Science.gov

Sample records for general conditions reduccion

  1. Conditioned Fear Acquisition and Generalization in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Blasco, María Jesús; Farré, Magí; Torrubia, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal fear conditioning processes (including fear acquisition and conditioned fear-generalization) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Previous research has shown that individuals with panic disorder present enhanced conditioned fear-generalization in comparison to healthy controls. Enhanced conditioned fear-generalization could also characterize generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but research so far is inconclusive. An important confounding factor in previous research is comorbidity. The present study examined conditioned fear-acquisition and fear-generalization in 28 patients with GAD and 30 healthy controls using a recently developed fear acquisition and generalization paradigm assessing fear-potentiated startle and online expectancies of the unconditioned stimulus. Analyses focused on GAD patients without comorbidity but included also patients with comorbid anxiety disorders. Patients and controls did not differ as regards fear acquisition. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups did not differ either in most indexes of conditioned fear-generalization. Moreover, dimensional measures of GAD symptoms were not correlated with conditioned fear-generalization indexes. Comorbidity did not have a significant impact on the results. Our data suggest that conditioned fear-generalization is not enhanced in GAD. Results are discussed with special attention to the possible effects of comorbidity on fear learning abnormalities.

  2. 18 CFR 415.50 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General conditions. 415.50 Section 415.50 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Enforcement § 415.50 General conditions. On...

  3. 18 CFR 415.50 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General conditions. 415.50 Section 415.50 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Enforcement § 415.50 General conditions. On...

  4. Charge regulation: A generalized boundary condition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovich, Tomer; Andelman, David; Podgornik, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The three most commonly used boundary conditions for charged colloidal systems are constant charge (insulator), constant potential (conducting electrode) and charge regulation (ionizable groups at the surface). It is usually believed that the charge regulation is a generalized boundary condition that reduces in some specific limits to either constant-charge or constant-potential boundary conditions. By computing the disjoining pressure between two symmetric planes for these three boundary conditions, both numerically (for all inter-plate separations) and analytically (for small inter-plate separations), we show that this is not, in general, the case. In fact, the limit of charge regulation is a separate boundary condition, yielding a disjoining pressure with a different characteristic separation scaling. Our findings are supported by several examples demonstrating that the disjoining pressure at small separations for the charge regulation boundary condition depends on the details of the dissociation/association process.

  5. Asymmetrical Stimulus Generalization following Differential Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Sun Jung; Allen, Timothy A.; Jones, Lauren K.; Boguszewski, Pawel; Brown, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically critical social signals. Rats emit 22 kHz USVs and 50 kHz USVs, respectively, in conjunction with negative and positive affective states. Little is known about what controls emotional reactivity to these social signals. Using male Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined unconditional and conditional freezing behavior in response to the following auditory stimuli: three 22 kHz USVs, a discontinuous tone whose frequency and on-off pattern matched one of the USVs, a continuous tone with the same or lower frequencies, a 4 kHz discontinuous tone with an on-off pattern matched to one of the USVs, and a 50 kHz USV. There were no differences among these stimuli in terms of the unconditional elicitation of freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally neutral before conditioning. During differential fear conditioning, one of these stimuli (the CS+) always co-terminated with a footshock unconditional stimulus (US) and another stimulus (the CS−) was explicitly unpaired with the US. There were no significant differences among these cues in CS+-elicited freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally salient or effective as cues in supporting fear conditioning. When the CS+ was a 22 kHz USV or a similar stimulus, rats discriminated based on the principal frequency and/or the temporal pattern of the stimulus. However, when these same stimuli served as the CS−, discrimination failed due to generalization from the CS+. Thus, the stimuli differed markedly in the specificity of conditioning. This strikingly asymmetrical stimulus generalization is a novel bias in discrimination. PMID:18434217

  6. Market conditions and general practitioners' referrals.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Tor; Ma, Ching-to Albert

    2011-12-01

    We study how market conditions influence referrals of patients by general practitioners (GPs). We set up a model of GP referral for the Norwegian health care system, where a GP receives capitation payment based on the number of patients in his practice, as well as fee-for-service reimbursements. A GP may accept new patients or close the practice to new patients. We model GPs as partially altruistic, and compete for patients. We show that a GP operating in a more competitive market has a higher referral rate. To compete for patients and to retain them, a GP satisfies patients' requests for referrals. Furthermore, a GP who faces a patient shortage will refer more often than a GP who does not. Tests with Norwegian GP radiology referral data support our theory. PMID:22009482

  7. General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Comparat, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)

  8. 46 CFR 295.20 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Maritime Security Program Operating Agreements § 295.20 General... in international commercial shipping or those that are deemed, after consultation with the...

  9. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  10. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  11. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  12. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  13. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General operating conditions. 18.111 Section 18.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM...

  14. Generalization of Verbal Conditioning of Study Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan J.; Sloane, Howard N.

    1974-01-01

    This experiment attempted to condition subject's answers to a questionnaire about study-related behaviors using verbal social reinforcement and to measure the extent to which this training affected rate of studying. For five of the six subjects, significant changes in study comments resulted. (Author)

  15. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... endanger the safety of the crew, locomotive or train. These conditions include: insecure attachment of components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... other structural infirmities of components, including quill drives, axles, gears, pinions,...

  16. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... endanger the safety of the crew, locomotive or train. These conditions include: insecure attachment of components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... other structural infirmities of components, including quill drives, axles, gears, pinions,...

  17. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... endanger the safety of the crew, locomotive or train. These conditions include: insecure attachment of components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... other structural infirmities of components, including quill drives, axles, gears, pinions,...

  18. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... endanger the safety of the crew, locomotive or train. These conditions include: insecure attachment of components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... other structural infirmities of components, including quill drives, axles, gears, pinions,...

  19. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... endanger the safety of the crew, locomotive or train. These conditions include: insecure attachment of components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... other structural infirmities of components, including quill drives, axles, gears, pinions,...

  20. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.213 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  1. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.113 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.113 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.313 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.313 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  3. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.213 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.113 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.113 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.113 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.113 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.313 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.313 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.213 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General medical condition. 67.313 Section...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.313 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  19. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  20. 18 CFR 50.11 - General conditions applicable to permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TO SITE INTERSTATE ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.11 General conditions applicable to permits... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General conditions applicable to permits. 50.11 Section 50.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  1. 18 CFR 50.11 - General conditions applicable to permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TO SITE INTERSTATE ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.11 General conditions applicable to permits... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General conditions applicable to permits. 50.11 Section 50.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  2. 18 CFR 154.109 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General terms and conditions. 154.109 Section 154.109 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Composition of Tariff § 154.109 General terms and conditions. (a) This section of the tariff contains...

  3. 18 CFR 154.109 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General terms and conditions. 154.109 Section 154.109 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Composition of Tariff § 154.109 General terms and conditions. (a) This section of the tariff contains...

  4. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  5. Generalization of Extinguished Skin Conductance Responding in Human Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a human fear conditioning paradigm using the skin conductance response (SCR), participants were assigned to two groups. Following identical acquisition, group ABA (n = 16) was extinguished to a generalization stimulus (GS), whereas group AAB (n = 20) was extinguished to the conditioned stimulus (CS). At test, presenting the CS in group ABA…

  6. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  7. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  8. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  9. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  10. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  11. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  12. Local conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Sijie; Lemos, José P.

    2005-04-01

    A set of sufficient conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound given by Strominger and Thompson is as follows: Suppose that the entropy of matter can be described by an entropy current sa. Let ka be any null vector along L and s≡-kasa. Then the generalized bound can be derived from the following conditions: (i) s'≤2πTabkakb, where s'=ka∇as and Tab is the stress-energy tensor; (ii) on the initial 2-surface B, s(0)≤-1/4θ(0), where θ is the expansion of ka. We prove that condition (ii) alone can be used to divide a spacetime into two regions: The generalized entropy bound holds for all light sheets residing in the region where s<-1/4θ and fails for those in the region where s>-1/4θ. We check the validity of these conditions in FRW flat universe and a scalar field spacetime. Some apparent violations of the entropy bounds in the two spacetimes are discussed. These holographic bounds are important in the formulation of the holographic principle.

  13. Analytical solutions with Generalized Impedance Boundary Conditions (GIBC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, H. H.; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. In particular, ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly to those in the deep lit and shadow regions. These involve new transition functions in place of the usual Fock-type integrals, characteristics to the impedance cylinder. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder. The diffraction coefficients for the convex cylinder are obtained via a generalization of the corresponding ones for the circular cylinder.

  14. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  15. Attractive and repulsive Casimir vacuum energy with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The infrared behaviour of quantum field theories confined in bounded domains is strongly dependent on the shape and structure of space boundaries. The most significant physical effect arises in the behaviour of the vacuum energy. The Casimir energy can be attractive or repulsive depending on the nature of the boundary. We calculate the vacuum energy for a massless scalar field confined between two homogeneous parallel plates with the most general type of boundary conditions depending on four parameters. The analysis provides a powerful method to identify which boundary conditions generate attractive or repulsive Casimir forces between the plates. In the interface between both regimes we find a very interesting family of boundary conditions which do not induce any type of Casimir force. We also show that the attractive regime holds far beyond identical boundary conditions for the two plates required by the Kenneth-Klich theorem and that the strongest attractive Casimir force appears for periodic boundary conditions whereas the strongest repulsive Casimir force corresponds to anti-periodic boundary conditions. Most of the analysed boundary conditions are new and some of them can be physically implemented with metamaterials.

  16. Categories, Concepts, and Conditioning: How Humans Generalize Fear

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, Pavlovian conditioning has served as the predominant experimental paradigm and theoretical framework to understand how humans learn to fear and avoid real or perceived dangers. Animal models for translational research offer insight into basic behavioral and neurophysiological factors mediating the acquisition, expression, inhibition, and generalization of fear. However, it is important to consider the limits of traditional animal models when applied to humans. Here, we focus on the question of how humans generalize fear. We propose that to understand fear generalization in humans requires taking into account research on higher-level cognition such as category-based induction, inferential reasoning, and representation of conceptual knowledge. Doing so will open the door for productive avenues of new research. PMID:25577706

  17. Categories, concepts, and conditioning: how humans generalize fear.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Murphy, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    During the past century, Pavlovian conditioning has served as the predominant experimental paradigm and theoretical framework to understand how humans learn to fear and avoid real or perceived dangers. Animal models for translational research offer insight into basic behavioral and neurophysiological factors mediating the acquisition, expression, inhibition, and generalization of fear. However, it is important to consider the limits of traditional animal models when applied to humans. Here, we focus on the question of how humans generalize fear. We propose that to understand fear generalization in humans requires taking into account research on higher-level cognition such as category-based induction, inferential reasoning, and representation of conceptual knowledge. Doing so will open the door for productive avenues of new research.

  18. Neural correlates of valence generalization in an affective conditioning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schick, Anita; Adam, Ruth; Vollmayr, Barbara; Kuehner, Christine; Kanske, Philipp; Wessa, Michèle

    2015-10-01

    In case of uncertainty, predictions that are based on prior, similar experiences guide our decision by processes of generalization. Over-generalization of negative information has been identified as an important feature of several psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders and depression, and might underlie biased interpretation of ambiguous information. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of valence generalization to ambiguous stimuli using a translational affective conditioning task during fMRI. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in a conditioning procedure with (1) an initial acquisition phase, where participants learned the positive and negative valence of two different tones (reference tones) through their responses and subsequent feedback and (2) a test phase, where participants were presented with the previously learned reference tones and three additional tones with intermediate frequency to the learned reference tones. By recording the responses to these intermediate stimuli we were able to assess the participantsí interpretation of ambiguous tones as either positive or negative. Behavioral results revealed a graded response pattern to the three intermediate tones, which was mirrored on the neural level. More specifically, parametric analyses OF BOLD responses to all five tones revealed a linear effect in bilateral anterior insula and SMA with lowest activation to the negative reference tone and highest activation to the positive negative tone. In addition, a cluster in the SMA showed a reverse-quadratic response, i.e., the strongest response for the most ambiguous tone. These findings suggest overlapping regions in the salience network that mediate valence generalization and decision-making under ambiguity, potentially underlying biased ambiguous cue interpretation. PMID:26057359

  19. Most general AdS3 boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Riegler, Max

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl{(2)}_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k = ℓ/(4 G N ), where ℓ is the AdS radius and G N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  20. Sufficient conditions for thermal rectification in general graded materials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    We address a fundamental problem for the advance of phononics: the search of a feasible thermal diode. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of thermal rectification in general graded materials. By starting from simple assumptions satisfied by the usual anharmonic models that describe heat conduction in solids, we derive an expression for the rectification. The analytical formula shows how to increase the rectification, and the conditions to avoid its decay with the system size, a problem present in the recurrent model of diodes given by the sequential coupling of two or three different parts. Moreover, for these graded systems, we show that the regimes of nondecaying rectification and of normal conductivity do not overlap. Our results indicate the graded systems as optimal materials for a thermal diode, the basic component of several devices of phononics.

  1. Asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves: General theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    An outstanding issue in the computational analysis of time dependent problems is the imposition of appropriate radiation boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. Accurate conditions are developed which are based on the asymptotic analysis of wave propagation over long ranges. Employing the method of steepest descents, dominant wave groups are identified and simple approximations to the dispersion relation are considered in order to derive local boundary operators. The existence of a small number of dominant wave groups may be expected for systems with dissipation. Estimates of the error as a function of domain size are derived under general hypotheses, leading to convergence results. Some practical aspects of the numerical construction of the asymptotic boundary operators are also discussed.

  2. Invalidity of the quantitative adiabatic condition and general conditions for adiabatic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dafa

    2016-05-01

    The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.

  3. Analytical solutions with Generalized Impedance Boundary Conditions (GIBC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricoy, Mark A.; Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    The diffraction by a material discontinuity in a thick dielectric/ferrite layer is considered by modeling the layer as a distributed current sheet obeying generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTC's). The sheet currents are then formulated and solved via the standard dual integral equation approach. This yields the diffracted field in terms of unknown constants which underscore the non-uniqueness of the GSTC current sheet representation. The constants are dependent on the geometry and properties of the discontinuity and are determined by enforcing field continuity across the material junction. This requires the field internal to the slab which are determined from the external ones via analytic continuity. Results are given which validate the solution and demonstrate the importance of the constants.

  4. Study on plate silencer with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gongmin; Zhao, Xiaochen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Shuaijun

    2014-09-01

    A plate silencer consists of an expansion chamber with two side-branch rigid cavities covered by plates. Previous studies showed that, in a duct, the introduction of simply supported or clamped plates into an air conveying system could achieve broadband quieting from low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the plate silencer with general boundary conditions. A set of static beam functions, which are a combination of sine series and third-order polynomial, is employed as the trial functions of the plate vibration velocity. Greens function and Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral are used to solve the sound radiation in the duct and the cavity, and then the vibration velocity of the plate is obtained. Having obtained the vibration velocity, the pressure perturbations induced by the plate oscillation and the transmission loss are found. Optimization is carried out in order to obtain the widest stopband. The transmission loss calculated by the analytical method agrees closely with the result of the finite element method simulation. Further studies with regard to the plate under several different classical boundary conditions based on the validated model show that a clamped-free plate silencer has the worst stopband. Attempts to release the boundary restriction of the plate are also made to study its effect on sound reflection. Results show that a softer end for a clamped-clamped plate silencer helps increase the optimal bandwidth, while the same treatment for simply supported plate silencer will result in performance degradation.

  5. 14 CFR 201.7 - General certificate conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreement 18900 (OST Form 4523), and a tariff (for those carriers otherwise generally required to file tariffs) that includes its terms, and that the holder comply with all other requirements of part 203....

  6. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General... developed in whole or in part under a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. However,...

  7. Generalized conditioned reinforcement with pigeons in a token economy.

    PubMed

    DeFulio, Anthony; Yankelevitz, Rachelle; Bullock, Christopher; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2014-07-01

    Six pigeons were studied in a token economy in which tokens could be produced and exchanged for food on one side of an experimental chamber and for water on the opposite side of the chamber. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a token-production fixed ratio (FR) schedule. Responses on a second key produced an exchange period during which tokens were exchanged for water or food. In Experiment 1a, food tokens could be earned and exchanged under restricted food budgets, and water tokens could be earned and exchanged under water restricted budgets. In Experiment 1b, a third (generalized) token type could be earned and exchanged for either food or water under water restricted budgets. Across Experiments 1a and 1b, the number of tokens accumulated prior to exchange increased as the exchange-production schedule was increased. In Experiment 1b, pigeons produced more generalized than specific tokens, suggesting enhanced reinforcing efficacy of generalized tokens. In Experiment 2, the FR token-production price was manipulated under water restriction and then under food restriction. Production of each token type generally declined as a function of its own price and increased as a function of the price of the alternate type, demonstrating own-price and cross-price elasticity. Production of food and water tokens often changed together, indicating complementarity. Production of specific and generalized tokens changed in opposite directions, indicating substitutability. This is the first demonstration of sustained generalized functions of tokens in nonhumans, and illustrates a promising method for exploring economic contingencies in a controlled environment. PMID:24979723

  8. Generalized conditioned reinforcement with pigeons in a token economy.

    PubMed

    DeFulio, Anthony; Yankelevitz, Rachelle; Bullock, Christopher; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2014-07-01

    Six pigeons were studied in a token economy in which tokens could be produced and exchanged for food on one side of an experimental chamber and for water on the opposite side of the chamber. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a token-production fixed ratio (FR) schedule. Responses on a second key produced an exchange period during which tokens were exchanged for water or food. In Experiment 1a, food tokens could be earned and exchanged under restricted food budgets, and water tokens could be earned and exchanged under water restricted budgets. In Experiment 1b, a third (generalized) token type could be earned and exchanged for either food or water under water restricted budgets. Across Experiments 1a and 1b, the number of tokens accumulated prior to exchange increased as the exchange-production schedule was increased. In Experiment 1b, pigeons produced more generalized than specific tokens, suggesting enhanced reinforcing efficacy of generalized tokens. In Experiment 2, the FR token-production price was manipulated under water restriction and then under food restriction. Production of each token type generally declined as a function of its own price and increased as a function of the price of the alternate type, demonstrating own-price and cross-price elasticity. Production of food and water tokens often changed together, indicating complementarity. Production of specific and generalized tokens changed in opposite directions, indicating substitutability. This is the first demonstration of sustained generalized functions of tokens in nonhumans, and illustrates a promising method for exploring economic contingencies in a controlled environment.

  9. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Social Security Act in order to assist in the administration of that program, and employees of the... benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act; (v) Employees of the Comptroller General's... Federal law enforcement officers, upon written request, for the purpose of obtaining the address,...

  10. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Social Security Act in order to assist in the administration of that program, and employees of the... benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act; (v) Employees of the Comptroller General's... Federal law enforcement officers, upon written request, for the purpose of obtaining the address,...

  11. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Social Security Act in order to assist in the administration of that program, and employees of the... benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act; (v) Employees of the Comptroller General's... Federal law enforcement officers, upon written request, for the purpose of obtaining the address,...

  12. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Social Security Act in order to assist in the administration of that program, and employees of the... benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act; (v) Employees of the Comptroller General's... Federal law enforcement officers, upon written request, for the purpose of obtaining the address,...

  13. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Social Security Act in order to assist in the administration of that program, and employees of the... benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act; (v) Employees of the Comptroller General's... Federal law enforcement officers, upon written request, for the purpose of obtaining the address,...

  14. General rule for boundary conditions from the action principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Roee

    2016-03-01

    We construct models where initial and boundary conditions can be found from the fundamental rules of physics, without the need to assume them, they will be derived from the action principle. Those constraints are established from physical viewpoint, and it is not in the form of Lagrange multipliers. We show some examples from the past and some new examples that can be useful, where constraint can be obtained from the action principle. Those actions represent physical models. We show that it is possible to use our rule to get those constraints directly.

  15. 77 FR 42677 - Special Conditions: General Electric CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Special Conditions: General Electric CT7-2E1 Turboshaft.... SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the General Electric CT7-2E1 engine model. This.... Background On September 10, 2009, General Electric applied for an amendment to type certificate E8NE to...

  16. Breaking generalized covariance, classical renormalization, and boundary conditions from superpotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshits, Gideon I.

    2014-02-01

    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum, and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBL superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either the original Lagrangian must be effectively renormalized, or that boundary conditions must be imposed, so that space-time be asymptotically maximally symmetric. Non-metricity is central to this paradox, and we show how quadratic non-metricity in the bulk of space-time contributes to the conserved charges on the boundary, where it vanishes identically. This is a realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism, proposed by Percacci, where the non-metricity is the analogue of the Goldstone boson.

  17. General Considerations of the Electrostatic Boundary Conditions in Oxide Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Takuya

    2011-08-19

    When the size of materials is comparable to the characteristic length scale of their physical properties, novel functionalities can emerge. For semiconductors, this is exemplified by the 'superlattice' concept of Esaki and Tsu, where the width of the repeated stacking of different semiconductors is comparable to the 'size' of the electrons, resulting in novel confined states now routinely used in opto-electronics. For metals, a good example is magnetic/non-magnetic multilayer films that are thinner than the spin-scattering length, from which giant magnetoresistance (GMR) emerged, used in the read heads of hard disk drives. For transition metal oxides, a similar research program is currently underway, broadly motivated by the vast array of physical properties that they host. This long-standing notion has been recently invigorated by the development of atomic-scale growth and probe techniques, which enables the study of complex oxide heterostructures approaching the precision idealized in Fig. 1(a). Taking the subset of oxides derived from the perovskite crystal structure, the close lattice match across many transition metal oxides presents the opportunity, in principle, to develop a 'universal' heteroepitaxial materials system. Hand-in-hand with the continual improvements in materials control, an increasingly relevant challenge is to understand the consequences of the electrostatic boundary conditions which arise in these structures. The essence of this issue can be seen in Fig. 1(b), where the charge sequence of the sublayer 'stacks' for various representative perovskites is shown in the ionic limit, in the (001) direction. To truly 'universally' incorporate different properties using different materials components, be it magnetism, ferroelectricity, superconductivity, etc., it is necessary to access and join different charge sequences, labelled here in analogy to the designations 'group IV, III-V, II-VI' for semiconductors. As we will review, interfaces between

  18. 20 CFR 633.305 - General benefits and working conditions for program participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.305 General benefits and working conditions for program participants. (a) Payments for...

  19. The Impact of Instructions on Generalization of Conditioned Fear in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ola; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-09-01

    Generalization of conditioned fear has been implicated in the maintenance and proliferation of fear in anxiety disorders. The role of cognitive processes in generalization of conditioning is an important yet understudied issue. Vervliet et al. (2010) tested generalization of fear to a visual stimulus of a particular color and shape paired with electric shock. Test stimuli shared either the color or shape of the CS+. Prior to conditioning, participants were instructed that either color or shape would be predictive of shock. Generalization was stronger to the stimulus containing the instructed feature, suggesting that instructions impacted generalization of fear. However, the result may also reflect the impact of instructions on attention and learning during the conditioning phase. In the present study, the instructional manipulation was given after the conditioning phase to control for any impact of instructions on learning. A similar result to that reported by Vervliet et al. was observed. On self-reported expectancy of shock, generalization was greater to the test stimulus that included the instructed stimulus feature. The same pattern was observed on skin conductance, although it did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that explicitly instructed information affected generalization of conditioned fear independently of any impact on learning, pointing to the role of cognitive processes in human fear generalization. They also support the utility of cognitive therapy approaches, which are employed after fear has already developed, in addressing clinical overgeneralization. PMID:26459840

  20. The Impact of Instructions on Generalization of Conditioned Fear in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ola; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-09-01

    Generalization of conditioned fear has been implicated in the maintenance and proliferation of fear in anxiety disorders. The role of cognitive processes in generalization of conditioning is an important yet understudied issue. Vervliet et al. (2010) tested generalization of fear to a visual stimulus of a particular color and shape paired with electric shock. Test stimuli shared either the color or shape of the CS+. Prior to conditioning, participants were instructed that either color or shape would be predictive of shock. Generalization was stronger to the stimulus containing the instructed feature, suggesting that instructions impacted generalization of fear. However, the result may also reflect the impact of instructions on attention and learning during the conditioning phase. In the present study, the instructional manipulation was given after the conditioning phase to control for any impact of instructions on learning. A similar result to that reported by Vervliet et al. was observed. On self-reported expectancy of shock, generalization was greater to the test stimulus that included the instructed stimulus feature. The same pattern was observed on skin conductance, although it did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that explicitly instructed information affected generalization of conditioned fear independently of any impact on learning, pointing to the role of cognitive processes in human fear generalization. They also support the utility of cognitive therapy approaches, which are employed after fear has already developed, in addressing clinical overgeneralization.

  1. On the Ideal Boundary Condition in a General Toroidal Geometry for a Mixed Magnetic Field Representation

    SciTech Connect

    X. Z. Tang

    2000-12-18

    Subtleties of implementing the standard perfectly conducting wall boundary condition in a general toroidal geometry are clarified for a mixed scalar magnetic field representation. An iterative scheme based on Ohm's law is given.

  2. Application of generalized separation of variables to solving mixed problems with irregular boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasymov, E. A.; Guseinova, A. O.; Gasanova, U. N.

    2016-07-01

    One of the methods for solving mixed problems is the classical separation of variables (the Fourier method). If the boundary conditions of the mixed problem are irregular, this method, generally speaking, is not applicable. In the present paper, a generalized separation of variables and a way of application of this method to solving some mixed problems with irregular boundary conditions are proposed. Analytical representation of the solution to this irregular mixed problem is obtained.

  3. Relating different quantum generalizations of the conditional Rényi entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tomamichel, Marco; Berta, Mario; Hayashi, Masahito

    2014-08-15

    Recently a new quantum generalization of the Rényi divergence and the corresponding conditional Rényi entropies was proposed. Here, we report on a surprising relation between conditional Rényi entropies based on this new generalization and conditional Rényi entropies based on the quantum relative Rényi entropy that was used in previous literature. Our result generalizes the well-known duality relation H(A|B) + H(A|C) = 0 of the conditional von Neumann entropy for tripartite pure states to Rényi entropies of two different kinds. As a direct application, we prove a collection of inequalities that relate different conditional Rényi entropies and derive a new entropic uncertainty relation.

  4. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the...

  7. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the...

  8. 40 CFR 86.408-78 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.408-78 General... motorcycle to enable such vehicle to conform to standards imposed by this subpart: (1) Shall not in its... condition endangering the motorcycle, its rider(s), or persons or property in close proximity to the...

  9. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agreement with that agency or organization. The agreement must set forth the FWS work conditions. The... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20 Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on...

  10. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agreement with that agency or organization. The agreement must set forth the FWS work conditions. The... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20 Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on...

  11. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agreement with that agency or organization. The agreement must set forth the FWS work conditions. The... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20 Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on...

  12. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agreement with that agency or organization. The agreement must set forth the FWS work conditions. The... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20 Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on...

  13. Activation of dopamine neurons is critical for aversive conditioning and prevention of generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Larry S; Fadok, Jonathan P; Argilli, Emmanuela; Garelick, Michael G; Jones, Graham L; Dickerson, Tavis M K; Allen, James M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-05-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orientation to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus is attenuated by conditional genetic inactivation of functional NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons. We discovered that altering the magnitude of excitatory responses by dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus was associated with impaired conditioning to a cue that predicts an aversive outcome. Impaired conditioning by these mice was associated with the development of a persistent, generalized anxiety-like phenotype. These data are consistent with a role for dopamine in facilitating contingency awareness that is critical for the prevention of generalized anxiety.

  14. Conditional discrimination in mentally retarded adults: the development of generalized skills.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, K J; Spradlin, J E

    1990-01-01

    The development of generalized conditional discrimination skills was examined in adults with retardation. Two subjects with histories of failure to acquire arbitrary matching under trial-and-error procedures were successful under procedures that trained one or more prerequisite skills. The successive discrimination between the sample stimuli was established by training the subjects to name the stimuli. The simultaneous discrimination between the comparison stimuli was established using either (a) standard simple discrimination training with reversals or (b) a procedure in which each of the two sample-comparison relations in the conditional discrimination was presented in blocks of trials, with the size of the blocks decreasing gradually until sample presentation was randomized. The amount of prerequisite training required varied across subjects and across successive conditional discriminations. After acquiring either two or three conditional discriminations with component training, both subjects learned new conditional discriminations under trial-and-error procedures. In general, each successive conditional discrimination was acquired more rapidly. Tests showed that conditional responding had become a generalized skill. Symmetry was shown for almost all trained relations. Symmetry trial samples were ultimately named the same as the stimuli to which they were related in training. PMID:2103584

  15. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Miriam A.; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 471–481, 2016. PMID:26798984

  16. Student's Research Work as the Condition of Continuity of General and Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedishenkova, Marina V.; Efimova, Elena V.; Ryabova, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    The problem in question is necessitated by the contradictions between requirements of successive educational process of general and professional education and the absence of new mechanisms of providing the continuity of education which is effective under modern conditions. The aim of the article in question is to provide the potential of the…

  17. Preservation Conditions, Practices, and Needs in the General Libraries. A Report by the Preservation Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. General Libraries.

    The survey documented in this report was conducted in 1981 to investigate the preservation conditions, practices, and needs of the units of the University of Texas at Austin General Libraries. The report is divided into six major portions. The first five sections report the responses to questionnaires on specific formats: books and serials;…

  18. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210. 72.212 Section 72.212 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER...

  19. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210. 72.212 Section 72.212 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER...

  20. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210. 72.212 Section 72.212 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER...

  1. 38 CFR 1.576 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1.576 Section 1.576 Pensions... (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency. (2) The...

  2. Generalization of Conditioned Fear along a Dimension of Increasing Fear Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…

  3. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  4. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  5. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  6. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  7. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus §...

  8. Fear generalization in humans: impact of feature learning on conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Vervliet, Bram; Geens, Maarten

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the role of discrete stimulus features in the regulation of fear. This study examined the effects of feature learning on the acquisition and extinction of fear conditioning. Human participants were fear conditioned to a yellow triangle (CS+) using an electrical shock. We manipulated feature learning through differential conditioning. The nonconditioned control stimulus (CS-) was a red triangle in one group (Color-Relevant), but a yellow circle in the other group (Shape-Relevant). Next, two generalization stimuli were tested that shared the shape- or color-feature with the CS+ (a blue triangle and a yellow square). Online shock-expectancy ratings and skin conductance responding showed that the CS- determined the pattern of fear generalization: the same-color stimulus elicited more fear in Group Color-Relevant, versus the same-shape stimulus in group Shape-Relevant. Furthermore, extinguishing these two generalization stimuli had no detectable effect on fear of the CS+. These results show that fear generalization is influenced by feature learning through differential conditioning, and that exposures to different features of a stimulus are not sufficient to extinguish fear of that stimulus as a whole.

  9. Extended slow-roll conditions and primordial fluctuations: multiple scalar fields and generalized gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: gucci@phys.aoyama.ac.jp

    2009-01-15

    As an extension of our previous study, we derive slow-roll conditions for multiple scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled with gravity and for generalized gravity theories of the form f({phi}, R). We provide simple formulae of the spectral indices of scalar/tensor perturbations in terms of the slow-roll parameters.

  10. The General Necessary Condition for the Validity of Dirac's Transition Perturbation Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quang, Nguyen Vinh

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, from the natural requirements for the successive approximation the general necessary condition of validity of the Dirac's method is explicitly established. It is proved that the conception of 'the transition probability per unit time' is not valid. The 'super-platinium rules' for calculating the transition probability are derived for the arbitrarily strong time-independent perturbation case.

  11. No effect of trait anxiety on differential fear conditioning or fear generalization.

    PubMed

    Torrents-Rodas, David; Fullana, Miquel A; Bonillo, Albert; Caseras, Xavier; Andión, Oscar; Torrubia, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with anxiety disorders exhibit deficits in fear inhibition and excessive generalization of fear, but little data exist on individuals at risk from these disorders. The present study examined the role of trait anxiety in the acquisition and generalization of fear in 126 healthy participants selected on the basis of their trait-anxiety scores. Measures of conditioning included fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance response and online risk ratings for the unconditioned stimulus. Contrary to our hypotheses, trait anxiety did not have any effect either on the acquisition or the generalization of fear. Our results suggest that these fear conditioning processes are not impaired in individuals at risk from anxiety. PMID:23131617

  12. Generalization of turbojet and turbine-propeller engine performance in windmilling condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Ewis E; Welna, Henry J

    1951-01-01

    Windmilling characteristics of several turbojet and turbine-propeller engines were investigated individually over a wide range of flight conditions in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. A study was made of all these data and windmilling performance of gas turbine engines was generalized. Although internal-drag, air-flow, and total-pressure-drop parameters were generalized to a single curve for both the axial-flow type engines and another for the centrifugal-flow engine. The engine speed, component pressure changes, and windmilling-propeller drag were generalized to single curves for the two turbine-propeller-type engines investigated. By the use of these curves the windmilling performance can be estimated for axial-flow type gas turbine engines similar to the types investigated over a wide range of flight conditions.

  13. Graphicality conditions for general scale-free complex networks and their application to visibility graphs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    We obtain graphicality conditions for general types of scale-free networks. The same conditions obtained for uncorrelated networks are obtained in the general case. Then an upper bound relating γ, the exponent of the degree distribution, with the cutoff exponent κ, as κ<1/γ is established. This bound is valid for all networks with a well-defined power-law degree distribution in the range γ≤2. Some recent numerical research on visibility networks arising from persistent fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes are reviewed since they do not fulfill these conditions. As a consequence, a new relationship between the exponent γ of the degree distribution and the Hurst exponent H of the fBm process, γ⪅1/H, is postulated.

  14. Vibration analysis and transient response of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhu; Jin, Guoyong; Ye, Tiangui

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a unified solution for free and transient vibration analyses of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions within the framework of Timoshenko beam theory. The formulation is derived by means of the variational principle in conjunction with a modified Fourier series which consists of standard Fourier cosine series and supplemented functions. The mechanical and electrical properties of functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs) are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction and are estimated by Voigt’s rule of mixture. The convergence, accuracy and reliability of the present formulation are demonstrated by comparing the present solutions with those from the literature and finite element analysis. Numerous results for FGPM beams with different boundary conditions, geometrical parameters as well as material distributions are given. Moreover, forced vibration of the FGPM beams subjected to dynamic loads and general boundary conditions are also investigated.

  15. Graphicality conditions for general scale-free complex networks and their application to visibility graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Miguel A.

    2016-07-01

    We obtain graphicality conditions for general types of scale-free networks. The same conditions obtained for uncorrelated networks are obtained in the general case. Then an upper bound relating γ , the exponent of the degree distribution, with the cutoff exponent κ , as κ <1 /γ is established. This bound is valid for all networks with a well-defined power-law degree distribution in the range γ ≤2 . Some recent numerical research on visibility networks arising from persistent fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes are reviewed since they do not fulfill these conditions. As a consequence, a new relationship between the exponent γ of the degree distribution and the Hurst exponent H of the fBm process, γ ⪅1 /H , is postulated.

  16. Graphicality conditions for general scale-free complex networks and their application to visibility graphs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    We obtain graphicality conditions for general types of scale-free networks. The same conditions obtained for uncorrelated networks are obtained in the general case. Then an upper bound relating γ, the exponent of the degree distribution, with the cutoff exponent κ, as κ<1/γ is established. This bound is valid for all networks with a well-defined power-law degree distribution in the range γ≤2. Some recent numerical research on visibility networks arising from persistent fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes are reviewed since they do not fulfill these conditions. As a consequence, a new relationship between the exponent γ of the degree distribution and the Hurst exponent H of the fBm process, γ⪅1/H, is postulated. PMID:27575155

  17. Hybrid preconditioning for iterative diagonalization of ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems in electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunfeng; Bai, Zhaojun; Pask, John E.; Sukumar, N.

    2013-12-15

    The iterative diagonalization of a sequence of large ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems is a computational bottleneck in quantum mechanical methods employing a nonorthogonal basis for ab initio electronic structure calculations. We propose a hybrid preconditioning scheme to effectively combine global and locally accelerated preconditioners for rapid iterative diagonalization of such eigenvalue problems. In partition-of-unity finite-element (PUFE) pseudopotential density-functional calculations, employing a nonorthogonal basis, we show that the hybrid preconditioned block steepest descent method is a cost-effective eigensolver, outperforming current state-of-the-art global preconditioning schemes, and comparably efficient for the ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems produced by PUFE as the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for the well-conditioned standard eigenvalue problems produced by planewave methods.

  18. Proving the achronal averaged null energy condition from the generalized second law

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Aron C.

    2010-01-15

    A null line is a complete achronal null geodesic. It is proven that for any quantum fields minimally coupled to semiclassical Einstein gravity, the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) on null lines is a consequence of the generalized second law of thermodynamics for causal horizons. This result is shown to leading order in Planck's constant for perturbations to classical backgrounds satisfying the null energy condition. Auxiliary assumptions include CPT and the existence of a suitable renormalization scheme for the generalized entropy. Although the ANEC can be violated on general geodesics in curved spacetimes, as long as the ANEC holds on null lines there exist theorems showing that semiclassical gravity should satisfy positivity of energy, topological censorship, and should not admit closed timelike curves. It is pointed out that these theorems fail once the linearized graviton field is quantized, because then the renormalized shear-squared term in the Raychaudhuri equation can be negative. A 'shear-inclusive' generalization of the ANEC is proposed to remedy this, and is proven under an additional assumption about perturbations to horizons in classical general relativity.

  19. General conditions for proximity induced odd-frequency superconductivity in two-dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  20. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743

  1. Laplace asymptotic expansions of conditional Wiener integrals and generalized Mehler kernel formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ian; Truman, Aubrey

    1982-11-01

    Imitating Schilder's results for Wiener integrals rigorous Laplace asymptotic expansions are proven for conditional Wiener integrals. Applications are given for deriving generalized Mehler kernel formulas, up to arbitrarily high orders in powers of ℏ, for exp{-TH(ℏ)/ℏ}(x, y), T>0 where H(ℏ)=[(-ℏ2/2)Δ1+V], Δ1 being the one-dimensional Laplacian, V being a real-valued potential V∈C∞(R), bounded below, together with its second derivative.

  2. General conditions for scale-invariant perturbations in an expanding universe

    SciTech Connect

    Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kinney, William H.; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the general properties of expanding cosmological models which generate scale-invariant curvature perturbations in the presence of a variable speed of sound. We show that in an expanding universe, generation of a super-Hubble, nearly scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations over a range of wavelengths consistent with observation requires at least one of three conditions: (1) accelerating expansion, (2) a speed of sound faster than the speed of light, or (3) super-Planckian energy density.

  3. [General functional state (tonus) of the brain and conditioned reflexes as the mechanisms of it's regulation].

    PubMed

    Khananashvili, M M

    2008-01-01

    The article is dedicated to P.S. Kupalov, due to his 120 Anniversary. P.S. Kupalov was the disciple of I.P. Pavlov and his nearest collaborator. Right after I.P. Pavlov, he was at the head of the Institute of Experimental Medicine in St-Petersburg, where he developed a number of new ideas, concerning conditioned reflexes. Thus, he discovered shortened conditioned reflexes--central mechanisms of regulation of general functional state of the brain, and he created, on the base of the studies of unlimited motor activity in animals using his own method of situational conditioned reflexes, the conception of situational conditioned reflexes. P.S. Kupalov found out a number of new explanations for development of experimental neuroses and determined their mechanisms, as well. He was the one among the first disciples of I.P. Pavlov, who indicated at the complex structural-functional organization of conditioned reflexes, and he played the great part for the creation of modern theory about the nature of behavior, based on conditioned reflexes. The most important theses of P.S. Kupalov's conception, which is of great cognitive significance at the moment, as well as some results of the studies by his disciples and followers, developing the ideas of P.S. Kupalov, are presented in the article. PMID:19178077

  4. Bittracker-a bitmap tracker for visual tracking under very general conditions.

    PubMed

    Leichter, Ido; Lindenbaum, Michael; Rivlin, Ehud

    2008-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of visual tracking under very general conditions: a possibly non-rigid target whose appearance may drastically change over time; general camera motion; a 3D scene; and no a priori information except initialization. This is in contrast to the vast majority of trackers which rely on some limited model in which, for example, the target's appearance is known a priori or restricted, the scene is planar, or a pan tilt zoom camera is used. Their goal is to achieve speed and robustness, but their limited context may cause them to fail in the more general case. The proposed tracker works by approximating, in each frame, a PDF (probability distribution function) of the target's bitmap and then estimating the maximum a posteriori bitmap. The PDF is marginalized over all possible motions per pixel, thus avoiding the stage in which optical flow is determined. This is an advantage over other general-context trackers that do not use the motion cue at all or rely on the error-prone calculation of optical flow. Using a Gibbs distribution with respect to the first-order neighborhood system yields a bitmap PDF whose maximization may be transformed into that of a quadratic pseudo-Boolean function, the maximum of which is approximated via a reduction to a maximum-flow problem. Many experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the tracker is able to track under the aforementioned general context. PMID:18617716

  5. Boundary conditions for General Relativity on AdS3 and the KdV hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that General Relativity with negative cosmological constant in three spacetime dimensions admits a new family of boundary conditions being labeled by a nonnegative integer k. Gravitational excitations are then described by "boundary gravitons" that fulfill the equations of the k-th element of the KdV hierarchy. In particular, k = 0 corresponds to the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions so that excitations are described by chiral movers. In the case of k = 1, the boundary gravitons fulfill the KdV equation and the asymptotic symmetry algebra turns out to be infinite-dimensional, abelian and devoid of central extensions. The latter feature also holds for the remaining cases that describe the hierarchy ( k > 1). Our boundary conditions then provide a gravitational dual of two noninteracting left and right KdV movers, and hence, boundary gravitons possess anisotropic Lifshitz scaling with dynamical exponent z = 2 k + 1. Remarkably, despite spacetimes solving the field equations are locally AdS, they possess anisotropic scaling being induced by the choice of boundary conditions. As an application, the entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole is precisely recovered from a suitable generalization of the Cardy formula that is compatible with the anisotropic scaling of the chiral KdV movers at the boundary, in which the energy of AdS spacetime with our boundary conditions depends on z and plays the role of the central charge. The extension of our boundary conditions to the case of higher spin gravity and its link with different classes of integrable systems is also briefly addressed.

  6. Generalized adjoint consistent treatment of wall boundary conditions for compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Ralf; Leicht, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we revisit the adjoint consistency analysis of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with application to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and k- ω turbulence equations. Here, particular emphasis is laid on the discretization of wall boundary conditions. While previously only one specific combination of discretizations of wall boundary conditions and of aerodynamic force coefficients has been shown to give an adjoint consistent discretization, in this article we generalize this analysis and provide a discretization of the force coefficients for any consistent discretization of wall boundary conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a related evaluation of the cp- and cf-distributions is required. The freedom gained in choosing the discretization of boundary conditions without loosing adjoint consistency is used to devise a new adjoint consistent discretization including numerical fluxes on the wall boundary which is more robust than the adjoint consistent discretization known up to now. While this work is presented in the framework of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations, the insight gained is also applicable to (and thus valuable for) other discretization schemes. In particular, the discretization of integral quantities, like the drag, lift and moment coefficients, as well as the discretization of local quantities at the wall like surface pressure and skin friction should follow as closely as possible the discretization of the flow equations and boundary conditions at the wall boundary.

  7. A general condition for adaptive genetic polymorphism in temporally and spatially heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Svardal, Hannes; Rueffler, Claus; Hermisson, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Both evolution and ecology have long been concerned with the impact of variable environmental conditions on observed levels of genetic diversity within and between species. We model the evolution of a quantitative trait under selection that fluctuates in space and time, and derive an analytical condition for when these fluctuations promote genetic diversification. As ecological scenario we use a generalized island model with soft selection within patches in which we incorporate generation overlap. We allow for arbitrary fluctuations in the environment including spatio-temporal correlations and any functional form of selection on the trait. Using the concepts of invasion fitness and evolutionary branching, we derive a simple and transparent condition for the adaptive evolution and maintenance of genetic diversity. This condition relates the strength of selection within patches to expectations and variances in the environmental conditions across space and time. Our results unify, clarify, and extend a number of previous results on the evolution and maintenance of genetic variation under fluctuating selection. Individual-based simulations show that our results are independent of the details of the genetic architecture and whether reproduction is clonal or sexual. The onset of increased genetic variance is predicted accurately also in small populations in which alleles can go extinct due to environmental stochasticity.

  8. Boundary conditions and the generalized metric formulation of the double sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chen-Te

    2015-09-01

    Double sigma model with strong constraints is equivalent to the ordinary sigma model by imposing a self-duality relation. The gauge symmetries are the diffeomorphism and one-form gauge transformation with the strong constraints. We consider boundary conditions in the double sigma model from three ways. The first way is to modify the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions with a fully O (D, D) description from double gauge fields. We perform the one-loop β function for the constant background fields to find low-energy effective theory without using the strong constraints. The low-energy theory can also have O (D, D) invariance as the double sigma model. The second way is to construct different boundary conditions from the projectors. The third way is to combine the antisymmetric background field with field strength to redefine an O (D, D) generalized metric. We use this generalized metric to reconstruct a consistent double sigma model with the classical and quantum equivalence.

  9. Electromagnetic fields and boundary conditions at the interface of generalized transformation media

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamin, Luzi

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, the interface between two transformation media or between a transformation medium and vacuum is studied. Strictly from the transformation optics point of view, the consequences of the boundary conditions at such interfaces are addressed in two different ways. First, we analyze a restricted class of reflectionless interfaces, for which the tools of transformation optics allow to describe the electromagnetic fields on both sides of the interface by means of the same vacuum solution of the Maxwell equations. In a second step, we examine interfaces between two arbitrary transformation media. This analysis is extended to the recently suggested generalization of transformation optics by the author. As a basic application it is shown how the standard law of reflection and refraction at an interface between vacuum and a homogeneous and isotropic medium with arbitrary and independent permittivity and permeability can be understood in a completely geometric way by the use of generalized transformation optics.

  10. Generalization of Pain-Related Fear Using a Left-Right Hand Judgment Conditioning Task.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Harvie, Daniel S; Lorimer Moseley, G; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2015-09-01

    Recent research suggests that the mere intention to perform a painful movement can elicit pain-related fear. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to determine whether imagining a movement that is associated with pain (CS+) can start to elicit conditioned pain-related fear as well and whether pain-related fear elicited by imagining a painful movement can spread towards novel, similar but distinct imagined movements. We proposed a new experimental paradigm that integrates the left-right hand judgment task (HJT) with a differential fear conditioning procedure. During Acquisition, one hand posture (CS+) was consistently followed by a painful electrocutaneous stimulus (pain-US) and another hand posture (CS-) was not. Participants were instructed to make left-right judgments, which involve mentally rotating their own hand to match the displayed hand postures (i.e., motor imagery). During Generalization, participants were presented with a series of novel hand postures with six grades of perceptual similarity to the CS+ (generalization stimuli; GSs). Finally, during Extinction, the CS+ hand posture was no longer reinforced. The results showed that (1) a painful hand posture triggers fear and increased US-expectancy as compared to a nonpainful hand posture, (2) this pain-related fear spreads to similar but distinct hand postures following a generalization gradient, and subsequently, (3) it can be successfully reduced during extinction. These effects were apparent in the verbal ratings, but not in the startle measures. Because of the lack of effect in the startle measures, we cannot draw firm conclusions about whether the "imagined movements" (i.e., motor imagery of the hand postures) gained associative strength rather than the hand posture pictures itself. From a clinical perspective, basic research into generalization of pain-related fear triggered by covert CSs such as intentions, imagined movements and movement-related cognitions might further our

  11. The importance of diet and physical activity in the treatment of conditions managed in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Little, P; Margetts, B

    1996-01-01

    Evidence from meta-analyses, physiological data and individual studies suggests that diet and exercise are important in the aetiology and treatment of many of the conditions that are managed predominantly in primary care (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and excess alcohol intake). However, much of the evidence comes from outside primary care, and it is doubtful whether those studies done in primary care used optimal intervention strategies. A priority for future research should be to demonstrate the feasibility, efficacy and efficiency of lifestyle interventions in a general practice setting. PMID:8731628

  12. Generalized conditional symmetries and related solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoiasu, Rodica

    2014-04-01

    The generalized conditional symmetry (GCS) method is applied to a specific case of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation, in cylindrical geometry assuming the existence of an axial symmetry. We investigate the conditions that yield the GS equation admitting a special class of second-order GCSs. The determining system for the unknown arbitrary functions is solved in several special cases and new exact solutions, including solitary waves, different in form and structure from the ones obtained using other nonclassical symmetry methods, are pointed out. Several plots of the level sets or flux surfaces of the new solutions as well as surfaces with vanishing flow are displayed. The obtained solutions can be useful for studying plasma equilibrium, transport phenomena, and magnetohydrodynamic stability.

  13. Generalized conditional symmetries and related solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation

    SciTech Connect

    Cimpoiasu, Rodica

    2014-04-15

    The generalized conditional symmetry (GCS) method is applied to a specific case of the Grad–Shafranov (GS) equation, in cylindrical geometry assuming the existence of an axial symmetry. We investigate the conditions that yield the GS equation admitting a special class of second-order GCSs. The determining system for the unknown arbitrary functions is solved in several special cases and new exact solutions, including solitary waves, different in form and structure from the ones obtained using other nonclassical symmetry methods, are pointed out. Several plots of the level sets or flux surfaces of the new solutions as well as surfaces with vanishing flow are displayed. The obtained solutions can be useful for studying plasma equilibrium, transport phenomena, and magnetohydrodynamic stability.

  14. Theoretical results on fractionally integrated exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Sílvia R. C.; Prass, Taiane S.

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a theoretical study on the main properties of Fractionally Integrated Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (FIEGARCH) processes. We analyze the conditions for the existence, the invertibility, the stationarity and the ergodicity of these processes. We prove that, if { is a FIEGARCH(p,d,q) process then, under mild conditions, { is an ARFIMA(q,d,0) with correlated innovations, that is, an autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average process. The convergence order for the polynomial coefficients that describes the volatility is presented and results related to the spectral representation and to the covariance structure of both processes { and { are discussed. Expressions for the kurtosis and the asymmetry measures for any stationary FIEGARCH(p,d,q) process are also derived. The h-step ahead forecast for the processes {, { and { are given with their respective mean square error of forecast. The work also presents a Monte Carlo simulation study showing how to generate, estimate and forecast based on six different FIEGARCH models. The forecasting performance of six models belonging to the class of autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic models (namely, ARCH-type models) and radial basis models is compared through an empirical application to Brazilian stock market exchange index.

  15. Analysis of laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells with general boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.

    1974-01-01

    This report develops: (1) a refined approximate theory for the static and dynamic analyses of finite, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells with general boundary conditions; (2) an exact three-dimensional analysis of simply supported, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells, and (3) a thin-shell theory for laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells. In the refined approximate theory the displacements are assumed piecewise linear across the thickness and the effects of transverse shear deformations and transverse normal stress are included. A variational approach is followed to obtain the governing differential equations and boundary conditions. A general solution of the governing differential equations is also presented. The results obtained by using the refined approximate theory and the thin-shell theory are compared with the exact results for the case of free vibrations of simply supported, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells. The refined approximate theory is very accurate, even for thick shells with short nodal distances, whereas thin-shell theory is reasonably accurate only for thin shells at moderate nodal distances and wave number less than 2.

  16. Closed set of the uniqueness conditions and bifurcation criteria in generalized coupled thermoplasticity for small deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śloderbach, Zdzisław

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a study into global and local conditions of uniqueness and the criteria excluding the possibility of bifurcation of the equilibrium state for small strains. The conditions and criteria are derived on the basis of an analysis of the problem of uniqueness of a solution involving the basic incremental boundary problem of coupled generalized thermo-elasto-plasticity. This work forms a follow-up of previous research (Śloderbach in Bifurcations criteria for equilibrium states in generalized thermoplasticity, IFTR Reports, 1980, Arch Mech 3(35):337-349, 351-367, 1983), but contains a new derivation of global and local criteria excluding a possibility of bifurcation of an equilibrium state regarding a comparison body dependent on the admissible fields of stress rate. The thermal elasto-plastic coupling effects, non-associated laws of plastic flow and influence of plastic strains on thermoplastic properties of a body were taken into account in this work. Thus, the mathematical problem considered here is not a self-conjugated problem.

  17. Iterative generalized synchrosqueezing transform for fault diagnosis of wind turbine planetary gearbox under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming

    2015-02-01

    The synchrosqueezing transform can effectively improve the readability of time-frequency representation of mono-component and constant frequency signals. However, for multi-component and time-variant frequency signals, it still suffers from time-frequency blurs. In order to address this issue, the synchrosqueezing transform is improved using iterative generalized demodulation. Firstly, the complex nonstationary signal is decomposed into mono-components of constant frequency by iterative generalized demodulation. Then, the instantaneous frequency of each mono-component is accurately estimated via the synchrosqueezing transform, by exploiting its merit of enhanced time-frequency resolution. Finally, the time-frequency representation of the original signal is obtained by superposing the time-frequency representations of all the mono-components with restored instantaneous frequency. This proposed method generalizes the synchrosqueezing transform to multi-component and time-variant frequency signals, and it has fine time-frequency resolution and is free of cross-term interferences. The proposed method was validated using both numerically simulated and lab experimental vibration signals of planetary gearboxes under nonstationary conditions. The time-variant planetary gearbox characteristic frequencies were effectively identified, and the gear faults were correctly diagnosed.

  18. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015), 10.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  19. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  20. A general CFT model for antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 ladders with Mobius boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofano, Gerardo; Marotta, Vincenzo; Naddeo, Adele; Niccoli, Giuliano

    2008-12-01

    We show how the low energy properties of the two-leg XXZ spin-1/2 ladders with general anisotropy parameter Δ on closed geometries can be accounted for in the framework of the m-reduction procedure developed previously (Cristofano et al 2000 Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 547; Cristofano et al 2000 Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 1679; Cristofano et al 2002 Nucl. Phys. B 641 547; Cristofano et al 2004 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP06(2004) 056). In the limit of quasi-decoupled chains, a conformal field theory (CFT) with central charge c = 2 is derived and its ability to describe the model with different boundary conditions is shown. Special emphasis is given to the Mobius boundary conditions which generate a topological defect corresponding to non-trivial single-spinon excitations. Then, in the case of the two-leg XXX ladders we discuss in detail the role of various perturbations in determining the renormalization group flow starting from the ultraviolet (UV) critical point with c = 2.

  1. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  2. Conditional Validity of E = mc2 and the Repulsive Gravitation in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. Y.

    Currently, the formula E = mc2 is often misinterpreted as the unconditional equivalence between inertial mass and each type of energy (i.e., m = E/c2). However, according to Einstein's general relativity, such a claim is incorrect. Clearly, a necessary condition for any type of energy (or a combination of many types of energy) to be equivalent to mass is that the combined energy results in a tensor having a non-zero trace. For instance, the energy of photons include the energy of its gravitational wave component as demanded by E = mc2. It is pointed out that the Reissner-Nordstrom metric illustrated that electromagnetic energy and mass are different in terms of gravity. The misinterpretation of E = mc2 being unconditional is responsible for overlooking the repulsive charge-mass interaction. Such an interaction of repulsive gravitation implies that the unification of electromagnetism and gravitation is necessary and correct. Moreover, this analysis shows that both the interpretations of Wilczek and 't Hooft on m = E/c2 being unconditionally true is incorrect.

  3. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kinugawa, Tohru

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion (d{sup 2}X)/(dt{sup 2}) +(dU)/(dX) =0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27–29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A=(1/√(π))∫{sub 0}{sup E}dU/√(E−U) is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = T{sub A}(E) + T{sub N}(E) where τ is a constant period, T{sub A}(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and T{sub N}(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function X{sub A}(U) is determined from T{sub A}(E) via the Abel-transform relation X{sub A}(U) ∝ A[T{sub A}(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential U{sub N}(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing

  4. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-01

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  5. General coalescence conditions for the exact wave functions: Higher-order relations for two-particle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Yusaku I.; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-07-28

    We derived the necessary conditions that the non-relativistic time-independent exact wave functions for two-particle systems must satisfy at a coalescence (or cusp) point. Some of such necessary conditions are already known to be Kato's cusp condition (CC) and Rassolov and Chipman's CC. In the present study, we extended and generalized those conditions, calling them generalized coalescence conditions (GCCs). Kato's CC and Rassolov and Chipman's CC were shown to be specific cases included in the GCCs. The GCCs can be applied not only to Coulombic systems but also to any systems where the interaction between two particles is represented in a power series of the inter-particle distance. We confirmed the correctness of our derivation of these GCCs by applying the free complement wave functions of a hydrogen atom in ground and excited states, a harmonic oscillator, and a system with an interacting potential of V=r.

  6. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups. PMID:26863467

  7. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  8. Pyknoachondrogenesis: an association of skeletal defects resembling achondrogenesis with generalized bone sclerosis. A new condition?

    PubMed

    Camera, G; Giordano, F; Mastroiacovo, P

    1986-10-01

    A stillborn male with skeletal anomalies resembling achondrogenesis with remarkably sclerotic bones is reported. The term "Pyknoachondrogenesis" is suggested for this hitherto undescribed condition. PMID:3791681

  9. General vulnerability to stuttering: The experience of stuttering and conditions bringing about invulnerability.

    PubMed

    Briley, P M; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-08-01

    General vulnerability to stuttering is the broad awareness of stuttering and the ever-present, experiential sense of a person who stutters (PWS). It is defined by stuttering in all its forms and the awareness of its presence, both in moments of stuttering and moments of perceivably fluent speech. Under the heading of general vulnerability to stuttering is specific vulnerability to stuttering, which includes the actual events of stuttering (i.e., overt symptoms, covert symptoms, subperceptual stuttering, and anticipation of stuttering). The differentiation between the two is that specific vulnerability requires a specific moment of stuttering where general vulnerability does not. PMID:27372857

  10. Generalization of verbal conditioning to verbal and nonverbal behavior: group therapy with chronic psychiatric patients1

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Dorothy A.; Briddell, Dan W.; Wilson, G. Terence

    1974-01-01

    Twelve chronic hospitalized female patients received token reinforcement contingent on two separate classes of verbalizations: (a) positive statements about optional activities available in the hospital setting, and (b) positive statements about people. Cross-class generalization of reinforced verbal responses about activities to overt behavior was tested by actual participation in activities; within-class generalization of verbal responses about people to verbalizations in another stimulus setting was assessed in a structured interview situation. A multiple baseline design with contingency reversals was employed to demonstrate experimental control of both classes of verbalizations in the group sessions. Positive statements about activities generalized to actual participation in activities, while generalization of positive statements about people to verbalization in the extragroup setting did not occur. PMID:4465377

  11. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions and at high altitude conditions, except for supplemental exhaust emission standards, cold.... Cold temperature NMHC emission standards, as described in § 86.1811-10(g), apply only at low altitude....1810-01(f) and (j), and 86.1811-04(e). (2) For vehicles that comply with the cold temperature...

  12. Derivation and application of a class of generalized impedance boundary conditions, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, J. L.; Senior, T. B. A.; Jin, J.-M.

    1989-01-01

    Boundary conditions involving higher order derivatives are presented by simulating surfaces whose reflection coefficients are known analytically, numerically, or experimentally. Procedures for determining the coefficients of the derivatives are discussed, along with the effect of displacing the surface where the boundary conditions are applied. Provided the coefficients satisfy a duality relation, equivalent forms of the boundary conditions involving tangential field components are deduced, and these provide the natural extension to non-planar surfaces. As an illustration, the simulation of metal-backed uniform and three-layer dielectric coatings is given. It is shown that fourth order conditions are capable of providing an accurate simulation for the uniform coating at least a quarter of a wavelength in thickness. Provided, though, some compromise in accuracy is acceptable, it is also shown that a third order condition may be sufficient for practical purposes when simulating uniform coatings.

  13. Effects of hippocampal stimulation on acquisition, extinction and generalization of conditioned suppression in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, J W; Lidsky, T I; Schwartzbaum, J S

    1975-12-01

    Rats implanted with electrodes in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus received posttrial stimulation in training sessions with footshock reinforcement. Afterdischarges without overt seizures were consistently without effect on the rate of acquisition of suppression of licking during an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS), although conditioning was retarded by the delivery of distracting stimuli following footshock. The rate of conditioning remained insensitive to elicitation of dorsal hippocampal afterdischarges (DHAD) despite subsequent alterations of session length, intertrial interval and preexposure to the CS. However, faster extinction of suppression occurred following DHAD, suggesting a limited but essential role of the hippocampus in addressing stored information.

  14. Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized conditioned reinforcers in a token economy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized tokens was examined in a token economy. Pigeons could produce and exchange different colored tokens for food, for water, or for food or water. Token production was measured across three phases, which examined: (1) across-session price increases (typical demand curve method); (2) within-session price increases (progressive-ratio, PR, schedule); and (3) concurrent pairwise choices between the token types. Exponential demand curves were fitted to the response data and accounted for over 90% total variance. Demand curve parameter values, Pmax , Omax and α showed that demand was ordered in the following way: food tokens, generalized tokens, water tokens, both in Phase 1 and in Phase 3. This suggests that the preferences were predictable on the basis of elasticity and response output from the demand analysis. Pmax and Omax values failed to consistently predict breakpoints and peak response rates in the PR schedules in Phase 2, however, suggesting limits on a unitary conception of reinforcer efficacy. The patterns of generalized token production and exchange in Phase 3 suggest that the generalized tokens served as substitutes for the specific food and water tokens. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate the utility of behavioral economic concepts in the analysis of generalized reinforcement. PMID:26676183

  15. Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized conditioned reinforcers in a token economy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized tokens was examined in a token economy. Pigeons could produce and exchange different colored tokens for food, for water, or for food or water. Token production was measured across three phases, which examined: (1) across-session price increases (typical demand curve method); (2) within-session price increases (progressive-ratio, PR, schedule); and (3) concurrent pairwise choices between the token types. Exponential demand curves were fitted to the response data and accounted for over 90% total variance. Demand curve parameter values, Pmax , Omax and α showed that demand was ordered in the following way: food tokens, generalized tokens, water tokens, both in Phase 1 and in Phase 3. This suggests that the preferences were predictable on the basis of elasticity and response output from the demand analysis. Pmax and Omax values failed to consistently predict breakpoints and peak response rates in the PR schedules in Phase 2, however, suggesting limits on a unitary conception of reinforcer efficacy. The patterns of generalized token production and exchange in Phase 3 suggest that the generalized tokens served as substitutes for the specific food and water tokens. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate the utility of behavioral economic concepts in the analysis of generalized reinforcement.

  16. Leadership and cooperation at the general medicine department of LMU Munich: Good grades despite difficult conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schelling, Jörg; Braun, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of general medicine at German universities will increase over the next few years. Consequently, the discussion of teaching content and even more the improvement of the structures within the still small and dependent departments of general medicine are of major importance. The example of our department at LMU Munich shows which challenges for leadership and cooperation result from lack of financial and personnel structure. The project “cooperation culture” that the department has conducted in collaboration with the LMU Center for Leadership and People Management is presented as a means to promote leadership and cooperation. This project can serve as an inspiration for the coordinators of smaller departments of general medicine at other German universities that are also striving to improve their structure and their position within the university. PMID:22205911

  17. Leadership and cooperation at the general medicine department of LMU Munich: Good grades despite difficult conditions.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Jörg; Braun, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of general medicine at German universities will increase over the next few years. Consequently, the discussion of teaching content and even more the improvement of the structures within the still small and dependent departments of general medicine are of major importance. The example of our department at LMU Munich shows which challenges for leadership and cooperation result from lack of financial and personnel structure. The project "cooperation culture" that the department has conducted in collaboration with the LMU Center for Leadership and People Management is presented as a means to promote leadership and cooperation. This project can serve as an inspiration for the coordinators of smaller departments of general medicine at other German universities that are also striving to improve their structure and their position within the university.

  18. Evaluation of general non-reflecting boundary conditions for industrial CFD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basara, Branislav; Frolov, Sergei; Lidskii, Boris; Posvyanskii, Vladimir

    2007-11-01

    The importance of having proper boundary conditions for the calculation domain is a known issue in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In many situations, it is very difficult to define a correct boundary condition. The flow may enter and leave the computational domain at the same time and at the same boundary. In such circumstances, it is important that numerical implementation of boundary conditions enforces certain physical constraints leading to correct results which then ensures a better convergence rate. The aim of this paper is to evaluate recently proposed non-reflecting boundary conditions (Frolov et al., 2001, Advances in Chemical Propulsion) on industrial CFD applications. Derivation of the local non-reflecting boundary conditions at the open boundary is based on finding the solution of linearized Euler equations vanishing at infinity for both incompressible and compressible formulations. This is implemented into the in-house CFD package AVL FIRE and some numerical details will be presented as well. The key applications in this paper are from automotive industry, e.g. an external car aerodynamics, an intake port, etc. The results will show benefits of using effective non-reflecting boundary conditions.

  19. Describing Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Relations Using Conditional Probabilities and the General Operant Contingency Space: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Martens, Brian K.; DiGennaro, Florence D.

    2005-01-01

    Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) recordings are often used in school settings as part of a functional assessment. A number of limitations are associated with A-B-C recordings, and a novel approach for describing data from A-B-C recordings is to compute conditional probabilities that can be graphed in the general operant contingency space to…

  20. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  1. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  2. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  3. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  4. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...

  5. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this general license, personnel searches required by § 73.55(h) of this chapter before admission to a new protected area may be performed by physical pat-down searches of persons in lieu of firearms and... performed on the cask. (ii) This record must include sufficient information to furnish documentary...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option. Tables S01-3, S01-4... for sale in the United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option. Tables S01-3, S01-4... for sale in the United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option. Tables S01-3, S01-4... for sale in the United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option. Tables S01-3, S01-4... for sale in the United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light... United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers option. Tables S01-3, S01-4... for sale in the United States may be used to determine combined volume, at the manufacturers...

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  12. Conditioning- and Time-Dependent Increases in Context Fear and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Andrew M.; Mehta, Nehali; Lu, Bryan; Amir, Dorsa; Livingston, Briana; Santarelli, Anthony; Zhuravka, Irina; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    A prominent feature of fear memories and anxiety disorders is that they endure across extended periods of time. Here, we examine how the severity of the initial fear experience influences incubation, generalization, and sensitization of contextual fear memories across time. Adult rats were presented with either five, two, one, or zero shocks (1.2…

  13. Maladaptive behavioral consequences of conditioned fear-generalization: a pronounced, yet sparsely studied, feature of anxiety pathology.

    PubMed

    van Meurs, Brian; Wiggert, Nicole; Wicker, Isaac; Lissek, Shmuel

    2014-06-01

    Fear-conditioning experiments in the anxiety disorders focus almost exclusively on passive-emotional, Pavlovian conditioning, rather than active-behavioral, instrumental conditioning. Paradigms eliciting both types of conditioning are needed to study maladaptive, instrumental behaviors resulting from Pavlovian abnormalities found in clinical anxiety. One such Pavlovian abnormality is generalization of fear from a conditioned danger-cue (CS+) to resembling stimuli. Though lab-based findings repeatedly link overgeneralized Pavlovian-fear to clinical anxiety, no study assesses the degree to which Pavlovian overgeneralization corresponds with maladaptive, overgeneralized instrumental-avoidance. The current effort fills this gap by validating a novel fear-potentiated startle paradigm including Pavlovian and instrumental components. The paradigm is embedded in a computer game during which shapes appear on the screen. One shape paired with electric-shock serves as CS+, and other resembling shapes, presented in the absence of shock, serve as generalization stimuli (GSs). During the game, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Avoidance during CS+ is considered adaptive because shock is a real possibility. By contrast, avoidance during GSs is considered maladaptive because shock is not a realistic prospect and thus unnecessarily compromises performance. Results indicate significant Pavlovian-instrumental relations, with greater generalization of Pavlovian fear associated with overgeneralization of maladaptive instrumental-avoidance.

  14. Maladaptive Behavioral Consequences of Conditioned Fear-Generalization: A Pronounced, Yet Sparsely Studied, Feature of Anxiety Pathology

    PubMed Central

    van Meurs, Brian; Wiggert, Nicole; Wicker, Isaac; Lissek, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    Fear-conditioning experiments in the anxiety disorders focus almost exclusively on passive-emotional, Pavlovian conditioning, rather than active-behavioral, instrumental conditioning. Paradigms eliciting both types of conditioning are needed to study maladaptive, instrumental behaviors resulting from Pavlovian abnormalities found in clinical anxiety. One such Pavlovian abnormality is generalization of fear from a conditioned danger-cue (CS+) to resembling stimuli. Though lab-based findings repeatedly link overgeneralized Pavlovian-fear to clinical anxiety, no study assesses the degree to which Pavlovian overgeneralization corresponds with maladaptive, overgeneralized instrumental-avoidance. The current effort fills this gap by validating a novel fear-potentiated startle paradigm including Pavlovian and instrumental components. The paradigm is embedded in a computer game during which shapes appear on the screen. One shape paired with electric-shock serves as CS+, and other resembling shapes, presented in the absence of shock, serve as generalization stimuli (GSs). During the game, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Avoidance during CS+ is considered adaptive because shock is a real possibility. By contrast, avoidance during GSs is considered maladaptive because shock is not a realistic prospect and thus unnecessarily compromises performance. Results indicate significant Pavlovian-instrumental relations, with greater generalization of Pavlovian fear associated with overgeneralization of maladaptive instrumental-avoidance. PMID:24768950

  15. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-15

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  16. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Fang, Angbo; Qian, Tiezheng; Sheng, Ping

    2008-12-01

    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable pi -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times.

  17. A general mechanism for conditional expression of exaggerated sexually-selected traits.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ian A; Gotoh, Hiroki; Dworkin, Ian M; Emlen, Douglas J; Lavine, Laura C

    2013-10-01

    Sexually-selected exaggerated traits tend to be unusually reliable signals of individual condition, as their expression tends to be more sensitive to nutritional history and physiological circumstance than that of other phenotypes. As such, these traits are the foundation for many models of sexual selection and animal communication, such as "handicap" and "good genes" models. Exactly how expression of these traits is linked to the bearer's condition has been a central yet unresolved question, in part because the underlying physiological mechanisms regulating their development have remained largely unknown. Recent discoveries across animals as diverse as deer, beetles, and flies now implicate the widely conserved insulin-like signaling pathway, as a common physiological mechanism regulating condition-sensitive structures with extreme growth. This raises the exciting possibility that one highly conserved pathway may underlie the evolution of trait exaggeration in a multitude of sexually-selected signal traits across the animal kingdom.

  18. The discovery of the principles of reinforcement, extinction, generalization, and differentiation of conditional reflexes in Pavlov's laboratories.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of reinforcement, extinction, generalization, and differentiation with the conditional reflex method in Pavlov's laboratories is described. Modern American introductory texts show that contemporary understanding of the experimental work on conditioning in Pavlov's laboratories is derived from a 1927 English translation of Pavlov's lectures on the conditional reflexes. The lectures present the discoveries topically, not chronologically. In contrast, this article presents a chronological account of the contributions of S.G. Vul'fson, I.F. Tolochinov, and B.P. Babkin, which led to the conceptualization of reinforcement and extinction, and the work of V.N. Boldyrev and N.A. Kashereninova, which led to the formulation of the concepts of generalization and differentiation. This historical approach avoids giving the impression that the development of the Pavlovian paradigm was a highly systematic pursuit.

  19. General Bohm and Langmuir conditions for a strong double layer in space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    The appropriate Bohm and Langmuir conditions when there are three beam-type particles passing through the double layer in addition to the usual two species of trapped particles are derived. It is shown that the Langmuir conditions, which normally imply a net current through the double layer, are consistent with zero net current when the class of accreting ions is included. It is also found that the Bohm criterion is quite different from its usual form, and that it has nothing to do with instabilities of the plasma at some critical level, as is believed to be true.

  20. Momentum constraints as integrability conditions for the Hamiltonian constraint in general relativity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncrief, V.; Teitelboim, C.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that if the Hamiltonian constraint of general relativity is imposed as a restriction on the Hamilton principal functional in the classical theory, or on the state functional in the quantum theory, then the momentum constraints are automatically satisfied. This result holds both for closed and open spaces and it means that the full content of the theory is summarized by a single functional equation of the Tomonaga-Schwinger type.

  1. New conditions for obtaining the exact solutions of the general Riccati equation.

    PubMed

    Bougoffa, Lazhar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a direct method for solving the general Riccati equation y' = f(x) + g(x)y + h(x)y(2). We first reduce it into an equivalent equation, and then we formulate the relations between the coefficients functions f(x), g(x), and h(x) of the equation to obtain an equivalent separable equation from which the previous equation can be solved in closed form. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this method.

  2. The Generalization of a Conditioned Response to Deception across the Public/Private Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, J. J.; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts at lie detection, such as the polygraph, have relied on physiological arousal to identify deception--but these responses have not proven to be as reliable as is necessary for widespread use. Conditioning procedures have been shown to increase the discriminative physiological arousal exhibited during deception, but have targeted…

  3. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cold temperature NMHC emission standards as described in § 86.1811-10(g) apply only at low altitude... altitude conditions for 2009 and later model year vehicles. (2) For vehicles that comply with the cold... described in § 86.1818-12, manufacturers must submit an engineering evaluation indicating that...

  4. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... light or heavy duty motor vehicle equipped with an engine certified to the nonroad provision of 40 CFR... standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions. (a)(1) Every new motor vehicle (or new motor vehicle... with respect to any Otto-cycle or diesel heavy-duty vehicle which uses an engine which has not...

  5. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  6. A General Optimality Conditions for Stochastic Control Problems of Jump Diffusions

    SciTech Connect

    Bahlali, Seid; Chala, Adel

    2012-02-15

    We consider a stochastic control problem where the system is governed by a non linear stochastic differential equation with jumps. The control is allowed to enter into both diffusion and jump terms. By only using the first order expansion and the associated adjoint equation, we establish necessary as well as sufficient optimality conditions of controls for relaxed controls, who are a measure-valued processes.

  7. Generalized INF-SUP condition for Chebyshev approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardi, Christine; Canuto, Claudio; Maday, Yvon

    1986-01-01

    An abstract mixed problem and its approximation are studied; both are well-posed if and only if several inf-sup conditions are satisfied. These results are applied to a spectral Galerkin method for the Stokes problem in a square, when it is formulated in Chebyshev weighted Sobolev spaces. Finally, a collocation method for the Navier-Stokes equations at Chebyshev nodes is analyzed.

  8. Beam wandering statistics of twin thin laser beam propagation under generalized atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Darío G; Funes, Gustavo

    2012-12-01

    Under the Geometrics Optics approximation is possible to estimate the covariance between the displacements of two thin beams after they have propagated through a turbulent medium. Previous works have concentrated in long propagation distances to provide models for the wandering statistics. These models are useful when the separation between beams is smaller than the propagation path-regardless of the characteristics scales of the turbulence. In this work we give a complete model for these covariances, behavior introducing absolute limits to the validity of former approximations. Moreover, these generalizations are established for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric models.

  9. New Conditions for Obtaining the Exact Solutions of the General Riccati Equation

    PubMed Central

    Bougoffa, Lazhar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a direct method for solving the general Riccati equation y′ = f(x) + g(x)y + h(x)y2. We first reduce it into an equivalent equation, and then we formulate the relations between the coefficients functions f(x), g(x), and h(x) of the equation to obtain an equivalent separable equation from which the previous equation can be solved in closed form. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this method. PMID:25202724

  10. General Anesthetic Conditions Induce Network Synchrony and Disrupt Sensory Processing in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Thomas; Obenhaus, Horst A.; Ditzel, Désirée A. W.; Nagai, Takeharu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Sprengel, Rolf; Hasan, Mazahir T.

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics are commonly used in animal models to study how sensory signals are represented in the brain. Here, we used two-photon (2P) calcium activity imaging with cellular resolution to investigate how neuronal activity in layer 2/3 of the mouse barrel cortex is modified under the influence of different concentrations of chemically distinct general anesthetics. Our results show that a high isoflurane dose induces synchrony in local neuronal networks and these cortical activity patterns closely resemble those observed in EEG recordings under deep anesthesia. Moreover, ketamine and urethane also induced similar activity patterns. While investigating the effects of deep isoflurane anesthesia on whisker and auditory evoked responses in the barrel cortex, we found that dedicated spatial regions for sensory signal processing become disrupted. We propose that our isoflurane-2P imaging paradigm can serve as an attractive model system to dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce the anesthetic state, and it might also provide important insight into sleep-like brain states and consciousness. PMID:27147963

  11. A new technique for simulating composite material. Task 2: Analytical solutions with Generalized Impedance Boundary Conditions (GIBCs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricoy, M. A.; Volakis, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The diffraction problem associated with a multilayer material slab recessed in a perfectly conducting ground plane is formulated and solved via the Generalized Scattering Matrix Formulation (GSMF) in conjunction with the dual integral equation approach. The multilayer slab is replaced by a surface obeying a generalized impedance boundary condition (GIBC) to facilitate the computation of the pertinent Wiener Hopf split functions and their zeros. Both E(sub z) and H(sub z) polarizations are considered and a number of scattering patterns are presented, some of which are compared to exact results available for a homogeneous recessed slab.

  12. Existence and stability, and discrete BB and rank conditions, for general mixed-hybrid finite elements in elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, W.-M.; Atluri, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, all possible forms of mixed-hybrid finite element methods that are based on multi-field variational principles are examined as to the conditions for existence, stability, and uniqueness of their solutions. The reasons as to why certain 'simplified hybrid-mixed methods' in general, and the so-called 'simplified hybrid-displacement method' in particular (based on the so-called simplified variational principles), become unstable, are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the 'discrete' BB-conditions, and the rank conditions, of the matrices arising in mixed-hybrid methods, is given. Some recent studies aimed at the assurance of such rank conditions, and the related problem of the avoidance of spurious kinematic modes, are presented.

  13. Generalization peak shift in rats under conditions of positive reinforcement and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S J; Schindler, C W

    1981-03-01

    Rats were trained to discriminate between two click frequencies. One frequency was associated with either variable-interval food reinforcement (Experiment 1) or free-operant avoidance (Experiment 2). The other frequency was associated with the absence of food in Experiment 1 and the absence of shock in Experiment 2. On a click frequency generalization test, the rats in both experiments showed positive peak shift with the shape of the relative gradients being very similar. This is the first reported instance of peak shift in rats when responding was maintained by an avoidance contingency. Nondifferentially trained controls showed that this shift was due exclusively to associative processes, with nonassociative stimulus factors in themselves apparently making no contribution to increased rates at particular stimulus values. These results show the comparability of appetitive and aversive control and support the position that gradient differences do not result from approach versus avoidance per se.

  14. Generalization peak shift in rats under conditions of positive reinforcement and avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Stanley J.; Schindler, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    Rats were trained to discriminate between two click frequencies. One frequency was associated with either variable-interval food reinforcement (Experiment 1) or free-operant avoidance (Experiment 2). The other frequency was associated with the absence of food in Experiment 1 and the absence of shock in Experiment 2. On a click frequency generalization test, the rats in both experiments showed positive peak shift with the shape of the relative gradients being very similar. This is the first reported instance of peak shift in rats when responding was maintained by an avoidance contingency. Nondifferentially trained controls showed that this shift was due exclusively to associative processes, with nonassociative stimulus factors in themselves apparently making no contribution to increased rates at particular stimulus values. These results show the comparability of appetitive and aversive control and support the position that gradient differences do not result from approach versus avoidance per se. PMID:16812208

  15. General coalescence conditions for the exact wave functions. II. Higher-order relations for many-particle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Yusaku I. E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp

    2014-06-07

    We derived the necessary conditions that must be satisfied by the non-relativistic time-independent exact wave functions for many-particle systems at a two-particle coalescence (or cusp) point. Some simple conditions are known to be Kato's cusp condition (CC) and Rassolov and Chipman's CC. In a previous study, we derived an infinite number of necessary conditions that two-particle wave functions must satisfy at a coalescence point. In the present study, we extend these conditions to many-particle systems. They are called general coalescence conditions (GCCs), and Kato's CC and Rassolov and Chipman's CC are included as special conditions. GCCs can be applied not only to Coulombic systems but also to any system in which the interaction between two particles is represented in a power series of inter-particle distances. We confirmed the correctness of our derivation of the GCCs by applying the exact wave function of a harmonium in electron-electron and electron-nucleus coalescence situations. In addition, we applied the free complement (FC) wave functions of a helium atom to the GCCs to examine the accuracy of the FC wave function in the context of a coalescence situation.

  16. General rules prospected for the liquid fragility in various material groups and different thermodynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Paluch, M; Masiewicz, E; Grzybowski, A; Pawlus, S; Pionteck, J; Wojnarowska, Z

    2014-10-01

    The fragility parameter has been acknowledged as one of the most important characteristics of glass-forming liquids. We show that the mystery of the dramatic change in molecular dynamics of systems approaching the glass transition can be better understood by the high pressure study of fragility parameters defined in different thermodynamic conditions. We formulate and experimentally confirm a few rules obeyed by the fragility parameters, which are also rationalized by the density scaling law and its modification suggested for associated liquids. In this way, we successfully explore and gain a new insight into the pressure effect on molecular dynamics of van der Waals liquids, polymer melts, ionic liquids, and hydrogen-bonded systems near the glass transition. PMID:25296821

  17. General rules prospected for the liquid fragility in various material groups and different thermodynamic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Paluch, M.; Masiewicz, E.; Grzybowski, A.; Pawlus, S.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Pionteck, J.

    2014-10-07

    The fragility parameter has been acknowledged as one of the most important characteristics of glass-forming liquids. We show that the mystery of the dramatic change in molecular dynamics of systems approaching the glass transition can be better understood by the high pressure study of fragility parameters defined in different thermodynamic conditions. We formulate and experimentally confirm a few rules obeyed by the fragility parameters, which are also rationalized by the density scaling law and its modification suggested for associated liquids. In this way, we successfully explore and gain a new insight into the pressure effect on molecular dynamics of van der Waals liquids, polymer melts, ionic liquids, and hydrogen-bonded systems near the glass transition.

  18. Displacement Models for THUNDER Actuators having General Loads and Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieman, Robert; Smith, Ralph C.; Kackley, Tyson; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bernd, Jeff; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes techniques for quantifying the displacements generated in THUNDER actuators in response to applied voltages for a variety of boundary conditions and exogenous loads. The PDE (partial differential equations) models for the actuators are constructed in two steps. In the first, previously developed theory quantifying thermal and electrostatic strains is employed to model the actuator shapes which result from the manufacturing process and subsequent repoling. Newtonian principles are then employed to develop PDE models which quantify displacements in the actuator due to voltage inputs to the piezoceramic patch. For this analysis, drive levels are assumed to be moderate so that linear piezoelectric relations can be employed. Finite element methods for discretizing the models are developed and the performance of the discretized models are illustrated through comparison with experimental data.

  19. General contamination criteria for optical surfaces. [instrument performance losses in spaceborne conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremer, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Physical models are developed for establishing criteria to decide on the acceptable contamination level of optical devices in space-borne conditions. Optical systems can be degraded in terms of decreased throughput, i.e., transmissivity or reflectivity, or increases in the total integrated scatter (TIS). Performance losses can be caused by particulate accretion, molecular film accretion, and impact cratering. A quantitative relationship is defined for film thickness and loss of throughput. Formulas are also developed for cases where induced surface defects are larger than the desired viewing wavelengths, or smaller or of the same order of the observed wavelengths. The techniques are used to quantify the degradation of a VUV solar coronagraph, a VUV stellar telescope, and a solar cell due to TIS. Applications are projected for estimating the contamination sensitivity of specific instruments, assessing the contamination hazard from known particulates, or to define clean room standards.

  20. The Relationship Between Religious Attitudes, Fear of Death and Dying with General Health Condition: A Survey in College Students.

    PubMed

    Nazarzadeh, Milad; Sarokhani, Mandana; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to assess the relationship between religious attitudes of Ilam universities students (west of Iran), their perspectives about the fear of self and other's death and dying, with their general health. This paper is an analytic survey in which 351 college students, who were selected by multistage sampling, participated. To measure interested variables, Persian format of standardized self-administered questionnaires was employed. Religious attitudes with odds ratio (OR) of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97) and fear of self dying with 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96) were identified as a protective factors against the inappropriate general health condition. However, the fear of other's death (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05-1.28) was identified as a risk factor. This study showed that people who had more religious attitudes and fear of self dying had better general health as well as the fear of other's death had a significant direct relationship with inappropriate general health condition.

  1. [General condition evaluations by members of ISS missions 1 to 15].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, S I; Savchenko, E G; Lavrent'eva, I N; Nesterov, V F; Rudometkin, N M; Saraev, I F

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally crew questioning about general wellbeing is a part of their psychic monitoring. Information provided during compasses at the Earth's request is included in the neuropsychic section of the weekly crew health report prepared by the medical support group at the Moscow Mission Control Center. Purpose of the work was to analyze the structure content of comments on well-being made by the members of ISS-1-15 crews as well as emotionality of these comments excited by heavy work-rest schedule and length of space duties. Most often well-being evaluations were positive varying within the range from non-committal "all right" and reserved "It's OK" to exaggerated "terrific" "great" "fine"and "perfect"which were more common to astronauts than cosmonauts. Cosmonauts' comments had the seal of personality It was recognized that the demanding work/rest schedule had little impact on the comments and that they did not change with time during 24-wk missions. PMID:19462776

  2. Plates and shells containing a surface crack under general loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Paul F.; Erdogan, Fazil

    1987-01-01

    Various through and part-through crack problems in plates and shells are considered. The line-spring model of Rice and Levy is generalized to the skew-symmetric case to solve surface crack problems involving mixed-mode, coplanar crack growth. Compliance functions are introduced which are valid for crack depth to thickness ratios at least up to .95. This includes expressions for tension and bending as well as expressions for in-plane shear, out-of-plane shear, and twisting. Transverse shear deformation is taken into account in the plate and shell theories and this effect is shown to be important in comparing stress intensity factors obtained from the plate theory with three-dimensional solutions. Stress intensity factors for cylinders obtained by the line-spring model also compare well with three-dimensional solution. By using the line-spring approach, stress intensity factors can be obtained for the through crack and for part-through crack of any crack front shape, without recalculation integrals that take up the bulk of the computer time. Therefore, parameter studies involving crack length, crack depth, shell type, and shell curvature are made in some detail. The results will be useful in brittle fracture and in fatigue crack propagation studies. All problems considered are of the mixed boundary value type and are reducted to strongly singular integral equations which make use of the finite-part integrals of Hadamard. The equations are solved numerically in a manner that is very efficient.

  3. Two-Sided Annihilator Condition with Generalized Derivations on Multilinear Polynomials

    PubMed Central

    De Filippis, V.; Scudo, G.; Sorrenti, L.

    2014-01-01

    Let R be a prime ring of characteristic different from 2, with extended centroid C, U its two-sided Utumi quotient ring, F a nonzero generalized derivation of R, f(x1,…, xn) a noncentral multilinear polynomial over C in n noncommuting variables, and a, b ∈ R such that a[F(f(r1,…, rn)), f(r1,…, rn)]b = 0 for any r1,…, rn ∈ R. Then one of the following holds: (1) a = 0; (2) b = 0; (3) there exists λ ∈ C such that F(x) = λx, for all x ∈ R; (4) there exist q ∈ U and λ ∈ C such that F(x) = (q + λ)x + xq, for all x ∈ R, and f(x1,…, xn)2 is central valued on R; (5) there exist q ∈ U and λ, μ ∈ C such that F(x) = (q + λ)x + xq, for all x ∈ R, and aq = μa, qb = μb. PMID:27379311

  4. A Report of Three Cases With Acquired Generalized Lipodystrophy With Distinct Autoimmune Conditions Treated With Metreleptin

    PubMed Central

    Lebastchi, Jasmin; Ajluni, Nevin; Neidert, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is associated with leptin deficiency as a result of adipose tissue loss and hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. It may coexist with other autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemolytic anemia, and chronic active hepatitis. Metreleptin therapy has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities in lipodystrophy, but the effect on AGL patients with active autoimmune disease is unknown. Case Description: We report 3 cases of pediatric patients with AGL and distinct active autoimmune diseases who were treated with metreleptin over a period of 4–6 years. Case 1 is a 9-year-old girl with active juvenile dermatomyositis, who was successfully treated with leptin with no worsening of her dermatomoysitis. Case 2 is a 16-year-old female with Graves' disease, who could discontinue all her antidiabetic medication completely with improved triglyceride levels. Case 3 is an 11-year-old boy with active autoimmune hepatitis and chronic urticaria, whose hyperphagia has resolved and his liver enzymes and hepatosplenomegaly have improved. Conclusion: Metreleptin therapy is of considerable clinical benefit to reduce insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia and did not appear to alter the clinical course of autoimmune disease nor clinical efficacy of immunosuppressive treatments. Our observations suggest that risk or presence of autoimmune disease should not lead to withholding of metreleptin treatment from patients with AGL, but should prompt close clinical follow up in light of cautionary preclinical data. PMID:26390101

  5. Well-conditioning global-local analysis using stable generalized/extended finite element method for linear elastic fracture mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekan, Mohammad; Barros, Felicio Bruzzi

    2016-07-01

    Using the locally-enriched strategy to enrich a small/local part of the problem by generalized/extended finite element method (G/XFEM) leads to non-optimal convergence rate and ill-conditioning system of equations due to presence of blending elements. The local enrichment can be chosen from polynomial, singular, branch or numerical types. The so-called stable version of G/XFEM method provides a well-conditioning approach when only singular functions are used in the blending elements. This paper combines numeric enrichment functions obtained from global-local G/XFEM method with the polynomial enrichment along with a well-conditioning approach, stable G/XFEM, in order to show the robustness and effectiveness of the approach. In global-local G/XFEM, the enrichment functions are constructed numerically from the solution of a local problem. Furthermore, several enrichment strategies are adopted along with the global-local enrichment. The results obtained with these enrichments strategies are discussed in detail, considering convergence rate in strain energy, growth rate of condition number, and computational processing. Numerical experiments show that using geometrical enrichment along with stable G/XFEM for global-local strategy improves the convergence rate and the conditioning of the problem. In addition, results shows that using polynomial enrichment for global problem simultaneously with global-local enrichments lead to ill-conditioned system matrices and bad convergence rate.

  6. Well-conditioning global-local analysis using stable generalized/extended finite element method for linear elastic fracture mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekan, Mohammad; Barros, Felicio Bruzzi

    2016-11-01

    Using the locally-enriched strategy to enrich a small/local part of the problem by generalized/extended finite element method (G/XFEM) leads to non-optimal convergence rate and ill-conditioning system of equations due to presence of blending elements. The local enrichment can be chosen from polynomial, singular, branch or numerical types. The so-called stable version of G/XFEM method provides a well-conditioning approach when only singular functions are used in the blending elements. This paper combines numeric enrichment functions obtained from global-local G/XFEM method with the polynomial enrichment along with a well-conditioning approach, stable G/XFEM, in order to show the robustness and effectiveness of the approach. In global-local G/XFEM, the enrichment functions are constructed numerically from the solution of a local problem. Furthermore, several enrichment strategies are adopted along with the global-local enrichment. The results obtained with these enrichments strategies are discussed in detail, considering convergence rate in strain energy, growth rate of condition number, and computational processing. Numerical experiments show that using geometrical enrichment along with stable G/XFEM for global-local strategy improves the convergence rate and the conditioning of the problem. In addition, results shows that using polynomial enrichment for global problem simultaneously with global-local enrichments lead to ill-conditioned system matrices and bad convergence rate.

  7. A General Model of Distant Hybridization Reveals the Conditions for Extinction in Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout

    PubMed Central

    Quilodrán, Claudio S.; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as “distant hybridization,” the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action. PMID:25003336

  8. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  9. Consistency between kinetics and thermodynamics: general scaling conditions for reaction rates of nonlinear chemical systems without constraints far from equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Marcel O; Popa, Vlad T; Ross, John

    2011-02-01

    We examine the problem of consistency between the kinetic and thermodynamic descriptions of reaction networks. We focus on reaction networks with linearly dependent (but generally kinetically independent) reactions for which only some of the stoichiometric vectors attached to the different reactions are linearly independent. We show that for elementary reactions without constraints preventing the system from approaching equilibrium there are general scaling relations for nonequilibrium rates, one for each linearly dependent reaction. These scaling relations express the ratios of the forward and backward rates of the linearly dependent reactions in terms of products of the ratios of the forward and backward rates of the linearly independent reactions raised to different scaling powers; the scaling powers are elements of the transformation matrix, which relates the linearly dependent stoichiometric vectors to the linearly independent stoichiometric vectors. These relations are valid for any network of elementary reactions without constraints, linear or nonlinear kinetics, far from equilibrium or close to equilibrium. We show that similar scaling relations for the reaction routes exist for networks of nonelementary reactions described by the Horiuti-Temkin theory of reaction routes where the linear dependence of the mechanistic (elementary) reactions is transferred to the overall (route) reactions. However, in this case, the scaling conditions are valid only at the steady state. General relationships between reaction rates of the two levels of description are presented. These relationships are illustrated for a specific complex reaction: radical chlorination of ethylene.

  10. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-01-01

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon. PMID:27561887

  11. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-01-01

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon. PMID:27561887

  12. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-08-01

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon.

  13. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-08-26

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon.

  14. Examining General Versus Condition-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Across Weight Categories in an Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Autumn G; Smith, Courtney; Dalton Iii, William T; Slawson, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across weight categories in adolescents using both a general and a condition-specific measure sensitive to fatigue symptoms. Participants (N = 918) completed the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory and PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale measures. Actual height and weight were used to calculate body mass index for age and sex percentiles and assign weight categories. No interaction effects between total HRQoL and weight category and gender were found; however, main effects were found for both weight category and gender. Future research should examine the impact of using different measures to assess HRQoL outcomes across weight categories.

  15. Shannon's, mutual, conditional and joint entropy information indices: generalization of global indices defined from local vertex invariants.

    PubMed

    Barigye, Stephen J; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Santiago, Oscar Martinez; López, Yoan Martinez; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo; Torrens, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    A new mathematical approach is proposed in the definition of molecular descriptors (MDs) based on the application of information theory concepts. This approach stems from a new matrix representation of a molecular graph (G) which is derived from the generalization of an incidence matrix whose row entries correspond to connected subgraphs of a given G, and the calculation of the Shannon's entropy, the negentropy and the standardized information content, plus for the first time, the mutual, conditional and joint entropy-based MDs associated with G. We also define strategies that generalize the definition of global or local invariants from atomic contributions (local vertex invariants, LOVIs), introducing related metrics (norms), means and statistical invariants. These invariants are applied to a vector whose components express the atomic information content calculated using the Shannon's, mutual, conditional and joint entropybased atomic information indices. The novel information indices (IFIs) are implemented in the program TOMOCOMDCARDD. A principal component analysis reveals that the novel IFIs are capable of capturing structural information not codified by IFIs implemented in the software DRAGON. A comparative study of the different parameters (e.g. subgraph orders and/or types, invariants and class of MDs) used in the definition of these IFIs reveals several interesting results. The mutual entropy-based indices give the best correlation results in modeling of a physicochemical property, namely the partition coefficient of the 34 derivatives of 2-furylethylenes, among the classes of indices investigated in this study. In a comparison with classical MDs it is demonstrated that the new IFIs give good results for various QSPR models.

  16. Robust and general method for determining surface fluid flow boundary conditions in articular cartilage contact mechanics modeling.

    PubMed

    Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-01

    Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.

  17. Ionospheric data assimilation with thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model and GPS-TEC during geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Lin, C. H.; Matsuo, T.; Chen, W. H.; Lee, I. T.; Liu, J. Y.; Lin, J. T.; Hsu, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of rapid assimilation-forecast cycling on the performance of ionospheric data assimilation during geomagnetic storm conditions. An ensemble Kalman filter software developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), called Data Assimilation Research Testbed, is applied to assimilate ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) observations into a theoretical numerical model of the thermosphere and ionosphere (NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model) during the 26 September 2011 geomagnetic storm period. Effects of various assimilation-forecast cycle lengths: 60, 30, and 10 min on the ionospheric forecast are examined by using the global root-mean-squared observation-minus-forecast (OmF) TEC residuals. Substantial reduction in the global OmF for the 10 min assimilation-forecast cycling suggests that a rapid cycling ionospheric data assimilation system can greatly improve the quality of the model forecast during geomagnetic storm conditions. Furthermore, updating the thermospheric state variables in the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere forecast model in the assimilation step is an important factor in improving the trajectory of model forecasting. The shorter assimilation-forecast cycling (10 min in this paper) helps to restrain unrealistic model error growth during the forecast step due to the imbalance among model state variables resulting from an inadequate state update, which in turn leads to a greater forecast accuracy.

  18. Cross-sectional survey of older patients' views regarding multidisciplinary care for chronic conditions in general practice.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Andrew; Magee, Christopher; Pearson, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The ageing population and increasing prevalence of chronic illness have contributed to the need for significant primary care reform, including increased use of multidisciplinary care and task substitution. This cross-sectional study explores conditions under which older patients would accept having health professionals other than their general practitioner (GP) involved in their care for chronic disease management (CDM). Ten practices were randomly sampled from a contiguous major city and inner regional area. Questionnaires were distributed to consecutive patients aged 60 years and over in each practice. Agency theory was used to inform analyses. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Wald's test, growth modelling and linear regression, controlling for the clustered design. The response rate was 53% (n=272). Most respondents (79%) had at least one chronic health condition. Respondents were more comfortable with GP than with practice nurse management in the CDM scenario (Wald's test=105.49, P<0.001). Comfort with practice nurse CDM was positively associated with increased contact with their GP at the time of the visit (β=0.41, P<0.001), negatively associated with the number of the respondent's chronic conditions (β=-0.13, P=0.030) and not associated with the frequency of other health professional visits. Agency theory suggests that patients employ continuity of care to optimise factors important in CDM: information symmetry and goal alignment. Our findings are consistent with the theory and lend support to ensuring that interpersonal continuity of care is not lost in health care reform. Further research exploring patients' acceptance of differing systems of care is required.

  19. Timoshenko beam-column with generalized end conditions on elastic foundation: Dynamic-stiffness matrix and load vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda-Monsalve, Luis G.; Zapata-Medina, David G.; Aristizabal-Ochoa, J. Darío

    2008-03-01

    The dynamic-stiffness matrix and load vector of a Timoshenko beam-column resting on a two-parameter elastic foundation with generalized end conditions are presented. The proposed model includes the frequency effects on the stiffness matrix and load vector as well as the coupling effects of: (1) bending and shear deformations along the member; (2) translational and rotational lumped masses at both ends; (3) translational and rotational masses uniformly distributed along its span; (3) axial load (tension or compression) applied at both ends; and (4) shear forces along the span induced by the applied axial load as the beam deforms according to the "modified shear equation" proposed by Timoshenko. The dynamic analyses of framed structures can be performed by including the effects of the imposed frequency ( ω>0) on the dynamic-stiffness matrix and load vector while the static and stability analyses can be carried out by making the frequency ω=0. The proposed model and corresponding dynamic-stiffness matrix and load vector represent a general solution capable to solve, just by using a single segment per element, the static, dynamic and stability analyses of any elastic framed structure made of prismatic beam-columns with semi-rigid connections resting on two-parameter elastic foundations. Analytical results indicate that the elastic behavior of framed structures made of beam-columns is frequency dependent and highly sensitive to the coupling effects just mentioned. Three comprehensive examples are presented to show the capacities and validity of the proposed method and the obtained results are compared with the finite element method and other analytical approaches.

  20. Expected changes in future agro-climatological conditions in Northeast Thailand and their differences between general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Goto, Shinkichi; Sawano, Shinji; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2011-12-01

    We have studied future changes in the atmospheric and hydrological environments in Northeast Thailand from the viewpoint of risk assessment of future cultural environments in crop fields. To obtain robust and reliable estimation for future climate, ten general circulation models under three warming scenarios, B1, A1B, and A2, were used in this study. The obtained change trends show that daily maximum air temperature and precipitation will increase by 2.6°C and 4.0%, respectively, whereas soil moisture will decrease by c.a. 1% point in volumetric water content at the end of this century under the A1B scenario. Seasonal contrasts in precipitation will intensify: precipitation increases in the rainy season and precipitation decreases in the dry season. Soil moisture will slightly decrease almost throughout the year. Despite a homogeneous increase in the air temperature over Northeast Thailand, a future decrease in soil water content will show a geographically inhomogeneous distribution: Soil will experience a relative larger decrease in wetness at a shallow depth on the Khorat plateau than in the surrounding mountainous area, reflecting vegetation cover and soil texture. The predicted increase in air temperature is relatively consistent between general circulation models. In contrast, relatively large intermodel differences in precipitation, especially in long-term trends, produce unwanted bias errors in the estimation of other hydrological elements, such as soil moisture and evaporation, and cause uncertainties in projection of the agro-climatological environment. Offline hydrological simulation with a wide precipitation range is one strategy to compensate for such uncertainties and to obtain reliable risk assessment of future cultural conditions in rainfed paddy fields in Northeast Thailand.

  1. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65: a link between GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala and conditioned fear generalization.

    PubMed

    Lange, Maren D; Jüngling, Kay; Paulukat, Linda; Vieler, Marc; Gaburro, Stefano; Sosulina, Ludmila; Blaesse, Peter; Sreepathi, Hari K; Ferraguti, Francesco; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2014-08-01

    An imbalance of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is considered a major neurobiological pathomechanism of anxiety, and the amygdala is a key brain region involved. Reduced GABA levels have been found in anxiety patients, and genetic variations of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA synthesis, have been associated with anxiety phenotypes in both humans and mice. These findings prompted us to hypothesize that a deficiency of GAD65, the GAD isoform controlling the availability of GABA as a transmitter, affects synaptic transmission and plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA), and thereby interferes with fear responsiveness. Results indicate that genetically determined GAD65 deficiency in mice is associated with (1) increased synaptic length and release at GABAergic connections, (2) impaired efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission and plasticity, and (3) reduced spillover of GABA to presynaptic GABAB receptors, resulting in a loss of the associative nature of long-term synaptic plasticity at cortical inputs to LA principal neurons. (4) In addition, training with high shock intensities in wild-type mice mimicked the phenotype of GAD65 deficiency at both the behavioral and synaptic level, indicated by generalization of conditioned fear and a loss of the associative nature of synaptic plasticity in the LA. In conclusion, GAD65 is required for efficient GABAergic synaptic transmission and plasticity, and for maintaining extracellular GABA at a level needed for associative plasticity at cortical inputs in the LA, which, if disturbed, results in an impairment of the cue specificity of conditioned fear responses typifying anxiety disorders.

  2. Joint envelope and frequency order spectrum analysis based on iterative generalized demodulation for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Planetary gearbox vibration signals under nonstationary conditions are characterized by time-varying nature and complex multi-components, making it very difficult to extract features for fault diagnosis. Order spectrum analysis is one of the effective approaches for nonstationary signal analysis of rotating machinery. The main idea of order analysis is to map the time-varying frequency components into constant ones. Inspired by this idea, we propose a new order spectrum analysis method to exploit the unique property of iterative generalized demodulation in converting arbitrary instantaneous frequency trajectories of multi-component signals into constant frequency lines on the time-frequency plane. This new method is completely algorithm-based and tachometer/encoder-free, thus easy to implement. It does not involve equi-angular resampling commonly required by most order tracking methods and is hence free from the decimation and/or interpolation error. The proposed order analysis method can eliminate the time-variation effect of frequency and thus can effectively reveal the harmonic order constituents of nonstationary multi-component signals. However, the planetary gearbox vibration signals also lead to complex sideband orders. As such, we further propose to analyze the order spectrum of amplitude envelope. This will eliminate the complex sideband orders in the order spectrum of original signals, leading to a substantially simplified and more reliable gear characteristic frequency identification process. Nevertheless, the gear and/or planet carrier rotating frequency orders, which are irrelevant to gear fault, may still exist. To avoid possible misleading results due to such frequency orders, we also propose to analyze the order spectrum of instantaneous frequency. Theoretically, the peaks present in frequency order spectrum directly correspond to the gear characteristic frequency orders, which can be used to extract gear fault signature more explicitly. The proposed

  3. Time-frequency demodulation analysis based on iterative generalized demodulation for fault diagnosis of planetary gearbox under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fei

    2015-10-01

    The vibration signal of planetary gearboxes exhibits the characteristics of both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM), and thus has a complex sideband structure. Time-varying speed and/or load will result in time variant characteristic frequency components. Since the modulating frequency is related to the gear fault characteristic frequency, the AM and FM parts each alone contains the information of the gear fault. We propose a time-frequency amplitude and frequency demodulation analysis metbhod to avoid the complex time-variant sideband analysis, and thereby identify the time-variant gear fault characteristic frequency. We enhance the time-frequency analysis via iterative generalized demodulation (IGD). The time-varying amplitude and frequency demodulated spectra have fine time-frequency resolution and are free of cross term interferences. They do not involve complex time-variant sidebands, thus considerably facilitating fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes under nonstationary conditions. The method is validated using both numerically simulated data and experimental signals.

  4. Ultrafine particle concentrations in the surroundings of an urban area: comparing downwind to upwind conditions using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs).

    PubMed

    Sartini, Claudio; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Ferrari, Silvia; Poluzzi, Vanes

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an urban area on ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration in nearby surrounding areas. We assessed how downwind and upwind conditions affect the UFP concentration at a site placed a few kilometres from the city border. Secondarily, we investigated the relationship among other meteorological factors, temporal variables and UFP. Data were collected for 44 days during 2008 and 2009 at a rural site placed about 3 kilometres from Bologna, in northern Italy. Measurements were performed using a spectrometer (FMPS TSI 3091). The average UFP number concentration was 11 776 (±7836) particles per cm(3). We analysed the effect of wind direction in a multivariate Generalized Additive Model (GAM) adjusted for the principal meteorological parameters and temporal trends. An increase of about 25% in UFP levels was observed when the site was downwind of the urban area, compared with the levels observed when wind blew from rural areas. The size distribution of particles was also affected by the wind direction, showing higher concentration of small size particles when the wind blew from the urban area. The GAM showed a good fit to the data (R(2) = 0.81). Model choice was via Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). The analysis also revealed that an approach based on meteorological data plus temporal trends improved the goodness of the fit of the model. In addition, the findings contribute to evidence on effects of exposure to ultrafine particles on a population living in city surroundings. PMID:24077061

  5. Non-healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients: general and local interfering conditions and management options with advanced wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Uccioli, Luigi; Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Ruotolo, Valeria; Giurato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Medical knowledge about wound management has improved as recent studies have investigated the healing process and its biochemical background. Despite this, foot ulcers remain an important clinical problem, often resulting in costly, prolonged treatment. A non-healing ulcer is also a strong risk factor for major amputation. Many factors can interfere with wound healing, including the patient's general health status (i.e., nutritional condition indicated by albumin levels) or drugs such as steroids that can interfere with normal healing. Diabetic complications (i.e., renal insufficiency) may delay healing and account for higher amputation rates observed in diabetic patients under dialysis treatment. Wound environment (e.g., presence of neuropathy, ischaemia, and infection) may significantly influence healing by interfering with the physiological healing cascade and adding local release of factors that may worsen the wound. The timely and well-orchestrated release of factors regulating the healing process, observed in acute wounds, is impaired in non-healing wounds that are blocked in a chronic inflammatory phase without progressing to healing. This chronic phase is characterised by elevated protease activity (EPA) of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases (e.g., human neutrophil elastase) that interfere with collagen synthesis, as well as growth factor release and action. EPA (mainly MMP 9, MMP-8 and elastase) and inflammatory factors present in the wound bed (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa) account for the catabolic state of non-healing ulcers. The availability of wound dressings that modulate EPA has added new therapeutic options for treating non-healing ulcers. The literature confirms advantages obtained by reducing protease activity in the wound bed, with better outcomes achieved by using these dressings compared with traditional ones. New technologies also allow a physician to know the status of the wound bed environment, particularly EPA, in a clinical

  6. Stability and free vibration analyses of an orthotropic singly symmetric Timoshenko beam-column with generalized end conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve-Cano, J. F.; Darío Aristizábal-Ochoa, J.

    2009-12-01

    The stability and free vibration analyses (i.e., buckling, natural frequencies and modal shapes) of an orthotropic singly symmetric 3D Timoshenko beam-column with generalized boundary conditions (i.e., with bending and torsional semirigid restraints and lateral bracings as well as lumped masses at both ends) subjected to an eccentric end axial load are presented in a classical manner. The five governing equations of dynamic equilibrium (i.e., two transverse shear equations, two bending moment equations and pure torsional moment equation) are sufficient to determine the natural frequencies and the corresponding modal shapes of the beam-column in the two principal planes of bending and torsion about its longitudinal axis. The proposed model includes the coupling effects among: (1) the deformations due to bending, shear and pure torsion; (2) inertias (translational, rotational and torsional) of all masses considered; (3) eccentric axial loads applied at the ends, and (4) restraints at the supports (bending, torsional and lateral bracings at both ends of the member). However, the effects of axial deformations and warping torsion produced by the axial load are not included; consequently the proposed model is not capable of capturing the phenomena of torsional buckling or combined lateral bending-torsional buckling. The proposed analytical model indicates that the stability and dynamic response of beam-columns are highly sensitive to the coupling effects, particularly in members with both ends free to rotate. The natural frequencies and modal shapes can be determined from the eigenvalues of a full 4×4 matrix for vibration in the plane of symmetry (using the uncoupled equations of transverse force and moment equilibrium at both ends) and from a full 6×6 matrix for the coupled shear-bending-torsional vibration (using the coupled equations of transverse shear, bending and torsional moment equilibrium at both ends). Also, it is shown that the proposed method reproduces the

  7. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Positioning device systems—(a) Test Conditions. (1) The fixed anchorage should be rigid and should not have a..., nor exceed 1,000 pounds (4.45 Kn) for the remainder of the arrest time. (4) All other...

  8. Conditions that Promote Generalization: Suggestions to Increase the Transfer of Skills Learned in the Resource Room to the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, John L.

    1983-01-01

    Resource teachers can help learning disabled students generalize skills to a mainstream setting with three types of procedures: transfer activities; self control procedures (in which a behavior contract is developed and contingencies for self reinforcement are specified); and cooperative planning (in which resource teachers and regular teachers…

  9. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background...; Flight Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...(s), specifically new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which...

  10. 78 FR 31838 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 24, 2013 (78 FR 5148). No comments were received, and the...; Flight Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight...

  11. Mixed boundary conditions in ocean general circulation models and their influence on the stability of the model`s conveyor belt

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolajewicz, U.; Maier-reimer, E.

    1994-11-01

    When driven under `mixed boundary conditions` coarse resolution ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) generally show a high sensitivity of the present-day thermohaline circulation against perturbations. We will show that an alternative formulation of the boundary condition for temperature, a mixture of prescribed heat fluxes and additional restoring of the sea surface temperature to a climatological boundary temperature with a longer time constant, drastically alters the stability of the modes of the thermohaline circulation. The results from simulations with the Hamburg large-scale geostrophic OGCM indicate that the stability of the mode of the thermohaline circulation with formation of North Atlantic deepwater increases, if the damping of sea surface temperature anomalies is reduced, whereas the opposite is true for the mode without North Atlantic deep water formation. It turns out that the formulation of the temperature boundary condition also affects the variability of the model.

  12. Matrix Norms and the Condition Number: A General Framework to Improve Mesh Quality via Node-Movement

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    1999-09-27

    Objective functions for unstructured hexahedral and tetrahedral mesh optimization are analyzed using matrices and matrix norms. Mesh untangling objective functions that create valid meshes are used to initialize the optimization process. Several new objective functions to achieve element invertibility and quality are investigated, the most promising being the ''condition number''. The condition number of the Jacobian matrix of an element forms the basis of a barrier-based objective function that measures the distance to the set of singular matrices and has the ideal matrix as a stationary point. The method was implemented in the Cubit code, with promising results.

  13. Validity of generalized scattering equations and corresponding inelastic-cross-section expressions for comprehensive electron diffraction conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, L. J.; Josefsson, T. W.

    1996-05-01

    Generalized scattering equations for electron diffraction in a crystalline environment have recently been derived with the assumption that the zeroth-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) lies parallel to the crystal surface (or alternatively that the zone axis is parallel to the crystal surface normal) [L. J. Allen and T. W. Josefsson, Phys. Rev. B 52, 3184 (1995)]. The contribution from higher-order Laue zones (HOLZ's) was not considered. We show that these scattering equations are in fact valid for general orientations of the ZOLZ with respect to the crystal surface, except for the specific case where the ZOLZ lies perpendicular to the surface. Furthermore, a widely applicable expression for the cross section for any type of inelastic scattering in a crystal is shown to be valid for any orientation of the ZOLZ and allows the inclusion of reflections in the HOLZ's.

  14. A semi analytical method for electro-thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of nanobeam resting on the Winkler-Pasternak foundations with general elastic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarepour, Misagh; Amirhosein Hosseini, Seyed

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an examination of nonlinear free vibration of a nanobeam under electro-thermo-mechanical loading with elastic medium and various boundary conditions, especially the elastic boundary condition. The nanobeam is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The von Kármán strain-displacement relationship together with Hamilton’s principle and Eringen’s theory are employed to derive equations of motion. The nonlinear free vibration frequency is obtained for simply supported (S-S) and elastic supported (E-E) boundary conditions. E-E boundary condition is a general and actual form of boundary conditions and it is chosen because of more realistic behavior. By applying the differential transform method (DTM), the nanobeam’s natural frequencies can be easily obtained for the two different boundary conditions mentioned above. Performing a precise study led to investigation of the influences of nonlocal parameter, temperature change, spring constants (either for elastic medium or boundary condition) and imposed electric potential on the nonlinear free vibration characteristics of nanobeam. The results for S-S and E-E nanobeams are compared with each other. In order to validate the results, some comparisons are presented between DTM results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach. It has been discovered that DTM solves the equations with minimum calculation cost.

  15. A semi analytical method for electro-thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of nanobeam resting on the Winkler-Pasternak foundations with general elastic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarepour, Misagh; Amirhosein Hosseini, Seyed

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an examination of nonlinear free vibration of a nanobeam under electro-thermo-mechanical loading with elastic medium and various boundary conditions, especially the elastic boundary condition. The nanobeam is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The von Kármán strain-displacement relationship together with Hamilton’s principle and Eringen’s theory are employed to derive equations of motion. The nonlinear free vibration frequency is obtained for simply supported (S-S) and elastic supported (E-E) boundary conditions. E-E boundary condition is a general and actual form of boundary conditions and it is chosen because of more realistic behavior. By applying the differential transform method (DTM), the nanobeam’s natural frequencies can be easily obtained for the two different boundary conditions mentioned above. Performing a precise study led to investigation of the influences of nonlocal parameter, temperature change, spring constants (either for elastic medium or boundary condition) and imposed electric potential on the nonlinear free vibration characteristics of nanobeam. The results for S-S and E-E nanobeams are compared with each other. In order to validate the results, some comparisons are presented between DTM results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach. It has been discovered that DTM solves the equations with minimum calculation cost.

  16. Using General-Head Boundary Condition in Groundwater Flow Model Eddy Teasdale, PG; Jim Zhang, PhD, PE; and Liz Elliot, PG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, E.

    2010-12-01

    : In groundwater flow model development, setting appropriate boundary conditions is difficult if the edges of the model domain are not natural groundwater or known hydraulic boundaries (i.e., rivers, faults). Often the prescribed-head or prescribed-flux boundary condition does not apply to these non-natural boundaries, and a general-head boundary (GHB) condition has to be implemented. GHB allows groundwater to move either into or out of the model domain (depending on groundwater elevation changes along the boundary). GHB conditions can approximate the hydraulic response of the boundaries to the groundwater condition variations if it is specified appropriately. Although hydraulic conductance and the reference head are the only two parameters used in GHB, determing these two parameters is always a challenging task, especially if little is known about the regional flow system. This paper presents the main issues in the application of GHB conditions and provides some guidance in determing the hydraulic conductance and the reference head values. Numerical test runs have been conducted to illustrate the effects varying GHB conditions have on the flow simulation results.

  17. Histidine-functionalized water-soluble nanoparticles for biomimetic nucleophilic/general-base catalysis under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Geetika; Zhao, Yan

    2013-10-21

    Cross-linking the micelles of 4-dodecyloxybenzyltripropargylammonium bromide by 1,4-diazidobutane-2,3-diol in the presence of azide-functionalized imidazole derivatives yielded surface-cross-linked micelles (SCMs) with imidazole groups on the surface. The resulting water-soluble nanoparticles were found, by fluorescence spectroscopy, to contain hydrophobic binding sites. The imidazole groups promoted the photo-deprotonation of 2-naphthol at pH 6 and catalyzed the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA) in aqueous solution at pH ≥ 4. Although the overall hydrolysis rate slowed down with decreasing solution pH, the catalytic effect of the imidazole became stronger because the reactions catalyzed by unfunctionalized SCMs slowed down much more. The unusual ability of the imidazole–SCMs to catalyze the hydrolysis of PNPA under acidic conditions was attributed to the local hydrophobicity and the positive nature of the SCMs.

  18. STUDIES IN RESUSCITATION: I. THE GENERAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING RESUSCITATION, AND THE RESUSCITATION OF THE BLOOD AND OF THE HEART

    PubMed Central

    Pike, F. H.; Guthrie, C. C.; Stewart, G. N.

    1908-01-01

    Our results may be briefly summarized: 1. Blood, when defibrinated, soon loses its power to maintain the activity of the higher nervous centers, and its nutritive properties for all tissues quickly diminish. 2. Artificial fluids, as a substitute for blood, are not satisfactory. 3. The proper oxygenation of the blood is an indispensable adjunct in the resuscitation of an animal. 4. The heart usually continues to beat for some minutes after it ceases to affect a mercury manometer, and resuscitation of it within this period by extra-thoracic massage and artificial respiration is sometimes successful. 5. Resuscitation of the heart by direct massage is the most certain method at our command. 6. A proper blood-pressure is an indispensable condition for the continued normal activity of the heart. 7. Anæsthetics, hemorrhage and induced currents applied to the heart render resuscitation more difficult than asphyxia alone. PMID:19867138

  19. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home.

  20. SFTG international collaborative study on in vitro micronucleus test I. General conditions and overall conclusions of the study.

    PubMed

    Lorge, Elisabeth; Thybaud, Veronique; Aardema, Marilyn J; Oliver, Jo; Wakata, Akihiro; Lorenzon, Giocondo; Marzin, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    This study, coordinated by the SFTG (French branch of European Environmental Mutagen Society), included 38 participants from Europe, Japan and America. Clastogens (bleomycin, urethane), including base and nucleoside analogs (5-fluorouracil and cytosine arabinoside), aneugens and/or polyploidy inducers (colchicine, diethylstilboestrol, griseofulvin and thiabendazole), as well as non-genotoxic compounds (mannitol and clofibrate), were tested. Four cell types were used, i.e. human lymphocytes in the presence of cytochalasin B and CHO, CHL and L5178Y cell lines, in the presence or absence of cytochalasin B, with various treatment-recovery schedules. Mitomycin C was used as a positive control for all cell types. Mannitol and clofibrate were consistently negative in all cell types and with all treatment-recovery conditions. Urethane, known to induce questionable clastogenicity, was not found as positive. Bleomycin and mitomycin C were found positive in all treatment-recovery conditions. The base and nucleoside analogs were less easy to detect, especially 5-fluorouracil due to the interference with cytotoxicity, while cytosine arabinoside was detected in all cell types depending on the treatment-recovery schedule. Aneugens (colchicine, diethylstilboestrol and griseofulvin) were all detected in all cell types. In this study, the optimal detection was ensured when a short treatment followed by a long recovery was associated with a long continuous treatment without recovery. There was no impact of the presence or absence of cytochalasin B on the detection of micronucleated cells on cell lines. Scoring micronucleated cells in both mononucleated and binucleated cells when using cytochalasin B was confirmed to be useful for the detection and the identification of aneugens. In conclusion, these results, together with previously published validation studies, provide a useful contribution to the optimisation of a study protocol for the detection of both clastogens and aneugens in

  1. A master-slave parallel hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for groundwater remediation design under general hydrogeological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Yang, Y.; Luo, Q.; Wu, J.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a new hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the niched Pareto tabu search combined with a genetic algorithm (NPTSGA), whereby the global search ability of niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS) is improved by the diversification of candidate solutions arose from the evolving nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) population. Also, the NPTSGA coupled with the commonly used groundwater flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed methodology is then applied to a large-scale field groundwater remediation system for cleanup of large trichloroethylene (TCE) plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Furthermore, a master-slave (MS) parallelization scheme based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is incorporated into the NPTSGA to implement objective function evaluations in distributed processor environment, which can greatly improve the efficiency of the NPTSGA in finding Pareto-optimal solutions to the real-world application. This study shows that the MS parallel NPTSGA in comparison with the original NPTS and NSGA-II can balance the tradeoff between diversity and optimality of solutions during the search process and is an efficient and effective tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems under complicated hydrogeologic conditions.

  2. Conditions for the cosmological viability of the most general scalar-tensor theories and their applications to extended Galileon dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2012-02-01

    In the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations, we derive the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with scalar, tensor, and vector perturbations in the presence of two perfect fluids on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. Our general results are useful for the construction of theoretically consistent models of dark energy. We apply our formulas to extended Galileon models in which a tracker solution with an equation of state smaller than -1 is present. We clarify the allowed parameter space in which the ghosts and Laplacian instabilities are absent and we numerically confirm that such models are indeed cosmologically viable.

  3. [Condition of patients after surgical wisdom tooth extraction under general anesthesia with different premedication variants--a prospective study based on a post-anesthesia questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Markus, H; Schwarz, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the modified "postanaesthesiological questionnaire" pointed to a subtle influencing of the condition of patients who had undergone 3rd molar surgery in general anaesthesia by using different premedication variants: "Atropine, Pethidine and Midazolam" (group A) and "Atropine, Midazolam and S-Ketamin" (group B). The combination in group B seems to be more suitable. On the one hand, a lower incidence of unwanted side-effects was found and, on the other hand, remarkable positive effects were observed. Of particular significance with this combination was also the more effective suppression of postoperative pain. The Propofol-supplemented general anaesthesia prepared in this way and administered using a nasal intubation technique found the full approval of the patients. Postoperative pain therapy was effective and also inexpensive, costing just 8.20 DM per patient, according to current prices calculated by Magdeburg University Hospital.

  4. [Condition of patients after surgical wisdom tooth extraction under general anesthesia with different premedication variants--a prospective study based on a post-anesthesia questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Markus, H; Schwarz, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the modified "postanaesthesiological questionnaire" pointed to a subtle influencing of the condition of patients who had undergone 3rd molar surgery in general anaesthesia by using different premedication variants: "Atropine, Pethidine and Midazolam" (group A) and "Atropine, Midazolam and S-Ketamin" (group B). The combination in group B seems to be more suitable. On the one hand, a lower incidence of unwanted side-effects was found and, on the other hand, remarkable positive effects were observed. Of particular significance with this combination was also the more effective suppression of postoperative pain. The Propofol-supplemented general anaesthesia prepared in this way and administered using a nasal intubation technique found the full approval of the patients. Postoperative pain therapy was effective and also inexpensive, costing just 8.20 DM per patient, according to current prices calculated by Magdeburg University Hospital. PMID:11799850

  5. Non-Markovian reduced propagator, multiple-time correlation functions, and master equations with general initial conditions in the weak-coupling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Ines de; Alonso, Daniel

    2006-02-15

    In this paper we derive the evolution equation for the reduced propagator, an object that evolves vectors of the Hilbert space of a system S interacting with an environment B in a non-Markovian way. This evolution is conditioned to certain initial and final states of the environment. Once an average over these environmental states is made, reduced propagators permit the evaluation of multiple-time correlation functions of system observables. When this average is done stochastically the reduced propagator evolves according to a stochastic Schroedinger equation. In addition, it is possible to obtain the evolution equations of the multiple-time correlation functions which generalize the well-known quantum regression theorem to the non-Markovian case. Here, both methods, stochastic and evolution equations, are described by assuming a weak coupling between system and environment. Finally, we show that reduced propagators can be used to obtain a master equation with general initial conditions, and not necessarily an initial vacuum state for the environment. We illustrate the theory with several examples.

  6. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n = 149) and a general practice (n = 166). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P < 0.001) and education (P < 0.001) compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P < 0.001) and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P < 0.001). Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P = 0.083), with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P = 0.046), but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P = 0.004). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:27722198

  7. The relative odds of lifetime health conditions and infectious diseases among men who have sex with men compared with a matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Swartz, James A

    2015-03-01

    To address the understudy of health conditions and infectious diseases that are not strictly related to sexual transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), this study examined the relative odds of 10 health conditions and two infectious diseases in a sample of MSM compared with a matched general population sample. MSM (N = 653) living mainly in Chicago were sampled through successive administrations of an Internet-based survey (2008-2010) that assessed physical and mental health, substance use, and HIV status. Propensity score matching was used to obtain a demographically comparable sample of men (N = 653) from aggregated administrations (2008-2012) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Multivariate Firth logistic regressions compared the odds of ever having been diagnosed with each condition or disease, controlling for demographics, substance use, psychological distress, and HIV/AIDS status. MSM were more likely (p < .01) to have experienced: ulcers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3), hypertension (OR = 2.1), liver disease (OR = 5.7), and sexually transmitted infections other than HIV/AIDS (OR = 8.9). Two other conditions, pneumonia and pancreatitis, as well as tuberculosis, were significant at p < .05 but below the statistical threshold used to reduce alpha error. The findings suggest that relative to non-sexual-minority men, MSM are more likely to experience a range of health conditions not specifically attributable to HIV/AIDS, sexual behavior, psychological distress, or substance use. The implications for research on the health status and provision of health care to MSM in light of the study findings are considered.

  8. Agreement between self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care - results of the MultiCare Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a common phenomenon in primary care. Until now, no clinical guidelines for multimorbidity exist. For the development of these guidelines, it is necessary to know whether or not patients are aware of their diseases and to what extent they agree with their doctor. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the agreement of self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care, and to discover which patient characteristics are associated with positive agreement. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 3,189 multimorbid patients, ages 65 to 85. Data was collected in personal interviews with patients and GPs. The prevalence proportions for 32 diagnosis groups, kappa coefficients and proportions of specific agreement were calculated in order to examine the agreement of patient self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions. Logistic regression models were calculated to analyze which patient characteristics can be associated with positive agreement. Results We identified four chronic conditions with good agreement (e.g. diabetes mellitus κ = 0.80;PA = 0,87), seven with moderate agreement (e.g. cerebral ischemia/chronic stroke κ = 0.55;PA = 0.60), seventeen with fair agreement (e.g. cardiac insufficiency κ = 0.24;PA = 0.36) and four with poor agreement (e.g. gynecological problems κ = 0.05;PA = 0.10). Factors associated with positive agreement concerning different chronic diseases were sex, age, education, income, disease count, depression, EQ VAS score and nursing care dependency. For example: Women had higher odds ratios for positive agreement with their GP regarding osteoporosis (OR = 7.16). The odds ratios for positive agreement increase with increasing multimorbidity in almost all of the observed chronic conditions (OR = 1.22-2.41). Conclusions For multimorbidity research, the

  9. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, J. E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-10-01

    We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wave-vector (high-k) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in subwavelength periodic multilayer structures. Describing the elementary excitation in the unit cell of the structure by a generalized resonance pole of a reflection coefficient and using Bloch's theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wave-vector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high-k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metal-dielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high-k waves and explore the range of parameteres for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for materials with hyperbolic dispersion. The approach is applicable to a large variety of structures, such as continuous or structured microwave, terahertz, and optical metamaterials.

  10. Two decades of change in European general practice service profiles: conditions associated with the developments in 28 countries between 1993 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Willemijn L. A.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Schellevis, François G.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence regarding the benefits of strong primary care has influenced health policy and practice. This study focuses on changes in the breadth of services provided by general practitioners (GPs) in Europe between 1993 and 2012 and offers possible explanations for these changes. Design Data on the breadth of service profiles were used from two cross-sectional surveys in 28 countries: the 1993 European GP Task Profile study (6321 GPs) and the 2012 QUALICOPC study (6044 GPs). GPs’ involvement in four areas of clinical activity (first contact care, treatment of diseases, medical procedures, and prevention) was established using ecometric analyses. The changes were measured by the relative increase in the breadth of service profiles. Associations between changes and national-level conditions were examined though regression analyses. Data on the national conditions were used from various other public databases including the World Databank and the PHAMEU (Primary Health care Activity Monitor) database. Setting A total of 28 European countries. Subjects GPs. Main outcome measure Changes in the breadth of GP service profiles. Results A general trend of increased involvement of European GPs in treatment of diseases and decreased involvement in preventive activities was observed. Conditions at the national level were associated with changes in the involvement of GPs in first contact care, treatment of diseases and, to a limited extent, prevention. Especially in countries with stronger growth of health care expenditures between 1993 and 2012 the service profiles have expanded. In countries where family values are more dominant the breadth in service profiles decreased. A stronger professional status of GPs was positively associated with the change in first contact care. Conclusions GPs in former communist countries and Turkey have increased their involvement in the provision of services. Developments in Western Europe were less evident. The developments in the

  11. The trauma of ongoing conflict and displacement in Chechnya: quantitative assessment of living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status among war displaced in Chechnya and Ingushetia

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; van der Kam, Saskia; Ford, Nathan; Hargreaves, Sally; van Oosten, Richard; Cunningham, Debbie; Boots, Gerry; Andrault, Elodie; Kleber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Background Conflict in Chechnya has resulted in over a decade of violence, human rights abuses, criminality and poverty, and a steady flow of displaced seeking refuge throughout the region. At the beginning of 2004 MSF undertook quantitative surveys among the displaced populations in Chechnya and neighbouring Ingushetia. Methods Surveys were carried out in Ingushetia (January 2004) and Chechnya (February 2004) through systematic sampling. Various conflict-related factors contributing to ill health were researched to obtain information on displacement history, living conditions, and psychosocial and general health status. Results The average length of displacement was five years. Conditions in both locations were poor, and people in both locations indicated food shortages (Chechnya (C): 13.3%, Ingushetia (I): 11.3%), and there was a high degree of dependency on outside help (C: 95.4%, I: 94.3%). Most people (C: 94%, I: 98%) were confronted with violence in the past. Many respondents had witnessed the killing of people (C: 22.7%, I: 24.1%) and nearly half of people interviewed witnessed arrests (C: 53.1%, I: 48.4%) and maltreatment (C: 56.2%, I: 44.5%). Approximately one third of those interviewed had directly experienced war-related violence. A substantial number of people interviewed – one third in Ingushetia (37.5%) and two-thirds in Chechnya (66.8%) – rarely felt safe. The violence was ongoing, with respondents reporting violence in the month before the survey (C: 12.5%, I: 4.6%). Results of the general health questionnaire (GHQ 28) showed that nearly all internally displaced persons interviewed were suffering from health complaints such as somatic complaints, anxiety/insomnia, depressive feelings or social dysfunction (C: 201, 78.5%, CI: 73.0% – 83.4%; I: 230, 81.3%, CI: 76.2% – 85.6%). Poor health status was reflected in other survey questions, but health services were difficult to access for around half the population (C: 54.3%, I: 46.6%). Discussion

  12. Charging free energy calculations using the Generalized Solvent Boundary Potential (GSBP) and periodic boundary condition: a comparative analysis using ion solvation and oxidation free energy in proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiya; Cui, Qiang

    2013-02-21

    Free energy simulations using a finite sphere boundary condition rather than a periodic boundary condition (PBC) are attractive in the study of very large biomolecular systems. To understand the quantitative impact of various approximations in such simulations, we compare charging free energies in both solution and protein systems calculated in a linear response framework with the Generalized Solvent Boundary Potential (GSBP) and PBC simulations. For simple ions in solution, we find good agreements between GSBP and PBC charging free energies, once the relevant correction terms are taken into consideration. For PBC simulations with the particle-mesh-Ewald for long-range electrostatics, the contribution (ΔG(P-M)) due to the use of a particle rather than molecule based summation scheme in real space is found to be significant, as pointed out by Hünenberger and co-workers. For GSBP, when the inner region is close to be charge neutral, the key correction is the overpolarization of water molecules at the inner/outer dielectric boundary; the magnitude of the correction (ΔG(s-pol)), however, is relatively small. For charging (oxidation) free energy in proteins, the situation is more complex, although good agreement between GSBP and PBC can still be obtained when care is exercised. The smooth dielectric boundary approximation inherent to GSBP tends to make significant errors when the inner region is featured with a high net charge. However, the error can be corrected with Poisson-Boltzmann calculations using snapshots from GSBP simulations in a straightforward and robust manner. Because of the more complex charge and solvent distributions, the magnitudes of ΔG(P-M) and ΔG(s-pol) in protein simulations appear to be different from those derived for solution simulations, leading to uncertainty in directly comparing absolute charging free energies from PBC and GSBP simulations for protein systems. The relative charging/oxidation free energies, however, are robust. With the

  13. Verbal Conditioning and Therapeutic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapuc, Paul S.; Harmatz, Morton G.

    1970-01-01

    Investigates the generalization of verbal conditioning effects to postconditioning personality and behavioral measures. Results demonstrated conditioning and generalization to some of the personality measures. (Author)

  14. Flight simulation study to determine MLS lateral course width requirements on final approach for general aviation. [runway conditions affecting microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumrine, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of various lateral course widths and runway lengths for manual CAT I Microwave Landing System instrument approaches was carried out with instrument rated pilots in a General Aviation simulator. Data are presented on the lateral dispersion at the touchdown zone, and the middle and outer markers, for approaches to 3,000, 8,000 (and trial 12,000 foot) runway lengths with full scale angular lateral course widths of + or - 1.19 deg, + or - 2.35 deg, and + or - 3.63 deg. The distance from touchdown where the localizer deviation went to full scale was also recorded. Pilot acceptance was measured according to the Cooper-Harper rating system.

  15. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23.

    PubMed

    Mathon, O; Beteva, A; Borrel, J; Bugnazet, D; Gatla, S; Hino, R; Kantor, I; Mairs, T; Munoz, M; Pasternak, S; Perrin, F; Pascarelli, S

    2015-11-01

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5-75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment.

  16. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23

    PubMed Central

    Mathon, O.; Beteva, A.; Borrel, J.; Bugnazet, D.; Gatla, S.; Hino, R.; Kantor, I.; Mairs, T.; Munoz, M.; Pasternak, S.; Perrin, F.; Pascarelli, S.

    2015-01-01

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment. PMID:26524321

  17. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  18. Necessary conditions for a maximum likelihood estimate to become asymptotically unbiased and attain the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Part I. General approach with an application to time-delay and Doppler shift estimation.

    PubMed

    Naftali, E; Makris, N C

    2001-10-01

    Analytic expressions for the first order bias and second order covariance of a general maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) are presented. These expressions are used to determine general analytic conditions on sample size, or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), that are necessary for a MLE to become asymptotically unbiased and attain minimum variance as expressed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The expressions are then evaluated for multivariate Gaussian data. The results can be used to determine asymptotic biases. variances, and conditions for estimator optimality in a wide range of inverse problems encountered in ocean acoustics and many other disciplines. The results are then applied to rigorously determine conditions on SNR necessary for the MLE to become unbiased and attain minimum variance in the classical active sonar and radar time-delay and Doppler-shift estimation problems. The time-delay MLE is the time lag at the peak value of a matched filter output. It is shown that the matched filter estimate attains the CRLB for the signal's position when the SNR is much larger than the kurtosis of the expected signal's energy spectrum. The Doppler-shift MLE exhibits dual behavior for narrow band analytic signals. In a companion paper, the general theory presented here is applied to the problem of estimating the range and depth of an acoustic source submerged in an ocean waveguide.

  19. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  20. Excitotoxic lesions of the infralimbic, but not prelimbic cortex facilitate reversal of appetitive discriminative context conditioning: the role of the infralimbic cortex in context generalization.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Rachel; Ito, Rutsuko

    2014-01-01

    The prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are important components of the limbic cortico-striatal circuit, receiving converging projections from the hippocampus (HPC) and amygdala. Mounting evidence points to these regions having opposing roles in the regulation of the expression of contextual fear and context-induced cocaine-seeking. To investigate this functional differentiation in motivated behavior further, this study employed a novel radial maze task previously shown to be dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its functional connection to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, to investigate the effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) upon the spatial contextual control over reward learning. To this end, rats were trained to develop discriminative responding towards a reward-associated discrete cue presented in three out of six spatial locations (3 arms out of 6 radial maze arms), and to avoid the same discrete cue presented in the other three spatial locations. Once acquired, the reward contingencies of the spatial locations were reversed, such that responding to the cue presented in a previously rewarded location was no longer rewarded. Furthermore, the acquisition of spatial learning was probed separately using conditioned place preference (CPP) and the monitoring of arm selection at the beginning of each training session. Lesions of the PL transiently attenuated the acquisition of the initial cue approach training and spatial learning, while leaving reversal learning intact. In contrast, IL lesions led to a significantly superior performance of spatial context-dependent discriminative cue approach and reversal learning, in the absence of a significant preference for the new reward-associated spatial locations. These results indicate that the PL and IL have functionally dissociative, and potentially opposite roles in the regulation of spatial contextual control over

  1. Temporal generalization.

    PubMed

    Church, R M; Gibbon, J

    1982-04-01

    Responses of 26 rats were reinforced following a signal of a certain duration, but not following signals of shorter or longer durations. This led to a positive temporal generalization gradient with a maximum at the reinforced duration in six experiments. Spacing of the nonreinforced signals did not influence the gradient, but the location of the maximum and breadth of the gradient increased with the duration of the reinforced signal. Reduction of reinforcement, either by partial reinforcement or reduction in the probability of a positive signal, led to a decrease in the height of the generalization gradient. There were large, reliable individual differences in the height and breadth of the generalization gradient. When the conditions of reinforcement were reversed (responses reinforced following all signals longer or shorter than a single nonreinforced duration), eight additional rats had a negative generalization gradient with a minimum at a signal duration shorter than the single nonreinforced duration. A scalar timing theory is described that provided a quantitative fit of the data. This theory involved a clock that times in linear units with an accurate mean and a negligible variance, a distribution of memory times that is normally distributed with an accurate mean and a scalar standard deviation, and a rule to respond if the clock is "close enough" to a sample of the memory time distribution. This decision is based on a ratio of the discrepancy between the clock time and the remembered time, to the remembered time. When this ratio is below a (variable) threshold, subjects respond. When three timing parameters--coefficient of variation of the memory time, the mean and the standard deviation of the threshold--were set at their median values, a theory with two free parameters accounted for 96% of the variance. The two parameters reflect the probability of attention to time and the probability of a response given inattention. These parameters were not influenced

  2. General Dentist

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is a General Dentist? Article Chapters What Is a General Dentist? General ... Reviewed: January 2012 ?xml:namespace> Related Articles: General Dentists FAGD and MAGD: What Do These Awards Mean? ...

  3. Transcriptome Profiling and Functional Analysis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Reveals a General Conserved Response to Acidic Conditions (pH 5.5) and a Complex Acid-Mediated Signaling Involved in Agrobacterium-Plant Interactions▿

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ze-Chun; Liu, Pu; Saenkham, Panatda; Kerr, Kathleen; Nester, Eugene W.

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer requires that the virulence genes (vir regulon) on the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid be induced by plant phenolic signals in an acidic environment. Using transcriptome analysis, we found that these acidic conditions elicit two distinct responses: (i) a general and conserved response through which Agrobacterium modulates gene expression patterns to adapt to environmental acidification and (ii) a highly specialized acid-mediated signaling response involved in Agrobacterium-plant interactions. Overall, 78 genes were induced and 74 genes were repressed significantly under acidic conditions (pH 5.5) compared to neutral conditions (pH 7.0). Microarray analysis not only confirmed previously identified acid-inducible genes but also uncovered many new acid-induced genes which may be directly involved in Agrobacterium-plant interactions. These genes include virE0, virE1, virH1, and virH2. Further, the chvG-chvI two-component system, previously shown to be critical for virulence, was also induced under acid conditions. Interestingly, acidic conditions induced a type VI secretion system and a putative nonheme catalase. We provide evidence suggesting that acid-induced gene expression was independent of the VirA-VirG two-component system. Our results, together with previous data, support the hypothesis that there is three-step sequential activation of the vir regulon. This process involves a cascade regulation and hierarchical signaling pathway featuring initial direct activation of the VirA-VirG system by the acid-activated ChvG-ChvI system. Our data strengthen the notion that Agrobacterium has evolved a mechanism to perceive and subvert the acidic conditions of the rhizosphere to an important signal that initiates and directs the early virulence program, culminating in T-DNA transfer. PMID:17993523

  4. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  5. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  6. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  7. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to a green, amber, or red list and by U.S. national procedures as defined in § 262.80(a). The green, amber, and red lists are incorporated by reference in § 262.89 (e). (1) Wastes on the green list are subject to existing controls normally applied...

  8. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  9. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... (3) for ruminants, and § 93.504(a)(2) or (3) for swine of this chapter; (g) The embryo is...

  10. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... (3) for ruminants, and § 93.504(a)(2) or (3) for swine of this chapter; (g) The embryo is...

  11. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... (3) for ruminants, and § 93.504(a)(2) or (3) for swine of this chapter; (g) The embryo is...

  12. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... (3) for ruminants, and § 93.504(a)(2) or (3) for swine of this chapter; (g) The embryo is...

  13. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth... (3) for ruminants, and § 93.504(a)(2) or (3) for swine of this chapter; (g) The embryo is...

  14. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provisions relating to vessel documentation and national security commitments, and by its EPA for the full... lack of funds. If, by the first day of a fiscal year, sufficient funds have not been appropriated under....C. 808) and 46 CFR part 221; (3) The owner and operator of a tank vessel built under the NDTVCP...

  15. Fred S. Keller, a Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes some of Fred Keller's characteristics that might help people to appreciate him even more than they already do, and in addition, might help them understand him not only as a scientist and teacher, but as a man. People often tend to forget that the most valued scientists, teachers, and career models are also men…

  16. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... considering replacement vessels described in § 296.21(e), and for vessels eligible under the third and fourth... Eligible Vessel to be included in an MSP Operating Agreement that is on charter to the U.S. Government... MSP Operating Agreement shall be: (i) The expiration or termination date of the Government...

  17. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... considering replacement vessels described in § 296.21(e), and for vessels eligible under the third and fourth... Eligible Vessel to be included in an MSP Operating Agreement that is on charter to the U.S. Government... MSP Operating Agreement shall be: (i) The expiration or termination date of the Government...

  18. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... considering replacement vessels described in § 296.21(e), and for vessels eligible under the third and fourth... Eligible Vessel to be included in an MSP Operating Agreement that is on charter to the U.S. Government... MSP Operating Agreement shall be: (i) The expiration or termination date of the Government...

  19. Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Operant behavior is behavior “controlled” by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice. We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the “gap” experiment and its implications, proportional timing and Weber's law, temporal dynamics and linear waiting, and the problem of simple chain-interval schedules. We review the long history of research on operant choice: the matching law, its extensions and problems, concurrent chain schedules, and self-control. We point out how linear waiting may be involved in timing, choice, and reinforcement schedules generally. There are prospects for a unified approach to all these areas. PMID:12415075

  20. GENERALIZED ERUPTIVE SYRINGOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Jamalipour, Mahnaz; Heidarpour, Mitra; Rajabi, Parvin

    2009-01-01

    Generalized eruptive syringoma is a rare clinical presentation of a benign adnexal tumor that derives from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat ducts. It presents as successive crops of small flesh-colored papules on the anterior body surfaces. It generally occurs in the peripubertal period. Treatment of this benign condition is cosmetic only. A case of a 28-year-old female with an eight-year history of eruptive syringoma is presented. PMID:20049275

  1. Generalized lichen nitidus.

    PubMed

    Arizaga, A T; Gaughan, M D; Bang, R H

    2002-03-01

    We report a 38-year-old man who presented with a generalized papular eruption that was clinically and histologically consistent with lichen nitidus. This patient's condition had been persistent for approximately 1 year; however, soon after assuming employment that entailed significant, regular sun exposure, the patient noted marked clearing of his lesions in sun-exposed areas. This case corroborates previous reports that suggest that generalized lichen nitidus can be successfully managed with ultraviolet light therapy.

  2. General uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    Many district general hospitals are likely to lose services, and some may close, as a result of the pressure to centralise specialist services, improve patient outcomes and cope with funding cuts. Nurses are increasingly willing to support intelligent reconfiguration if it will improve patient care, but changes in acute services have to be supported by improvements in the community.

  3. Generalized Parabolas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dan; Hartman, Gregory; Gibson, Caleb

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore the consequences of modifying the common definition of a parabola by considering the locus of all points equidistant from a focus and (not necessarily linear) directrix. The resulting derived curves, which we call "generalized parabolas," are often quite beautiful and possess many interesting properties. We show that…

  4. Generalized transduction.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Anne; Perez, Gerardo; Maloy, And Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Transduction is the process in which bacterial DNA is transferred from one bacterial cell to another by means of a phage particle. There are two types of transduction, generalized transduction and specialized transduction. In this chapter two of the best-studied systems - Escherichia coli-phage P1, and Salmonella enterica-phage P22 - are discussed from theoretical and practical perspectives.

  5. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  6. [General psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vymetal, J

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a theoretical psychotherapeutical thinking develops from the eclectic practice and uses particularly the research of the effective factors of the therapy. Best they can be characterized as differentiate, synthetic, integrative and exceeding other approaches. The development in question goes on with attempts of creating a general model of the psychotherapy that could be a basis for models of special psychotherapies. The aim of such a model is to describe all that is present as important factor for inducing a desirable change of a human in all psychotherapeutical approaches. Among general models we can mention the generic model of D. E. Orlinski and K. I. Howard, Grawe's cube (the author is K. Grawe) and the equation of the psychotherapy.

  7. Generalized Myoclonus

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Louise D.

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorders have been reported as rare complications of stroke. The basal ganglia have been implicated in the pathophysiology of most post-stroke dyskinesias. We outline different types of post-stroke myoclonus and their possible pathophysiology. A middle-aged man developed generalized myoclonus after an ischemic stroke in the superior midbrain and subthalamic nuclei. Spontaneous resolution was seen by 72 hours. A lesion to the subthalamic nuclei disrupted the normal thalamic inhibition, which likely led to the involuntary movements seen in our patient. In this case, myoclonus was generalized, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature as a direct consequence of focal stroke. PMID:25553226

  8. Common skin conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, M.; Safranek, M.

    1992-01-01

    Four common conditions: acne, psoriasis, eczema and urticaria are considered. Guidance is given on appropriate topical and systematic treatment for the different types and degrees of these conditions, with notes on management in general and criteria for referral to hospital outpatient departments. Where there are different types of the condition, with varying aetiology, for example in urticaria and eczema, management of the common types is outlined. PMID:1345156

  9. General energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive sourcebook for planetary management and strategies for sustainable development. Coupling biospheric and civilizational aspects, the book features thorough treatments of all critical energy storages, flows, and conversions. Measurements of energy and power densities and intensities are used throughout the book to provide an integrated framework of analysis for all segments of energetics from planetary and bioenergetics to the human energetics of hunting-gathering and agricultural societies through modern industrial civilization. Coverage also examines the environmental and socio-economic implication of the general patterns and trends of modern energy use.

  10. [General surgery].

    PubMed

    Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Sanz Sánchez, Mercedes; Pérez Díaz, Dolores

    2005-03-01

    Terrorist explosions with multiple victims produce disaster situations that test health systems' ability to respond. The Gregorio Maranon University Hospital attended more than 300 victims within a few hours. Most of these victims had mild or moderate lesions, although 29 patients arrived in a serious or critical condition. In the first 24 hours, 37 major surgical interventions were performed in 34 patients. Of these, patients 7 underwent laparotomy, 2 of which were negative and one was non-therapeutic. One patient died during reintervention for damage limitation. Three angiographic embolizations were performed for bleeding of the intercostal artery, liver and liver-spleen, respectively and hemostasis was achieved in all three patients. The most common lesions and visceral injuries in particular were similar to those described in previous reports of similar situations. We reflect on our experience and discuss data from the literature. PMID:15771838

  11. [General surgery].

    PubMed

    Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Sanz Sánchez, Mercedes; Pérez Díaz, Dolores

    2005-03-01

    Terrorist explosions with multiple victims produce disaster situations that test health systems' ability to respond. The Gregorio Maranon University Hospital attended more than 300 victims within a few hours. Most of these victims had mild or moderate lesions, although 29 patients arrived in a serious or critical condition. In the first 24 hours, 37 major surgical interventions were performed in 34 patients. Of these, patients 7 underwent laparotomy, 2 of which were negative and one was non-therapeutic. One patient died during reintervention for damage limitation. Three angiographic embolizations were performed for bleeding of the intercostal artery, liver and liver-spleen, respectively and hemostasis was achieved in all three patients. The most common lesions and visceral injuries in particular were similar to those described in previous reports of similar situations. We reflect on our experience and discuss data from the literature.

  12. 14 CFR Section 4 - General

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS... Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the...

  13. Integrability and generalized monodromy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lhallabi, T.; Moujib, A.

    2007-09-15

    We construct the generalized monodromy matrix M-circumflex({omega}) of two-dimensional string effective action by introducing the T-duality group properties. The integrability conditions with general solutions depending on spectral parameter are given. This construction is investigated for the exactly solvable Wess, Zumino, Novikov, and Witten model in pp-wave limit when B=0.

  14. Generalized galilean genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  15. Systematizing semishortening conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, C.-Y.; Siegel, W.

    2014-12-01

    We rederive semishortening conditions for four-dimensional superconformal field theory with a different approach. These conditions have similar patterns that can be generalized to weaker constraints, including all those of Dolan and Osborn [Ann. Phys. (Amsterdam) 307, 41 (2003)]. In particular, for the case of N =4 super-Yang-Mills theory formulated in projective superspace, we find constraints for all Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield operators. We also give an example how constraints can be found from known ones. These constraints are a subset of our maximal set of semishortening conditions.

  16. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  17. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are

  18. General Practice in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Black, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of general practice in northern Norway where conditions are similar to parts of rural Canada. The Norwegian general practitioner has developed expertise in the preventive and psychosocial aspects of practice and the team concept is highly developed. Since the general practitioner is separated from the hospital, his facilities for procedures and diagnostic workups are primitive. Involvement of general practitioners in medical education is not yet well developed although all new graduates spend a compulsory period in rural practice. PMID:20469187

  19. Toward general experimentation and discovery in conditioned laboratory and complementary and alternative medicine spaces: part v. Data on 10 different sites using a robust new type of subtle energy detector.

    PubMed

    Tiller, William A; Dibble, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    The earlier experimental papers in this series dealt with replication of our DeltapH = +1 IIED (intention imprinted electrical device) experiment carried out in Minnesota. This work was replicated at 3-IIED sites and 7 control sites in the United States and Europe that demonstrated room temperature information entanglement between the macroscopic sized ( approximately 10(3) to 10(4) cubic feet volume) IIED sites and non-IIED-sites (control sites) over distances separated by up to 5000 to 6000 miles. During these studies, we discovered how to gain a quantitative measure of the elevation of the thermodynamic free energy per unit volume, deltaG*(H)+, above our normal U(1) electromagnetic gauge symmetry state, for the aqueous H(+) ion in these " conditioned" spaces. In simpler language, what this means is that one can now continuously monitor a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) office space, research space, or clinic space to gain a continuous record of (1) How much the space has been elevated or depleted in thermodynamic free energy, relative to our normal physical reality, by the processes occurring there; (2) how much the biofields of the practitioners and patients are perturbing the collective subtle energy field of these spaces; and (3) the monitoring of specific IIEDs imprinted for aiding the healing process of patients with specific pathologies under study or treatment. It allows CAM practitioners to investigate and utilize "information medicined", to evaluate the subtle energy component of various psychotronic devices, and to evaluate the efficacy of various subtle energy potentization processes for various supplements, remedies, and other materials. This paper contributes several key things to this growing body of work: (1) it develops a quantitative theoretical picture for the determination of deltaG*(H)+ from pH measurements in partially "conditioned"spaces; (2) it provides experimental, deltaG*(H)+ data for all 10 sites of the overall

  20. Toward general experimentation and discovery in conditioned laboratory and complementary and alternative medicine spaces: part v. Data on 10 different sites using a robust new type of subtle energy detector.

    PubMed

    Tiller, William A; Dibble, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    The earlier experimental papers in this series dealt with replication of our DeltapH = +1 IIED (intention imprinted electrical device) experiment carried out in Minnesota. This work was replicated at 3-IIED sites and 7 control sites in the United States and Europe that demonstrated room temperature information entanglement between the macroscopic sized ( approximately 10(3) to 10(4) cubic feet volume) IIED sites and non-IIED-sites (control sites) over distances separated by up to 5000 to 6000 miles. During these studies, we discovered how to gain a quantitative measure of the elevation of the thermodynamic free energy per unit volume, deltaG*(H)+, above our normal U(1) electromagnetic gauge symmetry state, for the aqueous H(+) ion in these " conditioned" spaces. In simpler language, what this means is that one can now continuously monitor a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) office space, research space, or clinic space to gain a continuous record of (1) How much the space has been elevated or depleted in thermodynamic free energy, relative to our normal physical reality, by the processes occurring there; (2) how much the biofields of the practitioners and patients are perturbing the collective subtle energy field of these spaces; and (3) the monitoring of specific IIEDs imprinted for aiding the healing process of patients with specific pathologies under study or treatment. It allows CAM practitioners to investigate and utilize "information medicined", to evaluate the subtle energy component of various psychotronic devices, and to evaluate the efficacy of various subtle energy potentization processes for various supplements, remedies, and other materials. This paper contributes several key things to this growing body of work: (1) it develops a quantitative theoretical picture for the determination of deltaG*(H)+ from pH measurements in partially "conditioned"spaces; (2) it provides experimental, deltaG*(H)+ data for all 10 sites of the overall

  1. Meditation in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hassed, C

    1996-08-01

    Growing scientific evidence, clinical experience and community attitudes are encouraging a shift to more natural and holistic forms of therapy as alternatives or adjuncts to pharmacological approaches to a variety of conditions. Meditation and relaxation exercises have a wide range of applications but are especially useful in treating stress and related disorders. They are easily adapted to the general practice setting by adequately trained practitioners who have first hand experience of them. In this short article the practical and experiential aspects of such exercises are examined which, combined with examining the scientific evidence, provide a much more complete understanding of their potential uses and therapeutic effects.

  2. Itch Management: General Principles.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. PMID:27578069

  3. Itch Management: General Principles.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental.

  4. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  5. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  6. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  7. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  8. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  9. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  10. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 2. General scheme and conditions of the experiment. Development of RF exposure conditions complying with experimental tasks. Animal's status during the long-term exposure].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Merkulov, A V; Shafirkin, A V; Vorob'ev, A A

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the conditions for handling and exposure of experimental animals (Wistar rats) and methods used in the study of immunological effects of long-term low-level (500 microW/cm2) exposure to radiofrequency (2450 MHz) electromagnetic fields, performed under auspices of the World Health Organization.

  11. Winning Conditions?

    PubMed

    Green, Esther; Moody, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper, "The Patient Experience in Ontario 2020: What is Possible?", framed both the current state as well as the future of what patient experience might look like in five years. To ensure intention is catalyzed into meaningful change to improve experience and outcomes, we suggest four winning conditions. The first is to change the language; patients are people too, irrespective of their disease or illness; person-centred is inclusive language and ought to be the focus. The second condition is focused on leaders who play a critical role to establish, build and embed person-centred within the organization. The third and fourth winning conditions are building the evidence base and using effective and meaningful engagement, moving beyond advice, to partnership, respectively. Person-centred care is not the flavour of the month, it is here to stay. Ontarians are important actors in the system not only as users of the system but owners as well. To those who might argue that it is costly to do this work, what are the costs to not engage? Are we satisfied not only as administrators, and clinicians, but as patients at some point, to maintain the status quo? PMID:26888319

  12. A Generalized Wall Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

  13. Beyond generalized Proca theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.

  14. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  15. A Ranking-Theoretic Approach to Conditionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief,…

  16. Selective Influence through Conditional Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a generalization and improvement for the definition proposed by E. Dzhafarov (2001) for selectiveness in the dependence of several random variables on several (sets of) external factors. This generalization links the notion of selective influence with that of conditional independence. (SLD)

  17. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  18. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  19. Entanglement conditions and polynomial identities

    SciTech Connect

    Shchukin, E.

    2011-11-15

    We develop a rather general approach to entanglement characterization based on convexity properties and polynomial identities. This approach is applied to obtain simple and efficient entanglement conditions that work equally well in both discrete as well as continuous-variable environments. Examples of violations of our conditions are presented.

  20. 76 FR 24575 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Profile C. Technological Feasibility D. Benefits E. Cost of Compliance F. Economic Impact, Feasibility, and Regulatory Flexibility Screening Analysis V. Environmental Impact VI. Federalism VII. Unfunded... amended) requires that OSHA determine whether a standard will have a significant economic impact on...

  1. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acts of God or attributable to alterations completed by the transferee to adapt the property to the... of the property not due to reasonable wear and tear or acts of God or attributable to alterations... God excepted. Subsequent to the expiration or termination of the period of restricted use,...

  2. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin or any other... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  3. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin or any other... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  4. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and for Orders Permitting and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as...

  5. 76 FR 44265 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 24576). DATES: Effective August 1, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Press inquiries.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-9567 appearing on page 24576 in the Federal Register of Monday, May 2..., application, and use of signs or symbols (as included in paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section)...

  6. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall reserve the right during any period of emergency declared by the President of the United States or... benefits to the United States from the use of such property for public health purposes. The computation of... transferee for the account of the United States and will be subject to the direction and......

  7. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall reserve the right during any period of emergency declared by the President of the United States or... benefits to the United States from the use of such property for public health purposes. The computation of... transferee for the account of the United States and will be subject to the direction and......

  8. 16 CFR 1109.5 - Conditions, requirements, and effects generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... testing conducted by a manufacturer, testing laboratory, or third party conformity assessment body), and... languages other than English if they can be: (1) Provided immediately by the certifier or testing party...

  9. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION... Orders Permitting and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  10. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION... Orders Permitting and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  11. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION... Orders Permitting and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any Operation, Sales, Service, Construction, Extension, Acquisition or Abandonment §...

  12. 17 CFR 230.502 - General conditions to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an employee benefit plan as defined in rule 405 under the Act (17 CFR 230.405). Note: The term...) Financial statement information—(1) Offerings up to $2,000,000. The information required in Article 8 of... certified accountant. (3) Offerings over $7,500,000. The financial statement as would be required in...

  13. 17 CFR 230.502 - General conditions to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an employee benefit plan as defined in rule 405 under the Act (17 CFR 230.405). Note: The term...) Financial statement information—(1) Offerings up to $2,000,000. The information required in Article 8 of... certified accountant. (3) Offerings over $7,500,000. The financial statement as would be required in...

  14. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  15. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  16. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  17. General introduction to microstructural evolution under cascade damage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedersich, H.

    1993-06-01

    A short overview of the processes that affect the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation is given. The processes include defect production with an emphasis on the effects of the dynamic cascade events, defect clustering, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation, phase decompositions and phase transformations. A simple model for the description of the development of the defect microstructure in a pure metal during cascade producing irradiation is also outlined which can provide, in principle, defect fluxes required for the description of the microstructural processes such as phase decomposition and irradiation-induced precipitation.

  18. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... virtue of prior registration or certification of equipment, or, for power line carrier systems, on the... interference has been corrected. (d) Intentional radiators that produce Class B emissions (damped wave)...

  19. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... virtue of prior registration or certification of equipment, or, for power line carrier systems, on the... interference has been corrected. (d) Intentional radiators that produce Class B emissions (damped wave)...

  20. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... virtue of prior registration or certification of equipment, or, for power line carrier systems, on the... interference has been corrected. (d) Intentional radiators that produce Class B emissions (damped wave)...

  1. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... virtue of prior registration or certification of equipment, or, for power line carrier systems, on the... interference has been corrected. (d) Intentional radiators that produce Class B emissions (damped wave)...

  2. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... virtue of prior registration or certification of equipment, or, for power line carrier systems, on the... interference has been corrected. (d) Intentional radiators that produce Class B emissions (damped wave)...

  3. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and for Orders Permitting and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as...

  4. A generalized model for stability of trees under impact conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; di Prisco, Claudio; Canepa, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Stability of trees to external actions involve the combined effects of stem and tree root systems. A block impacting on the stem or an applied force pulling the stem can cause a tree instability involving stem bending or failure and tree root rotation. So different contributions are involved in the stability of the system. The rockfalls are common natural phenomena that can be unpredictable in terms of frequency and magnitude characteristics, and this makes difficult the estimate of potential hazard and risk for human lives and activities. In mountain areas a natural form of protection from rockfalls is provided by forest growing. The difficulties in the assessment of the real capability of this natural barrier by means of models is an open problem. Nevertheless, a large amount of experimental data are now available which provides support for the development of advanced theoretical framework and corresponding models. The aim of this contribution consists in presenting a model developed to predict the behavior of trees during a block impact. This model describes the tree stem by means of a linear elastic beam system consisting of two beams connected in series and with an equivalent geometry. The tree root system is described via an equivalent foundation, whose behavior is modelled through an elasto-plastic macro-element model. In order to calibrate the model parameters, simulations reproducing a series of winching tests, are performed. These numerical simulations confirm the capability of the model to predict the mechanical behavior of the stem-root system in terms of displacement vs force curves. Finally, numerical simulations of the impact of a boulder with a tree stem are carried out. These simulations, done under dynamic regime and with the model parameters obtained from the previous set of simulations, confirm the capability of the model to reproduce the effects on the stem-roots system generated by impulsive loads.

  5. 42 CFR 417.410 - Qualifying conditions: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CMS should enter into a contract with the HMO or CMP. (e) Requirements for a risk contract. An HMO or CMP may enter into a risk contract with CMS if it— (1) Meets all the applicable requirements in the... potential losses of a risk contract; and (5) Has not previously terminated or failed to renew a...

  6. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin or any other... that the Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history and appropriate, qualified medical judgment... the Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history and appropriate, qualified medical...

  7. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin or any other... that the Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history and appropriate, qualified medical judgment... the Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history and appropriate, qualified medical...

  8. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin or any other... that the Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history and appropriate, qualified medical judgment... the Federal Air Surgeon, based on the case history and appropriate, qualified medical...

  9. Attorney General v. X.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    In this case in which a 14-year-old girl said she had become pregnant after being raped by her friend's father, the Attorney General of Ireland had enjoined the girl and her parents from traveling to England for an abortion. A psychologist had testified that in her present state of mind, the girl was suicidal. The Supreme Court of Ireland held that the right to life supersedes all other rights, including the right to travel. However, if there is a real and substantial risk to the life of the mother which can only be avoided by termination of the pregnancy, then an abortion is permissible. The Court determined that the girl's risk of suicide satisfied this condition, and therefore the girl was allowed to terminate her pregnancy. PMID:12041095

  10. Attorney General v. X.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    In this case in which a 14-year-old girl said she had become pregnant after being raped by her friend's father, the Attorney General of Ireland had enjoined the girl and her parents from traveling to England for an abortion. A psychologist had testified that in her present state of mind, the girl was suicidal. The Supreme Court of Ireland held that the right to life supersedes all other rights, including the right to travel. However, if there is a real and substantial risk to the life of the mother which can only be avoided by termination of the pregnancy, then an abortion is permissible. The Court determined that the girl's risk of suicide satisfied this condition, and therefore the girl was allowed to terminate her pregnancy.

  11. 7 CFR 3415.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3415.9 Other conditions. The Administrator may... research appropriate to agricultural biotechnology. The annual program solicitation will indicate...

  12. 7 CFR 3415.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3415.9 Other conditions. The Director or... research appropriate to agricultural biotechnology. The annual program solicitation will indicate...

  13. 7 CFR 3415.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3415.9 Other conditions. The Director or... research appropriate to agricultural biotechnology. The annual program solicitation will indicate...

  14. 7 CFR 3415.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3415.9 Other conditions. The Director or... research appropriate to agricultural biotechnology. The annual program solicitation will indicate...

  15. Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling.

    PubMed

    Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk. PMID:23383769

  16. Generalized Teleportation and Entanglement Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

  17. Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling.

    PubMed

    Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

  18. Quantization of general linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-03-15

    General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.

  19. Generalized holomorphic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yicao

    2014-12-01

    We define the notion of generalized holomorphic principal bundles and establish that their associated vector bundles of holomorphic representations are generalized holomorphic vector bundles defined by M. Gualtieri. Motivated by our definition, several examples of generalized holomorphic structures are constructed. A reduction theorem of generalized holomorphic structures is also included.

  20. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  1. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  2. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  3. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  4. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  5. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  6. Generalization of Fear to Respiratory Sensations.

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Pappens, Meike; Schruers, Koen; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vervliet, Bram; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-09-01

    Interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC), fear generalization and a lack of safety learning have all been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, but have never been examined in a single paradigm. The present study aims to investigate whether healthy participants (N=43) can learn both fear and safety to an interoceptive sensation, and whether such learning generalizes to other, similar sensations. Two intensities of inspiratory breathing impairment (induced by two pressure threshold loads of 6 and 25 cm H2O) served as interoceptive conditional stimuli (CSs) in a differential conditioning paradigm. An inspiratory occlusion was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Generalization was tested 24h after conditioning, using four generalization stimuli with intensities in-between CS+ and CS- (GSs: 8-10.5-14-18.5 cm H2O). Measures included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG responses, electrodermal activity and respiration. Perceptual discrimination of interoceptive CSs and GSs was explored with a discrimination task prior to acquisition and after generalization. Results indicate that differential fear learning was established for US-expectancy ratings. The group with a low intensity CS+ and a high intensity CS- showed the typical pattern of differential fear responding and a similarity-based generalization gradient. In contrast, the high intensity CS+ and low intensity CS- group showed impaired differential learning and complete generalization of fear. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning and generalization are modulated by stimulus intensity and that the occurrence of discriminatory learning is closely related to fear generalization.

  7. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Nan

    2015-07-01

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups and SO(5 , 5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d = 9 , 7 , 6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincaré lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Finally we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  8. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-07-22

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  9. 47 CFR 68.100 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions on Use of Terminal Equipment § 68.100 General. In... public switched telephone network, including private line services provided over wireline facilities...

  10. General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition or to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer ... PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  12. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  13. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  14. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  15. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  16. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  17. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  18. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  19. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  20. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  1. Generalized smooth models

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.

    1992-07-23

    The class of gene linear models is extended to develop a class of nonparametric regression models known as generalized smooth models. The technique of local scoring is used to estimate a generalized smooth model and the estimation procedure based on locally weighted regression is shown to produce local likelihood estimates. The asymptotically correct distribution of the deviance difference is derived and its use in comparing the fits of generalized linear models and generalized smooth models is illustrated. The relationship between generalized smooth models and generalized additive models is discussed, also.

  2. Assortment and the evolution of generalized reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Daniel J; Taborsky, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Reciprocity is often invoked to explain cooperation. Reciprocity is cognitively demanding, and both direct and indirect reciprocity require that individuals store information about the propensity of their partners to cooperate. By contrast, generalized reciprocity, wherein individuals help on the condition that they received help previously, only relies on whether an individual received help in a previous encounter. Such anonymous information makes generalized reciprocity hard to evolve in a well-mixed population, as the strategy will lose out to pure defectors. Here we analyze a model for the evolution of generalized reciprocity, incorporating assortment of encounters, to investigate the conditions under which it will evolve. We show that, in a well-mixed population, generalized reciprocity cannot evolve. However, incorporating assortment of encounters can favor the evolution of generalized reciprocity in which indiscriminate cooperation and defection are both unstable. We show that generalized reciprocity can evolve under both the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game.

  3. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  4. Random walk in generalized quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Xavier; O'Connor, Denjoe; Sorkin, Rafael D.

    2005-01-15

    One can view quantum mechanics as a generalization of classical probability theory that provides for pairwise interference among alternatives. Adopting this perspective, we 'quantize' the classical random walk by finding, subject to a certain condition of 'strong positivity', the most general Markovian, translationally invariant 'decoherence functional' with nearest neighbor transitions.

  5. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  6. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  7. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  8. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  9. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  10. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  11. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  12. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  17. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  18. 29 CFR 553.10 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General Section 3(e)(2)(c)-Exclusions § 553.10 General. Section 3(e)(2)(C) of the Act excludes from the definition of “employee”, and thus... State and local governments. A condition for exclusion is that the employee must not be subject to...

  19. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  20. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-07-22

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  1. Forces in General Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  2. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  3. Reframing General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zai, Robert, III.

    2015-01-01

    From the colonial colleges to the present-day flagship universities, the undergraduate general education curriculum has dramatically shifted from a single, faculty-prescribed, general program to a diverse array of elective, student-choice-driven, specialized programs of general studies. This transformation has also encouraged, if not established,…

  4. General Music Today Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The collected 2004-2005 issues of General Music Today, the online journal of MENC's Society for General Music includes articles, research, reviews and resources of interest to general music teachers of all levels. Topics covered include working with special-needs students; emphasizing early childhood environment to enhance musical growth;…

  5. Generalized parastatistical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriawan, Mirza

    2002-01-01

    In the first chapter we consider systems of n-identical particles whose Hilbert spaces are invariant under the "particle permutation group" Sn, and which obey cluster decomposition. The classification of such systems by Hartle, Stolt, and Taylor in terms of state symmetry types is used, together with an additional classification based on the allowed observables in the system. We have indistinguishable (p, q)- statistics, indistinguishable infinite statistics, distinguishable (p, q)-statistics, and distinguishable infinite statistics. We refer to all of these as generalized parastatistical systems. We obtain a closed form for the grand canonical partition function (GCPF) for a non-interacting gas of particles obeying indistinguishable ( p, q)-statistics (for any p and q). As a special case we have the GCPF for the usual parabose statistics of order p, solving a 50 year old problem. Except for indistinguishable (1,1)-statistics, our results are not suitable for calculating the GCPF in the continuum energy limit. However, for indistinguishable (1,1)-statistics we calculate the continuum limit and obtain some simple thermodynamic results. In particular, we show that a system of free particles in any spatial dimension d ≥ 2 that obeys indistinguishable (1,1)-statistics will exhibit Bose-like condensation. In the second chapter we consider systems similar to those in the first chapter, but now assuming that the GCPF factorizes so that we obtain an extensive system. It turns out that having such an extensive GCPF is equivalent to the factorization of the counting function, and also to the factorization of the cluster coefficients and to the strong cluster condition on the counting coefficients. We calculate several simple thermodynamic quantities for such systems, where the results are given in terms of the cluster coefficients. In the third chapter, we give a second quantized realization of generalized parastatistical systems in the form of scalar product requirements

  6. Generalization of Contextual Fear in Humans.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Marta; Leombruni, Estelle; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced fear responses to cues, which were not associated with the threat but share perceptual characteristics with the threat signal, indicate generalization of conditioned fear. Here, we investigated for the first time generalization processes in contextual fear conditioning. Thirty-two participants were guided through two virtual offices (acquisition phases). Mildly painful electric shocks (unconditioned stimulus, US) were unpredictably delivered in one office (anxiety context, CTX+), but never in the other office (safety context, CTX-). During the generalization test, participants were guided through CTX+, CTX-, and the generalization context (G-CTX), which contained features of both the CTX+ and the CTX-, but no US was delivered. We found successful contextual fear conditioning (i.e., the CTX+ compared to the CTX- elicited potentiated startle responses and was rated with more negative valence, higher arousal and higher anxiety). Importantly, implicit and explicit responses dissociated in the generalization test. Thus, participants rated the G-CTX as more arousing and anxiogenic than the CTX- indicating anxiety generalization, but they showed enhanced startle responses to the CTX+ only, while the G-CTX and the CTX- did not differ. In summary, healthy participants on an explicit level responded to the generalization context like to the anxiety context, but on an implicit level responded to the generalization context like to the safety context. Possibly, this dissociation suggests distinct and specific generalization processes underlying contextual fear.

  7. Energy conditions in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, José P.

    2014-03-01

    We consider generalized energy conditions in modified theories of gravity by taking into account the further degrees of freedom related to scalar fields and curvature invariants. The latter are usually recast as generalized geometrical fluids that have different meanings with respect to the standard matter fluids generally adopted as sources of the field equations. More specifically, in modified gravity the curvature terms are grouped in a tensor H and a coupling g(Ψi) that can be reorganized in effective Einstein field equations, as corrections to the energy-momentum tensor of matter. The formal validity of such inequalities does not assure some basic requirements such as the attractive nature of gravity, so that the energy conditions have to be considered in a wider sense.

  8. 42 CFR 424.5 - Basic conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic conditions. 424.5 Section 424.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT General Provisions § 424.5 Basic conditions. (a) As...

  9. 42 CFR 424.5 - Basic conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic conditions. 424.5 Section 424.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT General Provisions § 424.5 Basic conditions. (a) As a basis...

  10. 42 CFR 424.5 - Basic conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic conditions. 424.5 Section 424.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT General Provisions § 424.5 Basic conditions. (a) As...

  11. 42 CFR 424.5 - Basic conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic conditions. 424.5 Section 424.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT General Provisions § 424.5 Basic conditions. (a) As...

  12. 42 CFR 424.5 - Basic conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic conditions. 424.5 Section 424.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT General Provisions § 424.5 Basic conditions. (a) As a basis...

  13. Thermodynamics of generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Sarwar, Ayesha

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we study thermal stability of an exotic fluid known as generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG). We evaluate different physical parameters and examine how this fluid describes accelerated expansion of the universe. The stability conditions are formulated from thermodynamics which indicate that the respective fluid is stable adiabatically but it cannot be checked under isothermal condition.

  14. Directions in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.; Ryan, M. P., Jr.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2005-10-01

    Preface; Dieter Brill: a spacetime perspective; 1. Thawing the frozen formalism: the difference between observables and what we observe A. Anderson; 2. Jacobi's action and the density of states J. D. Brown and J. W. York; 3. Decoherence of correlation histories E. Calzetta and B. L. Hu; 4. The initial value problem in light of Ashtekar's variables R. Capovilla, J. Dell and T. Jacobson; 5. Status report on an axiomatic basis for functional integration P. Cartier and C. DeWitt-Morette; 6. Solution of the coupled Einstein constraints on asymptotically Euclidean manifolds Y. Choquet-Bruhat; 7. Compact Cauchy horizons and Cauchy surfaces P. Chrusciel and J. Isenberg; 8. The classical electron J. M. Cohen and E. Mustafa; 9. Gauge (in)variance, mass and parity in D=3 revisited S. Deser; 10. Triality, exceptional Lie groups and Dirac operators F. Flaherty; 11. The reduction of the state vector and limitations on measurement in the quantum mechanics of closed systems J. B. Hartle; 12 Quantum linearization instabilities of de Sitter spacetime A. Higuchi; 13. What is the true description of charged black holes? G. T. Horowitz; 14. Limits on the adiabatic index in static stellar models L. Lindblom and A. K. M. Masood-ul-Alam; 15. On the relativity of rotation B. Mashhoon; 16. Recent progress and open problems in linearization stability V. E. Moncrief; 17. Brill waves N. Ó Murchadha; 18. You can't get there from here: constraints on topology change K. Schleich and D. M. Witt; 19. Time, measurement and information loss in quantum cosmology L. Smolin; 20. Impossible measurements on quantum fields R. Sorkin; 21. A new condition implying the existence of a constant mean curvature foliation F. J. Tipler; 22. Maximal slices in stationary spacetimes with ergoregions R. M. Wald; 23. (1 + 1) - Dimensional methods for general relativity J. H. Yoon; 24. Coalescence of primal gravity waves to make cosmological mass without matter D. E. Holz, W. A. Miller, M. Wakano and J. A. Wheeler.

  15. Distributed computation of supremal conditionally controllable sublanguages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we further develop the coordination control framework for discrete-event systems with both complete and partial observations. First, a weaker sufficient condition for the computation of the supremal conditionally controllable sublanguage and conditionally normal sublanguage is presented. Then we show that this condition can be imposed by synthesising a-posteriori supervisors. The paper further generalises the previous study by considering general, non-prefix-closed languages. Moreover, we prove that for prefix-closed languages the supremal conditionally controllable sublanguage and conditionally normal sublanguage can always be computed in the distributed way without any restrictive conditions we have used in the past.

  16. Generalized geometric vacua with eight supercharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graña, Mariana; Ntokos, Praxitelis

    2016-08-01

    We investigate compactifications of type II and M-theory down to AdS 5 with generic fluxes that preserve eight supercharges, in the framework of Exceptional Generalized Geometry. The geometric data and gauge fields on the internal manifold are encoded in a pair of generalized structures corresponding to the vector and hyper-multiplets of the reduced five-dimensional supergravity. Supersymmetry translates into integrability conditions for these structures, generalizing, in the case of type IIB, the Sasaki-Einstein conditions. We show that the ten and eleven-dimensional type IIB and M-theory Killing-spinor equations specialized to a warped AdS 5 background imply the generalized integrability conditions.

  17. Fear generalization gradients in visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Emma Wu; Mitroff, Stephen R; LaBar, Kevin S

    2016-10-01

    Fear learning can be adaptively advantageous, but only if the learning is integrated with higher-order cognitive processes that impact goal-directed behaviors. Recent work has demonstrated generalization (i.e., transfer) of conditioned fear across perceptual dimensions and conceptual categories, but it is not clear how fear generalization influences other cognitive processes. The current study investigated how associative fear learning impacts higher-order visuospatial attention, specifically in terms of attentional bias toward generalized threats (i.e., the heightened assessment of potentially dangerous stimuli). We combined discriminative fear conditioning of color stimuli with a subsequent visual search task, in which targets and distractors were presented inside colored circles that varied in perceptual similarity to the fear-conditioned color. Skin conductance responses validated the fear-conditioning manipulation. Search response times indicated that attention was preferentially deployed not just to the specific fear-conditioned color, but also to similar colors that were never paired with the aversive shock. Furthermore, this attentional bias decreased continuously and symmetrically from the fear-conditioned value along the color spectrum, indicating a generalization gradient based on perceptual similarity. These results support functional accounts of fear learning that promote broad, defensive generalization of attentional bias toward threat. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Allergic Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  19. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Noor, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  20. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  1. A General Approach for Teaching Hydrolysis of Salts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Ode, Fernando

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a general approach and equation for teaching the hydrolysis of salts. This general equation covers many more sets of conditions than those currently in textbooks. The simplifying assumptions leading to the known limiting equations are straightforward. (RH)

  2. Weighted conditional least-squares estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.

  3. Energy loss in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstock, F. I.; Lim, P. H.

    1987-07-01

    Implicit assumptions regarding continuity in energy-loss calculations in general relativity are examined. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner energy integral is treated in a new manner as a universal vehicle for energy loss. Two explicit examples are given: the electric dipole radiation flux is computed using general relativity as well as the gravitational-radiation flux from a linear mass quadrupole oscillator. In this approach, the latter is seen as a nonlinear problem in the sense that the lower-order metric serves as a source for the required order metric as computed within the wave front. Logarithmic terms which threaten to induce divergences, as has been found in other works, are averted by functions of integration which are required to sustain the gauge conditions and finally yield the usual fluxes.

  4. Generalized Brans-Dicke theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2010-07-01

    In Brans-Dicke theory a non-linear self interaction of a scalar field φ allows a possibility of realizing the late-time cosmic acceleration, while recovering the General Relativistic behavior at early cosmological epochs. We extend this to more general modified gravitational theories in which a de Sitter solution for dark energy exists without using a field potential. We derive a condition for the stability of the de Sitter point and study the background cosmological dynamics of such theories. We also restrict the allowed region of model parameters from the demand for the avoidance of ghosts and instabilities. A peculiar evolution of the field propagation speed allows us to distinguish those theories from the ΛCDM model.

  5. Kharitonov's theorem: Generalizations and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rublein, George

    1989-01-01

    In 1978, the Russian mathematician V. Kharitonov published a remarkably simple necessary and sufficient condition in order that a rectangular parallelpiped of polynomials be a stable set. Here, stable is taken to mean that the polynomials have no roots in the closed right-half of the complex plane. The possibility of generalizing this result was studied by numerous authors. A set, Q, of polynomials is given and a necessary and sufficient condition that the set be stable is sought. Perhaps the most general result is due to Barmish who takes for Q a polytope and proceeds to construct a complicated nonlinear function, H, of the points in Q. With the notion of stability which was adopted, Barmish asks that the boundary of the closed right-half plane be swept, that the set G is considered = to (j(omega)(bar) - infinity is less than omega is less than infinity) and for each j(omega)(sigma)G, require H(delta) is greater than 0. Barmish's scheme has the merit that it describes a true generalization of Kharitonov's theorem. On the other hand, even when Q is a polyhedron, the definition of H requires that one do an optimization over the entire set of vertices, and then a subsequent optimization over an auxiliary parameter. In the present work, only the case where Q is a polyhedron is considered and the standard definition of stability described, is used. There are straightforward generalizations of the method to the case of discrete stability or to cases where certain root positions are deemed desirable. The cases where Q is non-polyhedral are less certain as candidates for the method. Essentially, a method of geometric programming was applied to the problem of finding maximum and minimum angular displacements of points in the Nyquist locus (Q(j x omega)(bar) - infinity is less than omega is less than infinity). There is an obvious connection with the boundary sweeping requirement of Barmish.

  6. Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitelboim, Claudio

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION OF GAUGE THEORIES (PRE-BRST) * BRST HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION OF GAUGE THEORIES * DYNAMICS OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD * DOES THE HAMILTONIAN VANISH? GENERAL COVARIANCE AS AN "ORDINARY" GAUGE INVARIANCE * GENERALLY COVARIANT SYSTEMS * TIME AS A CANONICAL VARIABLE. ZERO HAMILTONIAN * Parametrized Systems * Zero Hamiltonian * Parametrization and Explicit Time Dependence * TIME REPARAMETRIZATION INVARIANCE * Form of Gauge Transformations * Must the Hamiltonian be Zero for a Generally Covariant System? * Simple Example of a Generally Covariant System with a Nonzero Hamiltonian * "TRUE DYNAMICS" VERSUS GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS * Interpretation of the Formalism * Reduced Phase Space * MUST TIME FLOW? * GAUGE INDEPENDENCE OF PATH INTEGRAL FOR A PARAMETRIZED SYSTEM ILLUSTRATED. EQUIVALENCE OF THE GAUGES t = τ AND t = 0 * Reduced Phase Space Transition Amplitude as a Reduced Phase Space Path Integral * Canonical Gauge Conditions * Gauge t = 0 * Gauge t α τ * BRST CHARGE OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD * ELEMENTS OF BRST THEORY * THE GHOST, YOU'VE COME A LONG WAY BABY * Introduction * Quantum mechanics, the art of finding and combining simple elementary processes * Ghosts necessary to keep elementary processes simple * BRST symmetry: ghosts and matter become different components of single geometrical object * BRST SYMMETRY IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS * Ghosts have role in classical mechanics * Gauge invariance and constraints * Classical mechanics over Grassmann algebra necessary * Higher order structure functions * Rank defined. Open algebras * Ghosts. Ghost number. BRST generator as generating function for structure functions * A belianization of constraints. Existence of Ω * Uniqueness of Ω * Classical BRST cohomology * QUANTUM BRST THEORY * States and operators * Ghost number * BRST invariant states * Quantum BRST cohomology * Equivalence of the BRST physical subspace with the conventional gauge

  7. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  8. General Machinists Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Chester; And Others

    This curriculum guide for a general machinists course is intended for use in a program combining vocational English as a second language (VESL) with bilingual vocational education. A description of the VESL program design appears first. The next section provides a format on developing lesson plans for teaching the technical and general vocational…

  9. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  10. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  11. OASIS General Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    Recognizing the need to balance generality and economy in system costs, the Project INFO team at Stanford University developing OASIS has sought to provide generalized and powerful computer support within the normal range of operating and analytical requirements associated with university administration. The specific design objectives of the OASIS…

  12. Assessment of General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of general education is often approached through broad surveys or standardized instruments that fail to capture the learning goals most faculty members desire for this portion of the curriculum. The challenge in remedying this situation lies, first, in defining general education in meaningful ways that can be both articulated and…

  13. Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee, Ed.

    This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…

  14. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  15. General George C. Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a portrait of General George C. Marshall in Army uniform. The Marshall Space Flight Center, a NASA field installation, was established in Huntsville, Alabama, in 1960. The Center was named in honor of General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff during World War II, Secretary of State, and Nobel Prize Wirner for his world-renowned Marshall Plan.

  16. General relativity and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Martin; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-10-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of Einstein’s 1915 landmark paper “Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation” in which the field equations of general relativity were correctly formulated for the first time, thus rendering general relativity a complete theory. Over the subsequent hundred years, physicists and astronomers have struggled with uncovering the consequences and applications of these equations. This paper, which was written as an introduction to six chapters dealing with the connection between general relativity and cosmology that will appear in the two-volume book One Hundred Years of General Relativity: From Genesis and Empirical Foundations to Gravitational Waves, Cosmology and Quantum Gravity, endeavors to provide a historical overview of the connection between general relativity and cosmology, two areas whose development has been closely intertwined.

  17. Ideals of generalized matrix rings

    SciTech Connect

    Budanov, Aleksandr V

    2011-01-31

    Let R and S be rings, and {sub R}M{sub S} and {sub S}N{sub R} bimodules. In the paper, in terms of isomorphisms of lattices, relationships between the lattices of one-sided and two-sided ideals of the generalized matrix ring and the corresponding lattices of ideals of the rings R and S are described. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a pair of ideals I, J of rings R and S, respectively, to be the main diagonal of some ideal of the ring K are also obtained. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  18. Simultaneous backward conditioned inhibition and mediated conditioning.

    PubMed

    Graham, Steven; Jie, Hans Lee; Chan, Hui-Minn; McLaren, I P L; Wills, Andy J

    2011-04-01

    Demonstrations of retrospective revaluation suggest that remembered stimuli undergo a reduction in association with the unconditioned stimulus (US) present during learning. Conversely, demonstrations of mediated conditioning in flavor-conditioning experiments with rats suggest that remembered stimuli undergo an increase in association with the US present during learning. In a food allergy prediction task with 23 undergraduates, we demonstrated simultaneous backward conditioned inhibition and mediated conditioning effects. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the direction of change (decrease or increase) in associative strength depends on whether the remembered stimulus was of a different category (conditioned stimulus/antecedent) or the same category (US/outcome) as the presented US. PMID:21319913

  19. Matching and conditioned reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-03-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement.

  20. Generalization of Fear to Respiratory Sensations.

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Pappens, Meike; Schruers, Koen; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vervliet, Bram; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-09-01

    Interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC), fear generalization and a lack of safety learning have all been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, but have never been examined in a single paradigm. The present study aims to investigate whether healthy participants (N=43) can learn both fear and safety to an interoceptive sensation, and whether such learning generalizes to other, similar sensations. Two intensities of inspiratory breathing impairment (induced by two pressure threshold loads of 6 and 25 cm H2O) served as interoceptive conditional stimuli (CSs) in a differential conditioning paradigm. An inspiratory occlusion was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Generalization was tested 24h after conditioning, using four generalization stimuli with intensities in-between CS+ and CS- (GSs: 8-10.5-14-18.5 cm H2O). Measures included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG responses, electrodermal activity and respiration. Perceptual discrimination of interoceptive CSs and GSs was explored with a discrimination task prior to acquisition and after generalization. Results indicate that differential fear learning was established for US-expectancy ratings. The group with a low intensity CS+ and a high intensity CS- showed the typical pattern of differential fear responding and a similarity-based generalization gradient. In contrast, the high intensity CS+ and low intensity CS- group showed impaired differential learning and complete generalization of fear. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning and generalization are modulated by stimulus intensity and that the occurrence of discriminatory learning is closely related to fear generalization. PMID:26459842

  1. Verbal Conditioning of Value-Related Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilliston, Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    The results clearly indicate support for the general hypothesis of differential verbal conditioning effects as a function of the interaction between value related content and the S's personal value orientation. (Author)

  2. Context-dependent generalization

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jordan A.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation vs. visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement) or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement). The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization. PMID:23653603

  3. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-20

    We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions. PMID:26368763

  4. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  5. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  6. Stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Walker, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    This is a preliminary study of possible necessary and sufficient conditions to insure stationarity in the solution process for a stochastic differential equation. It indirectly sheds some light on ergodicity properties and shows that the spectral density is generally inadequate as a statistical measure of the solution. Further work is proceeding on a more general theory which gives necessary and sufficient conditions in a form useful for applications.

  7. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  8. General Information about Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Melanoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. Science in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    General education must develop in students an appreciation of the power of science, how it works, why it is an effective knowledge generation tool, and what it can deliver. Knowing what science has discovered is desirable but less important.

  10. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Generalized Anxiety Disorder Overview What is anxiety? Anxiety is a word that describes feelings of worry, nervousness, fear, apprehension, concern or restlessness. Normal feelings ...

  11. Uvulitis following general anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Ziahosseini, Kimia; Ali, Syed; Simo, Ricard; Malhotra, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Uvular necrosis following endotracheal general anaesthesia is a rare complication. We report two cases of uvular and soft palate necrosis after atraumatic intubation with endotracheal tube and, in the second case, laryngeal mask airway. PMID:25249220

  12. Training in General Aviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Frank G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the vital role training plays in the general aviation industry and describes the Cessna International Training Academy and urges more training programs to spur the growth of the industry. (BR)

  13. General American: An Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Riper, William R.

    1973-01-01

    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  14. Tuberculosis: General Information

    MedlinePlus

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  15. General Relativity and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  16. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  17. Matter in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  18. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Gazeau, J. P.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  19. Cosmology in generalized Proca theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li

    2016-06-01

    We consider a massive vector field with derivative interactions that propagates only the 3 desired polarizations (besides two tensor polarizations from gravity) with second-order equations of motion in curved space-time. The cosmological implications of such generalized Proca theories are investigated for both the background and the linear perturbation by taking into account the Lagrangian up to quintic order. In the presence of a matter fluid with a temporal component of the vector field, we derive the background equations of motion and show the existence of de Sitter solutions relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. We also obtain conditions for the absence of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations in the small-scale limit. Our results are applied to concrete examples of the general functions in the theory, which encompass vector Galileons as a specific case. In such examples, we show that the de Sitter fixed point is always a stable attractor and study viable parameter spaces in which the no-ghost and stability conditions are satisfied during the cosmic expansion history.

  20. Generalization of multisensory perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Powers III, Albert R.; Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Life in a multisensory world requires the rapid and accurate integration of stimuli across the different senses. In this process, the temporal relationship between stimuli is critical in determining which stimuli share a common origin. Numerous studies have described a multisensory temporal binding window—the time window within which audiovisual stimuli are likely to be perceptually bound. In addition to characterizing this window’s size, recent work has shown it to be malleable, with the capacity for substantial narrowing following perceptual training. However, the generalization of these effects to other measures of perception is not known. This question was examined by characterizing the ability of training on a simultaneity judgment task to influence perception of the temporally-dependent sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). Results do not demonstrate a change in performance on the SIFI itself following training. However, data do show an improved ability to discriminate rapidly-presented two-flash control conditions following training. Effects were specific to training and scaled with the degree of temporal window narrowing exhibited. Results do not support generalization of multisensory perceptual learning to other multisensory tasks. However, results do show that training results in improvements in visual temporal acuity, suggesting a generalization effect of multisensory training on unisensory abilities. PMID:27000988

  1. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  2. Early Pavlovian conditioning impairs later Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Lariviere, N A; Spear, N E

    1996-11-01

    Four experiments tested the effects in the rat of very early experience with stimuli to be used later for Pavlovian conditioning. Beginning on postnatal Day 12, prior to the development of substantial detection and effective perception of visual and auditory stimuli, rats were given five daily experiences with either lights or tones and a footshock known to be an effective unconditioned stimulus at these ages. Twenty-four hours after the last of these experiences, pairings of either the light or tone and the unconditioned stimulus were given with parameters established to yield a moderate degree of conditioning in untreated preweanlings (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 determined that early experience with paired or unpaired presentations of either the light or tone and the unconditioned stimulus resulted in a failure to condition to these same lights or tones on postnatal Day 17, although nontreated pups from the same litters conditioned quite effectively. Experiment 3 determined that this early conditioning experience with either paired or unpaired presentations of the lights or tones and the unconditioned stimulus yielded impaired conditioning on postnatal Day 17 in the alternative sensory modality as well, although again nontreated siblings conditioned quite effectively. Experiment 4 replicated the results of each of Experiments 2 and 3 and determined in addition that despite the impairment in conditioning that resulted from early paired or unpaired experience with the stimuli of conditioning, early experience with the individual stimuli of conditioning-with only the CS, the US, or the context-did not result in a similar impairment in conditioning. Although the results were unexpected, they may be understood in part in terms of intersensory competition during development, and there is precedent in the literature for similar interfering effects of early learning on later learning in a variety of species.

  3. 10 CFR 503.12 - Terms and conditions; compliance plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms and conditions; compliance plans. 503.12 Section 503.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.12 Terms and conditions; compliance plans. (a) Terms and conditions generally. A petitioner must comply with any terms and...

  4. Chinese Conditionals and the Theory of Conditionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chierchia, Gennaro

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the main features of discourse representation theory, situation-based approaches, and dynamic semantics, and discusses the role the novelty condition plays in each of them, providing the main theoretical coordinates against which to try an assessment of the role of the Chinese conditional and a proposal put forth by Chang and Huang…

  5. 48 CFR 32.802 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions. 32.802 Section 32.802 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Assignment of Claims 32.802 Conditions. Under the Assignment of Claims Act, a contractor may assign moneys due or...

  6. 16 CFR 1028.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions. 1028.124 Section 1028.124 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or...

  7. 16 CFR 1028.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions. 1028.124 Section 1028.124 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or...

  8. 16 CFR 1028.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions. 1028.124 Section 1028.124 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or...

  9. 16 CFR 1028.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions. 1028.124 Section 1028.124 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or...

  10. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test conditions. 89.331 Section 89.331... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.331 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. Calculate all volumes and volumetric flow rates...

  11. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test conditions. 90.311 Section 90.311... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by...

  12. 16 CFR 1028.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions. 1028.124 Section 1028.124 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or...

  13. 45 CFR 46.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head may impose additional conditions prior...

  14. 45 CFR 46.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head may impose additional conditions prior...

  15. Some existence and sufficient conditions of optimality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assefi, T.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the existence and sufficiency conditions in the field of optimal control was briefly described. The existence theorems are discussed for general nonlinear systems. However, the sufficiency conditions pertain to "nearly" linear systems with integral convex costs. Moreover, a brief discussion of linear systems with multiple-cost functions is presented.

  16. Classical Conditioning: Eliciting the Right Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Classical conditioning is responsible for students' positive and negative feelings, whether directed toward subject matter, peers, teachers, or education in general. This article explains how educators can use classical conditioning principles (such as reinforcement, extinction, and paired stimuli) to create an anxiety-free learning environment.…

  17. Diffusions conditioned on occupation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeletti, Florian; Touchette, Hugo

    2016-02-01

    A Markov process fluctuating away from its typical behavior can be represented in the long-time limit by another Markov process, called the effective or driven process, having the same stationary states as the original process conditioned on the fluctuation observed. We construct here this driven process for diffusions spending an atypical fraction of their evolution in some region of state space, corresponding mathematically to stochastic differential equations conditioned on occupation measures. As an illustration, we consider the Langevin equation conditioned on staying for a fraction of time in different intervals of the real line, including the positive half-line which leads to a generalization of the Brownian meander problem. Other applications related to quasi-stationary distributions, metastable states, noisy chemical reactions, queues, and random walks are discussed.

  18. Eckart−Sayvetz conditions revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Szalay, Viktor

    2014-06-21

    It is shown that vibrational displacements satisfying the Eckart−Sayvetz conditions can be constructed by projection of unconstrained displacements. This result has a number of interesting direct and indirect ramifications: (i) The normal coordinates corresponding to an electronic state or an isotopologue of a molecule are transformed to those of another state or isotopologue by a linear and, in general, non-orthogonal transformation. (ii) Novel interpretation of axis switching. (iii) One may enhance the separation of rotational-large-amplitude internal motions and the vibrational motions beyond that offered by the standard use of the Eckart−Sayvetz conditions. (iv) The rotational-vibrational Hamiltonian given in terms of curvilinear internal coordinates may be derived with elementary mathematical tools while taking into account the Eckart conditions with or without enhancement.

  19. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    SciTech Connect

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  20. Testing general relativity using a bouncing ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shiuan-Ni; Lan, Boon Leong

    In a recent article (Liang and Lan, (2011)), we showed that the trajectories predicted by general-relativistic and Newtonian mechanics from the same parameters and initial conditions for a low-speed weak-gravity bouncing ball system will rapidly disagree completely if the trajectories are chaotic. Here, we determine how accurate the parameters and initial conditions of the system must be known so that the two different calculated chaotic trajectories are sufficiently accurate for an empirical test.

  1. Generalized energy failure criterion.

    PubMed

    Qu, R T; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, P; Liu, Z Q; Zhang, Z F

    2016-01-01

    Discovering a generalized criterion that can predict the mechanical failure of various different structural materials is one of ultimate goals for scientists in both material and mechanics communities. Since the first study on the failure criterion of materials by Galileo, about three centuries have passed. Now we eventually find the "generalized energy criterion", as presented here, which appears to be one universal law for various different kinds of materials. The validity of the energy criterion for quantitatively predicting the failure is experimentally confirmed using a metallic glass. The generalized energy criterion reveals the competition and interaction between shear and cleavage, the two fundamental inherent failure mechanisms, and thus provides new physical insights into the failure prediction of materials and structural components. PMID:26996781

  2. Generalized energy failure criterion

    PubMed Central

    Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2016-01-01

    Discovering a generalized criterion that can predict the mechanical failure of various different structural materials is one of ultimate goals for scientists in both material and mechanics communities. Since the first study on the failure criterion of materials by Galileo, about three centuries have passed. Now we eventually find the “generalized energy criterion”, as presented here, which appears to be one universal law for various different kinds of materials. The validity of the energy criterion for quantitatively predicting the failure is experimentally confirmed using a metallic glass. The generalized energy criterion reveals the competition and interaction between shear and cleavage, the two fundamental inherent failure mechanisms, and thus provides new physical insights into the failure prediction of materials and structural components. PMID:26996781

  3. General Relativity Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    A hundred years after its birth, general relativity has become a highly successful theory in the sese that it has passed many experimental and observational tests and finds widespread application to diverse set of cosmic phenomena. It remains an accurate research field as more tests are deployed, epitomized by the exciting prospect of detecting gravitational radiation directly. General realtivity is the essential foundation of modern cosmology and underlies our detailed description of the black holes and neutron stars that are ultimately responsible for the most powerful and dramatic cosmic sources. The interface with physics on both the largest and the smallest scales continues to be very fertile. In this talk I will attempt to highlight some key steps along the way to general relativity today.

  4. General level of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Cautela, J R

    1984-06-01

    A concept of General Level of Reinforcement (GLR) is introduced. This concept is defined as the number, quality and duration of reinforcements per unit time. The assumptions of this theory are discussed. A crucial assumption is that the theory is related to psychological and physiological well-being. Ways to measure general level of reinforcement are described, and clinical implications presented. Methods to increase the level of reinforcement, such as covert reinforcement and the Self-Control Triad, are specified. Finally, suggestions for research are provided.

  5. General aviation technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The existing problem areas in general aviation were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.

  6. Generalized Random Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skřivánek, Václav; Frič, Roman

    2015-12-01

    Phenomena in quantum physics motivate studies of mathematical quantum structures and generalized probability. We introduce a new domain of generalized probability which is equivalent to the difference posets (also to effect algebras) of fuzzy sets. It is in terms of a partial operation of addition and it has a natural interpretation as a disjunction in the original spirit of G. Boole. The extension to a binary operation leads to the Łukasiewicz operations, bold algebras and fuzzy probability. We study states on products and mention some applications.

  7. Generalized compliant motion primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a general primitive for controlling a telerobot with a set of input parameters. The primitive includes a trajectory generator; a teleoperation sensor; a joint limit generator; a force setpoint generator; a dither function generator, which produces telerobot motion inputs in a common coordinate frame for simultaneous combination in sensor summers. Virtual return spring motion input is provided by a restoration spring subsystem. The novel features of this invention include use of a single general motion primitive at a remote site to permit the shared and supervisory control of the robot manipulator to perform tasks via a remotely transferred input parameter set.

  8. Generalized Communities in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E. J.; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2015-08-01

    A substantial volume of research is devoted to studies of community structure in networks, but communities are not the only possible form of large-scale network structure. Here, we describe a broad extension of community structure that encompasses traditional communities but includes a wide range of generalized structural patterns as well. We describe a principled method for detecting this generalized structure in empirical network data and demonstrate with real-world examples how it can be used to learn new things about the shape and meaning of networks.

  9. Conditions for quantum interference in cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I; Sornette, Didier

    2014-01-01

    We present a general classification of the conditions under which cognitive science, concerned, e.g. with decision making, requires the use of quantum theoretical notions. The analysis is done in the frame of the mathematical approach based on the theory of quantum measurements. We stress that quantum effects in cognition can arise only when decisions are made under uncertainty. Conditions for the appearance of quantum interference in cognitive sciences and the conditions when interference cannot arise are formulated. PMID:24259280

  10. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  11. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…