Science.gov

Sample records for general conditions reduccion

  1. Conditioned Fear Acquisition and Generalization in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Blasco, María Jesús; Farré, Magí; Torrubia, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal fear conditioning processes (including fear acquisition and conditioned fear-generalization) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Previous research has shown that individuals with panic disorder present enhanced conditioned fear-generalization in comparison to healthy controls. Enhanced conditioned fear-generalization could also characterize generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but research so far is inconclusive. An important confounding factor in previous research is comorbidity. The present study examined conditioned fear-acquisition and fear-generalization in 28 patients with GAD and 30 healthy controls using a recently developed fear acquisition and generalization paradigm assessing fear-potentiated startle and online expectancies of the unconditioned stimulus. Analyses focused on GAD patients without comorbidity but included also patients with comorbid anxiety disorders. Patients and controls did not differ as regards fear acquisition. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups did not differ either in most indexes of conditioned fear-generalization. Moreover, dimensional measures of GAD symptoms were not correlated with conditioned fear-generalization indexes. Comorbidity did not have a significant impact on the results. Our data suggest that conditioned fear-generalization is not enhanced in GAD. Results are discussed with special attention to the possible effects of comorbidity on fear learning abnormalities.

  2. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.3 General conditions. Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless it is from a...

  3. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.3 General conditions. Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless it is from a...

  4. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.3 General conditions. Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless it is from a...

  5. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.3 General conditions. Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless it is from a...

  6. 9 CFR 98.3 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.3 General conditions. Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless it is from a...

  7. Asymmetrical stimulus generalization following differential fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sun Jung; Allen, Timothy A; Jones, Lauren K; Boguszewski, Pawel; Brown, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are ethologically critical social signals. Rats emit 22kHz USVs and 50kHz USVs, respectively, in conjunction with negative and positive affective states. Little is known about what controls emotional reactivity to these social signals. Using male Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined unconditional and conditional freezing behavior in response to the following auditory stimuli: three 22kHz USVs, a discontinuous tone whose frequency and on-off pattern matched one of the USVs, a continuous tone with the same or lower frequencies, a 4kHz discontinuous tone with an on-off pattern matched to one of the USVs, and a 50kHz USV. There were no differences among these stimuli in terms of the unconditional elicitation of freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally neutral before conditioning. During differential fear conditioning, one of these stimuli (the CS(+)) always co-terminated with a footshock unconditional stimulus (US) and another stimulus (the CS(-)) was explicitly unpaired with the US. There were no significant differences among these cues in CS(+)-elicited freezing behavior. Thus, the stimuli were equally salient or effective as cues in supporting fear conditioning. When the CS(+) was a 22kHz USV or a similar stimulus, rats discriminated based on the principal frequency and/or the temporal pattern of the stimulus. However, when these same stimuli served as the CS(-), discrimination failed due to generalization from the CS(+). Thus, the stimuli differed markedly in the specificity of conditioning. This strikingly asymmetrical stimulus generalization is a novel bias in discrimination.

  8. General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Comparat, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)

  9. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements General Requirements... cylinders, circuit breakers, contactors, relays, switches, and fuses; and cracks, breaks, excessive wear...

  10. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  11. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  12. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  13. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  14. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions...

  15. General solution of the supersymmetry consistency conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piguet, O.; Sibold, K.; Schweda, M.

    1980-11-01

    Renormalization of (broken-) supersymmetry theories depends on the existence of a local functional solution, with appropriate power counting, to a system of functional differential equations derived from the quantum action principle (QAP). Using consistency conditions which also follow from the QAP, we prove the existence of such a local solution; its dimension ensures ultraviolet renormalizability, whereas infrared behaviour must be discussed from case to case.

  16. Optimal remediation policy selection under general conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Zheng, C.

    1997-09-01

    A new simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal design of ground-water remediation systems under a variety of field conditions. The model couples genetic algorithm (GA), a global search technique inspired by biological evolution, with MODFLOW and MT3D, two commonly used ground-water flow and solute transport codes. The model allows for multiple management periods in which optimal pumping/injection rates vary with time to reflect the changes in the flow and transport conditions during the remediation process. The objective function of the model incorporates multiple cost terms including the drilling cost, the installation cost, and the costs to extract and treat the contaminated ground water. The simulation-optimization model is first applied to a typical two-dimensional pump-and-treat example with one and three management periods to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new model. The model is then applied to a large-scale three-dimensional field problem to determine the minimum pumping needed to contain an existing contaminant plume. The optimal solution as determined in this study is compared with a previous solution based on trial-and-error selection.

  17. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  7. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.213 General medical condition. The general medical standards for a second-class airman medical certificate are: (a)...

  10. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  11. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  12. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  13. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  14. 47 CFR 15.5 - General conditions of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators... intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference... radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and...

  15. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General terms and conditions. 272.1 Section 272.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTICIPATING STATE AGENCIES § 272.1 General terms and conditions....

  16. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General terms and conditions. 272.1 Section 272.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTICIPATING STATE AGENCIES § 272.1 General terms and conditions....

  17. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General terms and conditions. 272.1 Section 272.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTICIPATING STATE AGENCIES § 272.1 General terms and conditions....

  18. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General terms and conditions. 272.1 Section 272.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTICIPATING STATE AGENCIES § 272.1 General terms and conditions....

  19. 34 CFR 75.620 - General conditions on publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conditions on publication. 75.620 Section 75... Must Be Met by a Grantee? Publications and Copyrights § 75.620 General conditions on publication. (a...) Required statement. The grantee shall ensure that any publication that contains project materials...

  20. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... physiological effects of alcohol and the major drug groups on the controlled substances list. The program must... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.11 General conditions... sustained a personal injury and is subject to alcohol or drug testing under this part, necessary...

  1. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... physiological effects of alcohol and the major drug groups on the controlled substances list. The program must... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.11 General conditions... sustained a personal injury and is subject to alcohol or drug testing under this part, necessary...

  2. Generalized harmonic spatial coordinates and hyperbolic shift conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Alcubierre, Miguel; Corichi, Alejandro; Nunez, Dario; Salgado, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Reimann, Bernd

    2005-12-15

    We propose a generalization of the condition for harmonic spatial coordinates analogous to the generalization of the harmonic time slices introduced by Bona et al., and closely related to dynamic shift conditions recently proposed by Lindblom and Scheel, and Bona and Palenzuela. These generalized harmonic spatial coordinates imply a condition for the shift vector that has the form of an evolution equation for the shift components. We find that in order to decouple the slicing condition from the evolution equation for the shift it is necessary to use a rescaled shift vector. The initial form of the generalized harmonic shift condition is not spatially covariant, but we propose a simple way to make it fully covariant so that it can be used in coordinate systems other than Cartesian. We also analyze the effect of the shift condition proposed here on the hyperbolicity of the evolution equations of general relativity in 1+1 dimensions and 3+1 spherical symmetry, and study the possible development of blowups. Finally, we perform a series of numerical experiments to illustrate the behavior of this shift condition.

  3. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  4. Generalization of Extinguished Skin Conductance Responding in Human Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a human fear conditioning paradigm using the skin conductance response (SCR), participants were assigned to two groups. Following identical acquisition, group ABA (n = 16) was extinguished to a generalization stimulus (GS), whereas group AAB (n = 20) was extinguished to the conditioned stimulus (CS). At test, presenting the CS in group ABA…

  5. Does the Lesche condition for stability validate generalized entropies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Takuya

    2004-08-01

    We reconsider the Lesche condition for a stability of entropies, which has been used for supporting validity of a generalized entropy over the others in recent papers. The fabric of an argument for applying the stability criterion with specific distributions to generalized entropies is shown to be interrogative. We show that a local stability analysis for the generalized entropies does not lead to the same conclusion as the one derived from the Lesche condition. It is also pointed out that the bound on the Shannon entropy by Lesche with an auxiliary function, and that on its generalized version are weak compared to those on the variational distance of their entropies against small changes in distribution. We conclude that there is no good reason for putting much emphasis on the criterion in the sense of Lesche when we advocate the validity of a generalized entropy.

  6. Sleep Promotes Generalization of Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Orr, Scott P.; Rauch, Scott L.; Stickgold, Robert; Pitman, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine the effects of sleep on fear conditioning, extinction, extinction recall, and generalization of extinction recall in healthy humans. Design: During the Conditioning phase, a mild, 0.5-sec shock followed conditioned stimuli (CS+s), which consisted of 2 differently colored lamps. A third lamp color was interspersed but never reinforced (CS-). Immediately after Conditioning, one CS+ was extinguished (CS+E) by presentation without shocks (Extinction phase). The other CS+ went unextinguished (CS+U). Twelve hours later, following continuous normal daytime waking (Wake group, N = 27) or an equal interval containing a normal night's sleep (Sleep group, N = 26), conditioned responses (CRs) to all CSs were measured (Extinction Recall phase). It was hypothesized that the Sleep versus Wake group would show greater extinction recall and/or generalization of extinction recall from the CS+E to the CS+U. Setting: Academic medical center. Subjects: Paid normal volunteers. Measurements and Results: Square-root transformed skin conductance response (SCR) measured conditioned responding. During Extinction Recall, the Group (Wake or Sleep) × CS+ Type (CS+E or CS+U) interaction was significant (P = 0.04). SCRs to the CS+E did not differ between groups, whereas SCRs to the CS+U were significantly smaller in the Sleep group. Additionally, SCRs were significantly larger to the CS+U than CS+E in the Wake but not the Sleep group. Conclusions: After sleep, extinction memory generalized from an extinguished conditioned stimulus to a similarly conditioned but unextinguished stimulus. Clinically, adequate sleep may promote generalization of extinction memory from specific stimuli treated during exposure therapy to similar stimuli later encountered in vivo. Citation: Pace-Schott EF; Milad MR; Orr SP; Rauch SL; Stickgold R; Pitman RK. Sleep promotes generalization of extinction of conditioned fear. SLEEP 2009;32(1):19-26. PMID:19189775

  7. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  8. 18 CFR 50.11 - General conditions applicable to permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a copy of, any application to construct a major electric generation facility. ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General conditions applicable to permits. 50.11 Section 50.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  9. 42 CFR 417.410 - Qualifying conditions: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... groups and to deliver a specified comprehensive range of high quality services efficiently, effectively... services, and a quality assurance program. (c) Standards. Generally, each qualifying condition is... Section 417.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  10. 17 CFR 230.502 - General conditions to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... advertising, including, but not limited to, the following: (1) Any advertisement, article, notice or other... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General conditions to be met. 230.502 Section 230.502 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  11. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  12. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  13. 49 CFR 219.11 - General conditions for chemical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General conditions for chemical tests. 219.11 Section 219.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... for chemical tests. (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is deemed to...

  14. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.9 General disposal terms and conditions. (a) Surplus real property transfers under this part will be limited to public health purposes... hereof. (b) A transfer of surplus real property for public health purposes is subject to the...

  15. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.9 General disposal terms and conditions. (a) Surplus real property transfers under this part will be limited to public health purposes... hereof. (b) A transfer of surplus real property for public health purposes is subject to the...

  16. 18 CFR 154.109 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General terms and conditions. 154.109 Section 154.109 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form...

  17. The Generalized Asymptotic Equipartition Property: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Suppose a string X1n=(X1,X2,…,Xn) generated by a memoryless source (Xn)n≥1 with distribution P is to be compressed with distortion no greater than D ≥ 0, using a memoryless random codebook with distribution Q. The compression performance is determined by the “generalized asymptotic equipartition property” (AEP), which states that the probability of finding a D-close match between X1n and any given codeword Y1n, is approximately 2−nR(P, Q, D), where the rate function R(P, Q, D) can be expressed as an infimum of relative entropies. The main purpose here is to remove various restrictive assumptions on the validity of this result that have appeared in the recent literature. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the generalized AEP are provided in the general setting of abstract alphabets and unbounded distortion measures. All possible distortion levels D ≥ 0 are considered; the source (Xn)n≥1 can be stationary and ergodic; and the codebook distribution can have memory. Moreover, the behavior of the matching probability is precisely characterized, even when the generalized AEP is not valid. Natural characterizations of the rate function R(P, Q, D) are established under equally general conditions. PMID:21614133

  18. Analytical solutions with Generalized Impedance Boundary Conditions (GIBC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, H. H.; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. In particular, ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly to those in the deep lit and shadow regions. These involve new transition functions in place of the usual Fock-type integrals, characteristics to the impedance cylinder. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder. The diffraction coefficients for the convex cylinder are obtained via a generalization of the corresponding ones for the circular cylinder.

  19. Categories, Concepts, and Conditioning: How Humans Generalize Fear

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, Pavlovian conditioning has served as the predominant experimental paradigm and theoretical framework to understand how humans learn to fear and avoid real or perceived dangers. Animal models for translational research offer insight into basic behavioral and neurophysiological factors mediating the acquisition, expression, inhibition, and generalization of fear. However, it is important to consider the limits of traditional animal models when applied to humans. Here, we focus on the question of how humans generalize fear. We propose that to understand fear generalization in humans requires taking into account research on higher-level cognition such as category-based induction, inferential reasoning, and representation of conceptual knowledge. Doing so will open the door for productive avenues of new research. PMID:25577706

  20. General background conditions for K-bounce and adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Antonio Enea

    2017-03-01

    We study the background conditions for a bounce uniquely driven by a single scalar field model with a generalized kinetic term K( X), without any additional matter field. At the background level we impose the existence of two turning points where the derivative of the Hubble parameter H changes sign and of a bounce point where the Hubble parameter vanishes. We find the conditions for K( X) and the potential which ensure the above requirements. We then give the examples of two models constructed according to these conditions. One is based on a quadratic K( X), and the other on a K( X) which is avoiding divergences of the second time derivative of the scalar field, which may otherwise occur. An appropriate choice of the initial conditions can lead to a sequence of consecutive bounces, or oscillations of H. In the region where these models have a constant potential they are adiabatic on any scale and because of this they may not conserve curvature perturbations on super-horizon scales. While at the perturbation level one class of models is free from ghosts and singularities of the classical equations of motion, in general gradient instabilities are present around the bounce time, because the sign of the squared speed of sound is opposite to the sign of the time derivative of H. We discuss how this kind of instabilities could be avoided by modifying the Lagrangian by introducing Galilean terms in order to prevent a negative squared speed of sound around the bounce.

  1. Resistance to extinction, generalization decrement, and conditioned reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Dulaney, Alana E; Bell, Matthew C

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated generalization decrement during an extinction resistance-to-change test for pigeon key pecking using a two-component multiple schedule with equal variable-interval 3-min schedules and different reinforcer amounts (one component presented 2-s access to reinforcement and the other 8s). After establishing baseline responding, subjects were assigned to one of the two extinction conditions: hopper stimuli (hopper and hopper light were activated but no food was available) or Control (inactive hopper and hopper light). Responding in the 8-s component was more resistant to extinction than responding in the 2-s component, the hopper stimuli group was more resistant to extinction compared to the Control group, and an interaction between amount of reinforcement, extinction condition, and session block was present. This finding supports generalization decrement as a factor that influences resistance to extinction. Hopper-time data (the amount of time subjects spent with their heads in the hopper) were compared to resistance-to-change data in an investigation of the role of conditioned reinforcement on resistance to change.

  2. Sufficient conditions for thermal rectification in general graded materials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    We address a fundamental problem for the advance of phononics: the search of a feasible thermal diode. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of thermal rectification in general graded materials. By starting from simple assumptions satisfied by the usual anharmonic models that describe heat conduction in solids, we derive an expression for the rectification. The analytical formula shows how to increase the rectification, and the conditions to avoid its decay with the system size, a problem present in the recurrent model of diodes given by the sequential coupling of two or three different parts. Moreover, for these graded systems, we show that the regimes of nondecaying rectification and of normal conductivity do not overlap. Our results indicate the graded systems as optimal materials for a thermal diode, the basic component of several devices of phononics.

  3. Asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves: General theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    An outstanding issue in the computational analysis of time dependent problems is the imposition of appropriate radiation boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. Accurate conditions are developed which are based on the asymptotic analysis of wave propagation over long ranges. Employing the method of steepest descents, dominant wave groups are identified and simple approximations to the dispersion relation are considered in order to derive local boundary operators. The existence of a small number of dominant wave groups may be expected for systems with dissipation. Estimates of the error as a function of domain size are derived under general hypotheses, leading to convergence results. Some practical aspects of the numerical construction of the asymptotic boundary operators are also discussed.

  4. Generalized CMB initial conditions with pre-equality magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo; Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2008-06-15

    The most general initial conditions of cosmic microwave background anisotropies, compatible with the presence of pre-equality magnetic fields, are derived. When the plasma is composed of photons, baryons, electrons, cold dark matter particles and neutrinos, the initial data of the truncated Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy contemplate one magnetized adiabatic mode and four (magnetized) nonadiabatic modes. After obtaining the analytical form of the various solutions, the Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy is numerically integrated for the corresponding sets of initial data. The TT, TE and EE angular power spectra are illustrated and discussed for the magnetized generalization of the cold dark matter-radiation mode, of the baryon-radiation mode and of the nonadiabatic mode of the neutrino sector. Mixtures of initial conditions are examined by requiring that the magnetized adiabatic mode dominates over the remaining nonadiabatic contributions. In the latter case, possible degeneracies between complementary sets of initial data might be avoided through the combined analysis of the TT, TE and EE angular power spectra at high multipoles (i.e. l>1000)

  5. General and condition-specific essential functions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Samuel A.; Gallagher, Larry A.; Thongdee, Metawee; Staudinger, Benjamin J.; Lippman, Soyeon; Singh, Pradeep K.; Manoil, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The essential functions of a bacterial pathogen reflect the most basic processes required for its viability and growth, and represent potential therapeutic targets. Most screens for essential genes have assayed a single condition—growth in a rich undefined medium—and thus have not distinguished genes that are generally essential from those that are specific to this particular condition. To help define these classes for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we identified genes required for growth on six different media, including a medium made from cystic fibrosis patient sputum. The analysis used the Tn-seq circle method to achieve high genome coverage and analyzed more than 1,000,000 unique insertion positions (an average of one insertion every 6.0 bp). We identified 352 general and 199 condition-specific essential genes. A subset of assignments was verified in individual strains with regulated expression alleles. The profile of essential genes revealed that, compared with Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa is highly vulnerable to mutations disrupting central carbon-energy metabolism and reactive oxygen defenses. These vulnerabilities may arise from the stripped-down architecture of the organism’s carbohydrate utilization pathways and its reliance on respiration for energy generation. The essential function profile thus provides fundamental insights into P. aeruginosa physiology as well as identifying candidate targets for new antibacterial agents. PMID:25848053

  6. Invalidity of the quantitative adiabatic condition and general conditions for adiabatic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dafa

    2016-05-01

    The adiabatic theorem was proposed about 90 years ago and has played an important role in quantum physics. The quantitative adiabatic condition constructed from eigenstates and eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian is a traditional tool to estimate adiabaticity and has proven to be the necessary and sufficient condition for adiabaticity. However, recently the condition has become a controversial subject. In this paper, we list some expressions to estimate the validity of the adiabatic approximation. We show that the quantitative adiabatic condition is invalid for the adiabatic approximation via the Euclidean distance between the adiabatic state and the evolution state. Furthermore, we deduce general necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of the adiabatic approximation by different definitions.

  7. Study on plate silencer with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gongmin; Zhao, Xiaochen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Shuaijun

    2014-09-01

    A plate silencer consists of an expansion chamber with two side-branch rigid cavities covered by plates. Previous studies showed that, in a duct, the introduction of simply supported or clamped plates into an air conveying system could achieve broadband quieting from low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the plate silencer with general boundary conditions. A set of static beam functions, which are a combination of sine series and third-order polynomial, is employed as the trial functions of the plate vibration velocity. Greens function and Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral are used to solve the sound radiation in the duct and the cavity, and then the vibration velocity of the plate is obtained. Having obtained the vibration velocity, the pressure perturbations induced by the plate oscillation and the transmission loss are found. Optimization is carried out in order to obtain the widest stopband. The transmission loss calculated by the analytical method agrees closely with the result of the finite element method simulation. Further studies with regard to the plate under several different classical boundary conditions based on the validated model show that a clamped-free plate silencer has the worst stopband. Attempts to release the boundary restriction of the plate are also made to study its effect on sound reflection. Results show that a softer end for a clamped-clamped plate silencer helps increase the optimal bandwidth, while the same treatment for simply supported plate silencer will result in performance degradation.

  8. Front conditions for gravity currents in channels of general cross-section: some general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungarish, Marius

    2015-11-01

    We consider the propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current in a horizontal channel with general cross-section of width f (z) , 0 <= z <= H the gravity acceleration g acts in - z direction. (The rectangular case is f (z) = const.) We assume a two-layer system of fluids of densities ρc (current, of height h) and ρa (ambient, filling the remaining part of the channel). We revisit the derivation of the nose Froude-number condition Fr = U /(g' h) 1 / 2 ; U is the speed of propagation of the current and g' = (ρc /ρa - 1) g . We present compact insightful expressions of Fr and energy dissipation as a functions of φ (= area fraction occupied by the current in the cross-section), and show that a degree of freedom is present. We demonstrate that the extension of the closure suggested by Benjamin for the rectangular cross-section, namely that the bottom is a perfect stagnation line, produces Fr solutions which are optimal with respect to several useful criteria. However, the energy conserving closure yields problematic Fr results, as manifest in particular by invalidity for deep currents (small h / H). Connection with realistic time-dependent gravity currents is discussed.

  9. Generalized conditioned reinforcement with pigeons in a token economy.

    PubMed

    DeFulio, Anthony; Yankelevitz, Rachelle; Bullock, Christopher; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2014-07-01

    Six pigeons were studied in a token economy in which tokens could be produced and exchanged for food on one side of an experimental chamber and for water on the opposite side of the chamber. Responses on one key produced tokens according to a token-production fixed ratio (FR) schedule. Responses on a second key produced an exchange period during which tokens were exchanged for water or food. In Experiment 1a, food tokens could be earned and exchanged under restricted food budgets, and water tokens could be earned and exchanged under water restricted budgets. In Experiment 1b, a third (generalized) token type could be earned and exchanged for either food or water under water restricted budgets. Across Experiments 1a and 1b, the number of tokens accumulated prior to exchange increased as the exchange-production schedule was increased. In Experiment 1b, pigeons produced more generalized than specific tokens, suggesting enhanced reinforcing efficacy of generalized tokens. In Experiment 2, the FR token-production price was manipulated under water restriction and then under food restriction. Production of each token type generally declined as a function of its own price and increased as a function of the price of the alternate type, demonstrating own-price and cross-price elasticity. Production of food and water tokens often changed together, indicating complementarity. Production of specific and generalized tokens changed in opposite directions, indicating substitutability. This is the first demonstration of sustained generalized functions of tokens in nonhumans, and illustrates a promising method for exploring economic contingencies in a controlled environment.

  10. 77 FR 18 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Approval of Information Collection Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1915 RIN 1218-AB50 General Working Conditions in... information requirements contained in the General Working Conditions Standard under the Paperwork Reduction...- 2222. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OSHA published a final rule for General Working Conditions in...

  11. 7 CFR 272.1 - General terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Social Security Act in order to assist in the administration of that program, and employees of the... benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act; (v) Employees of the Comptroller General's... Federal law enforcement officers, upon written request, for the purpose of obtaining the address,...

  12. Conditions for the naked singularity formation in generalized Vaidya spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertogradov, V. D.

    2016-11-01

    The gravitational collapse of generalised Vaidya spacetime is considered. It is known that the endstate of gravitational collapse, as to whether a black hole or a naked singularity is formed, depends on the mass function M(v,r). Here we give conditions for the mass function which corresponds to the equation of the state P = αρ where α ∈ (0, ⅓] and according to these conditions we obtain either a black hole or a naked singularity at the endstate of gravitational collapse. Also we give conditions for the mass function when the singularity is gravitationally strong. Also we provide the metric which is the analogue of Vaidya metric in case of rotation.

  13. 17 CFR 230.502 - General conditions to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following conditions shall be applicable to offers and sales made under Regulation D (§§ 230.501-230.508... class as those offered or sold under Regulation D, other than those offers or sales of securities under... issuance of the same class of securities; (c) Whether the sales have been made at or about the same...

  14. Boundary conditions and generalized functions in a transition radiation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, M.; Jiménez, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to show how all the components of the electromagnetic field involved in the transition radiation problem can be obtained using distribution functions. The handling of the products and derivatives of distributions appearing in the differential equations governing transition radiation, allows to obtain the necessary boundary conditions, additional to those implied by Maxwell's equations, in order to exactly determine the longitudinal components of the electromagnetic field. It is shown that this method is not only useful but it is really convenient to achieve a full analysis of the problem.

  15. General no-go condition for stochastic pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; Netočný, Karel; Thomas, Simi R.

    2010-06-01

    The control of chemical dynamics requires understanding the effect of time-dependent transition rates between states of chemomechanical molecular configurations. Pumping refers to generating a net current, e.g., per period in the time dependence, through a cycle of consecutive states. The work of artificial machines or synthesized molecular motors depends on it. In this paper we give short and simple proofs of no-go theorems, some of which appeared before but here with essential extensions to non-Markovian dynamics, including the study of the diffusion limit. It allows to exclude certain protocols in the working of chemical motors where only the depth of the energy well is changed in time and not the barrier height between pairs of states. We also show how pre-existing steady state currents are, in general, modified with a multiplicative factor when this time dependence is turned on.

  16. TESTS FOR THE EXTENT OF GENERALIZATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING UNDER IDENTICAL TRAINING SCHEDULES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The possibility that equal rates of reinforcement may produce generalization between two dissimilar conditioned stimuli is important both for...understanding generalization itself and for interpreting null outcomes resulting from within-S comparisons of two conditioning methods. Conventional...procedures for testing the extent of generalization are not applicable, but suitable trial arrangements do allow tests of this question, the number and

  17. Breaking generalized covariance, classical renormalization, and boundary conditions from superpotentials

    SciTech Connect

    Livshits, Gideon I.

    2014-02-15

    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum, and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBL superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either the original Lagrangian must be effectively renormalized, or that boundary conditions must be imposed, so that space-time be asymptotically maximally symmetric. Non-metricity is central to this paradox, and we show how quadratic non-metricity in the bulk of space-time contributes to the conserved charges on the boundary, where it vanishes identically. This is a realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism, proposed by Percacci, where the non-metricity is the analogue of the Goldstone boson.

  18. 77 FR 42677 - Special Conditions: General Electric CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Special Conditions: General Electric CT7-2E1 Turboshaft Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed special conditions. SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the General Electric CT7-2E1 engine model....

  19. General Considerations of the Electrostatic Boundary Conditions in Oxide Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Takuya

    2011-08-19

    When the size of materials is comparable to the characteristic length scale of their physical properties, novel functionalities can emerge. For semiconductors, this is exemplified by the 'superlattice' concept of Esaki and Tsu, where the width of the repeated stacking of different semiconductors is comparable to the 'size' of the electrons, resulting in novel confined states now routinely used in opto-electronics. For metals, a good example is magnetic/non-magnetic multilayer films that are thinner than the spin-scattering length, from which giant magnetoresistance (GMR) emerged, used in the read heads of hard disk drives. For transition metal oxides, a similar research program is currently underway, broadly motivated by the vast array of physical properties that they host. This long-standing notion has been recently invigorated by the development of atomic-scale growth and probe techniques, which enables the study of complex oxide heterostructures approaching the precision idealized in Fig. 1(a). Taking the subset of oxides derived from the perovskite crystal structure, the close lattice match across many transition metal oxides presents the opportunity, in principle, to develop a 'universal' heteroepitaxial materials system. Hand-in-hand with the continual improvements in materials control, an increasingly relevant challenge is to understand the consequences of the electrostatic boundary conditions which arise in these structures. The essence of this issue can be seen in Fig. 1(b), where the charge sequence of the sublayer 'stacks' for various representative perovskites is shown in the ionic limit, in the (001) direction. To truly 'universally' incorporate different properties using different materials components, be it magnetism, ferroelectricity, superconductivity, etc., it is necessary to access and join different charge sequences, labelled here in analogy to the designations 'group IV, III-V, II-VI' for semiconductors. As we will review, interfaces between

  20. 20 CFR 633.305 - General benefits and working conditions for program participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General benefits and working conditions for program participants. 633.305 Section 633.305 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... § 633.305 General benefits and working conditions for program participants. (a) Payments for...

  1. 20 CFR 633.305 - General benefits and working conditions for program participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General benefits and working conditions for program participants. 633.305 Section 633.305 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... § 633.305 General benefits and working conditions for program participants. (a) Payments for...

  2. 36 CFR 228.47 - General terms and conditions of contracts and permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General terms and conditions of contracts and permits. 228.47 Section 228.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.47 General...

  3. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues.

  4. Generalization of conditioned fear along a dimension of increasing fear intensity.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Mitroff, Stephen R; LaBar, Kevin S

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups underwent discriminative fear conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS-). In Experiment 1 the CS- was a relatively neutral face stimulus, while in Experiment 2 the CS- was the most fear-intense stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both experimental groups showed gradients of generalization following fear conditioning that increased with the fear intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization. Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and may have implications for understanding generalization processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli.

  5. The Impact of Instructions on Generalization of Conditioned Fear in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ola; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-09-01

    Generalization of conditioned fear has been implicated in the maintenance and proliferation of fear in anxiety disorders. The role of cognitive processes in generalization of conditioning is an important yet understudied issue. Vervliet et al. (2010) tested generalization of fear to a visual stimulus of a particular color and shape paired with electric shock. Test stimuli shared either the color or shape of the CS+. Prior to conditioning, participants were instructed that either color or shape would be predictive of shock. Generalization was stronger to the stimulus containing the instructed feature, suggesting that instructions impacted generalization of fear. However, the result may also reflect the impact of instructions on attention and learning during the conditioning phase. In the present study, the instructional manipulation was given after the conditioning phase to control for any impact of instructions on learning. A similar result to that reported by Vervliet et al. was observed. On self-reported expectancy of shock, generalization was greater to the test stimulus that included the instructed stimulus feature. The same pattern was observed on skin conductance, although it did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that explicitly instructed information affected generalization of conditioned fear independently of any impact on learning, pointing to the role of cognitive processes in human fear generalization. They also support the utility of cognitive therapy approaches, which are employed after fear has already developed, in addressing clinical overgeneralization.

  6. Asymmetrical Generalization of Conditioning and Extinction From Compound to Element and Element to Compound

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Mark E.; Doyle-Burr, Caleb; Vurbic, Drina

    2014-01-01

    Four appetitive conditioning experiments studied generalization between compound conditional stimuli (AB) and their elements (e.g., A or B). In Experiments 1 and 2, rats received conditioning with A and AB and then extinction with either A or AB. During subsequent testing, there was more generalization of extinction (nonresponding) from the compound (AB) to the element (A) than from the element (A) to the compound (AB). This asymmetry was consistent with earlier results involving temporal discrimination learning in which short and long temporal intervals played the roles of A and AB. In Experiment 3, rats received conditioning with either A or AB and then testing with A and AB. Consistent with elemental models of conditioning, there was more generalization of conditioned responding from A to AB than from AB to A. Experiment 4 found that these asymmetries in the generalization of extinction (Experiments 1–2) and conditioning (Experiment 3) both contribute to the feature-positive effect. Overall, the parallel between the current findings and previous results with temporal discrimination learning supports an associative analysis of interval timing. Implications for elemental and configural theories of conditioning and generalization are also discussed. PMID:22924827

  7. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-5 General... result in any unsafe condition endangering the motor vehicle, its occupants, or persons or property...

  8. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-5 General... result in any unsafe condition endangering the motor vehicle, its occupants, or persons or property...

  9. On the Ideal Boundary Condition in a General Toroidal Geometry for a Mixed Magnetic Field Representation

    SciTech Connect

    X. Z. Tang

    2000-12-18

    Subtleties of implementing the standard perfectly conducting wall boundary condition in a general toroidal geometry are clarified for a mixed scalar magnetic field representation. An iterative scheme based on Ohm's law is given.

  10. Relating different quantum generalizations of the conditional Rényi entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tomamichel, Marco; Berta, Mario; Hayashi, Masahito

    2014-08-15

    Recently a new quantum generalization of the Rényi divergence and the corresponding conditional Rényi entropies was proposed. Here, we report on a surprising relation between conditional Rényi entropies based on this new generalization and conditional Rényi entropies based on the quantum relative Rényi entropy that was used in previous literature. Our result generalizes the well-known duality relation H(A|B) + H(A|C) = 0 of the conditional von Neumann entropy for tripartite pure states to Rényi entropies of two different kinds. As a direct application, we prove a collection of inequalities that relate different conditional Rényi entropies and derive a new entropic uncertainty relation.

  11. Common fixed point theorems of Gregus type for weakly compatible mappings satisfying generalized contractive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouche, A.

    2008-05-01

    We prove a common fixed point theorem of Gregus type for four mappings satisfying a generalized contractive condition in metric spaces using the concept of weak compatibility which generalizes theorems of [I. Altun, D. Turkoglu, B.E. Rhoades, Fixed points of weakly compatible mappings satisfying a general contractive condition of integral type, Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2007 (2007), article ID 17301; A. Djoudi, L. Nisse, Gregus type fixed points for weakly compatible mappings, Bull. Belg. Math. Soc. 10 (2003) 369-378; A. Djoudi, A. Aliouche, Common fixed point theorems of Gregus type for weakly compatible mappings satisfying contractive conditions of integral type, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 329 (1) (2007) 31-45; P. Vijayaraju, B.E. Rhoades, R. Mohanraj, A fixed point theorem for a pair of maps satisfying a general contractive condition of integral type, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 15 (2005) 2359-2364; X. Zhang, Common fixed point theorems for some new generalized contractive type mappings, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 (2) (2007) 780-786]. We prove also a common fixed point theorem which generalizes Theorem 3.5 of [H.KE Pathak, M.S. Khan, T. Rakesh, A common fixed point theorem and its application to nonlinear integral equations, Comput. Math. Appl. 53 (2007) 961-971] and common fixed point theorems of Gregus type using a strict generalized contractive condition, a property (E.A) and a common property (E.A).

  12. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  14. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20 Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment... agreement with that agency or organization. The agreement must set forth the FWS work conditions....

  15. Existence Result for the Kinetic Neutron Transport Problem with a General Albedo Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Bourhrara, Lahbib

    2011-09-01

    We present an existence result for the kinetic neutron transport equation with a general albedo boundary condition. The proof is constructive in the sense that we build a sequence that converges to the solution of the problem by iterating on the albedo term. Both nonhomogeneous and albedo boundary conditions are studied.

  16. Generalization of conditioned fear along a dimension of increasing fear intensity

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two experimental groups underwent discriminative fear conditioning between a face stimulus of 55% fear intensity (conditioned stimulus, CS+), reinforced with an electric shock, and a second stimulus that was unreinforced (CS−). In Experiment 1 the CS− was a relatively neutral face stimulus, while in Experiment 2 the CS− was the most fear-intense stimulus. Before and following fear conditioning, skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to different morph values along the neutral-to-fear dimension. Both experimental groups showed gradients of generalization following fear conditioning that increased with the fear intensity of the stimulus. In Experiment 1 a peak shift in SCRs extended to the most fear-intense stimulus. In contrast, generalization to the most fear-intense stimulus was reduced in Experiment 2, suggesting that discriminative fear learning procedures can attenuate fear generalization. Together, the findings indicate that fear generalization is broadly tuned and sensitive to the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli, but that fear generalization can come under stimulus control. These results reveal a novel form of fear generalization in humans that is not merely based on physical similarity to a conditioned exemplar, and may have implications for understanding generalization processes in anxiety disorders characterized by heightened sensitivity to nonthreatening stimuli. PMID:19553384

  17. Activation of dopamine neurons is critical for aversive conditioning and prevention of generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Larry S; Fadok, Jonathan P; Argilli, Emmanuela; Garelick, Michael G; Jones, Graham L; Dickerson, Tavis M K; Allen, James M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-05-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orientation to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus is attenuated by conditional genetic inactivation of functional NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons. We discovered that altering the magnitude of excitatory responses by dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus was associated with impaired conditioning to a cue that predicts an aversive outcome. Impaired conditioning by these mice was associated with the development of a persistent, generalized anxiety-like phenotype. These data are consistent with a role for dopamine in facilitating contingency awareness that is critical for the prevention of generalized anxiety.

  18. Shock-jump conditions in a general medium: weak-solution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, L. K.; Krzysik, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    General conservation laws are considered, and the concept of a weak solution is extended to the case of an equation involving three space variables and time. Four-dimensional vector calculus is used to develop general jump conditions at a shock wave in the material. To illustrate the use of this result, jump conditions at a shock in unsteady three-dimensional compressible gas flow are presented. It is then proved rigorously that these reduce to the commonly assumed conditions in coordinates normal and tangential to the shock face. A similar calculation is also outlined for an unsteady three-dimensional shock in magnetohydrodynamics, and in a chemically reactive fluid. The technique is available for determining shock-jump conditions in quite general continuous media.

  19. Psychophysiological and subjective indicators of aversive pavlovian conditioning in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Christiane; Ziegler, Silvio; Birbaumer, Niels; Flor, Herta

    2002-08-15

    Aversive conditioning has been proposed as an important etiologic mechanism in social phobia; however, empirical evidence is scarce and has not relied on a detailed analysis of the acquisition and extinction of the conditioned emotional response. Fourteen men sustaining generalized social phobia and 19 healthy control subjects participated in differential aversive conditioning with two neutral faces as conditioned stimuli and an aversive odor as unconditioned stimulus. Subjective and peripheral physiological responses were obtained. Both groups were successfully conditioned as reflected by differential subjective (valence, arousal, subjective unconditioned stimulus expectancy) and peripheral physiological responses (skin conductance, startle response). There was no evidence for an enhanced conditionability in the social phobics; however, they showed an enhanced unconditioned stimulus expectancy, especially for the nonreinforced conditioned stimuli during acquisition, and a delayed extinction of the conditioned skin conductance response as well as a certain dissociation between subjective and physiological responses.The enhanced unconditioned stimulus expectancy during acquisition and the overall elevated subjective arousal suggest that, under threat, subjects with generalized social phobia may be more prone to associate neutral social cues and an aversive outcome. Furthermore, delayed extinction of the conditioned response seems to contribute to the etiology and maintenance of generalized social phobia.

  20. Differential effects of adding and removing components of a context on the generalization of conditional freezing.

    PubMed

    González, Felisa; Quinn, Jennifer J; Fanselow, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Rats were conditioned across 2 consecutive days where a single unsignaled footshock was presented in the presence of specific contextual cues. Rats were tested with contexts that had additional stimulus components either added or subtracted. Using freezing as a measure of conditioning, removal but not addition of a cue from the training context produced significant generalization decrement. The results are discussed in relation to the R. A. Rescorla and A. R. Wagner (1972), J. M. Pearce (1994), and A. R. Wagner and S. E. Brandon (2001) accounts of generalization. Although the present data are most consistent with elemental models such as Rescorla and Wagner, a slight modification of the Wagner-Brandon replaced-elements model that can account for differences in the pattern of generalization obtained with contexts and discrete conditional stimuli is proposed.

  1. Growth conditions, compact perturbations and operator subdecomposability, with applications to generalized Cesàro operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. L.; Miller, V. G.; Neumann, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    We adapt recent results of Albrecht and Ricker to obtain conditions under which growth constraints on the left resolvent of a Banach space operator are preserved under suitable perturbations. As an application, we establish Bishop's property ([beta]) for certain generalized Cesàro operators on the classical Hardy spaces Hp, 1generalized scalar operators.

  2. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Miriam A.; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 471–481, 2016. PMID:26798984

  3. Generalization Effects in Evaluative Conditioning: Evidence for Attitude Transfer Effects from Single Exemplars to Social Categories

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Tina; Kuchenbrandt, Dieta

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated whether evaluatively conditioned attitudes toward members of a social category (CSs) generalize to other stimuli belonging to the same category as the CSs (generalization at the stimulus level) and to the category itself (generalization at the category level). In four experiments, USs were paired with schematic or naturalistic CSs belonging to certain fictitious groups. Afterward, attitudes toward the CSs, toward non-presented exemplars of the CS category, and toward the CS category were assessed. Results revealed evidence for generalization effects in EC on both the stimulus and the category level. Transfer effects were greater when participants’ awareness of the CS–US contingency (CA) was high. Moreover, we found differences in generalization between the stimulus and category level, indicating that different processes might contribute to the effects. Theoretical and practical implications such as using EC as a tool for changing attitudes toward social groups will be discussed. PMID:28197118

  4. Preservation Conditions, Practices, and Needs in the General Libraries. A Report by the Preservation Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. General Libraries.

    The survey documented in this report was conducted in 1981 to investigate the preservation conditions, practices, and needs of the units of the University of Texas at Austin General Libraries. The report is divided into six major portions. The first five sections report the responses to questionnaires on specific formats: books and serials;…

  5. Student's Research Work as the Condition of Continuity of General and Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedishenkova, Marina V.; Efimova, Elena V.; Ryabova, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    The problem in question is necessitated by the contradictions between requirements of successive educational process of general and professional education and the absence of new mechanisms of providing the continuity of education which is effective under modern conditions. The aim of the article in question is to provide the potential of the…

  6. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  7. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  8. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  9. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  10. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  11. Sufficient conditions for local regularity to the generalized Newtonian fluid with shear thinning viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyeong-Ohk; Wolf, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    We prove the local regularity of a weak solution {\\varvec{u}} to the equations of a generalized Newtonian fluid with power law 1< q ≤ 2 if {\\varvec{u}} belongs to a suitable Lebesgue space. This result extends the well-known Serrin condition for weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations to the shear-thinning fluids.

  12. Generalization of Conditioned Fear along a Dimension of Increasing Fear Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…

  13. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites § 72.212 Conditions of... a letter, but must contain the licensee's name, address, reactor license and docket numbers, and...

  14. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites § 72.212 Conditions of... a letter, but must contain the licensee's name, address, reactor license and docket numbers, and...

  15. 22 CFR 1003.1 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION IN IAF RECORDS § 1003.1 General policies, conditions of... safeguard an individual against an invasion of personal privacy. Except as otherwise provided by law or... such records. (4) Collect, maintain, use or disseminate any record of identifiable personal...

  16. The General Necessary Condition for the Validity of Dirac's Transition Perturbation Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quang, Nguyen Vinh

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, from the natural requirements for the successive approximation the general necessary condition of validity of the Dirac's method is explicitly established. It is proved that the conception of 'the transition probability per unit time' is not valid. The 'super-platinium rules' for calculating the transition probability are derived for the arbitrarily strong time-independent perturbation case.

  17. Generalization of turbojet and turbine-propeller engine performance in windmilling condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Ewis E; Welna, Henry J

    1951-01-01

    Windmilling characteristics of several turbojet and turbine-propeller engines were investigated individually over a wide range of flight conditions in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. A study was made of all these data and windmilling performance of gas turbine engines was generalized. Although internal-drag, air-flow, and total-pressure-drop parameters were generalized to a single curve for both the axial-flow type engines and another for the centrifugal-flow engine. The engine speed, component pressure changes, and windmilling-propeller drag were generalized to single curves for the two turbine-propeller-type engines investigated. By the use of these curves the windmilling performance can be estimated for axial-flow type gas turbine engines similar to the types investigated over a wide range of flight conditions.

  18. Semi-analytical solution for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Shuo; Chen, Yan-Yu; Yu, Chi-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2017-02-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution of a time-history kernel for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To facilitate the kernel derivation, the concept of virtual atoms in real space that can conform with an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice is adopted. The generalized Langevin equation is regularized using eigenvalue decomposition and, consequently, an analytical expression of an inverse Laplace transform is obtained. With construction of dynamical matrices in the virtual domain, a semi-analytical form of the time-history kernel functions for an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice can be found. The time-history kernel functions for different crystal lattices are derived to show the generality of the proposed method. Non-equilibrium MD simulations in a triangular lattice with and without the absorbing boundary condition are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the solution.

  19. No evidence for general condition-dependence of structural plumage colour in blue tits: an experiment.

    PubMed

    Peters, A; Kurvers, R H J M; Roberts, M L; Delhey, K

    2011-05-01

    Condition-dependence is a central but contentious tenet of evolutionary theories on the maintenance of ornamental traits, and this is particularly true for structural plumage colour. By providing diets of different nutritional quality to moulting male and female blue tits, we experimentally manipulated general condition within the natural range, avoiding deprivation or stressful treatments. We measured reflectance of the structural-coloured UV/blue crown, a sexually selected trait in males, and the white cheek, a nonpigmented structural colour, directly after moult and again during the following spring mating season. We employed a variety of colour indices, based on spectral shape and avian visual models but, despite significant variation in condition and coloration, found no evidence for condition-dependence of UV/blue or white plumage colour during either season. These and previously published results suggest that structural colour might be sensitive to stress, rather than reduced body condition, during moult.

  20. Graphicality conditions for general scale-free complex networks and their application to visibility graphs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    We obtain graphicality conditions for general types of scale-free networks. The same conditions obtained for uncorrelated networks are obtained in the general case. Then an upper bound relating γ, the exponent of the degree distribution, with the cutoff exponent κ, as κ<1/γ is established. This bound is valid for all networks with a well-defined power-law degree distribution in the range γ≤2. Some recent numerical research on visibility networks arising from persistent fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes are reviewed since they do not fulfill these conditions. As a consequence, a new relationship between the exponent γ of the degree distribution and the Hurst exponent H of the fBm process, γ⪅1/H, is postulated.

  1. Hybrid preconditioning for iterative diagonalization of ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems in electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunfeng; Bai, Zhaojun; Pask, John E.; Sukumar, N.

    2013-12-15

    The iterative diagonalization of a sequence of large ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems is a computational bottleneck in quantum mechanical methods employing a nonorthogonal basis for ab initio electronic structure calculations. We propose a hybrid preconditioning scheme to effectively combine global and locally accelerated preconditioners for rapid iterative diagonalization of such eigenvalue problems. In partition-of-unity finite-element (PUFE) pseudopotential density-functional calculations, employing a nonorthogonal basis, we show that the hybrid preconditioned block steepest descent method is a cost-effective eigensolver, outperforming current state-of-the-art global preconditioning schemes, and comparably efficient for the ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems produced by PUFE as the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for the well-conditioned standard eigenvalue problems produced by planewave methods.

  2. Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsung; Lei, Yuming; Xiong, Khongchee; Marek, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training.

  3. On relations for general two-dimensional ideal plasticity problems under the full plasticity condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorskii, A. V.; Gorskii, P. V.

    2008-10-01

    Relations for two-dimensional ideal plasticity problems under the full plasticity condition are determined with material anisotropy, inhomogeneity, and compressibility properties taken into account. These properties are determined by the direction cosines of the principal stress, the coordinates of points in space, and the mean stress. For the yield strength we take a function of the form k = k( σ, n 1, n 2, n 3, x, y, z). The desired relations are determined for the general plane ideal plasticity problem. The relations thus obtained are generalized to the cases of axisymmetric and spherical plasticity problems.

  4. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.

  5. General conditions for proximity induced odd-frequency superconductivity in two-dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  6. Generalized Kubo relations and conditions for anomalous diffusion: Physical insights from a mathematical theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneller, Gerald R.

    2011-06-01

    The paper describes an approach to anomalous diffusion within the framework of the generalized Langevin equation. Using a Tauberian theorem for Laplace transforms due to Hardy, Littlewood, and Karamata, generalized Kubo relations for the relevant transport coefficients are derived from the asymptotic form of the mean square displacement. In a second step conditions for anomalous diffusion are derived for the asymptotic forms of the velocity autocorrelation function and the associated memory function. Both spatially unconfined and confined diffusion processes are considered. The results are illustrated with semi-analytical examples.

  7. Higher Integrability of Solutions to Generalized Stokes System Under Perfect Slip Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mácha, Václav; Tichý, Jakub

    2014-10-01

    We prove an L q theory result for generalized Stokes system in a {{C}^{2,1}} domain complemented with the perfect slip boundary conditions and under Φ-growth conditions. Since the interior regularity was obtained in Diening and Kaplický (Manu Math 141:336-361, 2013), a regularity up to the boundary is an aim of this paper. In order to get the main result, we use Calderón-Zygmund theory and the method developed in Caffarelli and Peral (Ann Math 130:189-213, 1989). We obtain higher integrability of the first gradient of a solution.

  8. General band gap condition in one-dimensional resonator-based acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yafei; Hou, Zhilin; Fu, Xiujun

    2016-03-01

    A one-dimensional model for resonator-based acoustic metamaterials is introduced. The condition for band gap in such kind of structure is obtained. According to this condition, the dispersion relation is in general a result of the scattering phase and propagating phase. The phenomenon that the band gap is less dependent on lattice structure appears only in the special system in which the coupling between the resonators and the host medium is weak enough. For strong coupled systems, the dispersion of wave can be significantly adjusted by the propagating phase. Based on the understanding, a general guide for band gap optimization is given and the mechanism for structures with the defect states at subwavelength scale is revealed.

  9. Generalizing Over Conditions by Combining the Multitrait Multimethod Matrix and the Representative Design of Experiments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    MATRIX AND THE (0 REPRESENTATIVE DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS .4 Kenneth R. Hammond, Robert M. Hamm and Janet Grassia ) 13 LA.’I.7 A GENERALIZING OVER...CONDITIONS BY COMBINING THE MULTITKAIT MULTIMETHOD MATRIX AND THE 46_6 REPRESENTATIVE DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS Kenneth R. Hammond, Robert M. Hamm and Janet...and the Representative Design of Experiments 6. PERFORMINGOn. REPORT NUMER 7. AUTHOR(@) S. CONTRACT oR GRANT NUM6ER(s) Kenneth R. Hammond, Robert M

  10. General conditions for scale-invariant perturbations in an expanding universe

    SciTech Connect

    Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kinney, William H.; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the general properties of expanding cosmological models which generate scale-invariant curvature perturbations in the presence of a variable speed of sound. We show that in an expanding universe, generation of a super-Hubble, nearly scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations over a range of wavelengths consistent with observation requires at least one of three conditions: (1) accelerating expansion, (2) a speed of sound faster than the speed of light, or (3) super-Planckian energy density.

  11. Asymptotic forms for hard and soft edge general β conditional gap probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Witte, Nicholas S.

    2012-06-01

    An infinite log-gas formalism, due to Dyson, and independently Fogler and Shklovskii, is applied to the computation of conditioned gap probabilities at the hard and soft edges of random matrix β-ensembles. The conditioning is that there are n eigenvalues in the gap, with n≪|t|, t denoting the end point of the gap. It is found that the entropy term in the formalism must be replaced by a term involving the potential drop to obtain results consist with known asymptotic expansions in the case n=0. With this modification made for general n, the derived expansions — which are for the logarithm of the gap probabilities — are conjectured to be correct up to and including terms O(log|t|). They are shown to satisfy various consistency conditions, including an asymptotic duality formula relating β to 4/β.

  12. Generalized adjoint consistent treatment of wall boundary conditions for compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Ralf; Leicht, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we revisit the adjoint consistency analysis of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with application to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and k- ω turbulence equations. Here, particular emphasis is laid on the discretization of wall boundary conditions. While previously only one specific combination of discretizations of wall boundary conditions and of aerodynamic force coefficients has been shown to give an adjoint consistent discretization, in this article we generalize this analysis and provide a discretization of the force coefficients for any consistent discretization of wall boundary conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a related evaluation of the cp- and cf-distributions is required. The freedom gained in choosing the discretization of boundary conditions without loosing adjoint consistency is used to devise a new adjoint consistent discretization including numerical fluxes on the wall boundary which is more robust than the adjoint consistent discretization known up to now. While this work is presented in the framework of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations, the insight gained is also applicable to (and thus valuable for) other discretization schemes. In particular, the discretization of integral quantities, like the drag, lift and moment coefficients, as well as the discretization of local quantities at the wall like surface pressure and skin friction should follow as closely as possible the discretization of the flow equations and boundary conditions at the wall boundary.

  13. Pseudo-Hermitian coherent states under the generalized quantum condition with position-dependent mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, S. A.; Bentaiba, M.

    2012-11-01

    In the context of the factorization method, we investigate the pseudo-Hermitian coherent states and their Hermitian counterpart coherent states under the generalized quantum condition in the framework of a position-dependent mass. By considering a specific modification in the superpotential, suitable annihilation and creation operators are constructed in order to reproduce the Hermitian counterpart Hamiltonian in the factorized form. We show that by means of these ladder operators, we can construct a wide range of exactly solvable potentials as well as their accompanying coherent states. Alternatively, we explore the relationship between the pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian and its Hermitian counterparts, obtained from a similarity transformation, to construct the associated pseudo-Hermitian coherent states. These latter preserve the structure of Perelomov’s states and minimize the generalized position-momentum uncertainty principle. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  14. Generalization of Pain-Related Fear Using a Left-Right Hand Judgment Conditioning Task.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Harvie, Daniel S; Lorimer Moseley, G; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2015-09-01

    Recent research suggests that the mere intention to perform a painful movement can elicit pain-related fear. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to determine whether imagining a movement that is associated with pain (CS+) can start to elicit conditioned pain-related fear as well and whether pain-related fear elicited by imagining a painful movement can spread towards novel, similar but distinct imagined movements. We proposed a new experimental paradigm that integrates the left-right hand judgment task (HJT) with a differential fear conditioning procedure. During Acquisition, one hand posture (CS+) was consistently followed by a painful electrocutaneous stimulus (pain-US) and another hand posture (CS-) was not. Participants were instructed to make left-right judgments, which involve mentally rotating their own hand to match the displayed hand postures (i.e., motor imagery). During Generalization, participants were presented with a series of novel hand postures with six grades of perceptual similarity to the CS+ (generalization stimuli; GSs). Finally, during Extinction, the CS+ hand posture was no longer reinforced. The results showed that (1) a painful hand posture triggers fear and increased US-expectancy as compared to a nonpainful hand posture, (2) this pain-related fear spreads to similar but distinct hand postures following a generalization gradient, and subsequently, (3) it can be successfully reduced during extinction. These effects were apparent in the verbal ratings, but not in the startle measures. Because of the lack of effect in the startle measures, we cannot draw firm conclusions about whether the "imagined movements" (i.e., motor imagery of the hand postures) gained associative strength rather than the hand posture pictures itself. From a clinical perspective, basic research into generalization of pain-related fear triggered by covert CSs such as intentions, imagined movements and movement-related cognitions might further our

  15. Conditioned Fear Extinction and Generalization in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ORGANIZATION: Emory University Atlanta, GA 30322-1018 REPORT DATE: August 2012 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Report PREPARED FOR: U.S...To) 1 August 2011–31 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conditioned Fear Extinction and Generalization in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder...TT   100   RS4606   RGS2   CC   109   CG   88   GG   28   RS4680   COMT   AA   44   GA   99   GG   83   RS4875113

  16. Study on pure IL VIV of a free spanning pipeline under general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wan-hai; Xu, Jing-yu; Wu, Ying-xiang; Ji, Chun-ning

    2017-03-01

    Pipeline spans may occur due to natural seabed irregularities or local scour of bed sediment. The pure in-line (IL) vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) analysis of the free spans is an important subject for design of pipeline in uneven seabed. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of pure IL VIV of a free spanning pipeline under general boundary conditions. An IL wake oscillator model which can describe the coupling of pipeline structure and fluctuating drag is introduced and employed. The coupled partial differential equations of structure and wake are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations using two-mode Galerkin method. Some case studies are presented and thoroughly discussed in order to investigate the effects of internal fluid, axial force and boundary conditions on the pure IL VIV.

  17. Axisymmetric Stagnation-Point Flow with a General Slip Boundary Condition over a Lubricated Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, M.; K., Mahmood; Z., Abbas

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of a viscous fluid over a lubricated surface by imposing a generalized slip condition at the fluid-fluid interface. The power law non-Newtonian fluid is considered as a lubricant. The lubrication layer is thin and assumed to have a variable thickness. The transformed nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the flow is linearized using quasilinearization. The method of superposition is adopted to convert the boundary value problem into an initial value problem and the solution is obtained numerically by using the fourth-order Runge—Kutta method. The results are discussed to see the influence of pertinent parameters. The limiting cases of Navier and no-slip boundary conditions are obtained as the special cases and found to be in excellent agreement with the existing results in the literature.

  18. Generalized conditional symmetries and related solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation

    SciTech Connect

    Cimpoiasu, Rodica

    2014-04-15

    The generalized conditional symmetry (GCS) method is applied to a specific case of the Grad–Shafranov (GS) equation, in cylindrical geometry assuming the existence of an axial symmetry. We investigate the conditions that yield the GS equation admitting a special class of second-order GCSs. The determining system for the unknown arbitrary functions is solved in several special cases and new exact solutions, including solitary waves, different in form and structure from the ones obtained using other nonclassical symmetry methods, are pointed out. Several plots of the level sets or flux surfaces of the new solutions as well as surfaces with vanishing flow are displayed. The obtained solutions can be useful for studying plasma equilibrium, transport phenomena, and magnetohydrodynamic stability.

  19. Analysis of laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells with general boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.

    1974-01-01

    This report develops: (1) a refined approximate theory for the static and dynamic analyses of finite, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells with general boundary conditions; (2) an exact three-dimensional analysis of simply supported, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells, and (3) a thin-shell theory for laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells. In the refined approximate theory the displacements are assumed piecewise linear across the thickness and the effects of transverse shear deformations and transverse normal stress are included. A variational approach is followed to obtain the governing differential equations and boundary conditions. A general solution of the governing differential equations is also presented. The results obtained by using the refined approximate theory and the thin-shell theory are compared with the exact results for the case of free vibrations of simply supported, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells. The refined approximate theory is very accurate, even for thick shells with short nodal distances, whereas thin-shell theory is reasonably accurate only for thin shells at moderate nodal distances and wave number less than 2.

  20. General conditions for lepton flavor violation at tree- and 1-loop level

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Alexander; Merle, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we compile the necessary and sufficient conditions a theory has to fulfill in order to ensure general lepton flavor conservation, in the spirit of the Glashow-Weinberg criteria for the absence of flavor-changing neutral currents. At tree-level, interactions involving electrically neutral and doubly charged bosons are investigated. We also investigate flavor changes at 1-loop level. In all cases we find that the essential theoretical requirements can be reduced to a few basic conditions on the particle content and the coupling matrices. For 1-loop diagrams, we also investigate how exactly a GIM-suppression can occur that will strongly reduce the rates of lepton flavor violating effects even if they are in principle present in a certain theory. In all chapters, we apply our criteria to several models which can in general induce lepton flavor violation, e.g. LR-symmetric models or the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) In the end we give a summarizing table of the obtained results, thereby demonstrating the applicability of our criteria to a large class of models beyond the standard model.

  1. Iterative generalized synchrosqueezing transform for fault diagnosis of wind turbine planetary gearbox under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming

    2015-02-01

    The synchrosqueezing transform can effectively improve the readability of time-frequency representation of mono-component and constant frequency signals. However, for multi-component and time-variant frequency signals, it still suffers from time-frequency blurs. In order to address this issue, the synchrosqueezing transform is improved using iterative generalized demodulation. Firstly, the complex nonstationary signal is decomposed into mono-components of constant frequency by iterative generalized demodulation. Then, the instantaneous frequency of each mono-component is accurately estimated via the synchrosqueezing transform, by exploiting its merit of enhanced time-frequency resolution. Finally, the time-frequency representation of the original signal is obtained by superposing the time-frequency representations of all the mono-components with restored instantaneous frequency. This proposed method generalizes the synchrosqueezing transform to multi-component and time-variant frequency signals, and it has fine time-frequency resolution and is free of cross-term interferences. The proposed method was validated using both numerically simulated and lab experimental vibration signals of planetary gearboxes under nonstationary conditions. The time-variant planetary gearbox characteristic frequencies were effectively identified, and the gear faults were correctly diagnosed.

  2. Design approach for systems with toroidal optical elements featuring a generalized Scheimpflug condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Peter; Eckstein, Johannes; Gao, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Toroidal elements are special aspheric elements with a missing axial section. Such elements consist of several refractive and/or reflective optical surfaces which are generally tilted with respect to a base ray. This base ray replaces the optical axis in ordinary centered systems. Toroidal elements can be efficiently applied e.g. in LED illumination systems or in optical metrology systems. For these elements there is a lack of design principles, only very few approaches like the Coddington equations are known. In this paper an efficient method is presented that facilitates the design when the requirement or knowledge of the orientation of the image plane is necessary, i.e. where a generalized Scheimpflug condition is needed. In more general terms, the method results in imaging properties of second order expansion, but the method itself is linear. Therefore, the complexity of the design process is considerably reduced. Additionally it is shown how the individual surfaces of the toroidal element can be easily aspherized for sharp imaging omitting tedious optimization. The strength of the design method is demonstrated for a novel application where a complex toroidal element is required for rotationally symmetric triangulation integrated in a vision systems and for a high aperture illumination element based on TIR for LEDs.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zexi; Huang, Juntao; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose an interfacial scheme accompanying the lattice Boltzmann method for convection-diffusion equations with general interfacial conditions, including conjugate conditions with or without jumps in heat and mass transfer, continuity of macroscopic variables and normal fluxes in ion diffusion in porous media with different porosity, and the Kapitza resistance in heat transfer. The construction of this scheme is based on our boundary schemes [Huang and Yong, J. Comput. Phys. 300, 70 (2015), 10.1016/j.jcp.2015.07.045] for Robin boundary conditions on straight or curved boundaries. It gives second-order accuracy for straight interfaces and first-order accuracy for curved ones. In addition, the new scheme inherits the advantage of the boundary schemes in which only the current lattice nodes are involved. Such an interfacial scheme is highly desirable for problems with complex geometries or in porous media. The interfacial scheme is numerically validated with several examples. The results show the utility of the constructed scheme and very well support our theoretical predications.

  5. Iterative generalized time-frequency reassignment for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowang; Feng, Zhipeng

    2016-12-01

    Planetary gearboxes are widely used in many sorts of machinery, for its large transmission ratio and high load bearing capacity in a compact structure. Their fault diagnosis relies on effective identification of fault characteristic frequencies. However, in addition to the vibration complexity caused by intricate mechanical kinematics, volatile external conditions result in time-varying running speed and/or load, and therefore nonstationary vibration signals. This usually leads to time-varying complex fault characteristics, and adds difficulty to planetary gearbox fault diagnosis. Time-frequency analysis is an effective approach to extracting the frequency components and their time variation of nonstationary signals. Nevertheless, the commonly used time-frequency analysis methods suffer from poor time-frequency resolution as well as outer and inner interferences, which hinder accurate identification of time-varying fault characteristic frequencies. Although time-frequency reassignment improves the time-frequency readability, it is essentially subject to the constraints of mono-component and symmetric time-frequency distribution about true instantaneous frequency. Hence, it is still susceptible to erroneous energy reallocation or even generates pseudo interferences, particularly for multi-component signals of highly nonlinear instantaneous frequency. In this paper, to overcome the limitations of time-frequency reassignment, we propose an improvement with fine time-frequency resolution and free from interferences for highly nonstationary multi-component signals, by exploiting the merits of iterative generalized demodulation. The signal is firstly decomposed into mono-components of constant frequency by iterative generalized demodulation. Time-frequency reassignment is then applied to each generalized demodulated mono-component, obtaining a fine time-frequency distribution. Finally, the time-frequency distribution of each signal component is restored and superposed to

  6. Contextual conditioning in rats as an animal model for generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Laura; Vansteenwegen, Debora; van Kuyck, Kris; Gabriëls, Loes; Nuttin, Bart

    2011-06-01

    Animal models of psychiatric disorders are important translational tools for exploring new treatment options and gaining more insight into the disease. Thus far, there is no systematically validated animal model for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a severely impairing and difficult-to-treat disease. In this review, we propose contextual conditioning (CC) as an animal model for GAD. We argue that this model has sufficient face validity (there are several symptom similarities), predictive validity (it responds to clinically effective treatments), and construct validity (the underlying mechanisms are comparable). Although the refinement and validation of an animal model is a never-ending process, we want to give a concise overview of the currently available evidence. We suggest that the CC model might be a valuable preclinical tool to enhance the development of new treatment strategies and our understanding of GAD.

  7. General condition biomarkers in relation to contaminant burden in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Kleinkauf, Anne; Connor, Leslie; Swarbreck, David; Levene, Carolyn; Walker, Peter; Johnson, Paul J; Leah, Richard T

    2004-07-01

    In respect to the differences found for vitellogenin (VTG) expression in male and immature flounder, general biological aspects and a set of chemical residues in the liver were compared between flounder from the Mersey and Dee estuaries (UK). Except for alpha-HCH, all pollutant chemicals analysed in flounder liver differed highly significantly between Mersey and Dee fish. Overall, the higher liver contaminant concentrations were found in VTG-induced Mersey flounder. The biomarkers studied were not found to indicate significant differences between Mersey and Dee fish. However, when all of the minor differences are taken into consideration, it appears that the slightly lower growth rates after age 2 in Mersey flounder, lower gonadosomatic index in both mature male and female animals, less precise seasonal patterns of condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index and gonadosomatic index, and lower CF in immature Mersey fish may well be signs of a contaminant-affected Mersey population.

  8. General conditions for maximal violation of non-contextuality in discrete and continuous variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laversanne-Finot, A.; Ketterer, A.; Barros, M. R.; Walborn, S. P.; Coudreau, T.; Keller, A.; Milman, P.

    2017-04-01

    The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. An important property of such observables is that their expectation value can be expressed in terms of probabilities for obtaining two exclusive outcomes. Examples of such inequalities have been constructed using either observables with a dichotomic spectrum or using periodic functions obtained from displacement operators in phase space. Here we identify the general conditions on the spectral decomposition of observables demonstrating state independent contextuality of quantum mechanics. Our results not only unify existing strategies for maximal violation of state independent non-contextuality inequalities but also lead to new scenarios enabling such violations. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a state independent maximal violation of non-contextuality in the Peres–Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions.

  9. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  10. General covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity without projectability condition and its applications to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao; Shu, Fu-Wen; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Anzhong

    2012-02-01

    We consider an extended theory of Horava-Lifshitz gravity with the detailed balance condition softly breaking, but without the projectability condition. With the former, the number of independent coupling constants is significantly reduced. With the latter and by extending the original foliation-preserving diffeomorphism symmetry Diff(M,F) to include a local U(1) symmetry, the spin-0 gravitons are eliminated. Thus, all the problems related to them disappear, including the instability, strong coupling, and different speeds in the gravitational sector. When the theory couples to a scalar field, we find that the scalar field is not only stable in both the ultraviolet and infrared, but also free of the strong coupling problem, because of the presence of high-order spatial derivative terms of the scalar field. Furthermore, applying the theory to cosmology, we find that due to the additional U(1) symmetry, the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe is necessarily flat. We also investigate the scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations of the flat FRW universe, and derive the general linearized field equations for each kind of the perturbations.

  11. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles, this provision does not apply to enrichment that occurs upon cold start, warm-up conditions and... exceptions: Cold-start and warm-up conditions, or, subject to Administrator approval, conditions...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles, this provision does not apply to enrichment that occurs upon cold start, warm-up conditions and... exceptions: Cold-start and warm-up conditions, or, subject to Administrator approval, conditions...

  14. The quality of life in acne: a comparison with general medical conditions using generic questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Mallon, E; Newton, J N; Klassen, A; Stewart-Brown, S L; Ryan, T J; Finlay, A Y

    1999-04-01

    Skin diseases such as acne are sometimes thought of as unimportant, even trivial, when compared with diseases of other organ systems. To address this point directly, validated generic questionnaires were used to assess morbidity in acne patients and compare it with morbidity in patients with other chronic diseases. For 111 acne patients referred to a dermatologist, quality of life was measured using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Rosenberg's measure of self-esteem, a version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Clinical severity was measured using the Leeds Acne Grade. Population quality of life data for the SF-36 instrument were available from a random sample of adult local residents (n = 9334) some of whom reported a variety of long-standing disabling diseases. All quality of life instruments showed substantial deficits for acne patients that correlated with each other but not with clinically assessed acne severity. The acne patients (a relatively severely affected group) reported levels of social, psychological and emotional problems that were as great as those reported by patients with chronic disabling asthma, epilepsy, diabetes, back pain or arthritis. Acne is not a trivial disease in comparison with other chronic conditions. This should be recognized in the allocation of health care resources.

  15. A conditionally exactly solvable generalization of the inverse square root potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishkhanyan, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    We present a conditionally exactly solvable singular potential for the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation which involves the exactly solvable inverse square root potential. Each of the two fundamental solutions that compose the general solution of the problem is given by a linear combination with non-constant coefficients of two confluent hypergeometric functions. Discussing the bound-state wave functions vanishing both at infinity and in the origin, we derive the exact equation for the energy spectrum which is written using two Hermite functions of non-integer order. In specific auxiliary variables this equation becomes a mathematical equation that does not refer to a specific physical context discussed. In the two-dimensional space of these auxiliary variables the roots of this equation draw a countable infinite set of open curves with hyperbolic asymptotes. We present an analytic description of these curves by a transcendental algebraic equation for the involved variables. The intersections of the curves thus constructed with a certain cubic curve provide a highly accurate description of the energy spectrum.

  16. Diffusion-induced growth of nanowires: Generalized boundary conditions and self-consistent kinetic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Hervieu, Yu. Yu.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical analysis of the diffusion-induced growth of "vapor-liquid-solid" nanowires, based on the stationary equations with generalized boundary conditions. We discuss why and how the earlier results are modified when the adatom chemical potential is discontinuous at the nanowire base. Several simplified models for the adatom diffusion flux are discussed, yielding the 1 /Rp radius dependence of the length, with p ranging from 0.5 to 2. The self-consistent approach is used to couple the diffusion transport with the kinetics of 2D nucleation under the droplet. This leads to a new growth equation that contains only two dimensional parameters and the power exponents p and q, where q=1 or 2 depends on the nucleus position. We show that this equation describes the size-dependent depression of the growth rate of narrow nanowires much better than the Gibbs-Thomson correction in several important cases. Overall, our equation fits very well the experimental data on the length-radius correlations of III-V and group IV nanowires obtained by different epitaxy techniques.

  17. Early Career Mathematics Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Do Teacher Education, Teaching Experience, and Working Conditions Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…

  18. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kinugawa, Tohru

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion (d{sup 2}X)/(dt{sup 2}) +(dU)/(dX) =0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27–29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A=(1/√(π))∫{sub 0}{sup E}dU/√(E−U) is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = T{sub A}(E) + T{sub N}(E) where τ is a constant period, T{sub A}(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and T{sub N}(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function X{sub A}(U) is determined from T{sub A}(E) via the Abel-transform relation X{sub A}(U) ∝ A[T{sub A}(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential U{sub N}(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing

  19. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... also applicable to Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 ethanol fueled vehicles. (a) Any device, system or... exhaust emission standards (which apply only at low altitude conditions), all emission standards apply at low altitude conditions and at high altitude conditions. Interim non-Tier 2 LDV/Ts may be certified...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... also applicable to Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 ethanol fueled vehicles. (a) Any device, system or... exhaust emission standards (which apply only at low altitude conditions), all emission standards apply at low altitude conditions and at high altitude conditions. Interim non-Tier 2 LDV/Ts may be certified...

  1. 40 CFR 86.090-5 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-5 General... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty...

  2. Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records.

    PubMed

    Levine, Carrie R; Cogbill, Charles V; Collins, Brandon M; Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; North, Malcolm P; Restaino, Christina M; Safford, Hugh D; Stephens, Scott L; Battles, John J

    2017-03-28

    Historical forest conditions are often used to inform contemporary management goals because historical forests are considered to be resilient to ecological disturbances. The General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries provide regionally quasi-contiguous datasets of historical forests across much of the Western United States. Multiple methods exist for estimating tree density from point-based sampling such as the GLO surveys, including distance-based and area-based approaches. Area-based approaches have been applied in California mixed-conifer forests but their estimates have not been validated. To assess the accuracy and precision of plotless density estimators with potential for application to GLO data in this region, we imposed a GLO sampling scheme on six mapped forest stands of known densities (159-784 trees ha(-1) ) in the Sierra Nevada in California, US, and Baja California Norte, Mexico. We compared three distance-based plotless density estimators (Cottam, Pollard, and Morisita) as well as two Voronoi area (VA) estimators - the Delincé and mean harmonic Voronoi density (MHVD) - to the true densities. We simulated sampling schemes of increasing intensity to assess sampling error. The relative error (RE) of density estimates for the GLO sampling scheme ranged from 0.36 to 4.78. The least biased estimate of tree density in every stand was obtained with the Morisita estimator and the most biased was obtained with the MHVD estimator. The MHVD estimates of tree density were 1.2-to-3.8 times larger than the true densities and performed best in stands subject to fire exclusion for 100 years. The Delincé approach obtained accurate estimates of density, implying that the Voronoi approach is theoretically sound but that its application in the MHVD was flawed. The misapplication was attributed to two causes: 1) the use of a crown scaling factor that does not correct for the number of trees sampled; and 2) the persistent

  3. Stimulus preexposure reduces generalization of conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol flavors in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Chotro, M Gabriela; Alonso, Gumersinda

    2003-02-01

    Results of 3 experiments showed that infant rats (age 13-17 days) generalize conditioned taste aversions between alcohol and non-alcohol tastes such as a mixture of sucrose and quinine, apple cider vinegar, or coffee. Nonreinforced preexposure to those tastes reduced generalized aversions between them. Generalization between alcohol and sucrose-quinine was reduced not only after preexposure to both tastes, but also when only the nonconditioned taste was preexposed, whereas with alcohol and vinegar, both tastes had to be preexposed to obtain that effect. In no case was generalization reduced when only the to-be-conditioned taste was preexposed. Previous experience with alcohol alone, as well as with similar gustatory stimuli, may enhance subjects' ability to differentiate them during infantile stages in rats.

  4. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  5. Generalization of verbal conditioning to verbal and nonverbal behavior: group therapy with chronic psychiatric patients1

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Dorothy A.; Briddell, Dan W.; Wilson, G. Terence

    1974-01-01

    Twelve chronic hospitalized female patients received token reinforcement contingent on two separate classes of verbalizations: (a) positive statements about optional activities available in the hospital setting, and (b) positive statements about people. Cross-class generalization of reinforced verbal responses about activities to overt behavior was tested by actual participation in activities; within-class generalization of verbal responses about people to verbalizations in another stimulus setting was assessed in a structured interview situation. A multiple baseline design with contingency reversals was employed to demonstrate experimental control of both classes of verbalizations in the group sessions. Positive statements about activities generalized to actual participation in activities, while generalization of positive statements about people to verbalization in the extragroup setting did not occur. PMID:4465377

  6. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles and light-duty trucks fueled by gasoline, diesel, methanol, ethanol, natural gas and liquefied... methanol fueled vehicles are also applicable to Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 ethanol fueled vehicles. (a... low altitude conditions and at high altitude conditions, except for the following standards,...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions and at high altitude conditions, except for supplemental exhaust emission standards, cold.... Cold temperature NMHC emission standards, as described in § 86.1811-10(g), apply only at low altitude....1810-01(f) and (j), and 86.1811-04(e). (2) For vehicles that comply with the cold temperature...

  8. Experimental study on the optimization of general conditions for a free-flow electrophoresis device with a thermoelectric cooler.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Yang, Cheng-Zhang; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Jin, Xin-Qiao

    2014-12-01

    With a given free-flow electrophoresis device, reasonable conditions (electric field strength, carrier buffer conductivity, and flow rate) are crucial for an optimized separation. However, there has been no experimental study on how to choose reasonable general conditions for a free-flow electrophoresis device with a thermoelectric cooler in view of Joule heat generation. Herein, comparative experiments were carried out to propose the selection procedure of general conditions in this study. The experimental results demonstrated that appropriate conditions were (i) <67 V/cm electric field strength; (ii) lower than 1.3 mS/cm carrier buffer conductivity (Tris-HCl: 20 mM Tris was titrated by HCl to pH 8.0); and (iii) higher than 3.6 mL/min carrier buffer flow rate. Furthermore, under inappropriate conditions (e.g. 400 V voltage and 40 mM Tris-HCl carrier buffer), the free-flow electrophoresis separation would be destroyed by bubbles caused by more Joule heating. Additionally, a series of applications under the appropriate conditions were performed with samples of model dyes, proteins (bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c), and cells (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The separation results showed that under the appropriate conditions, separation efficiency was obviously better than that in the previous experiments with randomly or empirically selected conditions.

  9. Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized conditioned reinforcers in a token economy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Pigeons' demand and preference for specific and generalized tokens was examined in a token economy. Pigeons could produce and exchange different colored tokens for food, for water, or for food or water. Token production was measured across three phases, which examined: (1) across-session price increases (typical demand curve method); (2) within-session price increases (progressive-ratio, PR, schedule); and (3) concurrent pairwise choices between the token types. Exponential demand curves were fitted to the response data and accounted for over 90% total variance. Demand curve parameter values, Pmax , Omax and α showed that demand was ordered in the following way: food tokens, generalized tokens, water tokens, both in Phase 1 and in Phase 3. This suggests that the preferences were predictable on the basis of elasticity and response output from the demand analysis. Pmax and Omax values failed to consistently predict breakpoints and peak response rates in the PR schedules in Phase 2, however, suggesting limits on a unitary conception of reinforcer efficacy. The patterns of generalized token production and exchange in Phase 3 suggest that the generalized tokens served as substitutes for the specific food and water tokens. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate the utility of behavioral economic concepts in the analysis of generalized reinforcement.

  10. Leadership and cooperation at the general medicine department of LMU Munich: Good grades despite difficult conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schelling, Jörg; Braun, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of general medicine at German universities will increase over the next few years. Consequently, the discussion of teaching content and even more the improvement of the structures within the still small and dependent departments of general medicine are of major importance. The example of our department at LMU Munich shows which challenges for leadership and cooperation result from lack of financial and personnel structure. The project “cooperation culture” that the department has conducted in collaboration with the LMU Center for Leadership and People Management is presented as a means to promote leadership and cooperation. This project can serve as an inspiration for the coordinators of smaller departments of general medicine at other German universities that are also striving to improve their structure and their position within the university. PMID:22205911

  11. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  12. A General Systems Approach to the Development and Maintenance of Opitmal Learning Conditions. Professional Paper 1-68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; Kopstein, Felix F.

    In the context that a general systems approach to the development and maintenance of optimal learning conditions is a point of view rather than a doctrine, two empirical examples are given. To illustrate the desirability of the systems-like approach in studying the nature of learning, the organisms chosen were representative of two widely separate…

  13. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  14. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  15. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...

  16. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  17. 18 CFR 154.204 - Changes in rate schedules, forms of service agreements, or the general terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes in rate... REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.204 Changes in rate schedules, forms of service agreements, or the general terms and conditions. A filing...

  18. A General and Highly Selective Cobalt-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of N-Heteroarenes under Mild Reaction Conditions.

    PubMed

    Adam, Rosa; Cabrero-Antonino, Jose R; Spannenberg, Anke; Junge, Kathrin; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2017-02-14

    Herein, a general and efficient method for the homogeneous cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of N-heterocycles, under mild reaction conditions, is reported. Key to success is the use of the tetradentate ligand tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine). This non-noble metal catalyst system allows the selective hydrogenation of heteroarenes in the presence of a broad range of other sensitive reducible groups.

  19. Conditioning- and Time-Dependent Increases in Context Fear and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Andrew M.; Mehta, Nehali; Lu, Bryan; Amir, Dorsa; Livingston, Briana; Santarelli, Anthony; Zhuravka, Irina; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    A prominent feature of fear memories and anxiety disorders is that they endure across extended periods of time. Here, we examine how the severity of the initial fear experience influences incubation, generalization, and sensitization of contextual fear memories across time. Adult rats were presented with either five, two, one, or zero shocks (1.2…

  20. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  1. 38 CFR 1.576 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Safeguarding Personal... individual against an invasion of personal privacy. Except as otherwise provided by law or regulation its... records. (4) Collect, maintain, use, or disseminate any record of identifiable personal information in...

  2. Characteristics of subjects with comorbidity of symptoms of generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders and the corresponding threshold and subthreshold conditions in an Arab general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Ohaeri, Jude U.; Awadalla, Abdel W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There is controversy about differential meaningfulness between comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)/ major depressive disorder (MDD), the corresponding “pure” disorders and subthreshold conditions. We compared subjects who met DSM-IVTR criteria of symptoms and functional impairment for comorbid GAD/MDD, versus those with GAD, MDD, subthreshold conditions, and without significant symptoms. The comparison measures were socio-demographics, clinical severity, and quality of life (QOL). Material/Methods Participants (N=3155: 55.1% female, aged 16–87 yrs) were a general population sample of Kuwaitis who self-completed DSM-IVTR criteria-based questionnaires and the WHOQOL-BREF in 2006/7. We scrutinized the questionnaires and classified them into categories. Results Of the 273 GAD and 210 MDD cases, the prevalence of comorbidity among cases with GAD was 30.8%, and 40% among MDD. Of the 398 subthreshold GAD and 194 subthreshold MDD cases, 58 had subthreshold anxiety/depression comorbidity. Comorbid threshold GAD/MDD cases were significantly older, and more likely to be women, divorced and unemployed, compared with GAD and MDD. In all measures, the threshold GAD/MDD comorbidity was the severest condition. There was a monotonic decrease in QOL with increasing anxiety-depression symptoms. For the predictors of subjective QOL, the GAD/MDD comorbidity group differed markedly from the others. Conclusions The high prevalence of comorbidity and subthreshold conditions supports the recommendation to assess them routinely, regardless of the primary reason for consultation. Our findings support a dimensional model with comorbid GAD/MDD at the higher end of a continuum, and differing from the “pure” conditions by a later onset and predictors of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22367127

  3. Generalized shock conditions and the contact discontinuity in the Hall-magnetohydrodynamics model

    SciTech Connect

    Hameiri, Eliezer

    2013-02-15

    It is shown that shocks and contact discontinuities in the Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) model must satisfy solvability conditions that replace some of the familiar Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions when the latter do not apply due to singular behavior of fluxes of conserved quantities. Some of these conditions depend on the larger topology of the plasma and magnetic field and are not merely 'local.' The contact discontinuity which separates two adjoining plasma regions or plasma and vacuum regions is the simplest case where the new jump conditions are applicable and is discussed for a toroidal plasma with sheared magnetic field such as the tokamak, but with no initial mass flow. It is proven that a static discontinuous tokamak-like equilibrium is linearly stable in the HMHD model if it is linearly stable within the ideal magnetohydrodynamics model, provided that the electron pressure depends only on the density, and some other restrictions on the ratio of pressure to density gradients also apply. When the electron pressure does depend on two thermodynamic variables, a sufficient condition for Hall-MHD plasma stability is derived as well.

  4. Maladaptive behavioral consequences of conditioned fear-generalization: a pronounced, yet sparsely studied, feature of anxiety pathology.

    PubMed

    van Meurs, Brian; Wiggert, Nicole; Wicker, Isaac; Lissek, Shmuel

    2014-06-01

    Fear-conditioning experiments in the anxiety disorders focus almost exclusively on passive-emotional, Pavlovian conditioning, rather than active-behavioral, instrumental conditioning. Paradigms eliciting both types of conditioning are needed to study maladaptive, instrumental behaviors resulting from Pavlovian abnormalities found in clinical anxiety. One such Pavlovian abnormality is generalization of fear from a conditioned danger-cue (CS+) to resembling stimuli. Though lab-based findings repeatedly link overgeneralized Pavlovian-fear to clinical anxiety, no study assesses the degree to which Pavlovian overgeneralization corresponds with maladaptive, overgeneralized instrumental-avoidance. The current effort fills this gap by validating a novel fear-potentiated startle paradigm including Pavlovian and instrumental components. The paradigm is embedded in a computer game during which shapes appear on the screen. One shape paired with electric-shock serves as CS+, and other resembling shapes, presented in the absence of shock, serve as generalization stimuli (GSs). During the game, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Avoidance during CS+ is considered adaptive because shock is a real possibility. By contrast, avoidance during GSs is considered maladaptive because shock is not a realistic prospect and thus unnecessarily compromises performance. Results indicate significant Pavlovian-instrumental relations, with greater generalization of Pavlovian fear associated with overgeneralization of maladaptive instrumental-avoidance.

  5. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-01

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  6. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-15

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  7. Momentum constraints as integrability conditions for the Hamiltonian constraint in general relativity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncrief, V.; Teitelboim, C.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that if the Hamiltonian constraint of general relativity is imposed as a restriction on the Hamilton principal functional in the classical theory, or on the state functional in the quantum theory, then the momentum constraints are automatically satisfied. This result holds both for closed and open spaces and it means that the full content of the theory is summarized by a single functional equation of the Tomonaga-Schwinger type.

  8. New conditions for obtaining the exact solutions of the general Riccati equation.

    PubMed

    Bougoffa, Lazhar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a direct method for solving the general Riccati equation y' = f(x) + g(x)y + h(x)y(2). We first reduce it into an equivalent equation, and then we formulate the relations between the coefficients functions f(x), g(x), and h(x) of the equation to obtain an equivalent separable equation from which the previous equation can be solved in closed form. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this method.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2 and interim non-Tier 2 ethanol fueled vehicles. (a) Any device, system or element of design... applicable. (f) Altitude requirements. Unless otherwise specified, emission standards apply at low-altitude... emission standards as described in § 86.1811-04(f) apply only at low-altitude conditions; (2) The...

  10. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 72.214; (ii) Cask storage pads and areas have been designed to adequately support the static and... requirements as are set forth in the licensee's physical security plan pursuant to § 73.55 of this chapter with the following additional conditions and exceptions: (i) The physical security organization and...

  11. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 72.214; (ii) Cask storage pads and areas have been designed to adequately support the static and... requirements as are set forth in the licensee's physical security plan pursuant to § 73.55 of this chapter with the following additional conditions and exceptions: (i) The physical security organization and...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1810-09 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cold temperature NMHC emission standards as described in § 86.1811-10(g) apply only at low altitude... altitude conditions for 2009 and later model year vehicles. (2) For vehicles that comply with the cold... described in § 86.1818-12, manufacturers must submit an engineering evaluation indicating that...

  13. The Generalization of a Conditioned Response to Deception across the Public/Private Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, J. J.; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts at lie detection, such as the polygraph, have relied on physiological arousal to identify deception--but these responses have not proven to be as reliable as is necessary for widespread use. Conditioning procedures have been shown to increase the discriminative physiological arousal exhibited during deception, but have targeted…

  14. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research.

  15. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  16. Internal thermotopography and shifts in general thermal balance in man under special heat transfer conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorodinskiy, S. M.; Gramenitskiy, P. M.; Kuznets, Y. I.; Ozerov, O. Y.; Yakovleva, E. V.; Groza, P.; Kozlovskiy, S.; Naremski, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal regulation for astronauts working in pressure suits in open space provides for protection by a system of artificial heat removal and compensation to counteract possible changes in the heat regulating function of the human body that occur under the complex effects of space flight conditions. Most important of these factors are prolonged weightlessness, prolonged limitation of motor activity, and possible deviations of microclimatic environmental parameters.

  17. Generalized INF-SUP condition for Chebyshev approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardi, Christine; Canuto, Claudio; Maday, Yvon

    1986-01-01

    An abstract mixed problem and its approximation are studied; both are well-posed if and only if several inf-sup conditions are satisfied. These results are applied to a spectral Galerkin method for the Stokes problem in a square, when it is formulated in Chebyshev weighted Sobolev spaces. Finally, a collocation method for the Navier-Stokes equations at Chebyshev nodes is analyzed.

  18. Beam wandering statistics of twin thin laser beam propagation under generalized atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Darío G; Funes, Gustavo

    2012-12-03

    Under the Geometrics Optics approximation is possible to estimate the covariance between the displacements of two thin beams after they have propagated through a turbulent medium. Previous works have concentrated in long propagation distances to provide models for the wandering statistics. These models are useful when the separation between beams is smaller than the propagation path-regardless of the characteristics scales of the turbulence. In this work we give a complete model for these covariances, behavior introducing absolute limits to the validity of former approximations. Moreover, these generalizations are established for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric models.

  19. New Conditions for Obtaining the Exact Solutions of the General Riccati Equation

    PubMed Central

    Bougoffa, Lazhar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a direct method for solving the general Riccati equation y′ = f(x) + g(x)y + h(x)y2. We first reduce it into an equivalent equation, and then we formulate the relations between the coefficients functions f(x), g(x), and h(x) of the equation to obtain an equivalent separable equation from which the previous equation can be solved in closed form. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this method. PMID:25202724

  20. Approximate Dirichlet Boundary Conditions in the Generalized Finite Element Method (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    works of Babuška [2, 3], Bramble and Nitsche [13], and Bramble and Schatz [15, 16], among others, for examples of how this approach works in prac...α! = α1! . . . αn!, is the Taylor polynomial of v at y of degree m and Φj ∈ C∞c (g̃−1(ωj)) is a function with integral 1. Then, by the Bramble ...Academic Press, New York, 1972. [13] J.H. Bramble , J.A. Nitsche, A Generalized Ritz–Least–Squares Method for Dirichlet Prob- lems, SIAM J. Numer

  1. A new technique for simulating composite material. Task 2: Analytical solutions with Generalized Impedance Boundary Conditions (GIBCs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricoy, M. A.; Volakis, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The diffraction problem associated with a multilayer material slab recessed in a perfectly conducting ground plane is formulated and solved via the Generalized Scattering Matrix Formulation (GSMF) in conjunction with the dual integral equation approach. The multilayer slab is replaced by a surface obeying a generalized impedance boundary condition (GIBC) to facilitate the computation of the pertinent Wiener Hopf split functions and their zeros. Both E(sub z) and H(sub z) polarizations are considered and a number of scattering patterns are presented, some of which are compared to exact results available for a homogeneous recessed slab.

  2. General Anesthetic Conditions Induce Network Synchrony and Disrupt Sensory Processing in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Thomas; Obenhaus, Horst A.; Ditzel, Désirée A. W.; Nagai, Takeharu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Sprengel, Rolf; Hasan, Mazahir T.

    2016-01-01

    General anesthetics are commonly used in animal models to study how sensory signals are represented in the brain. Here, we used two-photon (2P) calcium activity imaging with cellular resolution to investigate how neuronal activity in layer 2/3 of the mouse barrel cortex is modified under the influence of different concentrations of chemically distinct general anesthetics. Our results show that a high isoflurane dose induces synchrony in local neuronal networks and these cortical activity patterns closely resemble those observed in EEG recordings under deep anesthesia. Moreover, ketamine and urethane also induced similar activity patterns. While investigating the effects of deep isoflurane anesthesia on whisker and auditory evoked responses in the barrel cortex, we found that dedicated spatial regions for sensory signal processing become disrupted. We propose that our isoflurane-2P imaging paradigm can serve as an attractive model system to dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce the anesthetic state, and it might also provide important insight into sleep-like brain states and consciousness. PMID:27147963

  3. Existence and stability, and discrete BB and rank conditions, for general mixed-hybrid finite elements in elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, W.-M.; Atluri, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, all possible forms of mixed-hybrid finite element methods that are based on multi-field variational principles are examined as to the conditions for existence, stability, and uniqueness of their solutions. The reasons as to why certain 'simplified hybrid-mixed methods' in general, and the so-called 'simplified hybrid-displacement method' in particular (based on the so-called simplified variational principles), become unstable, are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the 'discrete' BB-conditions, and the rank conditions, of the matrices arising in mixed-hybrid methods, is given. Some recent studies aimed at the assurance of such rank conditions, and the related problem of the avoidance of spurious kinematic modes, are presented.

  4. Approximate and Low Regularity Dirichlet Boundary Conditions in the Generalized Finite Element Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-31

    Bramble and Nitsche [12], and Bramble and Schatz [13, 14], among others, for examples of how this approach works in practice. Another approach (used also in...with integral 1. Then, by the Bramble –Hilbert Lemma, we have (43) |v − Pj |Hs(g̃−1(ωj)) ≤ Ch m+1−s k |v|Hm+1(g̃−1(ωj)), for all 0 ≤ s ≤ m+ 1. Consider...New York, 1972. [12] J.H. Bramble , J.A. Nitsche, A Generalized Ritz–Least–Squares Method for Dirichlet Prob- lems, SIAM J. Numer. Anal, vol 10, no. 1

  5. General coalescence conditions for the exact wave functions. II. Higher-order relations for many-particle systems.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Yusaku I; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2014-06-07

    We derived the necessary conditions that must be satisfied by the non-relativistic time-independent exact wave functions for many-particle systems at a two-particle coalescence (or cusp) point. Some simple conditions are known to be Kato's cusp condition (CC) and Rassolov and Chipman's CC. In a previous study, we derived an infinite number of necessary conditions that two-particle wave functions must satisfy at a coalescence point. In the present study, we extend these conditions to many-particle systems. They are called general coalescence conditions (GCCs), and Kato's CC and Rassolov and Chipman's CC are included as special conditions. GCCs can be applied not only to Coulombic systems but also to any system in which the interaction between two particles is represented in a power series of inter-particle distances. We confirmed the correctness of our derivation of the GCCs by applying the exact wave function of a harmonium in electron-electron and electron-nucleus coalescence situations. In addition, we applied the free complement (FC) wave functions of a helium atom to the GCCs to examine the accuracy of the FC wave function in the context of a coalescence situation.

  6. Stress-energy distribution for a cylindrical artificial gravity field via the Darmois-Israel junction conditions of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, Nicolae; Lindner, John

    2014-03-01

    We design an Earth-like artificial gravity field using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions of general relativity to connect the flat spacetime outside an infinitesimally thin cylinder to the curved spacetime inside. In the calculation of extrinsic curvature, our construction exploits Earth's weak gravity, which implies similar inside and outside curvatures, to approximate the unit normal inside by the negative unit normal outside. The stress-energy distribution on the cylinder's sides includes negative energy density.

  7. General contamination criteria for optical surfaces. [instrument performance losses in spaceborne conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremer, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Physical models are developed for establishing criteria to decide on the acceptable contamination level of optical devices in space-borne conditions. Optical systems can be degraded in terms of decreased throughput, i.e., transmissivity or reflectivity, or increases in the total integrated scatter (TIS). Performance losses can be caused by particulate accretion, molecular film accretion, and impact cratering. A quantitative relationship is defined for film thickness and loss of throughput. Formulas are also developed for cases where induced surface defects are larger than the desired viewing wavelengths, or smaller or of the same order of the observed wavelengths. The techniques are used to quantify the degradation of a VUV solar coronagraph, a VUV stellar telescope, and a solar cell due to TIS. Applications are projected for estimating the contamination sensitivity of specific instruments, assessing the contamination hazard from known particulates, or to define clean room standards.

  8. Displacement Models for THUNDER Actuators having General Loads and Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieman, Robert; Smith, Ralph C.; Kackley, Tyson; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bernd, Jeff; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes techniques for quantifying the displacements generated in THUNDER actuators in response to applied voltages for a variety of boundary conditions and exogenous loads. The PDE (partial differential equations) models for the actuators are constructed in two steps. In the first, previously developed theory quantifying thermal and electrostatic strains is employed to model the actuator shapes which result from the manufacturing process and subsequent repoling. Newtonian principles are then employed to develop PDE models which quantify displacements in the actuator due to voltage inputs to the piezoceramic patch. For this analysis, drive levels are assumed to be moderate so that linear piezoelectric relations can be employed. Finite element methods for discretizing the models are developed and the performance of the discretized models are illustrated through comparison with experimental data.

  9. General rules prospected for the liquid fragility in various material groups and different thermodynamic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Paluch, M.; Masiewicz, E.; Grzybowski, A.; Pawlus, S.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Pionteck, J.

    2014-10-07

    The fragility parameter has been acknowledged as one of the most important characteristics of glass-forming liquids. We show that the mystery of the dramatic change in molecular dynamics of systems approaching the glass transition can be better understood by the high pressure study of fragility parameters defined in different thermodynamic conditions. We formulate and experimentally confirm a few rules obeyed by the fragility parameters, which are also rationalized by the density scaling law and its modification suggested for associated liquids. In this way, we successfully explore and gain a new insight into the pressure effect on molecular dynamics of van der Waals liquids, polymer melts, ionic liquids, and hydrogen-bonded systems near the glass transition.

  10. Plates and shells containing a surface crack under general loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Paul F.; Erdogan, Fazil

    1987-01-01

    Various through and part-through crack problems in plates and shells are considered. The line-spring model of Rice and Levy is generalized to the skew-symmetric case to solve surface crack problems involving mixed-mode, coplanar crack growth. Compliance functions are introduced which are valid for crack depth to thickness ratios at least up to .95. This includes expressions for tension and bending as well as expressions for in-plane shear, out-of-plane shear, and twisting. Transverse shear deformation is taken into account in the plate and shell theories and this effect is shown to be important in comparing stress intensity factors obtained from the plate theory with three-dimensional solutions. Stress intensity factors for cylinders obtained by the line-spring model also compare well with three-dimensional solution. By using the line-spring approach, stress intensity factors can be obtained for the through crack and for part-through crack of any crack front shape, without recalculation integrals that take up the bulk of the computer time. Therefore, parameter studies involving crack length, crack depth, shell type, and shell curvature are made in some detail. The results will be useful in brittle fracture and in fatigue crack propagation studies. All problems considered are of the mixed boundary value type and are reducted to strongly singular integral equations which make use of the finite-part integrals of Hadamard. The equations are solved numerically in a manner that is very efficient.

  11. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  12. Well-conditioning global-local analysis using stable generalized/extended finite element method for linear elastic fracture mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekan, Mohammad; Barros, Felicio Bruzzi

    2016-11-01

    Using the locally-enriched strategy to enrich a small/local part of the problem by generalized/extended finite element method (G/XFEM) leads to non-optimal convergence rate and ill-conditioning system of equations due to presence of blending elements. The local enrichment can be chosen from polynomial, singular, branch or numerical types. The so-called stable version of G/XFEM method provides a well-conditioning approach when only singular functions are used in the blending elements. This paper combines numeric enrichment functions obtained from global-local G/XFEM method with the polynomial enrichment along with a well-conditioning approach, stable G/XFEM, in order to show the robustness and effectiveness of the approach. In global-local G/XFEM, the enrichment functions are constructed numerically from the solution of a local problem. Furthermore, several enrichment strategies are adopted along with the global-local enrichment. The results obtained with these enrichments strategies are discussed in detail, considering convergence rate in strain energy, growth rate of condition number, and computational processing. Numerical experiments show that using geometrical enrichment along with stable G/XFEM for global-local strategy improves the convergence rate and the conditioning of the problem. In addition, results shows that using polynomial enrichment for global problem simultaneously with global-local enrichments lead to ill-conditioned system matrices and bad convergence rate.

  13. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Elise; Hager, Ron L.

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs) and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity (p < .0001), 130.8 more minutes per week of aerobic activity (p < .0001), and 42.7 more minutes of anaerobic activity per week (p < .0001). Among those previously told they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or depression, 74.2%, 72.2%, 70.4%, and 60.6%, respectively, said that it motivated them to increase their physical activity. Percentages were similar between SGPs and the general population. SGPs were more likely motivated to be physically active to improve physical and mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun. PMID:28138459

  14. Direct Reduction and Exact Solutions for Generalized Variable Coefficients 2D KdV Equation under Some Integrability Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. H. M., Moussa; Rehab, M. El-Shiekh

    2011-04-01

    Based on the closed connections among the homogeneous balance (HB) method and Clarkson—Kruskal (CK) method, we study the similarity reductions of the generalized variable coefficients 2D KdV equation. In the meantime it is shown that this leads to a direct reduction in the form of ordinary differential equation under some integrability conditions between the variable coefficients. Two different cases have been discussed, the search for solutions of those ordinary differential equations yielded many exact travelling and solitonic wave solutions in the form of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions under some constraints between the variable coefficients.

  15. Dopamine D2 receptors gate generalization of conditioned threat responses through mTORC1 signaling in the extended amygdala

    PubMed Central

    De Bundel, Dimitri; Zussy, Charleine; Espallergues, Julie; Gerfen, Charles R; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Overgeneralization of conditioned threat responses is a robust clinical marker of anxiety disorders. In overgeneralization, responses that are appropriate to threat-predicting cues are evoked by perceptually similar safety-predicting cues. Inappropriate learning of conditioned threat responses may thus form an etiological basis for anxiety disorders. The role of dopamine (DA) in memory encoding is well established. Indeed by signaling salience and valence, DA is thought to facilitate discriminative learning between stimuli representing safety or threat. However, the neuroanatomical and biochemical substrates through which DA modulates overgeneralization of threat responses remain poorly understood. Here we report that the modulation of DA D2 receptor (D2R) signaling bidirectionally regulates the consolidation of fear responses. While the blockade of D2R induces generalized fear responses, its stimulation facilitates discriminative learning between stimuli representing safety or threat. Moreover, we show that controlled fear generalization requires the coordinated activation of D2R in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the central amygdala (CEA). Finally, we identify the mTORC1 cascade activation as an important molecular event by which D2R mediates its effects. These data reveal that D2R signaling in the extended amygdala constitutes an important checkpoint through which DA participates in the control of threat processing and the emergence of overgeneralized fear responses. PMID:26782052

  16. Consistency between kinetics and thermodynamics: general scaling conditions for reaction rates of nonlinear chemical systems without constraints far from equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Marcel O; Popa, Vlad T; Ross, John

    2011-02-03

    We examine the problem of consistency between the kinetic and thermodynamic descriptions of reaction networks. We focus on reaction networks with linearly dependent (but generally kinetically independent) reactions for which only some of the stoichiometric vectors attached to the different reactions are linearly independent. We show that for elementary reactions without constraints preventing the system from approaching equilibrium there are general scaling relations for nonequilibrium rates, one for each linearly dependent reaction. These scaling relations express the ratios of the forward and backward rates of the linearly dependent reactions in terms of products of the ratios of the forward and backward rates of the linearly independent reactions raised to different scaling powers; the scaling powers are elements of the transformation matrix, which relates the linearly dependent stoichiometric vectors to the linearly independent stoichiometric vectors. These relations are valid for any network of elementary reactions without constraints, linear or nonlinear kinetics, far from equilibrium or close to equilibrium. We show that similar scaling relations for the reaction routes exist for networks of nonelementary reactions described by the Horiuti-Temkin theory of reaction routes where the linear dependence of the mechanistic (elementary) reactions is transferred to the overall (route) reactions. However, in this case, the scaling conditions are valid only at the steady state. General relationships between reaction rates of the two levels of description are presented. These relationships are illustrated for a specific complex reaction: radical chlorination of ethylene.

  17. Generalized paired-agent kinetic model for in vivo quantification of cancer cell-surface receptors under receptor saturation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghipour, N.; Davis, S. C.; Tichauer, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    New precision medicine drugs oftentimes act through binding to specific cell-surface cancer receptors, and thus their efficacy is highly dependent on the availability of those receptors and the receptor concentration per cell. Paired-agent molecular imaging can provide quantitative information on receptor status in vivo, especially in tumor tissue; however, to date, published approaches to paired-agent quantitative imaging require that only ‘trace’ levels of imaging agent exist compared to receptor concentration. This strict requirement may limit applicability, particularly in drug binding studies, which seek to report on a biological effect in response to saturating receptors with a drug moiety. To extend the regime over which paired-agent imaging may be used, this work presents a generalized simplified reference tissue model (GSRTM) for paired-agent imaging developed to approximate receptor concentration in both non-receptor-saturated and receptor-saturated conditions. Extensive simulation studies show that tumor receptor concentration estimates recovered using the GSRTM are more accurate in receptor-saturation conditions than the standard simple reference tissue model (SRTM) (% error (mean  ±  sd): GSRTM 0  ±  1 and SRTM 50  ±  1) and match the SRTM accuracy in non-saturated conditions (% error (mean  ±  sd): GSRTM 5  ±  5 and SRTM 0  ±  5). To further test the approach, GSRTM-estimated receptor concentration was compared to SRTM-estimated values extracted from tumor xenograft in vivo mouse model data. The GSRTM estimates were observed to deviate from the SRTM in tumors with low receptor saturation (which are likely in a saturated regime). Finally, a general ‘rule-of-thumb’ algorithm is presented to estimate the expected level of receptor saturation that would be achieved in a given tissue provided dose and pharmacokinetic information about the drug or imaging agent being used, and physiological

  18. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-08-26

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon.

  19. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-08-01

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon.

  20. Satellite-based characterization of climatic conditions before large-scale general flowering events in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azmy, Muna Maryam; Hashim, Mazlan; Numata, Shinya; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine

    2016-01-01

    General flowering (GF) is a unique phenomenon wherein, at irregular intervals, taxonomically diverse trees in Southeast Asian dipterocarp forests synchronize their reproduction at the community level. Triggers of GF, including drought and low minimum temperatures a few months previously has been limitedly observed across large regional scales due to lack of meteorological stations. Here, we aim to identify the climatic conditions that trigger large-scale GF in Peninsular Malaysia using satellite sensors, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to evaluate the climatic conditions of focal forests. We observed antecedent drought, low temperature and high photosynthetic radiation conditions before large-scale GF events, suggesting that large-scale GF events could be triggered by these factors. In contrast, we found higher-magnitude GF in forests where lower precipitation preceded large-scale GF events. GF magnitude was also negatively influenced by land surface temperature (LST) for a large-scale GF event. Therefore, we suggest that spatial extent of drought may be related to that of GF forests, and that the spatial pattern of LST may be related to that of GF occurrence. With significant new findings and other results that were consistent with previous research we clarified complicated environmental correlates with the GF phenomenon. PMID:27561887

  1. [Effects of a low calorie vegan diet on disease activity and general conditions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Hashimoto, Y; Nakahara, K; Tanaka, T; Okuda, T; Koda, M

    1999-06-01

    There is little objective information about diet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. We studied 14 patients with RA who stayed in the Koda hospital for 55 days. They basically took a 1200 kcal vegan diet consisting of unpolished rice gruel, juice of raw vegetables, soya bean curd and sesame seeds, and undertook a 3-5-day fast three times. During the 55-day stay, average body weight decreased by 5.1kg. Lansbury index and ESR decreased whereas CRP did not change. WBC decreased and the differential cell counts showed a decrease of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes without a change in lymphocytes or basophils. RBC, hemoglobin and MCV increased. LDL-C decreased, while HDL-C increased. There was no change in total protein or albumin. These data suggest that this combination of a low calorie vegan diet and fasting may contribute to improve RA with little undesirable effects on the patient's general conditions.

  2. Robust and general method for determining surface fluid flow boundary conditions in articular cartilage contact mechanics modeling.

    PubMed

    Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-01

    Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.

  3. Ionospheric data assimilation with thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model and GPS-TEC during geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Lin, C. H.; Matsuo, T.; Chen, W. H.; Lee, I. T.; Liu, J. Y.; Lin, J. T.; Hsu, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of rapid assimilation-forecast cycling on the performance of ionospheric data assimilation during geomagnetic storm conditions. An ensemble Kalman filter software developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), called Data Assimilation Research Testbed, is applied to assimilate ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) observations into a theoretical numerical model of the thermosphere and ionosphere (NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model) during the 26 September 2011 geomagnetic storm period. Effects of various assimilation-forecast cycle lengths: 60, 30, and 10 min on the ionospheric forecast are examined by using the global root-mean-squared observation-minus-forecast (OmF) TEC residuals. Substantial reduction in the global OmF for the 10 min assimilation-forecast cycling suggests that a rapid cycling ionospheric data assimilation system can greatly improve the quality of the model forecast during geomagnetic storm conditions. Furthermore, updating the thermospheric state variables in the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere forecast model in the assimilation step is an important factor in improving the trajectory of model forecasting. The shorter assimilation-forecast cycling (10 min in this paper) helps to restrain unrealistic model error growth during the forecast step due to the imbalance among model state variables resulting from an inadequate state update, which in turn leads to a greater forecast accuracy.

  4. Expected changes in future agro-climatological conditions in Northeast Thailand and their differences between general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Goto, Shinkichi; Sawano, Shinji; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2011-12-01

    We have studied future changes in the atmospheric and hydrological environments in Northeast Thailand from the viewpoint of risk assessment of future cultural environments in crop fields. To obtain robust and reliable estimation for future climate, ten general circulation models under three warming scenarios, B1, A1B, and A2, were used in this study. The obtained change trends show that daily maximum air temperature and precipitation will increase by 2.6°C and 4.0%, respectively, whereas soil moisture will decrease by c.a. 1% point in volumetric water content at the end of this century under the A1B scenario. Seasonal contrasts in precipitation will intensify: precipitation increases in the rainy season and precipitation decreases in the dry season. Soil moisture will slightly decrease almost throughout the year. Despite a homogeneous increase in the air temperature over Northeast Thailand, a future decrease in soil water content will show a geographically inhomogeneous distribution: Soil will experience a relative larger decrease in wetness at a shallow depth on the Khorat plateau than in the surrounding mountainous area, reflecting vegetation cover and soil texture. The predicted increase in air temperature is relatively consistent between general circulation models. In contrast, relatively large intermodel differences in precipitation, especially in long-term trends, produce unwanted bias errors in the estimation of other hydrological elements, such as soil moisture and evaporation, and cause uncertainties in projection of the agro-climatological environment. Offline hydrological simulation with a wide precipitation range is one strategy to compensate for such uncertainties and to obtain reliable risk assessment of future cultural conditions in rainfed paddy fields in Northeast Thailand.

  5. Paleoclimatic tracers: An investigation using an atmospheric general circulation model under ice age conditions. 2. Water isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Joussaume, S. ); Jouzel, J. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Grenoble )

    1993-02-20

    The linear relationship observed between the water isotopic contents of precipitation and surface air temperatures leads to the use of the water isotopes, H[sub 2][sup 18]O and HDO, in paleoclimatology. Applied to the measurements of the isotopic content of paleowaters, like groundwaters and deep ice cores, this relationship is used to infer paleotemperatures. However, this interpretation of paleo-isotopic contents is only valid if the isotope-temperature relationship is not affected by climate change. To address this problem, the authors have developed a water isotope modeling inside an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and performed simultations of both the present-day and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climatic conditions. AGCM are indeed the only appropriate tools able to account the whole complexity of the atmospheric circulation. For the present-day climate, preliminary results for January were presented by Joussaume et al. (1984) and are complemented by new simulations performed for both February and August climatic conditions with a higher-resolution version of the model. Model results are well corroborated by observations. They also exhibit some effects of the atmospheric circulation on the isotopic fields. For the simulated LGM climate, the model results compare well with paleoclimatic data of water isotopic contents, except for a higher than observed spatial variability. The overall patterns of the simulated [delta][sup 18]O-temperature relationship for the LGM climate are practically unchanged, which tends to comfort the use of water isotopes in paleoclimatology. However, concerning the deuterium excess, i.e., the relationship between oxyen 18 and deuterium, the model results are not sufficiently valid to allow a discussion of the use of deuterium excess in paleoclimatology. 46 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65: a link between GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala and conditioned fear generalization.

    PubMed

    Lange, Maren D; Jüngling, Kay; Paulukat, Linda; Vieler, Marc; Gaburro, Stefano; Sosulina, Ludmila; Blaesse, Peter; Sreepathi, Hari K; Ferraguti, Francesco; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2014-08-01

    An imbalance of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is considered a major neurobiological pathomechanism of anxiety, and the amygdala is a key brain region involved. Reduced GABA levels have been found in anxiety patients, and genetic variations of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA synthesis, have been associated with anxiety phenotypes in both humans and mice. These findings prompted us to hypothesize that a deficiency of GAD65, the GAD isoform controlling the availability of GABA as a transmitter, affects synaptic transmission and plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA), and thereby interferes with fear responsiveness. Results indicate that genetically determined GAD65 deficiency in mice is associated with (1) increased synaptic length and release at GABAergic connections, (2) impaired efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission and plasticity, and (3) reduced spillover of GABA to presynaptic GABAB receptors, resulting in a loss of the associative nature of long-term synaptic plasticity at cortical inputs to LA principal neurons. (4) In addition, training with high shock intensities in wild-type mice mimicked the phenotype of GAD65 deficiency at both the behavioral and synaptic level, indicated by generalization of conditioned fear and a loss of the associative nature of synaptic plasticity in the LA. In conclusion, GAD65 is required for efficient GABAergic synaptic transmission and plasticity, and for maintaining extracellular GABA at a level needed for associative plasticity at cortical inputs in the LA, which, if disturbed, results in an impairment of the cue specificity of conditioned fear responses typifying anxiety disorders.

  7. Joint envelope and frequency order spectrum analysis based on iterative generalized demodulation for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Planetary gearbox vibration signals under nonstationary conditions are characterized by time-varying nature and complex multi-components, making it very difficult to extract features for fault diagnosis. Order spectrum analysis is one of the effective approaches for nonstationary signal analysis of rotating machinery. The main idea of order analysis is to map the time-varying frequency components into constant ones. Inspired by this idea, we propose a new order spectrum analysis method to exploit the unique property of iterative generalized demodulation in converting arbitrary instantaneous frequency trajectories of multi-component signals into constant frequency lines on the time-frequency plane. This new method is completely algorithm-based and tachometer/encoder-free, thus easy to implement. It does not involve equi-angular resampling commonly required by most order tracking methods and is hence free from the decimation and/or interpolation error. The proposed order analysis method can eliminate the time-variation effect of frequency and thus can effectively reveal the harmonic order constituents of nonstationary multi-component signals. However, the planetary gearbox vibration signals also lead to complex sideband orders. As such, we further propose to analyze the order spectrum of amplitude envelope. This will eliminate the complex sideband orders in the order spectrum of original signals, leading to a substantially simplified and more reliable gear characteristic frequency identification process. Nevertheless, the gear and/or planet carrier rotating frequency orders, which are irrelevant to gear fault, may still exist. To avoid possible misleading results due to such frequency orders, we also propose to analyze the order spectrum of instantaneous frequency. Theoretically, the peaks present in frequency order spectrum directly correspond to the gear characteristic frequency orders, which can be used to extract gear fault signature more explicitly. The proposed

  8. Time-frequency demodulation analysis based on iterative generalized demodulation for fault diagnosis of planetary gearbox under nonstationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chen, Xiaowang; Liang, Ming; Ma, Fei

    2015-10-01

    The vibration signal of planetary gearboxes exhibits the characteristics of both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM), and thus has a complex sideband structure. Time-varying speed and/or load will result in time variant characteristic frequency components. Since the modulating frequency is related to the gear fault characteristic frequency, the AM and FM parts each alone contains the information of the gear fault. We propose a time-frequency amplitude and frequency demodulation analysis metbhod to avoid the complex time-variant sideband analysis, and thereby identify the time-variant gear fault characteristic frequency. We enhance the time-frequency analysis via iterative generalized demodulation (IGD). The time-varying amplitude and frequency demodulated spectra have fine time-frequency resolution and are free of cross term interferences. They do not involve complex time-variant sidebands, thus considerably facilitating fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes under nonstationary conditions. The method is validated using both numerically simulated data and experimental signals.

  9. Ultrafine particle concentrations in the surroundings of an urban area: comparing downwind to upwind conditions using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs).

    PubMed

    Sartini, Claudio; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Mari; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Ferrari, Silvia; Poluzzi, Vanes

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an urban area on ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration in nearby surrounding areas. We assessed how downwind and upwind conditions affect the UFP concentration at a site placed a few kilometres from the city border. Secondarily, we investigated the relationship among other meteorological factors, temporal variables and UFP. Data were collected for 44 days during 2008 and 2009 at a rural site placed about 3 kilometres from Bologna, in northern Italy. Measurements were performed using a spectrometer (FMPS TSI 3091). The average UFP number concentration was 11 776 (±7836) particles per cm(3). We analysed the effect of wind direction in a multivariate Generalized Additive Model (GAM) adjusted for the principal meteorological parameters and temporal trends. An increase of about 25% in UFP levels was observed when the site was downwind of the urban area, compared with the levels observed when wind blew from rural areas. The size distribution of particles was also affected by the wind direction, showing higher concentration of small size particles when the wind blew from the urban area. The GAM showed a good fit to the data (R(2) = 0.81). Model choice was via Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). The analysis also revealed that an approach based on meteorological data plus temporal trends improved the goodness of the fit of the model. In addition, the findings contribute to evidence on effects of exposure to ultrafine particles on a population living in city surroundings.

  10. Greek immigrant children in southern Sweden in comparison with Greek and Swedish children. I. General living conditions.

    PubMed

    Neiderud, J

    1989-01-01

    Greek immigrant children belonging to the second generation of immigrants in Sweden have been compared with Swedish children and Greek children in Greece regarding general living conditions. Interviews were performed in the homes of all participants. The parents in the two Greek groups had the lowest educational level. The yearly salary of immigrant families was similar to that of the Swedish families. Immigrant and Swedish parents worked outside their homes to the same extent, Greek immigrant mothers fulltime, Swedish mothers mostly part time. For economical reasons the immigrant parents looked after their children within the family while the Swedish families almost always utilized community day care facilities. The immigrant families had fewer children than the Swedish and Greek rural families and their dwellings were smaller. Corporal punishment was a common method of upbringing in Greece and among the immigrants. The immigrant families had extremely few contacts with Swedish families. A majority of the immigrant families were unsure about their future in Sweden, whether or not to stay. In conclusion, the Greek immigrant group in many respects had adapted to Swedish customs but they had also at the same time retained much of the Greek cultural characteristics.

  11. The Lorazepam and Diazepam Protocol for Catatonia Due to General Medical Condition and Substance in Liaison Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Chuen; Hung, Yi-Yung; Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2017-01-01

    Objective The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been proved to rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia in patients with schizophrenia or mood disorder. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lorazepam-diazepam protocol in catatonia due to general medical conditions (GMC) and substance. Method Patients with catatonia that required psychiatric intervention in various settings of a medical center were included. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been used to treat the catatonia due to GMC or substance according to DSM-IV criteria. The treatment response had been assessed by two psychiatrists. Results Eighteen (85.7%) of 21 catatonic patients due to GMC or substance became free of catatonia after the lorazepam-diazepam protocol. Five (23.8%) of the 21 patients had passed away with various causes of death and wide range of time periods after catatonia. Conclusion Our results showed that the lorazepam-diazepam protocol could rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia due to GMC and substance. PMID:28114315

  12. Gender differences in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Vesga-López, Oriana; Schneier, Franklin; Wang, Samuel; Heimberg, Richard; Liu, Shang-Min; Hasin, Deborah S.; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess gender differences in the epidemiology, comorbidity and treatment-seeking patterns of DSM-IV Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in the United States. Method Data were derived from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N=43,093) of the U.S. population. Results The lifetime and twelve-month male:female prevalence ratios of DSM-IV GAD were 1:1.9 and 1:2.2, respectively. Men with GAD had significantly higher rates of comorbid alcohol and drug use disorders, nicotine dependence, and antisocial personality disorder. Women with GAD had significantly higher rates of comorbid mood disorders (except bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (except social anxiety disorder). Men with GAD reported greater use of alcohol and non-prescription medications to help relieve GAD symptoms. GAD in women was associated with higher family history of depression. Disability associated with GAD was greater in women than in men. Rates of treatment-seeking for DSM-IV GAD were low for both genders, but particularly low among men. Conclusion There are significant gender differences in the prevalence, comorbidity pattern, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, course, and treatment-seeking rates of persons with DSM-IV GAD. Increased recognition and treatment of GAD, particularly among men, could lead to a substantial reductions in the societal and personal burden and improve the quality of life of those afflicted with this disorder. PMID:19192444

  13. Comorbidity of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Substance Use Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Analucía A.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, Shang-Min; Davies, Carrie; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Objective Prior research has consistently documented a strong association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and substance use disorder (SUD). GAD and SUD comorbidity (GAD-SUD) represents clinical challenges as the patients’ symptoms are often more severe and are frequently prolonged making their management more complex when compared with individuals with GAD only. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals with GAD-SUD differ meaningfully from individuals with GAD and no SUD comorbidity (GAD-NSUD) in terms of demographic characteristics, risk factors, psychiatric comorbidity and clinical correlates. Methods Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (N=43,093). Diagnoses were made using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version. Results We found that the lifetime prevalence rate of GAD-SUD is about 2.04% while that of GAD-NSUD is of 2.10%. Individuals with GAD-SUD showed higher psychiatric comorbidity rates than those with GAD-NSUD. Treatment seeking rates for GAD are equally low in GAD-SUD and GAD-NSUD. Both groups were as likely to receive pharmacological treatment for anxiety. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that individuals of GAD-SUD constitutes half of the lifetime prevalence of GAD and that GAD-SUD is associated with high overall vulnerability for additional psychopathology, particularly in the externalizing spectrum, higher disability and higher use of alcohol and drugs to relieve anxiety symptoms. PMID:20923623

  14. Non-healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients: general and local interfering conditions and management options with advanced wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Uccioli, Luigi; Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Ruotolo, Valeria; Giurato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Medical knowledge about wound management has improved as recent studies have investigated the healing process and its biochemical background. Despite this, foot ulcers remain an important clinical problem, often resulting in costly, prolonged treatment. A non-healing ulcer is also a strong risk factor for major amputation. Many factors can interfere with wound healing, including the patient's general health status (i.e., nutritional condition indicated by albumin levels) or drugs such as steroids that can interfere with normal healing. Diabetic complications (i.e., renal insufficiency) may delay healing and account for higher amputation rates observed in diabetic patients under dialysis treatment. Wound environment (e.g., presence of neuropathy, ischaemia, and infection) may significantly influence healing by interfering with the physiological healing cascade and adding local release of factors that may worsen the wound. The timely and well-orchestrated release of factors regulating the healing process, observed in acute wounds, is impaired in non-healing wounds that are blocked in a chronic inflammatory phase without progressing to healing. This chronic phase is characterised by elevated protease activity (EPA) of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases (e.g., human neutrophil elastase) that interfere with collagen synthesis, as well as growth factor release and action. EPA (mainly MMP 9, MMP-8 and elastase) and inflammatory factors present in the wound bed (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa) account for the catabolic state of non-healing ulcers. The availability of wound dressings that modulate EPA has added new therapeutic options for treating non-healing ulcers. The literature confirms advantages obtained by reducing protease activity in the wound bed, with better outcomes achieved by using these dressings compared with traditional ones. New technologies also allow a physician to know the status of the wound bed environment, particularly EPA, in a clinical

  15. Stability and free vibration analyses of an orthotropic singly symmetric Timoshenko beam-column with generalized end conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve-Cano, J. F.; Darío Aristizábal-Ochoa, J.

    2009-12-01

    The stability and free vibration analyses (i.e., buckling, natural frequencies and modal shapes) of an orthotropic singly symmetric 3D Timoshenko beam-column with generalized boundary conditions (i.e., with bending and torsional semirigid restraints and lateral bracings as well as lumped masses at both ends) subjected to an eccentric end axial load are presented in a classical manner. The five governing equations of dynamic equilibrium (i.e., two transverse shear equations, two bending moment equations and pure torsional moment equation) are sufficient to determine the natural frequencies and the corresponding modal shapes of the beam-column in the two principal planes of bending and torsion about its longitudinal axis. The proposed model includes the coupling effects among: (1) the deformations due to bending, shear and pure torsion; (2) inertias (translational, rotational and torsional) of all masses considered; (3) eccentric axial loads applied at the ends, and (4) restraints at the supports (bending, torsional and lateral bracings at both ends of the member). However, the effects of axial deformations and warping torsion produced by the axial load are not included; consequently the proposed model is not capable of capturing the phenomena of torsional buckling or combined lateral bending-torsional buckling. The proposed analytical model indicates that the stability and dynamic response of beam-columns are highly sensitive to the coupling effects, particularly in members with both ends free to rotate. The natural frequencies and modal shapes can be determined from the eigenvalues of a full 4×4 matrix for vibration in the plane of symmetry (using the uncoupled equations of transverse force and moment equilibrium at both ends) and from a full 6×6 matrix for the coupled shear-bending-torsional vibration (using the coupled equations of transverse shear, bending and torsional moment equilibrium at both ends). Also, it is shown that the proposed method reproduces the

  16. Separating expansion from contraction in spherically symmetric models with a perfect fluid: Generalization of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff condition and application to models with a cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Mimoso, Jose P.; Le Delliou, Morgan; Mena, Filipe C.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate spherically symmetric perfect-fluid spacetimes and discuss the existence and stability of a dividing shell separating expanding and collapsing regions. We perform a 3+1 splitting and obtain gauge invariant conditions relating the intrinsic spatial curvature of the shells to the Misner-Sharp mass and to a function of the pressure that we introduce and that generalizes the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium condition. We find that surfaces fulfilling those two conditions fit, locally, the requirements of a dividing shell, and we argue that cosmological initial conditions should allow its global validity. We analyze the particular cases of the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi dust models with a cosmological constant as an example of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant ({Lambda}-CDM model) and its generalization to contain a central perfect-fluid core. These models provide simple but physically interesting illustrations of our results.

  17. Mixed boundary conditions in ocean general circulation models and their influence on the stability of the model`s conveyor belt

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolajewicz, U.; Maier-reimer, E.

    1994-11-01

    When driven under `mixed boundary conditions` coarse resolution ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) generally show a high sensitivity of the present-day thermohaline circulation against perturbations. We will show that an alternative formulation of the boundary condition for temperature, a mixture of prescribed heat fluxes and additional restoring of the sea surface temperature to a climatological boundary temperature with a longer time constant, drastically alters the stability of the modes of the thermohaline circulation. The results from simulations with the Hamburg large-scale geostrophic OGCM indicate that the stability of the mode of the thermohaline circulation with formation of North Atlantic deepwater increases, if the damping of sea surface temperature anomalies is reduced, whereas the opposite is true for the mode without North Atlantic deep water formation. It turns out that the formulation of the temperature boundary condition also affects the variability of the model.

  18. Validity of generalized scattering equations and corresponding inelastic-cross-section expressions for comprehensive electron diffraction conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, L. J.; Josefsson, T. W.

    1996-05-01

    Generalized scattering equations for electron diffraction in a crystalline environment have recently been derived with the assumption that the zeroth-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) lies parallel to the crystal surface (or alternatively that the zone axis is parallel to the crystal surface normal) [L. J. Allen and T. W. Josefsson, Phys. Rev. B 52, 3184 (1995)]. The contribution from higher-order Laue zones (HOLZ's) was not considered. We show that these scattering equations are in fact valid for general orientations of the ZOLZ with respect to the crystal surface, except for the specific case where the ZOLZ lies perpendicular to the surface. Furthermore, a widely applicable expression for the cross section for any type of inelastic scattering in a crystal is shown to be valid for any orientation of the ZOLZ and allows the inclusion of reflections in the HOLZ's.

  19. Conditional same-different discrimination by pigeons: acquisition and generalization to novel and few-item displays.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Kennedy, Philip L; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored whether pigeons can learn to discriminate simultaneously presented arrays of 16 identical (Same) visual items from arrays of 16 nonidentical (Different) visual items, when the correct choice was conditional on the presence of another cue: the color of the background. In one experiment, pigeons rapidly learned this task and, after training with arrays created from a 72-icon set, they exhibited nearly perfect transfer to novel testing arrays. In a second experiment, pigeons' accuracy to 24-, 20-, 12-, and 8-icon arrays during later testing remained as high as accuracy to training arrays; although accuracy declined with 4- and 2-icon arrays, it was still significantly above chance. In both experiments, pigeons' choice reaction time scores nicely complemented their choice accuracy scores. These results suggest that the conditional discrimination procedure is well suited to disclose same-different discrimination in pigeons and to elucidate the interaction between perception and abstraction in conceptual learning.

  20. Stimulus class formation and concept learning: establishment of within- and between-set generalization and transitive relationships via conditional discrimination procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Haring, T G; Breen, C G; Laitinen, R E

    1989-01-01

    Three students with moderate mental retardation were taught a complex stimulus class with a two-choice conditional discrimination procedure applied across eight 10-member stimulus sets. Each set was composed of five age-appropriate and five age-inappropriate examples of clothing, accessories, and leisure items (e.g., a Walkman radio). Discrimination training was programmed serially across each set, and generalization probes were conducted concurrently among all sets. Generalization probes consisted of unreinforced conditional matching trials with comparison items being drawn from (a) the set undergoing training (within-set probes), (b) sets not undergoing training (between-set probes), and (c) both sample and comparison items from different sets (transitive stimulus control probes). Results indicate that within-set generalization, between-set generalization, and transitive stimulus relations controlled responding by all 3 students for items that had been contingently associated with reinforcement. However, items that gained control of responding through within-set and between-set generalization alone (i.e., not acquired through contingent reinforcement) remained at baseline levels during transitive stimulus control probes. Results are discussed in terms of a taxonomy of multiple sources of stimulus control that underlie socially defined and maintained stimulus classes. PMID:2527943

  1. Damages of the Tallinn District Heating Networks and Indicative Parameters for an Estimation of the Networks General Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlebnikov, Aleksandr; Volkova, Anna; Dzuba, Olga; Poobus, Arvi; Kask, Ülo

    2010-01-01

    District heating networks in Estonia are mostly old and in bad condition. The state of the district heating networks of Tallinn is typical for the rest of Estonian DH networks. The paper includes an analysis of the Tallinn district heating networks. Valid data about damages in district heating systems received for the last 12 years were used for an analysis of the network damages. Different types of network damages are analysed: external corrosion, internal corrosion, defect of installation, factory defects, defect of construction and other reasons. The scale of damages for the different elements of networks is compared in the paper: armature, compensator, construction and pipes. The main factors which influence damages in district heating networks are the age of networks, the quality of construction works and the network operation conditions. The damage quantity dependence on the age of networks is also defined and analysed in the paper. The scale of damages can be diminished by reducing the average age of the networks. This is possible by replacing old pipelines and other network system elements. The pipes average age changes for a 20 year period are simulated according to different intensities of renovation works.

  2. Using General-Head Boundary Condition in Groundwater Flow Model Eddy Teasdale, PG; Jim Zhang, PhD, PE; and Liz Elliot, PG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, E.

    2010-12-01

    : In groundwater flow model development, setting appropriate boundary conditions is difficult if the edges of the model domain are not natural groundwater or known hydraulic boundaries (i.e., rivers, faults). Often the prescribed-head or prescribed-flux boundary condition does not apply to these non-natural boundaries, and a general-head boundary (GHB) condition has to be implemented. GHB allows groundwater to move either into or out of the model domain (depending on groundwater elevation changes along the boundary). GHB conditions can approximate the hydraulic response of the boundaries to the groundwater condition variations if it is specified appropriately. Although hydraulic conductance and the reference head are the only two parameters used in GHB, determing these two parameters is always a challenging task, especially if little is known about the regional flow system. This paper presents the main issues in the application of GHB conditions and provides some guidance in determing the hydraulic conductance and the reference head values. Numerical test runs have been conducted to illustrate the effects varying GHB conditions have on the flow simulation results.

  3. A semi analytical method for electro-thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of nanobeam resting on the Winkler-Pasternak foundations with general elastic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarepour, Misagh; Amirhosein Hosseini, Seyed

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an examination of nonlinear free vibration of a nanobeam under electro-thermo-mechanical loading with elastic medium and various boundary conditions, especially the elastic boundary condition. The nanobeam is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The von Kármán strain-displacement relationship together with Hamilton’s principle and Eringen’s theory are employed to derive equations of motion. The nonlinear free vibration frequency is obtained for simply supported (S-S) and elastic supported (E-E) boundary conditions. E-E boundary condition is a general and actual form of boundary conditions and it is chosen because of more realistic behavior. By applying the differential transform method (DTM), the nanobeam’s natural frequencies can be easily obtained for the two different boundary conditions mentioned above. Performing a precise study led to investigation of the influences of nonlocal parameter, temperature change, spring constants (either for elastic medium or boundary condition) and imposed electric potential on the nonlinear free vibration characteristics of nanobeam. The results for S-S and E-E nanobeams are compared with each other. In order to validate the results, some comparisons are presented between DTM results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach. It has been discovered that DTM solves the equations with minimum calculation cost.

  4. STUDIES IN RESUSCITATION: I. THE GENERAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING RESUSCITATION, AND THE RESUSCITATION OF THE BLOOD AND OF THE HEART

    PubMed Central

    Pike, F. H.; Guthrie, C. C.; Stewart, G. N.

    1908-01-01

    Our results may be briefly summarized: 1. Blood, when defibrinated, soon loses its power to maintain the activity of the higher nervous centers, and its nutritive properties for all tissues quickly diminish. 2. Artificial fluids, as a substitute for blood, are not satisfactory. 3. The proper oxygenation of the blood is an indispensable adjunct in the resuscitation of an animal. 4. The heart usually continues to beat for some minutes after it ceases to affect a mercury manometer, and resuscitation of it within this period by extra-thoracic massage and artificial respiration is sometimes successful. 5. Resuscitation of the heart by direct massage is the most certain method at our command. 6. A proper blood-pressure is an indispensable condition for the continued normal activity of the heart. 7. Anæsthetics, hemorrhage and induced currents applied to the heart render resuscitation more difficult than asphyxia alone. PMID:19867138

  5. Histidine-functionalized water-soluble nanoparticles for biomimetic nucleophilic/general-base catalysis under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Geetika; Zhao, Yan

    2013-10-21

    Cross-linking the micelles of 4-dodecyloxybenzyltripropargylammonium bromide by 1,4-diazidobutane-2,3-diol in the presence of azide-functionalized imidazole derivatives yielded surface-cross-linked micelles (SCMs) with imidazole groups on the surface. The resulting water-soluble nanoparticles were found, by fluorescence spectroscopy, to contain hydrophobic binding sites. The imidazole groups promoted the photo-deprotonation of 2-naphthol at pH 6 and catalyzed the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA) in aqueous solution at pH ≥ 4. Although the overall hydrolysis rate slowed down with decreasing solution pH, the catalytic effect of the imidazole became stronger because the reactions catalyzed by unfunctionalized SCMs slowed down much more. The unusual ability of the imidazole–SCMs to catalyze the hydrolysis of PNPA under acidic conditions was attributed to the local hydrophobicity and the positive nature of the SCMs.

  6. General formulation of pressure and stress tensor for arbitrary many-body interaction potentials under periodic boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aidan P; Plimpton, Steven J; Mattson, William

    2009-10-21

    Three distinct forms are derived for the force virial contribution to the pressure and stress tensor of a collection of atoms interacting under periodic boundary conditions. All three forms are written in terms of forces acting on atoms, and so are valid for arbitrary many-body interatomic potentials. All three forms are mathematically equivalent. In the special case of atoms interacting with pair potentials, they reduce to previously published forms. (i) The atom-cell form is similar to the standard expression for the virial for a finite nonperiodic system, but with an explicit correction for interactions with periodic images. (ii) The atom form is particularly suited to implementation in modern molecular dynamics simulation codes using spatial decomposition parallel algorithms. (iii) The group form of the virial allows the contributions to the virial to be assigned to individual atoms.

  7. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test.

  8. A master-slave parallel hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for groundwater remediation design under general hydrogeological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Yang, Y.; Luo, Q.; Wu, J.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a new hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the niched Pareto tabu search combined with a genetic algorithm (NPTSGA), whereby the global search ability of niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS) is improved by the diversification of candidate solutions arose from the evolving nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) population. Also, the NPTSGA coupled with the commonly used groundwater flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed methodology is then applied to a large-scale field groundwater remediation system for cleanup of large trichloroethylene (TCE) plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Furthermore, a master-slave (MS) parallelization scheme based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is incorporated into the NPTSGA to implement objective function evaluations in distributed processor environment, which can greatly improve the efficiency of the NPTSGA in finding Pareto-optimal solutions to the real-world application. This study shows that the MS parallel NPTSGA in comparison with the original NPTS and NSGA-II can balance the tradeoff between diversity and optimality of solutions during the search process and is an efficient and effective tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems under complicated hydrogeologic conditions.

  9. Conditions for the cosmological viability of the most general scalar-tensor theories and their applications to extended Galileon dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Antonio De; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2012-02-01

    In the Horndeski's most general scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations, we derive the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with scalar, tensor, and vector perturbations in the presence of two perfect fluids on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background. Our general results are useful for the construction of theoretically consistent models of dark energy. We apply our formulas to extended Galileon models in which a tracker solution with an equation of state smaller than -1 is present. We clarify the allowed parameter space in which the ghosts and Laplacian instabilities are absent and we numerically confirm that such models are indeed cosmologically viable.

  10. Non-Markovian reduced propagator, multiple-time correlation functions, and master equations with general initial conditions in the weak-coupling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Ines de; Alonso, Daniel

    2006-02-15

    In this paper we derive the evolution equation for the reduced propagator, an object that evolves vectors of the Hilbert space of a system S interacting with an environment B in a non-Markovian way. This evolution is conditioned to certain initial and final states of the environment. Once an average over these environmental states is made, reduced propagators permit the evaluation of multiple-time correlation functions of system observables. When this average is done stochastically the reduced propagator evolves according to a stochastic Schroedinger equation. In addition, it is possible to obtain the evolution equations of the multiple-time correlation functions which generalize the well-known quantum regression theorem to the non-Markovian case. Here, both methods, stochastic and evolution equations, are described by assuming a weak coupling between system and environment. Finally, we show that reduced propagators can be used to obtain a master equation with general initial conditions, and not necessarily an initial vacuum state for the environment. We illustrate the theory with several examples.

  11. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice.

    PubMed

    Sapowicz, Stephanie A; Linder, Deborah E; Freeman, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n = 149) and a general practice (n = 166). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P < 0.001) and education (P < 0.001) compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P < 0.001) and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P < 0.001). Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P = 0.083), with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P = 0.046), but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P = 0.004). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.

  12. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n = 149) and a general practice (n = 166). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P < 0.001) and education (P < 0.001) compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P < 0.001) and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P < 0.001). Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P = 0.083), with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P = 0.046), but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P = 0.004). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:27722198

  13. Agreement between self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care - results of the MultiCare Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity is a common phenomenon in primary care. Until now, no clinical guidelines for multimorbidity exist. For the development of these guidelines, it is necessary to know whether or not patients are aware of their diseases and to what extent they agree with their doctor. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the agreement of self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care, and to discover which patient characteristics are associated with positive agreement. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 3,189 multimorbid patients, ages 65 to 85. Data was collected in personal interviews with patients and GPs. The prevalence proportions for 32 diagnosis groups, kappa coefficients and proportions of specific agreement were calculated in order to examine the agreement of patient self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions. Logistic regression models were calculated to analyze which patient characteristics can be associated with positive agreement. Results We identified four chronic conditions with good agreement (e.g. diabetes mellitus κ = 0.80;PA = 0,87), seven with moderate agreement (e.g. cerebral ischemia/chronic stroke κ = 0.55;PA = 0.60), seventeen with fair agreement (e.g. cardiac insufficiency κ = 0.24;PA = 0.36) and four with poor agreement (e.g. gynecological problems κ = 0.05;PA = 0.10). Factors associated with positive agreement concerning different chronic diseases were sex, age, education, income, disease count, depression, EQ VAS score and nursing care dependency. For example: Women had higher odds ratios for positive agreement with their GP regarding osteoporosis (OR = 7.16). The odds ratios for positive agreement increase with increasing multimorbidity in almost all of the observed chronic conditions (OR = 1.22-2.41). Conclusions For multimorbidity research, the

  14. Binding of atoms and stability of molecules in Hartree and Thomas-Fermi type theories. Part I: A necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of general molecular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Catto, I.; Lions, P.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors study here the binding of atoms and molecules and the stability of general molecular systems including molecular ions. This is the first paper of a series devoted to the study of these general problems. The authors obtain here a general necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of a general molecular system in the context of Thomas-Fermi-Von Weizsaecker, Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Von Weizsaecker, Hartree or Hartree-Fock theories. 20 refs.

  15. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, J. E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-10-01

    We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wave-vector (high-k) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in subwavelength periodic multilayer structures. Describing the elementary excitation in the unit cell of the structure by a generalized resonance pole of a reflection coefficient and using Bloch's theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wave-vector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high-k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metal-dielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high-k waves and explore the range of parameteres for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for materials with hyperbolic dispersion. The approach is applicable to a large variety of structures, such as continuous or structured microwave, terahertz, and optical metamaterials.

  16. Two decades of change in European general practice service profiles: conditions associated with the developments in 28 countries between 1993 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Willemijn L. A.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Schellevis, François G.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence regarding the benefits of strong primary care has influenced health policy and practice. This study focuses on changes in the breadth of services provided by general practitioners (GPs) in Europe between 1993 and 2012 and offers possible explanations for these changes. Design Data on the breadth of service profiles were used from two cross-sectional surveys in 28 countries: the 1993 European GP Task Profile study (6321 GPs) and the 2012 QUALICOPC study (6044 GPs). GPs’ involvement in four areas of clinical activity (first contact care, treatment of diseases, medical procedures, and prevention) was established using ecometric analyses. The changes were measured by the relative increase in the breadth of service profiles. Associations between changes and national-level conditions were examined though regression analyses. Data on the national conditions were used from various other public databases including the World Databank and the PHAMEU (Primary Health care Activity Monitor) database. Setting A total of 28 European countries. Subjects GPs. Main outcome measure Changes in the breadth of GP service profiles. Results A general trend of increased involvement of European GPs in treatment of diseases and decreased involvement in preventive activities was observed. Conditions at the national level were associated with changes in the involvement of GPs in first contact care, treatment of diseases and, to a limited extent, prevention. Especially in countries with stronger growth of health care expenditures between 1993 and 2012 the service profiles have expanded. In countries where family values are more dominant the breadth in service profiles decreased. A stronger professional status of GPs was positively associated with the change in first contact care. Conclusions GPs in former communist countries and Turkey have increased their involvement in the provision of services. Developments in Western Europe were less evident. The developments in the

  17. General quantitative analysis of stress partitioning and boundary conditions in undrained biphasic porous media via a purely macroscopic and purely variational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpieri, Roberto; Travascio, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In poroelasticity, the effective stress law relates the external stress applied to the medium to the macroscopic strain of the solid phase and the interstitial pressure of the fluid saturating the mixture. Such relationship has been formerly introduced by Terzaghi in form of a principle. To date, no poroelastic theory is capable of recovering a stress partitioning law in agreement with Terzaghi's postulated one in the absence of ad hoc constitutive assumptions on the medium. We recently proposed a variational macroscopic continuum description of two-phase poroelasticity to derive a general biphasic formulation at finite deformations, termed variational macroscopic theory of porous media (VMTPM). Such approach proceeds from the inclusion of the intrinsic volumetric strain among the kinematic descriptors aside to macroscopic displacements, and as a variational theory, uses the Hamilton least-action principle as the unique primitive concept of mechanics invoked to derive momentum balance equations. In a previous related work it was shown that, for the subclass of undrained problems, VMTPM predicts that stress is partitioned in the two phases in strict compliance with Terzaghi's law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. In the present contribution, we further develop the linearized framework of VMTPM to arrive at a general operative formula that allows the quantitative determination of stress partitioning in a jacketed test over a generic isotropic biphasic specimen. This formula is quantitative and general, in that it relates the partial phase stresses to the externally applied stress as function of partitioning coefficients that are all derived by strictly following a purely variational and purely macroscopic approach, and in the absence of any specific hypothesis on the microstructural or constitutive features of a given medium. To achieve this result, the stiffness coefficients of the theory are derived by using

  18. Bispectoral index scores of pediatric patients under dental treatment and recovery conditions: Study of children assigned for general anesthesia under propofol and isofloran regimes

    PubMed Central

    Tahririan, Dana; Kaviani, Naser; Nourbakhsh, Nosrat

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to determine the relationship between bispectoral index (BIS) during dental treatment and recovery conditions in children undergoing two regimes of anesthesia of propofol and isoflurane. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial study, 57 4-7-year-old healthy children who had been referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia between 60 and 90 min were selected by convenience sampling and assigned to two groups, after obtaining their parents’ written consent. The anesthesia was induced by inhalation. For the first group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%), nitrous oxide (50%), and isoflurane (1%). For the second group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%), nitrous oxide (50%), and propofol was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 Ng/kg/min. The patients’ vital signs, BIS, and agitation scores were recorded every 10 min. The data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and t-tests at a significance level of α = 0.05 using SPSS version 20. Results: The results of independent t-test for anesthesia time showed no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and propofol (P = 0.87). Controlling age, the BIS difference between the two anesthetic agents was not significant (P > 0.05); however, it was negatively correlated with the duration of anesthesia and the discharge time (P = 0.001, r = -0.308) and (P < 0.001, r = -0.55). Conclusion: The same depth of anesthesia is produced by propofol and isoflurane, but lower recovery complications from anesthesia are observed with isoflurane. PMID:26962318

  19. The role of test context in latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition: Part of a search for general principles of associative interference.

    PubMed

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Soares, Julia S; Miller, Ralph R

    2015-09-01

    In two lick suppression experiments with rats, we assessed interference with behavior indicative of conditioned inhibition by a latent inhibition treatment as a function of test context. We asked what effect the test context has, given identical latent inhibition treatments in Phase 1 and identical conditioned inhibition trainings in Phase 2. In Experiment 1, an AAA versus AAB context-shift design determined that the latent inhibition treatment in Phase 1 attenuated behavior indicative of the conditioned inhibition training administered in Phase 2, regardless of the test context, which could reflect a failure to either acquire or express conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 2, an ABA versus ABB design showed that test performance in Contexts A and B reflected the treatments that had been administered in those contexts (i.e., conditioned inhibition was observed in Context B but not A), which could reflect either the context specificity of either latent inhibition or conditioned inhibition. In either case, latent inhibition of conditioned inhibition training in at least some situations was seen to reflect an expression deficit rather than an acquisition deficit. These data, in conjunction with prior reports, suggest that latent inhibition is relatively specific to the context in which it was administered, whereas conditioned inhibition is specific to its training context only when it is the second-learned relationship concerning the target cue. These experiments are part of a larger effort to delineate control by the test context of two-phase associative interference, as a function of the nature of target training and the nature of interference training.

  20. The prevalence of diagnosed chronic conditions and multimorbidity in Australia: A method for estimating population prevalence from general practice patient encounter data

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Joan; Miller, Graeme; Britt, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of common chronic conditions and multimorbidity among patients at GP encounters and among people in the Australian population. To assess the extent to which use of each individual patient’s GP attendance over the previous year, instead of the average for their age-sex group, affects the precision of national population prevalence estimates of diagnosed chronic conditions. Design, setting and participants A sub-study (between November 2012 and March 2016) of the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of GP activity. Each of 1,449 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 43,501) indicating for each, number of GP attendances in previous year and all diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. Results Hypertension (26.5%) was the most prevalent diagnosed chronic condition among patients surveyed, followed by osteoarthritis (22.7%), hyperlipidaemia (16.6%), depression (16.3%), anxiety (11.9%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) (11.3%), chronic back pain (9.7%) and Type 2 diabetes (9.6%). After adjustment, we estimated population prevalence of hypertension as 12.4%, 9.5% osteoarthritis, 8.2% hyperlipidaemia, 8.0% depression, 5.8% anxiety and 5.2% asthma. Estimates were significantly lower than those derived using the previous method. About half (51.6%) the patients at GP encounters had two or more diagnosed chronic conditions and over one third (37.4%) had three or more. Population estimates were: 25.7% had two or more diagnosed chronic conditions and 15.8% had three or more. Conclusions Of the three approaches we have tested to date, this study provides the most accurate method for estimation of population prevalence of chronic conditions using the GP as an expert interviewer, by adjusting for each patient’s reported attendance. PMID:28278241

  1. General Medical Considerations for the Wilderness Adventurer: Medical Conditions That May Worsen With or Present Challenges to Coping With Wilderness Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Tracy A; Roberts, William O; Hackett, Peter; Dexter, William W; Brent, Jeff S; Young, Craig C; Fudge, Jessie R; Hawkins, Seth C; DeLoughery, Thomas G; Thomas, Benjamin J; Tabin, Geoffrey C; Jacoby, Leah E; Asplund, Chad A

    2015-09-01

    Participation in wilderness and adventure sports is on the rise, and as such, practitioners will see more athletes seeking clearance to participate in these events. The purpose of this article is to describe specific medical conditions that may worsen or present challenges to the athlete in a wilderness environment.

  2. General Medical Considerations for the Wilderness Adventurer: Medical Conditions That May Worsen With or Present Challenges to Coping With Wilderness Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Tracy A; Roberts, William O; Hackett, Peter; Dexter, William W; Brent, Jeff S; Young, Craig C; Fudge, Jessie R; Hawkins, Seth C; DeLoughery, Thomas G; Thomas, Benjamin J; Tabin, Geoffrey C; Jacoby, Leah E; Asplund, Chad A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in wilderness and adventure sports is on the rise, and as such, practitioners will see more athletes seeking clearance to participate in these events. The purpose of this article is to describe specific medical conditions that may worsen or present challenges to the athlete in a wilderness environment.

  3. A general and efficient approach to 2H-indazoles and 1H-pyrazoles through copper-catalyzed intramolecular N-N bond formation under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiantao; Cheng, Yongfeng; Yang, Yiqing; Rao, Yu

    2011-09-28

    A new efficient copper-catalyzed intramolecular amination reaction has been developed to readily synthesise a wide variety of multi-substituted 2H-indazole and 1H-pyrazole derivatives from easily accessible starting materials under mild conditions. A highly selective ligand for estrogen receptor β was prepared in three steps by employing this method.

  4. Measuring Quality of Care in Patients With Multiple Clinical Conditions: Summary of a Conference Conducted by the Society of General Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Sheldon; Fung, Constance; Turner, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    Performance measurement has been widely advocated as a means to improve health care delivery and, ultimately, clinical outcomes. However, the evidence supporting the value of using the same quality measures designed for patients with a single clinical condition in patients with multiple conditions is weak. If clinically complex patients, defined here as patients with multiple clinical conditions, present greater challenges to achieving quality goals, providers may shun them or ignore important, but unmeasured, clinical issues. This paper summarizes the proceedings of a conference addressing the challenge of measuring quality of care in the patient with multiple clinical conditions with the goal of informing the implementation of quality measurement systems and future research programs on this topic. The conference had three main areas of discussion. First, the potential problems caused by applying current quality standards to patients with multiple conditions were examined. Second, the advantages and disadvantages of three strategies to improve quality measurement in clinically complex patients were evaluated: excluding certain clinically complex patients from a given standard, relaxing the performance target, and assigning a greater weight to some measures based on the expected clinical benefit or difficulty of reaching the performance target. Third, the strengths and weaknesses of potential novel measures such change in functional status were considered. The group concurred that, because clinically complex patients present a threat to the implementation of quality measures, high priority must be assigned to a research agenda on this topic. This research should evaluate the impact of quality measurement on these patients and expand the range of quality measures relevant to the care of clinically complex patients. PMID:17516106

  5. The Effects of Caloric Density of the Food on Running Endurance and General Condition of Rats and Hamsters Restricted in Food Intake or Fed Ad Libitum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    triglyceride levels were 76Z and plasma total cholesterol levels 22X (significant) higher in non-exercised than in regularly exercised animals...right after running to exhaustion. In the hamsters kept at tropical climatic conditions, plasma total cholesterol at both food intake levels was...than on day 8 of the restricted intake. In the hamsters, average plasma triglyceride levels were 76% and plasma total cholesterol levels Z2

  6. Flight simulation study to determine MLS lateral course width requirements on final approach for general aviation. [runway conditions affecting microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumrine, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of various lateral course widths and runway lengths for manual CAT I Microwave Landing System instrument approaches was carried out with instrument rated pilots in a General Aviation simulator. Data are presented on the lateral dispersion at the touchdown zone, and the middle and outer markers, for approaches to 3,000, 8,000 (and trial 12,000 foot) runway lengths with full scale angular lateral course widths of + or - 1.19 deg, + or - 2.35 deg, and + or - 3.63 deg. The distance from touchdown where the localizer deviation went to full scale was also recorded. Pilot acceptance was measured according to the Cooper-Harper rating system.

  7. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23

    PubMed Central

    Mathon, O.; Beteva, A.; Borrel, J.; Bugnazet, D.; Gatla, S.; Hino, R.; Kantor, I.; Mairs, T.; Munoz, M.; Pasternak, S.; Perrin, F.; Pascarelli, S.

    2015-01-01

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment. PMID:26524321

  8. The problem of generalization in the operant conditioning of social speech in the severely subnormal. Use of reversal to establish generalizability.

    PubMed

    Barton, E S

    1975-10-01

    Many severely subnormal patients talk little to each other. In this experiment, three pairs of subjects were reinforced for talking to each other, and learned to do so quite quickly. Whether social speech would continue to occur without the benefit of external reinforcement was examined by observing the subjects through a one-way mirror in a bare interview room adjacent to the teaching room immediately after each training session. On some occasions untrained subjects were observed in the bare room with the trained subjects. The reinforcement of social speech was demonstrated to be effective by the use of a reversal design (baseline, reinforcement, no reinforcement, reinforcement), where the rate of speech increased considerably when reinforcement was available but decreased when it was discontinued. Generalization of the increased social speech, however, was very poor and only significantly above baseline levels with the pair who seemed responsive to social as well as material reinforcement. The implications of this for training programmes are discussed.

  9. First regularized trace of integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator on a segment with punctured points at generalized conditions of bonding in deleted points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarsenbi, Abdisalam A.; Zhumanova, Lyazzat K.

    2016-12-01

    The present work is devoted to calculating a first regularized trace of one integro-differential operator with the main part of the Sturm-Liouville type on a segment with punctured points at integral perturbation of "transmission" conditions. The integro-differential Sturm-Liouville operator -y″(x )+q (x )y (x )+γ ∫0πy (t )d t =λ y (x ) given on the segments π/n (k -1 )conditions of the Dirichlet type: y(0) = 0, y(π) = 0 are given on the left-hand and right-hand ends of the segment [0, π]. The functions continuous on [0, π], the first derivatives of which have jumps at the points x =π/n k , are solutions. The value of jumps is expressed by the formula y'(π/k n -0 )=y'(π/k n +0 )-βk∫0πy (t )d t , k =1 ,n -1 ¯ . The basic result of the paper is the exact formula of the first regularized trace of the considered differential operator.

  10. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  11. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  12. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Owned and operated by one or more persons that are Section 2 Citizens; or (B) Owned by a person that is a Documentation Citizen and operated by a person that is a Section 2 Citizen. (g) Non-renewal for... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee...

  13. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  14. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  15. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  16. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to either a list of wastes subject to the Green... procedures of the United States, as defined in § 262.80(a). The OECD Green and Amber lists are...

  17. 40 CFR 262.82 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... imports of waste is indicated by assignment of the waste to a green, amber, or red list and by U.S. national procedures as defined in § 262.80(a). The green, amber, and red lists are incorporated by reference in § 262.89 (e). (1) Wastes on the green list are subject to existing controls normally applied...

  18. Fred S. Keller, a Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes some of Fred Keller's characteristics that might help people to appreciate him even more than they already do, and in addition, might help them understand him not only as a scientist and teacher, but as a man. People often tend to forget that the most valued scientists, teachers, and career models are also men…

  19. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Owned and operated by one or more persons that are Section 2 Citizens; or (B) Owned by a person that is a Documentation Citizen and operated by a person that is a Section 2 Citizen. (g) Non-renewal for... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee...

  20. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Owned and operated by one or more persons that are Section 2 Citizens; or (B) Owned by a person that is a Documentation Citizen and operated by a person that is a Section 2 Citizen. (g) Non-renewal for... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee...

  1. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Owned and operated by one or more persons that are Section 2 Citizens; or (B) Owned by a person that is a Documentation Citizen and operated by a person that is a Section 2 Citizen. (g) Non-renewal for... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee...

  2. 46 CFR 296.30 - General conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Owned and operated by one or more persons that are Section 2 Citizens; or (B) Owned by a person that is a Documentation Citizen and operated by a person that is a Section 2 Citizen. (g) Non-renewal for... Armed Services and Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the House of Representatives' Committee...

  3. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... shoes and horns, third rail beams, traction motor gear cases, and fuel tanks. Brake System...

  4. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... shoes and horns, third rail beams, traction motor gear cases, and fuel tanks. Brake System...

  5. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... shoes and horns, third rail beams, traction motor gear cases, and fuel tanks. Brake System...

  6. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... shoes and horns, third rail beams, traction motor gear cases, and fuel tanks. Brake System...

  7. General Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    General anesthesia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Under general anesthesia, you are completely unconscious and unable to feel pain during medical procedures. General anesthesia usually uses a combination of intravenous drugs and ...

  8. General anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007410.htm General anesthesia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. General anesthesia is treatment with certain medicines that puts you ...

  9. Triangulating Speech Sound Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miccio, Adele W.; Powell, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Generalization refers to the extension of learned behaviours to novel conditions, and it is one of the criteria by which the effectiveness and efficiency of a remediation programme may be judged. This article extracts principles of generalization from the treatment literature, and provides examples of how this information may be used to help guide…

  10. Acquired Idiopathic Generalized Anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Geethu; Criton, Sebastian; Surendran, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is a rare condition, where the exact pathomechanism is unknown. We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis in a patient who later developed lichen planus. Here an autoimmune-mediated destruction of sweat glands may be the probable pathomechanism.

  11. General Conformity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  12. General paresis

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to damage to the brain from untreated syphilis. Causes General paresis is one form of neurosyphilis . ... usually occurs in people who have had untreated syphilis for many years. Syphilis is bacterial infection that ...

  13. General Dentist

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... Instead of specializing in just one area of dentistry, they can provide plenty of different services for ...

  14. 19 CFR 10.171 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Generalized System of Preferences § 10... contributing to comprehensive regional economic integration among its members through appropriate...

  15. Alopecia in general medicine.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Rajani; Harries, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Appreciation of different types of hair loss (alopecia) that may be encountered in hospital medicine is important to ensure accurate diagnosis and management, identify underlying medical conditions or treatments that may present with increased hair loss, recognise autoimmune alopecias and their associations, and understand the significant psychological impact of hair loss on an individual. This article discusses common causes of hair loss, as well as those conditions that may be associated with systemic disease, relevant to a general physician.

  16. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  17. [Generalized periarthritis calcarea (generalized hydroxyapatite disease)].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Bahous, I

    1979-09-01

    The condition of generalized periarthritis calcarea (hydroxyapatite deposition disease) is characterised by multiple periarticular calcification which can be localised around practically any joint and also in proximity to the spine. This calcification consists of hydroxyapatite crystals which are responsible for the episodes of acute, subacute or chronic periarticular or articular inflammation so typical of the condition. Because of this one can classify periarthritis calcarea along with gout and chondrocalcinosis in the group of crystal deposition diseases. The actual cause of the calcification remains unknown but it is probable that, along with hereditary factors, disturbances in metabolism play an important role. The diagnosis of generalised periarthritis is made from the characteristic X-ray picture in conjunction with the clinical findings and, on occasion, the demonstration of hydroxyapatite crystals in the affected tissues. In the differential diagnosis gout, chondrocalcinosis, various inflammatory rheumatic conditions and septic arthritis must be excluded and various calcification processes, particularly interstitial calcinosis and lipocal cinogranulomatosis, must also be considered. Since the etiology of the calcification remains unknown to specific treatment is available. Symptomatic treatment with colchicine is mostly inadequate which is why one often has recourse to the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids.

  18. Integrability and generalized monodromy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lhallabi, T.; Moujib, A.

    2007-09-15

    We construct the generalized monodromy matrix M-circumflex({omega}) of two-dimensional string effective action by introducing the T-duality group properties. The integrability conditions with general solutions depending on spectral parameter are given. This construction is investigated for the exactly solvable Wess, Zumino, Novikov, and Witten model in pp-wave limit when B=0.

  19. A Generalization of Generalized Fibonacci and Generalized Pell Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Zeyada, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with developing a new class of generalized numbers. The main advantage of this class is that it generalizes the two classes of generalized Fibonacci numbers and generalized Pell numbers. Some new identities involving these generalized numbers are obtained. In addition, the two well-known identities of Sury and Marques which…

  20. Generalized synchronization via nonlinear control.

    PubMed

    Juan, Meng; Xingyuan, Wang

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, the generalized synchronization problem of drive-response systems is investigated. Using the drive-response concept and the nonlinear control theory, a control law is designed to achieve the generalized synchronization of chaotic systems. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a generalized synchronization condition is derived. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations further demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  1. Constrained Generalized Supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppan, Francesco; Kuznetsova, Zhanna

    2005-10-01

    We present a classification of admissible types of constraint (hermitian, holomorphic, with reality condition on the bosonic sectors, etc.) for generalized supersymmetries in the presence of complex spinors. A generalized supersymmetry algebra involving n-component real spinors Qa is given by the anticommutators {Qa,Qb} = Zab where the matrix Z appearing in the r.h.s. is the most general symmetric matrix. A complex generalized supersymmetry algebra is expressed in terms of complex spinors Qa and their complex conjugate Q* ȧ. The most general (with a saturated r.h.s.) algebra is in this case given by {Qa,Qb} = Pab{Q*ȧ, Q*ḃ} = P*ȧḃ{Qa,Q*ḃ} = Raḃ where the matrix Pab is symmetric, while Rab is hermitian. The bosonic right hand side can be expressed in terms of the rank-k totally antisymmetric tensors Pab = Σk(CΓ[μ1 …μ k])abP[μ1 …μ k]. The decomposition in terms of anti-symmetric tensors for any space-time up to dimension D = 13 is presented. Real type, complex type, and quaternionic type space-times are classified. Any restriction on the saturated bosonic generators that allows all possible combinations of these tensors is in principle admissible by a Lorenz-covariant requirement. We investigate division algebra constraints and their influence on physical models. High spin theory models are presented as examples of the applications of such models.

  2. Generalized galilean genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  3. Generalized galilean genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu E-mail: tsutomu@rikkyo.ac.jp

    2015-03-01

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  4. Systematizing semishortening conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, C.-Y.; Siegel, W.

    2014-12-01

    We rederive semishortening conditions for four-dimensional superconformal field theory with a different approach. These conditions have similar patterns that can be generalized to weaker constraints, including all those of Dolan and Osborn [Ann. Phys. (Amsterdam) 307, 41 (2003)]. In particular, for the case of N =4 super-Yang-Mills theory formulated in projective superspace, we find constraints for all Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield operators. We also give an example how constraints can be found from known ones. These constraints are a subset of our maximal set of semishortening conditions.

  5. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  6. Generalized anxiety disorder -- self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000685.htm Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental condition in which you ...

  7. 19 CFR 10.114 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Instruments and Apparatus for Educational and Scientific Institutions § 10.114 General provisions. The consolidated regulations... educational and scientific institutions are contained in 15 CFR part 301....

  8. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  10. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  11. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  12. 7 CFR 1735.40 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans § 1735.40 General. Terms and conditions of loans are set forth in a mortgage, note, and loan contract. Provisions...

  13. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are

  14. Generalized random sequential adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjus, G.; Schaaf, P.; Talbot, J.

    1990-12-01

    Adsorption of hard spherical particles onto a flat uniform surface is analyzed by using generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) models. These models are defined by releasing the condition of immobility present in the usual RSA rules to allow for desorption or surface diffusion. Contrary to the simple RSA case, generalized RSA processes are no longer irreversible and the system formed by the adsorbed particles on the surface may reach an equilibrium state. We show by using a distribution function approach that the kinetics of such processes can be described by means of an exact infinite hierarchy of equations reminiscent of the Kirkwood-Salsburg hierarchy for systems at equilibrium. We illustrate the way in which the systems produced by adsorption/desorption and by adsorption/diffusion evolve between the two limits represented by ``simple RSA'' and ``equilibrium'' by considering approximate solutions in terms of truncated density expansions.

  15. Toward general experimentation and discovery in conditioned laboratory and complementary and alternative medicine spaces: part v. Data on 10 different sites using a robust new type of subtle energy detector.

    PubMed

    Tiller, William A; Dibble, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    The earlier experimental papers in this series dealt with replication of our DeltapH = +1 IIED (intention imprinted electrical device) experiment carried out in Minnesota. This work was replicated at 3-IIED sites and 7 control sites in the United States and Europe that demonstrated room temperature information entanglement between the macroscopic sized ( approximately 10(3) to 10(4) cubic feet volume) IIED sites and non-IIED-sites (control sites) over distances separated by up to 5000 to 6000 miles. During these studies, we discovered how to gain a quantitative measure of the elevation of the thermodynamic free energy per unit volume, deltaG*(H)+, above our normal U(1) electromagnetic gauge symmetry state, for the aqueous H(+) ion in these " conditioned" spaces. In simpler language, what this means is that one can now continuously monitor a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) office space, research space, or clinic space to gain a continuous record of (1) How much the space has been elevated or depleted in thermodynamic free energy, relative to our normal physical reality, by the processes occurring there; (2) how much the biofields of the practitioners and patients are perturbing the collective subtle energy field of these spaces; and (3) the monitoring of specific IIEDs imprinted for aiding the healing process of patients with specific pathologies under study or treatment. It allows CAM practitioners to investigate and utilize "information medicined", to evaluate the subtle energy component of various psychotronic devices, and to evaluate the efficacy of various subtle energy potentization processes for various supplements, remedies, and other materials. This paper contributes several key things to this growing body of work: (1) it develops a quantitative theoretical picture for the determination of deltaG*(H)+ from pH measurements in partially "conditioned"spaces; (2) it provides experimental, deltaG*(H)+ data for all 10 sites of the overall

  16. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  17. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  18. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  19. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  20. 15 CFR 970.500 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms, Conditions...

  1. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  2. 12 CFR 614.4200 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Terms and Conditions § 614.4200 General requirements. (a) Terms and conditions. (1) The terms and conditions... thereafter that the borrower requests additional copies. (2) The terms and conditions of all loans shall...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4200 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Terms and Conditions § 614.4200 General requirements. (a) Terms and conditions. (1) The terms and conditions... thereafter that the borrower requests additional copies. (2) The terms and conditions of all loans shall...

  4. 12 CFR 614.4200 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Terms and Conditions § 614.4200 General requirements. (a) Terms and conditions. (1) The terms and conditions... thereafter that the borrower requests additional copies. (2) The terms and conditions of all loans shall...

  5. Generally Covariant Hamiltonian Approach to the Generalized Harmonic Formulation of General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Meng

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop a generally covariant Hamiltonian approach to the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity. As en route investigations, an important class of coordinate transformations in the context of the 3 + 1 decomposition, foliation preserving transformations, is defined; transformation rules of various 3 + 1 decomposition variables under this change of coordinates are investigated; the notion of covariant time derivative under foliation preserving transformations is defined; gauge conditions of various numerical relativity formulations are rewritten in generally covariant form. The Hamiltonian formulation of the generalized harmonic system is defined in the latter part of this dissertation. With the knowledge of covariant time derivative, the Hamiltonian formulation is extended to achieve general covariance. The Hamiltonian formulation is further proved to be symmetric hyperbolic.

  6. Beyond generalized Proca theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.

  7. A Ranking-Theoretic Approach to Conditionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief,…

  8. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  9. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  10. Conditioned Fear Extinction and Generalization in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    August 2011 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort...YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE August 2011 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 August 2010 – 31 July 2011 4. TITLE AND...T-­‐29   RGS2   rs4606   C-­‐27   CG-­‐31   G-­‐8   COMT   rs4680   A-­‐10   G-­‐26   GA-­‐30   CSMD1   rs4875113   A

  11. 18 CFR 157.20 - General conditions applicable to certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and for Orders Permitting and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as...

  12. A generalized model for stability of trees under impact conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; di Prisco, Claudio; Canepa, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Stability of trees to external actions involve the combined effects of stem and tree root systems. A block impacting on the stem or an applied force pulling the stem can cause a tree instability involving stem bending or failure and tree root rotation. So different contributions are involved in the stability of the system. The rockfalls are common natural phenomena that can be unpredictable in terms of frequency and magnitude characteristics, and this makes difficult the estimate of potential hazard and risk for human lives and activities. In mountain areas a natural form of protection from rockfalls is provided by forest growing. The difficulties in the assessment of the real capability of this natural barrier by means of models is an open problem. Nevertheless, a large amount of experimental data are now available which provides support for the development of advanced theoretical framework and corresponding models. The aim of this contribution consists in presenting a model developed to predict the behavior of trees during a block impact. This model describes the tree stem by means of a linear elastic beam system consisting of two beams connected in series and with an equivalent geometry. The tree root system is described via an equivalent foundation, whose behavior is modelled through an elasto-plastic macro-element model. In order to calibrate the model parameters, simulations reproducing a series of winching tests, are performed. These numerical simulations confirm the capability of the model to predict the mechanical behavior of the stem-root system in terms of displacement vs force curves. Finally, numerical simulations of the impact of a boulder with a tree stem are carried out. These simulations, done under dynamic regime and with the model parameters obtained from the previous set of simulations, confirm the capability of the model to reproduce the effects on the stem-roots system generated by impulsive loads.

  13. 17 CFR 230.502 - General conditions to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... advertising, including, but not limited to, the following: (1) Any advertisement, article, notice or other communication published in any newspaper, magazine, or similar media or broadcast over television or radio; and... advertising; Provided, however, that publication by an issuer of a notice in accordance with § 230.135c...

  14. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  15. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  16. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extent that the conveyances would not have exceeded the limitations of said year. (c) No patents shall be issued under the act unless and until the public lands are officially surveyed. This requirement does...

  17. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  18. 14 CFR 67.213 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  19. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  20. 76 FR 44265 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... indicate and, insofar as possible, define specific hazards that could harm workers or the public, or both... energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy, could harm employees''...

  1. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acts of God or attributable to alterations completed by the transferee to adapt the property to the... of the property not due to reasonable wear and tear or acts of God or attributable to alterations... God excepted. Subsequent to the expiration or termination of the period of restricted use,...

  2. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acts of God or attributable to alterations completed by the transferee to adapt the property to the... of the property not due to reasonable wear and tear or acts of God or attributable to alterations... God excepted. Subsequent to the expiration or termination of the period of restricted use,...

  3. 45 CFR 12.9 - General disposal terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acts of God or attributable to alterations completed by the transferee to adapt the property to the... of the property not due to reasonable wear and tear or acts of God or attributable to alterations... God excepted. Subsequent to the expiration or termination of the period of restricted use,...

  4. 16 CFR 1109.5 - Conditions, requirements, and effects generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Test method and sampling protocol. Each certifier and testing party must exercise due care to ensure...: (1) All testing is done using required test methods, if any; (2) Required sampling protocols are... method(s) and sampling protocol(s) used; (5) The date or date range when the component part or...

  5. 16 CFR 1109.5 - Conditions, requirements, and effects generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Test method and sampling protocol. Each certifier and testing party must exercise due care to ensure...: (1) All testing is done using required test methods, if any; (2) Required sampling protocols are... method(s) and sampling protocol(s) used; (5) The date or date range when the component part or...

  6. 16 CFR 1109.5 - Conditions, requirements, and effects generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Test method and sampling protocol. Each certifier and testing party must exercise due care to ensure...: (1) All testing is done using required test methods, if any; (2) Required sampling protocols are... method(s) and sampling protocol(s) used; (5) The date or date range when the component part or...

  7. 76 FR 24575 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... powered industrial trucks, cranes, and vessel systems. Several stakeholders said that vessel systems, in... subcontractors work side-by-side and often on the same vessel system at the same time. The combination of these.... communication systems. Lifeboats Sec. 1915.86...... Sec. 1915.96. Medical services and first Sec....

  8. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  9. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  10. 42 CFR 84.303 - General testing conditions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Closed... quantitative evaluations and human subjects on a treadmill to provide qualitative evaluations. Information...

  11. General introduction to microstructural evolution under cascade damage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedersich, H.

    1993-06-01

    A short overview of the processes that affect the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation is given. The processes include defect production with an emphasis on the effects of the dynamic cascade events, defect clustering, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation, phase decompositions and phase transformations. A simple model for the description of the development of the defect microstructure in a pure metal during cascade producing irradiation is also outlined which can provide, in principle, defect fluxes required for the description of the microstructural processes such as phase decomposition and irradiation-induced precipitation.

  12. 14 CFR 67.313 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin or any other... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  13. 14 CFR 67.113 - General medical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus that requires insulin or any other... unable to perform those duties or exercise those privileges. (c) No medication or other treatment that... relating to the medication or other treatment involved, finds— (1) Makes the person unable to...

  14. Generalized complex geometry, generalized branes and the Hitchin sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2005-03-01

    Hitchin's generalized complex geometry has been shown to be relevant in compactifications of superstring theory with fluxes and is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of mirror symmetry. Gualtieri's notion of generalized complex submanifold seems to be a natural candidate for the description of branes in this context. Recently, we introduced a Batalin-Vilkovisky field theoretic realization of generalized complex geometry, the Hitchin sigma model, extending the well known Poisson sigma model. In this paper, exploiting Gualtieri's formalism, we incorporate branes into the model. A detailed study of the boundary conditions obeyed by the world sheet fields is provided. Finally, it is found that, when branes are present, the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky cohomology contains an extra sector that is related non trivially to a novel cohomology associated with the branes as generalized complex submanifolds.

  15. 7 CFR 3415.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3415.9 Other conditions. The Administrator may... research appropriate to agricultural biotechnology. The annual program solicitation will indicate...

  16. 7 CFR 3415.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3415.9 Other conditions. The Director or... research appropriate to agricultural biotechnology. The annual program solicitation will indicate...

  17. 7 CFR 3415.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3415.9 Other conditions. The Director or... research appropriate to agricultural biotechnology. The annual program solicitation will indicate...

  18. 7 CFR 3415.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3415.9 Other conditions. The Director or... research appropriate to agricultural biotechnology. The annual program solicitation will indicate...

  19. Generalized direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of stability and attraction in general time systems

    SciTech Connect

    Druzhinina, O V; Shestakov, A A

    2002-10-31

    A generalized direct Lyapunov method is put forward for the study of stability and attraction in general time systems of the following types: the classical dynamical system in the sense of Birkhoff, the general system in the sense of Zubov, the general system in the sense of Seibert, the general system with delay, and the general 'input-output' system. For such systems, with the help of generalized Lyapunov functions with respect to two filters, two quasifilters, or two filter bases, necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and attraction are obtained under minimal assumptions about the mathematical structure of the general system.

  20. Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling.

    PubMed

    Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2013-01-04

    We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

  1. Generalized Teleportation and Entanglement Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

  2. GENERALIZED CONVEXITY CONES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Introduction The dual cone of C (psi sub 1,..., psi sub n) Extreme rays The cone dual to an intersection of generalized convexity cones... Generalized difference quotients and multivariate convexity Miscellaneous applications of generalized convexity.

  3. Ontogeny of eyeblink conditioning using a visual conditional stimulus.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, C; Ivkovich, D; Stanton, M E

    1999-12-01

    The developmental emergence of associative learning in rodents is determined by interactions among sensory, motor, and associative systems that are engaged in a particular experimental preparation (Carter & Stanton, 1996; Hunt & Campbell, 1997; Rudy, 1992). In fear conditioning, chemosensory, auditory, and visual cues emerge successively as effective conditional stimuli (CS) during postnatal ontogeny. In the present study, we begin to examine the generality of this principle of sensory system development for eyeblink conditioning, a form of associative learning that develops substantially later than conditioned fear (Carter & Stanton, 1996). We asked whether the developmental emergence of eyeblink conditioning to a visual CS occurs at an age that is the same or different from conditioning to an auditory CS. In Experiment 1, rat pups were trained on postnatal Day 17 or 24 with experimental parameters (and design) that were identical to our previous studies of eyeblink conditioning except that presentation of a light rather than a tone served as the CS. The outcome was also identical: no eyeblink conditioning on Day 17 and strong conditioning on Day 24. In Experiment 2, conditioning to tone versus light was directly compared by means of a discrimination learning design on postnatal Days 19, 21, 23, and 31. There was no evidence for differential development of auditory versus visual eyeblink conditioning. The difference between this outcome and previous ones involving conditioned fear (Hunt & Campbell, 1997; Rudy, 1992) suggests that principles concerning sensory maturation and learning may be different for early- versus late-developing associative systems.

  4. Quantization of general linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-03-15

    General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.

  5. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  6. Generalized holomorphic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yicao

    2014-12-01

    We define the notion of generalized holomorphic principal bundles and establish that their associated vector bundles of holomorphic representations are generalized holomorphic vector bundles defined by M. Gualtieri. Motivated by our definition, several examples of generalized holomorphic structures are constructed. A reduction theorem of generalized holomorphic structures is also included.

  7. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  8. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  9. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  10. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  11. 21 CFR 330.1 - General conditions for general recognition as safe, effective and not misbranded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alternative truthful and nonmisleading statements describing only those indications for use that have been...) “Longer” or “more”. (51) “Lung” or “pulmonary”. (52) “Medication(s)” or “medicine(s)” or “drug(s)”....

  12. 47 CFR 1.592 - Conditional grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditional grant. 1.592 Section 1.592 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Broadcast Applications and Proceedings General Filing Requirements § 1.592 Conditional grant. See § 73.3592....

  13. The generalized triangular decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Hager, William W.; Li, Jian

    2008-06-01

    Given a complex matrix mathbf{H} , we consider the decomposition mathbf{H} = mathbf{QRP}^* , where mathbf{R} is upper triangular and mathbf{Q} and mathbf{P} have orthonormal columns. Special instances of this decomposition include the singular value decomposition (SVD) and the Schur decomposition where mathbf{R} is an upper triangular matrix with the eigenvalues of mathbf{H} on the diagonal. We show that any diagonal for mathbf{R} can be achieved that satisfies Weyl's multiplicative majorization conditions: prod_{iD1}^k \\vert r_{i}\\vert le prod_{iD1}^k sigma_i, ; ; 1 le k < K, quad prod_{iD1}^K \\vert r_{i}\\vert = prod_{iD1}^K sigma_i, where K is the rank of mathbf{H} , sigma_i is the i -th largest singular value of mathbf{H} , and r_{i} is the i -th largest (in magnitude) diagonal element of mathbf{R} . Given a vector mathbf{r} which satisfies Weyl's conditions, we call the decomposition mathbf{H} = mathbf{QRP}^* , where mathbf{R} is upper triangular with prescribed diagonal mathbf{r} , the generalized triangular decomposition (GTD). A direct (nonrecursive) algorithm is developed for computing the GTD. This algorithm starts with the SVD and applies a series of permutations and Givens rotations to obtain the GTD. The numerical stability of the GTD update step is established. The GTD can be used to optimize the power utilization of a communication channel, while taking into account quality of service requirements for subchannels. Another application of the GTD is to inverse eigenvalue problems where the goal is to construct matrices with prescribed eigenvalues and singular values.

  14. Generalization of Fear to Respiratory Sensations.

    PubMed

    Schroijen, Mathias; Pappens, Meike; Schruers, Koen; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vervliet, Bram; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-09-01

    Interoceptive fear conditioning (IFC), fear generalization and a lack of safety learning have all been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, but have never been examined in a single paradigm. The present study aims to investigate whether healthy participants (N=43) can learn both fear and safety to an interoceptive sensation, and whether such learning generalizes to other, similar sensations. Two intensities of inspiratory breathing impairment (induced by two pressure threshold loads of 6 and 25 cm H2O) served as interoceptive conditional stimuli (CSs) in a differential conditioning paradigm. An inspiratory occlusion was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Generalization was tested 24h after conditioning, using four generalization stimuli with intensities in-between CS+ and CS- (GSs: 8-10.5-14-18.5 cm H2O). Measures included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG responses, electrodermal activity and respiration. Perceptual discrimination of interoceptive CSs and GSs was explored with a discrimination task prior to acquisition and after generalization. Results indicate that differential fear learning was established for US-expectancy ratings. The group with a low intensity CS+ and a high intensity CS- showed the typical pattern of differential fear responding and a similarity-based generalization gradient. In contrast, the high intensity CS+ and low intensity CS- group showed impaired differential learning and complete generalization of fear. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning and generalization are modulated by stimulus intensity and that the occurrence of discriminatory learning is closely related to fear generalization.

  15. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-07-22

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  16. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  17. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  18. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  19. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  20. 48 CFR 18.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.101 General. The FAR includes many acquisition flexibilities that are available to the contracting officer when certain conditions are met. These acquisition flexibilities do not require an emergency declaration or designation...

  1. 15 CFR 971.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Safety of Life and Property at Sea... activities authorized under the permit comply with conditions regarding the design, construction,...

  2. 15 CFR 971.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Safety of Life and Property at Sea... activities authorized under the permit comply with conditions regarding the design, construction,...

  3. 15 CFR 971.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Safety of Life and Property at Sea... activities authorized under the permit comply with conditions regarding the design, construction,...

  4. 15 CFR 971.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Safety of Life and Property at Sea... activities authorized under the permit comply with conditions regarding the design, construction,...

  5. 15 CFR 971.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Safety of Life and Property at Sea... activities authorized under the permit comply with conditions regarding the design, construction,...

  6. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  7. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  8. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  9. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  10. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202 General rule. FFP is not available in expenditures for an abortion unless the conditions specified...

  11. Approach to Patient with a Generalized Rash

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lawrence; Soeyonggo, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Generalized rash is amongst the most common conditions presented to practicing General Practitioners and common differentials include contact dermatitis, atopic eczema, sun-induced damage, drug eruption and general manifestations of systemic diseases or infections. Materials and Methods: We illustrate with differential diagnoses our clinical case of a generalized rash in a 55-year-old man with pathognomonic signs of a diagnosis, which has received increasing global concern. Conclusion: Despite the array of available laboratory tests, a detailed history and physical examination is still of paramount importance to arrive at the most likely diagnosis for any patient with a generalized skin rash. PMID:26664833

  12. Generalized Coherent States via Markovian Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boixo, Sergio; Viola, Lorenza; Ortiz, Gerardo; Barnum, Howard

    2006-03-01

    Coherent states were introduced in the early days of quantum physics as 'quasiclassical' quantum states of an isolated quantum system. The decoherence program defines 'quasiclassical' (or 'pointer') states as states which are most stable in the presence of a coupling with the environment. Pointer states may be identified through the extremization of a 'predictability' functional on the Hilbert space. It has been known for some time that for the harmonic oscillator both concepts coincide under very generic conditions. Coherent states have been extended in the 70s to generalized coherent states. Recently, this approach has served as the basis to define generalized entanglement and conditions for quantum complexity. Here, we investigate the stability of generalized coherent states under Markovian open-system dynamics. In particular, we identify conditions under which generalized coherent states emerge as pointer states for systems described by algebras more general that the standard oscillator algebra. We present a streamlined method to find pointer states in the weak-coupling approximation, and discuss conditions for this approximation to be valid. We find that generalized coherent states and pointer states coincide under more restrictive conditions than the canonical, harmonic-oscillator coherent states. Finally, we address the connection of generalized coherent states to noiseless subspaces and subsystems.

  13. Generalized anxiety disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007687.htm Generalized anxiety disorder - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a ...

  14. Generalized anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000917.htm Generalized anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a ...

  15. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  16. 42 CFR 417.532 - General considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General considerations. 417.532 Section 417.532 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.532 General considerations. (a) Conditions and...

  17. A General Model for Free Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    1972-01-01

    This paper proposes a general model for free-response data collected for measuring a specified unidimensional psychological process; systematizes situations which vary with respect to the scoring level of items; and finds out general conditions for the operating characteristic of an item response category to provide a unique maximum likelihood…

  18. 40 CFR 230.7 - General permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) Conditions for the issuance of General permits. A General permit for a category of activities... restrictions on the discharge in § 230.10 and if the permitting authority determines that: (1) The activities... environment; (2) The activities in such category will have only minimal adverse effects when...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  5. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  6. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  7. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  8. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  9. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  14. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  15. 29 CFR 779.236 - In general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In general. 779.236 Section 779.236 Labor Regulations... In general. Sections 779.201 through 779.235 discuss the various criteria for determining what... with respect to the conditions for coverage of those enterprises in which retail sale of goods...

  16. 46 CFR 62.25-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 62.25-1 Section 62.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements... unsafe condition. (b) Automation systems or subsystems that control or monitor more than one...

  17. 19 CFR 10.502 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement... Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, which is part... venture, or other association; (f) GATT 1994. “GATT 1994” means the General Agreement on Tariffs and...

  18. 19 CFR 10.582 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement General Provisions § 10.582 General definitions. As used in this subpart, the... District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico; (ii) The foreign trade zones located in the United States and...

  19. 19 CFR 10.582 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement General Provisions § 10.582 General definitions. As used in this subpart, the... District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico; (ii) The foreign trade zones located in the United States and...

  20. 19 CFR 10.582 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement General Provisions § 10.582 General definitions. As used in this subpart, the... District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico; (ii) The foreign trade zones located in the United States and...

  1. 19 CFR 10.502 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement... Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, which is part... venture, or other association; (f) GATT 1994. “GATT 1994” means the General Agreement on Tariffs and...

  2. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  3. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  4. 15 CFR 970.700 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.700 General... Administrator of any term, condition or restriction if relevant data and other information indicates...

  5. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-07-22

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  6. Forces in General Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  7. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  8. General Music Today Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The collected 2004-2005 issues of General Music Today, the online journal of MENC's Society for General Music includes articles, research, reviews and resources of interest to general music teachers of all levels. Topics covered include working with special-needs students; emphasizing early childhood environment to enhance musical growth;…

  9. Generalization of Contextual Fear in Humans.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Marta; Leombruni, Estelle; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced fear responses to cues, which were not associated with the threat but share perceptual characteristics with the threat signal, indicate generalization of conditioned fear. Here, we investigated for the first time generalization processes in contextual fear conditioning. Thirty-two participants were guided through two virtual offices (acquisition phases). Mildly painful electric shocks (unconditioned stimulus, US) were unpredictably delivered in one office (anxiety context, CTX+), but never in the other office (safety context, CTX-). During the generalization test, participants were guided through CTX+, CTX-, and the generalization context (G-CTX), which contained features of both the CTX+ and the CTX-, but no US was delivered. We found successful contextual fear conditioning (i.e., the CTX+ compared to the CTX- elicited potentiated startle responses and was rated with more negative valence, higher arousal and higher anxiety). Importantly, implicit and explicit responses dissociated in the generalization test. Thus, participants rated the G-CTX as more arousing and anxiogenic than the CTX- indicating anxiety generalization, but they showed enhanced startle responses to the CTX+ only, while the G-CTX and the CTX- did not differ. In summary, healthy participants on an explicit level responded to the generalization context like to the anxiety context, but on an implicit level responded to the generalization context like to the safety context. Possibly, this dissociation suggests distinct and specific generalization processes underlying contextual fear.

  10. A ranking-theoretic approach to conditionals.

    PubMed

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief, that is, ranking theory, and dismisses probability theory for that purpose, because probabilities cannot represent belief. Various expressive options are then explained in terms of ranking theory, with the intention to set out a general interpretive scheme that is able to account for the most variegated usage of conditionals. The Ramsey test is only the first option. Relevance is another, familiar, but little understood item, which comes in several versions. This article adds a further family of expressive options, which is able to subsume also counterfactuals and causal conditionals, and indicates at the end how this family allows for partial recovery of truth conditions for conditionals.

  11. 14 CFR 25.561 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... items of mass (and their supporting structure) must not deform under any loads up to those specified in... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Emergency Landing Conditions § 25.561 General. (a) The... prescribed in this section to protect each occupant under those conditions. (b) The structure must...

  12. 14 CFR 25.561 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... items of mass (and their supporting structure) must not deform under any loads up to those specified in... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Emergency Landing Conditions § 25.561 General. (a) The... prescribed in this section to protect each occupant under those conditions. (b) The structure must...

  13. 14 CFR 25.561 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... items of mass (and their supporting structure) must not deform under any loads up to those specified in... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Emergency Landing Conditions § 25.561 General. (a) The... prescribed in this section to protect each occupant under those conditions. (b) The structure must...

  14. 14 CFR 25.561 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... items of mass (and their supporting structure) must not deform under any loads up to those specified in... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Emergency Landing Conditions § 25.561 General. (a) The... prescribed in this section to protect each occupant under those conditions. (b) The structure must...

  15. 14 CFR 25.561 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... items of mass (and their supporting structure) must not deform under any loads up to those specified in... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Emergency Landing Conditions § 25.561 General. (a) The... prescribed in this section to protect each occupant under those conditions. (b) The structure must...

  16. Directions in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.; Ryan, M. P., Jr.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2005-10-01

    Preface; Dieter Brill: a spacetime perspective; 1. Thawing the frozen formalism: the difference between observables and what we observe A. Anderson; 2. Jacobi's action and the density of states J. D. Brown and J. W. York; 3. Decoherence of correlation histories E. Calzetta and B. L. Hu; 4. The initial value problem in light of Ashtekar's variables R. Capovilla, J. Dell and T. Jacobson; 5. Status report on an axiomatic basis for functional integration P. Cartier and C. DeWitt-Morette; 6. Solution of the coupled Einstein constraints on asymptotically Euclidean manifolds Y. Choquet-Bruhat; 7. Compact Cauchy horizons and Cauchy surfaces P. Chrusciel and J. Isenberg; 8. The classical electron J. M. Cohen and E. Mustafa; 9. Gauge (in)variance, mass and parity in D=3 revisited S. Deser; 10. Triality, exceptional Lie groups and Dirac operators F. Flaherty; 11. The reduction of the state vector and limitations on measurement in the quantum mechanics of closed systems J. B. Hartle; 12 Quantum linearization instabilities of de Sitter spacetime A. Higuchi; 13. What is the true description of charged black holes? G. T. Horowitz; 14. Limits on the adiabatic index in static stellar models L. Lindblom and A. K. M. Masood-ul-Alam; 15. On the relativity of rotation B. Mashhoon; 16. Recent progress and open problems in linearization stability V. E. Moncrief; 17. Brill waves N. Ó Murchadha; 18. You can't get there from here: constraints on topology change K. Schleich and D. M. Witt; 19. Time, measurement and information loss in quantum cosmology L. Smolin; 20. Impossible measurements on quantum fields R. Sorkin; 21. A new condition implying the existence of a constant mean curvature foliation F. J. Tipler; 22. Maximal slices in stationary spacetimes with ergoregions R. M. Wald; 23. (1 + 1) - Dimensional methods for general relativity J. H. Yoon; 24. Coalescence of primal gravity waves to make cosmological mass without matter D. E. Holz, W. A. Miller, M. Wakano and J. A. Wheeler.

  17. Generalized geometric vacua with eight supercharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graña, Mariana; Ntokos, Praxitelis

    2016-08-01

    We investigate compactifications of type II and M-theory down to AdS 5 with generic fluxes that preserve eight supercharges, in the framework of Exceptional Generalized Geometry. The geometric data and gauge fields on the internal manifold are encoded in a pair of generalized structures corresponding to the vector and hyper-multiplets of the reduced five-dimensional supergravity. Supersymmetry translates into integrability conditions for these structures, generalizing, in the case of type IIB, the Sasaki-Einstein conditions. We show that the ten and eleven-dimensional type IIB and M-theory Killing-spinor equations specialized to a warped AdS 5 background imply the generalized integrability conditions.

  18. [General anesthesia in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen; Cernea, Daniela; Enache, Monalisa; Deca, Andreea Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    General anesthesia is less utilized in ophthalmology. There are some criteria that lead to general anesthesia: patients with auditive debility, aged and senile patients, allergic patients, children and young patients, and subjects who totally refuse loco-regional procedures. General anesthesia utilizes as basic products: narcotic substances, analgesic substances, or neuroleptic substances utilized separately or associated, with posology adaptated to several factors: patients' pulse, physical statement, age, duration. The type of anesthetic substance depends also of specialist anesthetist experience.

  19. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Noor, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  20. [Renaissance of general practice].

    PubMed

    Braun, R N; Fink, W; Kamenski, G

    2002-01-01

    Special research work has taught that general practice (family medicine) is a specialization of its own. It requires specific education and vocational training. As far as universities and administrative bodies have accepted it no doctor can start practising family medicine unless he has passed a vocational training of many years duration. That fact together with a successful continued research concerning applied general practice should initiate a true renaissance of general practice.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: generalized arterial calcification of infancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions GACI generalized arterial calcification of infancy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Generalized arterial calcification of infancy ( GACI ) is a disorder affecting the circulatory system ...

  2. A General Approach for Teaching Hydrolysis of Salts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Ode, Fernando

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a general approach and equation for teaching the hydrolysis of salts. This general equation covers many more sets of conditions than those currently in textbooks. The simplifying assumptions leading to the known limiting equations are straightforward. (RH)

  3. Weighted conditional least-squares estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.

  4. Treatments for generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Struzik, Lukasz; Vermani, Monica; Coonerty-Femiano, Aimee; Katzman, Martin A

    2004-03-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive chronic anxiety in association with many somatic symptoms. The disorder has pervasive effects on quality of life, including work, social and educational aspects and requires long-term therapy. Available studies in patients are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition-revised and fourth edition, which have defined generalized anxiety disorder and demonstrate the efficacy of benzodiazepines, azapirones, some antidepressants and psychotherapy. Benzodiazepines are effective anxiolytics for short-term use but are accompanied by many adverse events. The antidepressants, paroxetine and venlafaxine (Efexor), have demonstrated efficacy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder with mild side-effect profiles. They have the additional benefit of efficacy in depression, which frequently occurs comorbidly in these patients. Long-term efficacy has been shown with venlafaxine in the treatment of this chronic condition, confirming that as in depression, the goal must not just be remission beyond simple symptom resolution but also on to improved functioning and quality of life. Psychotherapy with applied relaxation, cognitive therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy show the most promise in resolving and maintaining treatment gains in the long-term. These approaches may be useful alone or in combination with adjunctive pharmacotherapy to achieve remission. Based on current evidence, the recommended approach to achieving long-term benefits for patients with generalized anxiety disorder is antidepressant therapy with paroxetine or venlafaxine in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy.

  5. Solitons in generalized Galileon theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo González, Mariana; Masoumi, Ali; Solomon, Adam R.; Trodden, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We consider the existence and stability of solitons in generalized Galileons, scalar-field theories with higher-derivative interactions but second-order equations of motion. It has previously been proven that no stable, static solitons exist in a single Galileon theory using an argument invoking the existence of zero modes for the perturbations. Here we analyze the applicability of this argument to generalized Galileons and discuss how this may be avoided by having potential terms in the energy functional for the perturbations or by including time dependence. Given the presence of potential terms in the Lagrangian for the perturbations, we find that stable, static solitons are not ruled out in conformal and (anti-)de Sitter Galileons. For the case of Dirac-Born-Infeld and conformal Galileons, we find that solitonic solutions moving at the speed of light exist, the former being stable and the latter unstable if the background soliton satisfies a certain condition.

  6. Generalized Brans-Dicke theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2010-07-01

    In Brans-Dicke theory a non-linear self interaction of a scalar field φ allows a possibility of realizing the late-time cosmic acceleration, while recovering the General Relativistic behavior at early cosmological epochs. We extend this to more general modified gravitational theories in which a de Sitter solution for dark energy exists without using a field potential. We derive a condition for the stability of the de Sitter point and study the background cosmological dynamics of such theories. We also restrict the allowed region of model parameters from the demand for the avoidance of ghosts and instabilities. A peculiar evolution of the field propagation speed allows us to distinguish those theories from the ΛCDM model.

  7. Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitelboim, Claudio

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION OF GAUGE THEORIES (PRE-BRST) * BRST HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION OF GAUGE THEORIES * DYNAMICS OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD * DOES THE HAMILTONIAN VANISH? GENERAL COVARIANCE AS AN "ORDINARY" GAUGE INVARIANCE * GENERALLY COVARIANT SYSTEMS * TIME AS A CANONICAL VARIABLE. ZERO HAMILTONIAN * Parametrized Systems * Zero Hamiltonian * Parametrization and Explicit Time Dependence * TIME REPARAMETRIZATION INVARIANCE * Form of Gauge Transformations * Must the Hamiltonian be Zero for a Generally Covariant System? * Simple Example of a Generally Covariant System with a Nonzero Hamiltonian * "TRUE DYNAMICS" VERSUS GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS * Interpretation of the Formalism * Reduced Phase Space * MUST TIME FLOW? * GAUGE INDEPENDENCE OF PATH INTEGRAL FOR A PARAMETRIZED SYSTEM ILLUSTRATED. EQUIVALENCE OF THE GAUGES t = τ AND t = 0 * Reduced Phase Space Transition Amplitude as a Reduced Phase Space Path Integral * Canonical Gauge Conditions * Gauge t = 0 * Gauge t α τ * BRST CHARGE OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD * ELEMENTS OF BRST THEORY * THE GHOST, YOU'VE COME A LONG WAY BABY * Introduction * Quantum mechanics, the art of finding and combining simple elementary processes * Ghosts necessary to keep elementary processes simple * BRST symmetry: ghosts and matter become different components of single geometrical object * BRST SYMMETRY IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS * Ghosts have role in classical mechanics * Gauge invariance and constraints * Classical mechanics over Grassmann algebra necessary * Higher order structure functions * Rank defined. Open algebras * Ghosts. Ghost number. BRST generator as generating function for structure functions * A belianization of constraints. Existence of Ω * Uniqueness of Ω * Classical BRST cohomology * QUANTUM BRST THEORY * States and operators * Ghost number * BRST invariant states * Quantum BRST cohomology * Equivalence of the BRST physical subspace with the conventional gauge

  8. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  9. General Machinists Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Chester; And Others

    This curriculum guide for a general machinists course is intended for use in a program combining vocational English as a second language (VESL) with bilingual vocational education. A description of the VESL program design appears first. The next section provides a format on developing lesson plans for teaching the technical and general vocational…

  10. General George C. Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a portrait of General George C. Marshall in Army uniform. The Marshall Space Flight Center, a NASA field installation, was established in Huntsville, Alabama, in 1960. The Center was named in honor of General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff during World War II, Secretary of State, and Nobel Prize Wirner for his world-renowned Marshall Plan.

  11. Certificateless Generalized Signcryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Huifang; Han, Wenbao; Zhao, Long

    Generalized Signcryption is a fresh cryptographic primitive that not only can obtain encryption and signature in a single operation, but also provide encryption or signature model alone when needed. This paper proposed a formal definition of certificateless generalized signcryption(CLGSC), then provide the security model of CLGSC. A concrete CLGSC scheme is also given in this paper.

  12. OASIS General Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    Recognizing the need to balance generality and economy in system costs, the Project INFO team at Stanford University developing OASIS has sought to provide generalized and powerful computer support within the normal range of operating and analytical requirements associated with university administration. The specific design objectives of the OASIS…

  13. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  14. GENERAL BIOLOGY OF PHYSALIA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The objective of this research was to investigate the general biology of Physalia. It was proposed to concentrate research efforts on two major...aspects of the general problem: first, the secretion of gas into the float, and second, the nature and circulation of the gastrovascular fluid. Attention

  15. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  16. Assessment of General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of general education is often approached through broad surveys or standardized instruments that fail to capture the learning goals most faculty members desire for this portion of the curriculum. The challenge in remedying this situation lies, first, in defining general education in meaningful ways that can be both articulated and…

  17. Achronal averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D.

    2007-09-15

    The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

  18. Matching and conditioned reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2006-03-01

    Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement.

  19. Dorsal hippocampal contributions to unimodal contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Otto, Tim; Poon, Patrick

    2006-06-14

    Although there is general consensus that the hippocampus is not critically involved in the acquisition of fear conditioned to an explicit conditioned stimulus (CS), the extent to which the hippocampus participates in contextual fear conditioning remains unclear. To further characterize the potential role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning, the present experiments examined the effect of excitotoxic lesions of dorsal hippocampus on the acquisition of a novel contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which a unimodal (olfactory) cue served to disambiguate discrete "contexts" within a single behavioral training chamber. Selective lesions of dorsal hippocampus severely attenuated olfactory contextual conditioning without affecting conditioning to an explicit auditory or olfactory CS. Additional experiments indicate that these contextual conditioning deficits cannot be attributed to a lesion-induced decrement in olfactory perception, a preferential impairment of "weak" forms of conditioning, or hyperactivity. Thus, the hippocampus appears to contribute importantly to the acquisition of fear conditioned to explicitly nonspatial, unimodal, temporally, and spatially diffuse contextual stimuli.

  20. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  1. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-20

    We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions.

  2. Stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Walker, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    This is a preliminary study of possible necessary and sufficient conditions to insure stationarity in the solution process for a stochastic differential equation. It indirectly sheds some light on ergodicity properties and shows that the spectral density is generally inadequate as a statistical measure of the solution. Further work is proceeding on a more general theory which gives necessary and sufficient conditions in a form useful for applications.

  3. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  4. Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in generalized grand Lebesgue spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarkhadzhiev, Salaudin M.

    2014-12-01

    We obtain sufficient conditions and necessary conditions for the maximal operator to be bounded in the generalized grand Lebesgue space on an open set Ω ∈ Rn which is not necessarily bounded. The sufficient conditions coincide with necessary conditions for instance in the case where Ω is bounded and the standard definition of the grand space is used.

  5. Science in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    General education must develop in students an appreciation of the power of science, how it works, why it is an effective knowledge generation tool, and what it can deliver. Knowing what science has discovered is desirable but less important.

  6. Generalizing twisted gauge invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Duenas-Vidal, Alvaro; Vazquez-Mozo, Miguel A.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the twisting of gauge symmetry in noncommutative gauge theories and show how this can be generalized to a whole continuous family of twisted gauge invariances. The physical relevance of these twisted invariances is discussed.

  7. General Relativity and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  8. Generalized scale invariant theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Tsoukalas, Minas

    2014-03-01

    We present the most general actions of a single scalar field and two scalar fields coupled to gravity, consistent with second-order field equations in four dimensions, possessing local scale invariance. We apply two different methods to arrive at our results. One method, Ricci gauging, was known to the literature and we find this to produce the same result for the case of one scalar field as a more efficient method presented here. However, we also find our more efficient method to be much more general when we consider two scalar fields. Locally scale invariant actions are also presented for theories with more than two scalar fields coupled to gravity and we explain how one could construct the most general actions for any number of scalar fields. Our generalized scale invariant actions have obvious applications to early Universe cosmology and include, for example, the Bezrukov-Shaposhnikov action as a subset.

  9. Milestones of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullin, Jorge

    2017-02-01

    We present a summary for non-specialists of the special issue of the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity on ‘Milestones of general relativity’, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the theory.

  10. Tuberculosis: General Information

    MedlinePlus

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  11. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  12. Training and generalization of agrammatic aphasic adults' wh-interrogative productions.

    PubMed

    Wambaugh, J L; Thompson, C K

    1989-11-01

    The stimulus and response generalization effects of training wh-interrogative production were examined in 4 agrammatic Broca's aphasic subjects using a multiple baseline design across behaviors and subjects. Throughout treatment, response generalization to untrained questions and stimulus generalization to several nontraining conditions were assessed. Variable response generalization to untrained exemplars of trained wh-interrogative forms and little generalization to grammatically different wh constructions occurred. Stimulus generalization to only one of three conditions was noted. However, generalization treatment involving sequential modification of training across conditions was found to be effective in facilitating generalization to an additional stimulus condition for 2 of the 4 subjects.

  13. Cosmology in generalized Proca theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li

    2016-06-01

    We consider a massive vector field with derivative interactions that propagates only the 3 desired polarizations (besides two tensor polarizations from gravity) with second-order equations of motion in curved space-time. The cosmological implications of such generalized Proca theories are investigated for both the background and the linear perturbation by taking into account the Lagrangian up to quintic order. In the presence of a matter fluid with a temporal component of the vector field, we derive the background equations of motion and show the existence of de Sitter solutions relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. We also obtain conditions for the absence of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations in the small-scale limit. Our results are applied to concrete examples of the general functions in the theory, which encompass vector Galileons as a specific case. In such examples, we show that the de Sitter fixed point is always a stable attractor and study viable parameter spaces in which the no-ghost and stability conditions are satisfied during the cosmic expansion history.

  14. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Gazeau, J. P.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  15. Matter in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  16. Securing General Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    ajor vulnerabilities still exist in ... general aviation security ,”3 the commission did not further elaborate on the nature of those vulnerabilities...commercial operations may make them an attractive alternative to terrorists seeking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in aviation security . In this...3, 2003, p. A7. 2 See Report of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee Working Group on General Aviation Airport Security (October 1, 2003); and

  17. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  18. Generalization of multisensory perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Powers III, Albert R.; Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Life in a multisensory world requires the rapid and accurate integration of stimuli across the different senses. In this process, the temporal relationship between stimuli is critical in determining which stimuli share a common origin. Numerous studies have described a multisensory temporal binding window—the time window within which audiovisual stimuli are likely to be perceptually bound. In addition to characterizing this window’s size, recent work has shown it to be malleable, with the capacity for substantial narrowing following perceptual training. However, the generalization of these effects to other measures of perception is not known. This question was examined by characterizing the ability of training on a simultaneity judgment task to influence perception of the temporally-dependent sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). Results do not demonstrate a change in performance on the SIFI itself following training. However, data do show an improved ability to discriminate rapidly-presented two-flash control conditions following training. Effects were specific to training and scaled with the degree of temporal window narrowing exhibited. Results do not support generalization of multisensory perceptual learning to other multisensory tasks. However, results do show that training results in improvements in visual temporal acuity, suggesting a generalization effect of multisensory training on unisensory abilities. PMID:27000988

  19. Generalization of multisensory perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Powers Iii, Albert R; Hillock-Dunn, Andrea; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-03-22

    Life in a multisensory world requires the rapid and accurate integration of stimuli across the different senses. In this process, the temporal relationship between stimuli is critical in determining which stimuli share a common origin. Numerous studies have described a multisensory temporal binding window-the time window within which audiovisual stimuli are likely to be perceptually bound. In addition to characterizing this window's size, recent work has shown it to be malleable, with the capacity for substantial narrowing following perceptual training. However, the generalization of these effects to other measures of perception is not known. This question was examined by characterizing the ability of training on a simultaneity judgment task to influence perception of the temporally-dependent sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). Results do not demonstrate a change in performance on the SIFI itself following training. However, data do show an improved ability to discriminate rapidly-presented two-flash control conditions following training. Effects were specific to training and scaled with the degree of temporal window narrowing exhibited. Results do not support generalization of multisensory perceptual learning to other multisensory tasks. However, results do show that training results in improvements in visual temporal acuity, suggesting a generalization effect of multisensory training on unisensory abilities.

  20. The conditional emotional response as a model of Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hall, J F

    1986-01-01

    Many investigators have assumed that the conditional emotional response (CER) with its attendant response measure, response suppression, can be used as a model for Pavlovian conditioning; that is, that the experimental results obtained with the CER will yield findings similar to those obtained with the direct conditional stimulus (CS)-conditional response (CR) paradigm, e.g., conditioning of the eyeblink, electrodermal (EDR), finger withdrawal, etc. Several problems, however, have emerged with this assumption. The first is a methodologic-statistical one. Measurement of response suppression using the familiar ratio measure assumes that different base rates of responding should play no role in determining the size of the suppression ratio, and operant responding from one pre-CS period to another will remain stable. These assumptions have been found to be in error. In addition, the statistical assumptions of normally distributed data and homogeneous variances of the experimental and control groups also have been called to question. Some experimenters, however, have taken the position that if CER and direct CS-CR experimental findings are in general agreement when a particular conditioning variable has been manipulated, the methodologic-statistical problems that we have identified can be ignored. The experimental evidence suggests that although such comparisons frequently indicate an identity of findings, there are sufficient exceptions in which caution is urged in assuming that the two paradigms are measuring the same learning correlate.

  1. Advances in psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Garfinkle, Eric J; Behar, Evelyn

    2012-06-01

    Since the introduction of generalized anxiety disorder into the diagnostic system for psychiatric conditions, scientists have worked to develop effective treatments for the amelioration of chronic, excessive worry. In addition to traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy, more recent advances have focused on treatments targeting intolerance of uncertainty, meta-cognitions, emotion dysregulation, lack of acceptance of internal experiences, and emotional contrasts. This article reviews these therapeutic approaches and summarizes recent publications relevant to the psychological treatment of worry and generalized anxiety disorder.

  2. Chemical oscillator as a generalized Rayleigh oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2013-10-01

    We derive the conditions under which a set of arbitrary two dimensional autonomous kinetic equations can be reduced to the form of a generalized Rayleigh oscillator which admits of limit cycle solution. This is based on a linear transformation of field variables which can be found by inspection of the kinetic equations. We illustrate the scheme with the help of several chemical and bio-chemical oscillator models to show how they can be cast as a generalized Rayleigh oscillator.

  3. 15 CFR 2011.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General. 2011.101 Section 2011.101... of Quota Eligibility § 2011.101 General. This subpart sets forth the terms and conditions under which... (subheadings 1701.11.10, 1701.12.10, 1701.91.10, 1701.99.10, 1702.90.10, and 2106.90.44 of the HTS). Nothing...

  4. 15 CFR 2011.101 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 2011.101 Section 2011.101... of Quota Eligibility § 2011.101 General. This subpart sets forth the terms and conditions under which... (subheadings 1701.11.10, 1701.12.10, 1701.91.10, 1701.99.10, 1702.90.10, and 2106.90.44 of the HTS). Nothing...

  5. 15 CFR 2011.201 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 2011.201 Section 2011.201... Sugar § 2011.201 General. This subpart sets forth the terms and conditions under which certificates will...-quota tariff rates of the quota (subheadings 1701.11.10, 1701.12.10, 1701.91.10, 1701.99.10,...

  6. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  7. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Health > Secondary conditions Secondary conditions Secondary conditions refer ...

  8. Chinese Conditionals and the Theory of Conditionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chierchia, Gennaro

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the main features of discourse representation theory, situation-based approaches, and dynamic semantics, and discusses the role the novelty condition plays in each of them, providing the main theoretical coordinates against which to try an assessment of the role of the Chinese conditional and a proposal put forth by Chang and Huang…

  9. 45 CFR 46.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head may impose additional conditions prior...

  10. 45 CFR 46.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head may impose additional conditions prior...

  11. 45 CFR 46.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head may impose additional conditions prior...

  12. 45 CFR 46.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head may impose additional conditions prior...

  13. 45 CFR 46.124 - Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head may impose additional conditions prior...

  14. 7 CFR 3400.9 - Other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other conditions. 3400.9 Section 3400.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM General § 3400.9 Other conditions....

  15. 78 FR 4026 - Definition of Troubled Condition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 700, 701, 741, 747, and 750 RIN 3133-AD97 Definition of Troubled Condition AGENCY... a final rule amending the definition of ``troubled condition'' as that term is used to trigger the... officials, and as that term appears elsewhere in NCUA's regulations. Generally, the current...

  16. 77 FR 45285 - Definition of Troubled Condition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 700, 701, 741 and 750 RIN 3133-AD97 Definition of Troubled Condition AGENCY: National... proposes to amend the definition of ``troubled condition'' as that term appears in Sec. 701.14 and elsewhere in NCUA's regulations. Generally, under the current definition, only a state supervisory...

  17. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test conditions. 89.331 Section 89.331... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.331 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. Calculate all volumes and volumetric flow rates...

  18. 40 CFR 91.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test conditions. 91.311 Section 91.311... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by the test engine throughout the...

  19. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test conditions. 90.311 Section 90.311... EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by...

  20. 40 CFR 89.331 - Test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test conditions. 89.331 Section 89.331... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.331 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. Calculate all volumes and volumetric flow rates...