Science.gov

Sample records for general conditions reduccion

  1. Generalized sine condition.

    PubMed

    Elazhary, Tamer T; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Chunyu; Burge, James H

    2015-06-01

    The classic Abbe sine condition relates pupil distortion to aberrations with linear field dependence such as coma. This paper provides a fully generalized form of the sine condition that does not use any symmetry. It accurately predicts the change in aberration in the presence of field independent and pupil aberrations. The definitions of the image, object, and coordinate system are completely arbitrary. The relationship is verified using ray trace simulations of a number of systems that have varying degrees of complexity. The potential applications are discussed.

  2. Conditioned Fear Acquisition and Generalization in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Blasco, María Jesús; Farré, Magí; Torrubia, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal fear conditioning processes (including fear acquisition and conditioned fear-generalization) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Previous research has shown that individuals with panic disorder present enhanced conditioned fear-generalization in comparison to healthy controls. Enhanced conditioned fear-generalization could also characterize generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but research so far is inconclusive. An important confounding factor in previous research is comorbidity. The present study examined conditioned fear-acquisition and fear-generalization in 28 patients with GAD and 30 healthy controls using a recently developed fear acquisition and generalization paradigm assessing fear-potentiated startle and online expectancies of the unconditioned stimulus. Analyses focused on GAD patients without comorbidity but included also patients with comorbid anxiety disorders. Patients and controls did not differ as regards fear acquisition. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups did not differ either in most indexes of conditioned fear-generalization. Moreover, dimensional measures of GAD symptoms were not correlated with conditioned fear-generalization indexes. Comorbidity did not have a significant impact on the results. Our data suggest that conditioned fear-generalization is not enhanced in GAD. Results are discussed with special attention to the possible effects of comorbidity on fear learning abnormalities.

  3. 18 CFR 415.50 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General conditions. 415.50 Section 415.50 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Enforcement § 415.50 General conditions. On and...

  4. 18 CFR 415.50 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General conditions. 415.50 Section 415.50 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Enforcement § 415.50 General conditions. On and...

  5. 18 CFR 415.50 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General conditions. 415.50 Section 415.50 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Enforcement § 415.50 General conditions. On and...

  6. 18 CFR 415.50 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General conditions. 415.50 Section 415.50 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Enforcement § 415.50 General conditions. On and...

  7. 18 CFR 415.50 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true General conditions. 415.50 Section 415.50 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Enforcement § 415.50 General conditions. On and...

  8. Panel Conditioning in the General Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew; Warren, John Robert; Torche, Florencia

    2017-01-01

    Does participation in one wave of a survey have an effect on respondents' answers to questions in subsequent waves? In this article, we investigate the presence and magnitude of "panel conditioning" effects in one of the most frequently used data sets in the social sciences: the General Social Survey (GSS). Using longitudinal records…

  9. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Recovery within the OECD § 262.82 General conditions. (a) Scope. The level of control for exports and...). (3) Any transit of waste through a non-OECD member country must be conducted in compliance with all... is received from all relevant OECD importing and transit countries. (2) Re-export of waste subject to...

  10. Asymmetrical Stimulus Generalization following Differential Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Sun Jung; Allen, Timothy A.; Jones, Lauren K.; Boguszewski, Pawel; Brown, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically critical social signals. Rats emit 22 kHz USVs and 50 kHz USVs, respectively, in conjunction with negative and positive affective states. Little is known about what controls emotional reactivity to these social signals. Using male Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined unconditional and conditional freezing behavior in response to the following auditory stimuli: three 22 kHz USVs, a discontinuous tone whose frequency and on-off pattern matched one of the USVs, a continuous tone with the same or lower frequencies, a 4 kHz discontinuous tone with an on-off pattern matched to one of the USVs, and a 50 kHz USV. There were no differences among these stimuli in terms of the unconditional elicitation of freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally neutral before conditioning. During differential fear conditioning, one of these stimuli (the CS+) always co-terminated with a footshock unconditional stimulus (US) and another stimulus (the CS−) was explicitly unpaired with the US. There were no significant differences among these cues in CS+-elicited freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally salient or effective as cues in supporting fear conditioning. When the CS+ was a 22 kHz USV or a similar stimulus, rats discriminated based on the principal frequency and/or the temporal pattern of the stimulus. However, when these same stimuli served as the CS−, discrimination failed due to generalization from the CS+. Thus, the stimuli differed markedly in the specificity of conditioning. This strikingly asymmetrical stimulus generalization is a novel bias in discrimination. PMID:18434217

  11. Asymmetrical stimulus generalization following differential fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sun Jung; Allen, Timothy A; Jones, Lauren K; Boguszewski, Pawel; Brown, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically critical social signals. Rats emit 22kHz USVs and 50kHz USVs, respectively, in conjunction with negative and positive affective states. Little is known about what controls emotional reactivity to these social signals. Using male Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined unconditional and conditional freezing behavior in response to the following auditory stimuli: three 22kHz USVs, a discontinuous tone whose frequency and on-off pattern matched one of the USVs, a continuous tone with the same or lower frequencies, a 4kHz discontinuous tone with an on-off pattern matched to one of the USVs, and a 50kHz USV. There were no differences among these stimuli in terms of the unconditional elicitation of freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally neutral before conditioning. During differential fear conditioning, one of these stimuli (the CS(+)) always co-terminated with a footshock unconditional stimulus (US) and another stimulus (the CS(-)) was explicitly unpaired with the US. There were no significant differences among these cues in CS(+)-elicited freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally salient or effective as cues in supporting fear conditioning. When the CS(+) was a 22kHz USV or a similar stimulus, rats discriminated based on the principal frequency and/or the temporal pattern of the stimulus. However, when these same stimuli served as the CS(-), discrimination failed due to generalization from the CS(+). Thus, the stimuli differed markedly in the specificity of conditioning. This strikingly asymmetrical stimulus generalization is a novel bias in discrimination.

  12. General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Comparat, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)

  13. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements General Requirements... cylinders, circuit breakers, contactors, relays, switches, and fuses; and cracks, breaks, excessive wear...

  14. Generalized boundary conditions for spin transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Ochoa, Hector

    2017-09-01

    We develop a comprehensive description of static and dynamic spin-transfer torque at interfaces between a normal metal and a magnetic material. Specific examples of the latter include ferromagnets, collinear and noncollinear antiferromagnets, general ferrimagnets, and spin glasses. We study the limit of the exchange-dominated interactions, so that the full system is isotropic in spin space, apart from a possible symmetry-breaking order. A general such interface yields three coefficients (corresponding to three independent generators of rotations) generalizing the well-established notion of the spin-mixing conductance, which pertains to the collinear case. We develop a nonequilibrium thermodynamic description of the emerging interfacial spin transfer and its effect on the collective spin dynamics, while circumventing the usual discussion of spin currents and net spin dynamics. Instead, our focus is on the dissipation and work effectuated by the interface. Microscopic scattering-matrix based expressions are derived for the generalized spin-transfer coefficients.

  15. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  16. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  17. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  18. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  19. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  20. 46 CFR 295.20 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Maritime Security Program Operating Agreements § 295.20 General... charter under the provisions of an Emergency Preparedness Program Agreement provided by section 653 of the... security commitments to the extent and for the period contained in section 652(m) of the Act. (f) Non...

  1. 46 CFR 295.20 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Maritime Security Program Operating Agreements § 295.20 General... charter under the provisions of an Emergency Preparedness Program Agreement provided by section 653 of the... security commitments to the extent and for the period contained in section 652(m) of the Act. (f) Non...

  2. 46 CFR 295.20 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Maritime Security Program Operating Agreements § 295.20 General... charter under the provisions of an Emergency Preparedness Program Agreement provided by section 653 of the... security commitments to the extent and for the period contained in section 652(m) of the Act. (f) Non...

  3. 46 CFR 295.20 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Maritime Security Program Operating Agreements § 295.20 General... charter under the provisions of an Emergency Preparedness Program Agreement provided by section 653 of the... security commitments to the extent and for the period contained in section 652(m) of the Act. (f) Non...

  4. 46 CFR 295.20 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Maritime Security Program Operating Agreements § 295.20 General... charter under the provisions of an Emergency Preparedness Program Agreement provided by section 653 of the... security commitments to the extent and for the period contained in section 652(m) of the Act. (f) Non...

  5. General solution of the supersymmetry consistency conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piguet, O.; Sibold, K.; Schweda, M.

    1980-11-01

    Renormalization of (broken-) supersymmetry theories depends on the existence of a local functional solution, with appropriate power counting, to a system of functional differential equations derived from the quantum action principle (QAP). Using consistency conditions which also follow from the QAP, we prove the existence of such a local solution; its dimension ensures ultraviolet renormalizability, whereas infrared behaviour must be discussed from case to case.

  6. Optimal remediation policy selection under general conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Zheng, C.

    1997-09-01

    A new simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal design of ground-water remediation systems under a variety of field conditions. The model couples genetic algorithm (GA), a global search technique inspired by biological evolution, with MODFLOW and MT3D, two commonly used ground-water flow and solute transport codes. The model allows for multiple management periods in which optimal pumping/injection rates vary with time to reflect the changes in the flow and transport conditions during the remediation process. The objective function of the model incorporates multiple cost terms including the drilling cost, the installation cost, and the costs to extract and treat the contaminated ground water. The simulation-optimization model is first applied to a typical two-dimensional pump-and-treat example with one and three management periods to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new model. The model is then applied to a large-scale three-dimensional field problem to determine the minimum pumping needed to contain an existing contaminant plume. The optimal solution as determined in this study is compared with a previous solution based on trial-and-error selection.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  15. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.313 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.313 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) No...

  16. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.313 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.313 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) No...

  17. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.113 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.113 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a) No...

  18. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.113 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.113 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a) No...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  1. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  3. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  4. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  5. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  6. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  7. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  8. 34 CFR 75.620 - General conditions on publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conditions on publication. 75.620 Section 75... Must Be Met by a Grantee? Publications and Copyrights § 75.620 General conditions on publication. (a...) Required statement. The grantee shall ensure that any publication that contains project materials...

  9. Generalized phase matching condition for lossy periodic photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuhuai; Forrest, Stephen R

    2010-01-18

    The phase matching condition relating the real transverse wave vectors across a periodic boundary has been generalized to the case of complex transverse wave vectors. Based on this generalization, we describe diffraction of a complex Bloch wave propagating within a composite prism, and show that the resulting light in free space is an inhomogeneous plane wave in the presence of losses within the prism.

  10. Generalized harmonic spatial coordinates and hyperbolic shift conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Alcubierre, Miguel; Corichi, Alejandro; Nunez, Dario; Salgado, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Reimann, Bernd

    2005-12-15

    We propose a generalization of the condition for harmonic spatial coordinates analogous to the generalization of the harmonic time slices introduced by Bona et al., and closely related to dynamic shift conditions recently proposed by Lindblom and Scheel, and Bona and Palenzuela. These generalized harmonic spatial coordinates imply a condition for the shift vector that has the form of an evolution equation for the shift components. We find that in order to decouple the slicing condition from the evolution equation for the shift it is necessary to use a rescaled shift vector. The initial form of the generalized harmonic shift condition is not spatially covariant, but we propose a simple way to make it fully covariant so that it can be used in coordinate systems other than Cartesian. We also analyze the effect of the shift condition proposed here on the hyperbolicity of the evolution equations of general relativity in 1+1 dimensions and 3+1 spherical symmetry, and study the possible development of blowups. Finally, we perform a series of numerical experiments to illustrate the behavior of this shift condition.

  11. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  12. Generalization of Extinguished Skin Conductance Responding in Human Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a human fear conditioning paradigm using the skin conductance response (SCR), participants were assigned to two groups. Following identical acquisition, group ABA (n = 16) was extinguished to a generalization stimulus (GS), whereas group AAB (n = 20) was extinguished to the conditioned stimulus (CS). At test, presenting the CS in group ABA…

  13. Generalization of Extinguished Skin Conductance Responding in Human Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a human fear conditioning paradigm using the skin conductance response (SCR), participants were assigned to two groups. Following identical acquisition, group ABA (n = 16) was extinguished to a generalization stimulus (GS), whereas group AAB (n = 20) was extinguished to the conditioned stimulus (CS). At test, presenting the CS in group ABA…

  14. 14 CFR 201.7 - General certificate conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., by air, within that geographical scope. (e) It shall be a condition upon the holding of a certificate... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General certificate conditions. 201.7... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES...

  15. 14 CFR 201.7 - General certificate conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., by air, within that geographical scope. (e) It shall be a condition upon the holding of a certificate... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General certificate conditions. 201.7... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES...

  16. 14 CFR 201.7 - General certificate conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., by air, within that geographical scope. (e) It shall be a condition upon the holding of a certificate... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General certificate conditions. 201.7... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES...

  17. 14 CFR 201.7 - General certificate conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., by air, within that geographical scope. (e) It shall be a condition upon the holding of a certificate... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General certificate conditions. 201.7... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES...

  18. 14 CFR 201.7 - General certificate conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., by air, within that geographical scope. (e) It shall be a condition upon the holding of a certificate... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General certificate conditions. 201.7... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIR CARRIER AUTHORITY UNDER SUBTITLE VII OF TITLE 49 OF THE UNITED STATES...

  19. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  20. Necessary conditions for supporting a general surgeon in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Glenn, J K; Hicks, L L; Daugird, A J; Lawhorne, L W

    1988-07-01

    Loss of a general surgeon in a rural community cna alter the referral patterns, the image and utilization of the local hospital, and even the market share of local primary care physicians. Prior research has not defined the necessary and/or sufficient conditions for a rural county to be able to support a local general surgeon. Based upon empirical analysis of 96 rural Missouri counties and the limited literature available on rural surgeons and physician referral rates, a first approximation of those conditions are offered. We conclude that a rural county with a hospital, a population base of more than 15,000 people, and at least 11 potential referring physicians has sufficient conditions to enable it to support a local general surgeon. Among those rural Missouri counties not meeting the above conditions but having a general surgeon in 1984, we estimate that 8 to 10 potential referring physicians appear to be the minimum necessary condition for supporting a rural general surgeon through patient referral. From those conclusions, we argue that any rural hospital currently without a surgeon should re-examine its situation. To prepare for a competitive future, such a hospital should take every opportunity to expand the referral base necessary to support a full-time local surgeon rather than place long-term reliance upon itinerant general surgeons.

  1. Does the Lesche condition for stability validate generalized entropies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Takuya

    2004-08-01

    We reconsider the Lesche condition for a stability of entropies, which has been used for supporting validity of a generalized entropy over the others in recent papers. The fabric of an argument for applying the stability criterion with specific distributions to generalized entropies is shown to be interrogative. We show that a local stability analysis for the generalized entropies does not lead to the same conclusion as the one derived from the Lesche condition. It is also pointed out that the bound on the Shannon entropy by Lesche with an auxiliary function, and that on its generalized version are weak compared to those on the variational distance of their entropies against small changes in distribution. We conclude that there is no good reason for putting much emphasis on the criterion in the sense of Lesche when we advocate the validity of a generalized entropy.

  2. Sleep Promotes Generalization of Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Orr, Scott P.; Rauch, Scott L.; Stickgold, Robert; Pitman, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine the effects of sleep on fear conditioning, extinction, extinction recall, and generalization of extinction recall in healthy humans. Design: During the Conditioning phase, a mild, 0.5-sec shock followed conditioned stimuli (CS+s), which consisted of 2 differently colored lamps. A third lamp color was interspersed but never reinforced (CS-). Immediately after Conditioning, one CS+ was extinguished (CS+E) by presentation without shocks (Extinction phase). The other CS+ went unextinguished (CS+U). Twelve hours later, following continuous normal daytime waking (Wake group, N = 27) or an equal interval containing a normal night's sleep (Sleep group, N = 26), conditioned responses (CRs) to all CSs were measured (Extinction Recall phase). It was hypothesized that the Sleep versus Wake group would show greater extinction recall and/or generalization of extinction recall from the CS+E to the CS+U. Setting: Academic medical center. Subjects: Paid normal volunteers. Measurements and Results: Square-root transformed skin conductance response (SCR) measured conditioned responding. During Extinction Recall, the Group (Wake or Sleep) × CS+ Type (CS+E or CS+U) interaction was significant (P = 0.04). SCRs to the CS+E did not differ between groups, whereas SCRs to the CS+U were significantly smaller in the Sleep group. Additionally, SCRs were significantly larger to the CS+U than CS+E in the Wake but not the Sleep group. Conclusions: After sleep, extinction memory generalized from an extinguished conditioned stimulus to a similarly conditioned but unextinguished stimulus. Clinically, adequate sleep may promote generalization of extinction memory from specific stimuli treated during exposure therapy to similar stimuli later encountered in vivo. Citation: Pace-Schott EF; Milad MR; Orr SP; Rauch SL; Stickgold R; Pitman RK. Sleep promotes generalization of extinction of conditioned fear. SLEEP 2009;32(1):19-26. PMID:19189775

  3. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  4. General neck condition for the limit shape of budding vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pan; Du, Qiang; Tu, Z. C.

    2017-04-01

    The shape equation and linking conditions for a vesicle with two phase domains are derived. We refine the conjecture on the general neck condition for the limit shape of a budding vesicle proposed by Jülicher and Lipowsky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2964 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2964; Phys. Rev. E 53, 2670 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevE.53.2670], and then we use the shape equation and linking conditions to prove that this conjecture holds not only for axisymmetric budding vesicles, but also for asymmetric ones. Our study reveals that the mean curvature at any point on the membrane segments adjacent to the neck satisfies the general neck condition for the limit shape of a budding vesicle when the length scale of the membrane segments is much larger than the characteristic size of the neck but still much smaller than the characteristic size of the vesicle.

  5. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded. 330.1 Section 330.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... product is labeled in compliance with chapter V of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) and...

  6. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  7. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  8. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  9. 18 CFR 154.109 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General terms and conditions. 154.109 Section 154.109 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form...

  10. 18 CFR 50.11 - General conditions applicable to permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a copy of, any application to construct a major electric generation facility. ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General conditions applicable to permits. 50.11 Section 50.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  11. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to have...

  12. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to have...

  13. 17 CFR 230.502 - General conditions to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... advertising, including, but not limited to, the following: (1) Any advertisement, article, notice or other... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General conditions to be met. 230.502 Section 230.502 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  14. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.9 General disposal terms and conditions. (a) Surplus real property transfers under this part will be limited to public health purposes... hereof. (b) A transfer of surplus real property for public health purposes is subject to the...

  15. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.9 General disposal terms and conditions. (a) Surplus real property transfers under this part will be limited to public health purposes... hereof. (b) A transfer of surplus real property for public health purposes is subject to the...

  16. 42 CFR 417.410 - Qualifying conditions: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... groups and to deliver a specified comprehensive range of high quality services efficiently, effectively... services, and a quality assurance program. (c) Standards. Generally, each qualifying condition is... Section 417.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  17. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General conditions applicable to certificates. 157.20 Section 157.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION...

  18. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General conditions applicable to certificates. 157.20 Section 157.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION...

  19. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General conditions applicable to certificates. 157.20 Section 157.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION...

  20. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General conditions applicable to certificates. 157.20 Section 157.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION...

  1. The Generalized Asymptotic Equipartition Property: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Suppose a string X1n=(X1,X2,…,Xn) generated by a memoryless source (Xn)n≥1 with distribution P is to be compressed with distortion no greater than D ≥ 0, using a memoryless random codebook with distribution Q. The compression performance is determined by the “generalized asymptotic equipartition property” (AEP), which states that the probability of finding a D-close match between X1n and any given codeword Y1n, is approximately 2−nR(P, Q, D), where the rate function R(P, Q, D) can be expressed as an infimum of relative entropies. The main purpose here is to remove various restrictive assumptions on the validity of this result that have appeared in the recent literature. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the generalized AEP are provided in the general setting of abstract alphabets and unbounded distortion measures. All possible distortion levels D ≥ 0 are considered; the source (Xn)n≥1 can be stationary and ergodic; and the codebook distribution can have memory. Moreover, the behavior of the matching probability is precisely characterized, even when the generalized AEP is not valid. Natural characterizations of the rate function R(P, Q, D) are established under equally general conditions. PMID:21614133

  2. Analytical solutions with Generalized Impedance Boundary Conditions (GIBC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, H. H.; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. In particular, ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly to those in the deep lit and shadow regions. These involve new transition functions in place of the usual Fock-type integrals, characteristics to the impedance cylinder. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder. The diffraction coefficients for the convex cylinder are obtained via a generalization of the corresponding ones for the circular cylinder.

  3. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  4. Categories, Concepts, and Conditioning: How Humans Generalize Fear

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, Pavlovian conditioning has served as the predominant experimental paradigm and theoretical framework to understand how humans learn to fear and avoid real or perceived dangers. Animal models for translational research offer insight into basic behavioral and neurophysiological factors mediating the acquisition, expression, inhibition, and generalization of fear. However, it is important to consider the limits of traditional animal models when applied to humans. Here, we focus on the question of how humans generalize fear. We propose that to understand fear generalization in humans requires taking into account research on higher-level cognition such as category-based induction, inferential reasoning, and representation of conceptual knowledge. Doing so will open the door for productive avenues of new research. PMID:25577706

  5. Medically unexplained conditions considered by patients in general practice.

    PubMed

    Tschudi-Madsen, Hedda; Kjeldsberg, Mona; Natvig, Bård; Ihlebaek, Camilla; Straand, Jørund; Bruusgaard, Dag

    2014-04-01

    Patients frequently present with multiple and 'unexplained' symptoms, often resulting in complex consultations. To better understand these patients is a challenge to health care professionals, in general, and GPs, in particular. In our research on symptom reporting, we wanted to explore whether patients consider that they may suffer from conditions commonly regarded as unexplained, and we explored associations between these concerns and symptom load, life stressors and socio-demographic factors. Consecutive, unselected patients in general practice completed questionnaires addressing eight conditions commonly regarded as unexplained (amalgam poisoning, Candida syndrome, fibromyalgia, food intolerance, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, burnout syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome). With logistic regression, we analysed associations with symptom load, burden of life stressors with negative impact on present health and socio-demographic variables. Out of the 909 respondents (response rate = 88.8%), 863 had complete data. In total, 39.6% of patients had considered that they may suffer from one or more unexplained conditions (UCs). These concerns were strongly and positively associated with recent symptom load and number of life stressors. If we excluded burnout and food intolerance, corresponding associations were found. Patients frequently considered that they may suffer from UCs. The likelihood of such concerns strongly increased with an increasing symptom load and with the number of life stressors with negative impact on present health. Hence, the number of symptoms may be a strong indicator of whether patients consider their symptoms part of such often controversial multisymptom conditions.

  6. General background conditions for K-bounce and adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Antonio Enea

    2017-03-01

    We study the background conditions for a bounce uniquely driven by a single scalar field model with a generalized kinetic term K( X), without any additional matter field. At the background level we impose the existence of two turning points where the derivative of the Hubble parameter H changes sign and of a bounce point where the Hubble parameter vanishes. We find the conditions for K( X) and the potential which ensure the above requirements. We then give the examples of two models constructed according to these conditions. One is based on a quadratic K( X), and the other on a K( X) which is avoiding divergences of the second time derivative of the scalar field, which may otherwise occur. An appropriate choice of the initial conditions can lead to a sequence of consecutive bounces, or oscillations of H. In the region where these models have a constant potential they are adiabatic on any scale and because of this they may not conserve curvature perturbations on super-horizon scales. While at the perturbation level one class of models is free from ghosts and singularities of the classical equations of motion, in general gradient instabilities are present around the bounce time, because the sign of the squared speed of sound is opposite to the sign of the time derivative of H. We discuss how this kind of instabilities could be avoided by modifying the Lagrangian by introducing Galilean terms in order to prevent a negative squared speed of sound around the bounce.

  7. Resistance to extinction, generalization decrement, and conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Dulaney, Alana E; Bell, Matthew C

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated generalization decrement during an extinction resistance-to-change test for pigeon key pecking using a two-component multiple schedule with equal variable-interval 3-min schedules and different reinforcer amounts (one component presented 2-s access to reinforcement and the other 8s). After establishing baseline responding, subjects were assigned to one of the two extinction conditions: hopper stimuli (hopper and hopper light were activated but no food was available) or Control (inactive hopper and hopper light). Responding in the 8-s component was more resistant to extinction than responding in the 2-s component, the hopper stimuli group was more resistant to extinction compared to the Control group, and an interaction between amount of reinforcement, extinction condition, and session block was present. This finding supports generalization decrement as a factor that influences resistance to extinction. Hopper-time data (the amount of time subjects spent with their heads in the hopper) were compared to resistance-to-change data in an investigation of the role of conditioned reinforcement on resistance to change.

  8. Sufficient conditions for thermal rectification in general graded materials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    We address a fundamental problem for the advance of phononics: the search of a feasible thermal diode. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of thermal rectification in general graded materials. By starting from simple assumptions satisfied by the usual anharmonic models that describe heat conduction in solids, we derive an expression for the rectification. The analytical formula shows how to increase the rectification, and the conditions to avoid its decay with the system size, a problem present in the recurrent model of diodes given by the sequential coupling of two or three different parts. Moreover, for these graded systems, we show that the regimes of nondecaying rectification and of normal conductivity do not overlap. Our results indicate the graded systems as optimal materials for a thermal diode, the basic component of several devices of phononics.

  9. Asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves: General theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    An outstanding issue in the computational analysis of time dependent problems is the imposition of appropriate radiation boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. Accurate conditions are developed which are based on the asymptotic analysis of wave propagation over long ranges. Employing the method of steepest descents, dominant wave groups are identified and simple approximations to the dispersion relation are considered in order to derive local boundary operators. The existence of a small number of dominant wave groups may be expected for systems with dissipation. Estimates of the error as a function of domain size are derived under general hypotheses, leading to convergence results. Some practical aspects of the numerical construction of the asymptotic boundary operators are also discussed.

  10. Asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves - General theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    An outstanding issue in computational analysis of time dependent problems is the imposition of appropriate radiation boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. Accurate conditions are developed which are based on the asymptotic analysis of wave propagation over long ranges. Employing the method of steepest descents, dominant wave groups are identified and simple approximations to the dispersion relation are considered in order to derive local boundary operators. The existence of a small number of dominant wave groups may be expected for systems with dissipation. Estimates of the error as a function of domain size are derived under general hypotheses, leading to convergence results. Some practical aspects of the numerical construction of the asymptotic boundary operators are also discussed.

  11. Generalized CMB initial conditions with pre-equality magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo; Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2008-06-15

    The most general initial conditions of cosmic microwave background anisotropies, compatible with the presence of pre-equality magnetic fields, are derived. When the plasma is composed of photons, baryons, electrons, cold dark matter particles and neutrinos, the initial data of the truncated Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy contemplate one magnetized adiabatic mode and four (magnetized) nonadiabatic modes. After obtaining the analytical form of the various solutions, the Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy is numerically integrated for the corresponding sets of initial data. The TT, TE and EE angular power spectra are illustrated and discussed for the magnetized generalization of the cold dark matter-radiation mode, of the baryon-radiation mode and of the nonadiabatic mode of the neutrino sector. Mixtures of initial conditions are examined by requiring that the magnetized adiabatic mode dominates over the remaining nonadiabatic contributions. In the latter case, possible degeneracies between complementary sets of initial data might be avoided through the combined analysis of the TT, TE and EE angular power spectra at high multipoles (i.e. l>1000)

  12. General and condition-specific essential functions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Samuel A.; Gallagher, Larry A.; Thongdee, Metawee; Staudinger, Benjamin J.; Lippman, Soyeon; Singh, Pradeep K.; Manoil, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The essential functions of a bacterial pathogen reflect the most basic processes required for its viability and growth, and represent potential therapeutic targets. Most screens for essential genes have assayed a single condition—growth in a rich undefined medium—and thus have not distinguished genes that are generally essential from those that are specific to this particular condition. To help define these classes for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we identified genes required for growth on six different media, including a medium made from cystic fibrosis patient sputum. The analysis used the Tn-seq circle method to achieve high genome coverage and analyzed more than 1,000,000 unique insertion positions (an average of one insertion every 6.0 bp). We identified 352 general and 199 condition-specific essential genes. A subset of assignments was verified in individual strains with regulated expression alleles. The profile of essential genes revealed that, compared with Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa is highly vulnerable to mutations disrupting central carbon-energy metabolism and reactive oxygen defenses. These vulnerabilities may arise from the stripped-down architecture of the organism’s carbohydrate utilization pathways and its reliance on respiration for energy generation. The essential function profile thus provides fundamental insights into P. aeruginosa physiology as well as identifying candidate targets for new antibacterial agents. PMID:25848053

  13. Invalidity of the quantitative adiabatic condition and general conditions for adiabatic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dafa

    2016-05-01

    The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.

  14. Do Downscaled General Circulation Models Reliably Simulate Current Climatic Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, L.; Bock, A. R.; McCabe, G. J., Jr.; Markstrom, S. L.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-12-01

    The accuracy of statistically-downscaled (SD) General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations of monthly surface climate for historical conditions (1950-2000) used to drive a monthly water balance model (MWBM) were assessed for the conterminous United States (CONUS). SD monthly precipitation (PPT) and atmospheric temperature (TAVE) from 95 GCMs (38 from the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP) 3 and 57 from CMIP5) were used as inputs to a MWBM. Input (PPT, TAVE) and output (snow water equivalent (SWE), and runoff (RUN)) MWBM variables were evaluated by comparing variables computed using historical climate forcings (developed from gridded station data (GSD)) with those computed using historical SD climate. Distributions of GSD- and SD-based MWBM variables were compared using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS Test). When all MWBM variables were considered, the KS Test results showed an overall improvement by the CMIP5- relative to CMIP3-based simulations, likely due to improvements in PPT simulations. Results from this study indicate that for the majority of the CONUS, there are downscaled GCMs that can reliably simulate current climatic conditions. But, in some locations (particularly in California), there are no downscaled GCMs tested that replicate historical conditions for all four MWBM variables. In these locations, improved GCM simulations of precipitation are needed to more reliably estimate components of the hydrologic cycle.

  15. Analytical solutions with Generalized Impedance Boundary Conditions (GIBC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricoy, Mark A.; Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    The diffraction by a material discontinuity in a thick dielectric/ferrite layer is considered by modeling the layer as a distributed current sheet obeying generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTC's). The sheet currents are then formulated and solved via the standard dual integral equation approach. This yields the diffracted field in terms of unknown constants which underscore the non-uniqueness of the GSTC current sheet representation. The constants are dependent on the geometry and properties of the discontinuity and are determined by enforcing field continuity across the material junction. This requires the field internal to the slab which are determined from the external ones via analytic continuity. Results are given which validate the solution and demonstrate the importance of the constants.

  16. Study on plate silencer with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gongmin; Zhao, Xiaochen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Shuaijun

    2014-09-01

    A plate silencer consists of an expansion chamber with two side-branch rigid cavities covered by plates. Previous studies showed that, in a duct, the introduction of simply supported or clamped plates into an air conveying system could achieve broadband quieting from low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the plate silencer with general boundary conditions. A set of static beam functions, which are a combination of sine series and third-order polynomial, is employed as the trial functions of the plate vibration velocity. Greens function and Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral are used to solve the sound radiation in the duct and the cavity, and then the vibration velocity of the plate is obtained. Having obtained the vibration velocity, the pressure perturbations induced by the plate oscillation and the transmission loss are found. Optimization is carried out in order to obtain the widest stopband. The transmission loss calculated by the analytical method agrees closely with the result of the finite element method simulation. Further studies with regard to the plate under several different classical boundary conditions based on the validated model show that a clamped-free plate silencer has the worst stopband. Attempts to release the boundary restriction of the plate are also made to study its effect on sound reflection. Results show that a softer end for a clamped-clamped plate silencer helps increase the optimal bandwidth, while the same treatment for simply supported plate silencer will result in performance degradation.

  17. Equilibration and generalized Gibbs ensemble for hard wall boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Garry; Andrei, Natan

    2015-10-01

    In this work we present an analysis of a quench for the repulsive Lieb-Liniger gas confined to a large box with hard wall boundary conditions. We study the time average of local correlation functions and show that both the quench action approach and the generalized Gibbs ensemble formalism are applicable for the long-time average of local correlation functions. We find that the time average of the system corresponds to an eigenstate of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian and that this eigenstate is related to an eigenstate of a Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian with periodic boundary conditions on an interval of twice the length and with twice as many particles (a doubled system). We further show that local operators with support far away from the boundaries of the hard wall have the same expectation values with respect to this eigenstate as corresponding operators for the doubled system. We present an example of a quench where the gas is initially confined in several moving traps and then released into a bigger container, an approximate description of the Newton's cradle experiment. We calculate the time average of various correlation functions for long times after the quench.

  18. Derivation and application of a class of generalized boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, Thomas B. A.; Volakis, John L.

    1989-01-01

    Boundary conditions involving higher order derivatives are presented for simulating surfaces whose reflection coefficients are known analytically, numerically, or experimentally. Procedures for determining the coefficients of the derivatives are discussed, along with the effect of displacing the surface where the boundary conditions are applied. Provided the coefficients satisfy a duality relation, equivalent forms of the boundary conditions involving tangential field components are deduced, and these provide the natural extension to nonplanar surfaces. As an illustration, the simulation of metal-backed uniform and three-layer dielectric coatings is given. It is shown that fourth order conditions are capable of providing an accurate simulation for uniform coating at least a quarter of a wavelength in thickness.

  19. Almost-stationary motions and gauge conditions in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Bona, C.; Carot, J.; Palenzuela-Luque, C.

    2005-12-15

    An almost-stationary gauge condition is proposed with a view to numerical relativity applications. The time lines are defined as the integral curves of the timelike solutions of the harmonic almost-Killing equation. This vector equation is derived from a variational principle, by minimizing the deviations from isometry. The corresponding almost-stationary gauge condition allows us to put the field equations in hyperbolic form, both in the free-evolution ADM and in the Z4 formalisms.

  20. Generalized conditioned reinforcement with pigeons in a token economy.

    PubMed

    DeFulio, Anthony; Yankelevitz, Rachelle; Bullock, Christopher; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2014-07-01

    Six pigeons were studied in a token economy in which tokens could be produced and exchanged for food on one side of an experimental chamber and for water on the opposite side of the chamber. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a token-production fixed ratio (FR) schedule. Responses on a second key produced an exchange period during which tokens were exchanged for water or food. In Experiment 1a, food tokens could be earned and exchanged under restricted food budgets, and water tokens could be earned and exchanged under water restricted budgets. In Experiment 1b, a third (generalized) token type could be earned and exchanged for either food or water under water restricted budgets. Across Experiments 1a and 1b, the number of tokens accumulated prior to exchange increased as the exchange-production schedule was increased. In Experiment 1b, pigeons produced more generalized than specific tokens, suggesting enhanced reinforcing efficacy of generalized tokens. In Experiment 2, the FR token-production price was manipulated under water restriction and then under food restriction. Production of each token type generally declined as a function of its own price and increased as a function of the price of the alternate type, demonstrating own-price and cross-price elasticity. Production of food and water tokens often changed together, indicating complementarity. Production of specific and generalized tokens changed in opposite directions, indicating substitutability. This is the first demonstration of sustained generalized functions of tokens in nonhumans, and illustrates a promising method for exploring economic contingencies in a controlled environment.

  1. Front conditions for gravity currents in channels of general cross-section: some general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungarish, Marius

    2015-11-01

    We consider the propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current in a horizontal channel with general cross-section of width f (z) , 0 <= z <= H the gravity acceleration g acts in - z direction. (The rectangular case is f (z) = const.) We assume a two-layer system of fluids of densities ρc (current, of height h) and ρa (ambient, filling the remaining part of the channel). We revisit the derivation of the nose Froude-number condition Fr = U /(g' h) 1 / 2 ; U is the speed of propagation of the current and g' = (ρc /ρa - 1) g . We present compact insightful expressions of Fr and energy dissipation as a functions of φ (= area fraction occupied by the current in the cross-section), and show that a degree of freedom is present. We demonstrate that the extension of the closure suggested by Benjamin for the rectangular cross-section, namely that the bottom is a perfect stagnation line, produces Fr solutions which are optimal with respect to several useful criteria. However, the energy conserving closure yields problematic Fr results, as manifest in particular by invalidity for deep currents (small h / H). Connection with realistic time-dependent gravity currents is discussed.

  2. Conditions for the naked singularity formation in generalized Vaidya spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertogradov, V. D.

    2016-11-01

    The gravitational collapse of generalised Vaidya spacetime is considered. It is known that the endstate of gravitational collapse, as to whether a black hole or a naked singularity is formed, depends on the mass function M(v,r). Here we give conditions for the mass function which corresponds to the equation of the state P = αρ where α ∈ (0, ⅓] and according to these conditions we obtain either a black hole or a naked singularity at the endstate of gravitational collapse. Also we give conditions for the mass function when the singularity is gravitationally strong. Also we provide the metric which is the analogue of Vaidya metric in case of rotation.

  3. 17 CFR 230.502 - General conditions to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following conditions shall be applicable to offers and sales made under Regulation D (§§ 230.501-230.508... class as those offered or sold under Regulation D, other than those offers or sales of securities under... issuance of the same class of securities; (c) Whether the sales have been made at or about the same...

  4. Renyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-23

    cocycles. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 83A(2):251–263, December 1983. [2] Gerardo Adesso... Mathematical and General, 37(5):L55, 2004. [4] Tsuyoshi Ando. Convexity of certain maps on positive definite matrices and applications to Hadamard...of Mathematical Physics, 56(2):022202, February 2015. arXiv:1310.7178. [6] Pascal Basler. Characterization of correlations in classical and quantum

  5. Boundary conditions and generalized functions in a transition radiation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, M.; Jiménez, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to show how all the components of the electromagnetic field involved in the transition radiation problem can be obtained using distribution functions. The handling of the products and derivatives of distributions appearing in the differential equations governing transition radiation, allows to obtain the necessary boundary conditions, additional to those implied by Maxwell's equations, in order to exactly determine the longitudinal components of the electromagnetic field. It is shown that this method is not only useful but it is really convenient to achieve a full analysis of the problem.

  6. General no-go condition for stochastic pumping.

    PubMed

    Maes, Christian; Netocný, Karel; Thomas, Simi R

    2010-06-21

    The control of chemical dynamics requires understanding the effect of time-dependent transition rates between states of chemomechanical molecular configurations. Pumping refers to generating a net current, e.g., per period in the time dependence, through a cycle of consecutive states. The work of artificial machines or synthesized molecular motors depends on it. In this paper we give short and simple proofs of no-go theorems, some of which appeared before but here with essential extensions to non-Markovian dynamics, including the study of the diffusion limit. It allows to exclude certain protocols in the working of chemical motors where only the depth of the energy well is changed in time and not the barrier height between pairs of states. We also show how pre-existing steady state currents are, in general, modified with a multiplicative factor when this time dependence is turned on.

  7. General no-go condition for stochastic pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; Netočný, Karel; Thomas, Simi R.

    2010-06-01

    The control of chemical dynamics requires understanding the effect of time-dependent transition rates between states of chemomechanical molecular configurations. Pumping refers to generating a net current, e.g., per period in the time dependence, through a cycle of consecutive states. The work of artificial machines or synthesized molecular motors depends on it. In this paper we give short and simple proofs of no-go theorems, some of which appeared before but here with essential extensions to non-Markovian dynamics, including the study of the diffusion limit. It allows to exclude certain protocols in the working of chemical motors where only the depth of the energy well is changed in time and not the barrier height between pairs of states. We also show how pre-existing steady state currents are, in general, modified with a multiplicative factor when this time dependence is turned on.

  8. 77 FR 42677 - Special Conditions: General Electric CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Special Conditions: General Electric CT7-2E1 Turboshaft.... SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the General Electric CT7-2E1 engine model. This.... Background On September 10, 2009, General Electric applied for an amendment to type certificate E8NE to add...

  9. TESTS FOR THE EXTENT OF GENERALIZATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING UNDER IDENTICAL TRAINING SCHEDULES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The possibility that equal rates of reinforcement may produce generalization between two dissimilar conditioned stimuli is important both for...understanding generalization itself and for interpreting null outcomes resulting from within-S comparisons of two conditioning methods. Conventional...procedures for testing the extent of generalization are not applicable, but suitable trial arrangements do allow tests of this question, the number and

  10. Breaking generalized covariance, classical renormalization, and boundary conditions from superpotentials

    SciTech Connect

    Livshits, Gideon I.

    2014-02-15

    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum, and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBL superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either the original Lagrangian must be effectively renormalized, or that boundary conditions must be imposed, so that space-time be asymptotically maximally symmetric. Non-metricity is central to this paradox, and we show how quadratic non-metricity in the bulk of space-time contributes to the conserved charges on the boundary, where it vanishes identically. This is a realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism, proposed by Percacci, where the non-metricity is the analogue of the Goldstone boson.

  11. General Considerations of the Electrostatic Boundary Conditions in Oxide Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Takuya

    2011-08-19

    When the size of materials is comparable to the characteristic length scale of their physical properties, novel functionalities can emerge. For semiconductors, this is exemplified by the 'superlattice' concept of Esaki and Tsu, where the width of the repeated stacking of different semiconductors is comparable to the 'size' of the electrons, resulting in novel confined states now routinely used in opto-electronics. For metals, a good example is magnetic/non-magnetic multilayer films that are thinner than the spin-scattering length, from which giant magnetoresistance (GMR) emerged, used in the read heads of hard disk drives. For transition metal oxides, a similar research program is currently underway, broadly motivated by the vast array of physical properties that they host. This long-standing notion has been recently invigorated by the development of atomic-scale growth and probe techniques, which enables the study of complex oxide heterostructures approaching the precision idealized in Fig. 1(a). Taking the subset of oxides derived from the perovskite crystal structure, the close lattice match across many transition metal oxides presents the opportunity, in principle, to develop a 'universal' heteroepitaxial materials system. Hand-in-hand with the continual improvements in materials control, an increasingly relevant challenge is to understand the consequences of the electrostatic boundary conditions which arise in these structures. The essence of this issue can be seen in Fig. 1(b), where the charge sequence of the sublayer 'stacks' for various representative perovskites is shown in the ionic limit, in the (001) direction. To truly 'universally' incorporate different properties using different materials components, be it magnetism, ferroelectricity, superconductivity, etc., it is necessary to access and join different charge sequences, labelled here in analogy to the designations 'group IV, III-V, II-VI' for semiconductors. As we will review, interfaces between

  12. 20 CFR 633.305 - General benefits and working conditions for program participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General benefits and working conditions for program participants. 633.305 Section 633.305 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... § 633.305 General benefits and working conditions for program participants. (a) Payments for...

  13. 38 CFR 1.576 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1.576 Section 1.576 Pensions... Information in Department of Veterans Affairs Records § 1.576 General policies, conditions of...

  14. 22 CFR 1003.1 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1003.1 Section 1003.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION IN IAF RECORDS § 1003.1 General policies, conditions...

  15. Generalized anxiety disorder is associated with overgeneralization of classically conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Lissek, Shmuel; Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Rabin, Stephanie; Geraci, Marilla; Pine, Daniel S; Grillon, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Meta-analytic results of fear-conditioning studies in the anxiety disorders implicate generalization of conditioned fear to stimuli resembling the conditioned danger cue as one of the more robust conditioning markers of anxiety pathology. Due to the absence of conditioning studies assessing generalization in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), results of this meta-analysis do not reveal whether such generalization abnormalities also apply to GAD. The current study fills this gap by behaviorally and psychophysiologically assessing levels of conditioned fear generalization across adults with and without GAD. Twenty-two patients with a DSM-IV-Text Revision diagnosis of GAD and 26 healthy comparison subjects were recruited and tested. The employed generalization paradigm consisted of quasi-randomly presented rings of gradually increasing size, with extreme sizes serving as conditioned danger cues (CS+) and conditioned safety cues. The rings of intermediary size served as generalization stimuli, creating a continuum of similarity between CS+ and conditioned safety cues across which to assess response slopes, referred to as generalization gradients. Primary outcome variables included slopes for fear-potentiated startle (electromyography) and self-reported risk ratings. Behavioral and psychophysiological findings demonstrated overgeneralization of conditioned fear among patients with GAD. Specifically, generalization gradients were abnormally shallow among GAD patients, reflecting less degradation of the conditioned fear response as the presented stimulus differentiated from the CS+. Overgeneralization of conditioned fear to safe encounters resembling feared situations may contribute importantly to the psychopathology of GAD by proliferating anxiety cues in the individual's environment that are then capable of evoking and maintaining anxiety and worry associated with GAD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  16. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  19. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20 Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment... agreement with that agency or organization. The agreement must set forth the FWS work conditions. The...'s employer, the student's work must be governed by employment conditions, including pay, that...

  20. Comorbid Chronic General Health Conditions and Depression Care: A Population-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Puyat, Joseph H; Kazanjian, Arminee; Wong, Hubert; Goldner, Elliot

    2017-09-01

    Untreated depression among persons with chronic general health conditions (chronic health conditions) affects mortality, functional disability, quality of life, and health care costs. Currently, studies of the association between depression care and chronic health conditions report inconsistent results, and studies of depression care among persons with specific health conditions are rare. This study investigated the association between chronic health conditions and the likelihood of receiving depression care among individuals with depression. Retrospective data from physician claims, hospital separations, vital statistics, and insurance plan registries were used to identify a cohort of individuals with depression and track 12-month use of health services among those with and without a chronic health condition. Disparities were analyzed by using generalized linear models. Individuals with depression and a chronic health condition had higher use of psychological therapy, higher use of any depression care, greater continuity of care, and better adherence to antidepressant therapy compared with individuals with depression only. However, they were less likely, in general, to be on antidepressant therapy, and individuals with diabetes had fewer visits to general practitioners for a mental health-related reason compared with individuals without diabetes. A trend toward lower use of any depression care was observed among patients with cerebrovascular disease. Use of depression care was generally higher among individuals with chronic health conditions, although there were differences in patterns of use by type of health condition. Some patients with specific health conditions could be at risk of being inappropriately treated for depression.

  1. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues.

  2. The Impact of Instructions on Generalization of Conditioned Fear in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ola; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-09-01

    Generalization of conditioned fear has been implicated in the maintenance and proliferation of fear in anxiety disorders. The role of cognitive processes in generalization of conditioning is an important yet understudied issue. Vervliet et al. (2010) tested generalization of fear to a visual stimulus of a particular color and shape paired with electric shock. Test stimuli shared either the color or shape of the CS+. Prior to conditioning, participants were instructed that either color or shape would be predictive of shock. Generalization was stronger to the stimulus containing the instructed feature, suggesting that instructions impacted generalization of fear. However, the result may also reflect the impact of instructions on attention and learning during the conditioning phase. In the present study, the instructional manipulation was given after the conditioning phase to control for any impact of instructions on learning. A similar result to that reported by Vervliet et al. was observed. On self-reported expectancy of shock, generalization was greater to the test stimulus that included the instructed stimulus feature. The same pattern was observed on skin conductance, although it did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that explicitly instructed information affected generalization of conditioned fear independently of any impact on learning, pointing to the role of cognitive processes in human fear generalization. They also support the utility of cognitive therapy approaches, which are employed after fear has already developed, in addressing clinical overgeneralization.

  3. Generalization of conditioned fear along a dimension of increasing fear intensity.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Mitroff, Stephen R; LaBar, Kevin S

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups underwent discriminative fear conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS-). In Experiment 1 the CS- was a relatively neutral face stimulus, while in Experiment 2 the CS- was the most fear-intense stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both experimental groups showed gradients of generalization following fear conditioning that increased with the fear intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization. Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and may have implications for understanding generalization processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli.

  4. Asymmetrical Generalization of Conditioning and Extinction From Compound to Element and Element to Compound

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Mark E.; Doyle-Burr, Caleb; Vurbic, Drina

    2014-01-01

    Four appetitive conditioning experiments studied generalization between compound conditional stimuli (AB) and their elements (e.g., A or B). In Experiments 1 and 2, rats received conditioning with A and AB and then extinction with either A or AB. During subsequent testing, there was more generalization of extinction (nonresponding) from the compound (AB) to the element (A) than from the element (A) to the compound (AB). This asymmetry was consistent with earlier results involving temporal discrimination learning in which short and long temporal intervals played the roles of A and AB. In Experiment 3, rats received conditioning with either A or AB and then testing with A and AB. Consistent with elemental models of conditioning, there was more generalization of conditioned responding from A to AB than from AB to A. Experiment 4 found that these asymmetries in the generalization of extinction (Experiments 1–2) and conditioning (Experiment 3) both contribute to the feature-positive effect. Overall, the parallel between the current findings and previous results with temporal discrimination learning supports an associative analysis of interval timing. Implications for elemental and configural theories of conditioning and generalization are also discussed. PMID:22924827

  5. On the Ideal Boundary Condition in a General Toroidal Geometry for a Mixed Magnetic Field Representation

    SciTech Connect

    X. Z. Tang

    2000-12-18

    Subtleties of implementing the standard perfectly conducting wall boundary condition in a general toroidal geometry are clarified for a mixed scalar magnetic field representation. An iterative scheme based on Ohm's law is given.

  6. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-5 General... result in any unsafe condition endangering the motor vehicle, its occupants, or persons or property...

  7. Application of generalized separation of variables to solving mixed problems with irregular boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasymov, E. A.; Guseinova, A. O.; Gasanova, U. N.

    2016-07-01

    One of the methods for solving mixed problems is the classical separation of variables (the Fourier method). If the boundary conditions of the mixed problem are irregular, this method, generally speaking, is not applicable. In the present paper, a generalized separation of variables and a way of application of this method to solving some mixed problems with irregular boundary conditions are proposed. Analytical representation of the solution to this irregular mixed problem is obtained.

  8. Relating different quantum generalizations of the conditional Rényi entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tomamichel, Marco; Berta, Mario; Hayashi, Masahito

    2014-08-15

    Recently a new quantum generalization of the Rényi divergence and the corresponding conditional Rényi entropies was proposed. Here, we report on a surprising relation between conditional Rényi entropies based on this new generalization and conditional Rényi entropies based on the quantum relative Rényi entropy that was used in previous literature. Our result generalizes the well-known duality relation H(A|B) + H(A|C) = 0 of the conditional von Neumann entropy for tripartite pure states to Rényi entropies of two different kinds. As a direct application, we prove a collection of inequalities that relate different conditional Rényi entropies and derive a new entropic uncertainty relation.

  9. Fear conditioning and stimulus generalization in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lea M; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Mühlberger, Andreas; Langs, Gernot; Aalderink, Tim; Wieser, Matthias J

    2016-12-01

    Although overgeneralization seems to be a hallmark of several anxiety disorders, this until now has not been investigated in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Therefore, we examined fear generalization in 26 SAD patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) using two faces as conditioned stimuli (CS+, CS-), and a loud scream and a fearful face as unconditioned stimulus (US). Generalization was tested by presenting both CS and four morphs of the two faces (generalization stimuli [GSs]), while ratings, heart rate (HR) and skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded. Results revealed that SAD patients rated all stimuli as less pleasant and more arousing compared to HC. Moreover, ratings and SCR indicated that both groups generalized their acquired fear from the CS+ to GSs. Remarkably, only SAD patients showed generalization in HR responses (fear bradycardia). Overall, SAD seems not to be characterized by strong overgeneralization but discrepancies in fear responses to both conditioned and generalized threat stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Common fixed point theorems of Gregus type for weakly compatible mappings satisfying generalized contractive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouche, A.

    2008-05-01

    We prove a common fixed point theorem of Gregus type for four mappings satisfying a generalized contractive condition in metric spaces using the concept of weak compatibility which generalizes theorems of [I. Altun, D. Turkoglu, B.E. Rhoades, Fixed points of weakly compatible mappings satisfying a general contractive condition of integral type, Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2007 (2007), article ID 17301; A. Djoudi, L. Nisse, Gregus type fixed points for weakly compatible mappings, Bull. Belg. Math. Soc. 10 (2003) 369-378; A. Djoudi, A. Aliouche, Common fixed point theorems of Gregus type for weakly compatible mappings satisfying contractive conditions of integral type, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 329 (1) (2007) 31-45; P. Vijayaraju, B.E. Rhoades, R. Mohanraj, A fixed point theorem for a pair of maps satisfying a general contractive condition of integral type, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 15 (2005) 2359-2364; X. Zhang, Common fixed point theorems for some new generalized contractive type mappings, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 (2) (2007) 780-786]. We prove also a common fixed point theorem which generalizes Theorem 3.5 of [H.KE Pathak, M.S. Khan, T. Rakesh, A common fixed point theorem and its application to nonlinear integral equations, Comput. Math. Appl. 53 (2007) 961-971] and common fixed point theorems of Gregus type using a strict generalized contractive condition, a property (E.A) and a common property (E.A).

  11. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers. 86.1810-01 Section 86.1810-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...

  12. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the vehicle...

  13. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the vehicle...

  14. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the vehicle...

  15. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the vehicle...

  16. 77 FR 18 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Approval of Information Collection Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1915 RIN 1218-AB50 General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Approval of Information Collection Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... practices and technology, consolidating some general safety and health requirements into one subpart, and...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  19. 36 CFR 228.47 - General terms and conditions of contracts and permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.47 General terms and conditions of contracts and permits. (a) Disposal of designated mineral materials. Only those specified mineral materials found within the area designated in the contract or permit may be extracted and...

  20. 36 CFR 228.47 - General terms and conditions of contracts and permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.47 General terms and conditions of contracts and permits. (a) Disposal of designated mineral materials. Only those specified mineral materials found within the area designated in the contract or permit may be extracted and...

  1. 36 CFR 228.47 - General terms and conditions of contracts and permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.47 General terms and conditions of contracts and permits. (a) Disposal of designated mineral materials. Only those specified mineral materials found within the area designated in the contract or permit may be extracted and...

  2. 36 CFR 228.47 - General terms and conditions of contracts and permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.47 General terms and conditions of contracts and permits. (a) Disposal of designated mineral materials. Only those specified mineral materials found within the area designated in the contract or permit may be extracted and...

  3. The Role of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in the Generalization of Conditioned Fear.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Kelsey N

    2017-08-31

    Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. Neural models of fear generalization suggest the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, conflicting empirical findings complicate our understanding of the role of the mPFC in pathological anxiety. To address important unanswered questions in this area, a detailed review and synthesis of results from human and nonhuman animal investigations of conditioned fear generalization was conducted. Empirical articles were identified through March 2017 and selected if they used fear conditioning, measured fear generalization, and included a measure of activity in the mPFC or manipulation of mPFC functioning. In human cued fear conditioning, the ventral mPFC plays an important role in the inhibition of fear generalization, whereas dorsal mPFC is important for the activation of generalized fear. This pattern remains to be further investigated in nonhuman animal models. Nonhuman animal research suggests an interaction between the neural correlates of contextual fear generalization and timing, such that the mPFC appears to increase fear generalization at remote time points and reduce generalization at recent time points following acquisition. The literature suggests a key role for the mPFC in fear generalization, but empirical details vary depending on specific regions within the mPFC, the animal model used, and the timing of the generalization test. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of the mPFC in fear generalization, which could in turn facilitate more effective pharmacological interventions for pathological anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions. 86.090-5 Section 86.090-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions. (a)(1) Every new motor vehicle (or new motor vehicle...

  5. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions. 86.408-78 Section 86.408-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions. (a) Any system installed on or incorporated in a new...

  6. Existence Result for the Kinetic Neutron Transport Problem with a General Albedo Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Bourhrara, Lahbib

    2011-09-01

    We present an existence result for the kinetic neutron transport equation with a general albedo boundary condition. The proof is constructive in the sense that we build a sequence that converges to the solution of the problem by iterating on the albedo term. Both nonhomogeneous and albedo boundary conditions are studied.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1459 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity... REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1459 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; general supervisor. The laboratory must have one...

  8. Energy Conditions and Constraints on the Generalized Non-Local Gravity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Zhang, Xue; Chen, Bo-Hai; Zhang, Nan; Wu, Meng-Meng

    2017-07-01

    We study and derive the energy conditions in generalized non-local gravity, which is the modified theory of general relativity obtained by adding a term {m}2n-2R{\\square }-nR to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Moreover, to obtain some insight on the meaning of the energy conditions, we illustrate the evolutions of four energy conditions with the model parameter ɛ for different n. By analysis we give the constraints on the model parameters ɛ. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11175077 and 11575075, and the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province under Grant No L201683666.

  9. Shock-jump conditions in a general medium: weak-solution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, L. K.; Krzysik, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    General conservation laws are considered, and the concept of a weak solution is extended to the case of an equation involving three space variables and time. Four-dimensional vector calculus is used to develop general jump conditions at a shock wave in the material. To illustrate the use of this result, jump conditions at a shock in unsteady three-dimensional compressible gas flow are presented. It is then proved rigorously that these reduce to the commonly assumed conditions in coordinates normal and tangential to the shock face. A similar calculation is also outlined for an unsteady three-dimensional shock in magnetohydrodynamics, and in a chemically reactive fluid. The technique is available for determining shock-jump conditions in quite general continuous media.

  10. Activation of dopamine neurons is critical for aversive conditioning and prevention of generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Larry S; Fadok, Jonathan P; Argilli, Emmanuela; Garelick, Michael G; Jones, Graham L; Dickerson, Tavis M K; Allen, James M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-05-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orientation to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus is attenuated by conditional genetic inactivation of functional NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons. We discovered that altering the magnitude of excitatory responses by dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus was associated with impaired conditioning to a cue that predicts an aversive outcome. Impaired conditioning by these mice was associated with the development of a persistent, generalized anxiety-like phenotype. These data are consistent with a role for dopamine in facilitating contingency awareness that is critical for the prevention of generalized anxiety.

  11. Shock-jump conditions in a general medium: weak-solution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, L. K.; Krzysik, O. A.

    2017-05-01

    General conservation laws are considered, and the concept of a weak solution is extended to the case of an equation involving three space variables and time. Four-dimensional vector calculus is used to develop general jump conditions at a shock wave in the material. To illustrate the use of this result, jump conditions at a shock in unsteady three-dimensional compressible gas flow are presented. It is then proved rigorously that these reduce to the commonly assumed conditions in coordinates normal and tangential to the shock face. A similar calculation is also outlined for an unsteady three-dimensional shock in magnetohydrodynamics, and in a chemically reactive fluid. The technique is available for determining shock-jump conditions in quite general continuous media.

  12. Generalization of conditioned fear along a dimension of increasing fear intensity

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups underwent discriminative fear conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS−). In Experiment 1 the CS− was a relatively neutral face stimulus, while in Experiment 2 the CS− was the most fear-intense stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both experimental groups showed gradients of generalization following fear conditioning that increased with the fear intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization. Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and may have implications for understanding generalization processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli. PMID:19553384

  13. Psychophysiological and subjective indicators of aversive pavlovian conditioning in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Christiane; Ziegler, Silvio; Birbaumer, Niels; Flor, Herta

    2002-08-15

    Aversive conditioning has been proposed as an important etiologic mechanism in social phobia; however, empirical evidence is scarce and has not relied on a detailed analysis of the acquisition and extinction of the conditioned emotional response. Fourteen men sustaining generalized social phobia and 19 healthy control subjects participated in differential aversive conditioning with two neutral faces as conditioned stimuli and an aversive odor as unconditioned stimulus. Subjective and peripheral physiological responses were obtained. Both groups were successfully conditioned as reflected by differential subjective (valence, arousal, subjective unconditioned stimulus expectancy) and peripheral physiological responses (skin conductance, startle response). There was no evidence for an enhanced conditionability in the social phobics; however, they showed an enhanced unconditioned stimulus expectancy, especially for the nonreinforced conditioned stimuli during acquisition, and a delayed extinction of the conditioned skin conductance response as well as a certain dissociation between subjective and physiological responses.The enhanced unconditioned stimulus expectancy during acquisition and the overall elevated subjective arousal suggest that, under threat, subjects with generalized social phobia may be more prone to associate neutral social cues and an aversive outcome. Furthermore, delayed extinction of the conditioned response seems to contribute to the etiology and maintenance of generalized social phobia.

  14. Conditions on the existence of maximally incompatible two-outcome measurements in general probabilistic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenčová, Anna; Plávala, Martin

    2017-08-01

    We formulate the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a pair of maximally incompatible two-outcome measurements in a finite-dimensional general probabilistic theory. The conditions are on the geometry of the state space; they require the existence of two pairs of parallel exposed faces with an additional condition on their intersections. We introduce the notion of discrimination measurement and show that the conditions for a pair of two-outcome measurements to be maximally incompatible are equivalent to requiring that a (potential, yet nonexisting) joint measurement of the maximally incompatible measurements would have to discriminate affinely dependent points. We present several examples to demonstrate our results.

  15. Differential effects of adding and removing components of a context on the generalization of conditional freezing.

    PubMed

    González, Felisa; Quinn, Jennifer J; Fanselow, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Rats were conditioned across 2 consecutive days where a single unsignaled footshock was presented in the presence of specific contextual cues. Rats were tested with contexts that had additional stimulus components either added or subtracted. Using freezing as a measure of conditioning, removal but not addition of a cue from the training context produced significant generalization decrement. The results are discussed in relation to the R. A. Rescorla and A. R. Wagner (1972), J. M. Pearce (1994), and A. R. Wagner and S. E. Brandon (2001) accounts of generalization. Although the present data are most consistent with elemental models such as Rescorla and Wagner, a slight modification of the Wagner-Brandon replaced-elements model that can account for differences in the pattern of generalization obtained with contexts and discrete conditional stimuli is proposed.

  16. Growth conditions, compact perturbations and operator subdecomposability, with applications to generalized Cesàro operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. L.; Miller, V. G.; Neumann, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    We adapt recent results of Albrecht and Ricker to obtain conditions under which growth constraints on the left resolvent of a Banach space operator are preserved under suitable perturbations. As an application, we establish Bishop's property ([beta]) for certain generalized Cesàro operators on the classical Hardy spaces Hp, 1generalized scalar operators.

  17. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Miriam A.; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 471–481, 2016. PMID:26798984

  18. A Hybrid Generalized Hidden Markov Model-Based Condition Monitoring Approach for Rolling Bearings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Hu, Youmin; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Xie, Fengyun

    2017-01-01

    The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD). Parameters of the VMD, in the form of generalized intervals, provide a concise representation for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and improve the robustness of identification. The multi-scale permutation entropy method is applied to extract state features from the decomposed signals in different operating conditions. Traditional principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted features’ information, the generalized hidden Markov model, based on generalized interval probability, is used to recognize and classify the fault types and fault severity levels. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed method is effective at recognizing and classifying the fault types and fault severity levels of rolling bearings. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to quantify the two uncertainty components. PMID:28524088

  19. Generalization Effects in Evaluative Conditioning: Evidence for Attitude Transfer Effects from Single Exemplars to Social Categories

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Tina; Kuchenbrandt, Dieta

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated whether evaluatively conditioned attitudes toward members of a social category (CSs) generalize to other stimuli belonging to the same category as the CSs (generalization at the stimulus level) and to the category itself (generalization at the category level). In four experiments, USs were paired with schematic or naturalistic CSs belonging to certain fictitious groups. Afterward, attitudes toward the CSs, toward non-presented exemplars of the CS category, and toward the CS category were assessed. Results revealed evidence for generalization effects in EC on both the stimulus and the category level. Transfer effects were greater when participants’ awareness of the CS–US contingency (CA) was high. Moreover, we found differences in generalization between the stimulus and category level, indicating that different processes might contribute to the effects. Theoretical and practical implications such as using EC as a tool for changing attitudes toward social groups will be discussed. PMID:28197118

  20. The General Necessary Condition for the Validity of Dirac's Transition Perturbation Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quang, Nguyen Vinh

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, from the natural requirements for the successive approximation the general necessary condition of validity of the Dirac's method is explicitly established. It is proved that the conception of 'the transition probability per unit time' is not valid. The 'super-platinium rules' for calculating the transition probability are derived for the arbitrarily strong time-independent perturbation case.

  1. Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records

    Treesearch

    Carrie R. Levine; Charles V. Cogbill; Brandon M. Collins; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz; Malcolm P. North; Christina M. Restaino; Hugh D. Safford; Scott L. Stephens; John J. Battles

    2017-01-01

    Historical forest conditions are often used to inform contemporary management goals because historical forests are considered to be resilient to ecological disturbances. The General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries provide regionally quasi-contiguous data sets of historical forests across much of the Western United States....

  2. Student's Research Work as the Condition of Continuity of General and Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedishenkova, Marina V.; Efimova, Elena V.; Ryabova, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    The problem in question is necessitated by the contradictions between requirements of successive educational process of general and professional education and the absence of new mechanisms of providing the continuity of education which is effective under modern conditions. The aim of the article in question is to provide the potential of the…

  3. Extended slow-roll conditions and primordial fluctuations: multiple scalar fields and generalized gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: gucci@phys.aoyama.ac.jp

    2009-01-15

    As an extension of our previous study, we derive slow-roll conditions for multiple scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled with gravity and for generalized gravity theories of the form f({phi}, R). We provide simple formulae of the spectral indices of scalar/tensor perturbations in terms of the slow-roll parameters.

  4. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99...

  5. Generalization of Conditioned Fear along a Dimension of Increasing Fear Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…

  6. Generalization of Conditioned Fear along a Dimension of Increasing Fear Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…

  7. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  8. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  9. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  10. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  11. Preservation Conditions, Practices, and Needs in the General Libraries. A Report by the Preservation Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. General Libraries.

    The survey documented in this report was conducted in 1981 to investigate the preservation conditions, practices, and needs of the units of the University of Texas at Austin General Libraries. The report is divided into six major portions. The first five sections report the responses to questionnaires on specific formats: books and serials;…

  12. Sufficient conditions for local regularity to the generalized Newtonian fluid with shear thinning viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyeong-Ohk; Wolf, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    We prove the local regularity of a weak solution {\\varvec{u}} to the equations of a generalized Newtonian fluid with power law 1< q ≤ 2 if {\\varvec{u}} belongs to a suitable Lebesgue space. This result extends the well-known Serrin condition for weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations to the shear-thinning fluids.

  13. Semi-analytical solution for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Shuo; Chen, Yan-Yu; Yu, Chi-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2017-02-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution of a time-history kernel for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To facilitate the kernel derivation, the concept of virtual atoms in real space that can conform with an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice is adopted. The generalized Langevin equation is regularized using eigenvalue decomposition and, consequently, an analytical expression of an inverse Laplace transform is obtained. With construction of dynamical matrices in the virtual domain, a semi-analytical form of the time-history kernel functions for an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice can be found. The time-history kernel functions for different crystal lattices are derived to show the generality of the proposed method. Non-equilibrium MD simulations in a triangular lattice with and without the absorbing boundary condition are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the solution.

  14. Semi-analytical solution for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Shuo; Chen, Yan-Yu; Yu, Chi-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2017-07-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution of a time-history kernel for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To facilitate the kernel derivation, the concept of virtual atoms in real space that can conform with an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice is adopted. The generalized Langevin equation is regularized using eigenvalue decomposition and, consequently, an analytical expression of an inverse Laplace transform is obtained. With construction of dynamical matrices in the virtual domain, a semi-analytical form of the time-history kernel functions for an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice can be found. The time-history kernel functions for different crystal lattices are derived to show the generality of the proposed method. Non-equilibrium MD simulations in a triangular lattice with and without the absorbing boundary condition are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the solution.

  15. Generalization of turbojet and turbine-propeller engine performance in windmilling condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Ewis E; Welna, Henry J

    1951-01-01

    Windmilling characteristics of several turbojet and turbine-propeller engines were investigated individually over a wide range of flight conditions in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. A study was made of all these data and windmilling performance of gas turbine engines was generalized. Although internal-drag, air-flow, and total-pressure-drop parameters were generalized to a single curve for both the axial-flow type engines and another for the centrifugal-flow engine. The engine speed, component pressure changes, and windmilling-propeller drag were generalized to single curves for the two turbine-propeller-type engines investigated. By the use of these curves the windmilling performance can be estimated for axial-flow type gas turbine engines similar to the types investigated over a wide range of flight conditions.

  16. No evidence for general condition-dependence of structural plumage colour in blue tits: an experiment.

    PubMed

    Peters, A; Kurvers, R H J M; Roberts, M L; Delhey, K

    2011-05-01

    Condition-dependence is a central but contentious tenet of evolutionary theories on the maintenance of ornamental traits, and this is particularly true for structural plumage colour. By providing diets of different nutritional quality to moulting male and female blue tits, we experimentally manipulated general condition within the natural range, avoiding deprivation or stressful treatments. We measured reflectance of the structural-coloured UV/blue crown, a sexually selected trait in males, and the white cheek, a nonpigmented structural colour, directly after moult and again during the following spring mating season. We employed a variety of colour indices, based on spectral shape and avian visual models but, despite significant variation in condition and coloration, found no evidence for condition-dependence of UV/blue or white plumage colour during either season. These and previously published results suggest that structural colour might be sensitive to stress, rather than reduced body condition, during moult.

  17. Relationship between oral function and general condition among Japanese nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Yasunori; Miura, Hiroko; Nagaya, Masahiro; Nagaosa, Shuichiro; Umemura, Osami

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between oral function and general condition among Japanese nursing home residents. The hypothesis was that oral function is one of the most important factors for the maintenance of general condition in dependent elderly. Seventy-nine residents of a nursing home in Japan participated in this study (54 women and 25 men, age range: 65-95 years, mean age: 82.2+/-8.5). A water drinking test and gargling function were used as indicators of oral function. Indicators of general condition included cognitive function (mini-mental state examination; MMSE), ADL (Barthel index), and nutritional status (body mass index=BMI, and serum albumin level). To clarify the relationship between oral function and general condition among dependent elderly, statistical evaluations of correlations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient) and differences (Mann-Whitney U test, Student's t test) between groups were conducted. SPSS was used for the statistical analysis. The water drinking and gargling function tests showed a strong correlation (p<0.001) with cognitive function and ADL. The water drinking and gargling function tests showed a correlation with BMI (p<0.005, p<0.01, respectively), and the water drinking test showed a correlation with serum albumin level (p<0.05). However, no correlation was observed between the gargling function tests and serum albumin level. It is concluded that oral function is closely related to cognitive function, ADL, and nutritional status. Oral function may play an important role in maintaining general condition in dependent elderly. To prevent decreases in cognitive function, ADL and nutritional status in dependent elderly, the importance of improvements in oral function cannot be over-emphasized.

  18. Graphicality conditions for general scale-free complex networks and their application to visibility graphs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    We obtain graphicality conditions for general types of scale-free networks. The same conditions obtained for uncorrelated networks are obtained in the general case. Then an upper bound relating γ, the exponent of the degree distribution, with the cutoff exponent κ, as κ<1/γ is established. This bound is valid for all networks with a well-defined power-law degree distribution in the range γ≤2. Some recent numerical research on visibility networks arising from persistent fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes are reviewed since they do not fulfill these conditions. As a consequence, a new relationship between the exponent γ of the degree distribution and the Hurst exponent H of the fBm process, γ⪅1/H, is postulated.

  19. Hybrid preconditioning for iterative diagonalization of ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems in electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunfeng; Bai, Zhaojun; Pask, John E.; Sukumar, N.

    2013-12-15

    The iterative diagonalization of a sequence of large ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems is a computational bottleneck in quantum mechanical methods employing a nonorthogonal basis for ab initio electronic structure calculations. We propose a hybrid preconditioning scheme to effectively combine global and locally accelerated preconditioners for rapid iterative diagonalization of such eigenvalue problems. In partition-of-unity finite-element (PUFE) pseudopotential density-functional calculations, employing a nonorthogonal basis, we show that the hybrid preconditioned block steepest descent method is a cost-effective eigensolver, outperforming current state-of-the-art global preconditioning schemes, and comparably efficient for the ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems produced by PUFE as the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for the well-conditioned standard eigenvalue problems produced by planewave methods.

  20. Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsung; Lei, Yuming; Xiong, Khongchee; Marek, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training.

  1. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.

  2. General conditions for proximity induced odd-frequency superconductivity in two-dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  3. Diffraction by a multilayer slab recessed in a ground plane via generalized impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricoy, M. A.; Volakis, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The diffraction problem associated with a multilayer material slab recessed in a perfectly conducting ground plane is formulated and solved via the generalized scattering matrix formulation in conjunction with the dual integral equation approach. The multilayer slab is replaced by a surface obeying a generalized impedance boundary condition to facilitate the computation of the pertinent Wiener Hopf split functions and their zeros. Both Ez and Hz polarizations are considered, and a number of scattering patterns are presented, some of which are compared to exact results available for a homogeneous recessed slab.

  4. High frequency scattering by a smooth coated cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Hasnain H.; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UGTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. In particular, ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly to those in the deep lit and shadow regions. These involve new transition functions in place of the usual Fock-type integrals, characteristic to the impedance cylinder. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder. As usual, the diffraction coefficients for the convex cylinder are obtained via a generalization of the corresponding ones for the circular cylinder.

  5. On relations for general two-dimensional ideal plasticity problems under the full plasticity condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorskii, A. V.; Gorskii, P. V.

    2008-10-01

    Relations for two-dimensional ideal plasticity problems under the full plasticity condition are determined with material anisotropy, inhomogeneity, and compressibility properties taken into account. These properties are determined by the direction cosines of the principal stress, the coordinates of points in space, and the mean stress. For the yield strength we take a function of the form k = k( σ, n 1, n 2, n 3, x, y, z). The desired relations are determined for the general plane ideal plasticity problem. The relations thus obtained are generalized to the cases of axisymmetric and spherical plasticity problems.

  6. Generalized Kubo relations and conditions for anomalous diffusion: Physical insights from a mathematical theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneller, Gerald R.

    2011-06-01

    The paper describes an approach to anomalous diffusion within the framework of the generalized Langevin equation. Using a Tauberian theorem for Laplace transforms due to Hardy, Littlewood, and Karamata, generalized Kubo relations for the relevant transport coefficients are derived from the asymptotic form of the mean square displacement. In a second step conditions for anomalous diffusion are derived for the asymptotic forms of the velocity autocorrelation function and the associated memory function. Both spatially unconfined and confined diffusion processes are considered. The results are illustrated with semi-analytical examples.

  7. Higher Integrability of Solutions to Generalized Stokes System Under Perfect Slip Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mácha, Václav; Tichý, Jakub

    2014-10-01

    We prove an L q theory result for generalized Stokes system in a {{C}^{2,1}} domain complemented with the perfect slip boundary conditions and under Φ-growth conditions. Since the interior regularity was obtained in Diening and Kaplický (Manu Math 141:336-361, 2013), a regularity up to the boundary is an aim of this paper. In order to get the main result, we use Calderón-Zygmund theory and the method developed in Caffarelli and Peral (Ann Math 130:189-213, 1989). We obtain higher integrability of the first gradient of a solution.

  8. General band gap condition in one-dimensional resonator-based acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yafei; Hou, Zhilin; Fu, Xiujun

    2016-03-01

    A one-dimensional model for resonator-based acoustic metamaterials is introduced. The condition for band gap in such kind of structure is obtained. According to this condition, the dispersion relation is in general a result of the scattering phase and propagating phase. The phenomenon that the band gap is less dependent on lattice structure appears only in the special system in which the coupling between the resonators and the host medium is weak enough. For strong coupled systems, the dispersion of wave can be significantly adjusted by the propagating phase. Based on the understanding, a general guide for band gap optimization is given and the mechanism for structures with the defect states at subwavelength scale is revealed.

  9. General conditions for scale-invariant perturbations in an expanding universe

    SciTech Connect

    Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kinney, William H.; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the general properties of expanding cosmological models which generate scale-invariant curvature perturbations in the presence of a variable speed of sound. We show that in an expanding universe, generation of a super-Hubble, nearly scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations over a range of wavelengths consistent with observation requires at least one of three conditions: (1) accelerating expansion, (2) a speed of sound faster than the speed of light, or (3) super-Planckian energy density.

  10. Conditioning- and time-dependent increases in context fear and generalization.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Andrew M; Mehta, Nehali; Lu, Bryan; Amir, Dorsa; Livingston, Briana; Santarelli, Anthony; Zhuravka, Irina; Fanselow, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    A prominent feature of fear memories and anxiety disorders is that they endure across extended periods of time. Here, we examine how the severity of the initial fear experience influences incubation, generalization, and sensitization of contextual fear memories across time. Adult rats were presented with either five, two, one, or zero shocks (1.2 mA, 2 sec) during contextual fear conditioning. Following a recent (1 d) or remote (28 d) retention interval all subjects were returned to the original training context to measure fear memory and/or to a novel context to measure the specificity of fear conditioning. Our results indicate rats that received two or five shocks show an "incubation"-like enhancement of fear between recent and remote retention intervals, while single-shocked animals show stable levels of context fear memory. Moreover, when fear was tested in a novel context, 1 and 2 shocked groups failed to freeze, whereas five shocked rats showed a time-dependent generalization of context memory. Stress enhancement of fear learning to a second round of conditioning was evident in all previously shocked animals. Based on these results, we conclude that the severity or number of foot shocks determines not only the level of fear memory, but also the time-dependent incubation of fear and its generalization across distinct contexts. © 2016 Poulos et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Effects of Practice Conditions and Supplemental Training Method on Cognitive Learning and Interpersonal Skill Generalization.

    PubMed

    Gist; Stevens

    1998-08-01

    Organizational expenditures for interpersonal-skills training have been rising. However, little is known about the translation of cognitive learning into skilled interpersonal-task performance, or about the mechanisms through which interpersonal skills in one domain generalize to other interpersonal tasks. This study used a 2 x 2 experimental design to examine the effectiveness of neutral versus stressful practice conditions and mastery-versus performance-oriented supplemental training for improving cognitive learning and interpersonal-skill transfer to a novel task. Participants who experienced stressful salary-negotiation practice conditions, followed by mastery-oriented supplemental training, showed greater skill transfer when performing a novel task (i.e., contract negotiations). Results showed that superior cognitive learning (i.e., recall, comprehension, and synthesis) and greater time on task were the mechanisms that supported interpersonal-skill transfer for trainees in the stressful practice/ mastery-oriented training condition when compared with the other experimental groups. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  12. Asymptotic forms for hard and soft edge general β conditional gap probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Witte, Nicholas S.

    2012-06-01

    An infinite log-gas formalism, due to Dyson, and independently Fogler and Shklovskii, is applied to the computation of conditioned gap probabilities at the hard and soft edges of random matrix β-ensembles. The conditioning is that there are n eigenvalues in the gap, with n≪|t|, t denoting the end point of the gap. It is found that the entropy term in the formalism must be replaced by a term involving the potential drop to obtain results consist with known asymptotic expansions in the case n=0. With this modification made for general n, the derived expansions — which are for the logarithm of the gap probabilities — are conjectured to be correct up to and including terms O(log|t|). They are shown to satisfy various consistency conditions, including an asymptotic duality formula relating β to 4/β.

  13. [General functional state (tonus) of the brain and conditioned reflexes as the mechanisms of it's regulation].

    PubMed

    Khananashvili, M M

    2008-01-01

    The article is dedicated to P.S. Kupalov, due to his 120 Anniversary. P.S. Kupalov was the disciple of I.P. Pavlov and his nearest collaborator. Right after I.P. Pavlov, he was at the head of the Institute of Experimental Medicine in St-Petersburg, where he developed a number of new ideas, concerning conditioned reflexes. Thus, he discovered shortened conditioned reflexes--central mechanisms of regulation of general functional state of the brain, and he created, on the base of the studies of unlimited motor activity in animals using his own method of situational conditioned reflexes, the conception of situational conditioned reflexes. P.S. Kupalov found out a number of new explanations for development of experimental neuroses and determined their mechanisms, as well. He was the one among the first disciples of I.P. Pavlov, who indicated at the complex structural-functional organization of conditioned reflexes, and he played the great part for the creation of modern theory about the nature of behavior, based on conditioned reflexes. The most important theses of P.S. Kupalov's conception, which is of great cognitive significance at the moment, as well as some results of the studies by his disciples and followers, developing the ideas of P.S. Kupalov, are presented in the article.

  14. Skin conditions are the commonest new reason people present to general practitioners in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Schofield, J K; Fleming, D; Grindlay, D; Williams, H

    2011-11-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence and incidence of skin conditions is a prerequisite for designing clinical services and providing appropriate training for primary health care professionals. In the U.K. the general practitioner and practice nurse are the first point of medical contact for persons with skin conditions. We aimed to obtain contemporary data in age-, gender- and diagnosis-specific detail on persons presenting to primary care with skin problems. Comparisons were made with similar data for other major disease groups and with similar data from other recent years. We used surveillance data collected in the Weekly Returns Service (WRS) of the Royal College of General Practitioners during 2006 and trend data for subsequent years. The WRS sentinel practices monitor all consultations by clinical diagnosis in a representative population of 950,000 in England and Wales. For conditions included in chapter XII of the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision (ICD9), 15% of the population consulted; a further 9% presented with skin problems classified elsewhere in the ICD9, making a total of 24%. There was no evidence of increasing or decreasing trend since 2006. Skin infections were the commonest diagnostic group, while 20% of children < 12 months were diagnosed with atopic eczema. Considered collectively, the incidence of new episodes of skin disorders (including diagnoses outside chapter XII) exceeded incidences for all other major disease groupings. Compared with other major disease groups, skin conditions are the most frequent reason for consultation in general practice. This result emphasizes the need for appropriate education and training for all medical students and particularly for continuing education in dermatology for all primary health care professionals. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Generalized adjoint consistent treatment of wall boundary conditions for compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Ralf; Leicht, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we revisit the adjoint consistency analysis of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with application to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and k- ω turbulence equations. Here, particular emphasis is laid on the discretization of wall boundary conditions. While previously only one specific combination of discretizations of wall boundary conditions and of aerodynamic force coefficients has been shown to give an adjoint consistent discretization, in this article we generalize this analysis and provide a discretization of the force coefficients for any consistent discretization of wall boundary conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a related evaluation of the cp- and cf-distributions is required. The freedom gained in choosing the discretization of boundary conditions without loosing adjoint consistency is used to devise a new adjoint consistent discretization including numerical fluxes on the wall boundary which is more robust than the adjoint consistent discretization known up to now. While this work is presented in the framework of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations, the insight gained is also applicable to (and thus valuable for) other discretization schemes. In particular, the discretization of integral quantities, like the drag, lift and moment coefficients, as well as the discretization of local quantities at the wall like surface pressure and skin friction should follow as closely as possible the discretization of the flow equations and boundary conditions at the wall boundary.

  16. Pseudo-Hermitian coherent states under the generalized quantum condition with position-dependent mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, S. A.; Bentaiba, M.

    2012-11-01

    In the context of the factorization method, we investigate the pseudo-Hermitian coherent states and their Hermitian counterpart coherent states under the generalized quantum condition in the framework of a position-dependent mass. By considering a specific modification in the superpotential, suitable annihilation and creation operators are constructed in order to reproduce the Hermitian counterpart Hamiltonian in the factorized form. We show that by means of these ladder operators, we can construct a wide range of exactly solvable potentials as well as their accompanying coherent states. Alternatively, we explore the relationship between the pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian and its Hermitian counterparts, obtained from a similarity transformation, to construct the associated pseudo-Hermitian coherent states. These latter preserve the structure of Perelomov’s states and minimize the generalized position-momentum uncertainty principle. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  17. Generalization of Pain-Related Fear Using a Left-Right Hand Judgment Conditioning Task.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Harvie, Daniel S; Lorimer Moseley, G; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2015-09-01

    Recent research suggests that the mere intention to perform a painful movement can elicit pain-related fear. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to determine whether imagining a movement that is associated with pain (CS+) can start to elicit conditioned pain-related fear as well and whether pain-related fear elicited by imagining a painful movement can spread towards novel, similar but distinct imagined movements. We proposed a new experimental paradigm that integrates the left-right hand judgment task (HJT) with a differential fear conditioning procedure. During Acquisition, one hand posture (CS+) was consistently followed by a painful electrocutaneous stimulus (pain-US) and another hand posture (CS-) was not. Participants were instructed to make left-right judgments, which involve mentally rotating their own hand to match the displayed hand postures (i.e., motor imagery). During Generalization, participants were presented with a series of novel hand postures with six grades of perceptual similarity to the CS+ (generalization stimuli; GSs). Finally, during Extinction, the CS+ hand posture was no longer reinforced. The results showed that (1) a painful hand posture triggers fear and increased US-expectancy as compared to a nonpainful hand posture, (2) this pain-related fear spreads to similar but distinct hand postures following a generalization gradient, and subsequently, (3) it can be successfully reduced during extinction. These effects were apparent in the verbal ratings, but not in the startle measures. Because of the lack of effect in the startle measures, we cannot draw firm conclusions about whether the "imagined movements" (i.e., motor imagery of the hand postures) gained associative strength rather than the hand posture pictures itself. From a clinical perspective, basic research into generalization of pain-related fear triggered by covert CSs such as intentions, imagined movements and movement-related cognitions might further our

  18. Conditioned Fear Extinction and Generalization in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ORGANIZATION: Emory University Atlanta, GA 30322-1018 REPORT DATE: August 2012 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Report PREPARED FOR: U.S...To) 1 August 2011–31 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conditioned Fear Extinction and Generalization in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder...TT   100   RS4606   RGS2   CC   109   CG   88   GG   28   RS4680   COMT   AA   44   GA   99   GG   83   RS4875113

  19. A general and facile one-pot process of isothiocyanates from amines under aqueous conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nan; Li, Bin; Shao, Jianping; Hu, Baoxiang; Shen, Zhenlu

    2012-01-01

    Summary A general and facile one-pot protocol for the preparation of a broad range of alkyl and aryl isothiocyanates has been developed from their corresponding primary amines under aqueous conditions. This synthetic process involves an in situ generation of a dithiocarbamate salt from the amine substrate by reacting with CS2 followed by elimination to form the isothiocyanate product with cyanuric acid as the desulfurylation reagent. The choice of solvent is of decisive importance for the successful formation of the dithiocarbamate salt particularly for highly electron-deficient substrates. This novel and economical method is suitable for scale-up activities. PMID:22423272

  20. Study on pure IL VIV of a free spanning pipeline under general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wan-hai; Xu, Jing-yu; Wu, Ying-xiang; Ji, Chun-ning

    2017-03-01

    Pipeline spans may occur due to natural seabed irregularities or local scour of bed sediment. The pure in-line (IL) vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) analysis of the free spans is an important subject for design of pipeline in uneven seabed. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of pure IL VIV of a free spanning pipeline under general boundary conditions. An IL wake oscillator model which can describe the coupling of pipeline structure and fluctuating drag is introduced and employed. The coupled partial differential equations of structure and wake are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations using two-mode Galerkin method. Some case studies are presented and thoroughly discussed in order to investigate the effects of internal fluid, axial force and boundary conditions on the pure IL VIV.

  1. Conditional Akaike information under generalized linear and proportional hazards mixed models

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, M. C.; Overholser, R.; Xu, R.; Vaida, F.

    2011-01-01

    We study model selection for clustered data, when the focus is on cluster specific inference. Such data are often modelled using random effects, and conditional Akaike information was proposed in Vaida & Blanchard (2005) and used to derive an information criterion under linear mixed models. Here we extend the approach to generalized linear and proportional hazards mixed models. Outside the normal linear mixed models, exact calculations are not available and we resort to asymptotic approximations. In the presence of nuisance parameters, a profile conditional Akaike information is proposed. Bootstrap methods are considered for their potential advantage in finite samples. Simulations show that the performance of the bootstrap and the analytic criteria are comparable, with bootstrap demonstrating some advantages for larger cluster sizes. The proposed criteria are applied to two cancer datasets to select models when the cluster-specific inference is of interest. PMID:22822261

  2. Axisymmetric Stagnation-Point Flow with a General Slip Boundary Condition over a Lubricated Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, M.; K., Mahmood; Z., Abbas

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of a viscous fluid over a lubricated surface by imposing a generalized slip condition at the fluid-fluid interface. The power law non-Newtonian fluid is considered as a lubricant. The lubrication layer is thin and assumed to have a variable thickness. The transformed nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the flow is linearized using quasilinearization. The method of superposition is adopted to convert the boundary value problem into an initial value problem and the solution is obtained numerically by using the fourth-order Runge—Kutta method. The results are discussed to see the influence of pertinent parameters. The limiting cases of Navier and no-slip boundary conditions are obtained as the special cases and found to be in excellent agreement with the existing results in the literature.

  3. Generalized conditional symmetries and related solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation

    SciTech Connect

    Cimpoiasu, Rodica

    2014-04-15

    The generalized conditional symmetry (GCS) method is applied to a specific case of the Grad–Shafranov (GS) equation, in cylindrical geometry assuming the existence of an axial symmetry. We investigate the conditions that yield the GS equation admitting a special class of second-order GCSs. The determining system for the unknown arbitrary functions is solved in several special cases and new exact solutions, including solitary waves, different in form and structure from the ones obtained using other nonclassical symmetry methods, are pointed out. Several plots of the level sets or flux surfaces of the new solutions as well as surfaces with vanishing flow are displayed. The obtained solutions can be useful for studying plasma equilibrium, transport phenomena, and magnetohydrodynamic stability.

  4. Generalized second-order slip boundary condition for nonequilibrium gas flows.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaoli; Qin, Jishun; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-01-01

    It is a challenging task to model nonequilibrium gas flows within a continuum-fluid framework. Recently some extended hydrodynamic models in the Navier-Stokes formulation have been developed for such flows. A key problem in the application of such models is that suitable boundary conditions must be specified. In the present work, a generalized second-order slip boundary condition is developed in which an effective mean-free path considering the wall effect is used. By combining this slip scheme with certain extended Navier-Stokes constitutive relation models, we obtained a method for nonequilibrium gas flows with solid boundaries. The method is applied to several rarefied gas flows involving planar or curved walls, including the Kramers' problem, the planar Poiseuille flow, the cylindrical Couette flow, and the low speed flow over a sphere. The results show that the proposed method is able to give satisfied predictions, indicating the good potential of the method for nonequilibrium flows.

  5. Most general flat space boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout; Riegler, Max

    2017-09-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically flat boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity in the sense that we allow for the maximal number of independent free functions in the metric, leading to six towers of boundary charges and six associated chemical potentials. We find as associated asymptotic symmetry algebra an isl(2)k current algebra. Restricting the charges and chemical potentials in various ways recovers previous cases, such as bms3 , Heisenberg or Detournay–Riegler, all of which can be obtained as contractions of corresponding AdS3 constructions. Finally, we show that a flat space contraction can induce an additional Carrollian contraction. As examples we provide two novel sets of boundary conditions for Carroll gravity.

  6. General conditions for lepton flavor violation at tree- and 1-loop level

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Alexander; Merle, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we compile the necessary and sufficient conditions a theory has to fulfill in order to ensure general lepton flavor conservation, in the spirit of the Glashow-Weinberg criteria for the absence of flavor-changing neutral currents. At tree-level, interactions involving electrically neutral and doubly charged bosons are investigated. We also investigate flavor changes at 1-loop level. In all cases we find that the essential theoretical requirements can be reduced to a few basic conditions on the particle content and the coupling matrices. For 1-loop diagrams, we also investigate how exactly a GIM-suppression can occur that will strongly reduce the rates of lepton flavor violating effects even if they are in principle present in a certain theory. In all chapters, we apply our criteria to several models which can in general induce lepton flavor violation, e.g. LR-symmetric models or the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) In the end we give a summarizing table of the obtained results, thereby demonstrating the applicability of our criteria to a large class of models beyond the standard model.

  7. Analysis of laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells with general boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.

    1974-01-01

    This report develops: (1) a refined approximate theory for the static and dynamic analyses of finite, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells with general boundary conditions; (2) an exact three-dimensional analysis of simply supported, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells, and (3) a thin-shell theory for laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells. In the refined approximate theory the displacements are assumed piecewise linear across the thickness and the effects of transverse shear deformations and transverse normal stress are included. A variational approach is followed to obtain the governing differential equations and boundary conditions. A general solution of the governing differential equations is also presented. The results obtained by using the refined approximate theory and the thin-shell theory are compared with the exact results for the case of free vibrations of simply supported, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells. The refined approximate theory is very accurate, even for thick shells with short nodal distances, whereas thin-shell theory is reasonably accurate only for thin shells at moderate nodal distances and wave number less than 2.

  8. Design approach for systems with toroidal optical elements featuring a generalized Scheimpflug condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Peter; Eckstein, Johannes; Gao, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Toroidal elements are special aspheric elements with a missing axial section. Such elements consist of several refractive and/or reflective optical surfaces which are generally tilted with respect to a base ray. This base ray replaces the optical axis in ordinary centered systems. Toroidal elements can be efficiently applied e.g. in LED illumination systems or in optical metrology systems. For these elements there is a lack of design principles, only very few approaches like the Coddington equations are known. In this paper an efficient method is presented that facilitates the design when the requirement or knowledge of the orientation of the image plane is necessary, i.e. where a generalized Scheimpflug condition is needed. In more general terms, the method results in imaging properties of second order expansion, but the method itself is linear. Therefore, the complexity of the design process is considerably reduced. Additionally it is shown how the individual surfaces of the toroidal element can be easily aspherized for sharp imaging omitting tedious optimization. The strength of the design method is demonstrated for a novel application where a complex toroidal element is required for rotationally symmetric triangulation integrated in a vision systems and for a high aperture illumination element based on TIR for LEDs.

  9. "Familiarity-based stimulus generalization of conditioned suppression": Correction to Robinson, Whitt, and Jones (2017).

    PubMed

    2017-07-01

    Reports an error in "Familiarity-based stimulus generalization of conditioned suppression" by Jasper Robinson, Emma J. Whitt and Peter M. Jones (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 2017[Apr], Vol 43[2], 159-170). The article was incorrectly published under American Psychological Association copyright. The authors should have retained copyright of this article under the Creative Commons Attribution License. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-15338-002.) We report that stimulus novelty/familiarity is able to modulate stimulus generalization and discuss the theoretical implications of novelty/familiarity coding. Rats in Skinner boxes received clicker → shock pairings before generalization testing to a tone. Before clicker training, different groups of rats received preexposure treatments designed to systematically modulate the clicker and the tone's novelty and familiarity. Rats whose preexposure matched novelty/familiarity (i.e., either both or neither clicker and tone were preexposed) showed enhanced suppression to the tone relative to rats whose preexposure mixed novelty/familiarity (i.e., only clicker or tone was preexposed). This was not the result of sensory preconditioning to clicker and tone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Iterative generalized synchrosqueezing transform for fault diagnosis of wind turbine planetary gearbox under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming

    2015-02-01

    The synchrosqueezing transform can effectively improve the readability of time-frequency representation of mono-component and constant frequency signals. However, for multi-component and time-variant frequency signals, it still suffers from time-frequency blurs. In order to address this issue, the synchrosqueezing transform is improved using iterative generalized demodulation. Firstly, the complex nonstationary signal is decomposed into mono-components of constant frequency by iterative generalized demodulation. Then, the instantaneous frequency of each mono-component is accurately estimated via the synchrosqueezing transform, by exploiting its merit of enhanced time-frequency resolution. Finally, the time-frequency representation of the original signal is obtained by superposing the time-frequency representations of all the mono-components with restored instantaneous frequency. This proposed method generalizes the synchrosqueezing transform to multi-component and time-variant frequency signals, and it has fine time-frequency resolution and is free of cross-term interferences. The proposed method was validated using both numerically simulated and lab experimental vibration signals of planetary gearboxes under nonstationary conditions. The time-variant planetary gearbox characteristic frequencies were effectively identified, and the gear faults were correctly diagnosed.

  11. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015), 10.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  13. Iterative generalized time-frequency reassignment for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowang; Feng, Zhipeng

    2016-12-01

    Planetary gearboxes are widely used in many sorts of machinery, for its large transmission ratio and high load bearing capacity in a compact structure. Their fault diagnosis relies on effective identification of fault characteristic frequencies. However, in addition to the vibration complexity caused by intricate mechanical kinematics, volatile external conditions result in time-varying running speed and/or load, and therefore nonstationary vibration signals. This usually leads to time-varying complex fault characteristics, and adds difficulty to planetary gearbox fault diagnosis. Time-frequency analysis is an effective approach to extracting the frequency components and their time variation of nonstationary signals. Nevertheless, the commonly used time-frequency analysis methods suffer from poor time-frequency resolution as well as outer and inner interferences, which hinder accurate identification of time-varying fault characteristic frequencies. Although time-frequency reassignment improves the time-frequency readability, it is essentially subject to the constraints of mono-component and symmetric time-frequency distribution about true instantaneous frequency. Hence, it is still susceptible to erroneous energy reallocation or even generates pseudo interferences, particularly for multi-component signals of highly nonlinear instantaneous frequency. In this paper, to overcome the limitations of time-frequency reassignment, we propose an improvement with fine time-frequency resolution and free from interferences for highly nonstationary multi-component signals, by exploiting the merits of iterative generalized demodulation. The signal is firstly decomposed into mono-components of constant frequency by iterative generalized demodulation. Time-frequency reassignment is then applied to each generalized demodulated mono-component, obtaining a fine time-frequency distribution. Finally, the time-frequency distribution of each signal component is restored and superposed to

  14. Assessment of general condition of fish inhabiting a moderately contaminated aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Dragun, Zrinka; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir; Valić, Damir; Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Krasnići, Nesrete; Strižak, Željka; Kurtović, Božidar; Teskeredžić, Emin; Raspor, Biserka

    2013-07-01

    The assessment of general condition of fish in the moderately contaminated aquatic environment was performed on the European chub (Squalius cephalus) caught in September 2009 in the Sutla River in Croatia. Although increases of the contaminants in this river (trace and macro elements, bacteria), as well as physico-chemical changes (decreased oxygen saturation, increased conductivity), were still within the environmentally acceptable limits, their concurrent presence in the river water possibly could have induced stress in aquatic organisms. Several biometric parameters, metallothionein (MT), and total cytosolic protein concentrations in chub liver and gills were determined as indicators of chub condition. Microbiological and parasitological analyses were performed with the aim to evaluate chub predisposition for bacterial bioconcentration and parasitic infections. At upstream river sections with decreased oxygen saturation (~50%), decreased Fulton condition indices were observed (FCI: 0.94 g cm(-3)), whereas gonadosomatic (GSI: 2.4%), hepatosomatic (HSI: 1.31%), and gill indices (1.3%) were increased compared to oxygen rich downstream river sections (dissolved oxygen ~90%; FCI: 1.02 g cm(-3); GSI: 0.6%; HIS: ~1.08%; gill index: 1.0%). Slight increase of MT concentrations in both organs at upstream (gills: 1.67 mg g(-1); liver: 1.63 mg g(-1)) compared to downstream sites (gills: 1.56 mg g(-1); liver: 1.23 mg g(-1)), could not be explained by induction caused by increased metal levels in the river water, but presumably by physiological changes caused by general stress due to low oxygen saturation. In addition, at the sampling site characterized by inorganic and fecal contamination, increased incidence of bacterial bioconcentration in internal organs (liver, spleen, kidney) was observed, as well as decrease of intestinal parasitic infections, which is a common finding for metal-contaminated waters. Based on our results, it could be concluded that even

  15. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  16. General conditions for maximal violation of non-contextuality in discrete and continuous variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laversanne-Finot, A.; Ketterer, A.; Barros, M. R.; Walborn, S. P.; Coudreau, T.; Keller, A.; Milman, P.

    2017-04-01

    The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. An important property of such observables is that their expectation value can be expressed in terms of probabilities for obtaining two exclusive outcomes. Examples of such inequalities have been constructed using either observables with a dichotomic spectrum or using periodic functions obtained from displacement operators in phase space. Here we identify the general conditions on the spectral decomposition of observables demonstrating state independent contextuality of quantum mechanics. Our results not only unify existing strategies for maximal violation of state independent non-contextuality inequalities but also lead to new scenarios enabling such violations. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a state independent maximal violation of non-contextuality in the Peres–Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions.

  17. Contextual conditioning in rats as an animal model for generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Laura; Vansteenwegen, Debora; van Kuyck, Kris; Gabriëls, Loes; Nuttin, Bart

    2011-06-01

    Animal models of psychiatric disorders are important translational tools for exploring new treatment options and gaining more insight into the disease. Thus far, there is no systematically validated animal model for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a severely impairing and difficult-to-treat disease. In this review, we propose contextual conditioning (CC) as an animal model for GAD. We argue that this model has sufficient face validity (there are several symptom similarities), predictive validity (it responds to clinically effective treatments), and construct validity (the underlying mechanisms are comparable). Although the refinement and validation of an animal model is a never-ending process, we want to give a concise overview of the currently available evidence. We suggest that the CC model might be a valuable preclinical tool to enhance the development of new treatment strategies and our understanding of GAD.

  18. General condition biomarkers in relation to contaminant burden in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Kleinkauf, Anne; Connor, Leslie; Swarbreck, David; Levene, Carolyn; Walker, Peter; Johnson, Paul J; Leah, Richard T

    2004-07-01

    In respect to the differences found for vitellogenin (VTG) expression in male and immature flounder, general biological aspects and a set of chemical residues in the liver were compared between flounder from the Mersey and Dee estuaries (UK). Except for alpha-HCH, all pollutant chemicals analysed in flounder liver differed highly significantly between Mersey and Dee fish. Overall, the higher liver contaminant concentrations were found in VTG-induced Mersey flounder. The biomarkers studied were not found to indicate significant differences between Mersey and Dee fish. However, when all of the minor differences are taken into consideration, it appears that the slightly lower growth rates after age 2 in Mersey flounder, lower gonadosomatic index in both mature male and female animals, less precise seasonal patterns of condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index and gonadosomatic index, and lower CF in immature Mersey fish may well be signs of a contaminant-affected Mersey population.

  19. Testing the Relative Performance of Data Adaptive Prediction Algorithms: A Generalized Test of Conditional Risk Differences

    PubMed Central

    Polley, Eric C.; Briggs, Farren B. S.; van der Laan, Mark J.; Hubbard, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the relative fit of competing models can be used to address many different scientific questions. In classical statistics one can, if appropriate, use likelihood ratio tests and information based criterion, whereas clinical medicine has tended to rely on comparisons of fit metrics like C-statistics. However, for many data adaptive modelling procedures such approaches are not suitable. In these cases, statisticians have used cross-validation, which can make inference challenging. In this paper we propose a general approach that focuses on the “conditional” risk difference (conditional on the model fits being fixed) for the improvement in prediction risk. Specifically, we derive a Wald-type test statistic and associated confidence intervals for cross-validated test sets utilizing the independent validation within cross-validation in conjunction with a test for multiple comparisons. We show that this test maintains proper Type I Error under the null fit, and can be used as a general test of relative fit for any semi-parametric model alternative. We apply the test to a candidate gene study to test for the association of a set of genes in a genetic pathway. PMID:26529567

  20. A general CFT model for antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 ladders with Mobius boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofano, Gerardo; Marotta, Vincenzo; Naddeo, Adele; Niccoli, Giuliano

    2008-12-01

    We show how the low energy properties of the two-leg XXZ spin-1/2 ladders with general anisotropy parameter Δ on closed geometries can be accounted for in the framework of the m-reduction procedure developed previously (Cristofano et al 2000 Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 547; Cristofano et al 2000 Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 1679; Cristofano et al 2002 Nucl. Phys. B 641 547; Cristofano et al 2004 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP06(2004) 056). In the limit of quasi-decoupled chains, a conformal field theory (CFT) with central charge c = 2 is derived and its ability to describe the model with different boundary conditions is shown. Special emphasis is given to the Mobius boundary conditions which generate a topological defect corresponding to non-trivial single-spinon excitations. Then, in the case of the two-leg XXX ladders we discuss in detail the role of various perturbations in determining the renormalization group flow starting from the ultraviolet (UV) critical point with c = 2.

  1. General covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity without projectability condition and its applications to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao; Shu, Fu-Wen; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Anzhong

    2012-02-01

    We consider an extended theory of Horava-Lifshitz gravity with the detailed balance condition softly breaking, but without the projectability condition. With the former, the number of independent coupling constants is significantly reduced. With the latter and by extending the original foliation-preserving diffeomorphism symmetry Diff(M,F) to include a local U(1) symmetry, the spin-0 gravitons are eliminated. Thus, all the problems related to them disappear, including the instability, strong coupling, and different speeds in the gravitational sector. When the theory couples to a scalar field, we find that the scalar field is not only stable in both the ultraviolet and infrared, but also free of the strong coupling problem, because of the presence of high-order spatial derivative terms of the scalar field. Furthermore, applying the theory to cosmology, we find that due to the additional U(1) symmetry, the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe is necessarily flat. We also investigate the scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations of the flat FRW universe, and derive the general linearized field equations for each kind of the perturbations.

  2. Galvanic Skin Response-Orienting Reflex and Semantic Conditioning and Generalization with Different Unconditioned Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltzman, Irving; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of different-intensity unconditioned stimuli as well as generalization to related and unrelated test words. Its results indicate that semantic generalization is not a consequence of mediated generalization as traditionally conceived. (Editor/RK)

  3. Relative efficiency of joint-model and full-conditional-specification multiple imputation when conditional models are compatible: The general location model.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Shaun R; Hughes, Rachael A

    2016-09-05

    Estimating the parameters of a regression model of interest is complicated by missing data on the variables in that model. Multiple imputation is commonly used to handle these missing data. Joint model multiple imputation and full-conditional specification multiple imputation are known to yield imputed data with the same asymptotic distribution when the conditional models of full-conditional specification are compatible with that joint model. We show that this asymptotic equivalence of imputation distributions does not imply that joint model multiple imputation and full-conditional specification multiple imputation will also yield asymptotically equally efficient inference about the parameters of the model of interest, nor that they will be equally robust to misspecification of the joint model. When the conditional models used by full-conditional specification multiple imputation are linear, logistic and multinomial regressions, these are compatible with a restricted general location joint model. We show that multiple imputation using the restricted general location joint model can be substantially more asymptotically efficient than full-conditional specification multiple imputation, but this typically requires very strong associations between variables. When associations are weaker, the efficiency gain is small. Moreover, full-conditional specification multiple imputation is shown to be potentially much more robust than joint model multiple imputation using the restricted general location model to mispecification of that model when there is substantial missingness in the outcome variable. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  5. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  6. Semantic Conditioning and Generalization of the Galvanic Skin Response-Orienting Reflex with Overt and Covert Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltzman, Irving; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Uses an innocuous tone as the imperative stimulus, or unconditioned stimulus, as in a forewarned reaction time situation but with no overt response required. Evidence of conditioning and generalization to words is obtained. (Editor/RK)

  7. The Importance of General Self-Efficacy for the Quality of Life of Adolescents with Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Roebroeck, Marij E; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the influence of general self-efficacy perceived by adolescents with chronic conditions and parents on quality of life. This cross-sectional study used the general self-efficacy scale and DISABKIDS condition-generic module to survey adolescents (92/293; 31 %) with type I diabetes, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, cystic fibrosis, kidney/urological conditions, and neuromuscular disorders; and parents (121/293; 41 %). Self perceived and parents' perceived general self-efficacy of adolescents was compared using paired t-tests, and adolescents' quality of life and general self-efficacy were compared among conditions using analysis of variance. Bivariate correlations between general self-efficacy and quality of life were identified, and multiple regression sought predictors of quality of life after controlling for background variables. Social quality of life was lowest among those with neuromuscular disorders. General self-efficacy was highest among adolescents with cystic fibrosis and lowest among those with urological conditions. Parents' perceptions of general self-efficacy were higher than adolescents' (p ≤ 0.05), although absolute differences were small. General self-efficacy perceived by parents and adolescents was related to emotional, physical, and social quality of life. Adolescents' perceived self-efficacy predicted all quality of life domains. Parents' perceptions of the adolescents self-efficacy predicted the adolescents' social quality of life (β = 0.19; p ≤ 0.01). General self-efficacy of adolescents with chronic conditions as perceived by themselves and their parents is important for adolescents' quality of life. Interventions to improve general self-efficacy should benefit quality of life among these adolescents.

  8. [A mourning case that referred with sexual identity disorder secondary to a general medical condition].

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ayşegül; Ceri, Ozge; Tatlidil, Elif; Koçak, Orhan Murat; Soykan, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    D.G. was a 59-year-old male patient who was retired and married, and had 3 children. He reported no psychopathology prior to a myocardial infarction he had in 1996. Following bypass surgery he had erectile dysfunction. Subsequently, gynecomastia developed as a side effect of spironolactone and digoxin treatment. After a long period of depression he claimed was caused by non-adaptation to the changes in his body, he realized differences about himself; he began to feel like a woman. Upon referral to our clinic, he said that he had decided to continue his life as a woman and wished to get pink colored (as opposed to blue for male) identity card issued by the Turkish Government for female Turkish citizens. He reported that his wish was to learn how to become a woman. This is the first case in the medical literature defined as sexual identity disorder secondary to a general medical condition. The case is discussed in terms of pathological grief reaction.

  9. A conditionally exactly solvable generalization of the inverse square root potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishkhanyan, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    We present a conditionally exactly solvable singular potential for the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation which involves the exactly solvable inverse square root potential. Each of the two fundamental solutions that compose the general solution of the problem is given by a linear combination with non-constant coefficients of two confluent hypergeometric functions. Discussing the bound-state wave functions vanishing both at infinity and in the origin, we derive the exact equation for the energy spectrum which is written using two Hermite functions of non-integer order. In specific auxiliary variables this equation becomes a mathematical equation that does not refer to a specific physical context discussed. In the two-dimensional space of these auxiliary variables the roots of this equation draw a countable infinite set of open curves with hyperbolic asymptotes. We present an analytic description of these curves by a transcendental algebraic equation for the involved variables. The intersections of the curves thus constructed with a certain cubic curve provide a highly accurate description of the energy spectrum.

  10. Diffusion-induced growth of nanowires: Generalized boundary conditions and self-consistent kinetic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Hervieu, Yu. Yu.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical analysis of the diffusion-induced growth of "vapor-liquid-solid" nanowires, based on the stationary equations with generalized boundary conditions. We discuss why and how the earlier results are modified when the adatom chemical potential is discontinuous at the nanowire base. Several simplified models for the adatom diffusion flux are discussed, yielding the 1 /Rp radius dependence of the length, with p ranging from 0.5 to 2. The self-consistent approach is used to couple the diffusion transport with the kinetics of 2D nucleation under the droplet. This leads to a new growth equation that contains only two dimensional parameters and the power exponents p and q, where q=1 or 2 depends on the nucleus position. We show that this equation describes the size-dependent depression of the growth rate of narrow nanowires much better than the Gibbs-Thomson correction in several important cases. Overall, our equation fits very well the experimental data on the length-radius correlations of III-V and group IV nanowires obtained by different epitaxy techniques.

  11. The quality of life in acne: a comparison with general medical conditions using generic questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Mallon, E; Newton, J N; Klassen, A; Stewart-Brown, S L; Ryan, T J; Finlay, A Y

    1999-04-01

    Skin diseases such as acne are sometimes thought of as unimportant, even trivial, when compared with diseases of other organ systems. To address this point directly, validated generic questionnaires were used to assess morbidity in acne patients and compare it with morbidity in patients with other chronic diseases. For 111 acne patients referred to a dermatologist, quality of life was measured using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Rosenberg's measure of self-esteem, a version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Clinical severity was measured using the Leeds Acne Grade. Population quality of life data for the SF-36 instrument were available from a random sample of adult local residents (n = 9334) some of whom reported a variety of long-standing disabling diseases. All quality of life instruments showed substantial deficits for acne patients that correlated with each other but not with clinically assessed acne severity. The acne patients (a relatively severely affected group) reported levels of social, psychological and emotional problems that were as great as those reported by patients with chronic disabling asthma, epilepsy, diabetes, back pain or arthritis. Acne is not a trivial disease in comparison with other chronic conditions. This should be recognized in the allocation of health care resources.

  12. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kinugawa, Tohru

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion (d{sup 2}X)/(dt{sup 2}) +(dU)/(dX) =0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27–29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A=(1/√(π))∫{sub 0}{sup E}dU/√(E−U) is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = T{sub A}(E) + T{sub N}(E) where τ is a constant period, T{sub A}(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and T{sub N}(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function X{sub A}(U) is determined from T{sub A}(E) via the Abel-transform relation X{sub A}(U) ∝ A[T{sub A}(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential U{sub N}(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing

  13. Early Career Mathematics Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Do Teacher Education, Teaching Experience, and Working Conditions Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…

  14. Early Career Mathematics Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Do Teacher Education, Teaching Experience, and Working Conditions Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…

  15. Allergic conditions in a general practice in Nairobi: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Souza, M

    1992-12-01

    This is a study of 574 randomly selected patients seen in a private practice. The incidence of allergic conditions was found to be 18.8%. The distribution of the allergic conditions was as follows: 35 suffered from bronchial asthma, 33 had dermatological allergic conditions, and 30 were reported as having drug allergies. A significant number of these patients had multiple allergic conditions.

  16. Generalized versus patient-specific inflow boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics simulations of cerebral aneurysmal hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Jansen, I G H; Schneiders, J J; Potters, W V; van Ooij, P; van den Berg, R; van Bavel, E; Marquering, H A; Majoie, C B L M

    2014-08-01

    Attempts have been made to associate intracranial aneurysmal hemodynamics with aneurysm growth and rupture status. Hemodynamics in aneurysms is traditionally determined with computational fluid dynamics by using generalized inflow boundary conditions in a parent artery. Recently, patient-specific inflow boundary conditions are being implemented more frequently. Our purpose was to compare intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics based on generalized versus patient-specific inflow boundary conditions. For 36 patients, geometric models of aneurysms were determined by using 3D rotational angiography. 2D phase-contrast MR imaging velocity measurements of the parent artery were performed. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed twice: once by using patient-specific phase-contrast MR imaging velocity profiles and once by using generalized Womersley profiles as inflow boundary conditions. Resulting mean and maximum wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index values were analyzed, and hemodynamic characteristics were qualitatively compared. Quantitative analysis showed statistically significant differences for mean and maximum wall shear stress values between both inflow boundary conditions (P < .001). Qualitative assessment of hemodynamic characteristics showed differences in 21 cases: high wall shear stress location (n = 8), deflection location (n = 3), lobulation wall shear stress (n = 12), and/or vortex and inflow jet stability (n = 9). The latter showed more instability for the generalized inflow boundary conditions in 7 of 9 patients. Using generalized and patient-specific inflow boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics results in different wall shear stress magnitudes and hemodynamic characteristics. Generalized inflow boundary conditions result in more vortices and inflow jet instabilities. This study emphasizes the necessity of patient-specific inflow boundary conditions for calculation of hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms by using

  17. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-01

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  18. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-07

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  19. Professional interventions for general practitioners on the management of musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed

    Tzortziou Brown, Victoria; Underwood, Martin; Mohamed, Noman; Westwood, Olwyn; Morrissey, Dylan

    2016-05-06

    Musculoskeletal conditions require particular management skills. Identification of interventions which are effective in equipping general practitioners (GPs) with such necessary skills could translate to improved health outcomes for patients and reduced healthcare and societal costs. To determine the effectiveness of professional interventions for GPs that aim to improve the management of musculoskeletal conditions in primary care.  We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2010, Issue 2; MEDLINE, Ovid (1950 - October 2013); EMBASE, Ovid (1980 - Ocotber 2013); CINAHL, EbscoHost (1980 - November 2013), and the EPOC Specialised Register. We conducted cited reference searches using ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar; and handsearched selected issues of Arthritis and Rheumatism and Primary Care-Clinics in Office Practice. The latest search was conducted in November 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) studies of professional interventions for GPs, taking place in a community setting, aiming to improve the management (including diagnosis and treatment) of musculoskeletal conditions and reporting any objective measure of GP behaviour, patient or economic outcomes. We considered professional interventions of any length, duration, intensity and complexity compared with active or inactive controls. Two review authors independently abstracted all data. We calculated the risk difference (RD) and risk ratio (RR) of compliance with desired practice for dichotomous outcomes, and the mean difference (MD) and standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous outcomes. We investigated whether the direction of the targeted behavioural change affects the effectiveness of interventions. Thirty studies met our inclusion criteria.From 11 studies on osteoporosis, meta-analysis of five studies (high

  20. General coalescence conditions for the exact wave functions: Higher-order relations for two-particle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Yusaku I.; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-07-28

    We derived the necessary conditions that the non-relativistic time-independent exact wave functions for two-particle systems must satisfy at a coalescence (or cusp) point. Some of such necessary conditions are already known to be Kato's cusp condition (CC) and Rassolov and Chipman's CC. In the present study, we extended and generalized those conditions, calling them generalized coalescence conditions (GCCs). Kato's CC and Rassolov and Chipman's CC were shown to be specific cases included in the GCCs. The GCCs can be applied not only to Coulombic systems but also to any systems where the interaction between two particles is represented in a power series of the inter-particle distance. We confirmed the correctness of our derivation of these GCCs by applying the free complement wave functions of a hydrogen atom in ground and excited states, a harmonic oscillator, and a system with an interacting potential of V=r.

  1. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-5 General... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty...

  2. Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records.

    PubMed

    Levine, Carrie R; Cogbill, Charles V; Collins, Brandon M; Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; North, Malcolm P; Restaino, Christina M; Safford, Hugh D; Stephens, Scott L; Battles, John J

    2017-07-01

    Historical forest conditions are often used to inform contemporary management goals because historical forests are considered to be resilient to ecological disturbances. The General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries provide regionally quasi-contiguous data sets of historical forests across much of the Western United States. Multiple methods exist for estimating tree density from point-based sampling such as the GLO surveys, including distance-based and area-based approaches. Area-based approaches have been applied in California mixed-conifer forests but their estimates have not been validated. To assess the accuracy and precision of plotless density estimators with potential for application to GLO data in this region, we imposed a GLO sampling scheme on six mapped forest stands of known densities (159-784 trees/ha) in the Sierra Nevada in California, USA, and Baja California Norte, Mexico. We compared three distance-based plotless density estimators (Cottam, Pollard, and Morisita) as well as two Voronoi area (VA) estimators, the Delincé and mean harmonic Voronoi density (MHVD), to the true densities. We simulated sampling schemes of increasing intensity to assess sampling error. The relative error (RE) of density estimates for the GLO sampling scheme ranged from 0.36 to 4.78. The least biased estimate of tree density in every stand was obtained with the Morisita estimator and the most biased was obtained with the MHVD estimator. The MHVD estimates of tree density were 1.2-3.8 times larger than the true densities and performed best in stands subject to fire exclusion for 100 yr. The Delincé approach obtained accurate estimates of density, implying that the Voronoi approach is theoretically sound but that its application in the MHVD was flawed. The misapplication was attributed to two causes: (1) the use of a crown scaling factor that does not correct for the number of trees sampled and (2) the persistent underestimate of the true

  3. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  4. Stimulus preexposure reduces generalization of conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol flavors in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Chotro, M Gabriela; Alonso, Gumersinda

    2003-02-01

    Results of 3 experiments showed that infant rats (age 13-17 days) generalize conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol tastes such as a mixture of sucrose and quinine, apple cider vinegar, or coffee. Nonreinforced preexposure to those tastes reduced generalized aversions between them. Generalization between alcohol and sucrose-quinine was reduced not only after preexposure to both tastes, but also when only the nonconditioned taste was preexposed, whereas with alcohol and vinegar, both tastes had to be preexposed to obtain that effect. In no case was generalization reduced when only the to-be-conditioned taste was preexposed. Previous experience with alcohol alone, as well as with similar gustatory stimuli, may enhance subjects' ability to differentiate them during infantile stages in rats.

  5. General vulnerability to stuttering: The experience of stuttering and conditions bringing about invulnerability.

    PubMed

    Briley, P M; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-08-01

    General vulnerability to stuttering is the broad awareness of stuttering and the ever-present, experiential sense of a person who stutters (PWS). It is defined by stuttering in all its forms and the awareness of its presence, both in moments of stuttering and moments of perceivably fluent speech. Under the heading of general vulnerability to stuttering is specific vulnerability to stuttering, which includes the actual events of stuttering (i.e., overt symptoms, covert symptoms, subperceptual stuttering, and anticipation of stuttering). The differentiation between the two is that specific vulnerability requires a specific moment of stuttering where general vulnerability does not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Generalization of verbal conditioning to verbal and nonverbal behavior: group therapy with chronic psychiatric patients1

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Dorothy A.; Briddell, Dan W.; Wilson, G. Terence

    1974-01-01

    Twelve chronic hospitalized female patients received token reinforcement contingent on two separate classes of verbalizations: (a) positive statements about optional activities available in the hospital setting, and (b) positive statements about people. Cross-class generalization of reinforced verbal responses about activities to overt behavior was tested by actual participation in activities; within-class generalization of verbal responses about people to verbalizations in another stimulus setting was assessed in a structured interview situation. A multiple baseline design with contingency reversals was employed to demonstrate experimental control of both classes of verbalizations in the group sessions. Positive statements about activities generalized to actual participation in activities, while generalization of positive statements about people to verbalization in the extragroup setting did not occur. PMID:4465377

  7. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions and at high altitude conditions, except for supplemental exhaust emission standards, cold.... Cold temperature NMHC emission standards, as described in § 86.1811-10(g), apply only at low altitude....1810-01(f) and (j), and 86.1811-04(e). (2) For vehicles that comply with the cold temperature NMHC...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles and light-duty trucks fueled by gasoline, diesel, methanol, ethanol, natural gas and liquefied... methanol fueled vehicles are also applicable to Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 ethanol fueled vehicles. (a... low altitude conditions and at high altitude conditions, except for the following standards,...

  9. Derivation and application of a class of generalized impedance boundary conditions, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, J. L.; Senior, T. B. A.; Jin, J.-M.

    1989-01-01

    Boundary conditions involving higher order derivatives are presented by simulating surfaces whose reflection coefficients are known analytically, numerically, or experimentally. Procedures for determining the coefficients of the derivatives are discussed, along with the effect of displacing the surface where the boundary conditions are applied. Provided the coefficients satisfy a duality relation, equivalent forms of the boundary conditions involving tangential field components are deduced, and these provide the natural extension to non-planar surfaces. As an illustration, the simulation of metal-backed uniform and three-layer dielectric coatings is given. It is shown that fourth order conditions are capable of providing an accurate simulation for the uniform coating at least a quarter of a wavelength in thickness. Provided, though, some compromise in accuracy is acceptable, it is also shown that a third order condition may be sufficient for practical purposes when simulating uniform coatings.

  10. Experimental study on the optimization of general conditions for a free-flow electrophoresis device with a thermoelectric cooler.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Yang, Cheng-Zhang; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Jin, Xin-Qiao

    2014-12-01

    With a given free-flow electrophoresis device, reasonable conditions (electric field strength, carrier buffer conductivity, and flow rate) are crucial for an optimized separation. However, there has been no experimental study on how to choose reasonable general conditions for a free-flow electrophoresis device with a thermoelectric cooler in view of Joule heat generation. Herein, comparative experiments were carried out to propose the selection procedure of general conditions in this study. The experimental results demonstrated that appropriate conditions were (i) <67 V/cm electric field strength; (ii) lower than 1.3 mS/cm carrier buffer conductivity (Tris-HCl: 20 mM Tris was titrated by HCl to pH 8.0); and (iii) higher than 3.6 mL/min carrier buffer flow rate. Furthermore, under inappropriate conditions (e.g. 400 V voltage and 40 mM Tris-HCl carrier buffer), the free-flow electrophoresis separation would be destroyed by bubbles caused by more Joule heating. Additionally, a series of applications under the appropriate conditions were performed with samples of model dyes, proteins (bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c), and cells (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The separation results showed that under the appropriate conditions, separation efficiency was obviously better than that in the previous experiments with randomly or empirically selected conditions.

  11. Monosodium glutamate and sweet taste: generalization of conditioned taste aversion between glutamate and sweet stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Heyer, B R; Taylor-Burds, C C; Tran, L H; Delay, E R

    2003-09-01

    Even though monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a prototypical umami substance, previous studies reported that a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to MSG, mixed with amiloride to block the taste of sodium, generalizes to sucrose. These findings suggest that the taste of glutamate mimics the taste of sucrose and raise the question of whether glutamate has a broadly tuned sweet taste component. To test this hypothesis, CTA experiments were conducted to test for generalization between MSG and several sweet stimuli: sucrose, glucose, maltose, saccharin and SC-45647. Strong bidirectional generalization was seen between MSG mixed with amiloride and sucrose, glucose, saccharin and SC-45647. Weak generalization was seen between MSG and maltose, and sucrose and maltose. None of the CTAs generalized to NMDA. These findings support the hypothesis that the taste of MSG has broadly tuned, sweet-like characteristics, possibly due to the convergence of afferent signals for MSG, natural sugars and artificial sweeteners.

  12. On a general class of conditional tests for family-based association studies in genetics: the asymptotic distribution, the conditional power, and optimality considerations.

    PubMed

    Lange, Christoph; Laird, Nan M

    2002-08-01

    Family-based association tests (FBATs) provide simple and powerful tests to detect association between a genetic marker and a disease-susceptibility locus, manifest in subjects by a phenotype or disease trait. Here we propose a new class of conditional tests for family-based association studies that includes most of the established tests and their generalizations. The class of tests is very general; it can be applied to longitudinal and multivariate traits or phenotypes, multiple genetic markers, and many other situations not yet discussed in the literature. For any test in this class, we derive the asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis, the conditional power under any alternative hypothesis, and the optimal offset for single degree of freedom tests. The proposed methodology is illustrated with a genetic study of asthma. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. General medical conditions are associated with delay to treatment in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Bechon, Elisa; Rigardetto, Sylvia; Salvi, Virginio

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with worse physical health. Indeed patients with BPD more frequently suffer from medical conditions such as cardiovascular illness, hypertension, diabetes, hypothyroidism, respiratory disease, liver disease, peptic ulcer, and arthritis. Since some clinical characteristics have been associated with worse course and outcome of BPD, it is possible that they might also bring to an increased medical burden in patients with BPD. The aim of the present report is to assess the prevalence of medical conditions in patients with BPD, and to determine the clinical variables associated with the presence of a medical condition. Charts of patients with BPD I and II were reviewed: socio-demographic and clinical information were collected. Medical conditions were classified by the ICD-10 and grouped according to the Cumulative Illness Rating Scales in: cardiac, vascular, hematopoietic, respiratory, ear/nose/throat, upper and lower gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, neurologic, endocrine/metabolic. The associations between the presence of medical conditions and demographic/clinical variables of BPD were then analyzed. Charts of 309 patients were included in the study. 170 (55%) patients had at least one medical condition. The most common were endocrine/metabolic disease (23%), and vascular disease (21%). Having a medical condition was associated with longer duration of untreated illness and female gender. Patients with BPD have high rates of medical conditions, especially hypertension and metabolic disorders. A longer duration of untreated illness is associated with having a medical condition, probably due to the long-lasting adoption on unhealthy lifestyles not counterbalanced by treatment and psychoeducation. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized conditioned reinforcers in a token economy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized tokens was examined in a token economy. Pigeons could produce and exchange different colored tokens for food, for water, or for food or water. Token production was measured across three phases, which examined: (1) across-session price increases (typical demand curve method); (2) within-session price increases (progressive-ratio, PR, schedule); and (3) concurrent pairwise choices between the token types. Exponential demand curves were fitted to the response data and accounted for over 90% total variance. Demand curve parameter values, Pmax , Omax and α showed that demand was ordered in the following way: food tokens, generalized tokens, water tokens, both in Phase 1 and in Phase 3. This suggests that the preferences were predictable on the basis of elasticity and response output from the demand analysis. Pmax and Omax values failed to consistently predict breakpoints and peak response rates in the PR schedules in Phase 2, however, suggesting limits on a unitary conception of reinforcer efficacy. The patterns of generalized token production and exchange in Phase 3 suggest that the generalized tokens served as substitutes for the specific food and water tokens. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate the utility of behavioral economic concepts in the analysis of generalized reinforcement.

  15. Leadership and cooperation at the general medicine department of LMU Munich: Good grades despite difficult conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schelling, Jörg; Braun, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of general medicine at German universities will increase over the next few years. Consequently, the discussion of teaching content and even more the improvement of the structures within the still small and dependent departments of general medicine are of major importance. The example of our department at LMU Munich shows which challenges for leadership and cooperation result from lack of financial and personnel structure. The project “cooperation culture” that the department has conducted in collaboration with the LMU Center for Leadership and People Management is presented as a means to promote leadership and cooperation. This project can serve as an inspiration for the coordinators of smaller departments of general medicine at other German universities that are also striving to improve their structure and their position within the university. PMID:22205911

  16. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  17. A General and Highly Selective Cobalt-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of N-Heteroarenes under Mild Reaction Conditions.

    PubMed

    Adam, Rosa; Cabrero-Antonino, Jose R; Spannenberg, Anke; Junge, Kathrin; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2017-02-14

    Herein, a general and efficient method for the homogeneous cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of N-heterocycles, under mild reaction conditions, is reported. Key to success is the use of the tetradentate ligand tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine). This non-noble metal catalyst system allows the selective hydrogenation of heteroarenes in the presence of a broad range of other sensitive reducible groups.

  18. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  19. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  20. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...

  1. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  2. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  3. A General Systems Approach to the Development and Maintenance of Opitmal Learning Conditions. Professional Paper 1-68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; Kopstein, Felix F.

    In the context that a general systems approach to the development and maintenance of optimal learning conditions is a point of view rather than a doctrine, two empirical examples are given. To illustrate the desirability of the systems-like approach in studying the nature of learning, the organisms chosen were representative of two widely separate…

  4. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... strategies are demonstrated to be necessary to protect the vehicle occupants, engine, or emission control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... strategies are demonstrated to be necessary to protect the vehicle occupants, engine, or emission control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... strategies are demonstrated to be necessary to protect the vehicle occupants, engine, or emission control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... strategies are demonstrated to be necessary to protect the vehicle occupants, engine, or emission control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and...

  8. Conditioning- and Time-Dependent Increases in Context Fear and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Andrew M.; Mehta, Nehali; Lu, Bryan; Amir, Dorsa; Livingston, Briana; Santarelli, Anthony; Zhuravka, Irina; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    A prominent feature of fear memories and anxiety disorders is that they endure across extended periods of time. Here, we examine how the severity of the initial fear experience influences incubation, generalization, and sensitization of contextual fear memories across time. Adult rats were presented with either five, two, one, or zero shocks (1.2…

  9. Conditioning- and Time-Dependent Increases in Context Fear and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Andrew M.; Mehta, Nehali; Lu, Bryan; Amir, Dorsa; Livingston, Briana; Santarelli, Anthony; Zhuravka, Irina; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    A prominent feature of fear memories and anxiety disorders is that they endure across extended periods of time. Here, we examine how the severity of the initial fear experience influences incubation, generalization, and sensitization of contextual fear memories across time. Adult rats were presented with either five, two, one, or zero shocks (1.2…

  10. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  12. Generalized shock conditions and the contact discontinuity in the Hall-magnetohydrodynamics model

    SciTech Connect

    Hameiri, Eliezer

    2013-02-15

    It is shown that shocks and contact discontinuities in the Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) model must satisfy solvability conditions that replace some of the familiar Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions when the latter do not apply due to singular behavior of fluxes of conserved quantities. Some of these conditions depend on the larger topology of the plasma and magnetic field and are not merely 'local.' The contact discontinuity which separates two adjoining plasma regions or plasma and vacuum regions is the simplest case where the new jump conditions are applicable and is discussed for a toroidal plasma with sheared magnetic field such as the tokamak, but with no initial mass flow. It is proven that a static discontinuous tokamak-like equilibrium is linearly stable in the HMHD model if it is linearly stable within the ideal magnetohydrodynamics model, provided that the electron pressure depends only on the density, and some other restrictions on the ratio of pressure to density gradients also apply. When the electron pressure does depend on two thermodynamic variables, a sufficient condition for Hall-MHD plasma stability is derived as well.

  13. Distraction/Suppression and Distress Endurance diminish the extent to which generalized conditioned fear is associated with maladaptive behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Christopher; Cooper, Samuel E; Hartnell, Melissa P; Lissek, Shmuel

    2017-09-01

    A central conditioning correlate of clinical anxiety is the over-generalization of Pavlovian fear to safe stimuli resembling conditioned danger cues (CS+). Though much of the pathogenic influence of such generalization may lie in the unnecessary behavioral avoidance it evokes, few studies have examined maladaptive avoidance associated with Pavlovian generalization. Lab-based assessments of this process, here referred to as instrumental avoidance from Pavlovian generalization (IAP-G), have recently begun. The current study represents a next step in this line of work by examining personality factors that may reduce maladaptive IAP-G. This is a clinically relevant effort, as such traits may reflect resilience factors, with high levels reducing the likelihood of maladaptive generalized avoidance following Pavlovian generalization. Here we focus on the effects of Distraction/Suppression (DS) and Distress Endurance (DE) on IAP-G. Results indicate that both DS and DE moderate IAP-G by weakening relations between Pavlovian generalization of fear-potentiated startle and maladaptive generalized avoidance. Further, moderating effects of DS were most pronounced for more ambiguous cues of threat (i.e., stimuli moderately resembling CS+), while moderating effects of DE were most pronounced for more certain cues of threat (i.e., stimuli highly resembling CS+, as well as the CS + itself). Results implicate DS and DE as protective factors against the maladaptive behavioral consequences of Pavlovian generalization, and further indicate that the protective influence of these traits may depend on the ambiguity of the threat at hand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of subjects with comorbidity of symptoms of generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders and the corresponding threshold and subthreshold conditions in an Arab general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Ohaeri, Jude U.; Awadalla, Abdel W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There is controversy about differential meaningfulness between comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)/ major depressive disorder (MDD), the corresponding “pure” disorders and subthreshold conditions. We compared subjects who met DSM-IVTR criteria of symptoms and functional impairment for comorbid GAD/MDD, versus those with GAD, MDD, subthreshold conditions, and without significant symptoms. The comparison measures were socio-demographics, clinical severity, and quality of life (QOL). Material/Methods Participants (N=3155: 55.1% female, aged 16–87 yrs) were a general population sample of Kuwaitis who self-completed DSM-IVTR criteria-based questionnaires and the WHOQOL-BREF in 2006/7. We scrutinized the questionnaires and classified them into categories. Results Of the 273 GAD and 210 MDD cases, the prevalence of comorbidity among cases with GAD was 30.8%, and 40% among MDD. Of the 398 subthreshold GAD and 194 subthreshold MDD cases, 58 had subthreshold anxiety/depression comorbidity. Comorbid threshold GAD/MDD cases were significantly older, and more likely to be women, divorced and unemployed, compared with GAD and MDD. In all measures, the threshold GAD/MDD comorbidity was the severest condition. There was a monotonic decrease in QOL with increasing anxiety-depression symptoms. For the predictors of subjective QOL, the GAD/MDD comorbidity group differed markedly from the others. Conclusions The high prevalence of comorbidity and subthreshold conditions supports the recommendation to assess them routinely, regardless of the primary reason for consultation. Our findings support a dimensional model with comorbid GAD/MDD at the higher end of a continuum, and differing from the “pure” conditions by a later onset and predictors of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22367127

  15. Maladaptive behavioral consequences of conditioned fear-generalization: a pronounced, yet sparsely studied, feature of anxiety pathology.

    PubMed

    van Meurs, Brian; Wiggert, Nicole; Wicker, Isaac; Lissek, Shmuel

    2014-06-01

    Fear-conditioning experiments in the anxiety disorders focus almost exclusively on passive-emotional, Pavlovian conditioning, rather than active-behavioral, instrumental conditioning. Paradigms eliciting both types of conditioning are needed to study maladaptive, instrumental behaviors resulting from Pavlovian abnormalities found in clinical anxiety. One such Pavlovian abnormality is generalization of fear from a conditioned danger-cue (CS+) to resembling stimuli. Though lab-based findings repeatedly link overgeneralized Pavlovian-fear to clinical anxiety, no study assesses the degree to which Pavlovian overgeneralization corresponds with maladaptive, overgeneralized instrumental-avoidance. The current effort fills this gap by validating a novel fear-potentiated startle paradigm including Pavlovian and instrumental components. The paradigm is embedded in a computer game during which shapes appear on the screen. One shape paired with electric-shock serves as CS+, and other resembling shapes, presented in the absence of shock, serve as generalization stimuli (GSs). During the game, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Avoidance during CS+ is considered adaptive because shock is a real possibility. By contrast, avoidance during GSs is considered maladaptive because shock is not a realistic prospect and thus unnecessarily compromises performance. Results indicate significant Pavlovian-instrumental relations, with greater generalization of Pavlovian fear associated with overgeneralization of maladaptive instrumental-avoidance.

  16. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-15

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  17. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-01

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  18. The Generalization of a Conditioned Response to Deception across the Public/Private Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, J. J.; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts at lie detection, such as the polygraph, have relied on physiological arousal to identify deception--but these responses have not proven to be as reliable as is necessary for widespread use. Conditioning procedures have been shown to increase the discriminative physiological arousal exhibited during deception, but have targeted…

  19. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cold temperature NMHC emission standards as described in § 86.1811-10(g) apply only at low altitude... altitude conditions for 2009 and later model year vehicles. (2) For vehicles that comply with the cold... described in § 86.1818-12, manufacturers must submit an engineering evaluation indicating that common...

  20. 49 CFR 176.116 - General stowage conditions for Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stowage conditions for Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Heat and sources of ignition: (1) Class 1... on board. Stowage must be well away from all sources of heat, including steam pipes, heating coils... addition to this separation, there must be insulation to Class A60 standard as defined in 46 CFR 72.05-10(a...

  1. 49 CFR 176.116 - General stowage conditions for Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stowage conditions for Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Heat and sources of ignition: (1) Class 1... on board. Stowage must be well away from all sources of heat, including steam pipes, heating coils... addition to this separation, there must be insulation to Class A60 standard as defined in 46 CFR 72.05-10(a...

  2. Upper airway obstruction. General principles and selected conditions in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Aron, D N; Crowe, D T

    1985-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the clinical features of upper airway obstructive disorders. It includes more detailed discussions of certain common conditions such as brachycephalic airway syndrome, laryngeal paralysis, and upper airway obstruction due to trauma, foreign bodies, extraluminal masses, and tumours of the larynx and trachea.

  3. The Generalization of a Conditioned Response to Deception across the Public/Private Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, J. J.; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts at lie detection, such as the polygraph, have relied on physiological arousal to identify deception--but these responses have not proven to be as reliable as is necessary for widespread use. Conditioning procedures have been shown to increase the discriminative physiological arousal exhibited during deception, but have targeted…

  4. New conditions for obtaining the exact solutions of the general Riccati equation.

    PubMed

    Bougoffa, Lazhar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a direct method for solving the general Riccati equation y' = f(x) + g(x)y + h(x)y(2). We first reduce it into an equivalent equation, and then we formulate the relations between the coefficients functions f(x), g(x), and h(x) of the equation to obtain an equivalent separable equation from which the previous equation can be solved in closed form. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this method.

  5. Momentum constraints as integrability conditions for the Hamiltonian constraint in general relativity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncrief, V.; Teitelboim, C.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that if the Hamiltonian constraint of general relativity is imposed as a restriction on the Hamilton principal functional in the classical theory, or on the state functional in the quantum theory, then the momentum constraints are automatically satisfied. This result holds both for closed and open spaces and it means that the full content of the theory is summarized by a single functional equation of the Tomonaga-Schwinger type.

  6. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research.

  7. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  8. Internal thermotopography and shifts in general thermal balance in man under special heat transfer conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorodinskiy, S. M.; Gramenitskiy, P. M.; Kuznets, Y. I.; Ozerov, O. Y.; Yakovleva, E. V.; Groza, P.; Kozlovskiy, S.; Naremski, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal regulation for astronauts working in pressure suits in open space provides for protection by a system of artificial heat removal and compensation to counteract possible changes in the heat regulating function of the human body that occur under the complex effects of space flight conditions. Most important of these factors are prolonged weightlessness, prolonged limitation of motor activity, and possible deviations of microclimatic environmental parameters.

  9. Generalized INF-SUP condition for Chebyshev approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardi, Christine; Canuto, Claudio; Maday, Yvon

    1986-01-01

    An abstract mixed problem and its approximation are studied; both are well-posed if and only if several inf-sup conditions are satisfied. These results are applied to a spectral Galerkin method for the Stokes problem in a square, when it is formulated in Chebyshev weighted Sobolev spaces. Finally, a collocation method for the Navier-Stokes equations at Chebyshev nodes is analyzed.

  10. A General Optimality Conditions for Stochastic Control Problems of Jump Diffusions

    SciTech Connect

    Bahlali, Seid; Chala, Adel

    2012-02-15

    We consider a stochastic control problem where the system is governed by a non linear stochastic differential equation with jumps. The control is allowed to enter into both diffusion and jump terms. By only using the first order expansion and the associated adjoint equation, we establish necessary as well as sufficient optimality conditions of controls for relaxed controls, who are a measure-valued processes.

  11. A comparative study on generalized model of anisotropic compact star satisfying the Karmarkar condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, Piyali; Singh, Ksh. Newton; Sarkar, Nayan; Rahaman, Farook

    2017-09-01

    A new solution satisfying the Karmarkar condition is presented here. We were first to have discovered a hypergeometric function metric potential representing embedding class I spacetime. This new solution yields finite values of metric potentials, density, pressure, redshift, etc. and hence a non-singular solution. The solution is well behaved with respect to the parameter n=12 to n=24 corresponding to a stable configuration of mass 2.01M_⊙ and radius 9.1 km. The internal properties of the solution are very different for n=12 to n=24; however, the total mass and radius is independent of the parameter n. The energy conditions are also holds good by the solution which thus can represent a physically viable matter distribution. The equilibrium condition and stability are also discussed through TOV-equation, cracking method and Γ >4/3. The static stability criterion is also well satisfied and the turning point corresponds to 4.46M_⊙ for a radius of 9.1 km.

  12. General method allowing the use of 100% aqueous loading conditions in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Sylvia Winkel; Persson, Börje S; Nyström, Mats

    2004-04-15

    Reversed-phase HPLC purification of peptides, using n-alkyl modified spherical silica, has become a widely used technique within the pharmaceutical industry. One drawback of these materials is the necessity of having at least 5% organic modifier in the mobile phase, in order to avoid de-wetting of the porous stationary phase. For some preparative reversed-phase separations, it is an advantage if the feed solution can be loaded onto the column under 100% aqueous conditions. This study describes the use of post-column pressure control to avoid de-wetting of regular reversed-phase stationary phases when operated under 100% aqueous conditions. The applicability of post-column pressure control as a means of maintaining the column fully wetted is demonstrated with various buffers and with packing materials having different alkyl-chain lengths. Two peptides, insulin and oxytocin, in overloaded quantities, were loaded under 100% aqueous conditions onto a regular C8 column, and then eluted by a acetonitrile gradient following standard procedures. The retention volume and the peak shape showed that the separation was satisfactory, and proved that post-column pressure control can be used to overcome wettability problems, which are otherwise often observed for reversed-phase packing materials with high ligand density.

  13. Approximate Dirichlet Boundary Conditions in the Generalized Finite Element Method (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    works of Babuška [2, 3], Bramble and Nitsche [13], and Bramble and Schatz [15, 16], among others, for examples of how this approach works in prac...α! = α1! . . . αn!, is the Taylor polynomial of v at y of degree m and Φj ∈ C∞c (g̃−1(ωj)) is a function with integral 1. Then, by the Bramble ...Academic Press, New York, 1972. [13] J.H. Bramble , J.A. Nitsche, A Generalized Ritz–Least–Squares Method for Dirichlet Prob- lems, SIAM J. Numer

  14. New Conditions for Obtaining the Exact Solutions of the General Riccati Equation

    PubMed Central

    Bougoffa, Lazhar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a direct method for solving the general Riccati equation y′ = f(x) + g(x)y + h(x)y2. We first reduce it into an equivalent equation, and then we formulate the relations between the coefficients functions f(x), g(x), and h(x) of the equation to obtain an equivalent separable equation from which the previous equation can be solved in closed form. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this method. PMID:25202724

  15. Beam wandering statistics of twin thin laser beam propagation under generalized atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Darío G; Funes, Gustavo

    2012-12-03

    Under the Geometrics Optics approximation is possible to estimate the covariance between the displacements of two thin beams after they have propagated through a turbulent medium. Previous works have concentrated in long propagation distances to provide models for the wandering statistics. These models are useful when the separation between beams is smaller than the propagation path-regardless of the characteristics scales of the turbulence. In this work we give a complete model for these covariances, behavior introducing absolute limits to the validity of former approximations. Moreover, these generalizations are established for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric models.

  16. General Anesthetic Conditions Induce Network Synchrony and Disrupt Sensory Processing in the Cortex.

    PubMed

    Lissek, Thomas; Obenhaus, Horst A; Ditzel, Désirée A W; Nagai, Takeharu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Sprengel, Rolf; Hasan, Mazahir T

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics are commonly used in animal models to study how sensory signals are represented in the brain. Here, we used two-photon (2P) calcium activity imaging with cellular resolution to investigate how neuronal activity in layer 2/3 of the mouse barrel cortex is modified under the influence of different concentrations of chemically distinct general anesthetics. Our results show that a high isoflurane dose induces synchrony in local neuronal networks and these cortical activity patterns closely resemble those observed in EEG recordings under deep anesthesia. Moreover, ketamine and urethane also induced similar activity patterns. While investigating the effects of deep isoflurane anesthesia on whisker and auditory evoked responses in the barrel cortex, we found that dedicated spatial regions for sensory signal processing become disrupted. We propose that our isoflurane-2P imaging paradigm can serve as an attractive model system to dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce the anesthetic state, and it might also provide important insight into sleep-like brain states and consciousness.

  17. General Anesthetic Conditions Induce Network Synchrony and Disrupt Sensory Processing in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Thomas; Obenhaus, Horst A.; Ditzel, Désirée A. W.; Nagai, Takeharu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Sprengel, Rolf; Hasan, Mazahir T.

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics are commonly used in animal models to study how sensory signals are represented in the brain. Here, we used two-photon (2P) calcium activity imaging with cellular resolution to investigate how neuronal activity in layer 2/3 of the mouse barrel cortex is modified under the influence of different concentrations of chemically distinct general anesthetics. Our results show that a high isoflurane dose induces synchrony in local neuronal networks and these cortical activity patterns closely resemble those observed in EEG recordings under deep anesthesia. Moreover, ketamine and urethane also induced similar activity patterns. While investigating the effects of deep isoflurane anesthesia on whisker and auditory evoked responses in the barrel cortex, we found that dedicated spatial regions for sensory signal processing become disrupted. We propose that our isoflurane-2P imaging paradigm can serve as an attractive model system to dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce the anesthetic state, and it might also provide important insight into sleep-like brain states and consciousness. PMID:27147963

  18. Existence and stability, and discrete BB and rank conditions, for general mixed-hybrid finite elements in elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, W.-M.; Atluri, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, all possible forms of mixed-hybrid finite element methods that are based on multi-field variational principles are examined as to the conditions for existence, stability, and uniqueness of their solutions. The reasons as to why certain 'simplified hybrid-mixed methods' in general, and the so-called 'simplified hybrid-displacement method' in particular (based on the so-called simplified variational principles), become unstable, are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the 'discrete' BB-conditions, and the rank conditions, of the matrices arising in mixed-hybrid methods, is given. Some recent studies aimed at the assurance of such rank conditions, and the related problem of the avoidance of spurious kinematic modes, are presented.

  19. A new technique for simulating composite material. Task 2: Analytical solutions with Generalized Impedance Boundary Conditions (GIBCs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricoy, M. A.; Volakis, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The diffraction problem associated with a multilayer material slab recessed in a perfectly conducting ground plane is formulated and solved via the Generalized Scattering Matrix Formulation (GSMF) in conjunction with the dual integral equation approach. The multilayer slab is replaced by a surface obeying a generalized impedance boundary condition (GIBC) to facilitate the computation of the pertinent Wiener Hopf split functions and their zeros. Both E(sub z) and H(sub z) polarizations are considered and a number of scattering patterns are presented, some of which are compared to exact results available for a homogeneous recessed slab.

  20. Approximate and Low Regularity Dirichlet Boundary Conditions in the Generalized Finite Element Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-31

    Bramble and Nitsche [12], and Bramble and Schatz [13, 14], among others, for examples of how this approach works in practice. Another approach (used also in...with integral 1. Then, by the Bramble –Hilbert Lemma, we have (43) |v − Pj |Hs(g̃−1(ωj)) ≤ Ch m+1−s k |v|Hm+1(g̃−1(ωj)), for all 0 ≤ s ≤ m+ 1. Consider...New York, 1972. [12] J.H. Bramble , J.A. Nitsche, A Generalized Ritz–Least–Squares Method for Dirichlet Prob- lems, SIAM J. Numer. Anal, vol 10, no. 1

  1. General conditions for strategy abundance through a self-referential mechanism under weak selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    We examine stochastic evolutionary game dynamics of two-player m×m symmetric and m×n asymmetric games in finite populations assuming that a player decides to change her current strategy on the basis of her dissatisfaction, which we call a self-referential mechanism. We derive the general expression for the stationary distribution of strategy under weak selection and compare it with the counterpart of a Moran process. As a result, we find that both in symmetric games and in asymmetric games, the self-referential mechanism always generates a greater gap between the favored and unfavored strategies’ frequencies for a fixed parameter set than does a Moran process. Further, we found that for small mutation rates, our results are almost identical to the counterpart of a Moran process.

  2. General coalescence conditions for the exact wave functions. II. Higher-order relations for many-particle systems.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Yusaku I; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2014-06-07

    We derived the necessary conditions that must be satisfied by the non-relativistic time-independent exact wave functions for many-particle systems at a two-particle coalescence (or cusp) point. Some simple conditions are known to be Kato's cusp condition (CC) and Rassolov and Chipman's CC. In a previous study, we derived an infinite number of necessary conditions that two-particle wave functions must satisfy at a coalescence point. In the present study, we extend these conditions to many-particle systems. They are called general coalescence conditions (GCCs), and Kato's CC and Rassolov and Chipman's CC are included as special conditions. GCCs can be applied not only to Coulombic systems but also to any system in which the interaction between two particles is represented in a power series of inter-particle distances. We confirmed the correctness of our derivation of the GCCs by applying the exact wave function of a harmonium in electron-electron and electron-nucleus coalescence situations. In addition, we applied the free complement (FC) wave functions of a helium atom to the GCCs to examine the accuracy of the FC wave function in the context of a coalescence situation.

  3. Displacement Models for THUNDER Actuators having General Loads and Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieman, Robert; Smith, Ralph C.; Kackley, Tyson; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bernd, Jeff; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes techniques for quantifying the displacements generated in THUNDER actuators in response to applied voltages for a variety of boundary conditions and exogenous loads. The PDE (partial differential equations) models for the actuators are constructed in two steps. In the first, previously developed theory quantifying thermal and electrostatic strains is employed to model the actuator shapes which result from the manufacturing process and subsequent repoling. Newtonian principles are then employed to develop PDE models which quantify displacements in the actuator due to voltage inputs to the piezoceramic patch. For this analysis, drive levels are assumed to be moderate so that linear piezoelectric relations can be employed. Finite element methods for discretizing the models are developed and the performance of the discretized models are illustrated through comparison with experimental data.

  4. General contamination criteria for optical surfaces. [instrument performance losses in spaceborne conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremer, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Physical models are developed for establishing criteria to decide on the acceptable contamination level of optical devices in space-borne conditions. Optical systems can be degraded in terms of decreased throughput, i.e., transmissivity or reflectivity, or increases in the total integrated scatter (TIS). Performance losses can be caused by particulate accretion, molecular film accretion, and impact cratering. A quantitative relationship is defined for film thickness and loss of throughput. Formulas are also developed for cases where induced surface defects are larger than the desired viewing wavelengths, or smaller or of the same order of the observed wavelengths. The techniques are used to quantify the degradation of a VUV solar coronagraph, a VUV stellar telescope, and a solar cell due to TIS. Applications are projected for estimating the contamination sensitivity of specific instruments, assessing the contamination hazard from known particulates, or to define clean room standards.

  5. General rules prospected for the liquid fragility in various material groups and different thermodynamic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Paluch, M.; Masiewicz, E.; Grzybowski, A.; Pawlus, S.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Pionteck, J.

    2014-10-07

    The fragility parameter has been acknowledged as one of the most important characteristics of glass-forming liquids. We show that the mystery of the dramatic change in molecular dynamics of systems approaching the glass transition can be better understood by the high pressure study of fragility parameters defined in different thermodynamic conditions. We formulate and experimentally confirm a few rules obeyed by the fragility parameters, which are also rationalized by the density scaling law and its modification suggested for associated liquids. In this way, we successfully explore and gain a new insight into the pressure effect on molecular dynamics of van der Waals liquids, polymer melts, ionic liquids, and hydrogen-bonded systems near the glass transition.

  6. Stress-energy distribution for a cylindrical artificial gravity field via the Darmois-Israel junction conditions of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, Nicolae; Lindner, John

    2014-03-01

    We design an Earth-like artificial gravity field using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions of general relativity to connect the flat spacetime outside an infinitesimally thin cylinder to the curved spacetime inside. In the calculation of extrinsic curvature, our construction exploits Earth's weak gravity, which implies similar inside and outside curvatures, to approximate the unit normal inside by the negative unit normal outside. The stress-energy distribution on the cylinder's sides includes negative energy density.

  7. The Relationship Between Religious Attitudes, Fear of Death and Dying with General Health Condition: A Survey in College Students.

    PubMed

    Nazarzadeh, Milad; Sarokhani, Mandana; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to assess the relationship between religious attitudes of Ilam universities students (west of Iran), their perspectives about the fear of self and other's death and dying, with their general health. This paper is an analytic survey in which 351 college students, who were selected by multistage sampling, participated. To measure interested variables, Persian format of standardized self-administered questionnaires was employed. Religious attitudes with odds ratio (OR) of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97) and fear of self dying with 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96) were identified as a protective factors against the inappropriate general health condition. However, the fear of other's death (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05-1.28) was identified as a risk factor. This study showed that people who had more religious attitudes and fear of self dying had better general health as well as the fear of other's death had a significant direct relationship with inappropriate general health condition.

  8. Numerical evaluation of the acoustic radiation from planar structures with general baffle conditions using wavelets.

    PubMed

    Langley, R S

    2007-02-01

    A method is presented for computing the acoustic radiation from baffled, unbaffled, or partially baffled planar structures. The surface displacement and the surface pressure are expressed in terms of wavelets, and the acoustic dynamic stiffness (baffled case) or the acoustic receptance (unbaffled case) between any two wavelets is derived in closed form. The wavelets are employed with translation only (i.e., no dilation), and the jinc function is used; the Hankel transform of this function is the Heavyside step function, and this feature greatly simplifies the analysis. There is a trivial mapping between the wavelet amplitudes and the physical motion of the structure, and hence the dynamic stiffness and receptance results can readily be used to derive the acoustic dynamic stiffness matrix (by inverting the receptance matrix in the unbaffled case) in any set of generalized coordinates. Partially baffled systems can then be studied by substructuring the dynamic stiffness matrix. A set of example problems is considered in which the method is used to compute the resistive and reactive radiation efficiency of a range of benchmark systems.

  9. Plates and shells containing a surface crack under general loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Paul F.; Erdogan, Fazil

    1987-01-01

    Various through and part-through crack problems in plates and shells are considered. The line-spring model of Rice and Levy is generalized to the skew-symmetric case to solve surface crack problems involving mixed-mode, coplanar crack growth. Compliance functions are introduced which are valid for crack depth to thickness ratios at least up to .95. This includes expressions for tension and bending as well as expressions for in-plane shear, out-of-plane shear, and twisting. Transverse shear deformation is taken into account in the plate and shell theories and this effect is shown to be important in comparing stress intensity factors obtained from the plate theory with three-dimensional solutions. Stress intensity factors for cylinders obtained by the line-spring model also compare well with three-dimensional solution. By using the line-spring approach, stress intensity factors can be obtained for the through crack and for part-through crack of any crack front shape, without recalculation integrals that take up the bulk of the computer time. Therefore, parameter studies involving crack length, crack depth, shell type, and shell curvature are made in some detail. The results will be useful in brittle fracture and in fatigue crack propagation studies. All problems considered are of the mixed boundary value type and are reducted to strongly singular integral equations which make use of the finite-part integrals of Hadamard. The equations are solved numerically in a manner that is very efficient.

  10. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  11. Well-conditioning global-local analysis using stable generalized/extended finite element method for linear elastic fracture mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekan, Mohammad; Barros, Felicio Bruzzi

    2016-11-01

    Using the locally-enriched strategy to enrich a small/local part of the problem by generalized/extended finite element method (G/XFEM) leads to non-optimal convergence rate and ill-conditioning system of equations due to presence of blending elements. The local enrichment can be chosen from polynomial, singular, branch or numerical types. The so-called stable version of G/XFEM method provides a well-conditioning approach when only singular functions are used in the blending elements. This paper combines numeric enrichment functions obtained from global-local G/XFEM method with the polynomial enrichment along with a well-conditioning approach, stable G/XFEM, in order to show the robustness and effectiveness of the approach. In global-local G/XFEM, the enrichment functions are constructed numerically from the solution of a local problem. Furthermore, several enrichment strategies are adopted along with the global-local enrichment. The results obtained with these enrichments strategies are discussed in detail, considering convergence rate in strain energy, growth rate of condition number, and computational processing. Numerical experiments show that using geometrical enrichment along with stable G/XFEM for global-local strategy improves the convergence rate and the conditioning of the problem. In addition, results shows that using polynomial enrichment for global problem simultaneously with global-local enrichments lead to ill-conditioned system matrices and bad convergence rate.

  12. General practitioners' attitudes towards the management of dental conditions and use of antibiotics in these consultations: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cope, Anwen L; Wood, Fiona; Francis, Nick A; Chestnutt, Ivor G

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to produce an account of the attitudes of general practitioners (GPs) towards the management of dental conditions in general practice, and sought to explore how GPs use antibiotics in the treatment of dental problems. Qualitative study employing semistructured telephone interviews and thematic analysis. 17 purposively sampled GPs working in Wales, of which 9 were male. The median number of years since graduation was 21. Maximum variation sampling techniques were used to ensure participants represented different Rural-Urban localities, worked in communities with varying levels of deprivation, and had differing lengths of practising career. Most GPs reported regularly managing dental problems, with more socioeconomically deprived patients being particularly prone to consult. Participants recognised that dental problems are not optimally managed in general practice, but had sympathy with patients experiencing dental pain who reported difficulty obtaining an emergency dental consultation. Many GPs considered antibiotics an acceptable first-line treatment for acute dental problems and reported that patients often attended expecting to receive antibiotics. GPs who reported that their usual practice was to prescribe antibiotics were more likely to prioritise patients' immediate needs, whereas clinicians who reported rarely prescribing often did so to encourage patients to consult a dental professional. The presentation of patients with dental problems presents challenges to GPs who report concerns about their ability to manage such conditions. Despite this, many reported frequently prescribing antibiotics for patients with dental conditions. This may contribute to both patient morbidity and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. This research has identified the need for quantitative data on general practice consultations for dental problems and qualitative research exploring patient perspectives on reasons for consulting. The findings of these studies

  13. A General Model of Distant Hybridization Reveals the Conditions for Extinction in Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout

    PubMed Central

    Quilodrán, Claudio S.; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as “distant hybridization,” the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action. PMID:25003336

  14. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  15. Asthma, other atopic conditions and risk of infections in 105 519 general population never and ever smokers.

    PubMed

    Helby, J; Nordestgaard, B G; Benfield, T; Bojesen, S E

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with atopic conditions may have increased susceptibility to infections outside the organs directly affected by their atopic condition. We tested the hypothesis that atopic conditions overall, and stratified by smoking history, are associated with increased risk of hospitalization for infections. We collected information on smoking history and self-reported atopic conditions from 105 519 individuals from the general population and followed them for up to 23 years for infectious disease hospitalizations and deaths. For asthma, we focused on never smokers with asthma diagnosed before age 50 (early asthma) to minimize confounding by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During follow-up, 11 160 individuals had infections. Never smokers with early asthma versus no atopic conditions had significantly increased risks of any infection (hazard ratio 1.65; 95% confidence interval 1.40-1.94), pneumonia (2.44; 1.92-3.11) and any non-respiratory tract infection (1.36; 1.11-1.67); results were similar in ever smokers. Never smokers with any asthma had significantly increased risks of any infection (1.44; 1.24-1.66) and pneumonia (1.99; 1.62-2.44). Neither atopic dermatitis (1.00; 0.91-1.10) nor hay fever (1.00; 0.93-1.07) was associated with risk of any infection. In never smokers, risk estimates for any infection were comparable between asthma and diabetes, as were the population attributable fractions of 2.2% for any asthma and 2.9% for diabetes. Early asthma was associated with significantly increased risks of any infection, pneumonia and any non-respiratory tract infection in never and ever smokers. In never smokers, risk estimates as well as population attributable fractions for any infection were comparable between asthma and diabetes, suggesting that asthma may be a substantial risk factor for infections in the general population. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Elise; Hager, Ron L.

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs) and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity (p < .0001), 130.8 more minutes per week of aerobic activity (p < .0001), and 42.7 more minutes of anaerobic activity per week (p < .0001). Among those previously told they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or depression, 74.2%, 72.2%, 70.4%, and 60.6%, respectively, said that it motivated them to increase their physical activity. Percentages were similar between SGPs and the general population. SGPs were more likely motivated to be physically active to improve physical and mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun. PMID:28138459

  17. Direct Reduction and Exact Solutions for Generalized Variable Coefficients 2D KdV Equation under Some Integrability Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. H. M., Moussa; Rehab, M. El-Shiekh

    2011-04-01

    Based on the closed connections among the homogeneous balance (HB) method and Clarkson—Kruskal (CK) method, we study the similarity reductions of the generalized variable coefficients 2D KdV equation. In the meantime it is shown that this leads to a direct reduction in the form of ordinary differential equation under some integrability conditions between the variable coefficients. Two different cases have been discussed, the search for solutions of those ordinary differential equations yielded many exact travelling and solitonic wave solutions in the form of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions under some constraints between the variable coefficients.

  18. Dopamine D2 receptors gate generalization of conditioned threat responses through mTORC1 signaling in the extended amygdala

    PubMed Central

    De Bundel, Dimitri; Zussy, Charleine; Espallergues, Julie; Gerfen, Charles R; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Overgeneralization of conditioned threat responses is a robust clinical marker of anxiety disorders. In overgeneralization, responses that are appropriate to threat-predicting cues are evoked by perceptually similar safety-predicting cues. Inappropriate learning of conditioned threat responses may thus form an etiological basis for anxiety disorders. The role of dopamine (DA) in memory encoding is well established. Indeed by signaling salience and valence, DA is thought to facilitate discriminative learning between stimuli representing safety or threat. However, the neuroanatomical and biochemical substrates through which DA modulates overgeneralization of threat responses remain poorly understood. Here we report that the modulation of DA D2 receptor (D2R) signaling bidirectionally regulates the consolidation of fear responses. While the blockade of D2R induces generalized fear responses, its stimulation facilitates discriminative learning between stimuli representing safety or threat. Moreover, we show that controlled fear generalization requires the coordinated activation of D2R in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the central amygdala (CEA). Finally, we identify the mTORC1 cascade activation as an important molecular event by which D2R mediates its effects. These data reveal that D2R signaling in the extended amygdala constitutes an important checkpoint through which DA participates in the control of threat processing and the emergence of overgeneralized fear responses. PMID:26782052

  19. Consistency between kinetics and thermodynamics: general scaling conditions for reaction rates of nonlinear chemical systems without constraints far from equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Marcel O; Popa, Vlad T; Ross, John

    2011-02-03

    We examine the problem of consistency between the kinetic and thermodynamic descriptions of reaction networks. We focus on reaction networks with linearly dependent (but generally kinetically independent) reactions for which only some of the stoichiometric vectors attached to the different reactions are linearly independent. We show that for elementary reactions without constraints preventing the system from approaching equilibrium there are general scaling relations for nonequilibrium rates, one for each linearly dependent reaction. These scaling relations express the ratios of the forward and backward rates of the linearly dependent reactions in terms of products of the ratios of the forward and backward rates of the linearly independent reactions raised to different scaling powers; the scaling powers are elements of the transformation matrix, which relates the linearly dependent stoichiometric vectors to the linearly independent stoichiometric vectors. These relations are valid for any network of elementary reactions without constraints, linear or nonlinear kinetics, far from equilibrium or close to equilibrium. We show that similar scaling relations for the reaction routes exist for networks of nonelementary reactions described by the Horiuti-Temkin theory of reaction routes where the linear dependence of the mechanistic (elementary) reactions is transferred to the overall (route) reactions. However, in this case, the scaling conditions are valid only at the steady state. General relationships between reaction rates of the two levels of description are presented. These relationships are illustrated for a specific complex reaction: radical chlorination of ethylene.

  20. Generalized paired-agent kinetic model for in vivo quantification of cancer cell-surface receptors under receptor saturation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghipour, N.; Davis, S. C.; Tichauer, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    New precision medicine drugs oftentimes act through binding to specific cell-surface cancer receptors, and thus their efficacy is highly dependent on the availability of those receptors and the receptor concentration per cell. Paired-agent molecular imaging can provide quantitative information on receptor status in vivo, especially in tumor tissue; however, to date, published approaches to paired-agent quantitative imaging require that only ‘trace’ levels of imaging agent exist compared to receptor concentration. This strict requirement may limit applicability, particularly in drug binding studies, which seek to report on a biological effect in response to saturating receptors with a drug moiety. To extend the regime over which paired-agent imaging may be used, this work presents a generalized simplified reference tissue model (GSRTM) for paired-agent imaging developed to approximate receptor concentration in both non-receptor-saturated and receptor-saturated conditions. Extensive simulation studies show that tumor receptor concentration estimates recovered using the GSRTM are more accurate in receptor-saturation conditions than the standard simple reference tissue model (SRTM) (% error (mean  ±  sd): GSRTM 0  ±  1 and SRTM 50  ±  1) and match the SRTM accuracy in non-saturated conditions (% error (mean  ±  sd): GSRTM 5  ±  5 and SRTM 0  ±  5). To further test the approach, GSRTM-estimated receptor concentration was compared to SRTM-estimated values extracted from tumor xenograft in vivo mouse model data. The GSRTM estimates were observed to deviate from the SRTM in tumors with low receptor saturation (which are likely in a saturated regime). Finally, a general ‘rule-of-thumb’ algorithm is presented to estimate the expected level of receptor saturation that would be achieved in a given tissue provided dose and pharmacokinetic information about the drug or imaging agent being used, and physiological

  1. Generalized paired-agent kinetic model for in vivo quantification of cancer cell-surface receptors under receptor saturation conditions.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, N; Davis, S C; Tichauer, K M

    2017-01-21

    New precision medicine drugs oftentimes act through binding to specific cell-surface cancer receptors, and thus their efficacy is highly dependent on the availability of those receptors and the receptor concentration per cell. Paired-agent molecular imaging can provide quantitative information on receptor status in vivo, especially in tumor tissue; however, to date, published approaches to paired-agent quantitative imaging require that only 'trace' levels of imaging agent exist compared to receptor concentration. This strict requirement may limit applicability, particularly in drug binding studies, which seek to report on a biological effect in response to saturating receptors with a drug moiety. To extend the regime over which paired-agent imaging may be used, this work presents a generalized simplified reference tissue model (GSRTM) for paired-agent imaging developed to approximate receptor concentration in both non-receptor-saturated and receptor-saturated conditions. Extensive simulation studies show that tumor receptor concentration estimates recovered using the GSRTM are more accurate in receptor-saturation conditions than the standard simple reference tissue model (SRTM) (% error (mean  ±  sd): GSRTM 0  ±  1 and SRTM 50  ±  1) and match the SRTM accuracy in non-saturated conditions (% error (mean  ±  sd): GSRTM 5  ±  5 and SRTM 0  ±  5). To further test the approach, GSRTM-estimated receptor concentration was compared to SRTM-estimated values extracted from tumor xenograft in vivo mouse model data. The GSRTM estimates were observed to deviate from the SRTM in tumors with low receptor saturation (which are likely in a saturated regime). Finally, a general 'rule-of-thumb' algorithm is presented to estimate the expected level of receptor saturation that would be achieved in a given tissue provided dose and pharmacokinetic information about the drug or imaging agent being used, and physiological information

  2. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-08-01

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon.

  3. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-01-01

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon. PMID:27561887

  4. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-08-26

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon.

  5. The Lorazepam and Diazepam Protocol for Catatonia Due to General Medical Condition and Substance in Liaison Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Chuen; Hung, Yi-Yung; Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2017-01-01

    The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been proved to rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia in patients with schizophrenia or mood disorder. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lorazepam-diazepam protocol in catatonia due to general medical conditions (GMC) and substance. Patients with catatonia that required psychiatric intervention in various settings of a medical center were included. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been used to treat the catatonia due to GMC or substance according to DSM-IV criteria. The treatment response had been assessed by two psychiatrists. Eighteen (85.7%) of 21 catatonic patients due to GMC or substance became free of catatonia after the lorazepam-diazepam protocol. Five (23.8%) of the 21 patients had passed away with various causes of death and wide range of time periods after catatonia. Our results showed that the lorazepam-diazepam protocol could rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia due to GMC and substance.

  6. [Effects of a low calorie vegan diet on disease activity and general conditions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Hashimoto, Y; Nakahara, K; Tanaka, T; Okuda, T; Koda, M

    1999-06-01

    There is little objective information about diet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. We studied 14 patients with RA who stayed in the Koda hospital for 55 days. They basically took a 1200 kcal vegan diet consisting of unpolished rice gruel, juice of raw vegetables, soya bean curd and sesame seeds, and undertook a 3-5-day fast three times. During the 55-day stay, average body weight decreased by 5.1kg. Lansbury index and ESR decreased whereas CRP did not change. WBC decreased and the differential cell counts showed a decrease of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes without a change in lymphocytes or basophils. RBC, hemoglobin and MCV increased. LDL-C decreased, while HDL-C increased. There was no change in total protein or albumin. These data suggest that this combination of a low calorie vegan diet and fasting may contribute to improve RA with little undesirable effects on the patient's general conditions.

  7. Robust and general method for determining surface fluid flow boundary conditions in articular cartilage contact mechanics modeling.

    PubMed

    Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-01

    Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.

  8. Topologies of the Conditional Ancestral Trees and Full-Likelihood-Based Inference in the General Coalescent Tree Framework

    PubMed Central

    Sargsyan, Ori

    2010-01-01

    The general coalescent tree framework is a family of models for determining ancestries among random samples of DNA sequences at a nonrecombining locus. The ancestral models included in this framework can be derived under various evolutionary scenarios. Here, a computationally tractable full-likelihood-based inference method for neutral polymorphisms is presented, using the general coalescent tree framework and the infinite-sites model for mutations in DNA sequences. First, an exact sampling scheme is developed to determine the topologies of conditional ancestral trees. However, this scheme has some computational limitations and to overcome these limitations a second scheme based on importance sampling is provided. Next, these schemes are combined with Monte Carlo integrations to estimate the likelihood of full polymorphism data, the ages of mutations in the sample, and the time of the most recent common ancestor. In addition, this article shows how to apply this method for estimating the likelihood of neutral polymorphism data in a sample of DNA sequences completely linked to a mutant allele of interest. This method is illustrated using the data in a sample of DNA sequences at the APOE gene locus. PMID:20479148

  9. Ionospheric data assimilation with thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model and GPS-TEC during geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Lin, C. H.; Matsuo, T.; Chen, W. H.; Lee, I. T.; Liu, J. Y.; Lin, J. T.; Hsu, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of rapid assimilation-forecast cycling on the performance of ionospheric data assimilation during geomagnetic storm conditions. An ensemble Kalman filter software developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), called Data Assimilation Research Testbed, is applied to assimilate ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) observations into a theoretical numerical model of the thermosphere and ionosphere (NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model) during the 26 September 2011 geomagnetic storm period. Effects of various assimilation-forecast cycle lengths: 60, 30, and 10 min on the ionospheric forecast are examined by using the global root-mean-squared observation-minus-forecast (OmF) TEC residuals. Substantial reduction in the global OmF for the 10 min assimilation-forecast cycling suggests that a rapid cycling ionospheric data assimilation system can greatly improve the quality of the model forecast during geomagnetic storm conditions. Furthermore, updating the thermospheric state variables in the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere forecast model in the assimilation step is an important factor in improving the trajectory of model forecasting. The shorter assimilation-forecast cycling (10 min in this paper) helps to restrain unrealistic model error growth during the forecast step due to the imbalance among model state variables resulting from an inadequate state update, which in turn leads to a greater forecast accuracy.

  10. Expected changes in future agro-climatological conditions in Northeast Thailand and their differences between general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Goto, Shinkichi; Sawano, Shinji; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2011-12-01

    We have studied future changes in the atmospheric and hydrological environments in Northeast Thailand from the viewpoint of risk assessment of future cultural environments in crop fields. To obtain robust and reliable estimation for future climate, ten general circulation models under three warming scenarios, B1, A1B, and A2, were used in this study. The obtained change trends show that daily maximum air temperature and precipitation will increase by 2.6°C and 4.0%, respectively, whereas soil moisture will decrease by c.a. 1% point in volumetric water content at the end of this century under the A1B scenario. Seasonal contrasts in precipitation will intensify: precipitation increases in the rainy season and precipitation decreases in the dry season. Soil moisture will slightly decrease almost throughout the year. Despite a homogeneous increase in the air temperature over Northeast Thailand, a future decrease in soil water content will show a geographically inhomogeneous distribution: Soil will experience a relative larger decrease in wetness at a shallow depth on the Khorat plateau than in the surrounding mountainous area, reflecting vegetation cover and soil texture. The predicted increase in air temperature is relatively consistent between general circulation models. In contrast, relatively large intermodel differences in precipitation, especially in long-term trends, produce unwanted bias errors in the estimation of other hydrological elements, such as soil moisture and evaporation, and cause uncertainties in projection of the agro-climatological environment. Offline hydrological simulation with a wide precipitation range is one strategy to compensate for such uncertainties and to obtain reliable risk assessment of future cultural conditions in rainfed paddy fields in Northeast Thailand.

  11. Dissatisfaction of Compact Picard Condition (CPC) with GRACE satellite data and its treatment by Generalized Tikhonov in Sobolev subspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AllahTavakoli, Y.; Bagheri, H.; Safari, A.; Sharifi, M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper is mainly aiming to prove that the stripy noises in the map of earth's surface mass-density changes derived from GRACE Satellites gravimetry, is due to a dissatisfaction of Compact Picard Condition (CPC) with the GRACE data in the inversion of the Newton Integral Equation over the thin layer of earth; and hence the paper proposes the regularization strategies as efficient tools to treat the Ill-posedness and consequently to de-strip the data. First of all, we preferred to slightly modify the mathematical model of earth's surface mass-density changes developed creatively first by J. Wahr and et.al (1998), according to the all their previous assumptions plus taking into consideration the effect of the earth topography. By the modification we expect that some uncertainties in the prior model have been reduced to some extent. Then we analyzed the CPC on the model and we demonstrated how to perform Generalized Tikhonov regularization in Sobolev subspace for overcoming the instability of the problem. Then we applied the strategy in some simulations and case studies to validate our ideas. The simulations confirm that the stripy noises in the GRACE-derived map of the mass-density changes are due to the CPC dissatisfaction and furthermore the case studies show that Generalized Tikhonov regularization in Sobolev subspace is an influential filtering tool to de-strip the noisy data. Also, the case studies interestingly show that the effect of the topography is comparable to the effect of the load Love numbers on the Wahr's model; hence it may be taken into consideration when the load Love numbers have been taken into account.

  12. The influence of general health and socio-cultural variables on the periodontal condition of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Machuca, G; Khoshfeiz, O; Lacalle, J R; Machuca, C; Bullón, P

    1999-07-01

    There has been speculation as to whether hormonal changes during pregnancy or pre-existing conditions of general, oral, and dental health and socio-cultural background have a greater impact on the development of periodontal disease during pregnancy. This study evaluates the periodontal status of 130 pregnant women (plaque index, bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level) and its relationship to demographic (age, professional level, education, and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, health status, previous live births, previous periodontal maintenance). The hospital in which the study was conducted was selected during a prior pilot study. All records were compiled by the same trained examiner with a calibrated manual probe. Statistical tests used were ANOVA and ANCOVA. Results showed a mean plaque index of 58.7+/-2.79%, which increased with statistical significance when the professional level was lower (P <0.014), education was lower (P <0.01), previous periodontal maintenance was less frequent (P <0.00001) and patients lived in rural areas (P <0.0003). The mean bleeding index was 68.8+/-2.44% and was significant in relation to lower professional level (P <0.025), less frequent previous periodontal maintenance (P <0.029), and an urban residence (P <0.0011). A mean clinical attachment level of 0.84+/-0.65 mm was observed and was related significantly with age (26 to 30 years) (P <0.001) and the third trimester of gestation period (P <0.0025). The mean probing depth was 1.71+/-0.3 mm, which related significantly with age (36 to 42 years) (P <0.0002), lower professional level (P <0.0013), rural residence (P <0.0025), 2 or more previous live births (P <0.0001), and non-attendance for previous periodontal maintenance (P <0.0023). Using ANCOVA testing and adjusting by age, the differences relating to previous live births disappeared. Gingivitis due to accumulation of plaque was the most characteristic

  13. Paleoclimatic tracers: An investigation using an atmospheric general circulation model under ice age conditions. 2. Water isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Joussaume, S. ); Jouzel, J. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Grenoble )

    1993-02-20

    The linear relationship observed between the water isotopic contents of precipitation and surface air temperatures leads to the use of the water isotopes, H[sub 2][sup 18]O and HDO, in paleoclimatology. Applied to the measurements of the isotopic content of paleowaters, like groundwaters and deep ice cores, this relationship is used to infer paleotemperatures. However, this interpretation of paleo-isotopic contents is only valid if the isotope-temperature relationship is not affected by climate change. To address this problem, the authors have developed a water isotope modeling inside an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and performed simultations of both the present-day and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climatic conditions. AGCM are indeed the only appropriate tools able to account the whole complexity of the atmospheric circulation. For the present-day climate, preliminary results for January were presented by Joussaume et al. (1984) and are complemented by new simulations performed for both February and August climatic conditions with a higher-resolution version of the model. Model results are well corroborated by observations. They also exhibit some effects of the atmospheric circulation on the isotopic fields. For the simulated LGM climate, the model results compare well with paleoclimatic data of water isotopic contents, except for a higher than observed spatial variability. The overall patterns of the simulated [delta][sup 18]O-temperature relationship for the LGM climate are practically unchanged, which tends to comfort the use of water isotopes in paleoclimatology. However, concerning the deuterium excess, i.e., the relationship between oxyen 18 and deuterium, the model results are not sufficiently valid to allow a discussion of the use of deuterium excess in paleoclimatology. 46 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65: a link between GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala and conditioned fear generalization.

    PubMed

    Lange, Maren D; Jüngling, Kay; Paulukat, Linda; Vieler, Marc; Gaburro, Stefano; Sosulina, Ludmila; Blaesse, Peter; Sreepathi, Hari K; Ferraguti, Francesco; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2014-08-01

    An imbalance of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is considered a major neurobiological pathomechanism of anxiety, and the amygdala is a key brain region involved. Reduced GABA levels have been found in anxiety patients, and genetic variations of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA synthesis, have been associated with anxiety phenotypes in both humans and mice. These findings prompted us to hypothesize that a deficiency of GAD65, the GAD isoform controlling the availability of GABA as a transmitter, affects synaptic transmission and plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA), and thereby interferes with fear responsiveness. Results indicate that genetically determined GAD65 deficiency in mice is associated with (1) increased synaptic length and release at GABAergic connections, (2) impaired efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission and plasticity, and (3) reduced spillover of GABA to presynaptic GABAB receptors, resulting in a loss of the associative nature of long-term synaptic plasticity at cortical inputs to LA principal neurons. (4) In addition, training with high shock intensities in wild-type mice mimicked the phenotype of GAD65 deficiency at both the behavioral and synaptic level, indicated by generalization of conditioned fear and a loss of the associative nature of synaptic plasticity in the LA. In conclusion, GAD65 is required for efficient GABAergic synaptic transmission and plasticity, and for maintaining extracellular GABA at a level needed for associative plasticity at cortical inputs in the LA, which, if disturbed, results in an impairment of the cue specificity of conditioned fear responses typifying anxiety disorders.

  15. Joint envelope and frequency order spectrum analysis based on iterative generalized demodulation for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Planetary gearbox vibration signals under nonstationary conditions are characterized by time-varying nature and complex multi-components, making it very difficult to extract features for fault diagnosis. Order spectrum analysis is one of the effective approaches for nonstationary signal analysis of rotating machinery. The main idea of order analysis is to map the time-varying frequency components into constant ones. Inspired by this idea, we propose a new order spectrum analysis method to exploit the unique property of iterative generalized demodulation in converting arbitrary instantaneous frequency trajectories of multi-component signals into constant frequency lines on the time-frequency plane. This new method is completely algorithm-based and tachometer/encoder-free, thus easy to implement. It does not involve equi-angular resampling commonly required by most order tracking methods and is hence free from the decimation and/or interpolation error. The proposed order analysis method can eliminate the time-variation effect of frequency and thus can effectively reveal the harmonic order constituents of nonstationary multi-component signals. However, the planetary gearbox vibration signals also lead to complex sideband orders. As such, we further propose to analyze the order spectrum of amplitude envelope. This will eliminate the complex sideband orders in the order spectrum of original signals, leading to a substantially simplified and more reliable gear characteristic frequency identification process. Nevertheless, the gear and/or planet carrier rotating frequency orders, which are irrelevant to gear fault, may still exist. To avoid possible misleading results due to such frequency orders, we also propose to analyze the order spectrum of instantaneous frequency. Theoretically, the peaks present in frequency order spectrum directly correspond to the gear characteristic frequency orders, which can be used to extract gear fault signature more explicitly. The proposed

  16. Time-frequency demodulation analysis based on iterative generalized demodulation for fault diagnosis of planetary gearbox under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fei

    2015-10-01

    The vibration signal of planetary gearboxes exhibits the characteristics of both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM), and thus has a complex sideband structure. Time-varying speed and/or load will result in time variant characteristic frequency components. Since the modulating frequency is related to the gear fault characteristic frequency, the AM and FM parts each alone contains the information of the gear fault. We propose a time-frequency amplitude and frequency demodulation analysis metbhod to avoid the complex time-variant sideband analysis, and thereby identify the time-variant gear fault characteristic frequency. We enhance the time-frequency analysis via iterative generalized demodulation (IGD). The time-varying amplitude and frequency demodulated spectra have fine time-frequency resolution and are free of cross term interferences. They do not involve complex time-variant sidebands, thus considerably facilitating fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes under nonstationary conditions. The method is validated using both numerically simulated data and experimental signals.

  17. Ultrafine particle concentrations in the surroundings of an urban area: comparing downwind to upwind conditions using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs).

    PubMed

    Sartini, Claudio; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Ferrari, Silvia; Poluzzi, Vanes

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an urban area on ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration in nearby surrounding areas. We assessed how downwind and upwind conditions affect the UFP concentration at a site placed a few kilometres from the city border. Secondarily, we investigated the relationship among other meteorological factors, temporal variables and UFP. Data were collected for 44 days during 2008 and 2009 at a rural site placed about 3 kilometres from Bologna, in northern Italy. Measurements were performed using a spectrometer (FMPS TSI 3091). The average UFP number concentration was 11 776 (±7836) particles per cm(3). We analysed the effect of wind direction in a multivariate Generalized Additive Model (GAM) adjusted for the principal meteorological parameters and temporal trends. An increase of about 25% in UFP levels was observed when the site was downwind of the urban area, compared with the levels observed when wind blew from rural areas. The size distribution of particles was also affected by the wind direction, showing higher concentration of small size particles when the wind blew from the urban area. The GAM showed a good fit to the data (R(2) = 0.81). Model choice was via Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). The analysis also revealed that an approach based on meteorological data plus temporal trends improved the goodness of the fit of the model. In addition, the findings contribute to evidence on effects of exposure to ultrafine particles on a population living in city surroundings.

  18. Greek immigrant children in southern Sweden in comparison with Greek and Swedish children. I. General living conditions.

    PubMed

    Neiderud, J

    1989-01-01

    Greek immigrant children belonging to the second generation of immigrants in Sweden have been compared with Swedish children and Greek children in Greece regarding general living conditions. Interviews were performed in the homes of all participants. The parents in the two Greek groups had the lowest educational level. The yearly salary of immigrant families was similar to that of the Swedish families. Immigrant and Swedish parents worked outside their homes to the same extent, Greek immigrant mothers fulltime, Swedish mothers mostly part time. For economical reasons the immigrant parents looked after their children within the family while the Swedish families almost always utilized community day care facilities. The immigrant families had fewer children than the Swedish and Greek rural families and their dwellings were smaller. Corporal punishment was a common method of upbringing in Greece and among the immigrants. The immigrant families had extremely few contacts with Swedish families. A majority of the immigrant families were unsure about their future in Sweden, whether or not to stay. In conclusion, the Greek immigrant group in many respects had adapted to Swedish customs but they had also at the same time retained much of the Greek cultural characteristics.

  19. Gender differences in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Vesga-López, Oriana; Schneier, Franklin; Wang, Samuel; Heimberg, Richard; Liu, Shang-Min; Hasin, Deborah S.; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess gender differences in the epidemiology, comorbidity and treatment-seeking patterns of DSM-IV Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in the United States. Method Data were derived from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N=43,093) of the U.S. population. Results The lifetime and twelve-month male:female prevalence ratios of DSM-IV GAD were 1:1.9 and 1:2.2, respectively. Men with GAD had significantly higher rates of comorbid alcohol and drug use disorders, nicotine dependence, and antisocial personality disorder. Women with GAD had significantly higher rates of comorbid mood disorders (except bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (except social anxiety disorder). Men with GAD reported greater use of alcohol and non-prescription medications to help relieve GAD symptoms. GAD in women was associated with higher family history of depression. Disability associated with GAD was greater in women than in men. Rates of treatment-seeking for DSM-IV GAD were low for both genders, but particularly low among men. Conclusion There are significant gender differences in the prevalence, comorbidity pattern, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, course, and treatment-seeking rates of persons with DSM-IV GAD. Increased recognition and treatment of GAD, particularly among men, could lead to a substantial reductions in the societal and personal burden and improve the quality of life of those afflicted with this disorder. PMID:19192444

  20. Comorbidity of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Substance Use Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Analucía A.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, Shang-Min; Davies, Carrie; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Objective Prior research has consistently documented a strong association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and substance use disorder (SUD). GAD and SUD comorbidity (GAD-SUD) represents clinical challenges as the patients’ symptoms are often more severe and are frequently prolonged making their management more complex when compared with individuals with GAD only. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals with GAD-SUD differ meaningfully from individuals with GAD and no SUD comorbidity (GAD-NSUD) in terms of demographic characteristics, risk factors, psychiatric comorbidity and clinical correlates. Methods Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (N=43,093). Diagnoses were made using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version. Results We found that the lifetime prevalence rate of GAD-SUD is about 2.04% while that of GAD-NSUD is of 2.10%. Individuals with GAD-SUD showed higher psychiatric comorbidity rates than those with GAD-NSUD. Treatment seeking rates for GAD are equally low in GAD-SUD and GAD-NSUD. Both groups were as likely to receive pharmacological treatment for anxiety. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that individuals of GAD-SUD constitutes half of the lifetime prevalence of GAD and that GAD-SUD is associated with high overall vulnerability for additional psychopathology, particularly in the externalizing spectrum, higher disability and higher use of alcohol and drugs to relieve anxiety symptoms. PMID:20923623

  1. The Lorazepam and Diazepam Protocol for Catatonia Due to General Medical Condition and Substance in Liaison Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Chuen; Hung, Yi-Yung; Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2017-01-01

    Objective The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been proved to rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia in patients with schizophrenia or mood disorder. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lorazepam-diazepam protocol in catatonia due to general medical conditions (GMC) and substance. Method Patients with catatonia that required psychiatric intervention in various settings of a medical center were included. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been used to treat the catatonia due to GMC or substance according to DSM-IV criteria. The treatment response had been assessed by two psychiatrists. Results Eighteen (85.7%) of 21 catatonic patients due to GMC or substance became free of catatonia after the lorazepam-diazepam protocol. Five (23.8%) of the 21 patients had passed away with various causes of death and wide range of time periods after catatonia. Conclusion Our results showed that the lorazepam-diazepam protocol could rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia due to GMC and substance. PMID:28114315

  2. Gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Vesga-López, Oriana; Schneier, Franklin R; Wang, Samuel; Heimberg, Richard G; Liu, Shang-Min; Hasin, Deborah S; Blanco, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    To assess gender differences in the epidemiology, comorbidity, and treatment-seeking patterns of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the United States. Data were derived from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of DSM-IV GAD were 1:1.9 and 1:2.2, respectively. Men with GAD had significantly higher rates of comorbid alcohol and drug use disorders, nicotine dependence, and antisocial personality disorder. Women with GAD had significantly higher rates of comorbid mood disorders (except bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (except social anxiety disorder). Men with GAD reported greater use of alcohol and drugs to help relieve GAD symptoms. GAD in women was associated with higher rates of family history of depression. Disability associated with GAD was greater in women than in men. Rates of treatment seeking for DSM-IV GAD were low for both genders, but particularly low among men. There are significant gender differences in the prevalence, comorbidity pattern, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, course, and treatment-seeking rates of persons with DSM-IV GAD. Increased recognition and treatment of GAD, particularly among men, could lead to substantial reductions in the societal and personal burden and improve the quality of life of those afflicted with this disorder. Copyright 2008 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Non-healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients: general and local interfering conditions and management options with advanced wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Uccioli, Luigi; Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Ruotolo, Valeria; Giurato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Medical knowledge about wound management has improved as recent studies have investigated the healing process and its biochemical background. Despite this, foot ulcers remain an important clinical problem, often resulting in costly, prolonged treatment. A non-healing ulcer is also a strong risk factor for major amputation. Many factors can interfere with wound healing, including the patient's general health status (i.e., nutritional condition indicated by albumin levels) or drugs such as steroids that can interfere with normal healing. Diabetic complications (i.e., renal insufficiency) may delay healing and account for higher amputation rates observed in diabetic patients under dialysis treatment. Wound environment (e.g., presence of neuropathy, ischaemia, and infection) may significantly influence healing by interfering with the physiological healing cascade and adding local release of factors that may worsen the wound. The timely and well-orchestrated release of factors regulating the healing process, observed in acute wounds, is impaired in non-healing wounds that are blocked in a chronic inflammatory phase without progressing to healing. This chronic phase is characterised by elevated protease activity (EPA) of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases (e.g., human neutrophil elastase) that interfere with collagen synthesis, as well as growth factor release and action. EPA (mainly MMP 9, MMP-8 and elastase) and inflammatory factors present in the wound bed (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa) account for the catabolic state of non-healing ulcers. The availability of wound dressings that modulate EPA has added new therapeutic options for treating non-healing ulcers. The literature confirms advantages obtained by reducing protease activity in the wound bed, with better outcomes achieved by using these dressings compared with traditional ones. New technologies also allow a physician to know the status of the wound bed environment, particularly EPA, in a clinical

  4. Stability and free vibration analyses of an orthotropic singly symmetric Timoshenko beam-column with generalized end conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve-Cano, J. F.; Darío Aristizábal-Ochoa, J.

    2009-12-01

    The stability and free vibration analyses (i.e., buckling, natural frequencies and modal shapes) of an orthotropic singly symmetric 3D Timoshenko beam-column with generalized boundary conditions (i.e., with bending and torsional semirigid restraints and lateral bracings as well as lumped masses at both ends) subjected to an eccentric end axial load are presented in a classical manner. The five governing equations of dynamic equilibrium (i.e., two transverse shear equations, two bending moment equations and pure torsional moment equation) are sufficient to determine the natural frequencies and the corresponding modal shapes of the beam-column in the two principal planes of bending and torsion about its longitudinal axis. The proposed model includes the coupling effects among: (1) the deformations due to bending, shear and pure torsion; (2) inertias (translational, rotational and torsional) of all masses considered; (3) eccentric axial loads applied at the ends, and (4) restraints at the supports (bending, torsional and lateral bracings at both ends of the member). However, the effects of axial deformations and warping torsion produced by the axial load are not included; consequently the proposed model is not capable of capturing the phenomena of torsional buckling or combined lateral bending-torsional buckling. The proposed analytical model indicates that the stability and dynamic response of beam-columns are highly sensitive to the coupling effects, particularly in members with both ends free to rotate. The natural frequencies and modal shapes can be determined from the eigenvalues of a full 4×4 matrix for vibration in the plane of symmetry (using the uncoupled equations of transverse force and moment equilibrium at both ends) and from a full 6×6 matrix for the coupled shear-bending-torsional vibration (using the coupled equations of transverse shear, bending and torsional moment equilibrium at both ends). Also, it is shown that the proposed method reproduces the

  5. Separating expansion from contraction in spherically symmetric models with a perfect fluid: Generalization of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff condition and application to models with a cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Mimoso, Jose P.; Le Delliou, Morgan; Mena, Filipe C.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate spherically symmetric perfect-fluid spacetimes and discuss the existence and stability of a dividing shell separating expanding and collapsing regions. We perform a 3+1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating the intrinsic spatial curvature of the shells to the Misner-Sharp mass and to a function of the pressure that we introduce and that generalizes the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition. We find that surfaces fulfilling those two conditions fit, locally, the requirements of a dividing shell, and we argue that cosmological initial conditions should allow its global validity. We analyze the particular cases of the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi dust models with a cosmological constant as an example of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant ({Lambda}-CDM model) and its generalization to contain a central perfect-fluid core. These models provide simple but physically interesting illustrations of our results.

  6. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appreciable motion imparted to it. (7) The system's performance should be evaluated, taking into account the range of environmental conditions for which it is designed to be used. (8) Following the test, the...

  7. Using health state utility values from the general population to approximate baselines in decision analytic models when condition-specific data are not available.

    PubMed

    Ara, Roberta; Brazier, John E

    2011-06-01

    Decision analytic models in health care require baseline health-related quality of life data to accurately assess the benefits of interventions. The use of inappropriate baselines such as assuming the value of perfect health (EQ-5D = 1) for not having a condition may overestimate the benefits of some treatment and thus distort policy decisions informed by cost per quality adjusted life years thresholds. The primary objective was to determine if data from the general population are appropriate for baseline health state utility values (HSUVs) when condition specific data are not available. Data from four consecutive Health Surveys for England were pooled. Self-reported health status and EQ-5D data were extracted and used to generate mean HSUVs for cohorts with or without prevalent health conditions. These were compared with mean HSUVs from all respondents irrespective of health status. More than 45% of respondents (n = 41,174) reported at least one condition and almost 20% reported at least two. Our results suggest that data from the general population could be used to approximate baseline HSUVs in some analyses, but not all. In particular, HSUVs from the general population would not be an appropriate baseline for cohorts who have just one condition. In these instances, if condition specific data are not available, data from respondents who report they do not have any prevalent health condition may be more appropriate. Exploratory analyses suggest the decrement on health-related quality of life may not be constant across ages for all conditions and these relationships may be condition specific. Additional research is required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Conditions that Promote Generalization: Suggestions to Increase the Transfer of Skills Learned in the Resource Room to the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, John L.

    1983-01-01

    Resource teachers can help learning disabled students generalize skills to a mainstream setting with three types of procedures: transfer activities; self control procedures (in which a behavior contract is developed and contingencies for self reinforcement are specified); and cooperative planning (in which resource teachers and regular teachers…

  9. Two generalized Lyapunov-type inequalities for a fractional p-Laplacian equation with fractional boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Xie, Dapeng; Yang, Dandan; Bai, Chuanzhi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence of positive solutions for the boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equation with mixed fractional derivatives and p-Laplacian operator. Then we establish two smart generalizations of Lyapunov-type inequalities. Some applications are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new results.

  10. Matrix Norms and the Condition Number: A General Framework to Improve Mesh Quality via Node-Movement

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    1999-09-27

    Objective functions for unstructured hexahedral and tetrahedral mesh optimization are analyzed using matrices and matrix norms. Mesh untangling objective functions that create valid meshes are used to initialize the optimization process. Several new objective functions to achieve element invertibility and quality are investigated, the most promising being the ''condition number''. The condition number of the Jacobian matrix of an element forms the basis of a barrier-based objective function that measures the distance to the set of singular matrices and has the ideal matrix as a stationary point. The method was implemented in the Cubit code, with promising results.

  11. Mixed boundary conditions in ocean general circulation models and their influence on the stability of the model`s conveyor belt

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolajewicz, U.; Maier-reimer, E.

    1994-11-01

    When driven under `mixed boundary conditions` coarse resolution ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) generally show a high sensitivity of the present-day thermohaline circulation against perturbations. We will show that an alternative formulation of the boundary condition for temperature, a mixture of prescribed heat fluxes and additional restoring of the sea surface temperature to a climatological boundary temperature with a longer time constant, drastically alters the stability of the modes of the thermohaline circulation. The results from simulations with the Hamburg large-scale geostrophic OGCM indicate that the stability of the mode of the thermohaline circulation with formation of North Atlantic deepwater increases, if the damping of sea surface temperature anomalies is reduced, whereas the opposite is true for the mode without North Atlantic deep water formation. It turns out that the formulation of the temperature boundary condition also affects the variability of the model.

  12. Validity of generalized scattering equations and corresponding inelastic-cross-section expressions for comprehensive electron diffraction conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, L. J.; Josefsson, T. W.

    1996-05-01

    Generalized scattering equations for electron diffraction in a crystalline environment have recently been derived with the assumption that the zeroth-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) lies parallel to the crystal surface (or alternatively that the zone axis is parallel to the crystal surface normal) [L. J. Allen and T. W. Josefsson, Phys. Rev. B 52, 3184 (1995)]. The contribution from higher-order Laue zones (HOLZ's) was not considered. We show that these scattering equations are in fact valid for general orientations of the ZOLZ with respect to the crystal surface, except for the specific case where the ZOLZ lies perpendicular to the surface. Furthermore, a widely applicable expression for the cross section for any type of inelastic scattering in a crystal is shown to be valid for any orientation of the ZOLZ and allows the inclusion of reflections in the HOLZ's.

  13. Foreign Exchange Value-at-Risk with Multiple Currency Exposure: A Multivariate and Copula Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    à un risque financier lié aux varia- tions du taux de change, et les responsables de la gestion interne se voient donc pressés de trouver des...Jondeau, E. and Rockinger, M. (2006), The Copula-GARCH model of conditional dependencies: An international stock market application, Journal of

  14. Conditional same-different discrimination by pigeons: acquisition and generalization to novel and few-item displays.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Kennedy, Philip L; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored whether pigeons can learn to discriminate simultaneously presented arrays of 16 identical (Same) visual items from arrays of 16 nonidentical (Different) visual items, when the correct choice was conditional on the presence of another cue: the color of the background. In one experiment, pigeons rapidly learned this task and, after training with arrays created from a 72-icon set, they exhibited nearly perfect transfer to novel testing arrays. In a second experiment, pigeons' accuracy to 24-, 20-, 12-, and 8-icon arrays during later testing remained as high as accuracy to training arrays; although accuracy declined with 4- and 2-icon arrays, it was still significantly above chance. In both experiments, pigeons' choice reaction time scores nicely complemented their choice accuracy scores. These results suggest that the conditional discrimination procedure is well suited to disclose same-different discrimination in pigeons and to elucidate the interaction between perception and abstraction in conceptual learning.

  15. Stimulus class formation and concept learning: establishment of within- and between-set generalization and transitive relationships via conditional discrimination procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Haring, T G; Breen, C G; Laitinen, R E

    1989-01-01

    Three students with moderate mental retardation were taught a complex stimulus class with a two-choice conditional discrimination procedure applied across eight 10-member stimulus sets. Each set was composed of five age-appropriate and five age-inappropriate examples of clothing, accessories, and leisure items (e.g., a Walkman radio). Discrimination training was programmed serially across each set, and generalization probes were conducted concurrently among all sets. Generalization probes consisted of unreinforced conditional matching trials with comparison items being drawn from (a) the set undergoing training (within-set probes), (b) sets not undergoing training (between-set probes), and (c) both sample and comparison items from different sets (transitive stimulus control probes). Results indicate that within-set generalization, between-set generalization, and transitive stimulus relations controlled responding by all 3 students for items that had been contingently associated with reinforcement. However, items that gained control of responding through within-set and between-set generalization alone (i.e., not acquired through contingent reinforcement) remained at baseline levels during transitive stimulus control probes. Results are discussed in terms of a taxonomy of multiple sources of stimulus control that underlie socially defined and maintained stimulus classes. PMID:2527943

  16. [Comparison analysis on remedy condition of acute chemical intoxication in emergency departments and occupational departments of general hospitals].

    PubMed

    Li, An; Wang, Xiao-hong; Hao, Feng-tong

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the current situation of treatment for acute chemical poisoning in the emergency departments and occupational disease departments of some general hospitals and to provide a basis for improving the ability of general hospital to deal with acute chemical poisoning. Four hospitals from Shandong Province, Beijing City, and Shanxi Province, China were selected in the study. They included two first-class hospitals located in the downtown, where the patients with acute chemical poisoning from urban and suburban areas were admitted to the occupational disease departments, and two second-class hospitals located in the suburban area or county, where the patients with acute chemical poisoning from the suburban area were admitted to the emergency departments. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 141 medical workers (51 persons in the emergence department group and 90 persons in the occupational disease department group) that were engaged in the treatment of acute chemical poisoning in the four hospitals; 1999 medical records were analyzed. Individual in-depth interviews, questionnaire investigation, and field observation were used to compare the emergency department group and occupational disease department group in terms of the ability to deal with acute chemical poisoning and the training on treatment for acute chemical poisoning. The emergency department group had significantly higher proportion of pesticide poisoning cases than the occupational disease department group (P<0.01). Thirty-seven of the patients in occupational disease department group died, with a fatality rate of 2.7%, and 14 of the patients in emergence department group died,with a fatality rate of 2.2%, so there was no significant difference between the two groups in this regard (P>0.05). There were significantly more cases treated without emergency plan in the emergency department group than in the occupational disease department group ( 37.3% vs. 10.0%, P <0.0 1). The occupational

  17. General velocity, pressure, and initial condition for two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadipour, Omid Reza; Niazmand, Hamid; Succi, Sauro

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to implement initial and boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method is presented. The main idea is to approximate the nonequilibrium component of distribution functions as a third-order power series in the lattice velocities and formulate a procedure to determine boundary node distributions by using fluid variables, consistent with such an expansion. The velocity shift associated with the body force effects is included in this scheme, along with an approximation to determine the mass density in complex geometries. Different strategies based on the present scheme are developed to implement velocity and pressure conditions for arbitrarily shaped boundaries, using the D2Q9, D3Q15, D3Q19 and D3Q27 lattices, in two and three space dimensions, respectively. The proposed treatment is tested against several well-established problems, showing second-order spatial accuracy and often improved behavior as compared to various existing methods, with no appreciable computational overhead.

  18. Damages of the Tallinn District Heating Networks and Indicative Parameters for an Estimation of the Networks General Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlebnikov, Aleksandr; Volkova, Anna; Dzuba, Olga; Poobus, Arvi; Kask, Ülo

    2010-01-01

    District heating networks in Estonia are mostly old and in bad condition. The state of the district heating networks of Tallinn is typical for the rest of Estonian DH networks. The paper includes an analysis of the Tallinn district heating networks. Valid data about damages in district heating systems received for the last 12 years were used for an analysis of the network damages. Different types of network damages are analysed: external corrosion, internal corrosion, defect of installation, factory defects, defect of construction and other reasons. The scale of damages for the different elements of networks is compared in the paper: armature, compensator, construction and pipes. The main factors which influence damages in district heating networks are the age of networks, the quality of construction works and the network operation conditions. The damage quantity dependence on the age of networks is also defined and analysed in the paper. The scale of damages can be diminished by reducing the average age of the networks. This is possible by replacing old pipelines and other network system elements. The pipes average age changes for a 20 year period are simulated according to different intensities of renovation works.

  19. Apparent Decreases in Colloid Deposition Rate Coefficients with Distance of Transport under Unfavorable Deposition Conditions: A General Phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiqing; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, William P.

    2004-11-01

    The transport of polystyrene microspheres of two different diameters (1.1-?m and 5.7-?m) was examined in packed glass beads (-?m) under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and flow conditions. Numerical models accounting for advection, dispersion, attachment, and limited detachment were capable of simulating the observed breakthrough-elution data, but were incapable of simulating the observed profile of numbers of attached microspheres versus distance from the column entrance, which was much steeper than expected based on a constant rate of attachment across the length of the column. The ubiquity of apparent decreases in attachment rate with distance of transport among microspheres, bacteria, and viruses leads to the conclusion that such effects reflect processes that are fundamental to filtration. Potential processes hypothesized to contribute to the apparent decrease in attachment rate with distance of transport include: distributed interaction potentials among the microsphere population; straining; and depletion of the colloid concentration in the pore water adjacent to grain surfaces. It is shown that all three mechanisms are viable contributors to apparent decreases in attachment rate with distance of transport, and that direct observations are needed to determine the conditions under which each of these potential contributors is relevant.

  20. Equation of state in the generalized density scaling regime studied from ambient to ultra-high pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, A.; Koperwas, K.; Paluch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the effective intermolecular potential with well separated density and configuration contributions and the definition of the isothermal bulk modulus, we derive two similar equations of state dedicated to describe volumetric data of supercooled liquids studied in the extremely wide pressure range related to the density range, which is extremely wide in comparison with the experimental range reached so far in pressure-volume-temperature measurements of glass-forming liquids. Both the equations comply with the generalized density scaling law of molecular dynamics versus h(ρ)/T at different densities ρ and temperatures T, where the scaling exponent can be in general only a density function γ(ρ) = d ln h/d ln ρ as recently argued by the theory of isomorphs. We successfully verify these equations of state by using data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones liquid. As a very important result, we find that the one-parameter density function h(ρ) analytically formulated in the case of this prototypical model of supercooled liquid, which implies the one-parameter density function γ(ρ), is able to scale the structural relaxation times with the value of this function parameter determined by fitting the volumetric simulation data to the equations of state. We also show that these equations of state properly describe the pressure dependences of the isothermal bulk modulus and the configurational isothermal bulk modulus in the extremely wide pressure range investigated by the computer simulations. Moreover, we discuss the possible forms of the density functions h(ρ) and γ(ρ) for real glass formers, which are suggested to be different from those valid for the model of supercooled liquid based on the Lennard-Jones intermolecular potential.

  1. Suboptimal vitamin D status is a highly prevalent but treatable condition in both hospitalized patients and the general population.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2007-12-01

    To heighten awareness of the problems related to the high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in hospitalized patients and the general population, including an overview of vitamin D biology, how vitamin D status is defined, the negative health issues associated with suboptimal vitamin D status, indications for treatment, treatment strategies, and controversies in the field. (a) Literature review was performed using PubMed and CINAHL databases to locate and review medical, nursing, and nutritional journals. (b) Authors' recent prospective studies of 100 patients in a general tertiary hospital rehabilitation unit and 51 nonhospitalized volunteers. Poor vitamin D status (ranging from suboptimal to overt deficiency) is common in both hospitalized patients and ostensibly healthy individuals of all ages and geographic latitude. Suboptimal vitamin D status is associated with muscle weakness, functional deficits, and perhaps longer length of stay of hospitalized patients. Predictors of vitamin D status include race, poor nutrition, advanced age, use of multivitamins, ultraviolet light exposure, and grip strength. Fortunately, treatment with 50,000 IU of vitamin D(2) for several weeks is a very inexpensive and safe yet effective treatment to replete vitamin D status. NPs should be aware of the indications for monitoring vitamin D status and the appropriate treatment for suboptimal vitamin D status. Improving vitamin D status may improve a patient's functional ability, therefore decreasing falls and preventing fractures, decreasing length of stay in the hospital, and decreasing the cost of health care. Providers can potentially improve the life of older adults by educating patients on the importance of vitamin D supplementation.

  2. A semi analytical method for electro-thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of nanobeam resting on the Winkler-Pasternak foundations with general elastic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarepour, Misagh; Amirhosein Hosseini, Seyed

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an examination of nonlinear free vibration of a nanobeam under electro-thermo-mechanical loading with elastic medium and various boundary conditions, especially the elastic boundary condition. The nanobeam is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The von Kármán strain-displacement relationship together with Hamilton’s principle and Eringen’s theory are employed to derive equations of motion. The nonlinear free vibration frequency is obtained for simply supported (S-S) and elastic supported (E-E) boundary conditions. E-E boundary condition is a general and actual form of boundary conditions and it is chosen because of more realistic behavior. By applying the differential transform method (DTM), the nanobeam’s natural frequencies can be easily obtained for the two different boundary conditions mentioned above. Performing a precise study led to investigation of the influences of nonlocal parameter, temperature change, spring constants (either for elastic medium or boundary condition) and imposed electric potential on the nonlinear free vibration characteristics of nanobeam. The results for S-S and E-E nanobeams are compared with each other. In order to validate the results, some comparisons are presented between DTM results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach. It has been discovered that DTM solves the equations with minimum calculation cost.

  3. Using General-Head Boundary Condition in Groundwater Flow Model Eddy Teasdale, PG; Jim Zhang, PhD, PE; and Liz Elliot, PG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, E.

    2010-12-01

    : In groundwater flow model development, setting appropriate boundary conditions is difficult if the edges of the model domain are not natural groundwater or known hydraulic boundaries (i.e., rivers, faults). Often the prescribed-head or prescribed-flux boundary condition does not apply to these non-natural boundaries, and a general-head boundary (GHB) condition has to be implemented. GHB allows groundwater to move either into or out of the model domain (depending on groundwater elevation changes along the boundary). GHB conditions can approximate the hydraulic response of the boundaries to the groundwater condition variations if it is specified appropriately. Although hydraulic conductance and the reference head are the only two parameters used in GHB, determing these two parameters is always a challenging task, especially if little is known about the regional flow system. This paper presents the main issues in the application of GHB conditions and provides some guidance in determing the hydraulic conductance and the reference head values. Numerical test runs have been conducted to illustrate the effects varying GHB conditions have on the flow simulation results.

  4. An evaluation of the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing general psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions and comorbid mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Blainey, Sarah H; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison

    2017-07-26

    To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnaire of psychological distress is completed by clients at start and end of therapy. Change over time and reliable and clinical change was assessed for 81 of a total of 122 clients (66.4%). Factors which may influence change over time were explored using available clinical information. Overall, there was a significant reduction in CORE-OM score during therapy with a small effect size. Most clients showed an improvement in psychological distress over therapy (75.4% improved, with 36.9% of these showing reliable changes). Significant and comparable reductions from pre-therapy to post-therapy were seen across the sample, showing that individual differences did not mediate therapy effectiveness. CORE-OM scores mediate the association between age of ASD diagnosis and hours of therapeutic input required, with greater age at diagnosis and higher distress associated with longer therapy duration. Our preliminary findings suggest that psychological therapy may be effective in reducing general distress for clients with ASC and co-morbid mental health conditions and should be routinely offered. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD in adulthood are likely to require a longer course of therapy when their general distress scores are high. Key Practitioner Message Co-morbid mental health conditions are common in adults on the autism spectrum, but there is little evidence for what might be helpful in reducing rates of mental health conditions in this population. This study demonstrates that adapted psychological

  5. Can we determine depressive conditions on the basis of somatic symptoms? A cross-sectional study of depressive conditions among Japanese patients at a university hospital general medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Akiko; Nagate, Motoyoshi; Utsumi, Kenta; Tanaka, Asashi; Inoue, Yuichi; Otaki, Junji; Shimbo, Takuro; Ashizawa, Tatsuto

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between somatic symptoms and depressive conditions among patients visiting the general medicine clinic of a university hospital. We distributed interview forms to 332 consecutive patients who visited our clinic for the first time between March and July 2011. Somatic symptoms were rated using a symptom checklist, and depressive conditions were evaluated using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). We categorized and compared 2 groups of patients: patients with an SDS score of more than 48 (depressive group) and patients with an SDS score of less than 48 (non-depressive group). A total of 284 (85.5%) patients returned the forms. The SDS scores were obtained from the forms of 182 patients (64.1%). The average age of these 182 patients was 46.5±18.04 years. The mean number of checked symptoms was 4.3±3.03, and the most common symptom was general fatigue (n=106; 58.2%). The number of checked symptoms in the survey was higher in the depressive group patients than in the non-depressive group patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that general fatigue, headache, and sleeping problems were significant dependent variables which were related to depressive conditions. We defined these 3 symptoms as depression-related somatic symptoms (DRSS). On a receiver-operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff scores were 2 of 3 DRSS and 4 of 20 somatic symptoms. General physicians should consider possible depressive conditions when patients have 2 or more DRSS or 4 or more somatic symptoms.

  6. General formulation of pressure and stress tensor for arbitrary many-body interaction potentials under periodic boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aidan P; Plimpton, Steven J; Mattson, William

    2009-10-21

    Three distinct forms are derived for the force virial contribution to the pressure and stress tensor of a collection of atoms interacting under periodic boundary conditions. All three forms are written in terms of forces acting on atoms, and so are valid for arbitrary many-body interatomic potentials. All three forms are mathematically equivalent. In the special case of atoms interacting with pair potentials, they reduce to previously published forms. (i) The atom-cell form is similar to the standard expression for the virial for a finite nonperiodic system, but with an explicit correction for interactions with periodic images. (ii) The atom form is particularly suited to implementation in modern molecular dynamics simulation codes using spatial decomposition parallel algorithms. (iii) The group form of the virial allows the contributions to the virial to be assigned to individual atoms.

  7. Histidine-functionalized water-soluble nanoparticles for biomimetic nucleophilic/general-base catalysis under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Geetika; Zhao, Yan

    2013-10-21

    Cross-linking the micelles of 4-dodecyloxybenzyltripropargylammonium bromide by 1,4-diazidobutane-2,3-diol in the presence of azide-functionalized imidazole derivatives yielded surface-cross-linked micelles (SCMs) with imidazole groups on the surface. The resulting water-soluble nanoparticles were found, by fluorescence spectroscopy, to contain hydrophobic binding sites. The imidazole groups promoted the photo-deprotonation of 2-naphthol at pH 6 and catalyzed the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA) in aqueous solution at pH ≥ 4. Although the overall hydrolysis rate slowed down with decreasing solution pH, the catalytic effect of the imidazole became stronger because the reactions catalyzed by unfunctionalized SCMs slowed down much more. The unusual ability of the imidazole–SCMs to catalyze the hydrolysis of PNPA under acidic conditions was attributed to the local hydrophobicity and the positive nature of the SCMs.

  8. STUDIES IN RESUSCITATION: I. THE GENERAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING RESUSCITATION, AND THE RESUSCITATION OF THE BLOOD AND OF THE HEART

    PubMed Central

    Pike, F. H.; Guthrie, C. C.; Stewart, G. N.

    1908-01-01

    Our results may be briefly summarized: 1. Blood, when defibrinated, soon loses its power to maintain the activity of the higher nervous centers, and its nutritive properties for all tissues quickly diminish. 2. Artificial fluids, as a substitute for blood, are not satisfactory. 3. The proper oxygenation of the blood is an indispensable adjunct in the resuscitation of an animal. 4. The heart usually continues to beat for some minutes after it ceases to affect a mercury manometer, and resuscitation of it within this period by extra-thoracic massage and artificial respiration is sometimes successful. 5. Resuscitation of the heart by direct massage is the most certain method at our command. 6. A proper blood-pressure is an indispensable condition for the continued normal activity of the heart. 7. Anæsthetics, hemorrhage and induced currents applied to the heart render resuscitation more difficult than asphyxia alone. PMID:19867138

  9. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test.

  10. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Content on the American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination With Conditions Seen in Practice by General Internists.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bradley; Vandergrift, Jonathan; Lipner, Rebecca S; Green, Marianne M

    2017-06-13

    Success on the internal medicine (IM) examination is a central requirement of the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM's) Maintenance of Certification program (MOC). Therefore, it is important to understand the degree to which this examination reflects conditions seen in practice, one dimension of content validity, which focuses on the match between content in the discipline and the topics on the examination questions. To assess whether the frequency of questions on IM-MOC examinations were concordant with the frequency of conditions seen in practice. The 2010-2013 IM-MOC examinations were used to calculate the percentage of questions for 186 medical condition categories from the examination blueprint, which balances examination content by considering importance and frequency of conditions seen in practice. Nationally representative estimates of conditions seen in practice by general internists were estimated from the primary diagnosis for 13 832 office visits (2010-2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys) and 108 472 hospital stays (2010 National Hospital Discharge Survey). Prevalence of conditions included on the IM-MOC examination questions. The outcome measure was the concordance between the percentages of IM-MOC examination questions and the percentages of conditions seen in practice during either office visits or hospital stays for each of 186 condition categories (eg, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, liver disease). The concordance thresholds were 0.5 SD of the weighted mean percentages of the applicable 186 conditions seen in practice (0.74% for office visits; 0.51% for hospital stays). If the absolute differences between the percentages of examination questions and the percentages of office visit conditions or hospital stay conditions seen were less than the applicable concordance threshold, then the condition category was judged to be concordant. During the 2010-2013 IM-MOC examination periods, 3600 questions (180 questions per

  12. A master-slave parallel hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for groundwater remediation design under general hydrogeological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Yang, Y.; Luo, Q.; Wu, J.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a new hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the niched Pareto tabu search combined with a genetic algorithm (NPTSGA), whereby the global search ability of niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS) is improved by the diversification of candidate solutions arose from the evolving nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) population. Also, the NPTSGA coupled with the commonly used groundwater flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed methodology is then applied to a large-scale field groundwater remediation system for cleanup of large trichloroethylene (TCE) plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Furthermore, a master-slave (MS) parallelization scheme based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is incorporated into the NPTSGA to implement objective function evaluations in distributed processor environment, which can greatly improve the efficiency of the NPTSGA in finding Pareto-optimal solutions to the real-world application. This study shows that the MS parallel NPTSGA in comparison with the original NPTS and NSGA-II can balance the tradeoff between diversity and optimality of solutions during the search process and is an efficient and effective tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems under complicated hydrogeologic conditions.

  13. Effect of different frequencies of preventive maintenance treatment on periodontal conditions. 5-Year observations in general dentistry patients.

    PubMed

    Rosén, B; Olavi, G; Badersten, A; Rönström, A; Söderholm, G; Egelberg, J

    1999-04-01

    The protocol for this study was designed to evaluate the effects of supportive recall treatments provided with different frequencies, viz. at 3-, 6-, 12- and 18-month intervals. The subjects for the study were recruited from patients attending a public, general dentistry clinic. Prior to baseline, the subjects were given necessary dental treatments to provide a proper baseline for the study. Baseline, intermittent and final recordings included scores of dental plaque, bleeding on probing, probing depth and probing attachment level. Results were evaluated statistically by intergroup comparisons of changes for the various parameters from baseline to final examination after 5 years. The analyses showed some advantage to shorter recall intervals for plaque and bleeding scores. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend suggesting some rebound of sites > or =6 mm deep at the end of the study for the 18-month group, but not for the other groups. Similarly, there was a trend that the 18-month group showed a higher percentage of buccal/lingual furcation sites with attachment loss > or = 1.0 mm than the other groups. Apart from these trends, the analyses failed to demonstrate differences between the groups for either changes of probing depths or probing attachment levels. The negative observations included identification of individuals with 'disease progression' in the various groups, using a series of arbitrary definitions for this parameter. The results of this trial suggest that recall intervals extended to a year may be acceptable for the purpose of reducing periodontal disease progression in individuals with a history of limited susceptibility to the disease.

  14. Self-rated health and chronic conditions are associated with blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Gasull, Magda; Pallarès, Natàlia; Salcedo, Natalia; Pumarega, José; Alonso, Jordi; Porta, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a powerful predictor of mortality, morbidity, and need for health services. SRH generally increases with educational level, and decreases with age, number of chronic conditions, and body mass index (BMI). Because human concentrations of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also vary by age, education, and BMI, and because of the physiological and clinical effects of POPs, we hypothesized that body concentrations of POPs are inversely associated with SRH. To analyze the relation between serum concentrations of POPs and SRH in the general population of Catalonia, Spain, taking into account sociodemographic factors and BMI, as well as chronic health conditions and mental disorders, measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). POP serum concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection in 919 participants of the Catalan Health Interview Survey. Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH; e.g., the median concentration of HCB in subjects with poor SRH was twice as high as in subjects with excellent SRH (366 ng/g vs. 169 ng/g, respectively; p-value<0.001). In crude models and in models adjusted for sex and BMI, the POPs-SRH association was often dose-dependent, and the likelihood of poor or regular SRH was 2 to 4-times higher in subjects with POP concentrations in the top quartile. In models adjusted for age or for chronic conditions virtually all ORs were near unity. No associations were found between POP levels and GHQ-12. Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH, an association likely due to age and chronic conditions, but not to sex, education, social class, BMI, or mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A modified Fourier solution for vibration analysis of moderately thick laminated annular sector plates with general boundary conditions, internal radial line and circumferential arc supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Fuzhen; Li, Haichao; Miao, Xuhong; Wang, Xueren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a modified Fourier solution based on the first-order shear deformation theory is developed for the free vibration problem of moderately thick composite laminated annular sector plates with general boundary conditions, internal radial line and circumferential arc supports. In this solution approach, regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement and rotation components of the sector plate are written in the form of the trigonometric series expansion in which several auxiliary terms are added to ensure and accelerate the convergence of the series. Each of the unknown coefficients is taken as the generalized coordinate and determined using the Raleigh- Ritz method. The accuracy and reliability of the present solution are validated by the comparison with the results found in the literature, and numerous new results for composite laminated annular sector plates considering various kinds of boundary conditions are presented. Comprehensive studies on the effects of elastic restraint parameters, layout schemes and locations of line/arc supports are also made.New results are obtained for laminated annular sector plates subjected to elastic boundary restraints and arbitrary internal radial line and circumferential arc supports in both directions, and they may serve as benchmark solutions for future researches.

  16. [Condition of patients after surgical wisdom tooth extraction under general anesthesia with different premedication variants--a prospective study based on a post-anesthesia questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Markus, H; Schwarz, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the modified "postanaesthesiological questionnaire" pointed to a subtle influencing of the condition of patients who had undergone 3rd molar surgery in general anaesthesia by using different premedication variants: "Atropine, Pethidine and Midazolam" (group A) and "Atropine, Midazolam and S-Ketamin" (group B). The combination in group B seems to be more suitable. On the one hand, a lower incidence of unwanted side-effects was found and, on the other hand, remarkable positive effects were observed. Of particular significance with this combination was also the more effective suppression of postoperative pain. The Propofol-supplemented general anaesthesia prepared in this way and administered using a nasal intubation technique found the full approval of the patients. Postoperative pain therapy was effective and also inexpensive, costing just 8.20 DM per patient, according to current prices calculated by Magdeburg University Hospital.

  17. Conditions for the cosmological viability of the most general scalar-tensor theories and their applications to extended Galileon dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2012-02-01

    In the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations, we derive the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with scalar, tensor, and vector perturbations in the presence of two perfect fluids on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. Our general results are useful for the construction of theoretically consistent models of dark energy. We apply our formulas to extended Galileon models in which a tracker solution with an equation of state smaller than -1 is present. We clarify the allowed parameter space in which the ghosts and Laplacian instabilities are absent and we numerically confirm that such models are indeed cosmologically viable.

  18. Simulations of the HDO and H2O-18 atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model - The seasonal cycle for present-day conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jouzel, J.; Russell, G. L.; Suozzo, R. J.; Koster, R. D.; White, J. W. C.

    1987-01-01

    The cycles of the water isotopic species (HDO and H2O-18) have been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The results of a three-year simulation for present-day conditions are discussed, with special emphasis on the comparison between predicted and observed isotopic distributions for both the seasonal and annual time scales. The observed seasonal cycles are generally well simulated. For the annual scale the observed linear relationship between delta O-18 and the surface temperature at middle and high latitudes, as well as the absence of any correlation between these fields in tropical and equatorial regions, are properly obeyed by the GCM simulation. In the tropical and equatorial regions the delta O-18 patterns for both observations and the GCM are influenced by the amount of rainfall. There is excellent agreement between the simulated and observed delta D-delta O-18 relationship throughout the world.

  19. Comparison of psychological placebo and waiting list control conditions in the assessment of cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhipei; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Jiangling; Li, Wei; Cao, Xinyi; Zhou, Zhirui; Zhang, Tiansong; Li, Chunbo

    2014-12-01

    There is ongoing debate about the efficacy of placebos in the treatment of mental disorders. In randomized control trials (RCTs) about the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, the administration of a psychological placebo or placement on a waiting list are the two most common control conditions. But there has never been a systematic comparison of the clinical effect of these different strategies. Compare the change in symptom severity among individuals treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, provided a psychological placebo, or placed on a waiting list using data from RCTs on generalized anxiety disorder. The following databases were searched for RCTs on generalized anxiety disorder: PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, Chongqing VIP, Wanfang, Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database, and Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services. Studies were selected based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and the quality of each included study - based on the risk of bias and the level of evidence - was formally assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan5.3 and network meta-analyses comparing the three groups were conducted using R. Twelve studies with a combined sample size of 531 were included in the analysis. Compared to either control method (placebo or waiting list), cognitive behavioral therapy was more effective for generalized anxiety disorder. Provision of a psychological placebo was associated with a significantly greater reduction of symptoms than placement on a waiting list. Eight of the studies were classified as 'high risk of bias', and the overall level of evidence was classified as 'moderate', indicating that further research could change the overall results of the meta-analysis. RCTs about the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders are generally of moderate quality; they indicate the superiority of CBT but the results cannot, as yet, be considered robust. There is evidence of a non-negligible treatment effect

  20. Web-Based Interventions to Improve Mental Health, General Caregiving Outcomes, and General Health for Informal Caregivers of Adults With Chronic Conditions Living in the Community: Rapid Evidence Review.

    PubMed

    Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Valaitis, Ruta; McAiney, Carrie; Duggleby, Wendy; Bartholomew, Amy; Sherifali, Diana

    2017-07-28

    Most adults with chronic conditions live at home and rely on informal caregivers to provide support. Caregiving can result in negative impacts such as poor mental and physical health. eHealth interventions may offer effective and accessible ways to provide education and support to informal caregivers. However, we know little about the impact of Web-based interventions for informal caregivers of community-dwelling adults with chronic conditions. The purpose of this rapid evidence review was to assess the impact of Web-based interventions on mental health, general caregiving outcomes, and general health for informal caregivers of persons with chronic conditions living in the community. A rapid evidence review of the current literature was employed to address the study purpose. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Ageline were searched covering all studies published from January 1995 to July 2016. Papers were included if they (1) included a Web-based modality to deliver an intervention; (2) included informal, unpaid adult caregivers of community-living adults with a chronic condition; (3) were either a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or controlled clinical trial (CCT); and (4) reported on any caregiver outcome as a result of use or exposure to the intervention. A total of 20 papers (17 studies) were included in this review. Study findings were mixed with both statistically significant and nonsignificant findings on various caregiver outcomes. Of the 17 included studies, 10 had at least one significant outcome. The most commonly assessed outcome was mental health, which included depressive symptoms, stress or distress, and anxiety. Twelve papers examined the impact of interventions on the outcome of depressive symptoms; 4 found a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Eight studies examined the outcome of stress or distress; 4 of these found a significant reduction in stress or distress as a result of the intervention. Three studies examined the

  1. Assessing the interplay of childhood adversities with more recent stressful life events and conditions in predicting panic pathology among adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Asselmann, E; Stender, J; Grabe, H J; König, J; Schmidt, C O; Hamm, A O; Pané-Farré, C A

    2018-01-01

    Although research suggests that (a) childhood adversities and more recent stressful life events/conditions are risk factors for panic pathology and that (b) early life stress increases vulnerability to later psychopathology, it remains unclear whether childhood adversities amplify the association between more recent stressful life events/conditions and panic pathology. Data were derived from a general population sample (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Lifetime panic pathology was assessed with the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Childhood adversities (emotional, physical and sexual abuse; emotional and physical neglect) were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). More recent separation/loss events and long-lasting stressful conditions were assessed with the Stralsund Life Event List (SEL). Individuals with lifetime panic pathology (fearful spell, panic attack or panic disorder, N = 286) were compared to controls without any psychopathology (N = 286, matched for sex and age). Conditional logistic regressions revealed that childhood adversities as well as more recent separation/loss events and long-lasting stressful conditions were associated with panic pathology (OR 1.1-2.5). Moreover, more recent separation/loss events - but not long-lasting stressful conditions - interacted statistically with each of the examined childhood adversities except for sexual abuse in predicting panic pathology (OR 1.1-1.3). That is, separation/loss events were associated more strongly with panic pathology among individuals with higher childhood adversities. Data were assessed retrospectively and might be subject to recall biases. Findings suggest that early childhood adversities amplify the risk of developing panic pathology after experiencing separation or loss events. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Observational constraints on general relativistic energy conditions, cosmic matter density and dark energy from X-ray clusters of galaxies and type-Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuecker, P.; Caldwell, R. R.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C. A.; Guzzo, L.; Weinberg, N. N.

    2003-04-01

    New observational constraints on the cosmic matter density Omegam and an effectively redshift-independent equation of state parameter wx of the dark energy are obtained while simultaneously testing the strong and null energy conditions of general relativity on macroscopic scales. The combination of REFLEX X-ray cluster and type-Ia supernova data shows that for a flat Universe the strong energy condition might presently be violated whereas the null energy condition seems to be fulfilled. This provides another observational argument for the present accelerated cosmic expansion and the absence of exotic physical phenomena related to a broken null energy condition. The marginalization of the likelihood distributions is performed in a manner to include a large fraction of the recently discussed possible systematic errors involved in the application of X-ray clusters as cosmological probes. This yields for a flat Universe, Omegam =0.29+0.08-0.12 and wx=-0.95+0.30-0.35 (1sigma errors without cosmic variance). The scatter in the different analyses indicates a quite robust result around wx=-1, leaving little room for the introduction of new energy components described by quintessence-like models or phantom energy. The most natural interpretation of the data is a positive cosmological constant with wx=-1 or something like it.

  3. Non-Markovian reduced propagator, multiple-time correlation functions, and master equations with general initial conditions in the weak-coupling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Ines de; Alonso, Daniel

    2006-02-15

    In this paper we derive the evolution equation for the reduced propagator, an object that evolves vectors of the Hilbert space of a system S interacting with an environment B in a non-Markovian way. This evolution is conditioned to certain initial and final states of the environment. Once an average over these environmental states is made, reduced propagators permit the evaluation of multiple-time correlation functions of system observables. When this average is done stochastically the reduced propagator evolves according to a stochastic Schroedinger equation. In addition, it is possible to obtain the evolution equations of the multiple-time correlation functions which generalize the well-known quantum regression theorem to the non-Markovian case. Here, both methods, stochastic and evolution equations, are described by assuming a weak coupling between system and environment. Finally, we show that reduced propagators can be used to obtain a master equation with general initial conditions, and not necessarily an initial vacuum state for the environment. We illustrate the theory with several examples.

  4. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice.

    PubMed

    Sapowicz, Stephanie A; Linder, Deborah E; Freeman, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n = 149) and a general practice (n = 166). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P < 0.001) and education (P < 0.001) compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P < 0.001) and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P < 0.001). Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P = 0.083), with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P = 0.046), but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P = 0.004). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.

  5. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n = 149) and a general practice (n = 166). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P < 0.001) and education (P < 0.001) compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P < 0.001) and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P < 0.001). Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P = 0.083), with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P = 0.046), but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P = 0.004). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:27722198

  6. The relative odds of lifetime health conditions and infectious diseases among men who have sex with men compared with a matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Swartz, James A

    2015-03-01

    To address the understudy of health conditions and infectious diseases that are not strictly related to sexual transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), this study examined the relative odds of 10 health conditions and two infectious diseases in a sample of MSM compared with a matched general population sample. MSM (N = 653) living mainly in Chicago were sampled through successive administrations of an Internet-based survey (2008-2010) that assessed physical and mental health, substance use, and HIV status. Propensity score matching was used to obtain a demographically comparable sample of men (N = 653) from aggregated administrations (2008-2012) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Multivariate Firth logistic regressions compared the odds of ever having been diagnosed with each condition or disease, controlling for demographics, substance use, psychological distress, and HIV/AIDS status. MSM were more likely (p < .01) to have experienced: ulcers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3), hypertension (OR = 2.1), liver disease (OR = 5.7), and sexually transmitted infections other than HIV/AIDS (OR = 8.9). Two other conditions, pneumonia and pancreatitis, as well as tuberculosis, were significant at p < .05 but below the statistical threshold used to reduce alpha error. The findings suggest that relative to non-sexual-minority men, MSM are more likely to experience a range of health conditions not specifically attributable to HIV/AIDS, sexual behavior, psychological distress, or substance use. The implications for research on the health status and provision of health care to MSM in light of the study findings are considered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Agreement between self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care - results of the MultiCare Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a common phenomenon in primary care. Until now, no clinical guidelines for multimorbidity exist. For the development of these guidelines, it is necessary to know whether or not patients are aware of their diseases and to what extent they agree with their doctor. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the agreement of self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care, and to discover which patient characteristics are associated with positive agreement. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 3,189 multimorbid patients, ages 65 to 85. Data was collected in personal interviews with patients and GPs. The prevalence proportions for 32 diagnosis groups, kappa coefficients and proportions of specific agreement were calculated in order to examine the agreement of patient self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions. Logistic regression models were calculated to analyze which patient characteristics can be associated with positive agreement. Results We identified four chronic conditions with good agreement (e.g. diabetes mellitus κ = 0.80;PA = 0,87), seven with moderate agreement (e.g. cerebral ischemia/chronic stroke κ = 0.55;PA = 0.60), seventeen with fair agreement (e.g. cardiac insufficiency κ = 0.24;PA = 0.36) and four with poor agreement (e.g. gynecological problems κ = 0.05;PA = 0.10). Factors associated with positive agreement concerning different chronic diseases were sex, age, education, income, disease count, depression, EQ VAS score and nursing care dependency. For example: Women had higher odds ratios for positive agreement with their GP regarding osteoporosis (OR = 7.16). The odds ratios for positive agreement increase with increasing multimorbidity in almost all of the observed chronic conditions (OR = 1.22-2.41). Conclusions For multimorbidity research, the

  8. Influence of sociodemographic inequalities and chronic conditions on influenza vaccination coverage in Italy: results from a survey in the general population.

    PubMed

    La Torre, G; Iarocci, G; Cadeddu, C; Boccia, A

    2010-12-01

    were lower for some chronic conditions (e.g. allergies, cirrhosis) than others (e.g. cancer, stroke, bronchitis). Younger age groups, including children aged 0-14 years, had lower ORs for vaccination. Socio-economic factors, such as gender, age, educational level, occupational status and macro-region of residence, affect influenza vaccination coverage rates in the Italian general population. In addition, some chronic medical conditions are an obstacle for vaccination. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Binding of atoms and stability of molecules in Hartree and Thomas-Fermi type theories. Part I: A necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of general molecular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Catto, I.; Lions, P.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors study here the binding of atoms and molecules and the stability of general molecular systems including molecular ions. This is the first paper of a series devoted to the study of these general problems. The authors obtain here a general necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of a general molecular system in the context of Thomas-Fermi-Von Weizsaecker, Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Von Weizsaecker, Hartree or Hartree-Fock theories. 20 refs.

  10. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, J. E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-10-01

    We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wave-vector (high-k) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in subwavelength periodic multilayer structures. Describing the elementary excitation in the unit cell of the structure by a generalized resonance pole of a reflection coefficient and using Bloch's theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wave-vector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high-k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metal-dielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high-k waves and explore the range of parameteres for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for materials with hyperbolic dispersion. The approach is applicable to a large variety of structures, such as continuous or structured microwave, terahertz, and optical metamaterials.

  11. Two decades of change in European general practice service profiles: conditions associated with the developments in 28 countries between 1993 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Willemijn L. A.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Schellevis, François G.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence regarding the benefits of strong primary care has influenced health policy and practice. This study focuses on changes in the breadth of services provided by general practitioners (GPs) in Europe between 1993 and 2012 and offers possible explanations for these changes. Design Data on the breadth of service profiles were used from two cross-sectional surveys in 28 countries: the 1993 European GP Task Profile study (6321 GPs) and the 2012 QUALICOPC study (6044 GPs). GPs’ involvement in four areas of clinical activity (first contact care, treatment of diseases, medical procedures, and prevention) was established using ecometric analyses. The changes were measured by the relative increase in the breadth of service profiles. Associations between changes and national-level conditions were examined though regression analyses. Data on the national conditions were used from various other public databases including the World Databank and the PHAMEU (Primary Health care Activity Monitor) database. Setting A total of 28 European countries. Subjects GPs. Main outcome measure Changes in the breadth of GP service profiles. Results A general trend of increased involvement of European GPs in treatment of diseases and decreased involvement in preventive activities was observed. Conditions at the national level were associated with changes in the involvement of GPs in first contact care, treatment of diseases and, to a limited extent, prevention. Especially in countries with stronger growth of health care expenditures between 1993 and 2012 the service profiles have expanded. In countries where family values are more dominant the breadth in service profiles decreased. A stronger professional status of GPs was positively associated with the change in first contact care. Conclusions GPs in former communist countries and Turkey have increased their involvement in the provision of services. Developments in Western Europe were less evident. The developments in the

  12. Generalized additive regression models of discharge and mean velocity associated with direct-runoff conditions in Texas: Utility of the U.S. Geological Survey discharge measurement database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Herrmann, George R.; Cleveland, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    A database containing more than 17,700 discharge values and ancillary hydraulic properties was assembled from summaries of discharge measurement records for 424 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gauging stations (stream gauges) in Texas. Each discharge exceeds the 90th-percentile daily mean streamflow as determined by period-of-record, stream-gauge-specific, flow-duration curves. Each discharge therefore is assumed to represent discharge measurement made during direct-runoff conditions. The hydraulic properties of each discharge measurement included concomitant cross-sectional flow area, water-surface top width, and reported mean velocity. Systematic and statewide investigation of these data in pursuit of regional models for the estimation of discharge and mean velocity has not been previously attempted. Generalized additive regression modeling is used to develop readily implemented procedures by end-users for estimation of discharge and mean velocity from select predictor variables at ungauged stream locations. The discharge model uses predictor variables of cross-sectional flow area, top width, stream location, mean annual precipitation, and a generalized terrain and climate index (OmegaEM) derived for a previous flood-frequency regionalization study. The mean velocity model uses predictor variables of discharge, top width, stream location, mean annual precipitation, and OmegaEM. The discharge model has an adjusted R-squared value of about 0.95 and a residual standard error (RSE) of about 0.22 base-10 logarithm (cubic meters per second); the mean velocity model has an adjusted R-squared value of about 0.67 and an RSE of about 0.063 fifth root (meters per second). Example applications and computations using both regression models are provided. - See more at: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29HE.1943-5584.0000635#sthash.jhGyPxgZ.dpuf

  13. Towards a clinically useful diagnosis for mild-to-moderate conditions of medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptoms that cannot be attributed to any known conventionally defined disease are highly prevalent in general practice. Yet, only severe cases are captured by the current diagnostic classifications of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). This study explores the clinical usefulness of a proposed new diagnostic category for mild-to-moderate conditions of MUS labelled ‘multiple symptoms’. Methods A mixed methods approach was used. For two weeks, 20 general practitioners (GPs) classified symptoms presented in consecutive consultations according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) supplemented with the new diagnostic category ‘multiple symptoms’. The GPs’ experiences were subsequently explored by focus group interviews. Interview data were analysed according to ethnographic principles. Results In 33% of patients, GPs classified symptoms as medically unexplained, but applied the category of ‘multiple symptoms’ only in 2.8%. The category was described as a useful tool for promoting communication and creating better awareness of patients with MUS; as such, the category was perceived to reduce the risk of unnecessary tests and referrals of these patients. Three main themes were found to affect the clinical usefulness of the diagnostic category of ‘multiple symptoms’: 1) lack of consensus on categorisation practices, 2) high complexity of patient cases and 3) relational continuity (i.e. continuity in the doctor-patient relationship over time). The first two were seen as barriers to usefulness, the latter as a prerequisite for application. The GPs’ diagnostic classifications were found to be informed by the GPs’ subjective pre-formed concepts of patients with MUS, which reflected more severe conditions than actually intended by the new category of ‘multiple symptoms’. Conclusions The study demonstrated possible clinical benefits of the category of ‘multiple symptoms’, such as GPs’ increased awareness and

  14. Impact of chronic condition status and severity on dental treatment under general anesthesia for Medicaid-enrolled children in Iowa state

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Neff, John; Jones, Michael P.; Warren, John J.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Damiano, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To assess the impact of chronic condition (CC) status and CC severity, respectively, on the odds of receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) for Medicaid-enrolled children by age group. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children <15 years (n = 62 721) from 2005 to 2008. 3M Clinical Risk Grouping Software identified each child’s CC status (yes/no) and assigned children with a CC into a hierarchal CC severity group (episodic/life-long/complex). Multiple variable logistic regression models were used to identify the determinants of dental treatment under GA. Results Less than 1% of children received dental treatment under GA. While there was no significant difference in dental treatment under GA by CC status for children <6, those with a life-long CC were twice as likely to receive dental treatment under GA as demographically similar children with an episodic CC (P < 0.05). Children ages 6–14 with a CC were three times as likely as those without a CC to receive treatment under GA (P = 0.001). There was also a direct relationship between CC severity and dental treatment under GA use for older children. Those living in nonmetropolitan areas were more likely to receive treatment under GA as were children who previously received dental treatment under GA. Conclusions Chronic condition status and severity were more important determinants of dental treatment under GA for Medicaid-enrolled children ages 6–14 than for those <6. Understanding these relationships is a critical step in developing clinical strategies and interventions aimed at preventing dental disease for Medicaid-enrolled children whose reasons for needing dental treatment under GA are modifiable. PMID:20716079

  15. General quantitative analysis of stress partitioning and boundary conditions in undrained biphasic porous media via a purely macroscopic and purely variational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpieri, Roberto; Travascio, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In poroelasticity, the effective stress law relates the external stress applied to the medium to the macroscopic strain of the solid phase and the interstitial pressure of the fluid saturating the mixture. Such relationship has been formerly introduced by Terzaghi in form of a principle. To date, no poroelastic theory is capable of recovering a stress partitioning law in agreement with Terzaghi's postulated one in the absence of ad hoc constitutive assumptions on the medium. We recently proposed a variational macroscopic continuum description of two-phase poroelasticity to derive a general biphasic formulation at finite deformations, termed variational macroscopic theory of porous media (VMTPM). Such approach proceeds from the inclusion of the intrinsic volumetric strain among the kinematic descriptors aside to macroscopic displacements, and as a variational theory, uses the Hamilton least-action principle as the unique primitive concept of mechanics invoked to derive momentum balance equations. In a previous related work it was shown that, for the subclass of undrained problems, VMTPM predicts that stress is partitioned in the two phases in strict compliance with Terzaghi's law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. In the present contribution, we further develop the linearized framework of VMTPM to arrive at a general operative formula that allows the quantitative determination of stress partitioning in a jacketed test over a generic isotropic biphasic specimen. This formula is quantitative and general, in that it relates the partial phase stresses to the externally applied stress as function of partitioning coefficients that are all derived by strictly following a purely variational and purely macroscopic approach, and in the absence of any specific hypothesis on the microstructural or constitutive features of a given medium. To achieve this result, the stiffness coefficients of the theory are derived by using

  16. A model for abnormal activity recognition and alert generation system for elderly care by hidden conditional random fields using R-transform and generalized discriminant analysis features.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafar Ali; Sohn, Won

    2012-10-01

    The growing population of elderly people living alone increases the need for automatic healthcare monitoring systems for elderly care. Automatic vision sensor-based systems are increasingly used for human activity recognition (HAR) in recent years. This study presents an improved model, tested using actors, of a sensor-based HAR system to recognize daily life activities of elderly people at home and generate an alert in case of abnormal HAR. Datasets consisting of six abnormal activities (falling backward, falling forward, falling rightward, falling leftward, chest pain, and fainting) and four normal activities (walking, rushing, sitting down, and standing up) are generated from different view angles (90°, -90°, 45°, -45°). Feature extraction and dimensions reduction are performed by R-transform followed by generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) methods. R-transform extracts symmetric, scale, and translation-invariant features from the sequences of activities. GDA increases the discrimination between different classes of highly similar activities. Silhouette sequences are quantified by the Linde-Buzo-Gray algorithm and recognized by hidden conditional random fields. Experimental results provide an average recognition rate of 94.2% for abnormal activities and 92.7% for normal activities. The recognition rate for the highly similar activities from different view angles shows the flexibility and efficacy of the proposed abnormal HAR and alert generation system for elderly care.

  17. Charging free energy calculations using the Generalized Solvent Boundary Potential (GSBP) and periodic boundary condition: a comparative analysis using ion solvation and oxidation free energy in proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiya; Cui, Qiang

    2013-02-21

    Free energy simulations using a finite sphere boundary condition rather than a periodic boundary condition (PBC) are attractive in the study of very large biomolecular systems. To understand the quantitative impact of various approximations in such simulations, we compare charging free energies in both solution and protein systems calculated in a linear response framework with the Generalized Solvent Boundary Potential (GSBP) and PBC simulations. For simple ions in solution, we find good agreements between GSBP and PBC charging free energies, once the relevant correction terms are taken into consideration. For PBC simulations with the particle-mesh-Ewald for long-range electrostatics, the contribution (ΔG(P-M)) due to the use of a particle rather than molecule based summation scheme in real space is found to be significant, as pointed out by Hünenberger and co-workers. For GSBP, when the inner region is close to be charge neutral, the key correction is the overpolarization of water molecules at the inner/outer dielectric boundary; the magnitude of the correction (ΔG(s-pol)), however, is relatively small. For charging (oxidation) free energy in proteins, the situation is more complex, although good agreement between GSBP and PBC can still be obtained when care is exercised. The smooth dielectric boundary approximation inherent to GSBP tends to make significant errors when the inner region is featured with a high net charge. However, the error can be corrected with Poisson-Boltzmann calculations using snapshots from GSBP simulations in a straightforward and robust manner. Because of the more complex charge and solvent distributions, the magnitudes of ΔG(P-M) and ΔG(s-pol) in protein simulations appear to be different from those derived for solution simulations, leading to uncertainty in directly comparing absolute charging free energies from PBC and GSBP simulations for protein systems. The relative charging/oxidation free energies, however, are robust. With the

  18. Bispectoral index scores of pediatric patients under dental treatment and recovery conditions: Study of children assigned for general anesthesia under propofol and isofloran regimes.

    PubMed

    Tahririan, Dana; Kaviani, Naser; Nourbakhsh, Nosrat

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned to determine the relationship between bispectoral index (BIS) during dental treatment and recovery conditions in children undergoing two regimes of anesthesia of propofol and isoflurane. In this single-blind clinical trial study, 57 4-7-year-old healthy children who had been referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia between 60 and 90 min were selected by convenience sampling and assigned to two groups, after obtaining their parents' written consent. The anesthesia was induced by inhalation. For the first group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%), nitrous oxide (50%), and isoflurane (1%). For the second group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%), nitrous oxide (50%), and propofol was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 Ng/kg/min. The patients' vital signs, BIS, and agitation scores were recorded every 10 min. The data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and t-tests at a significance level of α = 0.05 using SPSS version 20. The results of independent t-test for anesthesia time showed no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and propofol (P = 0.87). Controlling age, the BIS difference between the two anesthetic agents was not significant (P > 0.05); however, it was negatively correlated with the duration of anesthesia and the discharge time (P = 0.001, r = -0.308) and (P < 0.001, r = -0.55). The same depth of anesthesia is produced by propofol and isoflurane, but lower recovery complications from anesthesia are observed with isoflurane.

  19. Bispectoral index scores of pediatric patients under dental treatment and recovery conditions: Study of children assigned for general anesthesia under propofol and isofloran regimes

    PubMed Central

    Tahririan, Dana; Kaviani, Naser; Nourbakhsh, Nosrat

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to determine the relationship between bispectoral index (BIS) during dental treatment and recovery conditions in children undergoing two regimes of anesthesia of propofol and isoflurane. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial study, 57 4-7-year-old healthy children who had been referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia between 60 and 90 min were selected by convenience sampling and assigned to two groups, after obtaining their parents’ written consent. The anesthesia was induced by inhalation. For the first group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%), nitrous oxide (50%), and isoflurane (1%). For the second group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%), nitrous oxide (50%), and propofol was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 Ng/kg/min. The patients’ vital signs, BIS, and agitation scores were recorded every 10 min. The data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and t-tests at a significance level of α = 0.05 using SPSS version 20. Results: The results of independent t-test for anesthesia time showed no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and propofol (P = 0.87). Controlling age, the BIS difference between the two anesthetic agents was not significant (P > 0.05); however, it was negatively correlated with the duration of anesthesia and the discharge time (P = 0.001, r = -0.308) and (P < 0.001, r = -0.55). Conclusion: The same depth of anesthesia is produced by propofol and isoflurane, but lower recovery complications from anesthesia are observed with isoflurane. PMID:26962318

  20. A population-based study on ways of dealing with daily stress: comparisons among individuals with mental disorders, with long-term general medical conditions and healthy people.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianLi; Keown, Leslie-Anne; Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne A; Currie, Shawn R; Beck, Cynthia A; Maxwell, Colleen J; El-Guebaly, Nady A

    2009-08-01

    Stress plays an important role in the etiology of mental and physical disorders. The effect of stress on health may be moderated by how people deal with stress. The objectives of this analysis were to (1) estimate the population proportions using various ways of dealing with stress in healthy people, in people with mental disorders and substance dependence and in individuals with general medical conditions only, and (2) identify factors associated with ways of dealing with stress. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS-1.2) were used (n = 36,984). This was a national mental health survey which used a probability sample and incorporated a version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants with mental disorders differed from healthy people in ways of dealing with stress. Among participants with mental disorders, women were more likely to report that they "talk to others" and "eat more/less" to deal with stress. Men were more likely to use "avoid people" and "drink alcohol" to deal with stress than women. Age differences within groups in ways of dealing with stress were found and having a history of mental disorders was also associated with reported ways of dealing with stress. Ways of dealing with stress differ by gender and age, but there is no over-arching pattern of maladaptive coping associated with mental disorders that applies across illness, age and gender categories. Healthy behaviors should be promoted as ways to relieve stress, leading to better self-care skills.

  1. The Role of Test Context in Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Inhibition: Part of a Search for General Principles of Associative Interference

    PubMed Central

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Soares, Julia S.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Two lick-suppression experiments with rats assessed interference with behavior indicative of conditioned inhibition by a latent inhibition treatment as a function of test context. We asked what effect the test context has, given identical latent inhibition treatment in Phase 1 and identical conditioned inhibition training in Phase 2. In Experiment 1, an AAA vs. AAB context-shift design determined that latent inhibition treatment in Phase 1 attenuated behavior indicative of conditioned inhibition training administered in Phase 2 regardless of the test context, which could reflect a failure to either acquire or express conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 2, an ABA vs. ABB design found that test performance in Contexts A and B reflected the treatments that had been administered in those contexts (i.e., conditioned inhibition was observed in Context B but not A), which could reflect either context specificity of latent inhibition or context specificity of conditioned inhibition. In either case, latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition training in at least some situations was seen to reflect an expression deficit rather than an acquisition deficit. These data, in conjunction with prior reports, suggest that latent inhibition is relatively specific to the context in which it was administered, whereas conditioned inhibition is specific to its training context only when it is the second learned relationship concerning the target cue. These experiments are part of a larger effort to delineate control by the test context of two-phase associative interference as a function of the nature of target training and the nature of interference training. PMID:25875792

  2. The role of test context in latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition: Part of a search for general principles of associative interference.

    PubMed

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Soares, Julia S; Miller, Ralph R

    2015-09-01

    In two lick suppression experiments with rats, we assessed interference with behavior indicative of conditioned inhibition by a latent inhibition treatment as a function of test context. We asked what effect the test context has, given identical latent inhibition treatments in Phase 1 and identical conditioned inhibition trainings in Phase 2. In Experiment 1, an AAA versus AAB context-shift design determined that the latent inhibition treatment in Phase 1 attenuated behavior indicative of the conditioned inhibition training administered in Phase 2, regardless of the test context, which could reflect a failure to either acquire or express conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 2, an ABA versus ABB design showed that test performance in Contexts A and B reflected the treatments that had been administered in those contexts (i.e., conditioned inhibition was observed in Context B but not A), which could reflect either the context specificity of either latent inhibition or conditioned inhibition. In either case, latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition training in at least some situations was seen to reflect an expression deficit rather than an acquisition deficit. These data, in conjunction with prior reports, suggest that latent inhibition is relatively specific to the context in which it was administered, whereas conditioned inhibition is specific to its training context only when it is the second-learned relationship concerning the target cue. These experiments are part of a larger effort to delineate control by the test context of two-phase associative interference, as a function of the nature of target training and the nature of interference training.

  3. The prevalence of diagnosed chronic conditions and multimorbidity in Australia: A method for estimating population prevalence from general practice patient encounter data

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Joan; Miller, Graeme; Britt, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of common chronic conditions and multimorbidity among patients at GP encounters and among people in the Australian population. To assess the extent to which use of each individual patient’s GP attendance over the previous year, instead of the average for their age-sex group, affects the precision of national population prevalence estimates of diagnosed chronic conditions. Design, setting and participants A sub-study (between November 2012 and March 2016) of the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of GP activity. Each of 1,449 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 43,501) indicating for each, number of GP attendances in previous year and all diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. Results Hypertension (26.5%) was the most prevalent diagnosed chronic condition among patients surveyed, followed by osteoarthritis (22.7%), hyperlipidaemia (16.6%), depression (16.3%), anxiety (11.9%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) (11.3%), chronic back pain (9.7%) and Type 2 diabetes (9.6%). After adjustment, we estimated population prevalence of hypertension as 12.4%, 9.5% osteoarthritis, 8.2% hyperlipidaemia, 8.0% depression, 5.8% anxiety and 5.2% asthma. Estimates were significantly lower than those derived using the previous method. About half (51.6%) the patients at GP encounters had two or more diagnosed chronic conditions and over one third (37.4%) had three or more. Population estimates were: 25.7% had two or more diagnosed chronic conditions and 15.8% had three or more. Conclusions Of the three approaches we have tested to date, this study provides the most accurate method for estimation of population prevalence of chronic conditions using the GP as an expert interviewer, by adjusting for each patient’s reported attendance. PMID:28278241

  4. General Medical Considerations for the Wilderness Adventurer: Medical Conditions That May Worsen With or Present Challenges to Coping With Wilderness Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Tracy A; Roberts, William O; Hackett, Peter; Dexter, William W; Brent, Jeff S; Young, Craig C; Fudge, Jessie R; Hawkins, Seth C; DeLoughery, Thomas G; Thomas, Benjamin J; Tabin, Geoffrey C; Jacoby, Leah E; Asplund, Chad A

    2015-09-01

    Participation in wilderness and adventure sports is on the rise, and as such, practitioners will see more athletes seeking clearance to participate in these events. The purpose of this article is to describe specific medical conditions that may worsen or present challenges to the athlete in a wilderness environment.

  5. General Medical Considerations for the Wilderness Adventurer: Medical Conditions That May Worsen With or Present Challenges to Coping With Wilderness Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Tracy A; Roberts, William O; Hackett, Peter; Dexter, William W; Brent, Jeff S; Young, Craig C; Fudge, Jessie R; Hawkins, Seth C; DeLoughery, Thomas G; Thomas, Benjamin J; Tabin, Geoffrey C; Jacoby, Leah E; Asplund, Chad A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in wilderness and adventure sports is on the rise, and as such, practitioners will see more athletes seeking clearance to participate in these events. The purpose of this article is to describe specific medical conditions that may worsen or present challenges to the athlete in a wilderness environment.

  6. An approach for using general soil physical condition-root growth relationships to predict seedling growth response to site preparation tillage in loblolly pine plantations

    Treesearch

    L.A. Morris; K.H. Ludovici; S.J. Torreano; E.A. Carter; M.C. Lincoln; R.E. Will

    2006-01-01

    Tree seedling root growth rate can be limited by any one of three soil physical factors: mechanical resistance, water potential or soil aeration. All three factors vary with soil water content and, under field conditions, root growth rate will depend on the soil water content as a result of its relationship to each factor. For a specific site, the relationship between...

  7. A general and efficient approach to 2H-indazoles and 1H-pyrazoles through copper-catalyzed intramolecular N-N bond formation under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiantao; Cheng, Yongfeng; Yang, Yiqing; Rao, Yu

    2011-09-28

    A new efficient copper-catalyzed intramolecular amination reaction has been developed to readily synthesise a wide variety of multi-substituted 2H-indazole and 1H-pyrazole derivatives from easily accessible starting materials under mild conditions. A highly selective ligand for estrogen receptor β was prepared in three steps by employing this method.

  8. Measuring Quality of Care in Patients With Multiple Clinical Conditions: Summary of a Conference Conducted by the Society of General Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Sheldon; Fung, Constance; Turner, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    Performance measurement has been widely advocated as a means to improve health care delivery and, ultimately, clinical outcomes. However, the evidence supporting the value of using the same quality measures designed for patients with a single clinical condition in patients with multiple conditions is weak. If clinically complex patients, defined here as patients with multiple clinical conditions, present greater challenges to achieving quality goals, providers may shun them or ignore important, but unmeasured, clinical issues. This paper summarizes the proceedings of a conference addressing the challenge of measuring quality of care in the patient with multiple clinical conditions with the goal of informing the implementation of quality measurement systems and future research programs on this topic. The conference had three main areas of discussion. First, the potential problems caused by applying current quality standards to patients with multiple conditions were examined. Second, the advantages and disadvantages of three strategies to improve quality measurement in clinically complex patients were evaluated: excluding certain clinically complex patients from a given standard, relaxing the performance target, and assigning a greater weight to some measures based on the expected clinical benefit or difficulty of reaching the performance target. Third, the strengths and weaknesses of potential novel measures such change in functional status were considered. The group concurred that, because clinically complex patients present a threat to the implementation of quality measures, high priority must be assigned to a research agenda on this topic. This research should evaluate the impact of quality measurement on these patients and expand the range of quality measures relevant to the care of clinically complex patients. PMID:17516106

  9. Consent for use of personal information for health research: do people with potentially stigmatizing health conditions and the general public differ in their opinions?

    PubMed

    Willison, Donald J; Steeves, Valerie; Charles, Cathy; Schwartz, Lisa; Ranford, Jennifer; Agarwal, Gina; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana

    2009-07-24

    Stigma refers to a distinguishing personal trait that is perceived as or actually is physically, socially, or psychologically disadvantageous. Little is known about the opinion of those who have more or less stigmatizing health conditions regarding the need for consent for use of their personal information for health research. We surveyed the opinions of people 18 years and older with seven health conditions. Participants were drawn from: physicians' offices and clinics in southern Ontario; and from a cross-Canada marketing panel of individuals with the target health conditions. For each of five research scenarios presented, respondents chose one of five consent choices: (1) no need for me to know; (2) notice with opt-out; (3) broad opt-in; (4) project-specific permission; and (5) this information should not be used. Consent choices were regressed onto: demographics; health condition; and attitude measures of privacy, disclosure concern, and the benefits of health research. We conducted focus groups to discuss possible reasons for observed consent choices. We observed substantial variation in the control that people wish to have over use of their personal information for research. However, consent choice profiles were similar across health conditions, possibly due to sampling bias. Research involving profit or requiring linkage of health information with income, education, or occupation were associated with more restrictive consent choices. People were more willing to link their health information with biological samples than with information about their income, occupation, or education. The heterogeneity in consent choices suggests individuals should be offered some choice in use of their information for different types of health research, even if limited to selectively opting-out. Some of the implementation challenges could be designed into the interoperable electronic health record. However, many questions remain, including how best to capture the opinions of

  10. The Effects of Caloric Density of the Food on Running Endurance and General Condition of Rats and Hamsters Restricted in Food Intake or Fed Ad Libitum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    triglyceride levels were 76Z and plasma total cholesterol levels 22X (significant) higher in non-exercised than in regularly exercised animals...right after running to exhaustion. In the hamsters kept at tropical climatic conditions, plasma total cholesterol at both food intake levels was...than on day 8 of the restricted intake. In the hamsters, average plasma triglyceride levels were 76% and plasma total cholesterol levels Z2

  11. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23

    PubMed Central

    Mathon, O.; Beteva, A.; Borrel, J.; Bugnazet, D.; Gatla, S.; Hino, R.; Kantor, I.; Mairs, T.; Munoz, M.; Pasternak, S.; Perrin, F.; Pascarelli, S.

    2015-01-01

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment. PMID:26524321

  12. The problem of generalization in the operant conditioning of social speech in the severely subnormal. Use of reversal to establish generalizability.

    PubMed

    Barton, E S

    1975-10-01

    Many severely subnormal patients talk little to each other. In this experiment, three pairs of subjects were reinforced for talking to each other, and learned to do so quite quickly. Whether social speech would continue to occur without the benefit of external reinforcement was examined by observing the subjects through a one-way mirror in a bare interview room adjacent to the teaching room immediately after each training session. On some occasions untrained subjects were observed in the bare room with the trained subjects. The reinforcement of social speech was demonstrated to be effective by the use of a reversal design (baseline, reinforcement, no reinforcement, reinforcement), where the rate of speech increased considerably when reinforcement was available but decreased when it was discontinued. Generalization of the increased social speech, however, was very poor and only significantly above baseline levels with the pair who seemed responsive to social as well as material reinforcement. The implications of this for training programmes are discussed.

  13. Flight simulation study to determine MLS lateral course width requirements on final approach for general aviation. [runway conditions affecting microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumrine, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of various lateral course widths and runway lengths for manual CAT I Microwave Landing System instrument approaches was carried out with instrument rated pilots in a General Aviation simulator. Data are presented on the lateral dispersion at the touchdown zone, and the middle and outer markers, for approaches to 3,000, 8,000 (and trial 12,000 foot) runway lengths with full scale angular lateral course widths of + or - 1.19 deg, + or - 2.35 deg, and + or - 3.63 deg. The distance from touchdown where the localizer deviation went to full scale was also recorded. Pilot acceptance was measured according to the Cooper-Harper rating system.

  14. First regularized trace of integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator on a segment with punctured points at generalized conditions of bonding in deleted points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarsenbi, Abdisalam A.; Zhumanova, Lyazzat K.

    2016-12-01

    The present work is devoted to calculating a first regularized trace of one integro-differential operator with the main part of the Sturm-Liouville type on a segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of "transmission" conditions. The integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator -y″(x )+q (x )y (x )+γ ∫0πy (t )d t =λ y (x ) given on the segments π/n (k -1 )conditions of the Dirichlet type: y(0) = 0, y(π) = 0 are given on the left-hand and right-hand ends of the segment [0, π]. The functions continuous on [0, π], the first derivatives of which have jumps at the points x =π/n k , are solutions. The value of jumps is expressed by the formula y'(π/k n -0 )=y'(π/k n +0 )-βk∫0πy (t )d t , k =1 ,n -1 ¯ . The basic result of the paper is the exact formula of the first regularized trace of the considered differential operator.

  15. Impact of generalized Fourier's and Fick's laws on MHD 3D second grade nanofluid flow with variable thermal conductivity and convective heat and mass conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzan, M.; Bilal, M.; Chung, Jae Dong; Lu, Dian Chen; Farooq, Umer

    2017-09-01

    A mathematical model has been established to study the magnetohydrodynamic second grade nanofluid flow past a bidirectional stretched surface. The flow is induced by Cattaneo-Christov thermal and concentration diffusion fluxes. Novel characteristics of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are accompanied by temperature dependent thermal conductivity and convective heat and mass boundary conditions. Apposite transformations are betrothed to transform a system of nonlinear partial differential equations to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Analytic solutions of the obtained nonlinear system are obtained via a convergent method. Graphs are plotted to examine how velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are affected by varied physical involved parameters. Effects of skin friction coefficients along the x- and y-direction versus various parameters are also shown through graphs and are well debated. Our findings show that velocities along both the x and y axes exhibit a decreasing trend for the Hartmann number. Moreover, temperature and concentration distributions are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters.

  16. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  17. [Extended medical services to the inpatient sector--"medical services on individual demand" in the hospital. General legal conditions, 10 basic rules, and practical examples].

    PubMed

    Kersting, Thomas; Pillokat, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Today, extended medical services--previously known in the context of ambulant healthcare provision or plastic surgery only--are increasingly being offered by hospitals. Hospitals have started to offer these services with good reason: in times of budgetary restraints they want to exploit this emerging new market due to economic necessities and they try to meet rising demands from patients. It is not easy to draw the line between special (extended) medical services and general hospital services. These different categories need to be kept apart, though. Special contracts for these specific extended medical services have to be entered into by hospital and patient in any case where the hospital wants to charge him later on. Different preconditions are to be considered with patients insured by statutory health insurance companies and privately insured patients. The price of extended medical services must be carefully calculated and, in particular, has to be related to the price charged from patients insured via statutory health insurance. Attention should also be paid to other aspects such as taxes, liability law, and hospital subsidisation. The present article presents some basic rules for offering extra medical services in a hospital.

  18. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  19. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee on... Secretaries' determinations of the most militarily useful and commercially viable vessels. In the event that...

  20. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee on... Secretaries' determinations of the most militarily useful and commercially viable vessels. In the event that...

  1. 29 CFR 548.2 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... work over a representative period of time; (f) Overtime hours are compensated at a rate of not less than one and one-half times such established basic rate; (g) The hours for which the employee is paid... result of collective bargaining before performance of the work; (b) A rate is established by such...

  2. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  3. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  4. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  5. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  6. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Owned and operated by one or more persons that are Section 2 Citizens; or (B) Owned by a person that is a Documentation Citizen and operated by a person that is a Section 2 Citizen. (g) Non-renewal for... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee...

  7. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... useful for meeting the sealift needs of the United States in time of war or national emergencies. The... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee on...

  8. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... useful for meeting the sealift needs of the United States in time of war or national emergencies. The... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee on...

  9. Fred S. Keller, a Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes some of Fred Keller's characteristics that might help people to appreciate him even more than they already do, and in addition, might help them understand him not only as a scientist and teacher, but as a man. People often tend to forget that the most valued scientists, teachers, and career models are also men…

  10. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... shoes and horns, third rail beams, traction motor gear cases, and fuel tanks. Brake System...

  11. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... shoes and horns, third rail beams, traction motor gear cases, and fuel tanks. Brake System...

  12. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... shoes and horns, third rail beams, traction motor gear cases, and fuel tanks. Brake System...

  13. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... shoes and horns, third rail beams, traction motor gear cases, and fuel tanks. Brake System...

  14. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... listed in § 94.1(a)(2) of this chapter as being free of rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease, and: (a...

  15. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... listed under § 94.1(a) of this chapter as being free of rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease, and: (a...

  16. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... listed under § 94.1(a) of this chapter as being free of rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease, and: (a...

  17. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... listed in § 94.1(a)(2) of this chapter as being free of rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease, and: (a...

  18. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... listed in § 94.1(a)(2) of this chapter as being free of rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease, and: (a...

  19. Acquired Idiopathic Generalized Anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Geethu; Criton, Sebastian; Surendran, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is a rare condition, where the exact pathomechanism is unknown. We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis in a patient who later developed lichen planus. Here an autoimmune-mediated destruction of sweat glands may be the probable pathomechanism.

  20. Triangulating Speech Sound Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miccio, Adele W.; Powell, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Generalization refers to the extension of learned behaviours to novel conditions, and it is one of the criteria by which the effectiveness and efficiency of a remediation programme may be judged. This article extracts principles of generalization from the treatment literature, and provides examples of how this information may be used to help guide…

  1. Triangulating Speech Sound Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miccio, Adele W.; Powell, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Generalization refers to the extension of learned behaviours to novel conditions, and it is one of the criteria by which the effectiveness and efficiency of a remediation programme may be judged. This article extracts principles of generalization from the treatment literature, and provides examples of how this information may be used to help guide…

  2. Fractional generalization of Liouville equations.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2004-03-01

    In this paper fractional generalization of Liouville equation is considered. We derive fractional analog of normalization condition for distribution function. Fractional generalization of the Liouville equation for dissipative and Hamiltonian systems was derived from the fractional normalization condition. This condition is considered as a normalization condition for systems in fractional phase space. The interpretation of the fractional space is discussed. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Generalized spinfoams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, You; Han, Muxin; Rovelli, Carlo

    2011-06-01

    We reconsider the spinfoam dynamics that has been recently introduced, in the generalized Kamiński-Kisielowski-Lewandowski (KKL) version where the foam is not dual to a triangulation. We study the Euclidean as well as the Lorentzian case. We show that this theory can still be obtained as a constrained BF theory satisfying the simplicity constraint, now discretized on a general oriented 2-cell complex. This constraint implies that boundary states admit a (quantum) geometrical interpretation in terms of polyhedra, generalizing the tetrahedral geometry of the simplicial case. We also point out that the general solution to this constraint (imposed weakly) depends on a quantum number rf in addition to those of loop quantum gravity. We compute the vertex amplitude and recover the KKL amplitude in the Euclidean theory when rf=0. We comment on the eventual physical relevance of rf, and the formal way to eliminate it.

  4. Generalized morphea.

    PubMed

    Strober, Bruce E

    2003-10-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with symmetric erythematous, hyperpigmented, and ivory-colored plaques on the trunk and extremities. His clinical history, laboratory analysis, and histopathologic examination were consistent with generalized morphea, a subtype of localized scleroderma.

  5. General Conformity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  6. 19 CFR 10.171 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Generalized System of Preferences § 10... contributing to comprehensive regional economic integration among its members through appropriate...

  7. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  8. Alopecia in general medicine.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Rajani; Harries, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Appreciation of different types of hair loss (alopecia) that may be encountered in hospital medicine is important to ensure accurate diagnosis and management, identify underlying medical conditions or treatments that may present with increased hair loss, recognise autoimmune alopecias and their associations, and understand the significant psychological impact of hair loss on an individual. This article discusses common causes of hair loss, as well as those conditions that may be associated with systemic disease, relevant to a general physician.

  9. Generalized Parabolas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dan; Hartman, Gregory; Gibson, Caleb

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore the consequences of modifying the common definition of a parabola by considering the locus of all points equidistant from a focus and (not necessarily linear) directrix. The resulting derived curves, which we call "generalized parabolas," are often quite beautiful and possess many interesting properties. We show that…

  10. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakatani, Yuho; Uehara, Shozo; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-04-01

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T -duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  11. [Generalized periarthritis calcarea (generalized hydroxyapatite disease)].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Bahous, I

    1979-09-01

    The condition of generalized periarthritis calcarea (hydroxyapatite deposition disease) is characterised by multiple periarticular calcification which can be localised around practically any joint and also in proximity to the spine. This calcification consists of hydroxyapatite crystals which are responsible for the episodes of acute, subacute or chronic periarticular or articular inflammation so typical of the condition. Because of this one can classify periarthritis calcarea along with gout and chondrocalcinosis in the group of crystal deposition diseases. The actual cause of the calcification remains unknown but it is probable that, along with hereditary factors, disturbances in metabolism play an important role. The diagnosis of generalised periarthritis is made from the characteristic X-ray picture in conjunction with the clinical findings and, on occasion, the demonstration of hydroxyapatite crystals in the affected tissues. In the differential diagnosis gout, chondrocalcinosis, various inflammatory rheumatic conditions and septic arthritis must be excluded and various calcification processes, particularly interstitial calcinosis and lipocal cinogranulomatosis, must also be considered. Since the etiology of the calcification remains unknown to specific treatment is available. Symptomatic treatment with colchicine is mostly inadequate which is why one often has recourse to the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids.

  12. Systematizing semishortening conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, C.-Y.; Siegel, W.

    2014-12-01

    We rederive semishortening conditions for four-dimensional superconformal field theory with a different approach. These conditions have similar patterns that can be generalized to weaker constraints, including all those of Dolan and Osborn [Ann. Phys. (Amsterdam) 307, 41 (2003)]. In particular, for the case of N =4 super-Yang-Mills theory formulated in projective superspace, we find constraints for all Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield operators. We also give an example how constraints can be found from known ones. These constraints are a subset of our maximal set of semishortening conditions.

  13. Integrability and generalized monodromy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lhallabi, T.; Moujib, A.

    2007-09-15

    We construct the generalized monodromy matrix M-circumflex({omega}) of two-dimensional string effective action by introducing the T-duality group properties. The integrability conditions with general solutions depending on spectral parameter are given. This construction is investigated for the exactly solvable Wess, Zumino, Novikov, and Witten model in pp-wave limit when B=0.

  14. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Ask our ... experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog News & Media News ...

  15. A Generalization of Generalized Fibonacci and Generalized Pell Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Zeyada, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with developing a new class of generalized numbers. The main advantage of this class is that it generalizes the two classes of generalized Fibonacci numbers and generalized Pell numbers. Some new identities involving these generalized numbers are obtained. In addition, the two well-known identities of Sury and Marques which…

  16. A Generalization of Generalized Fibonacci and Generalized Pell Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Zeyada, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with developing a new class of generalized numbers. The main advantage of this class is that it generalizes the two classes of generalized Fibonacci numbers and generalized Pell numbers. Some new identities involving these generalized numbers are obtained. In addition, the two well-known identities of Sury and Marques which…

  17. Generalized synchronization via nonlinear control.

    PubMed

    Juan, Meng; Xingyuan, Wang

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, the generalized synchronization problem of drive-response systems is investigated. Using the drive-response concept and the nonlinear control theory, a control law is designed to achieve the generalized synchronization of chaotic systems. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a generalized synchronization condition is derived. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations further demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  19. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  20. Generalized galilean genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu E-mail: tsutomu@rikkyo.ac.jp

    2015-03-01

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  1. Generalized galilean genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  2. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  3. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are

  4. Aquatic conditions

    Treesearch

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  5. 19 CFR 10.114 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and Scientific Institutions § 10.114 General provisions. The consolidated regulations... educational and scientific institutions are contained in 15 CFR part 301....

  6. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  8. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  10. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  11. Toward general experimentation and discovery in conditioned laboratory and complementary and alternative medicine spaces: part v. Data on 10 different sites using a robust new type of subtle energy detector.

    PubMed

    Tiller, William A; Dibble, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    The earlier experimental papers in this series dealt with replication of our DeltapH = +1 IIED (intention imprinted electrical device) experiment carried out in Minnesota. This work was replicated at 3-IIED sites and 7 control sites in the United States and Europe that demonstrated room temperature information entanglement between the macroscopic sized ( approximately 10(3) to 10(4) cubic feet volume) IIED sites and non-IIED-sites (control sites) over distances separated by up to 5000 to 6000 miles. During these studies, we discovered how to gain a quantitative measure of the elevation of the thermodynamic free energy per unit volume, deltaG*(H)+, above our normal U(1) electromagnetic gauge symmetry state, for the aqueous H(+) ion in these " conditioned" spaces. In simpler language, what this means is that one can now continuously monitor a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) office space, research space, or clinic space to gain a continuous record of (1) How much the space has been elevated or depleted in thermodynamic free energy, relative to our normal physical reality, by the processes occurring there; (2) how much the biofields of the practitioners and patients are perturbing the collective subtle energy field of these spaces; and (3) the monitoring of specific IIEDs imprinted for aiding the healing process of patients with specific pathologies under study or treatment. It allows CAM practitioners to investigate and utilize "information medicined", to evaluate the subtle energy component of various psychotronic devices, and to evaluate the efficacy of various subtle energy potentization processes for various supplements, remedies, and other materials. This paper contributes several key things to this growing body of work: (1) it develops a quantitative theoretical picture for the determination of deltaG*(H)+ from pH measurements in partially "conditioned"spaces; (2) it provides experimental, deltaG*(H)+ data for all 10 sites of the overall

  12. Generalized random sequential adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjus, G.; Schaaf, P.; Talbot, J.

    1990-12-01

    Adsorption of hard spherical particles onto a flat uniform surface is analyzed by using generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) models. These models are defined by releasing the condition of immobility present in the usual RSA rules to allow for desorption or surface diffusion. Contrary to the simple RSA case, generalized RSA processes are no longer irreversible and the system formed by the adsorbed particles on the surface may reach an equilibrium state. We show by using a distribution function approach that the kinetics of such processes can be described by means of an exact infinite hierarchy of equations reminiscent of the Kirkwood-Salsburg hierarchy for systems at equilibrium. We illustrate the way in which the systems produced by adsorption/desorption and by adsorption/diffusion evolve between the two limits represented by ``simple RSA'' and ``equilibrium'' by considering approximate solutions in terms of truncated density expansions.

  13. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  14. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  15. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions and...

  16. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  17. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  18. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  19. Itch Management: General Principles.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. 12 CFR 614.4200 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Terms and Conditions § 614.4200 General requirements. (a) Terms and conditions. (1) The terms and conditions... thereafter that the borrower requests additional copies. (2) The terms and conditions of all loans shall...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4200 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Terms and Conditions § 614.4200 General requirements. (a) Terms and conditions. (1) The terms and conditions... thereafter that the borrower requests additional copies. (2) The terms and conditions of all loans shall...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4200 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Terms and Conditions § 614.4200 General requirements. (a) Terms and conditions. (1) The terms and conditions... thereafter that the borrower requests additional copies. (2) The terms and conditions of all loans shall...

  3. A Ranking-Theoretic Approach to Conditionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief,…

  4. A Ranking-Theoretic Approach to Conditionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief,…

  5. A Generalized Wall Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

  6. Generally Covariant Hamiltonian Approach to the Generalized Harmonic Formulation of General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Meng

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop a generally covariant Hamiltonian approach to the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity. As en route investigations, an important class of coordinate transformations in the context of the 3 + 1 decomposition, foliation preserving transformations, is defined; transformation rules of various 3 + 1 decomposition variables under this change of coordinates are investigated; the notion of covariant time derivative under foliation preserving transformations is defined; gauge conditions of various numerical relativity formulations are rewritten in generally covariant form. The Hamiltonian formulation of the generalized harmonic system is defined in the latter part of this dissertation. With the knowledge of covariant time derivative, the Hamiltonian formulation is extended to achieve general covariance. The Hamiltonian formulation is further proved to be symmetric hyperbolic.

  7. Beyond generalized Proca theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.

  8. Entanglement conditions and polynomial identities

    SciTech Connect

    Shchukin, E.

    2011-11-15

    We develop a rather general approach to entanglement characterization based on convexity properties and polynomial identities. This approach is applied to obtain simple and efficient entanglement conditions that work equally well in both discrete as well as continuous-variable environments. Examples of violations of our conditions are presented.

  9. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  10. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  11. General introduction to microstructural evolution under cascade damage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedersich, H.

    1993-06-01

    A short overview of the processes that affect the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation is given. The processes include defect production with an emphasis on the effects of the dynamic cascade events, defect clustering, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation, phase decompositions and phase transformations. A simple model for the description of the development of the defect microstructure in a pure metal during cascade producing irradiation is also outlined which can provide, in principle, defect fluxes required for the description of the microstructural processes such as phase decomposition and irradiation-induced precipitation.

  12. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  13. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  14. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  15. 76 FR 24575 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... common in shipyard employment (Exs. 101.1; 105.1; 121.1; 124; 128). Yaniv Zagagi, of Atlantic Marine... work a common practice on vessels under construction and repair, maintaining dry work surfaces at all... averages 6 inches per month, with an inch or more common for a single rain event (Ex. 115.1). The nature of...

  16. 18 CFR 50.11 - General conditions applicable to permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proceedings thus initiated. (c) Standards of construction and operation. In determining standard practice, the... in accordance with these standards, and in a manner to best accommodate the public, and to prevent... the approval of the Commission, to a person who agrees to comply with the terms, limitations or...

  17. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  18. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  19. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  20. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...