of behaviours that are vital for reproductive success, such as parent–offspring attachment, mate choice and territorial marking. This article aims to review the nature of these chemosensory cues and the neural pathways mediating their physiological and behavioural effects. Despite the complexities of mammalian societies, there are instances where single molecules can act as classical pheromones attracting interest and approach behaviour. Chemosignals with relatively high volatility can be used to signal at a distance and are sensed by the main olfactory system. Most mammals also possess a vomeronasal system, which is specialized to detect relatively non-volatile chemosensory cues following direct contact. Single attractant molecules are sensed by highly specific receptors using a labelled line pathway. These act alongside more complex mixtures of signals that are required to signal individual identity. There are multiple sources of such individuality chemosignals, based on the highly polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or lipocalins such as the mouse major urinary proteins. The individual profile of volatile components that make up an individual odour signature can be sensed by the main olfactory system, as the pattern of activity across an array of broadly tuned receptor types. In addition, the vomeronasal system can respond highly selectively to non-volatile peptide ligands associated with the MHC, acting at the V2r class of vomeronasal receptor. The ability to recognize individuals or their genetic relatedness plays an important role in mammalian social behaviour. Thus robust systems for olfactory

  10. Genes underlying altruism.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Graham J; Hurd, Peter L; Crespi, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article, we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism and describe the first candidate genes affecting altruism from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically based trade-offs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between alleles for altruism and alleles for non-social cognition. Such trade-offs between self-oriented and altruistic behaviour may influence the evolution of phenotypic diversity across all social animals.

  11. Refining Measurement of Substance Use Disorders Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Using Hospital Records: The Development of the Explicit-Mention Substance Abuse Need for Treatment in Women (EMSANT-W) Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Derrington, Taletha Mae; Bernstein, Judith; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2015-10-01

    Substance use disorder (SUD) in women of reproductive age is associated with adverse health consequences for both women and their offspring. US states need a feasible population-based, case-identification tool to generate better approximations of SUD prevalence, treatment use, and treatment outcomes among women. This article presents the development of the Explicit Mention Substance Abuse Need for Treatment in Women (EMSANT-W), a gender-tailored tool based upon existing International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification diagnostic code-based groupers that can be applied to hospital administrative data. Gender-tailoring entailed the addition of codes related to infants, pregnancy, and prescription drug abuse, as well as the creation of inclusion/exclusion rules based on other conditions present in the diagnostic record. Among 1,728,027 women and associated infants who accessed hospital care from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008 in Massachusetts, EMSANT-W identified 103,059 women with probable SUD. EMSANT-W identified 4,116 women who were not identified by the widely used Clinical Classifications Software for Mental Health and Substance Abuse (CCS-MHSA) and did not capture 853 women identified by CCS-MHSA. Content and approach innovations in EMSANT-W address potential limitations of the Clinical Classifications Software, and create a methodologically sound, gender-tailored and feasible population-based tool for identifying women of reproductive age in need of further evaluation for SUD treatment. Rapid changes in health care service infrastructure, delivery systems and policies require tools such as the EMSANT-W that provide more precise identification methods for sub-populations and can serve as the foundation for analyses of treatment use and outcomes.

  12. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  13. Place recognition using batlike sonar.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-08-02

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map.

  14. Segmental Rescoring in Text Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-04

    ttm № tes/m, m* tmvr mowm* a Smyrna Of l δrtA£ACf02S’ A w m - y i p m AmiKSiS € f № ) C № № m .. sg6#?«rA fiθN ; Atφ h Sft№’·’Spxn mm m fim f№b t&m&mm...applying a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) recognition approach. Generating the plurality text hypotheses for the image forming includes generating a first...image. Applying segmental analysis to a segmentation determined by a first OCR engine, such as a segmentation determined by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM

  15. Recognition of caudal regression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boulas, Mari M

    2009-04-01

    Caudal regression syndrome, also referred to as caudal dysplasia and sacral agenesis syndrome, is a rare congenital malformation characterized by varying degrees of developmental failure early in gestation. It involves the lower extremities, the lumbar and coccygeal vertebrae, and corresponding segments of the spinal cord. This is a rare disorder, and true pathogenesis is unclear. The etiology is thought to be related to maternal diabetes, genetic predisposition, and vascular hypoperfusion, but no true causative factor has been determined. Fetal diagnostic tools allow for early recognition of the syndrome, and careful examination of the newborn is essential to determine the extent of the disorder. Associated organ system dysfunction depends on the severity of the disease. Related defects are structural, and systematic problems including respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, urinary, orthopedic, and neurologic can be present in varying degrees of severity and in different combinations. A multidisciplinary approach to management is crucial. Because the primary pathology is irreversible, treatment is only supportive.

  16. New methods in iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Daugman, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  17. Automatic recognition of auroral forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudovkin, Mikhail I.; Steen, Ake; Nikolaev, N. V.; Kornilov, O. I.; Brandstrom, Urban; Gustavsson, Bjorn; Rydesater, Peter

    1999-03-01

    A method for recognition of geometrical shapes in auroral forms is presented. The method is based on the analysis of isolines of auroral luminosity shapes. The basic variables used are the angle, (phi) (s), between the tangent of the contour and the x-axis of an arbitrary coordinate system, and the differential, d(phi) (s), as a function of the distance, s, along the contour. The analysis also includes Fourier transformation of the experimental function d(phi) (s) obtained for the observed auroral forms, and the comparison of the power spectrum, F(k), with those for a series of model contours. Some dynamical characteristics of the aurora are also discussed.

  18. Brain wave recognition of words.

    PubMed

    Suppes, P; Lu, Z L; Han, B

    1997-12-23

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of seven subjects under three experimental conditions were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of seven words was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject and condition. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied widely, but all but one of 24 were significantly different from chance. The two best were above 90%. These results show that brain waves carry substantial information about the word being processed under experimental conditions of conscious awareness.

  19. Pattern recognition systems and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, G. D.; Serreyn, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of the pattern recognition tasks are to develop (1) a man-machine interactive data processing system; and (2) procedures to determine effective features as a function of time for crops and soils. The signal analysis and dissemination equipment, SADE, is being developed as a man-machine interactive data processing system. SADE will provide imagery and multi-channel analog tape inputs for digitation and a color display of the data. SADE is an essential tool to aid in the investigation to determine useful features as a function of time for crops and soils. Four related studies are: (1) reliability of the multivariate Gaussian assumption; (2) usefulness of transforming features with regard to the classifier probability of error; (3) advantage of selecting quantizer parameters to minimize the classifier probability of error; and (4) advantage of using contextual data. The study of transformation of variables (features), especially those experimental studies which can be completed with the SADE system, will be done.

  20. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  1. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-11-06

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  2. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  3. Object Recognition Memory and the Rodent Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…

  4. Isolated Speech Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    In this project Artificial Neural Networks are used as research tool to accomplish Automated Speech Recognition of normal speech. A small size...the first stage of this work are satisfactory and thus the application of artificial neural networks in conjunction with cepstral analysis in isolated word recognition holds promise.

  5. Recognition hypermnesia: how to get it.

    PubMed

    Bergstein, Jacquelyn; Erdelyi, Matthew

    2008-10-01

    Although recall hypermnesia (enhanced recall) over time with repeated testing has by now become an established empirical fact, its recognition counterpart, recognition hypermnesia, has defied clear-cut laboratory confirmation. In four studies, which relied on the retrieval component of recognition memory, it was shown that recognition memory, indexed by d', reliably improved over three successive recognition tests. The stimuli consisted of 140 cartoons, each comprising a picture and a verbal caption. Recognition memory was tested on transforms or part-forms (parts) of the original stimulus material (pictures only, verbal paraphrases of the pictures, the latent content of the cartoons, or the combination of paraphrases and latent contents). The strongest effects were obtained when the originally presented cartoons were tested on their latent (deep semantic) contents. Recognition hypermnesia for part-forms or transforms of earlier presented stimuli has potentially wide-ranging implications since real-world recognition--of faces, texts, visual scenes--usually involves recognising stimuli that are variants, not exact copies, of the originally encountered materials.

  6. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  7. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  8. Gesture recognition for interactive exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jedediah; Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Scott, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a gesture recognition system which can recognize seated exercises that will be incorporated into an in-home automated interactive exercise program. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are used as a motion classifier, with motion features extracted from the grayscale images and the location of the subject's head estimated at initialization. An overall recognition rate of 94.1% is achieved.

  9. Recognition without Awareness: Encoding and Retrieval Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craik, Fergus I. M.; Rose, Nathan S.; Gopie, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The article reports 4 experiments that explore the notion of recognition without awareness using words as the material. Previous work by Voss and associates has shown that complex visual patterns were correctly selected as targets in a 2-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) recognition test although participants reported that they were guessing. The…

  10. Implicit Relational Effects in Associative Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algarabel, S.; Pitarque, A.; Combita, L. M.; Rodriguez, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the contribution of implicit relatedness to associative recognition in two experiments. In the first experiment, we showed an implicit improvement in recognition when the stimulus elements of each word pair shared common letters and they were unpaired at test. Moreover, when asked to study the stimuli under divided attention, recollection…

  11. Recognition without Awareness: An Elusive Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent studies described conditions under which recognition memory performance appeared to be driven by nondeclarative memory. Specifically, participants successfully discriminated old images from highly similar new images even when no conscious memory for the images could be retrieved. Paradoxically, recognition performance was better when…

  12. Performing speech recognition research with hypercard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a HyperCard-based system for performing speech recognition research and to instruct Human Factors professionals on how to use the system to obtain detailed data about the user interface of a prototype speech recognition application.

  13. Speech recognition: how good is good enough?

    PubMed

    Krohn, Richard

    2002-03-01

    Since its infancy in the early 1990s, the technology of speech recognition has undergone a rapid evolution. Not only has the reliability of the programming improved dramatically, the return on investment has become increasingly compelling. The author describes some of the latest health care applications of speech-recognition technology, and how the next advances will be made in this area.

  14. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  15. Online Handwriting Recognition for Indic Scripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, A.; Madhvanath, Sriganesh

    Online handwriting recognition refers to the problem of machine recognition of handwriting captured in the form of pen trajectories. The recognition technology holds significant promise for Indic scripts, given that the Indic languages are used by a sixth of the world’s population, and the greater ease of use of handwriting-based text input for these scripts compared to keyboard-based methods. Even though the recognition of handwritten Devanagari, Bangla, and Tamil has received significant attention in recent times, one may say that research efforts directed at Indic script recognition in general are in their early stages. The structure of the scripts and the variety of shapes and writing styles pose challenges that are different from other scripts and hence require customized techniques for feature representation and recognition. In this chapter, we describe the challenges in recognizing online handwriting in Indic scripts and provide an overview of the state of the art for isolated character and word recognition. We then present in brief some of the promising applications, starting with handwriting-based text input systems (IMEs) that have been built for entering Indic scripts. In the last section, we provide a few pointers to resources such as tools and data sets that are currently available for online Indic script recognition research. endabstract

  16. Sources of Interference in Recognition Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Jeffrey; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Criss, Amy H.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition memory accuracy is harmed by prior testing (a.k.a., output interference [OI]; Tulving & Arbuckle, 1966). In several experiments, we interpolated various tasks between recognition test trials. The stimuli and the tasks were more similar (lexical decision [LD] of words and nonwords) or less similar (gender identification of male and…

  17. BDNF controls object recognition memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Radiske, Andressa; Rossato, Janine I; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Köhler, Cristiano A; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Cammarota, Martín

    2017-03-06

    Reconsolidation restabilizes memory after reactivation. Previously, we reported that the hippocampus is engaged in object recognition memory reconsolidation to allow incorporation of new information into the original engram. Here we show that BDNF is sufficient for this process, and that blockade of BDNF function in dorsal CA1 impairs updating of the reactivated recognition memory trace.

  18. Proline-rich Sequence Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Schlundt, Andreas; Sticht, Jana; Piotukh, Kirill; Kosslick, Daniela; Jahnke, Nadin; Keller, Sandro; Schuemann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Freund, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The tumor maintenance protein Tsg101 has recently gained much attention because of its involvement in endosomal sorting, virus release, cytokinesis, and cancerogenesis. The ubiquitin-E2-like variant (UEV) domain of the protein interacts with proline-rich sequences of target proteins that contain P(S/T)AP amino acid motifs and weakly binds to the ubiquitin moiety of proteins committed to sorting or degradation. Here we performed peptide spot analysis and phage display to refine the peptide binding specificity of the Tsg101 UEV domain. A mass spectrometric proteomics approach that combines domain-based pulldown experiments, binding site inactivation, and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was then used to delineate the relative importance of the peptide and ubiquitin binding sites. Clearly “PTAP” interactions dominate target recognition, and we identified several novel binders as for example the poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1), Sec24b, NFκB2, and eIF4b. For PABP1 and eIF4b the interactions were confirmed in the context of the corresponding full-length proteins in cellular lysates. Therefore, our results strongly suggest additional roles of Tsg101 in cellular regulation of mRNA translation. Regulation of Tsg101 itself by the ubiquitin ligase TAL (Tsg101-associated ligase) is most likely conferred by a single PSAP binding motif that enables the interaction with Tsg101 UEV. Together with the results from the accompanying article (Kofler, M., Schuemann, M., Merz, C., Kosslick, D., Schlundt, A., Tannert, A., Schaefer, M., Lührmann, R., Krause, E., and Freund, C. (2009) Proline-rich sequence recognition: I. Marking GYF and WW domain assembly sites in early spliceosomal complexes. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 8, 2461–2473) on GYF and WW domain pathways our work defines major proline-rich sequence-mediated interaction networks that contribute to the modular assembly of physiologically relevant protein complexes. PMID:19542561

  19. An improved finger-vein recognition algorithm based on template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueyue; Di, Si; Jin, Jian; Huang, Daoping

    2016-10-01

    Finger-vein recognition has became the most popular biometric identify methods. The investigation on the recognition algorithms always is the key point in this field. So far, there are many applicable algorithms have been developed. However, there are still some problems in practice, such as the variance of the finger position which may lead to the image distortion and shifting; during the identification process, some matching parameters determined according to experience may also reduce the adaptability of algorithm. Focus on above mentioned problems, this paper proposes an improved finger-vein recognition algorithm based on template matching. In order to enhance the robustness of the algorithm for the image distortion, the least squares error method is adopted to correct the oblique finger. During the feature extraction, local adaptive threshold method is adopted. As regard as the matching scores, we optimized the translation preferences as well as matching distance between the input images and register images on the basis of Naoto Miura algorithm. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can improve the robustness effectively under the finger shifting and rotation conditions.

  20. Optoelectronic-based face recognition versus electronic PCA-based face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsamman, A.

    2003-11-01

    Face recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) using eigenfaces is popular in face recognition markets. In this paper we present a comparison between various optoelectronic face recognition techniques and principal component analysis (PCA) based technique for face recognition. Computer simulations are used to study the effectiveness of PCA based technique especially for facial images with a high level of distortion. Results are then compared to various distortion-invariant optoelectronic face recognition algorithms such as synthetic discriminant functions (SDF), projection-slice SDF, optical correlator based neural networks, and pose estimation based correlation.

  1. Intact recognition of facial expression, gender, and age in patients with impaired recognition of face identity.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D; Damasio, A R; Damasio, H

    1988-05-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to assess the ability to recognize the meaning of facial expressions, gender, and age in four patients with severe impairments of the recognition of facial identity. In three patients the recognition of face identity could be dissociated from that of facial expression, age, and gender. In one, all forms of face recognition were impaired. Thus, a given lesion may preclude one type of recognition but not another. We conclude that (1) the cognitive demands posed by different forms of recognition are met at different processing levels, and (2) different levels depend on different neural substrates.

  2. Review of chart recognition in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Lu, Xiaoqing; Qin, Yeyang; Tang, Zhi; Xu, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    As an effective information transmitting way, chart is widely used to represent scientific statistics datum in books, research papers, newspapers etc. Though textual information is still the major source of data, there has been an increasing trend of introducing graphs, pictures, and figures into the information pool. Text recognition techniques for documents have been accomplished using optical character recognition (OCR) software. Chart recognition techniques as a necessary supplement of OCR for document images are still an unsolved problem due to the great subjectiveness and variety of charts styles. This paper reviews the development process of chart recognition techniques in the past decades and presents the focuses of current researches. The whole process of chart recognition is presented systematically, which mainly includes three parts: chart segmentation, chart classification, and chart Interpretation. In each part, the latest research work is introduced. In the last, the paper concludes with a summary and promising future research direction.

  3. Small feature recognition of moving targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an approach related to automated recognition of small features of movable targets including fast moving objects such as airplanes, etc. Small features recognition is a challenging problem in both fields: pattern recognition of particular configurations and of complexes comprising a number of configurations. Specific target details, although well characterized by their features are often arranged in an elaborated way which makes the recognition task very difficult and welcomes new ideas (approaches). On the other hand, the variety of small characters (features) is intrinsically linked to the technology development of the identified targets and is unavoidable. Due to the complexity of possible technological designs, the feature representation is one of the key issues in optical pattern recognition. A flexible hierarchical prediction modeling is proposed with application examples.

  4. Enantioselective Recognition by Chiral Supramolecular Gels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Qingxian; Liu, Minghua

    2016-10-06

    Chiral supramolecular gels, in which small organic molecules self-assemble into chiral nanostructures and entangle each other to immobilize solvents through various noncovalent interactions, can work as a matrix for enantioselective recognition on chiral analytes. Through gelation and the formation of well-defined nanostructures, the chiral sense of the component molecules can be accumulated or amplified, and thus, the enantioselective recognition ability can be enhanced. Furthermore, a chiral microenvironment formed in the gel networks could provide additional stereochemical recognition geometry and attribute to efficient recognition. In this focus review, enantioselective recognition on chiral analytes through chiral supramolecular gels, with either amplified signals or the gel-sol phase transition, is discussed. This review is expected to provide useful insights into the design and fabrication of supramolecular gel systems with chiral features and high enantioselectivity.

  5. Macromolecular recognition and macroscopic interactions by cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akira; Takashima, Yoshinori

    2013-10-01

    Herein macromolecular recognition by cyclodextrins (CDs) is summarized. Recognition of macromolecules by CDs is classified as main-chain recognition or side-chain recognition. We found that CDs form inclusion complexes with various polymers with high selectivity. Polyrotaxanes in which many CDs are entrapped in a polymer chain were prepared. Tubular polymers were prepared from the polyrotaxanes. CDs were found to recognize side-chains of polymers selectively. CD host polymers were found to form gels with guest polymers in water. These gels showed self-healing properties. When azobenzene was used as a guest, the gel showed sol-gel transition by photoirradiation. When ferrocene was used, redox-responsive gels were obtained. Macroscopic self-assembly through molecular recognition has been discovered. Photoswitchable gel association and dissociation have been observed.

  6. A Novel Transcriptional Regulator Related to Thiamine Phosphate Synthase Controls Thiamine Metabolism Genes in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, Dmitry A; Leyn, Semen A; Li, Xiaoqing; Rodionova, Irina A

    2017-02-15

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a precursor of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), an essential coenzyme in the central metabolism of all living organisms. Bacterial thiamine biosynthesis and salvage genes are controlled at the RNA level by TPP-responsive riboswitches. In Archaea, TPP riboswitches are restricted to the Thermoplasmatales order. Mechanisms of transcriptional control of thiamine genes in other archaeal lineages remain unknown. Using the comparative genomics approach, we identified a novel family of transcriptional regulators (named ThiR) controlling thiamine biosynthesis and transport genes in diverse lineages in the Crenarchaeota phylum as well as in the Halobacteria and Thermococci classes of the Euryarchaeota ThiR regulators are composed of an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain, which is similar to the archaeal thiamine phosphate synthase ThiN. By using comparative genomics, we predicted ThiR-binding DNA motifs and reconstructed ThiR regulons in 67 genomes representing all above-mentioned lineages. The predicted ThiR-binding motifs are characterized by palindromic symmetry with several distinct lineage-specific consensus sequences. In addition to thiamine biosynthesis genes, the reconstructed ThiR regulons include various transporters for thiamine and its precursors. Bioinformatics predictions were experimentally validated by in vitro DNA-binding assays with the recombinant ThiR protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Metallosphaera yellowstonensis MK1. Thiamine phosphate and, to some extent, TPP and hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate were required for the binding of ThiR to its DNA targets, suggesting that ThiR is derepressed by limitation of thiamine phosphates. The thiamine phosphate-binding residues previously identified in ThiN are highly conserved in ThiR regulators, suggesting a conserved mechanism for effector recognition.

  7. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  8. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  9. Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Biechl, Daniela; Tietje, Kristin; Gerlach, Gabriele; Wullimann, Mario F

    2016-04-18

    Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal.

  10. Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Biechl, Daniela; Tietje, Kristin; Gerlach, Gabriele; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal. PMID:27087508

  11. Named Entity Recognition for Bacterial Type IV Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents. PMID:21468321

  12. Apply lightweight recognition algorithms in optical music recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Viet-Khoi; Nguyen, Hai-Dang; Nguyen-Khac, Tung-Anh; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2015-02-01

    The problems of digitalization and transformation of musical scores into machine-readable format are necessary to be solved since they help people to enjoy music, to learn music, to conserve music sheets, and even to assist music composers. However, the results of existing methods still require improvements for higher accuracy. Therefore, the authors propose lightweight algorithms for Optical Music Recognition to help people to recognize and automatically play musical scores. In our proposal, after removing staff lines and extracting symbols, each music symbol is represented as a grid of identical M ∗ N cells, and the features are extracted and classified with multiple lightweight SVM classifiers. Through experiments, the authors find that the size of 10 ∗ 12 cells yields the highest precision value. Experimental results on the dataset consisting of 4929 music symbols taken from 18 modern music sheets in the Synthetic Score Database show that our proposed method is able to classify printed musical scores with accuracy up to 99.56%.

  13. Recognition of a signal peptide by the signal recognition particle

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Claudia Y.; Li, Jade; Oubridge, Chris; Hernández, Helena; Robinson, Carol V.; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Targeting of proteins to appropriate sub-cellular compartments is a crucial process in all living cells. Secretory and membrane proteins usually contain an N-terminal signal peptide, which is recognised by the signal recognition particle (SRP) when nascent polypeptide chains emerge from the ribosome. The SRP-ribosome nascent chain complex is then targeted through its GTP-dependent interaction with SRP-receptor to the protein-conducting channel on endoplasmic reticulum membrane in eukaryotes or plasma membrane in bacteria. A universally conserved component of SRP1, 2, SRP54 or its bacterial homolog, fifty-four homolog (Ffh), binds the signal peptides which have a highly divergent sequence divisible into a positively charged n-region, an h-region commonly containing 8-20 hydrophobic residues and a polar c-region 3-5. No structure has been reported that exemplified SRP54 binding of any signal sequence. We have produced a fusion protein between Sulfolobus solfataricus SRP54 and a signal peptide connected via a flexible linker. This fusion protein oligomerises in solution, through interaction between the SRP54 and signal peptide moieties belonging to different chains, and it is functional, able to bind SRP RNA and SRP-receptor FtsY. Here we present the crystal structure at 3.5 Å resolution of an SRP54-signal peptide complex in the dimer, which reveals how a signal sequence is recognised by SRP54. PMID:20364120

  14. The Neural Basis of Nonvisual Object Recognition Memory in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Albasser, Mathieu M.; Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M.; Amin, Eman; Horne, Murray R.; Newton, Michael J.; Warburton, E. Clea; Aggleton, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the neural basis of recognition memory has traditionally focused on the remembrance of visual stimuli. The present study examined the neural basis of object recognition memory in the dark, with a view to determining the extent to which it shares common pathways with visual-based object recognition. Experiment 1 assessed the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in rats that discriminated novel from familiar objects in the dark (Group Novel). Comparisons made with a control group that explored only familiar objects (Group Familiar) showed that Group Novel had higher c-fos activity in the rostral perirhinal cortex and the lateral entorhinal cortex. Outside the temporal region, Group Novel showed relatively increased c-fos activity in the anterior medial thalamic nucleus and the anterior cingulate cortex. Both the hippocampal CA fields and the granular retrosplenial cortex showed borderline increases in c-fos activity with object novelty. The hippocampal findings prompted Experiment 2. Here, rats with hippocampal lesions were tested in the dark for object recognition memory at different retention delays. Across two replications, no evidence was found that hippocampal lesions impair nonvisual object recognition. The results indicate that in the dark, as in the light, interrelated parahippocampal sites are activated when rats explore novel stimuli. These findings reveal a network of linked c-fos activations that share superficial features with those associated with visual recognition but differ in the fine details; for example, in the locus of the perirhinal cortex activation. While there may also be a relative increase in c-fos activation in the extended-hippocampal system to object recognition in the dark, there was no evidence that this recognition memory problem required an intact hippocampus. PMID:23244291

  15. The neural basis of nonvisual object recognition memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M; Amin, Eman; Horne, Murray R; Newton, Michael J; Warburton, E Clea; Aggleton, John P

    2013-02-01

    Research into the neural basis of recognition memory has traditionally focused on the remembrance of visual stimuli. The present study examined the neural basis of object recognition memory in the dark, with a view to determining the extent to which it shares common pathways with visual-based object recognition. Experiment 1 assessed the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in rats that discriminated novel from familiar objects in the dark (Group Novel). Comparisons made with a control group that explored only familiar objects (Group Familiar) showed that Group Novel had higher c-fos activity in the rostral perirhinal cortex and the lateral entorhinal cortex. Outside the temporal region, Group Novel showed relatively increased c-fos activity in the anterior medial thalamic nucleus and the anterior cingulate cortex. Both the hippocampal CA fields and the granular retrosplenial cortex showed borderline increases in c-fos activity with object novelty. The hippocampal findings prompted Experiment 2. Here, rats with hippocampal lesions were tested in the dark for object recognition memory at different retention delays. Across two replications, no evidence was found that hippocampal lesions impair nonvisual object recognition. The results indicate that in the dark, as in the light, interrelated parahippocampal sites are activated when rats explore novel stimuli. These findings reveal a network of linked c-fos activations that share superficial features with those associated with visual recognition but differ in the fine details; for example, in the locus of the perirhinal cortex activation. While there may also be a relative increase in c-fos activation in the extended-hippocampal system to object recognition in the dark, there was no evidence that this recognition memory problem required an intact hippocampus.

  16. Top-down facilitation of visual recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bar, M.; Kassam, K. S.; Ghuman, A. S.; Boshyan, J.; Schmid, A. M.; Dale, A. M.; Hämäläinen, M. S.; Marinkovic, K.; Schacter, D. L.; Rosen, B. R.; Halgren, E.

    2006-01-01

    Cortical analysis related to visual object recognition is traditionally thought to propagate serially along a bottom-up hierarchy of ventral areas. Recent proposals gradually promote the role of top-down processing in recognition, but how such facilitation is triggered remains a puzzle. We tested a specific model, proposing that low spatial frequencies facilitate visual object recognition by initiating top-down processes projected from orbitofrontal to visual cortex. The present study combined magnetoencephalography, which has superior temporal resolution, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and a behavioral task that yields successful recognition with stimulus repetitions. Object recognition elicited differential activity that developed in the left orbitofrontal cortex 50 ms earlier than it did in recognition-related areas in the temporal cortex. This early orbitofrontal activity was directly modulated by the presence of low spatial frequencies in the image. Taken together, the dynamics we revealed provide strong support for the proposal of how top-down facilitation of object recognition is initiated, and our observations are used to derive predictions for future research. PMID:16407167

  17. The neural substrate of gesture recognition.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Mirta; Fridman, Esteban A; Amengual, Alejandra; Falasco, German; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldan; Gerscovich, Eliana Roldan; Ulloa, Erlinda R; Leiguarda, Ramon C

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have linked action recognition with a particular pool of neurons located in the ventral premotor cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus (the mirror neuron system). However, it is still unclear if transitive and intransitive gestures share the same neural substrates during action-recognition processes. In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the cortical areas active during recognition of pantomimed transitive actions, intransitive gestures, and meaningless control actions. Perception of all types of gestures engaged the right pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and bilaterally in the posterior superior temporal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, occipitotemporal regions and visual cortices. Activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus region was found in both hemispheres during recognition of transitive and intransitive gestures, and in the right hemisphere during the control condition; the middle temporal gyrus showed activation in the left hemisphere when subjects recognized transitive and intransitive gestures; activation of the left inferior parietal lobe and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was mainly observed in the left hemisphere during recognition of the three conditions. The most striking finding was the greater activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during recognition of intransitive actions. Results show that a similar neural substrate, albeit, with a distinct engagement underlies the cognitive processing of transitive and intransitive gestures recognition. These findings suggest that selective disruptions in these circuits may lead to distinct clinical deficits.

  18. Heuristics for test recognition using contextual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraghimian, Tony

    1995-01-01

    Competitive electronic imaging systems are emerging due to rapidly declining processing power and storage costs. Imaging converts information on paper to electronic pictures. For applications involving large quantities of paper documents, the resulting pictures are further processed by automated character recognition systems, resulting in a text representation of the original document. Current character recognition accuracy varies from one implementation to the next, and greatly depends on each particular application. We define a set of information fusion rules for combining character recognition system output. The combined result has a higher character recognition accuracy and lower error rate than either of the individual recognizer outputs taken separately. This new set of fusion heuristics takes advantage of the following information from multiple text string recognition systems simultaneously: (1) multiple hypotheses and associated confidences for each character in a text string; (2) multiple text string segmentation hypotheses; (3) separate or combined hypotheses for both uppercase and lowercase alphabetic characters; and (4) overall text string hypotheses and associated confidences. Traditionally, only the last of these four information groups is used for fusion of multiple classifications within character recognition systems. We report on a nationally sponsored character recognition benchmark, with results indicating increased accuracy using the heuristic rules described.

  19. Disintegration, recognition, and violence: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Heitmeyer, Wilhelm; Anhut, Reimund

    2008-01-01

    The literature explaining deviance, criminality, or violence offers a broad spectrum of approaches in criminology and sociology. Mostly the theories focus on specific levels of explanation like the macrolevel (for example, strain theories) or the microlevel (for example, self-control theory).This article presents a relatively new theoretical approach combining different levels and focusing on three dimensions associated with specific kinds of recognition: social-structural, institutional, and socioemotional. The social-structural dimension refers to access to the functional systems of society and the accompanying recognition of position, status, and so on. The institutional dimension concentrates on the opportunity to participate in public affairs with the aim of getting moral recognition. The socioemotional dimension emphasizes the quantity and quality of integration in and social support from families, friends, partners, and so on, which provide emotional recognition.The underlying idea is that lack of access, participation, and belonging causes a lack of recognition. When this happens, social and individual problems increase. Thus, deviant and violent behavior can be seen as one potential reaction to a lack of recognition and as a way to gain status and recognition in a different manner (for example, with a delinquent peer group or other gang).

  20. [Face recognition in patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.

  1. Textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-05-01

    The growing interest in affective computing (AC) brings a lot of valuable research topics that can meet different application demands in enterprise systems. The present study explores a sub area of AC techniques - textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing. Multi-label emotion recognition in text is able to provide a more comprehensive understanding of emotions than single label emotion recognition. A representation of 'emotion state in text' is proposed to encompass the multidimensional emotions in text. It ensures the description in a formal way of the configurations of basic emotions as well as of the relations between them. Our method allows recognition of the emotions for the words bear indirect emotions, emotion ambiguity and multiple emotions. We further investigate the effect of word order for emotional expression by comparing the performances of bag-of-words model and sequence model for multi-label sentence emotion recognition. The experiments show that the classification results under sequence model are better than under bag-of-words model. And homogeneous Markov model showed promising results of multi-label sentence emotion recognition. This emotion recognition system is able to provide a convenient way to acquire valuable emotion information and to improve enterprise competitive ability in many aspects.

  2. Selective networks and recognition automata.

    PubMed

    Reeke, G N; Edelman, G M

    1984-01-01

    The results we have presented demonstrate that a network based on a selective principle can function in the absence of forced learning or an a priori program to give recognition, classification, generalization, and association. While Darwin II is not a model of any actual nervous system, it does set out to solve one of the same problems that evolution had to solve--the need to form categories in a bottom-up manner from information in the environment, without incorporating the assumptions of any particular observer. The key features of the model that make this possible are (1) Darwin II incorporates selective networks whose initial specificities enable them to respond without instruction to unfamiliar stimuli; (2) degeneracy provides multiple possibilities of response to any one stimulus, at the same time providing functional redundancy against component failure; (3) the output of Darwin II is a pattern of response, making use of the simultaneous responses of multiple degenerate groups to avoid the need for very high specificity and the combinatorial disaster that would imply; (4) reentry within individual networks vitiates the limitations described by Minsky and Papert for a class of perceptual automata lacking such connections; and (5) reentry between intercommunicating networks with different functions gives rise to new functions, such as association, that either one alone could not display. The two kinds of network are roughly analogous to the two kinds of category formation that people use: Darwin, corresponding to the exemplar description of categories, and Wallace, corresponding to the probabilistic matching description of categories. These principles lead to a new class of pattern-recognizing machine of which Darwin II is just an example. There are a number of obvious extensions to this work that we are pursuing. These include giving Darwin II the capability to deal with stimuli that are in motion, an ability that probably precedes the ability of biological

  3. Isolated digit recognition without time alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Jeffrey Mark

    1994-12-01

    This thesis examines methods for isolated digit recognition without using time alignment. Resource requirements for isolated word recognizers that use time alignment can become prohibitively large as the vocabulary to be classified grows. Thus, methods capable of achieving recognition rates comparable to those obtained with current methods using these techniques are needed. The goals of this research are to find feature sets for speech recognition that perform well without using time alignment, and to identify classifiers that provide good performance with these features. Using the digits from the TI46 database, baseline speaker-independent recognition rates of 95.2% for the complete speaker set and 98.1% for the male speaker set are established using dynamic time warping (DTW). This work begins with features derived from spectrograms of each digit. Based on a critical band frequency scale covering the telephone bandwidth (300-3000 Hz), these critical band energy features are classified alone and in combination with several other feature sets, with several different classifiers. With this method, there is one 'short' feature vector per word. For speaker-independent recognition using the complete speaker set and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classifier, a recognition rate of 92.4% is achieved. For the same classifier with the male speaker set, a recognition rate of 97.1% is achieved. For the male speaker set, there is no statistical difference between results using DTW, and those using the MLP and no time alignment. This shows that there are feature sets that may provide high recognition rates for isolated word recognition without the need for time alignment.

  4. Recognition in a social symbiosis: chemical phenotypes and nestmate recognition behaviors of neotropical parabiotic ants.

    PubMed

    Emery, Virginia J; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2013-01-01

    Social organisms rank among the most abundant and ecologically dominant species on Earth, in part due to exclusive recognition systems that allow cooperators to be distinguished from exploiters. Exploiters, such as social parasites, manipulate their hosts' recognition systems, whereas cooperators are expected to minimize interference with their partner's recognition abilities. Despite our wealth of knowledge about recognition in single-species social nests, less is known of the recognition systems in multi-species nests, particularly involving cooperators. One uncommon type of nesting symbiosis, called parabiosis, involves two species of ants sharing a nest and foraging trails in ostensible cooperation. Here, we investigated recognition cues (cuticular hydrocarbons) and recognition behaviors in the parabiotic mixed-species ant nests of Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior in North-Eastern Amazonia. We found two sympatric, cryptic Cr. levior chemotypes in the population, with one type in each parabiotic colony. Although they share a nest, very few hydrocarbons were shared between Ca. femoratus and either Cr. levior chemotype. The Ca. femoratus hydrocarbons were also unusually long-chained branched alkenes and dienes, compounds not commonly found amongst ants. Despite minimal overlap in hydrocarbon profile, there was evidence of potential interspecific nestmate recognition -Cr. levior ants were more aggressive toward Ca. femoratus non-nestmates than Ca. femoratus nestmates. In contrast to the prediction that sharing a nest could weaken conspecific recognition, each parabiotic species also maintains its own aggressive recognition behaviors to exclude conspecific non-nestmates. This suggests that, despite cohabitation, parabiotic ants maintain their own species-specific colony odors and recognition mechanisms. It is possible that such social symbioses are enabled by the two species each using their own separate recognition cues, and that interspecific nestmate

  5. Protein hydrogels with engineered biomolecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Lixin

    Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are the hydrated macromolecular gels in which cells migrate and proliferate and organize into tissues in vivo . The development of artificial ECM with the required mechanical, physico-chemical, and biological properties has long been a challenge in the biomaterial research field. In this dissertation, a novel set of bioactive protein hydrogels has been synthesized and characterized at both molecular and materials levels. The self-recognized and self-assembled protein copolymers have the ability to provide engineered biofunctionality through the controlled arrangement of bioactive domains on the nanoscale. Genetic engineering methods have been employed to synthesize these protein copolymers. Plasmid DNA carrying genes to express both di- and tri-block proteins have been constructed using molecular cloning techniques. These genes were expressed in bacterial E. coli to ensure homogeneous protein length and anticipated structure. Three diblock protein sequences having a leucine zipper construct on one end and polyelectrolyte (AGAGAGPEG)10 on the other, have been studied by circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, and static light scattering to characterize their secondary structure, structural stability, and oligomeric state. The results show that ABC diblock mixtures form very stable heterotrimer aggregates via self-recognition and self-assembly of the coiled coil end domains. Tri-block proteins with two leucine zipper motif ends flanking the polyelectrolyte random coil in the middle have been investigated by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the hydrogels formed by self-assembly of these tri-blocks have been studied using transmission electronic microscopy and diffusing wave spectroscopy. The reversible gelation behavior is the result of heterotrimeric aggregation of helices to form the physical crosslinks in the gel, with the polyelectrolyte region center block retaining

  6. Purposive recognition: an active and qualitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivlin, Ehud; Aloimonos, Yiannis; Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1992-04-01

    We propose an alternative way to study the problem of visual recognition which is closer to the spirit emerging from Brooks' work on building robots than to Marr's reconstructive approach. Our theory is purposive in the sense that recognition is considered in the context of an agent performing it in an environment, along with the agent's intentions that translate into a set of behaviors; it is qualitative in the sense that only partial recovery is needed; it is active in the sense that various partial recovery tasks need for recognition are achieved through active vision; and it is opportunistic in the sense that every available cue is used.

  7. Automatic recognition of targets from hyperspectra images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, George A.; Li, Yifeng; Boulter, James F.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present the formulation of the problem for recognition of targets from hyperspectra images. It is shown that conventional recognition techniques may be extended to hyperspectra images for the distribution process. It is also shown that the recognition process is directly proportional to the number of multispectra frames that represent each target. For the discrimination process we propose a parametric and a nonparametric process in which both are extensions to Fisher and Fukunaga-Mantock methods respectively. Examples that show the composition of hyperspectra features are presented.

  8. Segmentation-free ocular detection and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Andres; Panza, Jeffrey; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    2011-06-01

    Iris recognition is a well-known technique to identify persons. However this technique requires high resolution images in order to automatically segment the iris. In some scenarios obtaining the required resolution may be difficult. In this paper, we investigate the recognition of ocular regions using correlation filters without segmenting the iris region. This method uses the whole eye region and surrounding areas, i.e., the ocular region, for identification. In our experiments we use the recently developed Quadratic Correlation Filter and show that at low resolutions segmentation-free ocular recognition can succeed while iris segmentation fails.

  9. Gait recognition based on integral outline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Guan; Fang, Lv

    2017-02-01

    Biometric identification technology replaces traditional security technology, which has become a trend, and gait recognition also has become a hot spot of research because its feature is difficult to imitate and theft. This paper presents a gait recognition system based on integral outline of human body. The system has three important aspects: the preprocessing of gait image, feature extraction and classification. Finally, using a method of polling to evaluate the performance of the system, and summarizing the problems existing in the gait recognition and the direction of development in the future.

  10. Modelling of DNA-protein recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rein, R.; Garduno, R.; Colombano, S.; Nir, S.; Haydock, K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer model-building procedures using stereochemical principles together with theoretical energy calculations appear to be, at this stage, the most promising route toward the elucidation of DNA-protein binding schemes and recognition principles. A review of models and bonding principles is conducted and approaches to modeling are considered, taking into account possible di-hydrogen-bonding schemes between a peptide and a base (or a base pair) of a double-stranded nucleic acid in the major groove, aspects of computer graphic modeling, and a search for isogeometric helices. The energetics of recognition complexes is discussed and several models for peptide DNA recognition are presented.

  11. Hippocampus and neocortex: recognition and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Vann, Seralynne D; Albasser, Mathieu M

    2011-06-01

    Recognition and spatial memory are typically associated with the perirhinal cortex and hippocampal formation, respectively. Solely focusing on these structures for these specific mnemonic functions may, however, be limiting progress in the field. The distinction between these subdivisions of memory is becoming less defined as, for example, hippocampal cells traditionally considered to encode locations also encode place-object associations. There is increasing evidence for the involvement of overlapping networks of brain structures for aspects of both spatial and recognition memory. Future models of spatial and recognition memory will have to extend beyond the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex to incorporate a wider network of cortical and subcortical structures.

  12. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    PubMed

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  13. Cortical Networks for Visual Self-Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments regarding the brain mechanisms of visual self-recognition. A special cognitive mechanism for visual self-recognition has been postulated based on behavioral and neuropsychological evidence, but its neural substrate remains controversial. Recent functional imaging studies suggest that multiple cortical mechanisms play self-specific roles during visual self-recognition, reconciling the existing controversy. Respective roles for the left occipitotemporal, right parietal, and frontal cortices in symbolic, visuospatial, and conceptual aspects of self-representation have been proposed.

  14. DCT-based iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Monro, Donald M; Rakshit, Soumyadip; Zhang, Dexin

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a novel iris coding method based on differences of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of overlapped angular patches from normalized iris images. The feature extraction capabilities of the DCT are optimized on the two largest publicly available iris image data sets, 2,156 images of 308 eyes from the CASIA database and 2,955 images of 150 eyes from the Bath database. On this data, we achieve 100 percent Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and perfect Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves with no registered false accepts or rejects. Individual feature bit and patch position parameters are optimized for matching through a product-of-sum approach to Hamming distance calculation. For verification, a variable threshold is applied to the distance metric and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR) are recorded. A new worst-case metric is proposed for predicting practical system performance in the absence of matching failures, and the worst case theoretical Equal Error Rate (EER) is predicted to be as low as 2.59 x 10(-4) on the available data sets.

  15. Viral cell recognition and entry.

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is initiated by the recognition of a specific cell-surface receptor. The major group of rhinovirus serotypes attach to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The attachment process initiates a series of conformational changes resulting in the loss of genomic RNA from the virion. X-ray crystallography and sequence comparisons suggested that a deep crevice or canyon is the site on the virus recognized by the cellular receptor molecule. This has now been verified by electron microscopy of human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) and HRV16 complexed with a soluble component of ICAM-1. A hydrophobic pocket underneath the canyon is the site of binding of various hydrophobic drug compounds that can inhibit attachment and uncoating. This pocket is also associated with an unidentified, possibly cellular in origin, "pocket factor." The pocket factor binding site overlaps the binding site of the receptor. It is suggested that competition between the pocket factor and receptor regulates the conformational changes required for the initiation of the entry of the genomic RNA into the cell. PMID:7849588

  16. Learning curve of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tomi A; Kaipio, Johanna; Koivikko, Mika P

    2013-12-01

    Speech recognition (SR) speeds patient care processes by reducing report turnaround times. However, concerns have emerged about prolonged training and an added secretarial burden for radiologists. We assessed how much proofing radiologists who have years of experience with SR and radiologists new to SR must perform, and estimated how quickly the new users become as skilled as the experienced users. We studied SR log entries for 0.25 million reports from 154 radiologists and after careful exclusions, defined a group of 11 experienced radiologists and 71 radiologists new to SR (24,833 and 122,093 reports, respectively). Data were analyzed for sound file and report lengths, character-based error rates, and words unknown to the SR's dictionary. Experienced radiologists corrected 6 characters for each report and for new users, 11. Some users presented a very unfavorable learning curve, with error rates not declining as expected. New users' reports were longer, and data for the experienced users indicates that their reports, initially equally lengthy, shortened over a period of several years. For most radiologists, only minor corrections of dictated reports were necessary. While new users adopted SR quickly, with a subset outperforming experienced users from the start, identification of users struggling with SR will help facilitate troubleshooting and support.

  17. Place recognition using batlike sonar

    PubMed Central

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14188.001 PMID:27481189

  18. Defining protein electrostatic recognition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Roberts, Victoria A.

    The objective is to elucidate the nature of electrostatic forces controlling protein recognition processes by using a tightly coupled computational and interactive computer graphics approach. The TURNIP program was developed to determine the most favorable precollision orientations for two molecules by systematic search of all orientations and evaluation of the resulting electrostatic interactions. TURNIP was applied to the transient interaction between two electron transfer metalloproteins, plastocyanin and cytochrome c. The results suggest that the productive electron-transfer complex involves interaction of the positive region of cytochrome c with the negative patch of plastocyanin, consistent with experimental data. Application of TURNIP to the formation of the stable complex between the HyHEL-5 antibody and its protein antigen lysozyme showed that long-distance electrostatic forces guide lysozyme toward the HyHEL-5 binding site, but do not fine tune its orientation. Determination of docked antigen/antibody complexes requires including steric as well as electrostatic interactions, as was done for the U10 mutant of the anti-phosphorylcholine antibody S107. The graphics program Flex, a convenient desktop workstation program for visualizing molecular dynamics and normal mode motions, was enhanced. Flex now has a user interface and was rewritten to use standard graphics libraries, so as to run on most desktop workstations.

  19. Distributed nestmate recognition in ants

    PubMed Central

    Esponda, Fernando; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a distributed model of nestmate recognition, analogous to the one used by the vertebrate immune system, in which colony response results from the diverse reactions of many ants. The model describes how individual behaviour produces colony response to non-nestmates. No single ant knows the odour identity of the colony. Instead, colony identity is defined collectively by all the ants in the colony. Each ant responds to the odour of other ants by reference to its own unique decision boundary, which is a result of its experience of encounters with other ants. Each ant thus recognizes a particular set of chemical profiles as being those of non-nestmates. This model predicts, as experimental results have shown, that the outcome of behavioural assays is likely to be variable, that it depends on the number of ants tested, that response to non-nestmates changes over time and that it changes in response to the experience of individual ants. A distributed system allows a colony to identify non-nestmates without requiring that all individuals have the same complete information and helps to facilitate the tracking of changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, because only a subset of ants must respond to provide an adequate response. PMID:25833853

  20. Distributed nestmate recognition in ants.

    PubMed

    Esponda, Fernando; Gordon, Deborah M

    2015-05-07

    We propose a distributed model of nestmate recognition, analogous to the one used by the vertebrate immune system, in which colony response results from the diverse reactions of many ants. The model describes how individual behaviour produces colony response to non-nestmates. No single ant knows the odour identity of the colony. Instead, colony identity is defined collectively by all the ants in the colony. Each ant responds to the odour of other ants by reference to its own unique decision boundary, which is a result of its experience of encounters with other ants. Each ant thus recognizes a particular set of chemical profiles as being those of non-nestmates. This model predicts, as experimental results have shown, that the outcome of behavioural assays is likely to be variable, that it depends on the number of ants tested, that response to non-nestmates changes over time and that it changes in response to the experience of individual ants. A distributed system allows a colony to identify non-nestmates without requiring that all individuals have the same complete information and helps to facilitate the tracking of changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, because only a subset of ants must respond to provide an adequate response.

  1. Recurrent Processing during Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wyatte, Dean; Herd, Seth; Mingus, Brian; Jilk, David J.

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of naturally occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain’s visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time. PMID:23554596

  2. Molecular Genetics of Mating Recognition in Basidiomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Casselton, Lorna A.; Olesnicky, Natalie S.

    1998-01-01

    The recognition of compatible mating partners in the basidiomycete fungi requires the coordinated activities of two gene complexes defined as the mating-type genes. One complex encodes members of the homeobox family of transcription factors, which heterodimerize on mating to generate an active transcription regulator. The other complex encodes peptide pheromones and 7-transmembrane receptors that permit intercellular signalling. Remarkably, a single species may have many thousands of cross-compatible mating types because the mating-type genes are multiallelic. Different alleles of both sets of genes are necessary for mating compatibility, and they trigger the initial stages of sexual development—the formation of a specialized filamentous mycelium termed the dikaryon, in which the haploid nuclei remain closely associated in each cell but do not fuse. Three species have been taken as models to describe the molecular structure and organization of the mating-type loci and the genes sequestered within them: the pathogenic smut fungus Ustilago maydis and the mushrooms Coprinus cinereus and Schizophyllum commune. Topics addressed in this review are the roles of the mating-type gene products in regulating sexual development, the molecular basis for multiple mating types, and the molecular interactions that permit different allelic products of the mating type genes to be discriminated. Attention is drawn to the remarkable conservation in the mechanisms that regulate sexual development in basidiomycetes and unicellular ascomycete yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a theme which is developed in the general conclusion to include the filamentous ascomycetes Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina. PMID:9529887

  3. Application of syntactic methods of pattern recognition for data mining and knowledge discovery in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents and discusses possibilities of application of selected algorithms belonging to the group of syntactic methods of patten recognition used to analyze and extract features of shapes and to diagnose morphological lesions seen on selected medical images. This method is particularly useful for specialist morphological analysis of shapes of selected organs of abdominal cavity conducted to diagnose disease symptoms occurring in the main pancreatic ducts, upper segments of ureters and renal pelvis. Analysis of the correct morphology of these organs is possible with the application of the sequential and tree method belonging to the group of syntactic methods of pattern recognition. The objective of this analysis is to support early diagnosis of disease lesions, mainly characteristic for carcinoma and pancreatitis, based on examinations of ERCP images and a diagnosis of morphological lesions in ureters as well as renal pelvis based on an analysis of urograms. In the analysis of ERCP images the main objective is to recognize morphological lesions in pancreas ducts characteristic for carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis, while in the case of kidney radiogram analysis the aim is to diagnose local irregularities of ureter lumen and to examine the morphology of renal pelvis and renal calyxes. Diagnosing the above mentioned lesion has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition, in particular the languages of description of features of shapes and context-free sequential attributed grammars. These methods allow to recognize and describe in a very efficient way the aforementioned lesions on images obtained as a result of initial image processing of width diagrams of the examined structures. Additionally, in order to support the analysis of the correct structure of renal pelvis a method using the tree grammar for syntactic pattern recognition to define its correct morphological shapes has been presented.

  4. "It's Always the Judge's Fault": Attention, Emotion Recognition, and Expertise in Rhythmic Gymnastics Assessment.

    PubMed

    van Bokhorst, Lindsey G; Knapová, Lenka; Majoranc, Kim; Szebeni, Zea K; Táborský, Adam; Tomić, Dragana; Cañadas, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In many sports, such as figure skating or gymnastics, the outcome of a performance does not rely exclusively on objective measurements, but on more subjective cues. Judges need high attentional capacities to process visual information and overcome fatigue. Also their emotion recognition abilities might have an effect in detecting errors and making a more accurate assessment. Moreover, the scoring given by judges could be also influenced by their level of expertise. This study aims to assess how rhythmic gymnastics judges' emotion recognition and attentional abilities influence accuracy of performance assessment. Data will be collected from rhythmic gymnastics judges and coaches at different international levels. This study will employ an online questionnaire consisting on an emotion recognition test and attentional test. Participants' task is to watch a set of videotaped rhythmic gymnastics performances and evaluate them on the artistic and execution components of performance. Their scoring will be compared with the official scores given at the competition the video was taken from to measure the accuracy of the participants' evaluations. The proposed research represents an interdisciplinary approach that integrates cognitive and sport psychology within experimental and applied contexts. The current study advances the theoretical understanding of how emotional and attentional aspects affect the evaluation of sport performance. The results will provide valuable evidence on the direction and strength of the relationship between the above-mentioned factors and the accuracy of sport performance evaluation. Importantly, practical implications might be drawn from this study. Intervention programs directed at improving the accuracy of judges could be created based on the understanding of how emotion recognition and attentional abilities are related to the accuracy of performance assessment.

  5. When false recognition is unopposed by true recognition: gist-based memory distortion in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Budson, A E; Daffner, K R; Desikan, R; Schacter, D L

    2000-04-01

    The authors examined false recognition of semantic associates in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), older adults, and young adults using a paradigm that provided rates of false recognition after single and multiple exposures to word lists. Using corrected false recognition scores to control for unrelated false alarms, the authors found that (a) the level of false recognition after a single list exposure was lower in AD patients than in controls; (b) across 5 trials, false recognition increased in AD patients, decreased in young adults, and showed a fluctuating pattern in older adults; and (c) all groups showed an increase in true recognition over the 5 trials. Analyses suggested that AD patients built up semantic gist across trials, whereas both control groups were able to use increased item-specific recollection and more conservative response criteria to suppress gist-based false alarms.

  6. Shape recognition for capacitive touch display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarneri, I.; Capra, A.; Farinella, G. M.; Battiato, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present a technique to classify five common classes of shapes acquired with a capacitive touch display: finger, ear, cheek, hand hold, half ear-half cheek. The need of algorithms able to discriminate among the aforementioned shapes comes from the growing diffusion of touch screen based consumer devices (e.g. smartphones, tablet, etc.). In this context, detection and the recognition of fingers are fundamental tasks in many touch based user applications (e.g., mobile games). Shape recognition algorithms are also extremely useful to identify accidental touches in order to avoid involuntary activation of the device functionalities (e.g., accidental calls). Our solution makes use of simple descriptors designed to capture discriminative information of the considered classes of shapes. The recognition is performed through a decision tree based approach whose parameters are learned on a set of labeled samples. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves good recognition accuracy.

  7. Relevance feedback-based building recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Allinson, Nigel M.

    2010-07-01

    Building recognition is a nontrivial task in computer vision research which can be utilized in robot localization, mobile navigation, etc. However, existing building recognition systems usually encounter the following two problems: 1) extracted low level features cannot reveal the true semantic concepts; and 2) they usually involve high dimensional data which require heavy computational costs and memory. Relevance feedback (RF), widely applied in multimedia information retrieval, is able to bridge the gap between the low level visual features and high level concepts; while dimensionality reduction methods can mitigate the high-dimensional problem. In this paper, we propose a building recognition scheme which integrates the RF and subspace learning algorithms. Experimental results undertaken on our own building database show that the newly proposed scheme appreciably enhances the recognition accuracy.

  8. A Neural Network Based Speech Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    encoder and identifies individual words. This use of neural networks offers two advantages over conventional algorithmic detectors: the detection...environment. Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Neural networks : Back propagation; Speech recognition.

  9. Offline Arabic handwriting recognition: a survey.

    PubMed

    Lorigo, Liana M; Govindaraju, Venu

    2006-05-01

    The automatic recognition of text on scanned images has enabled many applications such as searching for words in large volumes of documents, automatic sorting of postal mail, and convenient editing of previously printed documents. The domain of handwriting in the Arabic script presents unique technical challenges and has been addressed more recently than other domains. Many different methods have been proposed and applied to various types of images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods. It is the first survey to focus on Arabic handwriting recognition and the first Arabic character recognition survey to provide recognition rates and descriptions of test data for the approaches discussed. It includes background on the field, discussion of the methods, and future research directions.

  10. Visual cluster analysis and pattern recognition methods

    DOEpatents

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil; Martinez, Rubel Francisco

    2001-01-01

    A method of clustering using a novel template to define a region of influence. Using neighboring approximation methods, computation times can be significantly reduced. The template and method are applicable and improve pattern recognition techniques.

  11. Speech therapy and voice recognition instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J.; Babcock, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of electronic circuit for examining variations in vocal excitation for diagnostic purposes and in speech recognition for determiniog voice patterns and pitch changes are described. Operation of the circuit is discussed and circuit diagram is provided.

  12. Hand gesture recognition based on surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Kulic, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Human hands are the most dexterous of human limbs and hand gestures play an important role in non-verbal communication. Underlying electromyograms associated with hand gestures provide a wealth of information based on which varying hand gestures can be recognized. This paper develops an inter-individual hand gesture recognition model based on Hidden Markov models that receives surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as inputs and predicts a corresponding hand gesture. The developed recognition model is tested with a dataset of 10 various hand gestures performed by 25 subjects in a leave-one-subject-out cross validation and an inter-individual recognition rate of 79% was achieved. The promising recognition rate demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for discriminating between gesture-specific sEMG signals and could inform the design of sEMG-controlled prostheses and assistive devices.

  13. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  14. Perceptual fluency and affect without recognition.

    PubMed

    Anand, P; Sternthal, B

    1991-05-01

    A dichotic listening task was used to investigate the affect-without-recognition phenomenon. Subjects performed a distractor task by responding to the information presented in one ear while ignoring the target information presented in the other ear. The subjects' recognition of and affect toward the target information as well as toward foils was measured. The results offer evidence for the affect-without-recognition phenomenon. Furthermore, the data suggest that the subjects' affect toward the stimuli depended primarily on the extent to which the stimuli were perceived as familiar (i.e., subjective familiarity), and this perception was influenced by the ear in which the distractor or the target information was presented. These data are interpreted in terms of current models of recognition memory and hemispheric lateralization.

  15. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  16. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  17. Secure and Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections and Sparse Representations.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jaishanker K; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama; Ratha, Nalini K

    2011-09-01

    Noncontact biometrics such as face and iris have additional benefits over contact-based biometrics such as fingerprint and hand geometry. However, three important challenges need to be addressed in a noncontact biometrics-based authentication system: ability to handle unconstrained acquisition, robust and accurate matching, and privacy enhancement without compromising security. In this paper, we propose a unified framework based on random projections and sparse representations, that can simultaneously address all three issues mentioned above in relation to iris biometrics. Our proposed quality measure can handle segmentation errors and a wide variety of possible artifacts during iris acquisition. We demonstrate how the proposed approach can be easily extended to handle alignment variations and recognition from iris videos, resulting in a robust and accurate system. The proposed approach includes enhancements to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable iris templates. Results on public data sets show significant benefits of the proposed approach.

  18. Analyzing the relevance of shape descriptors in automated recognition of facial gestures in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez A., Julian S.; Prieto, Flavio

    2013-03-01

    The present document shows and explains the results from analyzing shape descriptors (DESIRE and Spherical Spin Image) for facial recognition of 3D images. DESIRE is a descriptor made of depth images, silhouettes and rays extended from a polygonal mesh; whereas the Spherical Spin Image (SSI) associated to a polygonal mesh point, is a 2D histogram built from neighboring points by using the position information that captures features of the local shape. The database used contains images of facial expressions which in average were recognized 88.16% using a neuronal network and 91.11% with a Bayesian classifier in the case of the first descriptor; in contrast, the second descriptor only recognizes in average 32% and 23,6% using the same mentioned classifiers respectively.

  19. Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

    2008-01-01

    Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216.

  20. Neural-Network Object-Recognition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, L.; Reid, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    HONTIOR computer program implements third-order neural network exhibiting invariance under translation, change of scale, and in-plane rotation. Invariance incorporated directly into architecture of network. Only one view of each object needed to train network for two-dimensional-translation-invariant recognition of object. Also used for three-dimensional-transformation-invariant recognition by training network on only set of out-of-plane rotated views. Written in C language.

  1. Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.

  2. Optical iconic filters for large class recognition.

    PubMed

    Casasent, D; Mahalamobis, A

    1987-06-01

    Approaches are advanced for pattern recognition when a large number of classes must be identified. Multilevel encoded multiple-iconic filters are considered for this problem. Hierarchical arrangements of iconic filters and/or preprocessing stages are described. A theoretical basis for the sidelobe level and noise effects of filters designed for large class problems is advanced. Experimental data are provided for an optical character recognition case study.

  3. Finite Memory Model for Haptic Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Slot 4 bu f fer s hort- term storel Slot N Long- ’erm store The model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin . Primary memory here is as rehearsal...7 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, Califormia AD-A245 342 THESIS Finite Memory Model for Haptic Recognition by Philip G. Beieri December 1991...ELEMEN1 No.) NO. No. ACCESSION NO. I1. TITLE (include Securitn Classification) FINITE MEMORY MODEL FOR HAPTIC RECOGNITION’ 12. PERSONALEAUTHOR(S) Philip

  4. Door latching recognition apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Jr., Robert F.

    2012-05-15

    An acoustic door latch detector is provided in which a sound recognition sensor is integrated into a door or door lock mechanism. The programmable sound recognition sensor can be trained to recognize the acoustic signature of the door and door lock mechanism being properly engaged and secured. The acoustic sensor will signal a first indicator indicating that proper closure was detected or sound an alarm condition if the proper acoustic signature is not detected within a predetermined time interval.

  5. Optical Pattern Recognition for Missile Guidance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    crystal, missile guidance, multi-sensor pattern recognition, normalized invariant moments, optical data processing , optical patterni recognition, photo...computing1 offers the attractive features vided in Sec. II for completeness and to enable future of parallel processing in real time and thus has been of...Fourier plane, Eq. (5) is used. rameter in coherent optical processing application. We In practice, MTF as defined is really a contrast transfer can

  6. Combat Systems Department Employee Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    the individual’s view of positive reinforcement . Include them in discussions. Ask for their opinions. 4 NSWCDD/MP-96/137 SECTION 3 INSTRUCTIONS 3.1...PROVIDES POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT . THE EASIER IT IS TO DO, THE MORE LIKELY IT IS TO GET DONE. N-DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION SYSTEM PRI NCI PLES THERE ARE...INDIVIDUAL’S VIEW OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT . ASK THEM I Papa .18Iv 15 N-DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION SYSTEM * OUTLINE A. TASK FORCE MEMBERSHIP

  7. Defining the Recognition Elements of Lewis Y-Reactive Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Siegel, Eric R.; Murali, Ramachandran; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Antibody response to carbohydrate antigens is often independent of T cells and the process of affinity/specificity improvement is considered strictly dependent on the germinal centers. Antibodies induced during a T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) response are less variable and less functionally versatile than those induced with T cell help. The antigen specificity consequences of accumulation of somatic mutations in antibodies during TI-2 responses of Marginal Zone (MZ) B cells is a fact that still needs explanation. Germline genes that define carbohydrate-reactive antibodies are known to sculpt antibody-combining sites containing innate, key side-chain contacts that define the antigen recognition step. However, substitutions associated with MZ B cell derived antibodies might affect the mobility and polyspecificity of the antibody. To examine this hypothesis, we analyzed antibodies reactive with the neolactoseries antigen Lewis Y (LeY) to define the residue subset required for the reactive repertoire for the LeY antigen. Our molecular simulation studies of crystallographically determined and modeled antibody-LeY complexes suggests that the heavy-chain germline gene VH7183.a13.20 and the light-chain Vκ cr1 germline gene are sufficient to account for the recognition of the trisaccharide-H determinant Types 1–4, while the specificity for LeY is driven by the CDR3 backbone conformation of the heavy chain and not the side chain interactions. These results confirm that these monoclonals use germline-encoded amino acids to recognize simple carbohydrate determinants like trisaccharide-H but relies on somatic mutations in the periphery of the combining site to modify affinity for LeY through electrostatic interactions that leads to their optimized binding. These observations bring further attention to the role of mutations in T-cell independent antibodies to distinguish self from non-self carbohydrate antigens. PMID:25117628

  8. Aided versus automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hair, Mark A.; Purvis, Bradley D.; Brown, Jeff

    1997-06-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms have offered the promise of recognizing items of military importance over the past 20 years. It is the experience of the authors that greater ATR success would be possible if the ATR were used to 'aid' the human operator instead of automatically 'direct' the operator. ATRs have failed not due to their probability of detection versus false alarm rate, but to neglect of the human component. ATRs are designed to improve overall throughput by relieving the human operator of the need to perform repetitive tasks like scanning vast quantities of imagery for possible targets. ATRs are typically inserted prior to the operator and provide cues, which are then accepted or rejected. From our experience at three field exercises and a current operational deployment to the Bosnian theater, this is not the best way to get total system performance. The human operator makes decisions based on learning, history of past events, and surrounding contextual information. Loss of these factors by providing imagery, latent with symbolic cues on top of the original imagery, actually increases the workload of the operator. This paper covers the lessons learned from the field demonstrations and the operational deployment. The reconnaissance and intelligence community's primary use of an ATR should be to establish prioritized cues of potential targets for an operator to 'pull' from and to be able to 'send' targets identified by the operator for a 'second opinion.' The Army and Air Force are modifying their exploitation workstations over the next 18 months to use ATRs, which operate in this fashion. This will be the future architecture that ATRs for the reconnaissance and intelligence community should integrate into.

  9. Face Recognition in Humans and Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, Alice; Tistarelli, Massimo

    The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.

  10. Physical environment virtualization for human activities recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtkar, Azin; Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2015-05-01

    Human activity recognition research relies heavily on extensive datasets to verify and validate performance of activity recognition algorithms. However, obtaining real datasets are expensive and highly time consuming. A physics-based virtual simulation can accelerate the development of context based human activity recognition algorithms and techniques by generating relevant training and testing videos simulating diverse operational scenarios. In this paper, we discuss in detail the requisite capabilities of a virtual environment to aid as a test bed for evaluating and enhancing activity recognition algorithms. To demonstrate the numerous advantages of virtual environment development, a newly developed virtual environment simulation modeling (VESM) environment is presented here to generate calibrated multisource imagery datasets suitable for development and testing of recognition algorithms for context-based human activities. The VESM environment serves as a versatile test bed to generate a vast amount of realistic data for training and testing of sensor processing algorithms. To demonstrate the effectiveness of VESM environment, we present various simulated scenarios and processed results to infer proper semantic annotations from the high fidelity imagery data for human-vehicle activity recognition under different operational contexts.

  11. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition.

  12. Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  13. Hierarchical Context Modeling for Video Event Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Ji, Qiang

    2016-10-11

    Current video event recognition research remains largely target-centered. For real-world surveillance videos, targetcentered event recognition faces great challenges due to large intra-class target variation, limited image resolution, and poor detection and tracking results. To mitigate these challenges, we introduced a context-augmented video event recognition approach. Specifically, we explicitly capture different types of contexts from three levels including image level, semantic level, and prior level. At the image level, we introduce two types of contextual features including the appearance context features and interaction context features to capture the appearance of context objects and their interactions with the target objects. At the semantic level, we propose a deep model based on deep Boltzmann machine to learn event object representations and their interactions. At the prior level, we utilize two types of prior-level contexts including scene priming and dynamic cueing. Finally, we introduce a hierarchical context model that systematically integrates the contextual information at different levels. Through the hierarchical context model, contexts at different levels jointly contribute to the event recognition. We evaluate the hierarchical context model for event recognition on benchmark surveillance video datasets. Results show that incorporating contexts in each level can improve event recognition performance, and jointly integrating three levels of contexts through our hierarchical model achieves the best performance.

  14. Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Algarabel, Salvador; Fuentes, Manuel; Escudero, Joaquín; Pitarque, Alfonso; Peset, Vicente; Mazón, José-Francisco; Meléndez, Juan-Carlos

    2012-09-01

    There is no agreement on the pattern of recognition memory deficits characteristic of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Whereas lower performance in recollection is the hallmark of MCI, there is a strong controversy about possible deficits in familiarity estimates when using recognition memory tasks. The aim of this research is to shed light on the pattern of responding in recollection and familiarity in MCI. Five groups of participants were tested. The main participant samples were those formed by two MCI groups differing in age and an Alzheimer's disease group (AD), which were compared with two control groups. Whereas one of the control groups served to assess the performance of the MCI and AD people, the other one, composed of young healthy participants, served the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the experimental tasks used in the evaluation of the different components of recognition memory. We used an associative recognition task as a direct index of recollection and a choice task on a pair of stimuli, one of which was perceptually similar to those studied in the associative recognition phase, as an index of familiarity. Our results indicate that recollection decreases with age and neurological status, and familiarity remains stable in the elderly control sample but it is deficient in MCI. This research shows that a unique encoding situation generated deficits in recollective and familiarity mechanisms in mild cognitive impaired individuals, providing evidence for the existence of deficits in both retrieval processes in recognition memory in a MCI stage.

  15. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  16. Object recognition by artificial cortical maps.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio; Domenella, Rosaria Grazia

    2007-09-01

    Object recognition is one of the most important functions of the human visual system, yet one of the least understood, this despite the fact that vision is certainly the most studied function of the brain. We understand relatively well how several processes in the cortical visual areas that support recognition capabilities take place, such as orientation discrimination and color constancy. This paper proposes a model of the development of object recognition capability, based on two main theoretical principles. The first is that recognition does not imply any sort of geometrical reconstruction, it is instead fully driven by the two dimensional view captured by the retina. The second assumption is that all the processing functions involved in recognition are not genetically determined or hardwired in neural circuits, but are the result of interactions between epigenetic influences and basic neural plasticity mechanisms. The model is organized in modules roughly related to the main visual biological areas, and is implemented mainly using the LISSOM architecture, a recent neural self-organizing map model that simulates the effects of intercortical lateral connections. This paper shows how recognition capabilities, similar to those found in brain ventral visual areas, can develop spontaneously by exposure to natural images in an artificial cortical model.

  17. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  18. Selecting and implementing a voice recognition system.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, S; Cassimus, G C

    1999-01-01

    A single radiology department serves the three separate organizations that comprise Emory Healthcare in Atlanta--three separate hospitals, the Emory Clinic and the Emory University School of Medicine. In 1996, the chairman of Emory Healthcare issued a mandate to the radiology department to decrease its report turnaround time, provide better service and increase customer satisfaction. The area where the greatest effect could be made without involving the transcription area was the "exam complete to dictate" piece of the reporting process. A committee investigating voice recognition systems established an essential criteria for potential vendors--to be able to download patient scheduling and demographic information from the existing RIS to the new system. Second, the system had to be flexible and straightforward for doctors to learn. It must have a word processing package for easy report correction and editing, and a microphone that would rewind and correct dictation before recognition took place. To keep capital costs low for the pilot, the committee opted for server recognition rather than purchase the expensive workstations necessary for real-time recognition. A switch was made later to real-time recognition. PACS and voice recognition have proven to be highly complementary. Most importantly, the new system has had a tremendous impact on turnaround time in the "dictate to final" phase. Once in the 30-hour range, 65 percent of the reports are now turned around in less than 15 minutes, 80 percent in less than 30 minutes, and 90 percent in less than an hour.

  19. Individual recognition between mother and infant bats (Myotis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D.; Shaughnessy, A.; Gould, E.

    1972-01-01

    The recognition process and the basis for that recognition, in brown bats, between mother and infant are analyzed. Two parameters, ultrasonic communication and olfactory stimuli, are investigated. The test animals were not allowed any visual contact. It was concluded that individual recognition between mother and infant occurred. However, it could not be determined if the recognition was based on ultrasonic signals or olfactory stimuli.

  20. 29 CFR 29.13 - Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitor a State Registration Agency for compliance with the recognition requirements of this part through... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. 29.13 Section... PROGRAMS § 29.13 Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. (a) Recognition. The Department may...

  1. 29 CFR 29.13 - Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitor a State Registration Agency for compliance with the recognition requirements of this part through... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. 29.13 Section... PROGRAMS § 29.13 Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. (a) Recognition. The Department may...

  2. 29 CFR 29.13 - Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitor a State Registration Agency for compliance with the recognition requirements of this part through... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. 29.13 Section... PROGRAMS § 29.13 Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. (a) Recognition. The Department may...

  3. Evaluating the state of the art in disorder recognition and normalization of the clinical narrative

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Sameer; Elhadad, Noémie; South, Brett R; Martinez, David; Christensen, Lee; Vogel, Amy; Suominen, Hanna; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The ShARe/CLEF eHealth 2013 Evaluation Lab Task 1 was organized to evaluate the state of the art on the clinical text in (i) disorder mention identification/recognition based on Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) definition (Task 1a) and (ii) disorder mention normalization to an ontology (Task 1b). Such a community evaluation has not been previously executed. Task 1a included a total of 22 system submissions, and Task 1b included 17. Most of the systems employed a combination of rules and machine learners. Materials and methods We used a subset of the Shared Annotated Resources (ShARe) corpus of annotated clinical text—199 clinical notes for training and 99 for testing (roughly 180 K words in total). We provided the community with the annotated gold standard training documents to build systems to identify and normalize disorder mentions. The systems were tested on a held-out gold standard test set to measure their performance. Results For Task 1a, the best-performing system achieved an F1 score of 0.75 (0.80 precision; 0.71 recall). For Task 1b, another system performed best with an accuracy of 0.59. Discussion Most of the participating systems used a hybrid approach by supplementing machine-learning algorithms with features generated by rules and gazetteers created from the training data and from external resources. Conclusions The task of disorder normalization is more challenging than that of identification. The ShARe corpus is available to the community as a reference standard for future studies. PMID:25147248

  4. Contrasting roles for DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases in single-item and associative recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Scott, Hannah; Smith, Anna E; Barker, Gareth R; Uney, James B; Warburton, E Clea

    2017-03-01

    Recognition memory enables us to judge whether we have encountered a stimulus before and to recall associated information, including where the stimulus was encountered. The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is required for judgment of stimulus familiarity, while hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are additionally involved when spatial information associated with a stimulus needs to be remembered. While gene expression is known to be essential for the consolidation of long-term recognition memory, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we investigated the roles of two epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, in recognition memory. Infusion of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors into PRh impaired performance in novel object recognition and object-in-place tasks while infusions into HPC or mPFC impaired object-in-place performance only. In contrast, inhibition of histone deacetylases in PRh, but not mPFC, enhanced recognition memory. These results support the emerging role of epigenetic processes in learning and memory.

  5. Virus-mediated suppression of host non-self recognition facilitates horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Songsong; Cheng, Jiasen; Fu, Yanping; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Daohong; Ghabrial, Said A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses. We found that cell death in intermingled colony regions between SsMYRV4-infected Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain and other tested vegetatively incompatible strains was markedly reduced and inhibition barrage lines were not clearly observed. Vegetative incompatibility, which involves Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) signaling pathway, is controlled by specific loci termed het (heterokaryon incompatibility) loci. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in vegetative incompatibility-mediated PCD. The expression of G protein subunit genes, het genes, and ROS-related genes were significantly down-regulated, and cellular production of ROS was suppressed in the presence of SsMYRV4. Furthermore, SsMYRV4-infected strain could easily accept other viruses through hyphal contact and these viruses could be efficiently transmitted from SsMYRV4-infected strain to other vegetatively incompatible individuals. Thus, we concluded that SsMYRV4 is capable of suppressing host non-self recognition and facilitating heterologous viruses transmission among host individuals. These findings may enhance our understanding of virus ecology, and provide a potential strategy to utilize hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses to control fungal diseases. PMID:28334041

  6. Improving protein fold recognition by random forest

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recognizing the correct structural fold among known template protein structures for a target protein (i.e. fold recognition) is essential for template-based protein structure modeling. Since the fold recognition problem can be defined as a binary classification problem of predicting whether or not the unknown fold of a target protein is similar to an already known template protein structure in a library, machine learning methods have been effectively applied to tackle this problem. In our work, we developed RF-Fold that uses random forest - one of the most powerful and scalable machine learning classification methods - to recognize protein folds. Results RF-Fold consists of hundreds of decision trees that can be trained efficiently on very large datasets to make accurate predictions on a highly imbalanced dataset. We evaluated RF-Fold on the standard Lindahl's benchmark dataset comprised of 976 × 975 target-template protein pairs through cross-validation. Compared with 17 different fold recognition methods, the performance of RF-Fold is generally comparable to the best performance in fold recognition of different difficulty ranging from the easiest family level, the medium-hard superfamily level, and to the hardest fold level. Based on the top-one template protein ranked by RF-Fold, the correct recognition rate is 84.5%, 63.4%, and 40.8% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively. Based on the top-five template protein folds ranked by RF-Fold, the correct recognition rate increases to 91.5%, 79.3% and 58.3% at family, superfamily, and fold levels. Conclusions The good performance achieved by the RF-Fold demonstrates the random forest's effectiveness for protein fold recognition. PMID:25350499

  7. Semantic pyramids for gender and action recognition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahad Shahbaz; van de Weijer, Joost; Anwer, Rao Muhammad; Felsberg, Michael; Gatta, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Person description is a challenging problem in computer vision. We investigated two major aspects of person description: 1) gender and 2) action recognition in still images. Most state-of-the-art approaches for gender and action recognition rely on the description of a single body part, such as face or full-body. However, relying on a single body part is suboptimal due to significant variations in scale, viewpoint, and pose in real-world images. This paper proposes a semantic pyramid approach for pose normalization. Our approach is fully automatic and based on combining information from full-body, upper-body, and face regions for gender and action recognition in still images. The proposed approach does not require any annotations for upper-body and face of a person. Instead, we rely on pretrained state-of-the-art upper-body and face detectors to automatically extract semantic information of a person. Given multiple bounding boxes from each body part detector, we then propose a simple method to select the best candidate bounding box, which is used for feature extraction. Finally, the extracted features from the full-body, upper-body, and face regions are combined into a single representation for classification. To validate the proposed approach for gender recognition, experiments are performed on three large data sets namely: 1) human attribute; 2) head-shoulder; and 3) proxemics. For action recognition, we perform experiments on four data sets most used for benchmarking action recognition in still images: 1) Sports; 2) Willow; 3) PASCAL VOC 2010; and 4) Stanford-40. Our experiments clearly demonstrate that the proposed approach, despite its simplicity, outperforms state-of-the-art methods for gender and action recognition.

  8. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance.

  9. Automatic concept recognition using the human phenotype ontology reference and test suite corpora.

    PubMed

    Groza, Tudor; Köhler, Sebastian; Doelken, Sandra; Collier, Nigel; Oellrich, Anika; Smedley, Damian; Couto, Francisco M; Baynam, Gareth; Zankl, Andreas; Robinson, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    Concept recognition tools rely on the availability of textual corpora to assess their performance and enable the identification of areas for improvement. Typically, corpora are developed for specific purposes, such as gene name recognition. Gene and protein name identification are longstanding goals of biomedical text mining, and therefore a number of different corpora exist. However, phenotypes only recently became an entity of interest for specialized concept recognition systems, and hardly any annotated text is available for performance testing and training. Here, we present a unique corpus, capturing text spans from 228 abstracts manually annotated with Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) concepts and harmonized by three curators, which can be used as a reference standard for free text annotation of human phenotypes. Furthermore, we developed a test suite for standardized concept recognition error analysis, incorporating 32 different types of test cases corresponding to 2164 HPO concepts. Finally, three established phenotype concept recognizers (NCBO Annotator, OBO Annotator and Bio-LarK CR) were comprehensively evaluated, and results are reported against both the text corpus and the test suites. The gold standard and test suites corpora are available from http://bio-lark.org/hpo_res.html. Database URL: http://bio-lark.org/hpo_res.html.

  10. Synergistic Modification Induced Specific Recognition between Histone and TRIM24 via Fluctuation Correlation Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinmai; Luo, Huajie; Liu, Hao; Ye, Wei; Luo, Ray; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Histone modification plays a key role in gene regulation and gene expression. TRIM24 as a histone reader can recognize histone modification. However the specific recognition mechanism between TRIM24 and histone modification is unsolved. Here, systems biology method of dynamics correlation network based on molecular dynamics simulation was used to answer the question. Our network analysis shows that the dynamics correlation network of H3K23ac is distinctly different from that of wild type and other modifications. A hypothesis of “synergistic modification induced recognition” is then proposed to link histone modification and TRIM24 binding. These observations were further confirmed from community analysis of networks with mutation and network perturbation. Finally, a possible recognition pathway is also identified based on the shortest path search for H3K23ac. Significant difference of recognition pathway was found among different systems due to methylation and acetylation modifications. The analysis presented here and other studies show that the dynamic network-based analysis might be a useful general strategy to study the biology of protein post-translational modification and associated recognition. PMID:27079666

  11. Automatic concept recognition using the Human Phenotype Ontology reference and test suite corpora

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Köhler, Sebastian; Doelken, Sandra; Collier, Nigel; Oellrich, Anika; Smedley, Damian; Couto, Francisco M; Baynam, Gareth; Zankl, Andreas; Robinson, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Concept recognition tools rely on the availability of textual corpora to assess their performance and enable the identification of areas for improvement. Typically, corpora are developed for specific purposes, such as gene name recognition. Gene and protein name identification are longstanding goals of biomedical text mining, and therefore a number of different corpora exist. However, phenotypes only recently became an entity of interest for specialized concept recognition systems, and hardly any annotated text is available for performance testing and training. Here, we present a unique corpus, capturing text spans from 228 abstracts manually annotated with Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) concepts and harmonized by three curators, which can be used as a reference standard for free text annotation of human phenotypes. Furthermore, we developed a test suite for standardized concept recognition error analysis, incorporating 32 different types of test cases corresponding to 2164 HPO concepts. Finally, three established phenotype concept recognizers (NCBO Annotator, OBO Annotator and Bio-LarK CR) were comprehensively evaluated, and results are reported against both the text corpus and the test suites. The gold standard and test suites corpora are available from http://bio-lark.org/hpo_res.html. Database URL: http://bio-lark.org/hpo_res.html PMID:25725061

  12. Synergistic Modification Induced Specific Recognition between Histone and TRIM24 via Fluctuation Correlation Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinmai; Luo, Huajie; Liu, Hao; Ye, Wei; Luo, Ray; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Histone modification plays a key role in gene regulation and gene expression. TRIM24 as a histone reader can recognize histone modification. However the specific recognition mechanism between TRIM24 and histone modification is unsolved. Here, systems biology method of dynamics correlation network based on molecular dynamics simulation was used to answer the question. Our network analysis shows that the dynamics correlation network of H3K23ac is distinctly different from that of wild type and other modifications. A hypothesis of “synergistic modification induced recognition” is then proposed to link histone modification and TRIM24 binding. These observations were further confirmed from community analysis of networks with mutation and network perturbation. Finally, a possible recognition pathway is also identified based on the shortest path search for H3K23ac. Significant difference of recognition pathway was found among different systems due to methylation and acetylation modifications. The analysis presented here and other studies show that the dynamic network-based analysis might be a useful general strategy to study the biology of protein post-translational modification and associated recognition.

  13. Recognition Sequences and Substrate Evolution in Cyanobactin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products are of broad interest because of their intrinsic bioactivities and potential for synthetic biology. The RiPP cyanobactin pathways pat and tru have been experimentally shown to be extremely tolerant of mutations. In nature, the pathways exhibit “substrate evolution”, where enzymes remain constant while the substrates of those enzymes are hypervariable and readily evolvable. Here, we sought to determine the mechanism behind this promiscuity. Analysis of a series of different enzyme–substrate combinations from five different cyanobactin gene clusters, in addition to engineered substrates, led us to define short discrete recognition elements within substrates that are responsible for directing enzymes. We show that these recognition sequences (RSs) are portable and can be interchanged to control which functional groups are added to the final natural product. In addition to the previously assigned N- and C-terminal proteolysis RSs, here we assign the RS for heterocyclization modification. We show that substrate elements can be swapped in vivo leading to successful production of natural products in E. coli. The exchangeability of these elements holds promise in synthetic biology approaches to tailor peptide products in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24625112

  14. Selective Promoter Recognition by Chlamydial σ28 Holoenzyme▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Feng, Xiaogeng; Yuan, Yuan; Luo, Xudong; Hatch, Thomas P.; Hughes, Kelly T.; Liu, Jun S.; Zhang, You-xun

    2006-01-01

    The σ transcription factor confers the promoter recognition specificity of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in eubacteria. Chlamydia trachomatis has three known sigma factors, σ66, σ54, and σ28. We developed two methods to facilitate the characterization of promoter sequences recognized by C. trachomatis σ28 (σ28Ct). One involved the arabinose-induced expression of plasmid-encoded σ28Ct in a strain of Escherichia coli defective in the σ28 structural gene, fliA. The second was an analysis of transcription in vitro with a hybrid holoenzyme reconstituted with E. coli RNAP core and recombinant σ28Ct. These approaches were used to investigate the interactions of σ28Ct with the σ28Ct-dependent hctB promoter and selected E. coli σ28 (σ28Ec)-dependent promoters, in parallel, compared with the promoter recognition properties of σ28EC. Our results indicate that RNAP containing σ28Ct has at least three characteristics: (i) it is capable of recognizing some but not all σ28EC-dependent promoters; (ii) it can distinguish different promoter structures, preferentially activating promoters with upstream AT-rich sequences; and (iii) it possesses a greater flexibility than σ28EC in recognizing variants with different spacing lengths separating the −35 and −10 elements of the core promoter. PMID:16936033

  15. Structural Mechanisms of Nucleosome Recognition by Linker Histones.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing-Rui; Jiang, Jiansheng; Feng, Hanqiao; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Xiao, T Sam; Bai, Yawen

    2015-08-20

    Linker histones bind to the nucleosome and regulate the structure of chromatin and gene expression. Despite more than three decades of effort, the structural basis of nucleosome recognition by linker histones remains elusive. Here, we report the crystal structure of the globular domain of chicken linker histone H5 in complex with the nucleosome at 3.5 Å resolution, which is validated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The globular domain sits on the dyad of the nucleosome and interacts with both DNA linkers. Our structure integrates results from mutation analyses and previous cross-linking and fluorescence recovery after photobleach experiments, and it helps resolve the long debate on structural mechanisms of nucleosome recognition by linker histones. The on-dyad binding mode of the H5 globular domain is different from the recently reported off-dyad binding mode of Drosophila linker histone H1. We demonstrate that linker histones with different binding modes could fold chromatin to form distinct higher-order structures.

  16. Aging and IQ Effects on Associative Recognition and Priming in Item Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Two ways to examine memory for associative relationships between pairs of words were tested: an explicit method, associative recognition, and an implicit method, priming in item recognition. In an experiment with both kinds of tests, participants were asked to learn pairs of words. For the explicit test, participants were asked to decide whether…

  17. What Types of Visual Recognition Tasks Are Mediated by the Neural Subsystem that Subserves Face Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Brian E.; Cooper, Eric E.

    2006-01-01

    Three divided visual field experiments tested current hypotheses about the types of visual shape representation tasks that recruit the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying face recognition. Experiment 1 found a right hemisphere advantage for subordinate but not basic-level face recognition. Experiment 2 found a right hemisphere advantage for…

  18. A motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: regulatory focus affects recognition of emotions in faces.

    PubMed

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai; Ray, Devin G; Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined an unexplored motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: observer regulatory focus. It was predicted that a promotion focus would enhance facial emotion recognition relative to a prevention focus because the attentional strategies associated with promotion focus enhance performance on well-learned or innate tasks - such as facial emotion recognition. In Study 1, a promotion or a prevention focus was experimentally induced and better facial emotion recognition was observed in a promotion focus compared to a prevention focus. In Study 2, individual differences in chronic regulatory focus were assessed and attention allocation was measured using eye tracking during the facial emotion recognition task. Results indicated that the positive relation between a promotion focus and facial emotion recognition is mediated by shorter fixation duration on the face which reflects a pattern of attention allocation matched to the eager strategy in a promotion focus (i.e., striving to make hits). A prevention focus did not have an impact neither on perceptual processing nor on facial emotion recognition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate important mechanisms and consequences of observer motivational orientation for facial emotion recognition.

  19. Effects of Recognition on Subsequent Recall: Comments on "Determinants of Recognition and Recall: Accessibility and Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Donald E.; Broadbent, Margaret H. P.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts have been made by Rabinowitz, Mandler, and Patterson (AA 527 084) to show that both recall and recognition involve the accessibility of individual words. Their recall tests preceded recognition tests, or vice versa, thus contaminating each other; a fresh experiment is presented to confirm that this is so. (Editor)

  20. Recognition of Prior Learning, Self-Realisation and Identity within Axel Honneth's Theory of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Fredrik; Kubiak, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues for the significance of Axel Honneth's theory of recognition for understanding recognition of prior learning (RPL). Case studies of the experiences of RPL by paraprofessional workers in health and social care in the UK and Sweden are used to explicate this significance. The results maintain that there are varying conditions of…

  1. A Motivational Determinant of Facial Emotion Recognition: Regulatory Focus Affects Recognition of Emotions in Faces

    PubMed Central

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai; Ray, Devin G.; Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined an unexplored motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: observer regulatory focus. It was predicted that a promotion focus would enhance facial emotion recognition relative to a prevention focus because the attentional strategies associated with promotion focus enhance performance on well-learned or innate tasks - such as facial emotion recognition. In Study 1, a promotion or a prevention focus was experimentally induced and better facial emotion recognition was observed in a promotion focus compared to a prevention focus. In Study 2, individual differences in chronic regulatory focus were assessed and attention allocation was measured using eye tracking during the facial emotion recognition task. Results indicated that the positive relation between a promotion focus and facial emotion recognition is mediated by shorter fixation duration on the face which reflects a pattern of attention allocation matched to the eager strategy in a promotion focus (i.e., striving to make hits). A prevention focus did not have an impact neither on perceptual processing nor on facial emotion recognition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate important mechanisms and consequences of observer motivational orientation for facial emotion recognition. PMID:25380247

  2. Practical vision based degraded text recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published

  3. Brain-wave recognition of sentences

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    1998-01-01

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of two subjects were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of 12 sentences or seven words auditorily presented was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to each of which a Fourier transform was applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject. A still further improvement was obtained by taking differences between recordings of two electrodes to obtain bipolar pairs that then were used for the same analysis. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied, but the best were above 90%. The first words of prototypes of sentences also were cut and pasted to test, at least partially, the invariance of a word’s brain wave in different sentence contexts. The best result was above 80% correct recognition. Test samples made up only of individual trials also were analyzed. The best result was 134 correct of 288 (47%), which is promising, given that the expected recognition number by chance is just 24 (or 8.3%). The work reported in this paper extends our earlier work on brain-wave recognition of words only. The recognition rates reported here further strengthen the case that recordings of electric brain waves of words or sentences, together with extensive mathematical and statistical analysis, can be the basis of new developments in our understanding of brain processing of language. PMID:9861061

  4. Recognition of Telugu characters using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Sukhaswami, M B; Seetharamulu, P; Pujari, A K

    1995-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to recognize printed and handwritten Telugu characters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Earlier work on recognition of Telugu characters has been done using conventional pattern recognition techniques. We make an initial attempt here of using neural networks for recognition with the aim of improving upon earlier methods which do not perform effectively in the presence of noise and distortion in the characters. The Hopfield model of neural network working as an associative memory is chosen for recognition purposes initially. Due to limitation in the capacity of the Hopfield neural network, we propose a new scheme named here as the Multiple Neural Network Associative Memory (MNNAM). The limitation in storage capacity has been overcome by combining multiple neural networks which work in parallel. It is also demonstrated that the Hopfield network is suitable for recognizing noisy printed characters as well as handwritten characters written by different "hands" in a variety of styles. Detailed experiments have been carried out using several learning strategies and results are reported. It is shown here that satisfactory recognition is possible using the proposed strategy. A detailed preprocessing scheme of the Telugu characters from digitized documents is also described.

  5. The perirhinal cortex and recognition memory interference

    PubMed Central

    Watson, H.C.; Lee, A. C. H.

    2013-01-01

    There has recently been an increase in interest in the effects of visual interference on memory processing, with the aim of eluciating the role of the perirhinal cortex (PRC) in recognition memory. One view argues that the PRC processes highly complex conjunctions of object features, and recent evidence from rodents suggests that these representations may be vital for buffering against the effects of pre-retrieval interference on object recognition memory. To investigate whether PRC-dependent object representations play a similar role in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan neurologically healthy participants while they carried out a novel interference-match-to-sample task. This paradigm was specifically designed to concurrently assess the impact of object vs. spatial interference, on recognition memory for objects or scenes, while keeping constant the amount of object and scene information presented across all trials. Activity at retrieval was examined, within an anatomically defined PRC region of interest, according to the demand for object or scene memory, following a period of object compared to spatial interference. Critically, we found greater PRC activity for object memory following object interference, compared to object memory following scene interference, and no difference between object and scene interference for scene recognition. These data demonstrate a role for the human PRC following a period of object, but not scene, interference, during object recognition memory, and emphasize the importance of representational content to mnemonic processing. PMID:23447626

  6. Gesture recognition by instantaneous surface EMG images.

    PubMed

    Geng, Weidong; Du, Yu; Jin, Wenguang; Wei, Wentao; Hu, Yu; Li, Jiajun

    2016-11-15

    Gesture recognition in non-intrusive muscle-computer interfaces is usually based on windowed descriptive and discriminatory surface electromyography (sEMG) features because the recorded amplitude of a myoelectric signal may rapidly fluctuate between voltages above and below zero. Here, we present that the patterns inside the instantaneous values of high-density sEMG enables gesture recognition to be performed merely with sEMG signals at a specific instant. We introduce the concept of an sEMG image spatially composed from high-density sEMG and verify our findings from a computational perspective with experiments on gesture recognition based on sEMG images with a classification scheme of a deep convolutional network. Without any windowed features, the resultant recognition accuracy of an 8-gesture within-subject test reached 89.3% on a single frame of sEMG image and reached 99.0% using simple majority voting over 40 frames with a 1,000 Hz sampling rate. Experiments on the recognition of 52 gestures of NinaPro database and 27 gestures of CSL-HDEMG database also validated that our approach outperforms state-of-the-arts methods. Our findings are a starting point for the development of more fluid and natural muscle-computer interfaces with very little observational latency. For example, active prostheses and exoskeletons based on high-density electrodes could be controlled with instantaneous responses.

  7. Gesture recognition by instantaneous surface EMG images

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Weidong; Du, Yu; Jin, Wenguang; Wei, Wentao; Hu, Yu; Li, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Gesture recognition in non-intrusive muscle-computer interfaces is usually based on windowed descriptive and discriminatory surface electromyography (sEMG) features because the recorded amplitude of a myoelectric signal may rapidly fluctuate between voltages above and below zero. Here, we present that the patterns inside the instantaneous values of high-density sEMG enables gesture recognition to be performed merely with sEMG signals at a specific instant. We introduce the concept of an sEMG image spatially composed from high-density sEMG and verify our findings from a computational perspective with experiments on gesture recognition based on sEMG images with a classification scheme of a deep convolutional network. Without any windowed features, the resultant recognition accuracy of an 8-gesture within-subject test reached 89.3% on a single frame of sEMG image and reached 99.0% using simple majority voting over 40 frames with a 1,000 Hz sampling rate. Experiments on the recognition of 52 gestures of NinaPro database and 27 gestures of CSL-HDEMG database also validated that our approach outperforms state-of-the-arts methods. Our findings are a starting point for the development of more fluid and natural muscle-computer interfaces with very little observational latency. For example, active prostheses and exoskeletons based on high-density electrodes could be controlled with instantaneous responses. PMID:27845347

  8. How Fast is Famous Face Recognition?

    PubMed Central

    Barragan-Jason, Gladys; Lachat, Fanny; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid recognition of familiar faces is crucial for social interactions. However the actual speed with which recognition can be achieved remains largely unknown as most studies have been carried out without any speed constraints. Different paradigms have been used, leading to conflicting results, and although many authors suggest that face recognition is fast, the speed of face recognition has not been directly compared to “fast” visual tasks. In this study, we sought to overcome these limitations. Subjects performed three tasks, a familiarity categorization task (famous faces among unknown faces), a superordinate categorization task (human faces among animal ones), and a gender categorization task. All tasks were performed under speed constraints. The results show that, despite the use of speed constraints, subjects were slow when they had to categorize famous faces: minimum reaction time was 467 ms, which is 180 ms more than during superordinate categorization and 160 ms more than in the gender condition. Our results are compatible with a hierarchy of face processing from the superordinate level to the familiarity level. The processes taking place between detection and recognition need to be investigated in detail. PMID:23162503

  9. Sleep enhances explicit recollection in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of memories, with the different sleep stages affecting different types of memory. In the present study, we used the process-dissociation procedure to compare the effects of sleep on estimates of explicit (recollection) and implicit (familiarity) memory formation on a word-list discrimination task. Subjects studied two lists of words before a 3-h retention interval of sleep or wakefulness, and recognition was tested afterward. The retention intervals were positioned either in the early night when sleep is dominated by slow-wave sleep (SWS), or in the late night, when sleep is dominated by REM sleep. Sleep enhanced explicit recognition memory, as compared with wakefulness (P < 0.05), whereas familiarity was not affected by sleep. Moreover, explicit recognition was particularly enhanced after sleep in the early-night retention interval, and especially when the words were presented with the same contextual features as during learning, i.e., in the same font (P < 0.05). The data indicate that in a task that allows separating the contribution of explicit and implicit memory, sleep particularly supports explicit memory formation. The mechanism of this effect appears to be linked to SWS.

  10. Speech recognition system for an automotive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Noso, K.; Futami, T.

    1987-01-13

    A speech recognition system is described for an automotive vehicle for activating vehicle actuators in response to predetermined spoken instructions supplied to the system via a microphone, which comprises: (a) a manually controlled record switch for deriving a record signal when activated; (b) a manually controlled recognition switch for deriving a recognition signal when activated; (c) a speech recognizer for sequentially recording reference spoken instructions whenever one reference spoken instruction is supplied to the system through the microphone while the record switch is activated, a memory having a storage area for each spoken instruction, and means for shifting access to each storage area for each spoken instruction has been recorded in the storage area provided therefore. A means is included for activating vehicle actuators sequentially whenever one recognition spoken instruction is supplied to the system via the microphone while the recognition switch is activated and when the spoken instruction to be recognized is similar to the reference spoken instruction; and (d) means for deriving skip instruction signal and for coupling the skip instruction signal to the speech recognizer to shift access from a currently accessed storage area for recording a current reference spoken instruction to a succeeding storage area for recording a succeeding reference spoken instruction even when the current reference spoken instruction is not supplied to the system through the microphone.

  11. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a “Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind” that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call “Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind.” While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation. PMID:26236228

  12. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  13. Brain-wave recognition of sentences.

    PubMed

    Suppes, P; Han, B; Lu, Z L

    1998-12-22

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of two subjects were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of 12 sentences or seven words auditorily presented was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to each of which a Fourier transform was applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject. A still further improvement was obtained by taking differences between recordings of two electrodes to obtain bipolar pairs that then were used for the same analysis. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied, but the best were above 90%. The first words of prototypes of sentences also were cut and pasted to test, at least partially, the invariance of a word's brain wave in different sentence contexts. The best result was above 80% correct recognition. Test samples made up only of individual trials also were analyzed. The best result was 134 correct of 288 (47%), which is promising, given that the expected recognition number by chance is just 24 (or 8.3%). The work reported in this paper extends our earlier work on brain-wave recognition of words only. The recognition rates reported here further strengthen the case that recordings of electric brain waves of words or sentences, together with extensive mathematical and statistical analysis, can be the basis of new developments in our understanding of brain processing of language.

  14. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    PubMed

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  15. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  16. The perirhinal cortex and recognition memory interference.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hilary C; Lee, Andy C H

    2013-02-27

    There has recently been an increase in interest in the effects of visual interference on memory processing, with the aim of elucidating the role of the perirhinal cortex (PRC) in recognition memory. One view argues that the PRC processes highly complex conjunctions of object features, and recent evidence from rodents suggests that these representations may be vital for buffering against the effects of pre-retrieval interference on object recognition memory. To investigate whether PRC-dependent object representations play a similar role in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan neurologically healthy participants while they performed a novel interference-match-to-sample task. This paradigm was specifically designed to concurrently assess the impact of object versus spatial interference, on recognition memory for objects or scenes, while keeping constant the amount of object and scene information presented across all trials. Activity at retrieval was examined, within an anatomically defined PRC region of interest, according to the demand for object or scene memory, following a period of object compared with spatial interference. Critically, we found greater PRC activity for object memory following object interference, compared with object memory following scene interference, and no difference between object and scene interference for scene recognition. These data demonstrate a role for the human PRC during object recognition memory, following a period of object, but not scene interference, and emphasize the importance of representational content to mnemonic processing.

  17. Exposure effects on music preference and recognition.

    PubMed

    Peretz, I; Gaudreau, D; Bonnel, A M

    1998-09-01

    In three experiments, the effects of exposure to melodies on their subsequent liking and recognition were explored. In each experiment, the subjects first listened to a set of familiar and unfamiliar melodies in a study phase. In the subsequent test phase, the melodies were repeated, along with a set of distractors matched in familiarity. Half the subjects were required to rate their liking of each melody, and half had to identify the melodies they had heard earlier in the study phase. Repetition of the studied melodies was found to increase liking of the unfamiliar melodies in the affect task and to be best for detection of familiar melodies in the recognition task (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). These memory effects were found to fade at different time delays between study and test in the affect and recognition tasks, with the latter leading to the most persistent effects (Experiment 2). Both study-to-test changes in melody timbre and manipulation of study tasks had a marked impact on recognition and little influence on liking judgments (Experiment 3). Thus, all manipulated variables were found to dissociate the memory effects in the two tasks. The results are consistent with the view that memory effects in the affect and recognition tasks pertain to the implicit and explicit forms of memory, respectively. Part of the results are, however, at variance with the literature on implicit and explicit memory in the auditory domain. Attribution of these differences to the use of musical material is discussed.

  18. Configural processing in face recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Barbara L.; Marvel, Cherie L.; Drapalski, Amy; Rosse, Richard B.; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. There is currently substantial literature to suggest that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on many face-processing tasks. This study investigated the specific effects of configural changes on face recognition in groups of schizophrenia patients. Methods. In Experiment 1, participants identified facial expressions in upright faces and in faces inverted from their upright orientation. Experiments 2 and 3 examined recognition memory for faces and other non-face objects presented in upright and inverted orientations. Experiment 4 explored recognition of facial identity in composite images where the top half of one face was fused to the bottom half of another face to form a new face configuration. Results. In each experiment, the configural change had the same effect on face recognition for the schizophenia patients as it did for control participants. Recognising inverted faces was more difficult than recognising upright faces, with a disproportionate effect of inversion on faces relative to other objects. Recognition of facial identity in face-halves was interfered with by the formation of a new face configuration. Conclusion. Collectively, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia rely on configural information to recognise photographs of faces. PMID:16528403

  19. False recognition of instruction-set lures.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-01-01

    False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition.

  20. Gibberellin Perception by the Gibberellin Receptor and its Effector Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoshima, Toshio; Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Sun, Tai-Ping

    Gibberellins control a diverse range of growth and developmental processes in higher plants and have been widely utilized in the agricultural industry. By binding to a nuclear receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), gibberellins regulate gene expression by promoting degradation of the transcriptional regulator DELLA proteins. The precise manner in which GID1 discriminates and becomes activated by bioactive gibberellins for specific binding to DELLA proteins remains unclear. We present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Arabidopsis thaliana GID1A, a bioactive gibberellin and the N-terminal DELLA domain of GAI. In this complex, GID1a occludes gibberellin in a deep binding pocket covered by its N-terminal helical switch region, which in turn interacts with the DELLA domain containing DELLA, VHYNP and LExLE motifs. Our results establish a structural model of a plant hormone receptor which is distinct from the hormone-perception mechanism and effector recognition of the known auxin receptors.

  1. MicroRNAs: Processing, Maturation, Target Recognition and Regulatory Functions

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Girish C.; Singh, Jagjit; Barik, Sailen

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable discovery of small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and their role in posttranscriptional gene regulation have revealed another fine-tuning step in the expression of genetic information. A large number of cellular pathways, which act in organismal development and are important in health and disease, appear to be modulated by miRNAs. At the molecular level, miRNAs restrain the production of proteins by affecting the stability of their target mRNA and/or by down-regulating their translation. This review attempts to offer a snapshot of aspects of miRNA coding, processing, target recognition and function in animals. Our goal here is to provide the readers with a thought-provoking and mechanistic introduction to the miRNA world rather than with a detailed encyclopedia. PMID:22468167

  2. Kin Recognition in a Clonal Fish, Poecilia formosa

    PubMed Central

    Makowicz, Amber M.; Tiedemann, Ralph; Schlupp, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Relatedness strongly influences social behaviors in a wide variety of species. For most species, the highest typical degree of relatedness is between full siblings with 50% shared genes. However, this is poorly understood in species with unusually high relatedness between individuals: clonal organisms. Although there has been some investigation into clonal invertebrates and yeast, nothing is known about kin selection in clonal vertebrates. We show that a clonal fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa), can distinguish between different clonal lineages, associating with genetically identical, sister clones, and use multiple sensory modalities. Also, they scale their aggressive behaviors according to the relatedness to other females: they are more aggressive to non-related clones. Our results demonstrate that even in species with very small genetic differences between individuals, kin recognition can be adaptive. Their discriminatory abilities and regulation of costly behaviors provides a powerful example of natural selection in species with limited genetic diversity. PMID:27483372

  3. A Compact Methodology to Understand, Evaluate, and Predict the Performance of Automatic Target Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called “context-probability” estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

  4. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Hettne, Kristina M.; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small. Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents PMID:27141091

  5. A compact methodology to understand, evaluate, and predict the performance of automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

    2014-06-25

    This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called "context-probability" estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good.

  6. Resident Recognition of Low Literacy as a Risk Factor in Hospital Readmission

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Caroline K; Kripalani, Sunil

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low literacy is associated with poor self-management of disease and increased hospitalization, yet few studies have explored the extent to which physicians consider literacy in their patient care. OBJECTIVE To examine trainee recognition of low literacy as a potential factor in patient adherence and hospital readmission. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized study of 98 Internal Medicine residents and medical students. Trainees reviewed a case history and completed a questionnaire pertaining to a fictional patient's hospital readmission. Case version A contained clues to suggest limited patient literacy skills, while version B did not. Responses were reviewed for mention of low literacy and educational strategies recommended for low-literate patients. RESULTS Few trainees raised the possibility of low patient literacy, even when provided clues (25% in Group A vs 4% in Group B, P=.003). Furthermore, while most trainees listed patient education as an important means of preventing another readmission, only 16% suggested using a strategy recommended for low-literate adults. CONCLUSION Few trainees recognized low literacy as a potential factor in patient nonadherence and hospital readmission, and few recommended low-literate educational strategies. Medical residents and students may benefit from additional training in the recognition and counseling of low-literate patients. PMID:16307631

  7. A genotypic mutation system measuring mutations in restriction recognition sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Felley-Bosco, E; Pourzand, C; Zijlstra, J; Amstad, P; Cerutti, P

    1991-01-01

    The RFLP/PCR approach (restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction) to genotypic mutation analysis described here measures mutations in restriction recognition sequences. Wild-type DNA is restricted before the resistant, mutated sequences are amplified by PCR and cloned. We tested the capacity of this experimental design to isolate a few copies of a mutated sequence of the human c-Ha-ras1 gene from a large excess of wild-type DNA. For this purpose we constructed a 272 bp fragment with 2 mutations in the PvuII recognition sequence 1727-1732 and studied the rescue by RFLP/PCR of a few copies of this 'PvuII mutant standard'. Following amplification with Taq-polymerase and cloning into lambda gt10, plaques containing wild-type sequence, PvuII mutant standard or Taq-polymerase induced bp changes were quantitated by hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes. Our results indicate that 10 PvuII mutant standard copies can be rescued from 10(8) to 10(9) wild-type sequences. Taq polymerase errors originating from unrestricted, residual wild-type DNA were sequence dependent and consisted mostly of transversions originating at G.C bp. In contrast to a doubly mutated 'standard' the capacity to rescue single bp mutations by RFLP/PCR is limited by Taq-polymerase errors. Therefore, we assessed the capacity of our protocol to isolate a G to T transversion mutation at base pair 1698 of the MspI-site 1695-1698 of the c-Ha-ras1 gene from excess wild-type ras1 DNA. We found that 100 copies of the mutated ras1 fragment could be readily rescued from 10(8) copies of wild-type DNA. Images PMID:1676153

  8. Feature quality-based multimodal unconstrained eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Eliza Y.; Lin, Yong; Thomas, N. Luke; Belcher, Craig; Delp, Edward J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition has been tested to the most accurate biometrics using high resolution near infrared images. However, it does not work well under visible wavelength illumination. Sclera recognition, however, has been shown to achieve reasonable recognition accuracy under visible wavelengths. Combining iris and sclera recognition together can achieve better recognition accuracy. However, image quality can significantly affect the recognition accuracy. Moreover, in unconstrained situations, the acquired eye images may not be frontally facing. In this research, we proposed a feature quality-based multimodal unconstrained eye recognition method that combine the respective strengths of iris recognition and sclera recognition for human identification and can work with frontal and off-angle eye images. The research results show that the proposed method is very promising.

  9. Automatic target recognition in acoustics: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, John R.

    2002-11-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) constitutes one of the major uses for acoustical signal processing. ATR is employed in manned systems for operator workload reduction and performance improvement, as well as in autonomous applications. An overview of some of the major components involved in the architecture of such systems is provided. Feature extraction is the most critical step of ATR and is necessarily application specific. Generic feature selection and ranking methods are presented, including heuristic search and information-theoretic measures. Basic pattern recognition definitions and techniques are reviewed. Commonly used classification paradigms include classical statistical formulations, both parametric and nonparametric, and neural nets; support vector machines and nonmetric methods such as decision forests are some alternative techniques that have received recent attention. A few practical issues often encountered when constructing recognition systems, including training data requirements, ground truth labeling, and performance evaluation methodologies and metrics, are also addressed.

  10. Facial expression recognition based on improved DAGSVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuan; Cui, Ye; Zhang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    For the cumulative error problem because of randomization sequence of traditional DAGSVM(Directed Acyclic Graph Support Vector Machine) classification, this paper presents an improved DAGSVM expression recognition method. The method uses the distance of class and the standard deviation as the measure of the classer, which minimize the error rate of the upper structure of the classification. At the same time, this paper uses the method which combines discrete cosine transform (Discrete Cosine Transform, DCT) with Local Binary Pattern(Local Binary Pattern - LBP) ,to extract expression feature and be the input to improve the DAGSVM classifier for recognition. Experimental results show that compared with other multi-class support vector machine method, improved DAGSVM classifier can achieve higher recognition rate. And when it's used at the platform of the intelligent wheelchair, experiments show that the method has a better robustness.

  11. Automatic speech recognition for large vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Kaemmerer, B.; Kuepper, W.; Lagger, H.

    1985-12-01

    An isolated word recognition system for large vocabularies (1000 to 5000 words) with 98% recognition performance was developed. It was implemented on an array processor for real time requirements. The speech signal is described by short time autocorrelation functions. Short response times as well as high recognition accuracies are achieved by means of a hierarchical classification scheme. A fast preselection stage yields a small number of suitable word candidates to be considered for further classification. To that end a linear segmentation or a segmentation based on acoustic or phonetic cues was performed. High selectivity is obtained by using fine temporal resolution and nonlinear time alignment in the final classification step. By taking into account phonetically identical fragments of words, a distinction between highly confusable words can be made. Speaker adaptation for new system users is performed within a relatively short training phase.

  12. Object recognition approach based on feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Runsheng

    2001-09-01

    Multi-sensor information fusion plays an important pole in object recognition and many other application fields. Fusion performance is tightly depended on the fusion level selected and the approach used. Feature level fusion is a potential and difficult fusion level though there might be mainly three fusion levels. Two schemes are developed for key issues of feature level fusion in this paper. In feature selecting, a normal method developed is to analyze the mutual relationship among the features that can be used, and to be applied to order features. In object recognition, a multi-level recognition scheme is developed, whose procedure can be controlled and updated by analyzing the decision result obtained in order to achieve a final reliable result. The new approach is applied to recognize work-piece objects with twelve classes in optical images and open-country objects with four classes based on infrared image sequence and MMW radar. Experimental results are satisfied.

  13. Olfactory kin recognition in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Krause, E Tobias; Krüger, Oliver; Kohlmeier, Philip; Caspers, Barbara A

    2012-06-23

    The ability to recognize close relatives in order to cooperate or to avoid inbreeding is widespread across all taxa. One accepted mechanism for kin recognition in birds is associative learning of visual or acoustic cues. However, how could individuals ever learn to recognize unfamiliar kin? Here, we provide the first evidence for a novel mechanism of kin recognition in birds. Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) fledglings are able to distinguish between kin and non-kin based on olfactory cues alone. Since olfactory cues are likely to be genetically based, this finding establishes a neglected mechanism of kin recognition in birds, particularly in songbirds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for both kin selection and inbreeding avoidance.

  14. Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network for Facial Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Bruno J. T.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.; Ren, Tsang I.

    2014-01-01

    Autoassociative artificial neural networks have been used in many different computer vision applications. However, it is difficult to define the most suitable neural network architecture because this definition is based on previous knowledge and depends on the problem domain. To address this problem, we propose a constructive autoassociative neural network called CANet (Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network). CANet integrates the concepts of receptive fields and autoassociative memory in a dynamic architecture that changes the configuration of the receptive fields by adding new neurons in the hidden layer, while a pruning algorithm removes neurons from the output layer. Neurons in the CANet output layer present lateral inhibitory connections that improve the recognition rate. Experiments in face recognition and facial expression recognition show that the CANet outperforms other methods presented in the literature. PMID:25542018

  15. Cognitive and artificial representations in handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaghan, Andrew P.; Malyan, Ron

    1996-03-01

    Both cognitive processes and artificial recognition systems may be characterized by the forms of representation they build and manipulate. This paper looks at how handwriting is represented in current recognition systems and the psychological evidence for its representation in the cognitive processes responsible for reading. Empirical psychological work on feature extraction in early visual processing is surveyed to show that a sound psychological basis for feature extraction exists and to describe the features this approach leads to. The first stage of the development of an architecture for a handwriting recognition system which has been strongly influenced by the psychological evidence for the cognitive processes and representations used in early visual processing, is reported. This architecture builds a number of parallel low level feature maps from raw data. These feature maps are thresholded and a region labeling algorithm is used to generate sets of features. Fuzzy logic is used to quantify the uncertainty in the presence of individual features.

  16. A Survey on Automatic Speaker Recognition Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquib, Zia; Salam, Nirmala; Nair, Rekha P.; Pandey, Nipun; Joshi, Akanksha

    Human listeners are capable of identifying a speaker, over the telephone or an entryway out of sight, by listening to the voice of the speaker. Achieving this intrinsic human specific capability is a major challenge for Voice Biometrics. Like human listeners, voice biometrics uses the features of a person's voice to ascertain the speaker's identity. The best-known commercialized forms of voice Biometrics is Speaker Recognition System (SRS). Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. This literature survey paper gives brief introduction on SRS, and then discusses general architecture of SRS, biometric standards relevant to voice/speech, typical applications of SRS, and current research in Speaker Recognition Systems. We have also surveyed various approaches for SRS.

  17. Motion recognition from contact force measurement.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Takumi; Venture, Gentiane

    2013-01-01

    Optical motion capture systems, which are used in broad fields of research, are costly; they need large installation space and calibrations. We find difficulty in applying it in typical homes and care centers. Therefore we propose to use low cost contact force measurement systems to develop rehabilitation and healthcare monitoring tools. Here, we propose a novel algorithm for motion recognition using the feature vector from force data solely obtained during a daily exercise program. We recognized 7 types of movement (Radio Exercises) of two candidates (mean age 22, male). The results show that the recognition rate of each motion has high score (mean: 86.9%). The results also confirm that there is a clustering of each movement in personal exercises data, and a similarity of the clustering even for different candidates thus that motion recognition is possible using contact force data.

  18. License Plate Recognition System for Indian Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanap, P. R.; Narote, S. P.

    2010-11-01

    We consider the task of recognition of Indian vehicle number plates (also called license plates or registration plates in other countries). A system for Indian number plate recognition must cope with wide variations in the appearance of the plates. Each state uses its own range of designs with font variations between the designs. Also, vehicle owners may place the plates inside glass covered frames or use plates made of nonstandard materials. These issues compound the complexity of automatic number plate recognition, making existing approaches inadequate. We have developed a system that incorporates a novel combination of image processing and artificial neural network technologies to successfully locate and read Indian vehicle number plates in digital images. Commercial application of the system is envisaged.

  19. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins in Drosophila immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Innate immunity is the front line of self-defense against infectious non-self in vertebrates and invertebrates. The innate immune system is mediated by germ-line encoding pattern recognition molecules (pathogen sensors) that recognize conserved molecular patterns present in the pathogens but absent in the host. Peptidoglycans (PGN) are essential cell wall components of almost all bacteria, except mycoplasma lacking a cell wall, which provides the host immune system an advantage for detecting invading bacteria. Several families of pattern recognition molecules that detect PGN and PGN-derived compounds have been indentified, and the role of PGRP family members in host defense is relatively well-chacterized in Drosophila. This review focuses on the role of PGRP family members in the recognition of invading bacteria and the activation and modulation of immune responses in Drosophila. PMID:23796791

  20. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  1. Recognition memory for foreign language lexical stress.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Lidia; Goh, Winston D

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated whether English speakers retained the lexical stress patterns of newly learned Spanish words. Participants studied spoken Spanish words (e.g., DUcha [shower], ciuDAD [city]; stressed syllables in capital letters) and subsequently performed a recognition task, in which studied words were presented with the same lexical stress pattern (DUcha) or the opposite lexical stress pattern (CIUdad). Participants were able to discriminate same- from opposite-stress words, indicating that lexical stress was encoded and used in the recognition process. Word-form similarity to English also influenced outcomes, with Spanish cognate words and words with trochaic stress (MANgo) being recognized more often and more quickly than Spanish cognate words with iambic stress (soLAR) and noncognates. The results suggest that while segmental and suprasegmental features of the native language influence foreign word recognition, foreign lexical stress patterns are encoded and not discarded in memory.

  2. Real-time, face recognition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  3. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Quentin R.; Lindsay, Richard J.; Petridis, Loukas; Shen, Tongye

    2015-04-28

    Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (bio)molecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. Here, we focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  4. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Quentin R.; Lindsay, Richard J.; Petridis, Loukas; ...

    2015-04-28

    Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (bio)molecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. Here, we focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We reviewmore » the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.« less

  5. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike; Vizioli, Luca; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Despite a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated the discriminative neural responses to unfamiliar and familiar faces by slowly increasing visual information (i.e., high-spatial frequencies) to progressively reveal faces of unfamiliar or personally familiar individuals. Activation in ventral occipitotemporal face-preferential regions increased with visual information, independently of long-term face familiarity. In contrast, medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and anterior inferior temporal cortex responded abruptly when sufficient information for familiar face recognition was accumulated. These observations suggest that following detailed analysis of individual faces in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically in medial temporal and anterior regions of the extended cortical face network.

  6. High molecular recognition: design of "Keys".

    PubMed

    Chen, Beining; Piletsky, Sergey; Turner, Anthony P F

    2002-09-01

    Molecular recognition between molecules is one of the most fundamental processes in biology and chemistry. The recognition process is largely driven by non-covalent forces such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatics, van der Waals forces, pi-pi interactions, and conformational energy. The complementarity between the receptor and substrate is very similar to the "lock and key" function, first described by Emil Fischer over 100 years ago, - the lock being the molecular receptor such as a protein or enzyme and the key being the substrate such as a drug, that is recognized to give a defined receptor-substrate complex. This review focuses on the design of specific ligand systems as "Keys" to enable the induced fit of these keys into the target macromolecules, protein/enzyme (Locks) with particular emphasis on protein recognition.

  7. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Meike; Vizioli, Luca; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated the discriminative neural responses to unfamiliar and familiar faces by slowly increasing visual information (i.e., high-spatial frequencies) to progressively reveal faces of unfamiliar or personally familiar individuals. Activation in ventral occipitotemporal face-preferential regions increased with visual information, independently of long-term face familiarity. In contrast, medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and anterior inferior temporal cortex responded abruptly when sufficient information for familiar face recognition was accumulated. These observations suggest that following detailed analysis of individual faces in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically in medial temporal and anterior regions of the extended cortical face network. PMID:26283361

  8. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    PubMed

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  9. Fear recognition across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Michael B

    2005-03-01

    This study assesses the mediating role of stage of menstrual cycle in the recognition of emotional expressions. It was hypothesised that fear recognition ability would be stronger at high-oestrogen stages of the menstrual cycle. The accuracy of recognising emotional expressions was compared across 50 women who were at different stages of their menstrual cycle. It was found that accuracy to recognise emotions was significantly affected by the interaction between stages of the menstrual cycle and the emotion being displayed. Further analysis revealed that for the emotion expression of fear alone, participants were significantly more accurate at the preovulatory surge (highest oestrogen levels) than at menstruation (oestrogen levels at lowest point). The results have implications for the processes that underlie fear processing and a possible insight into the sexual dimorphism of this ability and conditions that show variations in fear recognition (e.g., autism, Turner syndrome).

  10. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition.

  11. When recognition memory is independent of hippocampal function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christine N; Jeneson, Annette; Frascino, Jennifer C; Kirwan, C Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2014-07-08

    Hippocampal damage has been thought to result in broad memory impairment. Recent studies in humans, however, have raised the possibility that recognition memory for faces might be spared. In five experiments we investigated face recognition in patients with hippocampal lesions (H) or large medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions, including patients where neurohistological information was available. Recognition of novel faces was unequivocally intact in H patients but only at a short retention interval. Recognition memory for words, buildings, inverted faces, and famous faces was impaired. For MTL patients, recognition memory was impaired for all materials and across all retention intervals. These results indicate that structures other than the hippocampus, perhaps the perirhinal cortex, can support face recognition memory in H patients under some conditions. The fact that the faces were novel when recognition memory was intact does not fully account for our findings. We propose that the role of the hippocampus in recognition memory is related to how recognition decisions are accomplished. In typical recognition tasks, participants proceed by forming an association between a study item and the study list, and the recognition decision is later made based on whether participants believe the item was on the study list. We suggest that face recognition is an exception to this principle and that, at short retention intervals, participants can make their recognition decisions without making explicit reference to the study list. Important features of faces that might make face recognition exceptional are that they are processed holistically and are difficult to verbally label.

  12. Studying Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Area What are genes? Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making the molecules—many ... material in an organism. This includes genes and DNA elements that control the activity of genes. Does ...

  13. Toward understanding the limits of gait recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zongyi; Malave, Laura; Osuntogun, Adebola; Sudhakar, Preksha; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2004-08-01

    Most state of the art video-based gait recognition algorithms start from binary silhouettes. These silhouettes, defined as foreground regions, are usually detected by background subtraction methods, which results in holes or missed parts due to similarity of foreground and background color, and boundary errors due to video compression artifacts. Errors in low-level representation make it hard to understand the effect of certain conditions, such as surface and time, on gait recognition. In this paper, we present a part-level, manual silhouette database consisting of 71 subjects, over one gait cycle, with differences in surface, shoe-type, carrying condition, and time. We have a total of about 11,000 manual silhouette frames. The purpose of this manual silhouette database is twofold. First, this is a resource that we make available at http://www.GaitChallenge.org for use by the gait community to test and design better silhouette detection algorithms. These silhouettes can also be used to learn gait dynamics. Second, using the baseline gait recognition algorithm, which was specified along with the HumanID Gait Challenge problem, we show that performance from manual silhouettes is similar and only sometimes better than that from automated silhouettes detected by statistical background subtraction. Low performances when comparing sequences with differences in walking surfaces and time-variation are not fully explained by silhouette quality. We also study the recognition power in each body part and show that recognition based on just the legs is equal to that from the whole silhouette. There is also significant recognition power in the head and torso shape.

  14. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the amount of

  15. A new approach for cancelable iris recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Sui, Yan; Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    The iris is a stable and reliable biometric for positive human identification. However, the traditional iris recognition scheme raises several privacy concerns. One's iris pattern is permanently bound with him and cannot be changed. Hence, once it is stolen, this biometric is lost forever as well as all the applications where this biometric is used. Thus, new methods are desirable to secure the original pattern and ensure its revocability and alternatives when compromised. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme which incorporates iris features, non-invertible transformation and data encryption to achieve "cancelability" and at the same time increases iris recognition accuracy.

  16. Speech production knowledge in automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    King, Simon; Frankel, Joe; Livescu, Karen; McDermott, Erik; Richmond, Korin; Wester, Mirjam

    2007-02-01

    Although much is known about how speech is produced, and research into speech production has resulted in measured articulatory data, feature systems of different kinds, and numerous models, speech production knowledge is almost totally ignored in current mainstream approaches to automatic speech recognition. Representations of speech production allow simple explanations for many phenomena observed in speech which cannot be easily analyzed from either acoustic signal or phonetic transcription alone. In this article, a survey of a growing body of work in which such representations are used to improve automatic speech recognition is provided.

  17. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  18. Face recognition motivated by human approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; Lawson, Wallace Edgar; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad

    2010-04-01

    We report the development of a face recognition system which operates in the same way as humans in that it is capable of recognizing a number of people, while rejecting everybody else as strangers. While humans do it routinely, a particularly challenging aspect of the problem of open-world face recognition has been the question of rejecting previously unseen faces as unfamiliar. Our approach can handle previously unseen faces; it is based on identifying and enclosing the region(s) in the human face space which belong to the target person(s).

  19. Automatic target recognition employing signal compression.

    PubMed

    Ragothaman, Pradeep; Mikhael, Wasfy B; Muise, Robert R; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2007-07-20

    Quadratic correlation filters (QCFs) have been used successfully to detect and recognize targets embedded in background clutter. Recently, a QCF called the Rayleigh quotient quadratic correlation filter (RQQCF) was formulated for automatic target recognition (ATR) in IR imagery. Using training images from target and clutter classes, the RQQCF explicitly maximized a class separation metric. What we believe to be a novel approach is presented for ATR that synthesizes the RQQCF using compressed images. The proposed approach considerably reduces the computational complexity and storage requirements while retaining the high recognition accuracy of the original RQQCF technique. The advantages of the proposed scheme are illustrated using sample results obtained from experiments on IR imagery.

  20. Action Recognition Using Visual-Neuron Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xu, De

    This letter proposes a neurobiological approach for action recognition. In this approach, actions are represented by a visual-neuron feature (VNF) based on a quantitative model of object representation in the primate visual cortex. A supervised classification technique is then used to classify the actions. The proposed VNF is invariant to affine translation and scaling of moving objects while maintaining action specificity. Moreover, it is robust to the deformation of actors. Experiments on publicly available action datasets demonstrate the proposed approach outperforms conventional action recognition models based on computer-vision features.

  1. NCBI disease corpus: a resource for disease name recognition and concept normalization.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-01

    Information encoded in natural language in biomedical literature publications is only useful if efficient and reliable ways of accessing and analyzing that information are available. Natural language processing and text mining tools are therefore essential for extracting valuable information, however, the development of powerful, highly effective tools to automatically detect central biomedical concepts such as diseases is conditional on the availability of annotated corpora. This paper presents the disease name and concept annotations of the NCBI disease corpus, a collection of 793 PubMed abstracts fully annotated at the mention and concept level to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural language processing community. Each PubMed abstract was manually annotated by two annotators with disease mentions and their corresponding concepts in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®). Manual curation was performed using PubTator, which allowed the use of pre-annotations as a pre-step to manual annotations. Fourteen annotators were randomly paired and differing annotations were discussed for reaching a consensus in two annotation phases. In this setting, a high inter-annotator agreement was observed. Finally, all results were checked against annotations of the rest of the corpus to assure corpus-wide consistency. The public release of the NCBI disease corpus contains 6892 disease mentions, which are mapped to 790 unique disease concepts. Of these, 88% link to a MeSH identifier, while the rest contain an OMIM identifier. We were able to link 91% of the mentions to a single disease concept, while the rest are described as a combination of concepts. In order to help researchers use the corpus to design and test disease identification methods, we have prepared the corpus as training, testing and development sets. To demonstrate its utility, we conducted a benchmarking experiment where we compared three different

  2. GAP: A computer program for gene assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Eisnstein, J.R.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Guan, X.; Mural, R.J.; Mann, R.C.

    1991-09-01

    A computer program, GAP (Gene Assembly Program), has been written to assemble and score hypothetical genes, given a DNA sequence containing the gene, and the outputs of several other programs which analyze the sequence. These programs include the codign-recognition and splice-junction-recognition modules developed in this laboratory. GAP is a prototype of a planned system in which it will be integrated with an expert system and rule base. Initial tests of GAP have been carried out with four sequences, the exons of which have been determined by biochemcial methods. The highest-scoring hypothetical genes for each of the four sequences had percent correct splice junctions ranging from 50 to 100% (average 81%) and percent correct bases ranging from 92 to 100% (average 96%). 9 refs., 1 tab.

  3. The role of pattern recognition receptors in the innate recognition of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Nan-Xin; Wang, Yan; Hu, Dan-Dan; Yan, Lan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and a major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Yeast-hypha morphological transition is a well known virulence trait of C. albicans. Host innate immunity to C. albicans critically requires pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this review, we summarize the PRRs involved in the recognition of C. albicans in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and phagocytic cells separately. We figure out the differential recognition of yeasts and hyphae, the findings on PRR-deficient mice, and the discoveries on human PRR-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). PMID:25714264

  4. Potential MiRNAs recognition site identification in 3' UTR regions by DSP methods.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Norbert; Arrigo, Patrizio; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate fundamental cellular processes in diverse organisms and that have an important function in gene expression regulation. miRNAs seem capable to concurrently modulate hundreds of target genes. Their abnormal expression is emerging as important element in many pathological conditions. The identification of microRNA binding sites on those proteins that can be disease biomarker is fundamental to design synthetic artificial oligomers. In this paper we suggest a method, based on signal processing, to filter out potential miRNA recognition sites in the 3' UTR region of mRNAs.

  5. Recognition and Evaluation of Clinical Section Headings in Clinical Documents Using Token-Based Formulation with Conditional Random Fields

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Chen, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) is a digital data format that collects electronic health information about an individual patient or population. To enhance the meaningful use of EHRs, information extraction techniques have been developed to recognize clinical concepts mentioned in EHRs. Nevertheless, the clinical judgment of an EHR cannot be known solely based on the recognized concepts without considering its contextual information. In order to improve the readability and accessibility of EHRs, this work developed a section heading recognition system for clinical documents. In contrast to formulating the section heading recognition task as a sentence classification problem, this work proposed a token-based formulation with the conditional random field (CRF) model. A standard section heading recognition corpus was compiled by annotators with clinical experience to evaluate the performance and compare it with sentence classification and dictionary-based approaches. The results of the experiments showed that the proposed method achieved a satisfactory F-score of 0.942, which outperformed the sentence-based approach and the best dictionary-based system by 0.087 and 0.096, respectively. One important advantage of our formulation over the sentence-based approach is that it presented an integrated solution without the need to develop additional heuristics rules for isolating the headings from the surrounding section contents. PMID:26380302

  6. Different effects of serotonin antagonists on /sup 3/H-mianserin and /sup 3/H-ketanserin recognition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfi, O.; Barbaccia, M.L.; Costa, E.

    1985-02-25

    In minces prepared from the frontal cortex of rats treated with ketanserin (10 mg/kg i.p.) or mianserin (5 mg/kg i.p.) twice daily for 21 days, the Vmax of the adenylate cyclase stimulated by NE (100 ..mu..M) is attenuated, suggesting that ketanserin and mianserin share with a number of antidepressants the ability to attenuate the adenylate cyclase stimulation by NE. Ketanserin, given with the above mentioned dose schedule for 7 consecutive days, reduced the Bmax of 5HT/sub 2/ recognition sites but failed to change either the Bmax or the apparent Kd of /sup 3/H-mianserin binding. A significant decrease in the Bmax of 5HT/sub 2/ binding sites is elicited also by a single injection of mianserin. This drug also down-regulates its own binding when given twice daily for 3 weeks. From this and other information, it is concluded that ketanserin and mianserin bind to distinct recognition sites. The possibility that 5HT/sub 2/ and mianserin recognition sites are functionally related and that serotonergic synapses are modulated by multiple chemical signals might be considered. 34 references, 3 figures.

  7. Fifty years of progress in speech and speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, Sadaoki

    2004-10-01

    Speech and speaker recognition technology has made very significant progress in the past 50 years. The progress can be summarized by the following changes: (1) from template matching to corpus-base statistical modeling, e.g., HMM and n-grams, (2) from filter bank/spectral resonance to Cepstral features (Cepstrum + DCepstrum + DDCepstrum), (3) from heuristic time-normalization to DTW/DP matching, (4) from gdistanceh-based to likelihood-based methods, (5) from maximum likelihood to discriminative approach, e.g., MCE/GPD and MMI, (6) from isolated word to continuous speech recognition, (7) from small vocabulary to large vocabulary recognition, (8) from context-independent units to context-dependent units for recognition, (9) from clean speech to noisy/telephone speech recognition, (10) from single speaker to speaker-independent/adaptive recognition, (11) from monologue to dialogue/conversation recognition, (12) from read speech to spontaneous speech recognition, (13) from recognition to understanding, (14) from single-modality (audio signal only) to multi-modal (audio/visual) speech recognition, (15) from hardware recognizer to software recognizer, and (16) from no commercial application to many practical commercial applications. Most of these advances have taken place in both the fields of speech recognition and speaker recognition. The majority of technological changes have been directed toward the purpose of increasing robustness of recognition, including many other additional important techniques not noted above.

  8. Image recognition and consistency of response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question.
    Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image.
    Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize.
    Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  9. Prototype neural network pattern recognition testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrell, Steven W.; Robertson, James A.; Varner, Thomas L.; Garvin, Charles G.

    1991-02-01

    Recent successes ofneural networks has led to an optimistic outlook for neural network applications to image processing(IP). This paperpresents a general architecture for performing comparative studies of neural processing and more conventional IF techniques as well as hybrid pattern recognition (PR) systems. Two hybrid PR systems have been simulated each of which incorporate both conventional and neural processing techniques.

  10. Teaching Recognition Skills to Improve Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1990-01-01

    First year dental students (n=86) in a conservative restorations course were taught a discrimination learning paradigm to improve production quality. Evaluation of Class 1 amalgam preparations indicates the improved recognition skills corresponded with improved cavity preparation, supporting the use of this teaching model. (Author/MSE)

  11. The irre cell recognition module (IRM) proteins.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich; Linneweber, Gerit Arne; Andlauer, Till Felix Malte; Hertenstein, Alexander; Bonengel, Bernhard; Chaudhary, Kokil

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in developmental neurosciences is to understand the establishment and maintenance of specific membrane contacts between axonal, dendritic, and glial processes in the neuropils, which eventually secure neuronal connectivity. However, underlying cell recognition events are pivotal in other tissues as well. This brief review focuses on the pleiotropic functions of a small, evolutionarily conserved group of proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in cell recognition. In Drosophila, this protein family comprises Irregular chiasm C/Roughest (IrreC/Rst), Kin of irre (Kirre), and their interacting protein partners, Sticks and stones (SNS) and Hibris (Hbs). For simplicity, we propose to name this ensemble of proteins the irre cell recognition module (IRM) after the first identified member of this family. Here, we summarize evidence that the IRM proteins function together in various cellular interactions, including myoblast fusion, cell sorting, axonal pathfinding, and target recognition in the optic neuropils of Drosophila. Understanding IRM protein function will help to unravel the epigenetic rules by which the intricate neurite networks in sensory neuropils are formed.

  12. Recognition of Hits in a Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerak, Vojtech; Drahansky, Martin

    This paper describes two possible ways of hit recognition in a target. First method is based on frame differencing with use of a stabilization algorithm to eliminate movements of a target. Second method uses flood fill with random seed point definition to find hits in the target scene.

  13. Pattern Recognition For Automatic Visual Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, K. S.

    1982-11-01

    Three major approaches to pattern recognition, (1) template matching, (2) decision-theoretic approach, and (3) structural and syntactic approach, are briefly introduced. The application of these approaches to automatic visual inspection of manufactured products are then reviewed. A more general method for automatic visual inspection of IC chips is then proposed. Several practical examples are included for illustration.

  14. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  15. Unpacking Recognition and Esteem in School Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Christoph; Bittner, Martin; Clemens, Iris; Kellermann, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on pedagogical practices of recognition and esteem (Wertschatzung) and on the question of how those practices can be appropriately studied and epistemologically grasped. The investigation involves an inner-city elementary school in a socio-economically problematic district. With regard to the communication forms in this…

  16. Speech Recognition, Disability, and College Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lorna M.; Reynolds, Thomas W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the composing processes of five postsecondary students who used or were learning to use speech recognition software (SR) for college-level writing. The study analyzed their composing processes through observation, interviews, and analysis of written products over a series of composing sessions. This investigation was prompted…

  17. Pattern recognition and active vision in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, M S; Woodington, A

    2000-02-10

    Recognition of objects or environmental landmarks is problematic because appearance can vary widely depending on illumination, viewing distance, angle of view and so on. Storing a separate image or 'template' for every possible view requires vast numbers to be stored and scanned, has a high probability of recognition error and appears not to be the solution adopted by primates. However, some invertebrate template matching systems can achieve recognition by 'active vision' in which the animal's own behaviour is used to achieve a fit between template and object, for example by repeatedly following a set path. Recognition is thus limited to views from the set path but achieved with a minimal number of templates. Here we report the first evidence of similar active vision in a bird, in the form of locomotion and individually distinct head movements that give the eyes a similar series of views on different occasions. The hens' ability to recognize objects is also found to decrease when their normal paths are altered.

  18. Psychological and Associative Meaning in Auditory Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarte, Robert; And Others

    In 1964 Tarte, Gadlin, and Ehrlich found a correlation between Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and associative meaning in an auditory recognition task. This study attempted to replicate the results and examine the critical variables involved. One hundred eighty female college students served as subjects. Each heard ten accelerated words followed by…

  19. Toleration and Recognition: What Should We Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Generally we think it good to tolerate and to accord recognition. Yet both are complex phenomena and our teaching must acknowledge and cope with that complexity. We tolerate only what we object to, so our message to students cannot be simply, "promote the good and prevent the bad". Much advocacy of toleration is not what it pretends to be. Nor is…

  20. Object recognition difficulty in visual apperceptive agnosia.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Galetta, S; D'Esposito, M

    1997-04-01

    Two patients with visual apperceptive agnosia were examined on tasks assessing the appreciation of visual material. Elementary visual functioning was relatively preserved, but they had profound difficulty recognizing and naming line drawings. More detailed evaluation revealed accurate recognition of regular geometric shapes and colors, but performance deteriorated when the shapes were made more complex visually, when multiple-choice arrays contained larger numbers of simple targets and foils, and when a mental manipulation such as a rotation was required. The recognition of letters and words was similarly compromised. Naming, recognition, and anomaly judgments of colored pictures and real objects were more accurate than similar decisions involving black-and-white line drawings. Visual imagery for shapes, letters, and objects appeared to be more accurate than visual perception of the same materials. We hypothesize that object recognition difficulty in visual apperceptive agnosia is due to two related factors: the impaired appreciation of the visual perceptual features that constitute objects, and a limitation in the cognitive resources that are available for processing demanding material within the visual modality.