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Sample records for general chemistry expanding

  1. General Chemistry: Expanding the Learning Outcomes and Promoting Interdisciplinary Connections through the Use of a Semester-Long Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory component of a first-semester general chemistry course for science majors is described. The laboratory involves a semester-long project undertaken in a small-group format. Students are asked to examine whether plants grown in soil contaminated with lead take up more lead than those grown in uncontaminated soil. They are also asked…

  2. General Chemistry: Expanding the Learning Outcomes and Promoting Interdisciplinary Connections through the Use of a Semester-Long Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory component of a first-semester general chemistry course for science majors is described. The laboratory involves a semester-long project undertaken in a small-group format. Students are asked to examine whether plants grown in soil contaminated with lead take up more lead than those grown in uncontaminated soil. They are also asked…

  3. General chemistry: expanding the learning outcomes and promoting interdisciplinary connections through the use of a semester-long project.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory component of a first-semester general chemistry course for science majors is described. The laboratory involves a semester-long project undertaken in a small-group format. Students are asked to examine whether plants grown in soil contaminated with lead take up more lead than those grown in uncontaminated soil. They are also asked to examine whether the acidity of the rainwater affects the amount of lead taken up by the plants. Groups are then given considerable independence in the design and implementation of the experiment. Once the seeds are planted, which takes about 4 wk into the term, several shorter experiments are integrated in before it is time to harvest and analyze the plants. The use of a project and small working groups allows for the development of a broader range of learning outcomes than occurs in a "traditional" general chemistry laboratory. The nature of these outcomes and some of the student responses to the laboratory experience are described. This particular project also works well at demonstrating the connections among chemistry, biology, geology, and environmental studies.

  4. Chemistry as General Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    Science courses are common in most general education requirements. This paper addresses the role of chemistry classes in meeting these requirements. Chemistry professors have for many years questioned the appropriateness of the standard introductory chemistry course as general education, resulting in the growing popularity of specialized non-majors courses. I suggest that current non-major chemistry courses cover too much consumer chemistry and ignore some of the big contributions of chemistry to human knowledge. Majors chemistry courses, while they prepare students for majoring in science, do not address these issues either. Consequently, chemistry courses are often an ineffective and unpopular way to meet general education science requirements. Part of the reason for this dilemma is the lack of chemists who address the contributions of chemistry to human knowledge in general. I propose that faculty at liberal arts colleges engage in this important task and that non-majors chemistry textbooks incorporate questions and issues that relate chemistry to a broader view of human knowledge. If these things happen, perhaps chemistry courses will become more effective as general education.

  5. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  6. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  7. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  8. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  9. INSTRUCTION IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY AND THE EXPANDING STUDENT POPULATION, A REPORT OF THE A.C.C.C. CONFERENCE ON THE LOGISTICS OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY TEACHING IN LARGE SECTIONS (WASHINGTON, D.C., OCTOBER 1963).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRASTED, ROBERT C.

    GROWING COLLEGE ENROLLMENTS HAVE BEEN ACCOMPANIED BY SIMILAR INCREASES IN DEMAND FOR GENERAL CHEMISTRY, WITH RESULTANT PROBLEMS OF MAINTAINING QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION. THIS PAPER IS A DISCUSSION OF SOME WAYS OF MEETING THE PROBLEMS OF NUMBERS. MULTISECTION COURSES MAY BE ORGANIZED AROUND COMMON GENERAL OBJECTIVES OR AROUND COMMON CONTENT. AN…

  10. General Chemistry, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Orson W.; Franke, Douglas C.

    This publication is a syllabus for a senior high school chemistry course designed for the average ability, nonscience major. The content of the syllabus is divided into three basic core areas: Area I: Similarities and Dissimilarities of Matter (9 weeks); Area II: Preparation and Separation of Substances (10 weeks); Area III: Structure and…

  11. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.

    2000-10-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J. Chemistry Comes Alive!, J. Chem. Educ. Software 2000, SP 18 2nd ed., SP 21 2nd ed., SP 23; SP 25; and additional video in press.
    2. Summerlin, L. R.; Borgford, C. F.; Ealy, J. B. Chemical Demonstrations, Volume 2; ACS: Washington, DC, 1987.

    3. PROLANG: an expandable software in protein chemistry.

      PubMed

      Petrilli, P; Caporale, C; Sepe, C

      1990-04-01

      PROLANG is an improved version of the PROSOFT program. Improvements to the old commands were made and new ones were added, PROLANG is an open software that users with BASIC programming experience can easily expand.

    4. Investigating expanded chemistry in CMAQ clouds

      EPA Science Inventory

      Clouds and fogs significantly impact the amount, composition, and spatial distribution of gas and particulate atmospheric species, not least of which through the chemistry that occurs in cloud droplets.ᅠ Atmospheric sulfate is an important component of fine aerosol mass an...

    5. Investigating expanded chemistry in CMAQ clouds

      EPA Science Inventory

      Clouds and fogs significantly impact the amount, composition, and spatial distribution of gas and particulate atmospheric species, not least of which through the chemistry that occurs in cloud droplets.ᅠ Atmospheric sulfate is an important component of fine aerosol mass an...

    6. General Chemistry for Waste Handlers.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sixtus, Michael E.

      This manual is intended for use in presenting a course which provides the content-specific general chemistry education required for the safety awareness and job enhancement of persons employed as waste handlers. The course, which was designed to be delivered to technicians at job sites in a lecture/demonstration format with several hands-on…

    7. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

      2010-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

    8. General chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate science

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Versprille, Ashley N.

      The purpose of this study is to investigate first-semester general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. The first part of this study involves the collection of qualitative data from twenty-four first-semester general chemistry students from a large Midwestern research institution. The semi-structured interview protocol was developed based on alternative conceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) document which pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2003). The analysis and findings from the interviews indicate conceptual difficulties for students, both with basic climate literacy and underlying chemistry concepts. Students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer, and in terms of chemistry concepts, they lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases and their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Based on the findings from these interviews, a Chemistry of Climate Science Diagnostic Instrument (CCSI) was developed for use in courses that teach chemistry with a rich context such as climate science. The CCSI is designed for professors who want to teach general chemistry, while also addressing core climate literacy principles. It will help professors examine their students' prior knowledge and alternative conceptions of the chemistry concepts associated with climate science, which could then inform their teaching and instruction.

    9. General Chemistry in Liberal Arts Colleges.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Finholt, Albert E.

      1978-01-01

      Discusses some issues related to chemistry curricula in liberal arts colleges. Among these issues are the nature of a liberal arts curriculum, content of chemistry course, teaching methods, technological aids to teaching, use of the laboratory, and the future of general chemistry teaching in the liberal arts colleges. (HM)

    10. General Chemistry in Liberal Arts Colleges.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Finholt, Albert E.

      1978-01-01

      Discusses some issues related to chemistry curricula in liberal arts colleges. Among these issues are the nature of a liberal arts curriculum, content of chemistry course, teaching methods, technological aids to teaching, use of the laboratory, and the future of general chemistry teaching in the liberal arts colleges. (HM)

    11. The Rensselaer Studio General Chemistry Course

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Apple, Thomas; Cutler, Alan

      1999-04-01

      We implemented a studio General Chemistry program as part of a school mandate to replace large lectures in all first-year courses by small studio classes (maximum of 60 students) that integrate the class, recitation, and laboratory experience. Hallmarks of this approach include focusing on the student as a problem solver and facilitating cooperative learning via group interactions. Approximately 900 students take two semesters of General Chemistry: 750 engineering students take a Chemistry of Materials course that adopted this approach in 1996 and the remaining 150 students take General Chemistry for science majors. Five instructors have been involved with the latter course during the last two years. Starting in 1996, these courses meet in two general chemistry suites that we designed to accommodate 60 students each in a studio classroom setting. Each suite is fully equipped for computer-assisted instruction in both the classroom and the adjoining laboratories.

  1. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  2. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  3. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

  4. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

  5. Electrochemistry in the General Chemistry Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, James Q.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines several ideas on introductory electrochemistry material suitable for college-level general chemistry. These include discussions of conductivity in solids and electrolytes, electrical quantities/properties, electrode potentials, and membrane potentials. Indicates that whatever strategy is used to present this material, the presentation…

  6. An Environmentally Focused General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihok, Morgan; Keiser, Joseph T.; Bortiatynski, Jacqueline M.; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The environmentally focused general chemistry laboratory provides a format for teaching the concepts of the mainstream laboratory within an environmental context. The capstone integrated exercise emerged as the overwhelming favorite part of this laboratory and the experiment gave students an opportunity to do a self-directed project, using the…

  7. Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, John III

    1998-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the first semester general chemistry laboratory at the college level. An organic component is included in the redesign and it provides students with explicit examples of several types of operations in which chemists engage. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  8. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  9. General Chemistry and Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smist, Julianne M.

    Several researchers have argued that the underrepresentation of women and minorities in professional occupations results from negative beliefs or attitudes, particularly self-efficacy expectations. A Science Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) was designed and later administered to 430 students (all were enrolled in freshman general chemistry and…

  10. A Flipped Classroom Redesign in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom continues to attract significant attention in higher education. Building upon our recent parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course ("J. Chem. Educ.," 2016, 93, 13-23), here we report on a redesign of the flipped course aimed at scaling up total enrollment while…

  11. Theme-Based Exams in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato-Wierda, Carmela

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of theme-based exams in a one semester, advanced-level general chemistry course for physical science and engineering majors. Presents an example of a theme-based exam given at the beginning of the semester. (Author/CCM)

  12. A Flipped Classroom Redesign in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom continues to attract significant attention in higher education. Building upon our recent parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course ("J. Chem. Educ.," 2016, 93, 13-23), here we report on a redesign of the flipped course aimed at scaling up total enrollment while…

  13. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  14. Electrochemistry in the General Chemistry Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, James Q.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines several ideas on introductory electrochemistry material suitable for college-level general chemistry. These include discussions of conductivity in solids and electrolytes, electrical quantities/properties, electrode potentials, and membrane potentials. Indicates that whatever strategy is used to present this material, the presentation…

  15. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  16. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  17. Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, John III

    1998-01-01

    Describes the redesign of the first semester general chemistry laboratory at the college level. An organic component is included in the redesign and it provides students with explicit examples of several types of operations in which chemists engage. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  18. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  19. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  20. A framework for expanding aqueous chemistry in the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an extendable aqueous-phase chemistry option (AQCHEM − KMT(I)) for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, version 5.1. Here, the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP), version 2.2.3, is used to generate a Rosenbrock solver (Rodas3) to integrate the stiff system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describe the mass transfer, chemical kinetics, and scavenging processes of CMAQ clouds. CMAQ's standard cloud chemistry module (AQCHEM) is structurally limited to the treatment of a simple chemical mechanism. This work advances our ability to test and implement more sophisticated aqueous chemical mechanisms in CMAQ and further investigate the impacts of microphysical parameters on cloud chemistry. Box model cloud chemistry simulations were performed to choose efficient solver and tolerance settings, evaluate the implementation of the KPP solver, and assess the direct impacts of alternative solver and kinetic mass transfer on predicted concentrations for a range of scenarios. Month-long CMAQ simulations for winter and summer periods over the US reveal the changes in model predictions due to these cloud module updates within the full chemical transport model. While monthly average CMAQ predictions are not drastically altered between AQCHEM and AQCHEM − KMT, hourly concentration differences can be significant. With added in-cloud secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from bio

  1. Predicting student success in General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Daphne Elizabeth

    The goal of this research was to determine the predictors of student success in college level General Chemistry. The potential predictors were categorized as cognitive, non-cognitive, affective, or demographic factors. A broader goal of the study was to provide a reference for academic personnel to better judge the prerequisite skills, knowledge and attitudes that students should attain before enrolling in General Chemistry. Therefore, the study is relevant to chemical educators who are attempting to matriculate candidates for the scientific workforce and to chemical education researches who are interested in student success, student retention and curricular reform. The major hypotheses were that several factors from each category would emerge as significant predictors and that these would differ for students enrolled at three different post-secondary institutions: a community college, a private university and a public university. These hypotheses were tested using multiple regression techniques to analyze grade, student survey and post-test data collected from General Chemistry students at the three institutions. Over-all, twelve factors (six demographic, three cognitive and three affective) emerged as strong, significant predictors of student success. In addition, there were marked differences in which factors emerged based on the type of institution and on how student success was defined. Thus, the major hypotheses of the study were supported. Over-all, this study has significant implications for educational policy, theory, and practice. With regard to policy, there is a need for institutions and departments that offer General Chemistry to provide support for a diverse population of students. And, at the community college level, in particular, there is a need for better academic advising and more institutional support for underprepared students. In the classroom, the professor plays a critical role in influencing students' academic self-concept, which in turn

  2. Expanding opportunities for mining bioactive chemistry from patents.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Bioactive structures published in medicinal chemistry patents typically exceed those in papers by at least twofold and may precede them by several years. The Big-Bang of open automated extraction since 2012 has contributed to over 15 million patent-derived compounds in PubChem. While mapping between chemical structures, assay results and protein targets from patent documents is challenging, these relationships can be harvested using open tools and are beginning to be curated into databases.

  3. Expanding opportunities for mining bioactive chemistry from patents

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive structures published in medicinal chemistry patents typically exceed those in papers by at least twofold and may precede them by several years. The Big-Bang of open automated extraction since 2012 has contributed to over 15 million patent-derived compounds in PubChem. While mapping between chemical structures, assay results and protein targets from patent documents is challenging, these relationships can be harvested using open tools and are beginning to be curated into databases. PMID:26194581

  4. Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmsted, John A., III

    1998-10-01

    An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer. To understand the chemistry, the student must be able to recognize the common molecular framework shared by oil of wintergreen, salicylic acid, and aspirin and to identify the -OH and -CO2 sites where chemical changes occur. The experiment differs in three ways from traditional aspirin synthesis experiments for general chemistry. It is designed to be performed early rather than late; it starts from a naturally occurring material and requires two steps rather than one; and it utilizes FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish among oil of wintergreen starting material, salicylic acid intermediate, and aspirin product. The use of FTIR spectroscopy introduces students to a modern analytical technique that is currently used in research involving aspirin.

  5. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    -conjugation strategy, we designed a straightforward scheme to synthesize a suite of dialdehyde reagents. The dialdehyde molecules were used for applications in cell-surface engineering and for tailoring surfaces for material science applications. We anticipate the broad utility of the general dialdehyde click chemistry to primary amines in all areas of chemical research, ranging from polymers and bioconjugation to material science and nanoscience.

  6. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 1: Review of General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet is one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland. It provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  7. Generalized Subset Designs in Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Izabella; Vikström, Ludvig; Hector, Gustaf; Johansson, Erik; Vikström, Conny; Trygg, Johan

    2017-06-20

    Design of experiments (DOE) is an established methodology in research, development, manufacturing, and production for screening, optimization, and robustness testing. Two-level fractional factorial designs remain the preferred approach due to high information content while keeping the number of experiments low. These types of designs, however, have never been extended to a generalized multilevel reduced design type that would be capable to include both qualitative and quantitative factors. In this Article we describe a novel generalized fractional factorial design. In addition, it also provides complementary and balanced subdesigns analogous to a fold-over in two-level reduced factorial designs. We demonstrate how this design type can be applied with good results in three different applications in analytical chemistry including (a) multivariate calibration using microwave resonance spectroscopy for the determination of water in tablets, (b) stability study in drug product development, and (c) representative sample selection in clinical studies. This demonstrates the potential of generalized fractional factorial designs to be applied in many other areas of analytical chemistry where representative, balanced, and complementary subsets are required, especially when a combination of quantitative and qualitative factors at multiple levels exists.

  8. Equal Spacing and Expanding Schedules in Children's Categorization and Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Bjork, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand how generalization develops across the lifespan, researchers have examined the factors of the learning environment that promote the acquisition and generalization of categories. One such factor is the timing of learning events, which recent findings suggest may play a particularly important role in children's generalization. In the current study, we build upon these findings by examining the impact of equally spaced versus expanding learning schedules on children's ability to generalize from studied exemplars of a given category to new exemplars presented on a later test. We found no significant effects of learning schedule when the generalization test was administered immediately after the learning phase, but there was a clear difference when the generalization test was delayed by 24 hours: Children in the expanding condition significantly outperformed children in the equally spaced learning condition. These results suggest forgetting and retrieval dynamics may be lower-level cognitive mechanisms promoting generalization and have several implications for broad theories of learning, cognition, and development. PMID:24613074

  9. Cafeteria-Style Grading in General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, John A.; Gilbert, Brian D.

    2001-04-01

    Self-selected individual course-grade weighting schemes allow students personal choice of course components in the general chemistry sequence at Coastal Carolina University. With the availability of a wide range of commercial and academically produced pedagogical resources, students can select materials that best suit their own learning styles, social situations, and motivation level. Our students use a signed contract to indicate their preferred grade-weighting schemes for determination of the course grade. In doing so, they choose from course components that include peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the Workshop Chemistry (WSC) model, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using the ChemSkill Builder (CSB) software, a variety of in-class quizzes and group problem-solving exercises, written exams, and the final written exam. Minimum percentage values are required of all components except WSC and CSB, which have been completely optional graded course components at CCU since the summer of 1999. Comparison of student success in the course and content learning suggests that the improvements observed with introduction of a gamut of activities increase even more when the cafeteria-style grading is implemented.

  10. Understanding the Impact of a General Chemistry Course on Students' Transition to Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Webb, Alexandra; Jeffery, Kathleen A.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from general chemistry to organic chemistry can be a challenge for students as it often involves a transition from quantitatively-oriented to mechanistically-oriented thinking. This study found that the design of the general chemistry course can change the student experience of this transition as assessed by a reflective survey. The…

  11. Understanding the Impact of a General Chemistry Course on Students' Transition to Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Webb, Alexandra; Jeffery, Kathleen A.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from general chemistry to organic chemistry can be a challenge for students as it often involves a transition from quantitatively-oriented to mechanistically-oriented thinking. This study found that the design of the general chemistry course can change the student experience of this transition as assessed by a reflective survey. The…

  12. A Student Guide to Studying General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a guide for introductory college chemistry students who are new to the subject of chemistry and who have been exposed to linear and second-order algebra equations and the concept of slope. The guide presents directions on the following topics: (1) How to prepare for lectures and take notes; (2) How to study chemistry outside of class using…

  13. Going Beyond, Going Further: Preparative Exercises in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that preparative chemistry is an important and integral part of chemistry as a whole, and an excellent way to introduce students to descriptive chemistry. Provides an outline for students to follow for converting and transforming salts. Suggests a set of general guidelines for studying anion and cation transformations. (TW)

  14. A Timesharing Computer Program for a General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Gary L.; Drum, Donald A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which general and physical chemistry students can determine the heat of vaporization of a volatile substance from experimental laboratory data using timesharing techniques. (MLH)

  15. A Timesharing Computer Program for a General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Gary L.; Drum, Donald A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which general and physical chemistry students can determine the heat of vaporization of a volatile substance from experimental laboratory data using timesharing techniques. (MLH)

  16. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  17. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  18. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  19. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  20. Attitude Counts: Self-Concept and Success in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Scott E.; Shaw, Janet L.; Heitz, Judith O.; Webster, Gail H.

    2009-01-01

    General chemistry is a required first step for students who wish to pursue a career in science or health professions. The course often has low rates of student success and as a result serves as a gateway limiting access to science fields. This study seeks to better understand factors that are related to student success in general chemistry by…

  1. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-01-01

    Four different methods of teaching--cooperative learning, class discussions, concept maps, and lectures--were integrated into a freshman-level general chemistry course to compare students' levels of participation. Findings support the idea that multiple modes of learning foster the metacognitive skills necessary for mastering general chemistry.…

  2. 19. VIEW OF THE GENERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY IN BUILDING 881. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE GENERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY IN BUILDING 881. (4/12/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Recrafting the General Chemistry Laboratory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, James A., II; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to adopt a Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) in an introductory college chemistry laboratory to promote a more positive attitude in students and better conceptual understanding of laboratory reports. (Author/MM)

  4. A phenomenographical study of student learning in general college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutch, Helen E.

    The United States is experiencing a severe shortage in technical majors such as engineering, chemistry, and math throughout higher education. It is therefore necessary to take a deeper look at why students are not choosing technical majors, what courses or concepts give students the most difficulty, and what makes them so difficult. One such course is general chemistry. General chemistry is a first year (freshman) course and can act as a filter, in which students who find the material too difficult change their minds on selecting a technical major. The purpose of this study was to better understand students' approaches to learning chemistry. In particular, this study examines a specific concept area called stoichiometry, a notoriously difficult concept in general chemistry. The research question for this study was: What categories can describe students' experiences with learning stoichiometry in a college-level chemistry course? This study used a phenomenographical research design to analyze students' perceptions of general chemistry concepts. Individual interviews were used to better understand thought processes and approaches to learning. In particular, this study focused on eight general chemistry students and their understanding of stoichiometry. The students, selected from a small four-year college in Maryland, were enrolled in a general college chemistry course within six months of the interviews. Students were asked general questions about how they approach learning in chemistry as well as very specific questions about their understanding of stoichiometry. This study distinguished between deep and surface learning approaches amongst the participants as they understand stoichiometry. The results of this study explain the difficulty students have with stoichiometry and also identify misconceptions the students have concerning chemistry.

  5. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  6. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  7. Commentary: Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Ronald G.

    1997-05-01

    Most of use who teach chemistry want students to understand what we teach them. But many students, perhaps most, do not try to understand. Even if they set out trying to understand they usually soon conclude that it is too difficult, at least in the time they have available, and they resort, like the others, to learning the material. By learning they mean memorizingnames of substances, formulas, definitions of oxidation and reduction, shapes of orbitals, recipes for assigning oxidation numbers and doing pH calculations, etc., etc. Most students do not particularly object to doing this because it is what they did in high school and is what it means to study. Many will object to being expected to understand, as they find it easier to memorize and most of them have little understanding of what it means to understand. Surprising as it may seem to us, they see chemistry as very abstract, very difficult, and unrelated to real life. But this is perhaps not so surprising if we remember that for these students, chemistry consists of a large amount of apparently unrelated, irrelevant, and useless material that they have memorized rather than understood! Their main objective is to pass the course and get on to something they consider more interesting and more useful. They take from the course very little of value in other courses or in later life and little, if any, understanding of what chemistry is really aboutmerely a conviction that they will never understand it. Over many years I have noticed that when I meet people socially and reveal that I am a professor of chemistry, they are amazed. How could an otherwise normal-appearing sort of guy possibly understand that stuff? They often admit, somewhat apologetically, that chemistry was their worst subject at high school or university or that it was the most difficult of all the subjects they took. Why do I rarely meet anyone who tells me chemistry was fascinating or exciting, or at least interesting? Why do most students find

  8. A general strategy for expanding polymerase function by droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Andrew C; Dunn, Matthew R; Hatch, Andrew; Sau, Sujay P; Youngbull, Cody; Chaput, John C

    2016-04-05

    Polymerases that synthesize artificial genetic polymers hold great promise for advancing future applications in synthetic biology. However, engineering natural polymerases to replicate unnatural genetic polymers is a challenging problem. Here we present droplet-based optical polymerase sorting (DrOPS) as a general strategy for expanding polymerase function that employs an optical sensor to monitor polymerase activity inside the microenvironment of a uniform synthetic compartment generated by microfluidics. We validated this approach by performing a complete cycle of encapsulation, sorting and recovery on a doped library and observed an enrichment of ∼1,200-fold for a model engineered polymerase. We then applied our method to evolve a manganese-independent α-L-threofuranosyl nucleic acid (TNA) polymerase that functions with >99% template-copying fidelity. Based on our findings, we suggest that DrOPS is a versatile tool that could be used to evolve any polymerase function, where optical detection can be achieved by Watson-Crick base pairing.

  9. A general strategy for expanding polymerase function by droplet microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Andrew C.; Dunn, Matthew R.; Hatch, Andrew; Sau, Sujay P.; Youngbull, Cody; Chaput, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerases that synthesize artificial genetic polymers hold great promise for advancing future applications in synthetic biology. However, engineering natural polymerases to replicate unnatural genetic polymers is a challenging problem. Here we present droplet-based optical polymerase sorting (DrOPS) as a general strategy for expanding polymerase function that employs an optical sensor to monitor polymerase activity inside the microenvironment of a uniform synthetic compartment generated by microfluidics. We validated this approach by performing a complete cycle of encapsulation, sorting and recovery on a doped library and observed an enrichment of ∼1,200-fold for a model engineered polymerase. We then applied our method to evolve a manganese-independent α-L-threofuranosyl nucleic acid (TNA) polymerase that functions with >99% template-copying fidelity. Based on our findings, we suggest that DrOPS is a versatile tool that could be used to evolve any polymerase function, where optical detection can be achieved by Watson–Crick base pairing. PMID:27044725

  10. Stratospheric General Circulation with Chemistry Model (SGCCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Geller, Marvin A.; Kaye, Jack A.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    In the past two years constituent transport and chemistry experiments have been performed using both simple single constituent models and more complex reservoir species models. Winds for these experiments have been taken from the data assimilation effort, Stratospheric Data Analysis System (STRATAN).

  11. Hydrated Cations in the General Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Baxter, John F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Presents selected information regarding the descriptive chemistry of the common metal ions and their compounds, including the concepts of process of solution, polar molecules, ionic size and charge, complex ions, coordination number, and the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory. (CS)

  12. Chemistry and Warfare: A General Studies Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, E. Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Liberal arts courses with a science focus have been welcome in college curricula for a number of years. A course for nonmajors that blends basic chemistry with military history is described. It includes a regional conflict simulation involving the development and use of chemical weapons.

  13. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…

  14. Integrating Introductory Biology and General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godrick, Elizabeth; Hartman, Standish

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a science laboratory integrating biology and chemistry courses that includes four modules: (1) the fundamental process of reactions; (2) a semester-long project on the chemical assay of ascorbic acid; (3) human metabolism of Vitamin C; and (4) an open-ended project on the manipulation of macromolecules. (YDS)

  15. Hydrated Cations in the General Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Baxter, John F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Presents selected information regarding the descriptive chemistry of the common metal ions and their compounds, including the concepts of process of solution, polar molecules, ionic size and charge, complex ions, coordination number, and the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory. (CS)

  16. Fluorine Compounds and Dental Health: Applications of General Chemistry Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    An example about the use of everyday phenomena in teaching general chemistry is given. Students have a greater appreciation of the principles of chemistry if they can see the relevance to their lives. Fluorine compounds in dental applications (as topical or as systemic use) provide an excellent context in which to review core content of general…

  17. Service-Learning General Chemistry: Lead Paint Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Laya; Eyring, Edward M.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a community-service project carried out by general chemistry students at the University of Utah. Students research lead poisoning then visit neighborhood homes to teach about lead poisoning, collect exterior paint samples, and analyze them as part of a chemistry experiment. Discusses service-learning and laboratory activities. (WRM)

  18. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  19. Fluorine Compounds and Dental Health: Applications of General Chemistry Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    An example about the use of everyday phenomena in teaching general chemistry is given. Students have a greater appreciation of the principles of chemistry if they can see the relevance to their lives. Fluorine compounds in dental applications (as topical or as systemic use) provide an excellent context in which to review core content of general…

  20. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  1. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  2. Exploration of the Chemistry of Plants: A General Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    Exploration of the Chemistry of Plants is established as a part of the department offerings for nonmajor science students to fulfill their science general education requirement. Plant themes proved to be very suitable in capturing the interest of the nonmajor science students as an introduction to chemistry.

  3. Expanded Choices for Vibration-Rotation Spectroscopy in the Physical Chemistry Teaching Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Joel R.; Dolson, David A.

    2015-06-01

    Many third-year physical chemistry laboratory students in the US analyze the vibration-rotation spectrum of HCl in support of lecture concepts in quantum theory and molecular spectroscopy. Contemporary students in physical chemistry teaching laboratories increasingly have access to FTIR spectrometers with 1/8th wn resolution, which allows for expanded choices of molecules for vibration-rotation spectroscopy. Here we present the case for choosing HBr/DBr for such a study, where the 1/8th wn resolution enables the bromine isotopic lines to be resolved. Vibration-rotation lines from the fundamental and first-overtone bands of four hydrogen bromide isotopomers are combined in a global analysis to determine molecular spectroscopic constants. Sample production, spectral appearance, analysis and results will be presented for various resolutions commonly available in teaching laboratories.

  4. Generalized topological spaces in evolutionary theory and combinatorial chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2002-01-01

    The search spaces in combinatorial chemistry as well as the sequence spaces underlying (molecular) evolution are conventionally thought of as graphs. Recombination, however, implies a nongraphical structure of the combinatorial search spaces. These structures, and their implications for search process itself, are heretofore not well understood in general. In this contribution we review a very general formalism from point set topology and discuss its application to combinatorial search spaces, fitness landscapes, evolutionary trajectories, and artificial chemistries.

  5. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  6. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  7. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  8. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  9. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  10. Report of the Polymer Core Course Committee: Polymer Chemistry for Introductory General Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Lists polymer chemistry topics and depth of topics to be covered in general chemistry courses. Also lists topics using polymers as tools for delivering necessary concepts, discussing 11 topic areas. List of readings, information on textbook evaluation, and illustrative examination questions are included. (JN)

  11. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  12. 18. VIEW OF THE GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB. THE LABORATORY PROVIDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF THE GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB. THE LABORATORY PROVIDED GENERAL ANALYTICAL AND STANDARDS CALIBRATION, AS WELL AS DEVELOPMENT OPERATIONS INCLUDING WASTE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS FOR WEAPONS SYSTEMS. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Expandable-graphite-derived graphene for next-generation battery chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Chenxi; Li, Longjun; Qie, Long; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-06-01

    Lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries offer theoretical energy densities an order of magnitude higher than that of current lithium-ion batteries and are considered as promising candidates as the next-generation battery chemistries. For an efficient use of these new battery chemistries, careful selection of suitable electrode materials/structures is critical. Graphene, a unique two-dimensional nanomaterial, with its superior electronic conductivity, mechanical strength, and flexibility has been successfully applied in battery studies. Graphene, even with imperfect layers, will be of great interest to battery industrial applications if the manufacturing cost is reduced. Herein, we demonstrate the application of low-cost graphene sponge/sheets derived from expandable graphite in both lithium-sulfur and hybrid lithium-air batteries, respectively, as a cathode conductive matrix to accommodate the soluble polysulfides and as a catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. High utilization of active materials and good cycling stability are realized in lithium-sulfur and hybrid lithium-air batteries by employing this low-cost material, demonstrating its promise for use in next-generation battery chemistries.

  14. Astrochemistry: An Honors Approach to General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.; McClinton, D.

    2004-05-01

    Astrochemistry at the collegiate level offers gifted and high achieving students at the secondary education level to explore careers in science and math. This program reinforces the foundation of scientific instruction, yet provides for advanced specialized learning for the college-bound gifted student. Students examine basic chemical theories and their connections with the applications of physics to astronomy. In this program, students meet individuals in related career fields and tour local companies that use high technology. We present our program design that is funded by the Florida Department of Education, Govenor's Summer Program 2004. We also present our alternative teaching strategies including examples of our computer tutorials and our incorporation of the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) approach, a newly funded NSF project that focuses on national dissemination of POGIL methods and materials. We present our reflection methods of student evaluations that are not related to grades. This program can be modified to offer college students a four-credit basic chemistry class, but with application to astronomy and physics.

  15. A generalized chemistry version of SPARK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.

    1988-01-01

    An extension of the reacting H2-air computer code SPARK is presented, which enables the code to be used on any reacting flow problem. Routines are developed calculating in a general fashion, the reaction rates, and chemical Jacobians of any reacting system. In addition, an equilibrium routine is added so that the code will have frozen, finite rate, and equilibrium capabilities. The reaction rate for the species is determined from the law of mass action using Arrhenius expressions for the rate constants. The Jacobian routines are determined by numerically or analytically differentiating the law of mass action for each species. The equilibrium routine is based on a Gibbs free energy minimization routine. The routines are written in FORTRAN 77, with special consideration given to vectorization. Run times for the generalized routines are generally 20 percent slower than reaction specific routines. The numerical efficiency of the generalized analytical Jacobian, however, is nearly 300 percent better than the reaction specific numerical Jacobian used in SPARK.

  16. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

    PubMed

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-03-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  17. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students’ cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed. PMID:21373364

  18. General consideration on sialic acid chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids, also known as neuraminic acids, are a family of negatively charged α-keto acids with a nine-carbon backbone. These unique sugars have been found at the termini of many glycan chains of vertebrate cell surface, which play pivotal roles in mediating or modulating a variety of physiological and pathological processes. This brief review covers general approaches for synthesizing sialic acid containing structures. Recently developed synthetic methods along with structural diversities and biological functions of sialic acid are discussed.

  19. Expanding Radical SAM Chemistry by Using Radical Addition Reactions and SAM Analogues.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xinjian; Li, Yongzhen; Xie, Liqi; Lu, Haojie; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Qi

    2016-09-19

    Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes utilize a [4Fe-4S] cluster to bind SAM and reductively cleave its carbon-sulfur bond to produce a highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl (dAdo) radical. In almost all cases, the dAdo radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from the substrates or from enzymes, thereby initiating a highly diverse array of reactions. Herein, we report a change of the dAdo radical-based chemistry from hydrogen abstraction to radical addition in the reaction of the radical SAM enzyme NosL. This change was achieved by using a substrate analogue containing an olefin moiety. We also showed that two SAM analogues containing different nucleoside functionalities initiate the radical-based reactions with high efficiencies. The radical adduct with the olefin produced in the reaction was found to undergo two divergent reactions, and the mechanistic insights into this process were investigated in detail. Our study demonstrates a promising strategy in expanding radical SAM chemistry, providing an effective way to access nucleoside-containing compounds by using radical SAM-dependent reactions.

  20. A General Chemistry Laboratory Course Designed for Student Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…

  1. Presentation of Atomic Structure in Turkish General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Costu, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general chemistry textbooks published in Turkey based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. Criteria used referred to the atomic models of…

  2. One Instructor's Approach to Computer Assisted Instruction in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Discusses advantages of using computer-assisted instruction in a college general chemistry course. Advantages include using programs which generate random equations with double arrows (equilibrium systems) or generate alkane structural formula, asking for the correct IUPAC name of the structure. (Author/JN)

  3. A Novel Multipurpose Model Set for Teaching General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, H. O.; Parkash, Brahm

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a low-cost and unique molecular model set capable of generating a large number of structures for teaching and learning general chemistry. An important component of the kit is an 11-hole ball that gives tetrahedral, octahedral, trigonal, trigonal bipyramidal, and square planar symmetries. (WRM)

  4. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  5. Gendered Responses to Online Homework Use in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Jackson, Jennifer Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Online homework assignments have been shown to enhance student performance. Our research on gendered responses to these assignments adds new and useful information. We investigated differences between male and female students' responses to online homework in large-enrollment general chemistry courses. Replacing in class quizzes with online…

  6. A General Chemistry Laboratory Course Designed for Student Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…

  7. Presentation of Atomic Structure in Turkish General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Costu, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general chemistry textbooks published in Turkey based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. Criteria used referred to the atomic models of…

  8. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  9. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach for General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Montes, Barbara Casañas; Echevarría Vargas, Ileabett M.; Hernandez-Cancel, Griselle; Gonzalez, Fernando; Molina, Anna M.; Morales-Cruz, Moraima; Torres-Díaz, Carlos M.; Griebenow, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The integration of research and education is an essential component of our university's teaching philosophy. Recently, we made a curricular revision to facilitate such an approach in the General Chemistry Laboratory, to teach students that investigative approaches are at the core of sciences. The curriculum revision included new interdisciplinary…

  10. Gendered Responses to Online Homework Use in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Jackson, Jennifer Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Online homework assignments have been shown to enhance student performance. Our research on gendered responses to these assignments adds new and useful information. We investigated differences between male and female students' responses to online homework in large-enrollment general chemistry courses. Replacing in class quizzes with online…

  11. Expanding perfect fluid generalizations of the C metric

    SciTech Connect

    Wylleman, Lode; Beke, David

    2010-05-15

    Petrov type D gravitational fields, generated by a perfect fluid with spatially homogeneous energy density and with flow lines which form a nonshearing and nonrotating timelike congruence, are reexamined. It turns out that the anisotropic such spacetimes, which comprise the vacuum C metric as a limit case, can have nonzero expansion, contrary to the conclusion in the original investigation by Barnes [A. Barnes, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 4, 105 (1973).]. Apart from the static members, this class consists of cosmological models with precisely one symmetry. The general line element is constructed and some important properties are discussed. It is also shown that purely electric Petrov type D vacuum spacetimes admit shear-free normal timelike congruences everywhere, even in the nonstatic regions. This result incited to deduce intrinsic, easily testable criteria regarding shear-free normality and staticity of Petrov type D spacetimes in general, which are added in an appendix.

  12. Expanding access to rheumatology care: the rheumatology general practice toolbox.

    PubMed

    Conway, R; Kavanagh, R; Coughlan, R J; Carey, J J

    2015-02-01

    Management guidelines for many rheumatic diseases are published in specialty rheumatology literature but rarely in general medical journals. Musculoskeletal disorders comprise 14% of all consultations in primary care. Formal post-graduate training in rheumatology is limited or absent for many primary care practitioners. Primary care practitioners can be trained to effectively treat complex diseases and have expressed a preference for interactive educational courses. The Rheumatology General Practice (GP) Toolbox is an intensive one day course designed to offer up to date information to primary care practitioners on the latest diagnostic and treatment guidelines for seven common rheumatic diseases. The course structure involves a short lecture on each topic and workshops on arthrocentesis, joint injection and DXA interpretation. Participants evaluated their knowledge and educational experience before, during and after the course. Thirty-two primary care practitioners attended, who had a median of 13 (IQR 6.5, 20) years experience in their specialty. The median number of educational symposia attended in the previous 5 years was 10 (IQR-5, 22.5), with a median of 0 (IQR 0, 1) in rheumatology. All respondents agreed that the course format was appropriate. Numerical improvements were demonstrated in participant's confidence in diagnosing and managing all seven common rheumatologic conditions, with statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in 11 of the 14 aspects assessed. The Rheumatology Toolbox is an effective educational method for disseminating current knowledge in rheumatology to primary care physicians and improved participant's self-assessed competence in diagnosis and management of common rheumatic diseases.

  13. Tropospheric ozone simulation with a chemistry-general circulation model: Influence of higher hydrocarbon chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Geert-Jan; Lelieveld, Jos

    2000-09-01

    We present an improved version of the global chemistry-general circulation model of Roelofs and Lelieveld [1997]. The major model improvement is the representation of higher hydrocarbon chemistry, implemented by means of the Carbon Bond Mechanism 4 (CBM-4). Simulated tropospheric ozone concentrations at remote locations, which agreed well with observations in the previous model version, are not affected much by the chemistry of higher hydrocarbons. However, ozone formation in the polluted boundary layer is significantly enhanced, resulting in a more realistic simulation of surface ozone in regions such as North America, Europe, and Southeast Asia. Our model simulates a net global tropospheric ozone production of 73 Tg yr-1 when higher hydrocarbon chemistry is considered, and -36 Tg yr-1 without higher hydrocarbon chemistry. The simulated seasonality of surface CO agrees well with observations. However, the southern hemispheric maximum for O3 and CO associated with biomass burning emissions is delayed by 1 month compared to the observations, which demonstrates the need for a better representation of biomass burning emissions. Simulated peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) concentrations agree well with observed values, although the variability is underestimated. OH decreases strongly in the continental boundary layer due to its reaction with higher hydrocarbons. However, this is almost compensated by an increase of OH over oceans in the lower half of the troposphere. Consideration of higher hydrocarbon chemistry decreases the global annual tropospheric OH concentration by about 8% compared to a background tropospheric chemistry scheme. Further, the radiative forcing by anthropogenically increased tropospheric ozone on the northern hemisphere increases, especially in July. The forcing also increases on the southern hemisphere where biomass burning emissions produce tropospheric ozone, except between December and June, that is, outside the biomass burning season, when ozone

  14. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  15. A Program of Computational Chemistry Exercises for the First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Scott E.; Dallinger, Richard F.; McKinney, Paul Caylor

    2004-01-01

    The computer systems available for molecular modeling are described, along with a discussion of a molecular modeling program created and supported by computational techniques for the first-semester general chemistry course. Various exercises are listed, which direct the learner from a beginner's course in software practice to more complex…

  16. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  17. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  18. General Chemistry Courses That Can Affect Achievement: An Action Research Study in Developing a Plan to Improve Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shweikeh, Eman

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on…

  19. General Chemistry Courses That Can Affect Achievement: An Action Research Study in Developing a Plan to Improve Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shweikeh, Eman

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on…

  20. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    PubMed

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  1. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples

    PubMed Central

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham RD; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals. PMID:25678726

  2. A General Chemistry Laboratory Theme: Spectroscopic Analysis of Aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Houston; O'Donnell, Stephen E.

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, we describe the introduction of spectroscopy into the general chemistry laboratory using a series of experiments based on a common substance, aspirin. In the first lab the students synthesize and recrystallize aspirin and take melting points of their product, an aspirin standard, and salicylic acid. The students perform the remaining experiments on a rotating basis where the following four labs run simultaneously: structural characterization of the synthesized aspirin by IR and NMR; analysis of synthesized aspirin and commercial products by UV vis spectroscopy; analysis of synthesized aspirin and commercial products by HPLC; and analysis of calcium in commercial buffered aspirin tablets by AAS. In each of the analysis experiments, students collect, graph, and analyze their data using a spreadsheet. We have found that this series of labs has been very beneficial to our students. From the course evaluations, students indicate that they are beginning to understand how chemistry is applied outside of the classroom.

  3. General conditions for scale-invariant perturbations in an expanding universe

    SciTech Connect

    Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kinney, William H.; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the general properties of expanding cosmological models which generate scale-invariant curvature perturbations in the presence of a variable speed of sound. We show that in an expanding universe, generation of a super-Hubble, nearly scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations over a range of wavelengths consistent with observation requires at least one of three conditions: (1) accelerating expansion, (2) a speed of sound faster than the speed of light, or (3) super-Planckian energy density.

  4. General chemistry students' understanding of climate science principles relating to chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A. N.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L. C.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Science project, we are developing the chemistry of climate science inventory for use in general chemistry courses. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which integrates federal research on climate and global change, has set out a climate literacy framework, Climate Literacy: the Essential Principles of Climate Science (US Climate Change Science Program, 2009). Developed by collaboration among NOAA, NASA, AAAS, and a distinguished group of scientists and educators, this Framework defines a set of essential principles and scientific thinking skills that a climate literate person should understand. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry. We have interviewed 24 undergraduates to elicit their understanding of the Earth's energy system, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather. Our analysis and findings indicate that the fundamental science necessary to understand the Earth's energy system and climate change are not well understood by the undergraduates in this sample. Details of the interviews, analysis, and synthesis of findings will be shared.

  5. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  6. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  7. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  8. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  9. A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramsch, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    Information concerning structural chemistry and phase equilibria contained in the full phase diagrams of common substances is a great deal richer than the general chemistry students are given to believe. Discusses ways of enriching the traditional presentation of phase diagrams in general chemistry courses. (Contains over 20 references.) (WRM)

  10. Learning beyond the Classroom: Using Text Messages to Measure General Chemistry Students' Study Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Dickerson, Austin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a series of text message inquiries sent to General Chemistry students asking: "Have you studied for General Chemistry I in the past 48 hours? If so, how did you study?" This method for collecting data is novel to chemistry education research so the first research goals were to investigate the feasibility of the technique…

  11. Learning beyond the Classroom: Using Text Messages to Measure General Chemistry Students' Study Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Dickerson, Austin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a series of text message inquiries sent to General Chemistry students asking: "Have you studied for General Chemistry I in the past 48 hours? If so, how did you study?" This method for collecting data is novel to chemistry education research so the first research goals were to investigate the feasibility of the technique…

  12. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  13. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  14. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-12-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students use to make sense of phenomena under conditions of limited time and limited explicit knowledge about a topic. Explanations were collected in written form using two different quizzes that students completed under time constraints at the end of a two-semester general chemistry course. Our study revealed that students' ability to generate causal/mechanical explanations depended on the nature of the task. In general, students were more inclined or able to generate mechanistic explanations to account for boiling-point elevation and freezing-point depression than to make sense of osmotic flow. The analysis of the types of causal explanations built by the study participants suggests that students may be biased towards some causal models or explanatory modes characterised as causal-additive and causal-static in our work. A large proportion of the students built non-causal teleological explanations to account for osmotic flow. None of the participants in our study used a dynamic model of matter as the basis for their explanations of any of the relevant phenomena; the idea of an underlying random process that is taking place at all times giving rise to emergent properties and behaviours was completely absent from their intuitive reasoning under conditions of limited time and knowledge.

  15. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

  16. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    Background Canisius College is a medium-sized liberal arts college with a longstanding tradition of maintaining an excellent chemistry program. We realized a few years ago, however, that this tradition was not being sustained by our General Chemistry laboratory course, which had not changed significantly in years. With the help of a grant from the National Science Foundation, our department has been able to design a new laboratory course built around several guiding principles. The design called for experiments to be grouped in units or clusters. Each cluster has a unifying theme or common thread, which gives some coherence to the experiments. The clusters and experiments are listed in the appendix and briefly explained below. Course Design Cluster A's topic is organic and polymer chemistry, and its main objective is to show that chemistry can be enjoyable and relevant to common experiences. Data collection is minimal and hands-on manipulation with observable products is emphasized. Cluster B is a case study of the chemistry of maintaining a swimming pool. The common theme is solution chemistry, and the experiments are designed to promote critical thinking. Cluster C encompasses both oxidation - reduction reactions and electrochemistry, and attempts to show the commonality of these important topics. Cluster D is a series of experiments on methods and techniques of analytical chemistry; in this group the analysis of unknown materials is undertaken. Cluster E is covered last in the second semester, and it stresses important concepts in chemistry at a slightly more advanced level. The emphasis is on the relationship of experiment to theory, and the cluster involves experiments in kinetics, equilibrium, and synthesis. Other guidelines that we considered important in our design were the use of computers (when appropriate), the introduction of microscale chemistry, and the use of instrumentation whenever possible. A separate cluster, labeled Mac, was developed to provide

  17. Expanding the coordination chemistry of donor-stabilized group-14 metalenes.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Polo, Diego

    2013-02-07

    The transformation of an amidinate germylene, equipped with just one accessible lone pair of electrons on the Ge atom, into a bidentate 4-electron donor κ(2)Ge,N-ligand, has been achieved for the first time, opening new doors to the non-carbene-like coordination chemistry of heavier carbene analogues.

  18. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  19. The Effects of Clickers and Online Homework on Students' Achievement in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebru, Misganaw T.

    2012-01-01

    Retention of an introductory general chemistry course material is vital for student success in future chemistry and chemistry-related courses. This study investigated the effects of clickers versus online homework on students' long-term content retention, examined the effectiveness of online homework versus no graded homework on…

  20. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  1. Evaluation of Eleventh Grade Turkish Pupils' Comprehension of General Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate eleventh grade Turkish pupils' comprehension of various general chemistry concepts which in turn enables to investigate chemistry concepts which are easier and harder for students to comprehend. Examining the effect of gender and last semester chemistry course grades on pupils' comprehension of general…

  2. Evaluation of Eleventh Grade Turkish Pupils' Comprehension of General Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate eleventh grade Turkish pupils' comprehension of various general chemistry concepts which in turn enables to investigate chemistry concepts which are easier and harder for students to comprehend. Examining the effect of gender and last semester chemistry course grades on pupils' comprehension of general…

  3. The Effects of Clickers and Online Homework on Students' Achievement in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebru, Misganaw T.

    2012-01-01

    Retention of an introductory general chemistry course material is vital for student success in future chemistry and chemistry-related courses. This study investigated the effects of clickers versus online homework on students' long-term content retention, examined the effectiveness of online homework versus no graded homework on…

  4. First 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay for general chemistry analyzers.

    PubMed

    Saida, Fakhri B; Chen, Xiaoru; Tran, Kiet; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2015-03-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the predominant circulating form of vitamin D, is an accurate indicator of the general vitamin D status of an individual. Because vitamin D deficiencies have been linked to several pathologies (including osteoporosis and rickets), accurate monitoring of 25(OH)D levels is becoming increasingly important in clinical settings. Current 25(OH)D assays are either chromatographic or immunoassay-based assays. These assays include HPLC, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), enzyme-immunosorbent, immunochemiluminescence, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. All these assays use heterogeneous formats that require phase separation and special instrumentations. In this article, we present an overview of these assays and introduce the first homogeneous assay of 25(OH)D for use on general chemistry analyzers. A special emphasis is put on the unique challenges posed by the 25(OH)D analyte. These challenges include a low detection limit, the dissociation of the analyte from its serum transporter and the inactivation of various binding proteins without phase separation steps.

  5. Experimental and modeling studies of small molecule chemistry in expanding spherical flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santner, Jeffrey

    Accurate models of flame chemistry are required in order to predict emissions and flame properties, such that clean, efficient engines can be designed more easily. There are three primary methods used to improve such combustion chemistry models - theoretical reaction rate calculations, elementary reaction rate experiments, and combustion system experiments. This work contributes to model improvement through the third method - measurements and analysis of the laminar burning velocity at constraining conditions. Modern combustion systems operate at high pressure with strong exhaust gas dilution in order to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Additionally, flames under these conditions are sensitized to elementary reaction rates such that measurements constrain modeling efforts. Measurement conditions of the present work operate within this intersection between applications and fundamental science. Experiments utilize a new pressure-release, heated spherical combustion chamber with a variety of fuels (high hydrogen content fuels, formaldehyde (via 1,3,5-trioxane), and C2 fuels) at pressures from 0.5--25 atm, often with dilution by water vapor or carbon dioxide to flame temperatures below 2000 K. The constraining ability of these measurements depends on their uncertainty. Thus, the present work includes a novel analytical estimate of the effects of thermal radiative heat loss on burning velocity measurements in spherical flames. For 1,3,5-trioxane experiments, global measurements are sufficiently sensitive to elementary reaction rates that optimization techniques are employed to indirectly measure the reaction rates of HCO consumption. Besides the influence of flame chemistry on propagation, this work also explores the chemistry involved in production of nitric oxide, a harmful pollutant, within flames. We find significant differences among available chemistry models, both in mechanistic structure and quantitative reaction rates. There is a lack of well

  6. Expanded solutions of force-free electrodynamics on general Kerr black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jiancheng

    2017-07-01

    In this work, expanded solutions of force-free magnetospheres on general Kerr black holes are derived through a radial distance expansion method. From the regular conditions both at the horizon and at spatial infinity, two previously known asymptotical solutions (one of them is actually an exact solution) are identified as the only solutions that satisfy the same conditions at the two boundaries. Taking them as initial conditions at the boundaries, expanded solutions up to the first few orders are derived by solving the stream equation order by order. It is shown that our extension of the exact solution can (partially) cure the problems of the solution: it leads to magnetic domination and a mostly timelike current for restricted parameters.

  7. Oxidation of a biomarker for phenol carcinogen exposure: expanding the redox chemistry of 2'-deoxyguanosine.

    PubMed

    Weishar, Jennifer L; McLaughlin, Christopher K; Baker, Michael; Gabryelski, Wojciech; Manderville, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    A biomarker for phenolic carcinogen exposure, 8-(4''-hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, has been found to undergo oxidative coupling in the presence of Na2IrCl6 to afford ortho-ortho C-C-coupled polyphenols through the intermediacy of a phenoxyl radical. One can envision using such unique chemistry to oxidatively couple strands of DNA for the generation of new biomaterials. Our results also demonstrate the potential for phenolic adducts of DNA to undergo further oxidation reactions that may contribute to phenol-mediated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.

  8. Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWit, David G.

    2006-01-01

    A course module in general chemistry focusing on predicting the products of simple inorganic reactions is described. This component of the course is intended to be presented near the end of the last term of the general chemistry sequence and is designed to afford practice in applying the variety of principles encountered throughout the general…

  9. Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWit, David G.

    2006-01-01

    A course module in general chemistry focusing on predicting the products of simple inorganic reactions is described. This component of the course is intended to be presented near the end of the last term of the general chemistry sequence and is designed to afford practice in applying the variety of principles encountered throughout the general…

  10. A Transition Program for Underprepared Students in General Chemistry: Diagnosis, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Shawn P.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Spees, William M.; Handlin, Larry B.; Noelken, Greg P.; Riley, Julie M.; Frey, Regina F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an online exam to diagnose students who are underprepared for college-level general chemistry and implemented a program to support them during the general chemistry sequence. This transition program consists of extended-length recitations, peer-led team-learning (PLTL) study groups, and peer-mentoring groups. We evaluated this…

  11. Population-Based Pediatric Reference Intervals in General Clinical Chemistry: A Swedish Survey.

    PubMed

    Ridefelt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Very few high quality studies on pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The Swedish survey included 701 healthy children. Reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology were defined.

  12. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  13. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  14. A Transition Program for Underprepared Students in General Chemistry: Diagnosis, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Shawn P.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Spees, William M.; Handlin, Larry B.; Noelken, Greg P.; Riley, Julie M.; Frey, Regina F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an online exam to diagnose students who are underprepared for college-level general chemistry and implemented a program to support them during the general chemistry sequence. This transition program consists of extended-length recitations, peer-led team-learning (PLTL) study groups, and peer-mentoring groups. We evaluated this…

  15. Cosmological Relativity: A General-Relativistic Theory for the Accelerating Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.; Behar, S.

    Recent observations of distant supernovae imply, in defiance of expectations, that the universe growth is accelerating, contrary to what has always been assumed that the expansion is slowing down due to gravity. In this paper a general-relativistic cosmological theory that gives a direct relationship between distances and redshifts in an expanding universe is presented. The theory is actually a generalization of Hubble's law taking gravity into account by means of Einstein's theory of general relativity. The theory predicts that the universe can have three phases of expansion, decelerating, constant and accelerating, but it is shown that at present the first two cases are excluded, although in the past it had experienced them. Our theory shows that the universe now is definitely in the stage of accelerating expansion, confirming the recent experimental results.

  16. Building a Database for the Historical Analysis of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a historical…

  17. Building a Database for the Historical Analysis of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a historical…

  18. Expanding Room for Tetrazine Ligations in the in vivo Chemistry Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Še kut, Jolita; Devaraj, Neal K.

    2014-01-01

    There is tremendous interest in developing and refining methods to predictably perform chemical reactions within the framework of living systems. Here we review recent advances in applying tetrazine cycloadditions to live cell and in vivo chemistry. We highlight new syntheses of the tetrazine and dienophile precursors useful for in vivo studies. We briefly overview the use of this reaction in combination with unnatural amino acid technology and discuss applications involving the imaging of glycans on live cells. An emerging area is the use of tetrazine ligations for the development of in vivo imaging probes such as those used for positron emission tomography. We summarize recent applications involving tetrazine cycloadditions performed in live mice for pretargeted imaging of cancer cell biomarkers. PMID:24021760

  19. Sulfobetaine-Vinylimidazole Block Copolymers: A Robust Quantum Dot Surface Chemistry Expanding Bioimaging's Horizons.

    PubMed

    Tasso, Mariana; Giovanelli, Emerson; Zala, Diana; Bouccara, Sophie; Fragola, Alexandra; Hanafi, Mohamed; Lenkei, Zsolt; Pons, Thomas; Lequeux, Nicolas

    2015-11-24

    Long-term inspection of biological phenomena requires probes of elevated intra- and extracellular stability and target biospecificity. The high fluorescence and photostability of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles contributed to foster their promise as bioimaging tools that could overcome limitations associated with traditional fluorophores. However, QDs' potential as a bioimaging platform relies upon a precise control over the surface chemistry modifications of these nano-objects. Here, a zwitterion-vinylimidazole block copolymer ligand was synthesized, which regroups all anchoring groups in one compact terminal block, while the rest of the chain is endowed with antifouling and bioconjugation moieties. By further application of an oriented bioconjugation approach with whole IgG antibodies, QD nanobioconjugates were obtained that display outstanding intra- and extracellular stability as well as biorecognition capacity. Imaging the internalization and intracellular dynamics of a transmembrane cell receptor, the CB1 brain cannabinoid receptor, both in HEK293 cells and in neurons, illustrates the breadth of potential applications of these nanoprobes.

  20. PROSOFT: a general purpose software in protein chemistry.

    PubMed

    Petrilli, P

    1988-04-01

    Applesoft and 6502 Assembler software was designed to quickly perform operations commonly encountered in protein chemistry. It was not designed for a specific application but can be conveniently used to speed up the determination of protein primary structure.

  1. Is Volume Conserved? A First General Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, John

    1986-01-01

    Describes a freshman chemistry experiment designed to introduce scientific methodology, provide practice in measurement skills, and illustrate a fundamental chemical relationship (conservation of volume). Provides the experimental design, a materials and equipment list, sample calculations, and results. (JM)

  2. Teaching Lab Report Writing through Inquiry: A Green Chemistry Stoichiometry Experiment for General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    We present an alternative to a traditional first-year chemistry laboratory experiment. This experiment has four key features: students utilize stoichiometry, learn and apply principles of green chemistry, engage in authentic scientific inquiry, and discover why each part of a scientific lab report is necessary. The importance and essential…

  3. Teaching Lab Report Writing through Inquiry: A Green Chemistry Stoichiometry Experiment for General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    We present an alternative to a traditional first-year chemistry laboratory experiment. This experiment has four key features: students utilize stoichiometry, learn and apply principles of green chemistry, engage in authentic scientific inquiry, and discover why each part of a scientific lab report is necessary. The importance and essential…

  4. Expanding the fluorine chemistry of living systems using engineered polyketide synthase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mark C.; Thuronyi, Benjamin W.; Charkoudian, Louise K.; Lowry, Brian; Khosla, Chaitan; Chang, Michelle C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Organofluorines represent a rapidly expanding proportion of molecules used in pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, agrochemicals, and materials. Despite the prevalence of fluorine in synthetic compounds, the known biological scope is limited to a single pathway that produces fluoroacetate. Here, we demonstrate that this pathway can be exploited as a source of fluorinated building blocks for introduction of fluorine into natural product scaffolds. Specifically, we have constructed pathways involving two polyketide synthase systems and show that fluoroacetate can be used to incorporate fluorine into the polyketide backbone in vitro. We further show that fluorine can be introduced site-selectively and introduced into polyketide products in vivo. These results highlight the prospects for the production of complex fluorinated natural products using synthetic biology. PMID:24009388

  5. Oxidative cyclizations in orthosomycin biosynthesis expand the known chemistry of an oxygenase superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; McCranie, Emilianne K.; Smith, Jarrod A.; Sarwar, Maruf; Mathieu, Jeannette L.; Gitschlag, Bryan L.; Du, Yu; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, T. M.

    2015-08-03

    Orthosomycins are oligosaccharide antibiotics that include avilamycin, everninomicin, and hygromycin B and are hallmarked by a rigidifying interglycosidic spirocyclic ortho-δ-lactone (orthoester) linkage between at least one pair of carbohydrates. A subset of orthosomycins additionally contain a carbohydrate capped by a methylenedioxy bridge. The orthoester linkage is necessary for antibiotic activity but rarely observed in natural products. Orthoester linkage and methylenedioxy bridge biosynthesis require similar oxidative cyclizations adjacent to a sugar ring. In this paper, we have identified a conserved group of nonheme iron, α-ketoglutarate–dependent oxygenases likely responsible for this chemistry. High-resolution crystal structures of the EvdO1 and EvdO2 oxygenases of everninomicin biosynthesis, the AviO1 oxygenase of avilamycin biosynthesis, and HygX of hygromycin B biosynthesis show how these enzymes accommodate large substrates, a challenge that requires a variation in metal coordination in HygX. Excitingly, the ternary complex of HygX with cosubstrate α-ketoglutarate and putative product hygromycin B identified an orientation of one glycosidic linkage of hygromycin B consistent with metal-catalyzed hydrogen atom abstraction from substrate. These structural results are complemented by gene disruption of the oxygenases evdO1 and evdMO1 from the everninomicin biosynthetic cluster, which demonstrate that functional oxygenase activity is critical for antibiotic production. Finally, our data therefore support a role for these enzymes in the production of key features of the orthosomycin antibiotics.

  6. Oxidative cyclizations in orthosomycin biosynthesis expand the known chemistry of an oxygenase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; McCranie, Emilianne K.; Smith, Jarrod A.; Sarwar, Maruf; Mathieu, Jeannette L.; Gitschlag, Bryan L.; Du, Yu; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Orthosomycins are oligosaccharide antibiotics that include avilamycin, everninomicin, and hygromycin B and are hallmarked by a rigidifying interglycosidic spirocyclic ortho-δ-lactone (orthoester) linkage between at least one pair of carbohydrates. A subset of orthosomycins additionally contain a carbohydrate capped by a methylenedioxy bridge. The orthoester linkage is necessary for antibiotic activity but rarely observed in natural products. Orthoester linkage and methylenedioxy bridge biosynthesis require similar oxidative cyclizations adjacent to a sugar ring. We have identified a conserved group of nonheme iron, α-ketoglutarate–dependent oxygenases likely responsible for this chemistry. High-resolution crystal structures of the EvdO1 and EvdO2 oxygenases of everninomicin biosynthesis, the AviO1 oxygenase of avilamycin biosynthesis, and HygX of hygromycin B biosynthesis show how these enzymes accommodate large substrates, a challenge that requires a variation in metal coordination in HygX. Excitingly, the ternary complex of HygX with cosubstrate α-ketoglutarate and putative product hygromycin B identified an orientation of one glycosidic linkage of hygromycin B consistent with metal-catalyzed hydrogen atom abstraction from substrate. These structural results are complemented by gene disruption of the oxygenases evdO1 and evdMO1 from the everninomicin biosynthetic cluster, which demonstrate that functional oxygenase activity is critical for antibiotic production. Our data therefore support a role for these enzymes in the production of key features of the orthosomycin antibiotics. PMID:26240321

  7. Oxidative cyclizations in orthosomycin biosynthesis expand the known chemistry of an oxygenase superfamily

    DOE PAGES

    McCulloch, Kathryn M.; McCranie, Emilianne K.; Smith, Jarrod A.; ...

    2015-08-03

    Orthosomycins are oligosaccharide antibiotics that include avilamycin, everninomicin, and hygromycin B and are hallmarked by a rigidifying interglycosidic spirocyclic ortho-δ-lactone (orthoester) linkage between at least one pair of carbohydrates. A subset of orthosomycins additionally contain a carbohydrate capped by a methylenedioxy bridge. The orthoester linkage is necessary for antibiotic activity but rarely observed in natural products. Orthoester linkage and methylenedioxy bridge biosynthesis require similar oxidative cyclizations adjacent to a sugar ring. In this paper, we have identified a conserved group of nonheme iron, α-ketoglutarate–dependent oxygenases likely responsible for this chemistry. High-resolution crystal structures of the EvdO1 and EvdO2 oxygenases ofmore » everninomicin biosynthesis, the AviO1 oxygenase of avilamycin biosynthesis, and HygX of hygromycin B biosynthesis show how these enzymes accommodate large substrates, a challenge that requires a variation in metal coordination in HygX. Excitingly, the ternary complex of HygX with cosubstrate α-ketoglutarate and putative product hygromycin B identified an orientation of one glycosidic linkage of hygromycin B consistent with metal-catalyzed hydrogen atom abstraction from substrate. These structural results are complemented by gene disruption of the oxygenases evdO1 and evdMO1 from the everninomicin biosynthetic cluster, which demonstrate that functional oxygenase activity is critical for antibiotic production. Finally, our data therefore support a role for these enzymes in the production of key features of the orthosomycin antibiotics.« less

  8. Development and assessment of green, research-based instructional materials for the general chemistry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in improving student learning outcomes in general chemistry when used comprehensively in the general chemistry laboratory. Little prior research exists about effects on student learning about green chemistry. A novel experimental protocol called Laboratory Report Templates (LRT) was designed, and three LRT experiments and supplemental materials for the general chemistry laboratory were created utilizing the principles of green chemistry and current research findings on student learning. These experiments were successfully field-tested and implemented in university and high school settings. This work represents an important contribution to science curriculum design because the LRT protocol uniquely motivates development of students' scientific communication skills and has wide potential applicability. A study comparing student learning of chemistry content and experimental design skills following completion of one of the LRT experiments or a traditional experiment on identical chemistry content was conducted. Study results indicate that students who completed the LRT experiment learned significantly more content and experimental skills directly related to the content of the experiment than did students who completed the traditional experiment. This study demonstrates that changing one lab in general chemistry curricula from traditional to research-based has a positive effect on student learning. This finding is important because incremental curricular change is a promising alternative to the wholesale curricular change that has been shown to be effective, because an incremental approach minimizes the most common barriers to change

  9. "The Chemicals Project": Connecting General Chemistry to Students' Lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Roland

    2000-10-01

    "The Chemicals Project" described here strives to bring freshman chemistry alive for students by emphasizing its connection to the real world and to their own lives and experiences. Its major assignments deal with chemical phobias, recognizing the chemicals found in everyday life and chemical hazards (using Material Data Safety Sheets). The project is described in a cooperative learning format, employs portfolio grading, and includes a significant writing component. Ways of linking this project with the course lecture and student evaluations of the project are described. The bottom line: pre- and post-testing shows that it works. The Chemicals Project brings chemistry alive for students.

  10. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  11. Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…

  12. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  13. A General Chemistry Demonstration: Student Observations and Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Out of 70 answers to questions concerning the chemistry involved in an "orange tornado" demonstration, only 10 were partially correct, others totally wrong or showing major errors in understanding, comprehension, and/or reasoning. Demonstration and reactions involved, selected incorrect answers, and a substantially correct answer are discussed.…

  14. Evaluation of Three Instructional Methods for Teaching General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Lance E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to determine the relative effectiveness of different instructional approaches on chemistry laboratory achievement. Investigated differences in achievement in spectrophotometry among college freshmen who received either traditional, learning cycle, or computer simulation instruction. Results indicated that students…

  15. A General Chemistry Demonstration: Student Observations and Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Out of 70 answers to questions concerning the chemistry involved in an "orange tornado" demonstration, only 10 were partially correct, others totally wrong or showing major errors in understanding, comprehension, and/or reasoning. Demonstration and reactions involved, selected incorrect answers, and a substantially correct answer are discussed.…

  16. Service Learning Track in General Chemistry: Giving Students a Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaghy, Kelley J.; Saxton, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiential learning is a foundation in chemistry courses from the introductory-level course to upper-level courses through laboratory experiences. Service learning is another type of experiential learning that is slowly gaining momentum in the sciences. There have been several reports in this "Journal" on this pedagogy with respect to student…

  17. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  18. Service Learning Track in General Chemistry: Giving Students a Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaghy, Kelley J.; Saxton, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiential learning is a foundation in chemistry courses from the introductory-level course to upper-level courses through laboratory experiences. Service learning is another type of experiential learning that is slowly gaining momentum in the sciences. There have been several reports in this "Journal" on this pedagogy with respect to student…

  19. Evaluation of Three Instructional Methods for Teaching General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Lance E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to determine the relative effectiveness of different instructional approaches on chemistry laboratory achievement. Investigated differences in achievement in spectrophotometry among college freshmen who received either traditional, learning cycle, or computer simulation instruction. Results indicated that students…

  20. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  1. Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…

  2. Based on a True Story: Using Movies as Source Material for General Chemistry Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griep, Mark A.; Mikasen, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    The story to improve student enthusiasm for writing reports about the chemistry behind events reported in the news and movies were chosen as the source material. The use of movies in the chemical classroom helps an instructor move the subject of chemistry from abstract, general themes to the personal and subjective arena of human interactions.

  3. Problem Solving Videos for General Chemistry Review: Students' Perceptions and Use Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Smith, Valerie J.; Xu, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    We examined the use of problem solving videos (PSVs) as a substitute for general chemistry exam review sessions. We investigated student perceptions of course aspects regarding usefulness for supporting their learning of chemistry content. We also examined "how" students used the PSVs to further their learning. Students ranked the PSVs…

  4. Learning and Studying Strategies Used by General Chemistry Students with Different Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Students in general chemistry were partitioned into three groups by cluster analysis of six affective characteristics (emotional satisfaction, intellectual accessibility, chemistry self-concept, math self-concept, self-efficacy, and test anxiety). The at-home study strategies for exam preparation and in-class learning strategies differed among the…

  5. Problem Solving Videos for General Chemistry Review: Students' Perceptions and Use Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Smith, Valerie J.; Xu, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    We examined the use of problem solving videos (PSVs) as a substitute for general chemistry exam review sessions. We investigated student perceptions of course aspects regarding usefulness for supporting their learning of chemistry content. We also examined "how" students used the PSVs to further their learning. Students ranked the PSVs…

  6. Atoms-First Curriculum: A Comparison of Student Success in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esterling, Kevin M.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the impact of an atoms-first curriculum on student success in introductory chemistry classes and find that initially a lower fraction of students obtain passing grades in the first and second quarters of the general chemistry series. This effect is more than reversed for first-quarter students after one year of…

  7. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  8. Based on a True Story: Using Movies as Source Material for General Chemistry Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griep, Mark A.; Mikasen, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    The story to improve student enthusiasm for writing reports about the chemistry behind events reported in the news and movies were chosen as the source material. The use of movies in the chemical classroom helps an instructor move the subject of chemistry from abstract, general themes to the personal and subjective arena of human interactions.

  9. The Representation of People of Color in Undergraduate General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Denise; Domin, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of cultural basis within undergraduate general chemistry textbooks is examined by assessing the extent to and manner in which people of color are represented in textbook photographs. It is proposed that the images that students look upon in the textbooks help in their perceptions of chemistry as a whole.

  10. Atoms-First Curriculum: A Comparison of Student Success in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esterling, Kevin M.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the impact of an atoms-first curriculum on student success in introductory chemistry classes and find that initially a lower fraction of students obtain passing grades in the first and second quarters of the general chemistry series. This effect is more than reversed for first-quarter students after one year of…

  11. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  12. Learning and Studying Strategies Used by General Chemistry Students with Different Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Students in general chemistry were partitioned into three groups by cluster analysis of six affective characteristics (emotional satisfaction, intellectual accessibility, chemistry self-concept, math self-concept, self-efficacy, and test anxiety). The at-home study strategies for exam preparation and in-class learning strategies differed among the…

  13. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  14. The Representation of People of Color in Undergraduate General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Denise; Domin, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of cultural basis within undergraduate general chemistry textbooks is examined by assessing the extent to and manner in which people of color are represented in textbook photographs. It is proposed that the images that students look upon in the textbooks help in their perceptions of chemistry as a whole.

  15. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  16. Factors that Promote Success in Large Enrollment General Chemistry Courses Taught with Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The environment of a large (greater than 300) enrollment first semester general chemistry course taught with clickers was characterized by statistical analysis of historical data, as well as through classroom observations and interviewing of professors and students. Four professors with experience teaching chemistry courses with clickers at this…

  17. Factors that Promote Success in Large Enrollment General Chemistry Courses Taught with Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The environment of a large (greater than 300) enrollment first semester general chemistry course taught with clickers was characterized by statistical analysis of historical data, as well as through classroom observations and interviewing of professors and students. Four professors with experience teaching chemistry courses with clickers at this…

  18. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  19. Teaching College General Chemistry: Techniques Designed To Communicate a Conceptual Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchovic, Ronald J.

    1998-07-01

    General chemistry at the college level is often perceived as a major hurdle by typical undergraduates. Both Freshmen and more advanced students undertake courses in general chemistry either ill-prepared or convinced that the subject matter is beyond their comprehension. With the exception of potential chemistry majors, the vast majority of general chemistry students enter the class simply to satisfy a graduation requirement of their degree program. Consequently, instructors must both communicate an understanding of the subject matter and overcome major barriers to the learning process itself. This paper discusses two techniques which have been utilized for five semesters in general chemistry courses and which attempt to surmount barriers to learning by emphasizing the conceptual framework of the science of chemistry. One of these techniques is the use of a repechage system (literally meaning "second chance") for all hour examinations during the term, while the second engages the students in writing exercises based on the laboratory portion of the course. This paper will discuss the techniques, their application and impact, and finally, the positive and negative aspects their utilization in a general chemistry course.

  20. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    PubMed Central

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  1. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    PubMed

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

  3. Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

  4. Using Technology to Enhance the Effectiveness of General Chemistry Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho-Knighton, Kathleen M.; Keen-Rocha, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of two different laboratory techniques is compared to teach students majoring in science in a general chemistry laboratory. The results demonstrated that student laboratory activities with computer-interface systems could improve student understanding.

  5. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  6. Chemistry for DUMMIES: how to popularize and introduce chemistry to the general public.

    PubMed

    Montangero, Marc

    2012-01-01

    To mark the occasion of the International Year of Chemistry, each week in 2011 I posted a two-minute film demonstrating and explaining a simple and safe experiment to be carried out at home using everyday household products on the site www.chimie.ch/nuls.

  7. The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map I: General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To provide tools for programmatic assessment related to the use of ACS Exams in undergraduate chemistry courses, the ACS Exams Institute has built a content map that applies to the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the top two levels, the grain size of the content classification is large and spans the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the…

  8. The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map I: General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To provide tools for programmatic assessment related to the use of ACS Exams in undergraduate chemistry courses, the ACS Exams Institute has built a content map that applies to the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the top two levels, the grain size of the content classification is large and spans the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the…

  9. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  10. Suggestions for Modifications in the Teaching of General Chemistry to Accommodate Learning Disabled Students: Alternative Techniques for Teaching General Chemistry to Learning Disabled Students in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, H. S.

    A professor involved with the HELDS project (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) describes modifications in a general chemistry course. A syllabus lists program objectives for eight text chapters, evaluation components, and course rules. Two units are described in detail, with information presented on modifications made for LD…

  11. The Representation of People of Color in Undergraduate General Chemistry Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Denise; Domin, Daniel S.

    2007-02-01

    A content analysis of eleven college-level general chemistry textbooks was performed to ascertain the extent to which people of color are represented within the textbook photographs. The results of this study show that all of the textbooks' photographs within this investigation include people of color at a level well below their representation in American society. In addition, photographs containing images of people of color usually depict them in a context that has no relevance to chemistry or in a manner that propagates stereotypes. It is the conclusion of these authors that contemporary undergraduate general chemistry textbooks are laden with instructional bias with respect to people of color.

  12. TextRev: A Window into How General and Organic Chemistry Students Use Textbook Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bradley D.; Jacobs, Dennis C.

    2003-01-01

    A paper-based survey of first-year general chemistry and second-year organic chemistry students included responses from approximately 3200 students at nine colleges and universities. The students answered questions about the time they spent using various textbook resources, and about the quality and helpfulness of each resource. Five important results emerged. Organic chemistry students report spending approximately 40% more time using textbook resources than do general chemistry students. For general chemistry students, the order of average self-reported hours per week using textbook resources correlates with anticipated grades in the following way, C > B > A; whereas the hours per week for organic students is independent of anticipated grade. Compared to general chemistry students, the organic chemistry students spend a smaller fraction of their time using the textbook and more time using the study guide or solutions manual. Both groups spend less than 7% of their time using the textbook’s Web site or the accompanying CD. Both groups find in-chapter example problems and end-of-chapter problems to be the most helpful textbook features.

  13. A study of how precursor key concepts for organic chemistry success are understood by general chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Patrick Gerard

    This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted from the Covalent Structure and Bonding two-tiered multiple choice diagnostic instrument (Peterson, Treagust, & Garnett, 1989) and augmented by the Geometry and Polarity of Molecules single-tiered multiple choice instrument (Furio & Calatayud, 1996). The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and coded for analysis to determine the subjects' understanding of the key ideas. The subjects displayed many misconceptions that were summarized into nine assertions about student conceptualization of chemistry. (1) Many students misunderstand the location and nature of intermolecular forces. (2) Some think electronegativity differences among atoms in a molecule are sufficient to make the molecule polar, regardless of spatial arrangement. (3) Most know that higher phase change temperatures imply stronger intermolecular attractions, but many do not understand the difference between covalent molecular and covalent network substances. (4) Many have difficulty deciding whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, often confusing bilateral symmetry with spatial symmetry in all three dimensions. (5) Many cannot reliably draw correct Lewis structures due to carelessness and overuse of flawed algorithms. (6) Many are confused by how electrons can both repel one other and facilitate bonding between atoms via orbitals---this seems oxymoronic to them. (7) Many cannot explain why the atoms of certain elements do not follow the octet rule and some believe the octet rule alone can determine the shape of a molecule. (8) Most do know that electronegativity and polarity

  14. How Interstellar Chemistry (and Astrochemistry More Generally) Became Useful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, T. W.; van Loo, S.; Falle, S. A. E. G.

    In 1986 Alex Dalgarno published a paper entitled Is Interstellar Chemistry Useful?1 By the middle 1970s, and perhaps even earlier, Alex had hoped that astronomical molecules would prove to: possess significant diagnostic utility; control many of the environments in which they exist; stimulate a wide variety of physicists and chemists who are at least as fascinated by the mechanisms forming and removing the molecules as by astronomy. His own research efforts have contributed greatly to the realization of that hope. This paper contains a few examples of: how molecules are used to diagnose large-scale dynamics in astronomical sources including star forming regions and supernovae; the ways in which molecular processes control the evolution of astronomical objects such as dense cores destined to become stars and very evolved giant stars; theoretical and laboratory investigations that elucidate the processes producing and removing astronomical molecules and allow their detection.

  15. Introducing Proper Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the General Chemistry Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gordon J.; Heideman, Stephen A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2000-09-01

    Chemical safety is an important component of science education for everyone, not just for chemistry majors. Developing a responsible and knowledgeable attitude towards chemical safety best starts at the early stages of a student's career. In many colleges and universities, safety education in undergraduate chemistry has been relegated primarily to a few regulatory documents at the beginning of a laboratory course, or an occasional warning in the description of a specific experiment in a prelaboratory lecture. Safety issues are seldom raised in general chemistry or organic chemistry lecture-based chemistry courses. At Iowa State University we have begun to implement a program, Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the Laboratory, into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. This program is designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of proper chemical hygiene and laboratory safety issues among all students taking general chemistry and organic chemistry courses. Laboratory protocol, use of safety equipment, familiarity with MSD sheets, basics of first aid, some specific terminology surrounding chemical hygiene, EPA and OSHA requirements, and the use of the World Wide Web to search and locate chemical safety information are topics that are applied throughout the chemistry curriculum. The novelty of this approach is to incorporate MSD sheets and safety information that can be located on the World Wide Web in a series of safety problems and assignments, all related to the chemistry experiments students are about to perform. The fundamental idea of our approach is not only to teach students what is required for appropriate safety measures, but also to involve them in the enforcement of basic prudent practices.

  16. Expanding the scope of strained-alkyne chemistry: a protection-deprotection strategy via the formation of a dicobalt-hexacarbonyl complex.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, Pierangelo; Romagnoli, Tommaso; Barbon, Stephanie M; Price, Jacquelyn T; Keir, Jennifer; Gilroy, Joe B; Workentin, Mark S

    2015-04-18

    A protection-deprotection strategy for strained alkynes used for bioorthogonal chemistry is reported. A strained alkyne can be protected with dicobalt-octacarbonyl and we demonstrate for the first time that a strained alkyne can be re-formed and isolated under mild reaction conditions for further bioorthogonal reactivity. The protection-deprotection strategy herein reported will expand the versatility of strained alkynes for the preparation of substrates in chemical biology and materials applications.

  17. Computer-based, Jeopardy™-like game in general chemistry for engineering majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, S. S.; Saffre, F.; Kadadha, M.; Gater, D. L.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the design of Jeopardy™-like computer game for enhancement of learning of general chemistry for engineering majors. While we examine several parameters of student achievement and attitude, our primary concern is addressing the motivation of students, which tends to be low in a traditionally run chemistry lectures. The effect of the game-playing is tested by comparing paper-based game quiz, which constitutes a control group, and computer-based game quiz, constituting a treatment group. Computer-based game quizzes are Java™-based applications that students run once a week in the second part of the last lecture of the week. Overall effectiveness of the semester-long program is measured through pretest-postest conceptual testing of general chemistry. The objective of this research is to determine to what extent this ``gamification'' of the course delivery and course evaluation processes may be beneficial to the undergraduates' learning of science in general, and chemistry in particular. We present data addressing gender-specific difference in performance, as well as background (pre-college) level of general science and chemistry preparation. We outline the plan how to extend such approach to general physics courses and to modern science driven electives, and we offer live, in-lectures examples of our computer gaming experience. We acknowledge support from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi

  18. Relationships of approaches to studying, metacognition, and intellectual development of general chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP), and the Executive Process Questionnaire (EPQ). The subjects were 138 students enrolled in either general chemistry 1 or 2. The results revealed that the preferred approach to study was the strategic approach. The intellectual development of the students was predominantly Perry's position 2 (dualist) in transition to position 3 (multiplicity). Correlation statistics revealed that deep approach to studying is related to effective employment of metacognitive skills. Students with a deep approach to studying were likely to utilize effective metacognitive skills. Students with a surface approach to studying used no metacognitive skills or ineffective metacognitive skills. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to ascertain which of the three variables, namely approaches to studying, ability to metacognate, or level of intellectual development, was the most salient in predicting the success of general chemistry students. No single variable was found to predict students’ success in general chemistry classes; however, a surface approach to studying predisposes general chemistry students to fail. The implication of this study is that students’ study approaches, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills are requisite information to enable instructional remediation early in the semester.

  19. The Effects of Clickers and Online Homework on Students' Achievement in General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebru, Misganaw T.

    Retention of an introductory general chemistry course material is vital for student success in future chemistry and chemistry-related courses. This study investigated the effects of clickers versus online homework on students' long-term content retention, examined the effectiveness of online homework versus no graded homework on students' achievement in a first-semester general chemistry course, and assessed students' attitudes toward the use of online homework. Students' data from the yearlong American Chemical Society General Chemistry (ACS GC97) exam, teacher-prepared final exams, and online surveys were analyzed to measure the effects of clickers and online homework on students' long-term content retention and performance, and to capture students' attitudes. A variety of methods including Welch ANOVA, independent samples t -test (Welch), Pearson's correlation, test of proportions, and Pearson's Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. The analyses indicated that the use of clickers or online homework did not significantly improve students' long-term content retention of general chemistry course material, that the use of online homework was more beneficial than, or at least as effective as no graded homework in improving students' performance, and students valued the fact that online homework provided immediate feedback. Additionally, results of this study revealed that greater numbers of students were retained in clicker and online homework classes than non-clicker, non-online homework classes and that various types of online homework systems used in general chemistry could impact student performance differently. Implications of the findings and future research directions were presented.

  20. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  1. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  2. Knowledge Surveys in General Chemistry: Confidence, Overconfidence, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Priscilla; Volckmann, David

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge surveys have been used in a number of fields to assess changes in students' understanding of their own learning and to assist students in review. This study compares metacognitive confidence ratings of students faced with problems on the surveys with their actual knowledge as shown on the final exams in two courses of general chemistry…

  3. Knowledge Surveys in General Chemistry: Confidence, Overconfidence, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Priscilla; Volckmann, David

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge surveys have been used in a number of fields to assess changes in students' understanding of their own learning and to assist students in review. This study compares metacognitive confidence ratings of students faced with problems on the surveys with their actual knowledge as shown on the final exams in two courses of general chemistry…

  4. Investigations of nitrogen oxide plasmas: Fundamental chemistry and surface reactivity and monitoring student perceptions in a general chemistry recitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    unparalleled insight into the chemistry of these plasma systems. Part II of this work is focused on understanding the efficacy of a general chemistry recitation program. Such programs can be an valuable tool for improving students' problem solving skills and understanding using methods that are difficult to implement in large lecture settings. Here, general chemistry students at Colorado State University participated in a variety of recitation activities throughout the first semester of a 2-semester general chemistry sequence, including peer-led exercises, games, and scaffolded worksheets. Through weekly surveys, students were asked to evaluate and assess recitation activities for both interest and effectiveness as part of their course homework. Also included in these survey assignments were content questions relevant to the weekly themes, providing a measure of student learning of recitation topics. Student opinions were correlated with content retention, and these data were compared against student responses to a pre-survey administered before the first recitation session. This analysis allows for monitoring students' expectations of recitation courses and how well those expectations are met through the various types of activities employed. Ultimately, this work has found that students have positive feeling with respect to individual assignments, but that perspectives on chemistry and the course in general decrease dramatically from the beginning to the end of the semester. Thus, this work can serve as a significant starting points for future efforts to monitor and record student perceptions in the general chemistry recitation classroom, leading to further investigation into the source of changing attitudes and the role that week-to-week activities have on global course attitudes.

  5. Use of Chloroisocyanuarates for Disinfection of Water: Application of Miscellaneous General Chemistry Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Gabriel; Rohrig, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a set of motivating exercises to study various general chemistry topics such as formulation, molar mass, stoichiometry, chemical equations, balanced equations, oxidation states, acid base reactions, tautomerism, calculation of formal charges, resonance, chlorinating agents, and the use of chlorine for disinfecting water. These topics can be studied in part through the information found on the labels of chloroisocyanurates, such as sodium dichloroisocyanurate (anhydrous and dihydrate) and trichloroisocyanuric acid, which are used for disinfecting water. Both compounds are readily available as consumer products. The holistic approach presented in this article allows students to focus on the versatility of the general chemistry concepts.

  6. Using Chemistry and Color To Analyze Household Products: A 10-12 Hour Laboratory Project at the General Chemistry Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosma, Wayne B.

    1998-02-01

    A general chemistry experiment is described in which the students use UV/Visible spectrometry as an analytical tool, for both compound identification and pH measurement. In the first portion of the experiment, the students compare spectra to determine which FD and C dyes are contained in household products. They furthermore use chromatography to separate the dyes in grape Kool-Aid, and analyze the products with the spectrometer. In the second portion of the experiment, the students use Beer's Law to determine the pH of solutions containing an acid/base indicator. The experiments are visually stimulating and provide a solid introduction to spectroscopy and perceived color.

  7. What We Don't Test: What an Analysis of Unreleased ACS Exam Items Reveals about Content Coverage in General Chemistry Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jessica J.; Villafan~e, Sachel M.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.; Murphy, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    General chemistry courses are often the foundation for the study of other science disciplines and upper-level chemistry concepts. Students who take introductory chemistry courses are more often from health and science-related fields than chemistry. As such, the content taught and assessed in general chemistry courses is envisioned as building…

  8. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 5th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    General Chemistry Collection contains the work of many authors. The time and effort of these dedicated chemistry educators in producing these programs is gratefully acknowledged by the editors, along with the authors' generosity in contributing their work to the chemistry education community by submission to JCE Software. Thanks are also due the many volunteer peer reviewers who give their time and expertise to help maintain and assure the high quality of JCE Software publications.

    Literature Cited

    1. General Chemistry Collection (Student Ed.), 4th ed. [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 2000, SP 16.
    2. March, J. L.; Moore, J. W.; Jacobsen, J. J. ChemPages Laboratory [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 2000, SP 24.
    3. Whisnant, D. M. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 2000, SP 27.
    4. Ophardt, C. E. Inorganic Molecules: A Visual Database [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 1996, 8C1.
    5. Lisensky, G. C.; Ellis, A. B.; Blackwell, J. M.; Solid State Resources, 2nd ed. [CD-ROM]; J. Chem. Educ. Software 2000, SP 12.

  9. A General Chemistry and Precalculus First-Year Interest Group (FIG): Effect on Retention, Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Laura E.; Workman, Harry J.; Haruta, Mako E.

    2005-01-01

    The backdrop of the calculus reform movement created a fertile movement for the creation of overlap between general chemistry and precalculus as many of the goals emphasized key concepts from the chemistry lab. By using the graphing calculator in both precalculus and chemistry laboratory enhanced the students' comfort and competence with the…

  10. A General Chemistry and Precalculus First-Year Interest Group (FIG): Effect on Retention, Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Laura E.; Workman, Harry J.; Haruta, Mako E.

    2005-01-01

    The backdrop of the calculus reform movement created a fertile movement for the creation of overlap between general chemistry and precalculus as many of the goals emphasized key concepts from the chemistry lab. By using the graphing calculator in both precalculus and chemistry laboratory enhanced the students' comfort and competence with the…

  11. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The General Chemistry Collection contains both new and previously published JCE Software programs that are intended for use by introductory-level chemistry students. These peer-reviewed programs for Macintosh and for Windows are available on a single CD-ROM for convenient distribution to and access by students, and the CD may be adopted for students to purchase as they would a textbook. General Chemistry Collection covers a broad range of topics providing students with interesting information, tutorials, and simulations that will be useful to them as they study chemistry for the first time. There are 22 programs included in the General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition. Their titles and the general chemistry topics they cover are listed in Table 1. Features in This Edition General Chemistry Collection, 4th edition includes:

    • Lessons for Introductory Chemistry and INQUAL-S, two new programs not previously published by JCE Software (abstracts appear below)
    • Writing Electron Dot Structures (1) and Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment for Windows (2), two programs published individually by JCE Software
    • Periodic Table Live! LE, a limited edition of Periodic Table Live!, 2nd Edition (3) (this replaces Chemistry Navigator (4) and Illustrated Periodic Table (5))
    • Many of the programs from previous editions (6)1
    Hardware and Software Requirements System requirements are given in Table 2. Some programs have additional requirements. See the individual program abstracts at JCE Online, or documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Licensing and Discounts for Adoptions The General Chemistry Collection is intended for use by individual students. Institutions and faculty members may adopt General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition as they would a textbook. We can arrange for CDs to be packaged with laboratory manuals or other course materials or to be sold for direct distribution to students through the campus

  12. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  13. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  14. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  15. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  16. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  17. Looking beyond Lewis Structures: A General Chemistry Molecular Modeling Experiment Focusing on Physical Properties and Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Cole, Renee S.; Sarkar, Somnath

    2011-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry experiment using Spartan Student Version, ready to be adapted and implemented into a general chemistry laboratory course. The experiment provides students an experience with Spartan Molecular Modeling software while discovering the relationships between the structure and properties of molecules. Topics discussed within…

  18. Examination of Bond Properties through Infrared Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    A concerted effort has been made to increase the opportunities for undergraduate students to address scientific problems employing the processes used by practicing chemists. As part of this effort, an infrared (IR) spectroscopy and molecular modeling experiment was developed for the first-year general chemistry laboratory course. In the…

  19. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  20. Using a Thematic Laboratory-Centered Curriculum to Teach General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Todd A.; Samide, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an approach to general chemistry that involves teaching chemical concepts in the context of two thematic laboratory modules: environmental remediation and the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. These modules were designed based on active-learning pedagogies and involve multiple-week projects that dictate what…

  1. Inquiry-Based Arson Investigation for General Chemistry Using GC-MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Marta K.; Bukowski, Michael R.; Menachery, Mary D.; Zatorsky, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a two-week guided-inquiry laboratory in which first-semester general chemistry students investigate a suspected arson using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and paper chromatography. In the process of evaluating evidence from the crime scene, students develop and test hypotheses and learn the fundamentals of chromatography,…

  2. Design and Implementation of a Studio-Based General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Amy C.; Sweeder, Ryan D.; Bartolin, Jeffrey M.; Hessler, Jessica A.; Reynolds, Benjamin P.; Stewart, Ian C.; Coppola, Brian P.; Holl, Mark Banaszak M.

    2007-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new value-added general chemistry course, which could use the studio instructional method to incorporate the existing educational research is reviewed. These teaching methods and activities were woven into the course to provide the students with ways of learning chemical concepts and practicing scientific…

  3. Analysis of Verbal Interactions during an Extended, Open-Inquiry General Chemistry Laboratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krystyniak, Rebecca A.; Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores effects of participation by second-semester college general chemistry students in an extended, open-inquiry laboratory investigation. Verbal interactions among a student lab team and with their instructor over three open-inquiry laboratory sessions and two non-inquiry sessions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Coding…

  4. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  5. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  6. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  7. Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    2010-01-01

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones [arrow right] or iPod touches [arrow right]. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast…

  8. Teaching Assistants' Perceptions of a Training to Support an Inquiry-Based General Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Whitworth, Brooke A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to better understand teaching assistants' (TAs') perceptions of training in a guided inquiry undergraduate general chemistry laboratory context. The training was developed using existing TA training literature and informed by situated learning theory. TAs engaged in training prior to teaching (~25…

  9. A Computer Algebra Approach to Solving Chemical Equilibria in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalainoff, Melinda; Lachance, Russ; Riegner, Dawn; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a semester-long study of the incorporation into our general chemistry course, of advanced algebraic and computer algebra techniques for solving chemical equilibrium problems. The method presented here is an alternative to the commonly used concentration table method for describing chemical equilibria in general…

  10. Analysis of Classroom Response System Questions via Four Lenses in a General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Aaron D.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2009-01-01

    General Chemistry lecture questions used in an electronic classroom response system (CRS) were analyzed using three theoretical frameworks and the pedagogical context in which they were presented. The analytical lenses included whether students were allowed to collaborate, Bloom's Taxonomy, a framework developed by Robinson and Nurrenbern, and an…

  11. Playing with Light: Adventures in Optics and Spectroscopy for Honors and Majors General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Staveren, Marie N.; Edwards, Kimberly D.; Apkarian, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    A lab was developed for use in an undergraduate honors and majors general chemistry laboratory to introduce students to optics, spectroscopy, and the underlying principles of quantum mechanics. This lab includes four mini-experiments exploring total internal reflection, the tunneling of light, spectra of sparklers and colored candles, and emission…

  12. Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    2010-01-01

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones [arrow right] or iPod touches [arrow right]. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast…

  13. Amino Acid Complementarity: A Biochemical Exemplar of Stoichiometry for General and Health Sciences Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The standard introduction to stoichiometry and simple exemplars can motivate students to learn the stoichiometric studies and the condensation reaction that occurs between amino acids to form the peptide bond. This topic can be integrated into general chemistry courses as an alternative to inclusion of a separate biochemistry course that could be…

  14. Using an Online, Self-Diagnostic Test for Introductory General Chemistry at an Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennepohl, Dietmar; Guay, Matthew; Thomas, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    A simple, online, self-diagnostic tool has been developed to allow students to independently and quickly measure their potential of success in a first-year general chemistry course. The online tool employs well-established performance predictors in areas such as student educational background, conceptual basics, critical thinking, mathematical…

  15. Self-Assembled Student Interactions in Undergraduate General Chemistry Clicker Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, James R.; Jones, Loretta

    2013-01-01

    Student interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations were used in an exploratory study of the nature of student interactions in a large (300+ students) general chemistry course taught with clickers. These data suggest that students are self-assembling their learning environment: choosing ways in which to interact with one another during…

  16. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  17. Argumentation and Participation Patterns in General Chemistry Peer-Led Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga, Ushiri; Moog, Richard S.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Toulmin's argumentation scheme to investigate the characteristics of student group argumentation in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry sessions for a General Chemistry I course. A coding scheme based on Toulmin's [Toulmin [1958] "The uses of argument." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] argumentation…

  18. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  19. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  20. Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization to Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    I describe how data pooling and data visualization can be employed in the first-semester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set. The pooled data are plotted as a 1-D scatterplot, a purpose-designed number line through which statistical features of the data are…

  1. Amino Acid Complementarity: A Biochemical Exemplar of Stoichiometry for General and Health Sciences Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The standard introduction to stoichiometry and simple exemplars can motivate students to learn the stoichiometric studies and the condensation reaction that occurs between amino acids to form the peptide bond. This topic can be integrated into general chemistry courses as an alternative to inclusion of a separate biochemistry course that could be…

  2. Effectiveness of Facilitating Small-Group Learning in Large Lecture Classes: A General Chemistry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, D. C.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a study designed to investigate the effectiveness of peer-led, small-group discussions in a large (N greater than 400) general chemistry course usually taught in a traditional lecture format. The administrative structure, the training of the peer facilitators, and the achievement of students exposed to this environment…

  3. Self-Assembled Student Interactions in Undergraduate General Chemistry Clicker Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, James R.; Jones, Loretta

    2013-01-01

    Student interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations were used in an exploratory study of the nature of student interactions in a large (300+ students) general chemistry course taught with clickers. These data suggest that students are self-assembling their learning environment: choosing ways in which to interact with one another during…

  4. Using the Plan View to Teach Basic Crystallography in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Cody V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The plan view is used in crystallography and materials science to show the positions of atoms in crystal structures. However, it is not widely used in teaching general chemistry. In this contribution, we introduce the plan view, and show these views for the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, CsCl, NaCl,…

  5. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  6. Design and Implementation of a Studio-Based General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Amy C.; Sweeder, Ryan D.; Bartolin, Jeffrey M.; Hessler, Jessica A.; Reynolds, Benjamin P.; Stewart, Ian C.; Coppola, Brian P.; Holl, Mark Banaszak M.

    2007-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new value-added general chemistry course, which could use the studio instructional method to incorporate the existing educational research is reviewed. These teaching methods and activities were woven into the course to provide the students with ways of learning chemical concepts and practicing scientific…

  7. Examination of Bond Properties through Infrared Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    A concerted effort has been made to increase the opportunities for undergraduate students to address scientific problems employing the processes used by practicing chemists. As part of this effort, an infrared (IR) spectroscopy and molecular modeling experiment was developed for the first-year general chemistry laboratory course. In the…

  8. Playing with Light: Adventures in Optics and Spectroscopy for Honors and Majors General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Staveren, Marie N.; Edwards, Kimberly D.; Apkarian, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    A lab was developed for use in an undergraduate honors and majors general chemistry laboratory to introduce students to optics, spectroscopy, and the underlying principles of quantum mechanics. This lab includes four mini-experiments exploring total internal reflection, the tunneling of light, spectra of sparklers and colored candles, and emission…

  9. Effect of Teaching Metacognitive Learning Strategies on Performance in General Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Elzbieta; Kennedy, Eugene; McGuire, Saundra Y.

    2013-01-01

    College students often find general chemistry to be a very challenging rite of passage on their way to degrees in various science, technology, and mathematics disciplines. As teachers, we make efforts to simultaneously patch gaps in students' prior knowledge and instill valuable learning strategies and sound study habits. In this paper, we…

  10. Assessing Conceptual and Algorithmic Knowledge in General Chemistry with ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the ACS Examinations Institute released an exam for first-term general chemistry in which items are intentionally paired with one conceptual and one traditional item. A second-term, paired-questions exam was released in 2007. This paper presents an empirical study of student performances on these two exams based on national samples of…

  11. Using Self-Reflection to Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video…

  12. Assessing Conceptual and Algorithmic Knowledge in General Chemistry with ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the ACS Examinations Institute released an exam for first-term general chemistry in which items are intentionally paired with one conceptual and one traditional item. A second-term, paired-questions exam was released in 2007. This paper presents an empirical study of student performances on these two exams based on national samples of…

  13. The Evaluation of Students' Written Reflection on the Learning of General Chemistry Lab Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Ng Sook; Li, Ho Ket; Sin, Lee Choy; Sin, Keng Pei

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing is often used to increase understanding and analytical ability. The lack of empirical evidence on the effect of reflective writing interventions on the learning of general chemistry lab experiment supports the examination of this concept. The central goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate the students' written…

  14. Students' Understanding of Analogy after a Core (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) Learning Cycle, General Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Amar, Franc¸ois G.; Bruce, Alice E.

    2015-01-01

    Students' understanding about analogy was investigated after a CORE learning cycle general chemistry experiment. CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) is a new three-phase learning cycle that involves (phase 1) guiding students through chemical observations while they consider a series of open-ended questions, (phase 2)…

  15. Effect of Teaching Metacognitive Learning Strategies on Performance in General Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Elzbieta; Kennedy, Eugene; McGuire, Saundra Y.

    2013-01-01

    College students often find general chemistry to be a very challenging rite of passage on their way to degrees in various science, technology, and mathematics disciplines. As teachers, we make efforts to simultaneously patch gaps in students' prior knowledge and instill valuable learning strategies and sound study habits. In this paper, we…

  16. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  17. Promoting Student Learning through Group Problem Solving in General Chemistry Recitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalingam, Madhu; Schaefer, Fred; Morlino, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We describe the implementation and effects of group problem solving in recitation sections associated with the general chemistry course at a small private science university. Recitation sections of approximately 45 students are used to supplement large (approximately 180 students) lecture sections. The primary goal of recitation is working in…

  18. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  19. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  20. Argumentation and Participation Patterns in General Chemistry Peer-Led Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga, Ushiri; Moog, Richard S.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Toulmin's argumentation scheme to investigate the characteristics of student group argumentation in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry sessions for a General Chemistry I course. A coding scheme based on Toulmin's [Toulmin [1958] "The uses of argument." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] argumentation…

  1. A Computer Algebra Approach to Solving Chemical Equilibria in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalainoff, Melinda; Lachance, Russ; Riegner, Dawn; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a semester-long study of the incorporation into our general chemistry course, of advanced algebraic and computer algebra techniques for solving chemical equilibrium problems. The method presented here is an alternative to the commonly used concentration table method for describing chemical equilibria in general…

  2. Can They Succeed? Exploring At-Risk Students' Study Habits in College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Li; Shuniak, Constantine; Oueini, Razanne; Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A well-established literature base identifies a portion of students enrolled in post-secondary General Chemistry as at-risk of failing the course based on incoming metrics. Learning about the experiences and factors that lead to this higher failure rate is essential toward improving retention in this course. This study examines the relationship…

  3. Using the Plan View to Teach Basic Crystallography in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Cody V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The plan view is used in crystallography and materials science to show the positions of atoms in crystal structures. However, it is not widely used in teaching general chemistry. In this contribution, we introduce the plan view, and show these views for the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, CsCl, NaCl,…

  4. Team-Based Learning Reduces Attrition in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeford, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an instructional method that has been shown to reduce attrition and increase student learning in a number of disciplines. TBL was implemented in a first-semester general chemistry course, and its effect on attrition was assessed. Attrition from sections before implementing TBL (fall 2008 to fall 2009) was compared with…

  5. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  6. Looking beyond Lewis Structures: A General Chemistry Molecular Modeling Experiment Focusing on Physical Properties and Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Cole, Renee S.; Sarkar, Somnath

    2011-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry experiment using Spartan Student Version, ready to be adapted and implemented into a general chemistry laboratory course. The experiment provides students an experience with Spartan Molecular Modeling software while discovering the relationships between the structure and properties of molecules. Topics discussed within…

  7. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  8. Supporting Students' Learning to Learn in General Chemistry Using Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonza´lez, Maritza Lau; Haza, Ulises Ja´uregui; Gramagtes, Aurora Pe´rez; Leo´n, Gloria Farin~as; Le Bolay, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    A combination of regular classroom teaching with the use of resources available on the Moodle platform has been designed to foster the development of skills for learning to learn for students in an undergraduate general chemistry course. The use of the Moodle platform essentially aimed at strengthening the students' prior knowledge of…

  9. Team-Based Learning Reduces Attrition in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeford, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an instructional method that has been shown to reduce attrition and increase student learning in a number of disciplines. TBL was implemented in a first-semester general chemistry course, and its effect on attrition was assessed. Attrition from sections before implementing TBL (fall 2008 to fall 2009) was compared with…

  10. The Testing Effect: An Intervention on Behalf of Low-Skilled Comprehenders in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has demonstrated that language comprehension ability correlates with general chemistry course performance with medium effect sizes. We demonstrate here that language comprehension's strong cognitive grounding can be used to inform effective and equitable pedagogies, namely, instructional interventions that differentially aid low-skilled…

  11. Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization to Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    I describe how data pooling and data visualization can be employed in the first-semester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set. The pooled data are plotted as a 1-D scatterplot, a purpose-designed number line through which statistical features of the data are…

  12. A Retention Study at Burlington County College in General College Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollimo, Vincent J.

    A study was conducted at Burlington County College to investigate the relationship between the academic characteristics and course completion of students enrolled in General College Chemistry (CHE 105) in fall 1985. The study involved an examination of students' academic records and a survey of students who did not successfully pass the course. Of…

  13. Using a Thematic Laboratory-Centered Curriculum to Teach General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Todd A.; Samide, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an approach to general chemistry that involves teaching chemical concepts in the context of two thematic laboratory modules: environmental remediation and the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. These modules were designed based on active-learning pedagogies and involve multiple-week projects that dictate what…

  14. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  15. An Investigation of the Value of Using Concept Maps in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Gayle; Francisco, Joseph; Nakhleh, Mary B.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a qualitative investigation of the effects of integrating concept maps into freshman-level general chemistry curriculum. Indicates that students in the experimental section had significantly more links and nodes in their concept maps than students in the traditional section. There were no significant differences between the two sections…

  16. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  17. Inquiry-Based Arson Investigation for General Chemistry Using GC-MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Marta K.; Bukowski, Michael R.; Menachery, Mary D.; Zatorsky, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a two-week guided-inquiry laboratory in which first-semester general chemistry students investigate a suspected arson using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and paper chromatography. In the process of evaluating evidence from the crime scene, students develop and test hypotheses and learn the fundamentals of chromatography,…

  18. Students' Understanding of Analogy after a Core (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) Learning Cycle, General Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Amar, Franc¸ois G.; Bruce, Alice E.

    2015-01-01

    Students' understanding about analogy was investigated after a CORE learning cycle general chemistry experiment. CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) is a new three-phase learning cycle that involves (phase 1) guiding students through chemical observations while they consider a series of open-ended questions, (phase 2)…

  19. Effects and Implications of Mini-Lectures on Learning in First-Semester General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toto, Joe; Booth, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of a novel tool, mini-lecture movies, in teaching Web based general chemistry. The analysis shows a marked improvement in student learning, as evidenced by a corresponding increase in homework and final exam scores. Students with access to mini-lecture movies scored 11.2% (p = 0.016) higher than students who did…

  20. The Testing Effect: An Intervention on Behalf of Low-Skilled Comprehenders in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has demonstrated that language comprehension ability correlates with general chemistry course performance with medium effect sizes. We demonstrate here that language comprehension's strong cognitive grounding can be used to inform effective and equitable pedagogies, namely, instructional interventions that differentially aid low-skilled…

  1. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  2. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  3. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  4. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  5. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  6. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  7. Using an Online, Self-Diagnostic Test for Introductory General Chemistry at an Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennepohl, Dietmar; Guay, Matthew; Thomas, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    A simple, online, self-diagnostic tool has been developed to allow students to independently and quickly measure their potential of success in a first-year general chemistry course. The online tool employs well-established performance predictors in areas such as student educational background, conceptual basics, critical thinking, mathematical…

  8. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  9. Implementation of Argument-Driven Inquiry as an Instructional Model in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadayifci, Hakki; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) as an instructional model in a general chemistry laboratory course. The study was conducted over the course of ten experimental sessions with 125 pre-service science teachers. The participants' level of reflective thinking about the ADI activities, changes in their science…

  10. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  11. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  12. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, "Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions," is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in…

  13. Engaging Participation and Promoting Active Learning through Student Usage of the Internet to Create Notes for General Chemistry in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Renee Monica

    2017-01-01

    Reported here is a study of an interactive component to General Chemistry I and General Chemistry II where a new pedagogy for taking notes in class was developed. These notes, called key word created class notes, prompted students to locate information using the Internet guided by a key word. Reference Web sites were added to a next generation of…

  14. Exploring General versus Task-Specific Assessments of Metacognition in University Chemistry Students: A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multiple assessments to investigate the general versus task-specific characteristics of metacognition in dissimilar chemistry topics. This mixed-method approach investigated the nature of undergraduate general chemistry students' metacognition using four assessments: a self-report questionnaire, assessment of…

  15. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  16. Exploring General versus Task-Specific Assessments of Metacognition in University Chemistry Students: A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multiple assessments to investigate the general versus task-specific characteristics of metacognition in dissimilar chemistry topics. This mixed-method approach investigated the nature of undergraduate general chemistry students' metacognition using four assessments: a self-report questionnaire, assessment of…

  17. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, "Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions," is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in…

  18. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  19. Supramolecular chemistry—general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the “chemistry of the noncovalent bond.” Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the “key-and-lock” principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self- assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  20. A spatial analysis of the expanding roles of nurses in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes to the workforce and organisation of general practice are occurring rapidly in response to the Australian health care reform agenda, and the changing nature of the medical profession. In particular, the last five years has seen the rapid introduction and expansion of a nursing workforce in Australian general practices. This potentially creates pressures on current infrastructure in general practice. Method This study used a mixed methods, ‘rapid appraisal’ approach involving observation, photographs, and interviews. Results Nurses utilise space differently to GPs, and this is part of the diversity they bring to the general practice environment. At the same time their roles are partly shaped by the ways space is constructed in general practices. Conclusion The fluidity of nursing roles in general practice suggests that nurses require a versatile space in which to maximize their role and contribution to the general practice team. PMID:22870933

  1. Analysis of Iron in Ferritin, the Iron-Storage Protein: A General Chemistry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donlin, Maureen J.; Frey, Regina F.; Putnam, Christopher; Proctor, Jody; Bashkin, James K.

    1998-04-01

    The chemical properties of the iron-storage protein ferritin will be examined in this experiment by quantitating the average amount of iron in a ferritin sample, and observing the kinetics of iron release from the protein core under reducing conditions. Students learn and apply the principles of absorption spectroscopy, redox reactions, and metal chelation to study ferritin. The presentation of the basic concepts of protein and molecular structure is greatly enhanced through the use of a computer-based graphical tutorial which is available on the World Wide Web on the on the Washington University Department of Chemistry homepage. The computer-based tutorial serves as an introduction to three-dimensional structure and molecular structure-function relationships. The experiment is derived from a standard general-chemistry experiment in which the concentration of an iron unknown is determined spectroscopically using a chromophoric indicator. However, application of this technique to ferritin, which stores iron as an iron-oxide mineral core, helps to develop links between general chemistry and biology, and to use biological importance as a driving force for studying chemistry.

  2. 'Seed + expand': a general methodology for detecting publication oeuvres of individual researchers.

    PubMed

    Reijnhoudt, Linda; Costas, Rodrigo; Noyons, Ed; Börner, Katy; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The study of science at the individual scholar level requires the disambiguation of author names. The creation of author's publication oeuvres involves matching the list of unique author names to names used in publication databases. Despite recent progress in the development of unique author identifiers, e.g., ORCID, VIVO, or DAI, author disambiguation remains a key problem when it comes to large-scale bibliometric analysis using data from multiple databases. This study introduces and tests a new methodology called seed + expand for semi-automatic bibliographic data collection for a given set of individual authors. Specifically, we identify the oeuvre of a set of Dutch full professors during the period 1980-2011. In particular, we combine author records from a Dutch National Research Information System (NARCIS) with publication records from the Web of Science. Starting with an initial list of 8,378 names, we identify 'seed publications' for each author using five different approaches. Subsequently, we 'expand' the set of publications in three different approaches. The different approaches are compared and resulting oeuvres are evaluated on precision and recall using a 'gold standard' dataset of authors for which verified publications in the period 2001-2010 are available.

  3. A framework for expanding aqueous chemistry in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an extendable aqueous-phase chemistry option (AQCHEM − KMT(I)) for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, version 5.1. Here, the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP), version 2.2.3, is used t...

  4. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  5. Impact of testing styles and testing methods on achievement in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Byron Edward

    2001-12-01

    This research conducted at a community college located in Northeast Texas studied testing style and testing methods in relation to achievement in general chemistry. Data was collected and examined from 212 participants. Of these, 143 completed both the MBTI and PEPS surveys. This provided 71 subjects designated as Sensor (S) types for the final phase of the study. The subjects were divided into two groups by performance on the PEPS. One group consisted of subjects that indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a formal/pencil-paper test format (linguistic testing style) and the other subjects indicated a preference to communicate (test) using a hands-on/movement test format (tactile testing style). All subjects were administered both a linguistic and tactile pretest prior to treatment and both a linguistic and tactile posttest after treatment. The data was analyzed using a 2 x 2 ANOVA for significant effects at the p < 0.05 level of confidence. The results indicated a significant interaction effect between the student testing style and test methods. While not conclusive, this study does indicate that the type of testing done in general chemistry may be favoring students with certain types of communication preferences (testing styles). Therefore students with many of the worker characteristics desired by the chemical industry may not be successful in general chemistry and choose a different career path.

  6. General Deviance Syndrome: Expanded Hierarchical Evaluations at Four Ages from Early Adolescence to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Linda; Newcomb, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    Problem behavior theory predicts that norm-violating attitudes and activities reflect syndrome. Findings from community sample revealed that criminal behavior was more determined by general deviance in adulthood than in young adulthood, whereas sexual involvement became less determined by common factors between these times. Drug use and low social…

  7. Distribution and budget of O3 in the troposphere calculated with a chemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Geert-Jan; Lelieveld, Jos

    1995-10-01

    We present results of global tropospheric chemistry simulations with the coupled chemistry/atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM. Ultimately, the model will be used to study climate changes induced by anthropogenic influences on the chemistry of the atmosphere; meteorological parameters that are important for the chemistry, such as temperature, humidity, air motions, cloud and rain characteristics, and mixing processes are calculated on-line. The chemical part of the model describes background tropospheric CH4-CO-NOx-HOx photochemistry. Emissions of NO and CO, surface concentrations of CH4, and stratospheric concentrations of O3 and NOy are prescribed as boundary conditions. Calculations of the tropospheric O3 budget indicate that seasonal variabilities of the photochemical production and of injection from the stratosphere are represented realistically, although some aspects of the model still need improvement. Comparisons of calculated O3 surface concentrations and O3 profiles with available measurements show that the model reproduces O3 distributions in remote tropical and midlatitudinal sites. Also, the model matches typical profiles connected with deep convection in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, the model tends to underestimate O3 concentrations at the poles and in relatively polluted regions. These underestimates are caused by the poor representation of tropopause foldings in midlatitudes, which form a significant source of tropospheric O3 from the stratosphere, too weak transport to the poles, and the neglect of higher hydrocarbon chemistry. Also, mixing of polluted continental boundary layer air into the free troposphere may be underestimated. We discuss how these model deficiencies will be improved in the future.

  8. Why has the bohr-sommerfeld model of the atom been ignoredby general chemistry textbooks?

    PubMed

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-12-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A major shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. In order to increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study has the following objectives: 1) Formulation of criteria based on a history and philosophy of science framework; and 2) Evaluation of university-level general chemistry textbooks based on the criteria, published in Italy and U.S.A. Presentation of a textbook was considered to be "satisfactory" if it included a description of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model along with diagrams of the elliptical orbits. Of the 28 textbooks published in Italy that were analyzed, only five were classified as "satisfactory". Of the 46 textbooks published in U.S.A., only three were classified as "satisfactory". This study has the following educational implications: a) Sommerfeld's innovation (auxiliary hypothesis) by introducing elliptical orbits, helped to restore the viability of Bohr's model; b) Bohr-Sommerfeld's model went no further than the alkali metals, which led scientists to look for other models; c) This clearly shows that scientific models are tentative in nature; d) Textbook authors and chemistry teachers do not consider the tentative nature of scientific knowledge to be important; e) Inclusion of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model in textbooks can help our students to understand how science progresses.

  9. Evaluating the Success of Hispanic-Surname Students in First-Semester General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Diana; Mittag, Kathleen C.

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken to identify methods and variables that affect classroom instruction, student achievement, and retention in a first-semester general chemistry course at a designated minority (primarily Hispanic) public institution of higher education. The course was a large-group lecture class (n = 241) of first-semester general chemistry that included 92 students with Hispanic surnames. Background information was gathered on the students' university-required entrance examinations, results from a logical thinking ability test, and scores from an instructor-developed diagnostic pretest. Ethnicity and gender data were collected and evaluated for trends that might affect students' success in chemistry achievement. Sixteen (17 percent) of the Hispanic-surname students enrolled in this class participated in a one-hour-per-week recitation session. The data indicate that university mathematics level is a strong predictor of success regardless of ethnicity, gender, or pre-course achievement variables, and participation in recitation sessions also improved course averages for all student groups. Included in the final analysis of this study are the benefits that can be attributed to good counseling.

    See Correction to this article.

  10. Introduction of Mass Spectrometry in an First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Quantification of Mtbe or Dmso in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solow, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Quantification of a contaminant in water provides the first-year general chemistry students with a tangible application of mass spectrometry. The relevance of chemistry to assessing and solving environmental problems is highlighted for students when they perform mass spectroscopy experiments.

  11. The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Explaining Examination Performance of College Students in First-Semester General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of…

  12. The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Explaining Examination Performance of College Students in First-Semester General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of…

  13. From Bhopal to Cold Fusion: A Case-Study Approach to Writing Assignments in Honors General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamely-Wiik, Donna M.; Haky, Jerome E.; Galin, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Faculty from the chemistry and English departments have developed a combined second-semester honors general chemistry and college writing course that fosters critical thinking through challenging writing assignments. Examples of case-study writing assignments and guidelines are provided that faculty at other institutions can adapt in similar…

  14. From Bhopal to Cold Fusion: A Case-Study Approach to Writing Assignments in Honors General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamely-Wiik, Donna M.; Haky, Jerome E.; Galin, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Faculty from the chemistry and English departments have developed a combined second-semester honors general chemistry and college writing course that fosters critical thinking through challenging writing assignments. Examples of case-study writing assignments and guidelines are provided that faculty at other institutions can adapt in similar…

  15. Investigating the Longitudinal Impact of a Successful Reform in General Chemistry on Student Enrollment and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort in chemistry education research has been dedicated to developing and evaluating reform pedagogies designed to improve student success in general chemistry. Policy recommendations propose adoption of these techniques as a means to increase the number of science graduates, however there is the potential that the impact of these…

  16. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  17. Introduction of Mass Spectrometry in an First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Quantification of Mtbe or Dmso in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solow, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Quantification of a contaminant in water provides the first-year general chemistry students with a tangible application of mass spectrometry. The relevance of chemistry to assessing and solving environmental problems is highlighted for students when they perform mass spectroscopy experiments.

  18. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  19. A longitudinal investigation of student learning in general chemistry with the Guided Inquiry Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubenmire, Patrick L.

    The Guided Inquiry Approach to learning chemistry utilizes cooperative learning and guided activities that emphasize students' understanding and application of chemistry concepts. Published worksheets provide students with a set of data or a model, "Critical Thinking Questions" which help students discover underlying patterns and concepts, and "Skill Development Exercises," which ask students to apply their constructed concepts. The instructor acts as a guide checking responses and intervening when necessary or when requested by the group. Cooperative learning approaches are in keeping with theoretical explanations of how students learn. Research supports that cooperative learning approaches have significant and positive effects on students' achievement, persistence, and attitudes in science courses. Research is needed to analyze how cooperative learning works. This research investigates how learning takes place during Guided Inquiry classes. A mixed methods research design was used. Subjects were members of two sections of second semester general chemistry, instructed by two different professors, which utilized the Guided Inquiry Approach at a small college in the Northeast United States. Subjects were categorized on logical reasoning ability and levels of confidence to succeed in chemistry. Guided Inquiry groups were videotaped once every week for ten weeks. Qualitative aspects identified Phases and Bridges of learning during Guided Inquiry. They are described as: Phase I - Confirmation Phase, Phase II - Group Interactive Phase, Phase III - Confirmation/Rehearsal Phase, Phase IV - Missionary Phase, Tutor Bridge, and Mentor Bridge. These Phases were verified by student interviews and through interobserver reliability. Triangulation of data was completed by measuring the differential effect of Guided Inquiry on traditional and conceptual chemistry achievement (multivariate within and between groups) and students' change in confidence to succeed in chemistry

  20. Analysis of the effect of student cognizance of the learning cycle in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, Matthew

    While the benefits of the using the Learning Cycle have been well researched, one area that has received surprisingly little investigation is the effect that student cognizance of the learning cycle has on student performance in chemistry. The Learning Cycle, with its strong theoretical roots in scientific practice and learning theory, offers a logical opportunity to educate students in the nature of science and metacognition. In addition, by examining the class holistically, students will have the opportunity to better link the lab and lecture components of the course. We hypothesized that since a keen understanding of the nature of science, strong metacognitive ability, and a holistic view of Learning Cycle classes have all been shown to increase student comprehension in general chemistry, students who were taught to understand the Learning Cycle would perform better than students who were not. Statistical analysis of survey and grade data will be presented.

  1. Factors that promote success in large enrollment general chemistry courses taught with clickers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacArthur, James R.

    The environment of a large (>300) enrollment first semester general chemistry course taught with clickers was characterized by statistical analysis of historical data, as well as through classroom observations and interviewing of professors and students. Four professors with experience teaching chemistry courses with clickers at this university were selected through purposeful sampling and interviewed. A total of 23 classroom observations were conducted. Data was collected from eleven students through interviews, emails, and focus groups. At the conclusion of the interview, students were categorized as field dependent, field intermediate, or field independent using a hidden figure test. Focus groups were assigned to represent one primarily field dependent group and one primarily field independent group. Interview, email, and focus group transcripts were analyzed until a theory of student interactions emerged. Student interactions are self-assembled, and the success of these interactions seems to be driven by the behavior of resonators: students who move throughout the classroom seeking interactions which maximize student learning.

  2. Content Validation Studies of the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Hessy L.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a curriculum survey of general chemistry courses at the college level and an evaluation survey of the advanced placement chemistry examination. Results indicated that the AP chemistry course should remain broad in coverage and should expand its laboratory component. Analyses also indicated that the AP exam was appropriate and valid.…

  3. The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. Marine aquaria and their life support systems feature many chemical processes. A life support system consists of the entire recirculation system, as well as the habitat tank and all ancillary…

  4. The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. Marine aquaria and their life support systems feature many chemical processes. A life support system consists of the entire recirculation system, as well as the habitat tank and all ancillary…

  5. Impact of aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone calculated with a chemistry-general circulation model: Sensitivity to higher hydrocarbon chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentarchos, A. S.; Roelofs, G. J.

    2002-07-01

    A three-dimensional chemistry-general circulation model has been employed to estimate the impact of current aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone. The model contains a representation of higher hydrocarbon chemistry, implemented by means of the Carbon Bond Mechanism 4 (CBM4), in order to investigate the potential effect of higher hydrocarbons on aircraft-induced ozone changes. Aircraft NOx emissions increase background NOX (= NO + NO2 + NO3 + 2N2O5 + HNO4) concentrations by 50-70 pptv in the upper troposphere over the Northern Hemisphere, and contribute up to 3 ppbv to upper tropospheric background ozone levels. When higher hydrocarbon chemistry is considered in the simulation, the aircraft-induced ozone perturbations are higher by ~12% during summer and the aircraft-induced ozone production efficiency per NOx molecule increases by ~20%, when compared to a simulation without higher hydrocarbon chemistry.

  6. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  7. Research and Teaching: Computational Methods in General Chemistry--Perceptions of Programming, Prior Experience, and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Chiu, Jennie L.; Grisham, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how integrating computational tools into a general chemistry laboratory course can influence student perceptions of programming and investigates relationships among student perceptions, prior experience, and student outcomes.

  8. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  9. Research and Teaching: Computational Methods in General Chemistry--Perceptions of Programming, Prior Experience, and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Chiu, Jennie L.; Grisham, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how integrating computational tools into a general chemistry laboratory course can influence student perceptions of programming and investigates relationships among student perceptions, prior experience, and student outcomes.

  10. When West Meets East: Generalizing Theory and Expanding the Conceptual Toolkit of Criminology.

    PubMed

    Messner, Steven F

    2015-06-01

    This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives-Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory-that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian societies raises serious questions about the feasibility of simply transporting these perspectives from the West to the East. Instead, my analyses suggest that the formulation of theoretical explanations of crime that are truly universal will require criminologists to create and incorporate new concepts that are more faithful to the social realities of non-Western societies, societies such as those in East Asia and Asia more generally.

  11. When West Meets East: Generalizing Theory and Expanding the Conceptual Toolkit of Criminology

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which established criminological theories born and nurtured in the West might need to be transformed to be applicable to the context of East Asian societies. The analyses focus on two theoretical perspectives—Situational Action Theory and Institutional Anomie Theory—that are located at opposite ends of the continuum with respect to levels of analysis. I argue that the accumulated evidence from cross-cultural psychology and criminological research in East Asian societies raises serious questions about the feasibility of simply transporting these perspectives from the West to the East. Instead, my analyses suggest that the formulation of theoretical explanations of crime that are truly universal will require criminologists to create and incorporate new concepts that are more faithful to the social realities of non-Western societies, societies such as those in East Asia and Asia more generally. PMID:27087864

  12. Assessing student perspectives of the laboratory, self-efficacy in chemistry, and attitudes towards science in an undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olave, Marcella

    Research is lacking in the general chemistry laboratory that explores the concerted affective predictor variables of student perspectives of the laboratory, self-efficacy in chemistry, and student attitudes towards science. There is little research on the assessment of variables in the affective domain to determine student experiences in the chemistry laboratory. Student experiences in this study were assessed by determining congruence between student perspectives of their actual and preferred general chemistry laboratory environment using the SLEI, and student attitudes towards careers as a scientist using the SAI II. Correlations between scales from the SLEI, SAI II along with the CCSS that measures self-efficacy in college chemistry were identified. A sample of eighty college students enrolled in a first-semester general chemistry laboratory responded to the SLEI, SAI II, and CCSS. A t test indicated there were no significant differences with student cohesiveness, integration, material environment, and rule clarity between the actual and preferred SLEI signifying congruence. There were significant differences between students actual and preferred perception of open-endedness (t = -3.59, df = 28, p = 0.00). Student attitudes towards careers as a scientist could not be determined using pretests and posttests of the SAI II due to a ceiling effect. There were positive significant correlations found between the scales of material environment, integration from the SLEI and the scale of student attitudes towards careers as a scientist using the SAI II. There were also positive significant correlations between self-efficacy for everyday applications, and self-efficacy for cognitive skills from the CCSS with the scale of student attitudes towards careers as a scientist. This study is of significance since it is the first study exploring congruence between the actual and preferred student perspectives of the laboratory using the SLEI in a first semester general chemistry

  13. An Investigation of the Effects of Reader Characteristics on Reading Comprehension Of a General Chemistry Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiles, Kelly Y.

    variable. The results from this regression analysis indicated that the two schema measures (measured by the Pathfinder program) accounted for the greatest amount of variance in four of the reading comprehension variables (encoding the text, bridging and elaborative inferences, and delayed recall of a general summary). This research suggest that providing students with background information on chemistry concepts prior to having them read the text may result in better understanding and more effective incorporation of the chemistry concepts into their schema.

  14. Modeling and analysis of aerosol processes in an interactive chemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sunita; Boucher, O.; Reddy, M. S.; Upadhyaya, H. C.; Le van, P.; Binkowski, F. S.; Sharma, O. P.

    2007-02-01

    An "online" aerosol dynamics and chemistry module is included in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model (LMDZ), so that the chemical species are advected at each dynamical time step and evolve through chemical and physical processes that have been parameterized consistently with the meteorology. These processes include anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, over 50 gas/aqueous phase chemical reactions, transport due to advection, vertical diffusion and convection, dry deposition and wet scavenging. We have introduced a size-resolved representation of aerosols which undergo various processes such as coagulation, nucleation and dry and wet scavenging. The model considers 16 prognostic tracers: water vapor, liquid water, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), methanesulphonic acid (MSA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric acid (HNO3), ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sulfate mass and number for Aitken and accumulation modes. The scheme accounts for two-way interactions between tropospheric chemistry and aerosols. The oxidants and chemical species fields that represent the sulfate aerosol formation are evolved interactively with the model dynamics. A detailed description on the coupled climate-chemistry interactive module is presented with the evaluation of chemical species in winter and summer seasons. Aqueous phase reactions in cloud accounted for 71% of sulfate production rate, while only 45% of the sulfate burden in the troposphere is derived from in-cloud oxidation.

  15. A Genetically Optimized Predictive System for Success in General Chemistry Using a Diagnostic Algebra Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Cameron I.; Pearson, Paul T.

    2012-02-01

    In higher education, many high-enrollment introductory courses have evolved into "gatekeeper" courses due to their high failure rates. These courses prevent many students from attaining their educational goals and often become graduation roadblocks. At the authors' home institution, general chemistry has become a gatekeeper course in which approximately 25% of students do not pass. This failure rate in chemistry is common, and often higher, at many other institutions of higher education, and mathematical deficiencies are perceived to be a large contributing factor. This paper details the development of a highly accurate predictive system that identifies students at the beginning of the semester who are "at-risk" for earning a grade of C- or below in chemistry. The predictive accuracy of this system is maximized by using a genetically optimized neural network to analyze the results of a diagnostic algebra test designed for a specific population. Once at-risk students have been identified, they can be helped to improve their chances of success using techniques such as concurrent support courses, online tutorials, "just-in-time" instructional aides, study skills, motivational interviewing, and/or peer mentoring.

  16. Teaching Is Learning--Maximum Incentive, Minimum Discipline in Student Groups Teaching General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, Mark

    2001-02-01

    A novel form of teaching and test scoring has been developed, in which student group work and test performance are linked to bonus points on weekly quizzes. A class of 71 students was divided into 12 groups of five or six students. The groups taught sections of a general chemistry class, and their test grades were adjusted upward on the basis of the scores achieved for each quiz or test. The scoring technique involves the possibility of only upward adjustments, to maximize positive reinforcement for good test performance. Work requirements resulting from this technique, for both the students and the faculty member, are discussed.

  17. Implementation of a PETN failure model using ARIA's general chemistry framework

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a PETN thermal decomposition model that accurately predicts thermal ignition and detonator failure [1]. This model was originally developed for CALORE [2] and required several complex user subroutines. Recently, a simplified version of the PETN decomposition model was implemented into ARIA [3] using a general chemistry framework without need for user subroutines. Detonator failure was also predicted with this new model using ENCORE. The model was simplified by 1) basing the model on moles rather than mass, 2) simplifying the thermal conductivity model, and 3) implementing ARIA’s new phase change model. This memo briefly describes the model, implementation, and validation.

  18. Impact of an Online Homework Program on the Achievement of College Students Enrolled in First Semester General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesgen, Brian D.

    Technology is finding an ever increasing role in university level courses. One area of particular interest is the use of online or computer based homework programs. This study investigated the potential impact of one of the leading commercial chemistry homework management systems on the performance of students in a first semester general chemistry course. Two groups of students were identified, one which used a basic homework program and one which used a Web-based, customizable, problem-grading application that was provided prompt feedback. The 2005 American Chemical Society First Semester General Chemistry Exam as the benchmark of understanding general chemistry. No statistically significant difference was found between the scores of the two groups. A statistically significant correlation between performance on the homework assignments and the final exam was noted, but seemed to disappear when analysis was particularized.

  19. Evaluation of the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joeckel, P.; Tost, H.; Pozzer, A.; Bruehl, C.; Buchholz, J.; Ganzeveld, L.; Hoor, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; Metzger, S.; Sander, R.; Steil, B.; Stiller, G.; Tanarhte, M.; Taraborrelli, D.; van Aardenne, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present the new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) coupled to the 5th generation European Centre Hamburg GCM, ECHAM5. MESSy describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. This approach is chosen to face the challenges associated with increasing model complexity. The resulting model system is portable, user-friendly and easily expandable. The system enables the testing of different modules of the same processes (e.g. convection) under otherwise identical numerical conditions. In a first model evaluation simulation we apply a 90-layer model setup up to 0.01 hPa at T42 spectral resolution to simulate the dynamics and chemistry, both coupled via radiation, of the lower and middle atmosphere. A Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the troposphere to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed (ECMWF) meteorology during the period 1998-2005. This technique allows a direct comparison of model results with observations. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce the Quasi- Biennial Oscillation and major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as shown by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are reproduced well. In summary, the model consistently simulates the state of the atmosphere from the surface to the mesosphere without the need to prescribe artifical boundary conditions, e.g., such as ozone at the tropopause.

  20. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    working with these materials, we present chemical structures wherever possible, but do not emphasize organic nomenclature or functional group chemistry beyond identifying, as appropriate, acidic and basic groups and other key structural features. 3. As can be appreciated from Table 1, the course organization is overtly based on the nature of the materials themselveshousehold "chemicals", food and beverages, pills, and plasticsrather than on abstract chemical principles. Organizing the course on the basis of the materials studied emphasizes their relevance to students and focuses interest on the actual results obtained by the individual students. Nevertheless, a coherent sequence of development of laboratory techniques and gradually increasing opportunity for less tightly directed student experiences is maintained. Laboratory exercises cover most of the usual topics, including stoichiometry, qualitative analysis, quantitative analyses by acid-base and redox titrations, and colorimetry. We have not, however, found or devised exercises dealing with thermochemistry or electrochemistry; readers' suggestions in these areas would be welcome. 4. The instruments, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory initially were the same as previously used, so that we have been able to introduce this program without initial capital expenditure. The exercises rely substantially upon mass measurements and titrations, with pH meters and colorimeters brought into use as the year progresses. We are now in the process of introducing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods into the laboratories. This will add a very powerful tool to the students' repertoire. Its use will greatly expand the opportunities for directed-inquiry investigations of real-world samples in the context of the course. 5. Some of the exercises in Table 1 will be recognized by readers of this Journal as standard ones, found in many lab manuals or available as commercial modules (2). To provide a comprehensive focus on

  1. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course: ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-01-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message…

  2. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course: ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-01-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message…

  3. The Effects of Fasting and General Anesthesia on Serum Chemistries in KCG Miniature Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hozumi; Igarashi, Takashi; Lefor, Alan T; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Investigators are obligated to optimize the perioperative care of experimental animals, but little is known about the effects of anesthesia and surgery on serum chemistries in KCG pigs. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of fasting and surgery under general anesthesia on 27 serum chemistries in KCG miniature pigs to improve management. Crossbred KCG minipigs were used at a mean of 12.3 mo of age (range, 8.6 to 14.9) and 33.4 kg of body weight (range, 24.0 to 40.2). Serum chemistries were evaluated at the start and end of a 24 h fasting period in fasted animals (n = 6). No significant differences were observed between the starting and postfasting studies. Partial hemilaminectomy of the lumbar spine was carried out in 2 groups of animals. Those given sevoflurane anesthesia (n = 7) had significant decreases in serum albumin, potassium, inorganic phosphorus, γ-glutamyltransferase peptidase, cholinesterase, and glucose postoperatively compared with preoperative values. Animals given isoflurane (n = 7) anesthesia had significantly decreased total protein, albumin, triglyceride, phospholipids, sodium, potassium, calcium, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phoshatase and glucose after surgery compared with levels before surgery. In a separate experiment (n = 7), serum glucose and insulin also decreased during the postoperative period after isoflurane anesthesia. These results demonstrate that select serum electrolytes, glucose, and insulin of KCG miniature pigs are altered after general anesthesia. Investigators must be aware of the effects of anesthetic agents on experimental animals to provide optimal care and for interpretation of experimental data. PMID:19245748

  4. Surface chemistry of grafted expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membranes modifies the in vitro proinflammatory response in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chandler-Temple, Adrienne; Kingshott, Peter; Wentrup-Byrne, Edeline; Cassady, A Ian; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2013-04-01

    A series of surface-modified expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membranes showed varied levels of in vitro macrophage proinflammatory response. Membranes containing a mixture of phosphate and hydroxyl groups (as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis) stimulate greater macrophage activation than samples containing a mixture of phosphate and carboxylic acid segments. The types of proteins that adsorbed irreversibly from serum onto the two samples with the highest and lowest cellular response were investigated using surface-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Distinct differences in the number and type of proteins that adsorbed were observed between these samples. A correlation was found between the main protein components adsorbed onto the surfaces and the resulting in vitro proinflammatory response. This study strongly supports the hypothesis that the cellular response is not controlled directly by surface properties but is mediated by specific protein adsorption events. This in turn highlights the importance of better understanding and controlling the properties of intelligent surface-modified biomaterials.

  5. Cooperative Learning and Enhanced Communication: Effects on Student Performance, Retention, and Attitudes in General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, R. C.; Bowen, C. W.; Berger, T.; Rees, W.; Mellon, E. K.; Pulliam, E.

    1995-09-01

    This report discusses the retention and performance of three sections of general chemistry that utilized different levels of cooperative learning and enhanced communication. The structured cooperative section (S-coop) required that students belonged to study groups, had group homework and group quizzes and had course credit driven electronic mail. The unstructured cooperative section (U-coop) encouraged students to form optional informal groups and provided for optional enhanced communication by paper mail. The control section used a standard lecture format without any cooperative learning or enhanced communication options. The student retention (C or better) was S-coop 85 %, U-coop 76 %, and Control 59 % (all differences were statistically significant). On the final exam the percent correct for common questions was S-coop 58%, U-coop 60%, and Control 55%. Adjusted for the difference in retention there was no significant difference between the two cooperative sections. The results of the Student Instructional Rating System for the three sections had the following percentage of students agreeing that the instructor was an effective teacher: S-coop 74%; U-coop 99%; and Control 80%. In all cases the differences were statistically significant. We conclude that a structured cooperative learning environment with enhanced communication can improve overall student retention and performance in general chemistry.

  6. What Do Conceptual Holes in Assessment Say about the Topics We Teach in General Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory chemistry has long been considered a service course by various departments that entrust chemistry departments with teaching their students. As a result, most introductory courses include a majority of students who are not chemistry majors, and many are health and science related majors who are required to take chemistry. To identify…

  7. What Do Conceptual Holes in Assessment Say about the Topics We Teach in General Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory chemistry has long been considered a service course by various departments that entrust chemistry departments with teaching their students. As a result, most introductory courses include a majority of students who are not chemistry majors, and many are health and science related majors who are required to take chemistry. To identify…

  8. Development of the formal reasoning abilities of college students in a general chemistry guided-inquiry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteyne, Kereen

    Reform efforts in science education have been galvanized around the idea that instruction based on inquiry will increase science achievement and promote the development of higher-order thinking skills. The problem with many inquiry-oriented curriculum materials at the college level that aim to increase conceptual understanding of science is the implicit assumption that students are already skilled in higher-order thinking. Research has shown that only 25% of college freshmen consistently apply these skills. The purpose of this research study is to compare the effectiveness of a formal-reasoning-centered to a chemistry-concept-centered general chemistry guided-inquiry laboratory curriculum. Each curriculum was delivered during twelve laboratory meetings over a period of one semester to a sample of 91 college students enrolled in a first-term general chemistry course. Measures used in this study include the ability to use formal reasoning skills, the ability to abstract use of formal reasoning from context, understanding of chemistry concepts, and perception of learning gains (attitude). The results of this research show that a formal-reasoning-centered curriculum is more effective than a chemistry-concept-centered curriculum on specific-transfer measures of formal reasoning using a chemistry context. No differences between the two curricula were found on specific- or nonspecific-transfer measures of formal reasoning using a general (non-chemistry) context. Students using a formal-reasoning-centered curriculum were more able to abstract use of formal reasoning from context. No differences between the curricula were found on measures of understanding chemistry concepts. Students using a chemistry-concept-centered curriculum reported more positive attitudes towards laboratory-based instruction.

  9. Beyond "Inert" Ideas to Teaching General Chemistry from Rich Contexts: Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffy, Peter G.; Holme, Thomas A.; Martin-Visscher, Leah; Martin, Brian E.; Versprille, Ashley; Kirchhoff, Mary; McKenzie, Lallie; Town, Marcy

    As one approach to moving beyond transmitting "inert" ideas to chemistry students, we use the term "teaching from rich contexts" to describe implementations of case studies or context-based learning based on systems thinking that provide deep and rich opportunities for learning crosscutting concepts through contexts. This…

  10. Investigations of Nitrogen Oxide Plasmas: Fundamental Chemistry and Surface Reactivity and Monitoring Student Perceptions in a General Chemistry Recitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Part I of this dissertation focuses on investigations of nitrogen oxide plasma systems. With increasing concerns over the environmental presence of NxOy species, there is growing interest in utilizing plasma-assisted conversion techniques. Advances, however, have been limited because of the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental chemistry of…

  11. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of the Chemistry Underlying Climate Science and the Development of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3) project, we have developed a chemistry of climate science diagnostic instrument for use in general chemistry courses based on twenty-four student interviews. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2009). The undergraduate student interviews elicited their understanding of the greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather, and the findings from these interviews informed and guided the development of the multiple-choice diagnostic instrument. Our analysis and findings from the interviews indicate that students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer and in terms of chemistry concepts, the students lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Details of the findings from the interviews, development of diagnostic instrument, and preliminary findings from the full implementation of the diagnostic instrument will be shared.

  12. How do video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving process, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Rosalind Stephanie

    2001-12-01

    Because paper-and-pencil testing provides limited knowledge about what students know about chemical phenomena, we have developed video-based demonstrations to broaden measurement of student learning. For example, students might be shown a video demonstrating equilibrium shifts. Two methods for viewing equilibrium shifts are changing the concentration of the reactants and changing the temperature of the system. The students are required to combine the data collected from the video and their knowledge of chemistry to determine which way the equilibrium shifts. Video-based demonstrations are important techniques for measuring student learning because they require students to apply conceptual knowledge learned in class to a specific chemical problem. This study explores how video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving processes, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students. Several instruments were used to determine students' knowledge about chemistry, students' test and chemistry anxiety before and after treatment. Think-aloud interviews were conducted to determine students' problem-solving processes after treatment. The treatment group was compared to a control group and a group watching video demonstrations. After treatment students' anxiety increased and achievement decreased. There were also no significant differences found in students' problem-solving processes following treatment. These negative findings may be attributed to several factors that will be explored in this study.

  13. Introductory Molecular Orbital Theory: An Honors General Chemistry Computational Lab as Implemented Using Three-Dimensional Modeling Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddick, Kristie R.; Parrill, Abby L.; Petersen, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a computational molecular orbital theory experiment was implemented in a first-semester honors general chemistry course. Students used the GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) quantum mechanical software (as implemented in ChemBio3D) to optimize the geometry for various small molecules. Extended Huckel…

  14. Introductory Molecular Orbital Theory: An Honors General Chemistry Computational Lab as Implemented Using Three-Dimensional Modeling Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddick, Kristie R.; Parrill, Abby L.; Petersen, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a computational molecular orbital theory experiment was implemented in a first-semester honors general chemistry course. Students used the GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) quantum mechanical software (as implemented in ChemBio3D) to optimize the geometry for various small molecules. Extended Huckel…

  15. Climate Change Concepts and POGIL: Using climate change to teach general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Middlecamp, C.; Moog, R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is a topic that can be used to engage students in a variety of courses and disciplines. Through an NSF-funded project, we have written a set of in-class POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) activities that use climate change topics to teach general chemistry concepts. POGIL is a pedagogical approach that uses group activities to teach content and process skills. In these group activities an initial model and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities on their own, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning, rather than a provider of information. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. While POGIL activities were initially developed for chemistry courses, this approach has now been used to create materials for use in other fields, such as biology, math, engineering and computer science. An additional component of this project is the incorporation of questions that relate to socio-scientific issues, e.g., the economic and social effects of climate change policies. The goal is for students to use evidence-based arguments in situations where opinion-based arguments are common. Key components (i.e., models and the corresponding critical thinking questions) of one activity will be presented. We will also report preliminary feedback based on initial classroom testing of several of the activities.

  16. Podcast effectiveness as scaffolding support for students enrolled in first-semester general chemistry laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones→ or iPod touches→. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast usage, the numbers and types of interactions between instructors and research teams, and student performance on graded assignments. Data analysis indicates that the podcast treatment research teams accessed a podcast 2.86 times on average during each week that podcasts were available. Comparison of interaction data for the lecture treatment research teams and podcast treatment research teams reveals that interactions with instructors were statistically significantly fewer for teams that had podcast access rather than a pre-laboratory lecture. The implication of the results is that student research teams were able to gather laboratory information more effectively when it was presented in an on-demand podcast format. Finally, statistical analysis of data on student performance on graded assignments indicates no significant differences between outcome measures for the treatment groups when compared as cohorts. The only statistically significant difference is between students judged to be highly motivated; for this sub-group the students in the podcast treatment group earned a course average that was statistically significantly higher than those in the lecture treatment group. This research study provides some of the first data collected on the effectiveness of podcasts delivered as needed in a first-semester general chemistry laboratory setting.

  17. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry Following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course. ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-03-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message system) permitted them to work independently without the need for textbook or lecture. On average, students who completed ChemPrep had higher grades in the subsequent GenChem, Nursing, and Honors chemistry courses, with a greater percentage achieving a grade of C- or higher. Participation in ChemPrep was voluntary, and more women than men responded. Students in the Honors course enrolled in ChemPrep in higher percentages than students in GenChem and Nursing. SAT and departmental math placement exam scores were used as proxy measures of prior achievement and ability. Based on these, Honors chemistry ChemPrep users were on par with their peers but performed better in the course than non-users. In GenChem and Nursing chemistry courses, ChemPrep helped students of high prior achievement and ability perform better than their achievement scores would predict. Weaker or less motivated students did not respond to the voluntary offerings of ChemPrep in the same numbers as stronger or more motivated students, and we are seeking alternate ways to reach this population.

  18. Exploring students' interactions, arguments, and reflections in general chemistry laboratories with different levels of inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haozhi

    Students' learning in inquiry-based investigations has drawn considerable attention of the science education community. Inquiry activities can be viewed as knowledge construction processes in which students are expected to develop conceptual understanding and critical thinking abilities. Our study aimed to explore the effect of experiments with different levels of inquiry on students' interactions in the laboratory setting, as well as on students' written arguments and reflections. Our results are based on direct observations of group work in college general chemistry laboratories and analysis of associated written lab reports. The analysis of students' interactions in the laboratory was approached from three major analytic dimensions: Functional analysis, cognitive processing, and social processing. According to our results, higher levels of inquiry were associated with an increase in the relative frequency of episodes where students were engaged in proposing ideas versus asking and answering each others' questions. Higher levels of inquiry also favored episodes in which experimental work was approached in a more exploratory (versus procedural) manner. However, no major changes were observed in the extent to which students were engaged in either interpretive discussions of central scientific concepts and ideas. As part of our study we were also interested in characterizing the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the structure and adequacy of university general chemistry students' written arguments, as well as on the nature of their reflections about laboratory work. Our findings indicate that the level of inquiry of the observed experiments had no significant impact on the structure or adequacy of arguments generated by students. However, the level of inquiry of the experiments seemed to have a major impact on several areas of students' written reflections about laboratory work. In general, our results elicit trends and highlight issues

  19. General Chemistry, Principles and Modern Applications, Seventh Edition (by Ralph H. Petrucci and William S. Harwood) and General Chemistry, Fifth Edition (by Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, and M. Larry Peck)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poskozim, Paul S.

    1997-05-01

    General Chemistry, Principles and Modern Applications, Seventh Edition Ralph H. Petrucci and William S. Harwood. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997. xxvi + 989 pp. Figs. and tables. 20.6 x 26.0 cm. 85. General Chemistry, Fifth Edition Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, and M. Larry Peck. Saunders: New York, 1996. xlv + 1051 pp. Figs. and tables. 22.2 x 26.0 cm. 85. Modern texts of general chemistry are considerably better than they were thirty years ago, and the two books reviewed here, Petrucci and Whitten, clearly follow this trend. Both are well-written teaching instruments with lots of student-friendly features. I speak from experience, having taught out of earlier editions of both, and having heard the comments expressed by students about them. Both are used annually by tens of thousands of students. The successful formulas for writing good general chemistry texts are currently being used in at least a half dozen clonelike cousins, making adoption decisions more difficult.

  20. Development and evaluation of a thermochemistry concept inventory for college-level general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, David A.

    The research presented in this dissertation culminated in a 10-item Thermochemistry Concept Inventory (TCI). The development of the TCI can be divided into two main phases: qualitative studies and quantitative studies. Both phases focused on the primary stakeholders of the TCI, college-level general chemistry instructors and students. Each phase was designed to collect evidence for the validity of the interpretations and uses of TCI testing data. A central use of TCI testing data is to identify student conceptual misunderstandings, which are represented as incorrect options of multiple-choice TCI items. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative studies focused heavily on collecting evidence at the item-level, where important interpretations may be made by TCI users. Qualitative studies included student interviews (N = 28) and online expert surveys (N = 30). Think-aloud student interviews (N = 12) were used to identify conceptual misunderstandings used by students. Novice response process validity interviews (N = 16) helped provide information on how students interpreted and answered TCI items and were the basis of item revisions. Practicing general chemistry instructors (N = 18), or experts, defined boundaries of thermochemistry content included on the TCI. Once TCI items were in the later stages of development, an online version of the TCI was used in expert response process validity survey (N = 12), to provide expert feedback on item content, format and consensus of the correct answer for each item. Quantitative studies included three phases: beta testing of TCI items (N = 280), pilot testing of the a 12-item TCI (N = 485), and a large data collection using a 10-item TCI ( N = 1331). In addition to traditional classical test theory analysis, Rasch model analysis was also used for evaluation of testing data at the test and item level. The TCI was administered in both formative assessment (beta and pilot testing) and summative assessment (large data collection), with

  1. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  2. Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (K[subscript sp]) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John

    2007-01-01

    In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) in the 0-65 [degree]C temperature range. From these data the solubility products (K[subscript sp]), the Gibbs free energies of solution ([Delta][subscript…

  3. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  4. The Use of Molecular Modeling as "Pseudoexperimental" Data for Teaching VSEPR as a Hands-On General Chemistry Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Vandehoef, Crissie; Cook, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A hands-on activity appropriate for first-semester general chemistry students is presented that combines traditional VSEPR methods of predicting molecular geometries with introductory use of molecular modeling. Students analyze a series of previously calculated output files consisting of several molecules each in various geometries. Each structure…

  5. A Service-Learning Project Based on a Research Supportive Curriculum Format in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalivas, John H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a two-semester general chemistry laboratory teaching approach to assist students in gaining experience with science-process skills. The ultimate goal is successful completion of a second-semester service-learning project requiring use of their newly developed science-process skills. The project entails creating an…

  6. Quantitative Analysis in the General Chemistry Laboratory: Training Students to Analyze Individual Results in the Context of Collective Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Chris D.; Bridgeman, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Titration experiments are ideal for generating large data sets for use in quantitative-analysis activities that are meaningful and transparent to general chemistry students. We report the successful implementation of a sophisticated quantitative exercise in which the students identify a series of unknown acids by determining their molar masses…

  7. Incrementally Approaching an Inquiry Lab Curriculum: Can Changing a Single Laboratory Experiment Improve Student Performance in General Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Many institutions are responding to current research about how students learn science by transforming their general chemistry laboratory curricula to be inquiry-oriented. We present a comparison study of student performance after completing either a traditional or an inquiry stoichiometry experiment. This single laboratory experience was the only…

  8. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  9. IM-Chem: The Use of Instant Messaging to Improve Student Performance and Personalize Large Lecture General Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behmke, Derek A.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked poor student performance with the depersonalized feeling of large lecture courses. Various forms of enhanced communication have been tried that appear to enhance personalization in large courses. For general chemistry classes taught in a 365-seat lecture hall at the University of Georgia, we have attempted to enhance…

  10. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  11. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  12. Learning How Students Learn: An Exploration of Self-Regulation Strategies in a Two-Year College General Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dionne A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how students in an urban 2-year college used self-regulation strategies in a General Chemistry I course and whether their use was correlated with both performance and the ability to correctly predict performance on a course exam. The 142 students enrolled in all 10 sections of the course were asked to complete the Motivated…

  13. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  14. Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the types of views and misconceptions uncovered after assessing 155 freshman general chemistry students on the concept of particle position during the reversible physical change of melting, using the Melting Cycle Instrument, which illustrates particulate-level representations of a melting-freezing cycle. Animations…

  15. Removal of Aromatic Pollutant Surrogate from Water by Recyclable Magnetite-Activated Carbon Nanocomposite: An Experiment for General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlan, Ping Y.; Melcer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment using readily available chemicals is described to introduce college students to an exciting class of nanocomposite materials. In a one-step room temperature synthetic process, magnetite nanoparticles are embedded onto activated carbon matrix. The resultant nanocomposite has been shown to combine the…

  16. Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the types of views and misconceptions uncovered after assessing 155 freshman general chemistry students on the concept of particle position during the reversible physical change of melting, using the Melting Cycle Instrument, which illustrates particulate-level representations of a melting-freezing cycle. Animations…

  17. Effect of Clickers "versus" Online Homework on Students' Long-Term Retention of General Chemistry Course Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebru, Misganaw T.; Phelps, Amy J.; Wulfsberg, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the effects of student response systems (clickers) "versus" online homework on students' long-term retention of General Chemistry I course material. Long-term content retention was measured by a comprehensive yearlong American Chemical Society (ACS) GC97 exam administered seven months after students had completed the General…

  18. Formative Evaluation of the Project Enhancement of Problem Solving and Scientific Reasoning Skills through Computerized General Chemistry Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del R. Medina-Diaz, Maria; Echegaray, Francisco; Motta, Noel

    This paper reports on the formative evaluation results of the project "Enhancement of Problem Solving and Scientific Reasoning Skills through Computerized General Chemistry Modules." This project includes the design, development, and implementation of two interactive computer modules for the enhancement of mathematical and problem…

  19. Practical Work in Biology, Chemistry and Physics at Lower Secondary and General Upper Secondary Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Spernjak, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Syllabi in the science subjects, biology, chemistry and physics at lower and general upper secondary school are compared in the light of their underlying philosophies, goals, objectives and recognized importance in science teaching. Even though all syllabi were prepared within the same framework, great differences among syllabi concerning…

  20. Identification of Unknown Chloride Salts Using a Combination of Qualitative Analysis and Titration with Silver Nitrate: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maines, Laina L.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry students often have difficulty writing balanced equations and performing stoichiometry calculations for precipitation reactions, in part because of difficulty understanding the symbolic notation used to represent chemical reactions. We have developed a problem-based experiment to improve student learning of these concepts, and…

  1. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  2. Removal of Aromatic Pollutant Surrogate from Water by Recyclable Magnetite-Activated Carbon Nanocomposite: An Experiment for General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlan, Ping Y.; Melcer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment using readily available chemicals is described to introduce college students to an exciting class of nanocomposite materials. In a one-step room temperature synthetic process, magnetite nanoparticles are embedded onto activated carbon matrix. The resultant nanocomposite has been shown to combine the…

  3. Effect of Clickers "versus" Online Homework on Students' Long-Term Retention of General Chemistry Course Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebru, Misganaw T.; Phelps, Amy J.; Wulfsberg, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the effects of student response systems (clickers) "versus" online homework on students' long-term retention of General Chemistry I course material. Long-term content retention was measured by a comprehensive yearlong American Chemical Society (ACS) GC97 exam administered seven months after students had completed the General…

  4. Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Student Performance and Retention: A Parallel Controlled Study in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael D.; Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in the flipped classroom, quantitative studies are slowly emerging, particularly in the sciences. We report a year-long parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course. The flipped course was piloted in the off-semester course in Fall 2014, and the availability of the…

  5. Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Student Performance and Retention: A Parallel Controlled Study in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael D.; Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in the flipped classroom, quantitative studies are slowly emerging, particularly in the sciences. We report a year-long parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course. The flipped course was piloted in the off-semester course in Fall 2014, and the availability of the…

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Reduction of Experimental Scale in High School and College General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Carole A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Notes the careful observation of chemical reactivity phenomena has been and should be an important part of the general chemistry laboratory curriculum. Stresses reduction of experimental scale will help to ensure, in times of rampant chemophobia, that it remains so. Provides several examples of the methodology. (MVL)

  7. Incrementally Approaching an Inquiry Lab Curriculum: Can Changing a Single Laboratory Experiment Improve Student Performance in General Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Many institutions are responding to current research about how students learn science by transforming their general chemistry laboratory curricula to be inquiry-oriented. We present a comparison study of student performance after completing either a traditional or an inquiry stoichiometry experiment. This single laboratory experience was the only…

  8. Identification of Unknown Chloride Salts Using a Combination of Qualitative Analysis and Titration with Silver Nitrate: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maines, Laina L.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry students often have difficulty writing balanced equations and performing stoichiometry calculations for precipitation reactions, in part because of difficulty understanding the symbolic notation used to represent chemical reactions. We have developed a problem-based experiment to improve student learning of these concepts, and…

  9. Features of Representations in General Chemistry Textbooks: A Peek through the Lens of the Cognitive Load Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…

  10. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  11. The Use of Molecular Modeling as "Pseudoexperimental" Data for Teaching VSEPR as a Hands-On General Chemistry Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Vandehoef, Crissie; Cook, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A hands-on activity appropriate for first-semester general chemistry students is presented that combines traditional VSEPR methods of predicting molecular geometries with introductory use of molecular modeling. Students analyze a series of previously calculated output files consisting of several molecules each in various geometries. Each structure…

  12. Quantitative Analysis in the General Chemistry Laboratory: Training Students to Analyze Individual Results in the Context of Collective Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Chris D.; Bridgeman, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Titration experiments are ideal for generating large data sets for use in quantitative-analysis activities that are meaningful and transparent to general chemistry students. We report the successful implementation of a sophisticated quantitative exercise in which the students identify a series of unknown acids by determining their molar masses…

  13. Practical Work in Biology, Chemistry and Physics at Lower Secondary and General Upper Secondary Schools in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgo, Andrej; Spernjak, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Syllabi in the science subjects, biology, chemistry and physics at lower and general upper secondary school are compared in the light of their underlying philosophies, goals, objectives and recognized importance in science teaching. Even though all syllabi were prepared within the same framework, great differences among syllabi concerning…

  14. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  16. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  17. Features of Representations in General Chemistry Textbooks: A Peek through the Lens of the Cognitive Load Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…

  18. Access to Knowledge and Critical Thinking in General Chemistry via Social Constructivism: Pedagogical and Curricular Opportunities for Minority Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.; Colon-Gonzalez, Maria H.

    This research study examines the nature of socio-cognitive influences on general chemistry students' learning and success. In this study, "learning" means gaining critical thinking skills and "success" means good academic grades. From a social constructivist and postmodern perspective, learning and success are considered functions of enculturation…

  19. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  20. Estimating the One-Electron Reduction Potential for Vanadium (V) by Chemical Techniques: An Experiment for General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, R. A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment which requires only qualitative observations, is suitable for general chemistry students, prompts an understanding of thermodynamic spontaneity, gives chemical meaning to electrode potentials, requires non-electrochemical equipment, and allows estimates of the standard potential for the reduction of Vanadium (V) to V (IV).…

  1. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  2. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Reduction of Experimental Scale in High School and College General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Carole A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Notes the careful observation of chemical reactivity phenomena has been and should be an important part of the general chemistry laboratory curriculum. Stresses reduction of experimental scale will help to ensure, in times of rampant chemophobia, that it remains so. Provides several examples of the methodology. (MVL)

  4. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  5. Estimating the One-Electron Reduction Potential for Vanadium (V) by Chemical Techniques: An Experiment for General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, R. A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment which requires only qualitative observations, is suitable for general chemistry students, prompts an understanding of thermodynamic spontaneity, gives chemical meaning to electrode potentials, requires non-electrochemical equipment, and allows estimates of the standard potential for the reduction of Vanadium (V) to V (IV).…

  6. Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (K[subscript sp]) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John

    2007-01-01

    In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) in the 0-65 [degree]C temperature range. From these data the solubility products (K[subscript sp]), the Gibbs free energies of solution ([Delta][subscript…

  7. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  8. TextRev: A Window into How General and Organic Chemistry Students Use Textbook Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bradley D.; Jacobs, Dennis C.

    2003-01-01

    Points out the important use of textbooks and their ancillary resources in lower-division chemistry courses and the scientific misconceptions found in them. Introduces the TextRev Project which is a new resource for data collection and analysis. Investigates how first and second year chemistry students use and value their textbooks and their study…

  9. Incrementally Approaching an Inquiry Lab Curriculum: Can Changing a Single Laboratory Experiment Improve Student Performance in General Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2009-04-01

    Many institutions are responding to current research about how students learn science by transforming their general chemistry laboratory curricula to be inquiry-oriented. We present a comparison study of student performance after completing either a traditional or an inquiry stoichiometry experiment. This single laboratory experience was the only difference between two comparison groups enrolled in the same general chemistry course with otherwise traditional labs. Measures used to assess student performance included an open-response question, and ACS multiple-choice test items at various points in the course, as well as observations of students in the laboratory, and interviews. Statistical analysis of data used an ANOVA model, including a covariate to control for students' prior knowledge and skills. Students who completed the inquiry experiment significantly outperformed students who did the traditional experiment on stoichiometry content problems and experimental design tasks. No difference in performance between the groups was found on problems not directly related to the content of the experiment. These results provide evidence that student learning of chemistry content and skills is enhanced by a single inquiry laboratory experience, and suggest that increasing the number and variety of inquiry experiments may lead to greater improvements in performance. This study is part of a larger study examining the impact on student performance of incrementally shifting toward more inquiry experiments in the laboratory portion of general chemistry.

  10. A dry deposition parameterization for sulfur oxides in a chemistry and general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzeveld, Laurens; Lelieveld, Jos; Roelofs, Geert-Jan

    1998-03-01

    A dry deposition scheme, originally developed to calculate the deposition velocities for the trace gases O3, NO2, NO, and HNO3 in the chemistry and general circulation European Centre Hamburg Model (ECHAM), is extended to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate (SO42-). In order to reduce some of the shortcomings of the previous model version a local surface roughness and a more realistic leaf area index (LAI), derived from a high-resolution ecosystem database are introduced. The current model calculates the deposition velocities from the aerodynamic resistance, a quasi-laminary boundary layer resistance and a surface resistance of the surface cover, e.g., snow/ice, bare soil, vegetation, wetted surfaces, and ocean. The SO2 deposition velocity over vegetated surfaces is calculated as a function of the vegetation activity, the canopy wetness, turbulent transport through the canopy to the soil, and uptake by the soil. The soil resistance is explicitly calculated from the relative humidity and the soil pH, derived from a high-resolution global soil pH database. The snow/ice resistance of SO2 is a function of temperature. The SO2 deposition velocity over the oceans is controlled by turbulence. The sulfate deposition velocity is calculated considering diffusion, impaction, and sedimentation. Over sea surfaces the effect of bubble bursting, causing the breakdown of the quasi-laminary boundary layer, scavenging of the sulfate aerosol by sea spray, and aerosol growth due to high local relative humidities are considered. An integrated sulfate deposition velocity is calculated, applying a unimodal mass size distribution over land and a bimodal mass size distribution over sea. The calculated sulfate deposition velocity is about an order of magnitude larger than that based on a monodisperse aerosol, which is often applied in chemistry-transport models. Incorporation of the new dry deposition scheme in the ECHAM model yields significant relative differences (up to ˜50%) in mass flux

  11. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Heat Capacity of Metals and Demonstration of Law of Dulong and Petit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Stracuzzi, Vincent; Nirode, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Today's general chemistry students are introduced to many of the principles and concepts of thermodynamics. In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamic properties such as heat capacity are frequently discussed. Classical calorimetric methods of analysis and thermal equilibrium experiments are used to determine heat…

  12. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Heat Capacity of Metals and Demonstration of Law of Dulong and Petit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Stracuzzi, Vincent; Nirode, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Today's general chemistry students are introduced to many of the principles and concepts of thermodynamics. In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamic properties such as heat capacity are frequently discussed. Classical calorimetric methods of analysis and thermal equilibrium experiments are used to determine heat…

  13. Identifying and Dealing with Hazardous Materials and Procedures in the General Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David A.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of freshman chemistry laboratory manuals identified 15 questionable laboratory procedures, including the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. Alternatives are suggested for each hazard discussed (such as using a substitute solvent for benzene). (SK)

  14. Identifying and Dealing with Hazardous Materials and Procedures in the General Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David A.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of freshman chemistry laboratory manuals identified 15 questionable laboratory procedures, including the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. Alternatives are suggested for each hazard discussed (such as using a substitute solvent for benzene). (SK)

  15. Evaluation of a Mineral Dust Simulation in the Atmospheric-Chemistry General Circulation Model-EMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Kader, M.; Astitha, M.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the atmospheric mineral dust cycle in the Atmospheric Chemistry General Circulation Model (AC-GCM) using new developed dust emissions scheme. The dust cycle, as an integral part of the Earth System, plays an important role in the Earth's energy balance by both direct and indirect ways. As an aerosol, it significantly impacts the absorption and scattering of radiation in the atmosphere and can modify the optical properties of clouds and snow/ice surfaces. In addition, dust contributes to a range of physical, chemical and bio-geological processes that interact with the cycles of carbon and water. While our knowledge of the dust cycle, its impacts and interactions with the other global-scale bio-geochemical cycles has greatly advanced in the last decades, large uncertainties and knowledge gaps still exist. Improving the dust simulation in global models is essential to minimize the uncertainties in the model results related to dust. In this study, the results are based on the ECHAM5 Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) AC-GCM simulations using T106L31 spectral resolution (about 120km ) with 31 vertical levels. The GMXe aerosol submodel is used to simulate the phase changes of the dust particles between soluble and insoluble modes. Dust emission, transport and deposition (wet and dry) are calculated on-line along with the meteorological parameters in every model time step. The preliminary evaluation of the dust concentration and deposition are presented based on ground observations from various campaigns as well as the evaluation of the optical properties of dust using AERONET and satellite (MODIS and MISR) observations. Preliminarily results show good agreement with observations for dust deposition and optical properties. In addition, the global dust emissions, load, deposition and lifetime is in good agreement with the published results. Also, the uncertainties in the dust cycle that contribute to the overall model performance

  16. Take-Home Challenges: Extending Discovery-Based Activities beyond the General Chemistry Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P. K.; Sarquis, A. M.

    1996-04-01

    In an effort to more effectively integrate the experimental nature of chemistry into our students' experiences, we are developing and implementing discovery-based activities into both the laboratory and lecture components of general chemistry. Below we describe and provide an example of a "take-home challenge" intended to supplement the lecture component of the course. These take-home challenges involve the student in chemistry exploration outside of class and extend the context of content and experimentation into a nontraditional laboratory environment. Over 25 take-home challenges have been developed to date. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of the take-home challenges shows that students reporting themselves as receiving a B or C grade in the course find the challenges very useful in helping them gain a conceptual understanding of the phenomena addressed. Students earning an A grade report little or no impact on their learning. Prepared as one-page handouts, each take-home challenge begins with a scene-setting introduction followed by pertinent background information, a list of materials to be collected, and any appropriate safety precautions. The exploration component of the activity integrates leading questions with the procedural instructions to help guide the students through the discovery process and challenge them to stretch their understanding of the chemistry. After completing a take-home challenge activity, students submit written reports containing responses to the questions posed, observations of data collected, and their responses to the challenge. The accompanying sample take-home challenge activity is provided as a novel adaptation of the belch phenomenon that challenges students to experiment in order to explain the factors that account for the observed behavior. Persons interested in field testing the take-home challenges with their classes should contact the authors. Belch Bottle Challenge: What factors are responsible for the behavior of a

  17. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry A~é general circulation model: Comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C.; Land, C.; Grewe, V.; Köhler, I.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Steil, B.; Landgraf, J.; Brühl, C.

    2001-04-01

    The coupled climate-chemistry model ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM is presented which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks. This is the first model which interactively combines a general circulation model with a chemical model, employing most of the important reactions and species necessary to describe the stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone chemistry, and which is computationally fast enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. This is possible as the model time-step used for the chemistry can be chosen as large as the integration time-step for the dynamics. Vertically the atmosphere is discretized by 39 levels from the surface up to the top layer which is centred at 10 hPa, with a relatively high vertical resolution of approximately 700 m near the extra-tropical tropopause. We present the results of a control simulation representing recent conditions (1990) and compare it to available observations. The focus is on investigations of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM reproduces main features of stratospheric dynamics in the arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to earlier model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their inter-hemispheric differences are reproduced. Considering methane oxidation as part of the dynamic-chemistry feedback results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour concentrations. The current model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas

  18. A study comparing student satisfaction, achievement, and retention in a multimedia-based lecture and traditional lecture college general chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, John L.

    2001-07-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not a significant difference exists between general chemistry students taught by a contemporary multimedia approach and those taught by a traditional lecture approach with regard to their achievement and overall satisfaction. The study differentiated between the level of achievement and satisfaction according to age group and gender. A comparison of student retention for each methodology, multimedia-based versus traditional, was also conducted. Methodology. The research design for this study was quasi experimental. The population consisted of first semester community college general chemistry students. A questionnaire was used to measure student course satisfaction and a standardized final exam was used to measure student achievement. Findings. Results showed no significant statistical difference in achievement when students' final exam scores were compared. When age group was considered, the older students showed statistically greater achievement than the younger, regardless of instruction methodology. There were no statistical differences in achievement by gender. A statistically significant difference was found in question nine on the satisfaction survey when students were asked if their interest in the subject had increased while taking the course. Students in the multimedia-based course responded more favorably than those in the traditional course. When gender was considered no statistical differences in satisfaction were seen. Additionally, no differences in student retention were seen. Conclusions and recommendations. Results showing no differences in achievement between the two instructional methodologies may be viewed as both positive and negative. Positive because changing to a multimedia-based lecture did not adversely impact student achievement, and negative because one might expect a multimedia-based lecture, when considering the cost of implementation, to yield a more positive outcome

  19. Utilization of the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education in general chemistry by community college instructors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panther Bishoff, Jennifer

    In recent years, higher education has undergone many changes. The advent of assessment, accountability, and a newfound focus on teaching have required faculty to examine how they are teaching. Administrators and faculty are beginning to recognize that learning is not a "one size fits all" enterprise. To this end, Chickering and Gamson developed an inventory that examined faculty utilization of the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. The seven principles included by the authors included faculty-student interaction, cooperative learning, active learning, giving prompt feedback, emphasizing time on task, communicating high expectations, and respecting diverse talents and ways of learning. It was determined by Chickering and Gamson, as well as many other researchers, that these seven principles were hallmarks of successful undergraduate education. Community colleges are important institutions to study, as many students begin their higher education at two-year colleges. Most students are also required to take one or more science classes for their general education requirements; therefore, many students must take at least one general chemistry course. Both community colleges and chemistry are rarely studied in literature, which makes this study important. Community college general chemistry instructors were surveyed using an online version of Chickering and Gamson's Faculty Inventory for the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. Responses were analyzed, and it was discovered that not only did instructors utilize the principles to a different extent, but there were also differences between genders as well as between the specific actions related to each principle.

  20. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  1. New reactions of germylenes with ketones and assessment of studio general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeder, Ryan David

    New reaction modes of germylenes with ketones are presented. The germylene, Ge[CH(SiMe3)2]2 (1), will undergo reversible [4+2] addition with alkyl or aryl phenones to form a conjugated triene. Anthraquinone or 1,4-naphthylquinone will undergo a similar triene formation, but an insertion by a second molecule of 1 yields a product stable to reversion. In these cases, the second equivalent of germylene acts as a trap for the initially formed conjugated triene. A similar germylene, Ge[N(SiMe3)2]2 ( 2), reacts in analogous fashion with anthraquinone or 1,4-naphthylquinone indicating that it too engages in an equilibrium with phenones. The equilibrium for 2 with phenones lies heavily toward free 2 and phenone as no triene is detected via UV/Vis or NMR spectroscopies. Successful catalytic hydrogenation of the conjugate triene formed from the reaction of 1 with benzophenone is also presented. Other non-phenone ketones react with 1 via either CH or OH insertion. Three acetyl-containing ketones (acetone, butanone and cyclopropyl methyl ketone) have been observed to undergo CH insertion with 1 in the presence of one equivalent of MgCl2. The absence of MgCl 2 yields apparent OH insertion into the enol tautomer of the ketone. All secondary ketones examined undergo OH insertion even in the presence of MgCl2. The development, assessment and a description of a studio version of general chemistry are presented. This new course was implemented in the Fall 2002 semester at the University of Michigan. Content-based interviews focusing on equilibrium indicated that the students from the studio course had a better understanding of the underlying principles of equilibrium than their non-studio counterparts. The students enrolled in the studio course also gave more non-prompted explanations for a chemical reaction demonstrated during the interview, suggesting that they were more capable of transferring their chemical knowledge to new systems. The Motivated Strategies for Learning

  2. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  3. Investigating Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic Connections in a College-Level General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadison, Felicia Culver

    2011-01-01

    Explanations of chemical phenomena rely on understanding the behavior of submicroscopic particles. Because this level is "invisible," it is described using symbols such as models, diagrams and equations. For this reason, students often view chemistry as a "difficult" subject. The laboratory offers a unique opportunity for the students to…

  4. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  5. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a freshman laboratory program designed to interface between the substances that surround students in their ordinary lives and abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms. Course organization is based on the nature of the materials themselves, which include household chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, food and beverages, pills…

  6. Investigating Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic Connections in a College-Level General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadison, Felicia Culver

    2011-01-01

    Explanations of chemical phenomena rely on understanding the behavior of submicroscopic particles. Because this level is "invisible," it is described using symbols such as models, diagrams and equations. For this reason, students often view chemistry as a "difficult" subject. The laboratory offers a unique opportunity for the students to…

  7. The Use of Video Demonstrations and Particulate Animation in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Marcano, Alexandra; Williamson, Vickie M.; Ashkenazi, Guy; Tasker, Roy; Williamson, Kenneth C.

    2004-01-01

    Different visualization techniques have been used for teaching chemistry concepts. Previous studies have shown that when molecular animations and video demonstrations are used, students seem to better correlate all three levels of representation: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. This thinking process allows the students to improve their…

  8. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a freshman laboratory program designed to interface between the substances that surround students in their ordinary lives and abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms. Course organization is based on the nature of the materials themselves, which include household chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, food and beverages, pills…

  9. Coordinated Implementation and Evaluation of Flipped Classes and Peer-Led Team Learning in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott E.; Oueini, Razanne; Mapugay, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The research-based pedagogical strategy of flipped classes has been shown to be effective for increasing student achievement and retention in postsecondary chemistry classes. The purpose of flipped classes is to move content delivery (e.g., lecture) outside of the classroom, freeing more face-to-face time for active learning strategies. The…

  10. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Flipped Format General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Gabriela C.; SturtevantHannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that active problem-solving in a collaborative environment supports more effective learning than the traditional lecture approach. In this study, a flipped classroom format was implemented and evaluated in the chemistry majors' sequence at Purdue University over a period of three years. What was formerly lecture…

  11. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to…

  12. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  13. Online Grading of Calculations in General Chemistry Laboratory Write-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Alexsandra; Gonzales, Robert; Brennan, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    In the past, there were frequently complaints about the grading of laboratory reports in our laboratory chemistry courses. This article discussed the implementation of an online submission of laboratory acquired data using LON-CAPA (The Learning Online Network with Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach), which is an open source management and…

  14. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to…

  15. Evaluating the Success of Hispanic-Surname Students in First-Semester General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Diana; Mittag, Kathleen C.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the reasons for low academic achievement in chemistry among Hispanics students at the college level. Focuses on gender and ethnicity and uses a 6-question instrument specifically designed to identify the reasons for lack of success. Includes 33 references. (YDS)

  16. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  17. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  18. Evaluating Peer-Led Team Learning across the Two Semester General Chemistry Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Yancey D.; Ippolito, Jessica; Lewis, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) is a widely disseminated pedagogical reform that employs previously successful undergraduate students, peer leaders, to lead sessions of structured group work in the target class. Numerous studies have evaluated the impact of this reform in various post-secondary chemistry classes. Results from these studies suggest…

  19. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  20. The Use of Video Demonstrations and Particulate Animation in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Marcano, Alexandra; Williamson, Vickie M.; Ashkenazi, Guy; Tasker, Roy; Williamson, Kenneth C.

    2004-01-01

    Different visualization techniques have been used for teaching chemistry concepts. Previous studies have shown that when molecular animations and video demonstrations are used, students seem to better correlate all three levels of representation: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. This thinking process allows the students to improve their…

  1. Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…

  2. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Flipped Format General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Gabriela C.; SturtevantHannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that active problem-solving in a collaborative environment supports more effective learning than the traditional lecture approach. In this study, a flipped classroom format was implemented and evaluated in the chemistry majors' sequence at Purdue University over a period of three years. What was formerly lecture…

  3. Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…

  4. Online Grading of Calculations in General Chemistry Laboratory Write-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Alexsandra; Gonzales, Robert; Brennan, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    In the past, there were frequently complaints about the grading of laboratory reports in our laboratory chemistry courses. This article discussed the implementation of an online submission of laboratory acquired data using LON-CAPA (The Learning Online Network with Computer-Assisted Personalized Approach), which is an open source management and…

  5. The testing effect in general chemistry: Effects of repeated testing on student performance across different test modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisacari, Anna Agripina

    Research on the testing effect shows that practice tests are more effective than additional studying for enhancing learning. However, there has been little research directly addressing the role of additional testing when students take paper-based or computer-based tests in college courses. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the testing effect and test mode on student performance. The participants were 664 general chemistry students from two large universities in the Midwest and the Pacific Northwest. After covering the test material in their course, students completed two proctored practice tests that included 17 algorithmic question pairs, 5 conceptual pairs, and 2 definition pairs. Each practice test was delivered on computer or paper according to one of four conditions that were defined by the mode of the initial test and the mode of the final test. These conditions were: Computer-Computer, Computer-Paper, Paper-Computer, and Paper-Paper. After completing the initial practice test, students repeated half of the items. Feedback was provided after each test and performance was measured with normalized gains. After completing all of the tests, students were asked to indicate and explain their test mode preferences for general chemistry tests. Four major conclusions resulted from the study. First, the testing effect was found in all conditions, but varied in terms of the test mode. Paper-Computer showed the lowest gains and these gains were significantly lower than those for Paper-Paper. Gains from Computer-Paper and Paper-Paper were not significantly different from each other. Second, the test mode did not affect the students' performance on algorithmic questions, but affected their performance on conceptual and definition questions. Third, the gains from repeated items were significantly higher than the gains from non-repeated items. However, this testing effect was not consistent across all areas of chemistry content. Fourth, a

  6. Thermal expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junying; Shen, Xiangying; Jiang, Chaoran; Wu, Zuhui; Huang, Jiping

    2017-08-01

    One type of thermal device, named as thermal expander, is proposed and verified through both simulation and experiment. The thermal expander performs an efficient way to expand a heat flow of line-shape front. Moreover, the thermal expander shows an advantage in rectifying a heat flow from crooked front to line-shape front, which indicates that the thermal expander could act as an efficient point-to-line heat source convertor. We suggest that the thermal expander would be of help to energy saving and emission reduction, especially in thermal circuits and thermal management.

  7. Piloting Blended Strategies to Resolve Laboratory Capacity Issues in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchett, Shayna; Hayes, Jack; Pfaff, Annalise; Satterfield, Emmalou T.; Skyles, Amy; Woelk, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory capacity is an issue that has plagued education for more than a century. New buildings, late night classes, and virtual laboratories have offered transitory relief at great expense. Missouri University of Science and Technology is employing blended strategies to increase capacity and student success. Blended strategies expand learning…

  8. Piloting Blended Strategies to Resolve Laboratory Capacity Issues in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchett, Shayna; Hayes, Jack; Pfaff, Annalise; Satterfield, Emmalou T.; Skyles, Amy; Woelk, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory capacity is an issue that has plagued education for more than a century. New buildings, late night classes, and virtual laboratories have offered transitory relief at great expense. Missouri University of Science and Technology is employing blended strategies to increase capacity and student success. Blended strategies expand learning…

  9. Exploring General Versus Task-Specific Assessments of Metacognition in University Chemistry Students: A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multiple assessments to investigate the general versus task-specific characteristics of metacognition in dissimilar chemistry topics. This mixed-method approach investigated the nature of undergraduate general chemistry students' metacognition using four assessments: a self-report questionnaire, assessment of concurrent metacognitive skills, confidence judgment, and calibration accuracy. Data were analyzed using a multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix, supplemented with regression analyses, and qualitative interpretation. Significant correlations among task performance, calibration accuracy, and concurrent metacognition within a task suggest a converging relationship. Confidence judgment, however, was not associated with task performance or the other metacognitive measurements. The results partially support hypotheses of both general and task-specific metacognition. However, general and task-specific properties of metacognition were detected using different assessments. Case studies were constructed for two participants to illustrate how concurrent metacognition varied within different task demands. Considerations of how each assessment may appropriate different metacognitive constructs and the importance of the alignment of analytical constructs when using multiple assessments are discussed. These results may help lead to improvements in metacognition assessment and may provide insights into designs of effective metacognitive instruction.

  10. The impact of general chemistry course structure on students' exam performance, attitudes and problem solving strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruthers, Heather Anne

    Analysis of the effect of course structure, including motivational tools, laboratory and how problem solving was presented in lecture on students' exam performance, attitudes toward the subject of chemistry, and problem solving strategy use. Exam performance indicates that the use of ressurection points on the final exam benefits students' learning, especially for the Middle Bottom quartile of students. Laboratory improves students' understanding when the exams correspond to laboratory content. Attitude differences, as measured by the Attitude toward the subject of chemistry inventory version 2, show some differences and the influence of the level of expertise in graduate student teaching assistants. The use of dimensional analysis to solve stoichiometry problems in lecture leads students to use that process to solve novel tasks in a similiar way, even if it is not efficient or effective. The students' familiarity with the content, as well as the problem solving process, influence how they solve tasks.

  11. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General.

    PubMed

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2010-11-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests.

  12. State of the art in trueness and interlaboratory harmonization for 10 analytes in general clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Miller, W Greg; Myers, Gary L; Ashwood, Edward R; Killeen, Anthony A; Wang, Edward; Ehlers, Glenn W; Hassemer, David; Lo, Stanley F; Seccombe, David; Siekmann, Lothar; Thienpont, Linda M; Toth, Alan

    2008-05-01

    Harmonization and standardization of results among different clinical laboratories is necessary for clinical practice guidelines to be established. To evaluate the state of the art in measuring 10 routine chemistry analytes. A specimen prepared as off-the-clot pooled sera and 4 conventionally prepared specimens were sent to participants in the College of American Pathologists Chemistry Survey. Analyte concentrations were assigned by reference measurement procedures. Approximately 6000 clinical laboratories. For glucose, iron, potassium, and uric acid, more than 87.5% of peer groups meet the desirable bias goals based on biologic variability criteria. The remaining 6 analytes had less than 52% of peer groups that met the desirable bias criteria. Routine measurement procedures for some analytes had acceptable traceability to reference systems. Conventionally prepared proficiency testing specimens were not adequately commutable with a fresh frozen specimen to be used to evaluate trueness of methods compared with a reference measurement procedure.

  13. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions, is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in small student groups without peer leader intervention. The findings of this study revealed that students were mostly engaged in co-constructed arguments, that a discrepancy in the participation of the group members existed, and students were able to correct most of the incorrect claims on their own via argumentation. The second study, Exploration of peer leader verbal behaviors as they intervene with small groups in college general chemistry, examines the interactive discourse of the peer leaders and the students during peer leader intervention. The relationship between the verbal behaviors of the peer leaders and the student argumentation is explored in this study. The findings of this study demonstrated that peer leaders used an array of verbal behaviors to guide students to construct chemistry concepts, and that a relationship existed between student argument components and peer leader verbal behaviors. The third study, Use of Tolumin's Argumentation Scheme for student discourse to gain insight about guided inquiry activities in college chemistry , is focused on investigating the relationship between student arguments without peer leader intervention and the structure of published guided inquiry ChemActivities. The relationship between argumentation and the structure of the activities is explored with respect to prompts, questions, and the segmented Learning Cycle structure of the ChemActivities. Findings of this study revealed that prompts were effective in eliciting arguments, that convergent questions produced more arguments than directed questions, and that the structure of the Learning Cycle successfully scaffolded arguments. A

  14. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  15. Dry deposition parameterization in a chemistry general circulation model and its influence on the distribution of reactive trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzeveld, Laurens; Lelieveld, Jos

    1995-10-01

    A dry deposition scheme has been developed for the chemistry general circulation model to improve the description of the removal of chemically reactive trace gases at the earth's surface. The chemistry scheme simulates background CH4-CO-NOx- HOx photochemistry and calculates concentrations of, for example, HNO3, NOx, and O3. A resistance analog is used to parameterize the dry deposition velocity for these gases. The aerodynamic resistance is calculated from the model boundary layer stability, wind speed, and surface roughness, and a quasi-laminar boundary layer resistance is incorporated. The stomatal resistance is explicitly calculated and combined with representative cuticle and mesophyll resistances for each trace gas. The new scheme contributes to internal consistency in the model, in particular with respect to diurnal and seasonal cycles in both the chemistry and the planetary boundary layer processes and surface characteristics that control dry deposition. Evaluation of the model indicates satisfactory agreement between calculated and observed deposition velocities. Comparison of the results with model simulations in which the deposition velocity was kept constant indicates significant relative differences in deposition fluxes and surface layer trace gas concentrations up to about ±35%. Shortcomings are discussed, for example, violation of the constant flux approach for the surface layer, the lacking canopy description, and effects of surface water layers.

  16. A study of two measures of spatial ability as predictors of success in different levels of general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Carolyn S.; Larussa, Mary A.; Bodner, George M.

    Preliminary data (Bodner and McMillen, 1986) suggested a correlation between spatial ability and performance in a general chemistry course for science and engineering majors. This correlation was seen not only on highly spatial tasks such as predicting the structures of ionic solids (r = 0.29), but also on tasks such as multiple-choice stoichiometry questions (r = 0.32) that might not be expected to involve spatial skills. To further investigate the relationship between spatial ability and performance in introductory chemistry courses, two spatial tests were given to 1648 students in a course for science and engineering majors (Carter, 1984) and 850 students in a course for students from nursing and agriculture (La-Russa, 1985) at Purdue. Scores on the spatial tests consistently contributed a small but significant amount to success on measures of performance in chemistry. Correlations were largest, however, for subscores that grouped questions that tested problem solving skills rather than rote memory or the application of simple algorithms, and correlations were also large for verbally complex questions thaty required the students to disembed and restructure relevant information.

  17. Nanocrystal conversion chemistry: A unified and materials-general strategy for the template-based synthesis of nanocrystalline solids

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Henkes, Amanda E.; Chris Bauer, J.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2008-07-15

    The concept of nanocrystal conversion chemistry, which involves the use of pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, has emerged as a powerful approach for designing the synthesis of complex nanocrystalline solids. The general strategy exploits established synthetic capabilities in simple nanocrystal systems and uses these nanocrystals as templates that help to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals. This article highlights key examples of 'conversion chemistry' approaches to the synthesis of nanocrystalline solids using a variety of techniques, including galvanic replacement, diffusion, oxidation, and ion exchange. The discussion is organized according to classes of solids, highlighting the diverse target systems that are accessible using similar chemical concepts: metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallic compounds, sulfides, and nitrides. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystal conversion chemistry uses pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, helping to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals that have more complex features than their precursor templates. This article highlights the application of this concept to diverse classes of solids, including metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallics, sulfides, and nitrides.

  18. Efficient tree tensor network states (TTNS) for quantum chemistry: generalizations of the density matrix renormalization group algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Naoki; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2013-04-07

    We investigate tree tensor network states for quantum chemistry. Tree tensor network states represent one of the simplest generalizations of matrix product states and the density matrix renormalization group. While matrix product states encode a one-dimensional entanglement structure, tree tensor network states encode a tree entanglement structure, allowing for a more flexible description of general molecules. We describe an optimal tree tensor network state algorithm for quantum chemistry. We introduce the concept of half-renormalization which greatly improves the efficiency of the calculations. Using our efficient formulation we demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of tree tensor network states versus matrix product states. We carry out benchmark calculations both on tree systems (hydrogen trees and π-conjugated dendrimers) as well as non-tree molecules (hydrogen chains, nitrogen dimer, and chromium dimer). In general, tree tensor network states require much fewer renormalized states to achieve the same accuracy as matrix product states. In non-tree molecules, whether this translates into a computational savings is system dependent, due to the higher prefactor and computational scaling associated with tree algorithms. In tree like molecules, tree network states are easily superior to matrix product states. As an illustration, our largest dendrimer calculation with tree tensor network states correlates 110 electrons in 110 active orbitals.

  19. The effect of participation in an extended inquiry project on general chemistry student laboratory interactions, confidence, and process skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krystyniak, Rebecca A.

    2001-12-01

    This study explored the effect of participation by second-semester general chemistry students in an extended open-inquiry laboratory investigation on their use of science process skills and confidence in performing specific aspects of laboratory investigations. In addition, verbal interactions of a student lab team among team members and with their instructor over three open-inquiry laboratory sessions and two non-inquiry sessions were investigated. Instruments included the Test of Integrated Skills (TIPS), a 36-item multiple-choice instrument, and the Chemistry Laboratory Survey (CLS), a researcher co-designed 20-item 8-point instrument. Instruments were administered at the beginning and close of the semester to 157 second-semester general chemistry students at the two universities; students at only one university participated in open-inquiry activity. A MANCOVA was performed to investigate relationships among control and experimental students, TIPS, and CLS post-test scores. Covariates were TIPS and CLS pre-test scores and prior high school and college science experience. No significant relationships were found. Wilcoxen analyses indicated both groups showed increase in confidence; experimental-group students with below-average TIPS pre-test scores showed a significant increase in science process skills. Transcribed audio tapes of all laboratory-based verbal interactions were analyzed. Coding categories, developed using the constant comparison method, led to an inter-rater reliability of .96. During open-inquiry activities, the lab team interacted less often, sought less guidance from their instructor, and talked less about chemistry concepts than during non-inquiry activities. Evidence confirmed that students used science process skills and engaged in higher-order thinking during both types of activities. A four-student focus shared their experiences with open-inquiry activities, indicating that they enjoyed the experience, viewed it as worthwhile, and believed

  20. Children's Health Insurance: Inspector General Reviews Should Be Expanded To Further Inform the Congress. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kathryn G.

    This report reviews work by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (OIG), which evaluated the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), including whether children are being enrolled inappropriately in SCHIP rather than in Medicaid, and states' progress in reducing the number of uninsured children. This…

  1. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General

    PubMed Central

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests. PMID:24465151

  2. The Abbott Architect c8000: analytical performance and productivity characteristics of a new analyzer applied to general chemistry testing.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Daniela; Seyfarth, Michael; Dibbelt, Leif

    2005-01-01

    Applying basic potentiometric and photometric assays, we evaluated the fully automated random access chemistry analyzer Architect c8000, a new member of the Abbott Architect system family, with respect to both its analytical and operational performance and compared it to an established high-throughput chemistry platform, the Abbott Aeroset. Our results demonstrate that intra- and inter-assay imprecision, inaccuracy, lower limit of detection and linear range of the c8000 generally meet actual requirements of laboratory diagnosis; there were only rare exceptions, e.g. assays for plasma lipase or urine uric acid which apparently need to be improved by additional rinsing of reagent pipettors. Even with plasma exhibiting CK activities as high as 40.000 U/l, sample carryover by the c8000 could not be detected. Comparison of methods run on the c8000 and the Aeroset revealed correlation coefficients of 0.98-1.00; if identical chemistries were applied on both analyzers, slopes of regression lines approached unity. With typical laboratory workloads including 10-20% STAT samples and up to 10% samples with high analyte concentrations demanding dilutional reruns, steady-state throughput numbers of 700 to 800 tests per hour were obtained with the c8000. The system generally responded to STAT orders within 2 minutes yielding analytical STAT order completion times of 5 to 15 minutes depending on the type and number of assays requested per sample. Due to its extended test and sample processing capabilities and highly comfortable software, the c8000 may meet the varying needs of clinical laboratories rather well.

  3. A Study of Concept Mapping as an Instructional Intervention in an Undergraduate General Chemistry Calorimetry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Mary W.

    This investigation, rooted in both chemistry and education, considers outcomes occurring in a small-scale study in which concept mapping was used as an instructional intervention in an undergraduate calorimetry laboratory. A quasi-experimental, multiple-methods approach was employed since the research questions posed in this study warranted the use of both qualitative and quantitative perspectives and evaluations. For the intervention group of students, a convenience sample, post-lab concept maps, written discussions, quiz responses and learning surveys were characterized and evaluated. Archived quiz responses for non-intervention students were also analyzed for comparison. Students uniquely constructed individual concept maps containing incorrect, conceptually correct and "scientifically thin" calorimetry characterizations. Students more greatly emphasized mathematical relationships and equations utilized during the calorimetry experiment; the meaning of calorimetry concepts was demonstrated to a lesser extent.

  4. Color Changes in Indicator Solutions. An Intriguing and Elucidative General Chemistry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, César R.; Pereira, Renato B.; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2001-07-01

    The simple dilution of an aqueous solution of the indicator (In) bromocresol green is proposed as an intriguing experiment for students of chemistry. As the solution is diluted with water, its color changes strikingly from reddish to pale blue. These changes are related to changes in the absorption bands in the visible electronic spectra. The pKIn can be determined through the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation by plotting the pH values as a function of log([In-]/[HIn]). The concentration, in mol L-1, of the HIn species can be determined by measuring the absorbance at 440 nm and using the e value determined from the Beer's law plot. [In-] is calculated from the difference between the initial HIn concentration and the observed [HIn]. Students will be able to conclude that the dissociated fraction of a weak acid increases with dilution.

    See Letter re: this article.

  5. Promoting the Relevance & Value of Chemistry: the General Chemistry Program of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. Report 06-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redig, K. A.; And Others

    Many students face chemistry courses with a sense of fear and foreboding because it is a required course. Yet at the same time, fundamentals of chemistry have become intertwined in countless professions to say nothing of its growing importance in our everyday lives. Educators must bridge this dichotomy between attitude and importance. This paper…

  6. The role of self-regulated learning in explaining examination performance of college students in first-semester general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, Scott

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of students with two outcome variables (i.e., American Chemical Society Comprehensive First-Term General Chemistry Examination (Form 2009) and hour-examination averages). The SRL construct consists of three interrelated components (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational). SRL theory focuses on the idea of reciprocal determinism, in which the impact of one component of self-regulation affects the other two components. In the quantitative portion of this mixed methods study, eight measures of SRL were used to determine the `level' of self-regulation for each student. SRL variables were used in regression analysis and provided additional and unique variances. Cluster analysis techniques identified two distinct groups of students (i.e., adaptive and maladaptive). Generally, adaptive learners were associated with higher levels of SRL and success in the course; maladaptive learners had lower levels of SRL and struggled with the course demands. For the qualitative portion of the study, student volunteers (n = 8) were interviewed to gauge their views on the role of instruction in influencing their examination performances. The findings indicated that perceptions of teaching methods, demands of the course, course structure, feedback, and assessments were associated with the students' levels of self-regulation. Interviews revealed four SRL styles. Rote memorizers tended to fragment instruction and then memorize each fragment, while algorithmic memorizers tended to imitate the step-by-step problem-solving strategies of the instructor or the textbook. Globalizers were intrinsically motivated to learn the material but tended to

  7. A structural and functional homolog supports a general role for frataxin in cellular iron chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenbin; Cowan, J A

    2010-02-07

    Bacillus subtilis YdhG lacks sequence homology, but demonstrates structural and functional similarity to the frataxin family, supporting a general cellular role for frataxin-type proteins in cellular iron homeostasis.

  8. Quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP) using mass spectrometry: general characteristics and application.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Sylvain; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Hochstrasser, Denis; Brede, Cato; Glueckmann, Matthias; Cocho, José A; Ceglarek, Uta; Lenz, Christof; Vialaret, Jérôme; Scherl, Alexander; Hirtz, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Proteomics studies typically aim to exhaustively detect peptides/proteins in a given biological sample. Over the past decade, the number of publications using proteomics methodologies has exploded. This was made possible due to the availability of high-quality genomic data and many technological advances in the fields of microfluidics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics in biomedical research was initially used in 'functional' studies for the identification of proteins involved in pathophysiological processes, complexes and networks. Improved sensitivity of instrumentation facilitated the analysis of even more complex sample types, including human biological fluids. It is at that point the field of clinical proteomics was born, and its fundamental aim was the discovery and (ideally) validation of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic monitoring of disease. Eventually, it was recognized that the technologies used in clinical proteomics studies [particularly liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] could represent an alternative to classical immunochemical assays. Prior to deploying MS in the measurement of peptides/proteins in the clinical laboratory, it seems likely that traditional proteomics workflows and data management systems will need to adapt to the clinical environment and meet in vitro diagnostic (IVD) regulatory constraints. This defines a new field, as reviewed in this article, that we have termed quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP).

  9. Investigating the effectiveness of implementing the Science Writing Heuristic on student performance in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poock, Jason Ray

    This research investigated the effectiveness at how the Science Writing Heuristic in the freshman chemistry laboratory for science and engineering majors at Iowa State University during the fall and spring semesters of the 2002--2003 academic year, was implemented. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) consists of two components, writing to learn strategies and conducting the laboratory session in a student-centered, guided-inquiry fashion. The writing component replaced the standard laboratory report with a series of questions that guided the students' critical thinking along the lines of scientific investigation. The writing process helped students construct knowledge. Also critical to the successful implementation of the SWH was conducting the laboratory experiments in a student-centered, guided-inquiry fashion. Through the SWH the students became engaged in meaningful scientific dialogue that promoted knowledge construction. For the SWH to be properly implemented, a classroom dynamic between the teacher and the students should be established. The teacher provides the framework within which the laboratory experiment is conducted and the students respond to that guidance by becoming engaged in the learning process. Results of the study showed that student scores improved when the teacher properly implemented the SWH, when the students responded positively to the implementation of the SWH, and when there was a proper classroom dynamic created between the teacher and the students. This study revealed that successful implementation of the SWH was beneficial to females and low ability students. This research also demonstrated a connection between the implementation of a learning strategy in the laboratory component of a course and the subsequent benefit in student performance in the lecture component of the course.

  10. Textbook Treatments of Electrostatic Potential Maps in General and Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinze, Scott R.; Williamson, Vickie M.; Deslongchamps, Ghislain; Shultz, Mary Jane; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Rapp, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic potential maps (EPMs) allow for representation of key molecular-level information in a relatively simple and inexpensive format. As these visualizations become more prevalent in instruction, it is important to determine how students are exposed to them and supported in their use. A systematic review of current general and organic…

  11. Choice of Study Resources in General Chemistry by Students Who Have Little Time to Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, Diane M.; Komperda, Regis; Dillner, Debra K.; Lin, Shirley; Schroeder, Maria J.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

    2017-01-01

    Students with an insufficient amount of time to study are becoming more prevalent in the general college population as many who enroll in college have competing responsibilities (full-time jobs, childcare, etc.). Such students are likely to choose study resources that they consider to be both effective and efficient. Students at the U.S. Naval…

  12. Textbook Treatments of Electrostatic Potential Maps in General and Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinze, Scott R.; Williamson, Vickie M.; Deslongchamps, Ghislain; Shultz, Mary Jane; Williamson, Kenneth C.; Rapp, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic potential maps (EPMs) allow for representation of key molecular-level information in a relatively simple and inexpensive format. As these visualizations become more prevalent in instruction, it is important to determine how students are exposed to them and supported in their use. A systematic review of current general and organic…

  13. Choice of Study Resources in General Chemistry by Students Who Have Little Time to Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, Diane M.; Komperda, Regis; Dillner, Debra K.; Lin, Shirley; Schroeder, Maria J.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

    2017-01-01

    Students with an insufficient amount of time to study are becoming more prevalent in the general college population as many who enroll in college have competing responsibilities (full-time jobs, childcare, etc.). Such students are likely to choose study resources that they consider to be both effective and efficient. Students at the U.S. Naval…

  14. Picture this: The value of multiple visual representations for student learning of quantum concepts in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Emily Christine

    Mental models for scientific learning are often defined as, "cognitive tools situated between experiments and theories" (Duschl & Grandy, 2012). In learning, these cognitive tools are used to not only take in new information, but to help problem solve in new contexts. Nancy Nersessian (2008) describes a mental model as being "[loosely] characterized as a representation of a system with interactive parts with representations of those interactions. Models can be qualitative, quantitative, and/or simulative (mental, physical, computational)" (p. 63). If conceptual parts used by the students in science education are inaccurate, then the resulting model will not be useful. Students in college general chemistry courses are presented with multiple abstract topics and often struggle to fit these parts into complete models. This is especially true for topics that are founded on quantum concepts, such as atomic structure and molecular bonding taught in college general chemistry. The objectives of this study were focused on how students use visual tools introduced during instruction to reason with atomic and molecular structure, what misconceptions may be associated with these visual tools, and how visual modeling skills may be taught to support students' use of visual tools for reasoning. The research questions for this study follow from Gilbert's (2008) theory that experts use multiple representations when reasoning and modeling a system, and Kozma and Russell's (2005) theory of representational competence levels. This study finds that as students developed greater command of their understanding of abstract quantum concepts, they spontaneously provided additional representations to describe their more sophisticated models of atomic and molecular structure during interviews. This suggests that when visual modeling with multiple representations is taught, along with the limitations of the representations, it can assist students in the development of models for reasoning about

  15. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Tost, H.; Pozzer, A.; Brühl, C.; Buchholz, J.; Ganzeveld, L.; Hoor, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; Sander, R.; Steil, B.; Stiller, G.; Tanarhte, M.; Taraborrelli, D.; van Aardenne, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-11-01

    The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model setup up to 0.01 hPa was used at spectral T42 resolution to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. With the high vertical resolution the model simulates the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. In the simulations presented here a Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998-2005. This allows an efficient and direct evaluation with satellite and in-situ data. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated well, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of inter-annual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy submodels and the

  16. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Tost, H.; Pozzer, A.; Brühl, C.; Buchholz, J.; Ganzeveld, L.; Hoor, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; Sander, R.; Steil, B.; Stiller, G.; Tanarhte, M.; Taraborrelli, D.; van Aardenne, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-07-01

    The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model version up to 0.01 hPa was used at T42 resolution (~2.8 latitude and longitude) to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. A Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998-2005. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated accurately, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of interannual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy submodels and the ECHAM5/MESSy1 model output are available through the internet on request.

  17. Effectiveness of Podcasts Delivered on Mobile Devices as a Support for Student Learning During General Chemistry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Mason, Diana S.

    2013-04-01

    Chemistry instructors in teaching laboratories provide expert modeling of techniques and cognitive processes and provide assistance to enrolled students that may be described as scaffolding interaction. Such student support is particularly essential in laboratories taught with an inquiry-based curriculum. In a teaching laboratory with a high instructor-to-student ratio, mobile devices can provide a platform for expert modeling and scaffolding during the laboratory sessions. This research study provides data collected on the effectiveness of podcasts delivered as needed in a first-semester general chemistry laboratory setting. Podcasts with audio and visual tracks covering essential laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones® or iPod touches®. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast usage, the numbers and types of interactions between instructors and student laboratory teams, and student performance on graded assignments. Data analysis indicates that on average the podcast treatment laboratory teams accessed a podcast 2.86 times during the laboratory period during each week that podcasts were available. Comparison of interaction data for the lecture treatment laboratory teams and podcast treatment laboratory teams reveals that scaffolding interactions with instructors were statistically significantly fewer for teams that had podcast access rather than a pre-laboratory lecture. The implication of the results is that student laboratory teams were able to gather laboratory information more effectively when it was presented in an on-demand podcast format than in a pre-laboratory lecture format. Finally, statistical analysis of data on student performance on graded assignments indicates no significant differences between outcome measures for the treatment groups when compared as cohorts. The only statistically

  18. The Role of Chemistry Museums in Chemical Education for Students and the General Public. A Case Study from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenici, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the educational role of museums of chemistry in presenting chemistry to the public in Italy, particularly to students. The activities carried out by Italian museums and scientific collections completely dedicated to chemistry have been analyzed, focusing on the relationship between these institutions and students with…

  19. Lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA): a novel and general methodology for medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Munson, Mark; Lieberman, Harvey; Tserlin, Elina; Rocnik, Jennifer; Ge, Jie; Fitzgerald, Maria; Patel, Vinod; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel and general method, lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA), to benchmark two distinct small-molecule lead series using a relatively unbiased, simple technique and commercially available software. We illustrate this approach with data collected during lead optimization of two independent oncology programs as a case study. Easily generated graphics and attrition curves enabled us to calibrate progress and support go/no go decisions on each program. We believe that this data-driven technique could be used broadly by medicinal chemists and management to guide strategic decisions during drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanding Mg-Zn hybrid chemistry: inorganic salt effects in addition reactions of organozinc reagents to trifluoroacetophenone and the implications for a synergistic lithium-magnesium-zinc activation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David R; Clegg, William; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Kennedy, Alan R; McCall, Matthew D; Russo, Luca; Hevia, Eva

    2011-07-18

    Numerous organic transformations rely on organozinc compounds made through salt-metathesis (exchange) reactions from organolithium or Grignard reagents with a suitable zinc precursor. By combining X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations, this study sheds new light on the constitution of the organometallic species involved in this important synthetic tool. Investigations into the metathesis reactions of equimolar amounts of Grignard reagents (RMgX) and ZnCl(2) in THF led to the isolation of novel magnesium-zinc hybrids, [{(thf)(2)Mg(μ-Cl)(3)ZnR}(2)] (R=Et, tBu, nBu or o-OMe-C(6)H(4)), which exhibit an unprecedented structural motif in mixed magnesium-zinc chemistry. Furthermore, theoretical modelling of the reaction of EtMgCl with ZnCl(2) reveals that formation of the mixed-metal compound is thermodynamically preferred to that of the expected homometallic products, RZnCl and MgCl(2). This study also assesses the alkylating ability of hybrid 3 towards the sensitive ketone trifluoroacetophenone, revealing a dramatic increase in the chemoselectivity of the reaction when LiCl is introduced as an additive. This observation, combined with recent related breakthroughs in synthesis, points towards the existence of a trilateral Li/Mg/Zn synergistic effect.