Science.gov

Sample records for general linear groups

  1. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models for Multiple Groups of Rare and Common Variants: Jointly Estimating Group and Individual-Variant Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nengjun; Liu, Nianjun; Zhi, Degui; Li, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Complex diseases and traits are likely influenced by many common and rare genetic variants and environmental factors. Detecting disease susceptibility variants is a challenging task, especially when their frequencies are low and/or their effects are small or moderate. We propose here a comprehensive hierarchical generalized linear model framework for simultaneously analyzing multiple groups of rare and common variants and relevant covariates. The proposed hierarchical generalized linear models introduce a group effect and a genetic score (i.e., a linear combination of main-effect predictors for genetic variants) for each group of variants, and jointly they estimate the group effects and the weights of the genetic scores. This framework includes various previous methods as special cases, and it can effectively deal with both risk and protective variants in a group and can simultaneously estimate the cumulative contribution of multiple variants and their relative importance. Our computational strategy is based on extending the standard procedure for fitting generalized linear models in the statistical software R to the proposed hierarchical models, leading to the development of stable and flexible tools. The methods are illustrated with sequence data in gene ANGPTL4 from the Dallas Heart Study. The performance of the proposed procedures is further assessed via simulation studies. The methods are implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/). PMID:22144906

  2. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: A comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E.; Saad, Ziad S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, RobertW.

    2014-01-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variance–covariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within- subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT)with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (Greenhouse–Geisser and Huynh–Feldt) with MVT-WS. PMID:24954281

  3. Quantum groups, Verma modules and q-oscillators: general linear case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirov, Khazret S.; Razumov, Alexander V.

    2017-07-01

    The Verma modules over the quantum groups {U}_q(gll + 1) for arbitrary values of l are analysed. The explicit expressions for the action of the generators on the elements of the natural basis are obtained. The corresponding representations of the quantum loop algebras {U}_q({ L}(sll + 1)) are constructed via Jimbo’s homomorphism. This allows us to find certain representations of the positive Borel subalgebras of {{U}}_q({ L}(sll + 1)) as degenerations of the shifted representations. The latter are the representations used in the construction of the so-called Q-operators in the theory of quantum integrable systems. The interpretation of the corresponding simple quotient modules in terms of representations of the q-deformed oscillator algebra is given.

  4. An algorithm for the construction of substitution box for block ciphers based on projective general linear group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaleb, Anas; Saeed, Muhammad Sarwar; Hussain, Iqtadar; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to synthesize 8*8 substitution boxes (S-boxes) for block ciphers. The confusion creating potential of an S-box depends on its construction technique. In the first step, we have applied the algebraic action of the projective general linear group PGL(2,GF(28)) on Galois field GF(28). In step 2 we have used the permutations of the symmetric group S256 to construct new kind of S-boxes. To explain the proposed extension scheme, we have given an example and constructed one new S-box. The strength of the extended S-box is computed, and an insight is given to calculate the confusion-creating potency. To analyze the security of the S-box some popular algebraic and statistical attacks are performed as well. The proposed S-box has been analyzed by bit independent criterion, linear approximation probability test, non-linearity test, strict avalanche criterion, differential approximation probability test, and majority logic criterion. A comparison of the proposed S-box with existing S-boxes shows that the analyses of the extended S-box are comparatively better.

  5. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2008-01-01

    We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work on generalized covariance analysis methods. This prior work allowed for partitioning of the state space into "solve-for" and "consider" parameters, allowed for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator s anchor time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the "variance sandpile" and the "sensitivity mosaic," and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  6. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  7. Comparing Multiple-Group Multinomial Log-Linear Models for Multidimensional Skill Distributions in the General Diagnostic Model. Research Report. ETS RR-08-35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xueli; von Davier, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The general diagnostic model (GDM) utilizes located latent classes for modeling a multidimensional proficiency variable. In this paper, the GDM is extended by employing a log-linear model for multiple populations that assumes constraints on parameters across multiple groups. This constrained model is compared to log-linear models that assume…

  8. Weil Representation of a Generalized Linear Group over a Ring of Truncated Polynomials over a Finite Field Endowed with a Second Class Involution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez Frez, Luis; Pantoja, José

    2015-09-01

    We construct a complex linear Weil representation ρ of the generalized special linear group G={SL}_*^{1}(2,A_n) (A_n=K[x]/< x^nrangle , K the quadratic extension of the finite field k of q elements, q odd), where A_n is endowed with a second class involution. After the construction of a specific data, the representation is defined on the generators of a Bruhat presentation of G, via linear operators satisfying the relations of the presentation. The structure of a unitary group U associated to G is described. Using this group we obtain a first decomposition of ρ.

  9. Quantization of general linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-03-15

    General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.

  10. Renormalization group and linear integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, W.

    1983-04-01

    We develop a position-space renormalization-group transformation which can be employed to study general linear integral equations. In this Brief Report we employ our method to study one class of such equations pertinent to the equilibrium properties of fluids. The results of applying our method are in excellent agreement with known numerical calculations where they can be compared. We also obtain information about the singular behavior of this type of equation which could not be obtained numerically.

  11. Removing an intersubject variance component in a general linear model improves multiway factoring of event-related spectral perturbations in group EEG studies.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jeffrey S; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Ferree, Thomas C

    2013-03-01

    Linear statistical models are used very effectively to assess task-related differences in EEG power spectral analyses. Mixed models, in particular, accommodate more than one variance component in a multisubject study, where many trials of each condition of interest are measured on each subject. Generally, intra- and intersubject variances are both important to determine correct standard errors for inference on functions of model parameters, but it is often assumed that intersubject variance is the most important consideration in a group study. In this article, we show that, under common assumptions, estimates of some functions of model parameters, including estimates of task-related differences, are properly tested relative to the intrasubject variance component only. A substantial gain in statistical power can arise from the proper separation of variance components when there is more than one source of variability. We first develop this result analytically, then show how it benefits a multiway factoring of spectral, spatial, and temporal components from EEG data acquired in a group of healthy subjects performing a well-studied response inhibition task.

  12. Semi-Parametric Generalized Linear Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    is nonsingular, upper triangular, and of full rank r. It is known (Dongarra et al., 1979) that G-1 FT is the Moore - Penrose inverse of L . Therefore... GENERALIZED LINEAR pq Mathematics Research Center University of Wisconsin-Madison 610 Walnut Street Madison, Wisconsin 53705 TI C August 1985 E T NOV 7 8...North Carolina 27709 -. -.. . - -.-. g / 6 O5’o UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON MATHD4ATICS RESEARCH CENTER SD4I-PARAMETRIC GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS

  13. Extended Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segawa, Eisuke; Emery, Sherry; Curry, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized linear latent and mixed modeling (GLLAMM framework) includes many models such as hierarchical and structural equation models. However, GLLAMM cannot currently accommodate some models because it does not allow some parameters to be random. GLLAMM is extended to overcome the limitation by adding a submodel that specifies a…

  14. Linear and nonlinear generalized Fourier transforms.

    PubMed

    Pelloni, Beatrice

    2006-12-15

    This article presents an overview of a transform method for solving linear and integrable nonlinear partial differential equations. This new transform method, proposed by Fokas, yields a generalization and unification of various fundamental mathematical techniques and, in particular, it yields an extension of the Fourier transform method.

  15. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  16. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  17. Alternative approach to general coupled linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2005-11-29

    The Twiss parameters provide a convenient description of beam optics in uncoupled linear beamlines. For coupled beamlines, a variety of approaches are possible for describing the linear optics; here, we propose an approach and notation that naturally generalizes the familiar Twiss parameters to the coupled case in three degrees of freedom. Our approach is based on an eigensystem analysis of the matrix of second-order beam moments, or alternatively (in the case of a storage ring) on an eigensystem analysis of the linear single-turn map. The lattice functions that emerge from this approach have an interpretation that is conceptually very simple: in particular, the lattice functions directly relate the beam distribution in phase space to the invariant emittances. To emphasize the physical significance of the coupled lattice functions, we develop the theory from first principles, using only the assumption of linear symplectic transport. We also give some examples of the application of this approach, demonstrating its advantages of conceptual and notational simplicity.

  18. [General practice--linear thinking and complexity].

    PubMed

    Stalder, H

    2006-09-27

    As physicians, we apply and teach linear thinking. This approach permits to dissect the patient's problem to the molecular level and has contributed enormously to the knowledge and progress of medicine. The linear approach is particularly useful in medical education, in quantitative research and helps to resolve simple problems. However, it risks to be rigid. Living beings (such as patients and physicians!) have to be considered as complex systems. A complex system cannot be dissected into its parts without losing its identity. It is dependent on its past and interactions with the outside are often followed by unpredictable reactions. The patient-centred approach in medicine permits the physician, a complex system himself, to integrate the patient's system and to adapt to his reality. It is particularly useful in general medicine.

  19. Stagewise generalized estimating equations with grouped variables.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Gregory; Aseltine, Robert; Chen, Kun; Yan, Jun

    2017-02-13

    Forward stagewise estimation is a revived slow-brewing approach for model building that is particularly attractive in dealing with complex data structures for both its computational efficiency and its intrinsic connections with penalized estimation. Under the framework of generalized estimating equations, we study general stagewise estimation approaches that can handle clustered data and non-Gaussian/non-linear models in the presence of prior variable grouping structure. As the grouping structure is often not ideal in that even the important groups may contain irrelevant variables, the key is to simultaneously conduct group selection and within-group variable selection, that is, bi-level selection. We propose two approaches to address the challenge. The first is a bi-level stagewise estimating equations (BiSEE) approach, which is shown to correspond to the sparse group lasso penalized regression. The second is a hierarchical stagewise estimating equations (HiSEE) approach to handle more general hierarchical grouping structure, in which each stagewise estimation step itself is executed as a hierarchical selection process based on the grouping structure. Simulation studies show that BiSEE and HiSEE yield competitive model selection and predictive performance compared to existing approaches. We apply the proposed approaches to study the association between the suicide-related hospitalization rates of the 15-19 age group and the characteristics of the school districts in the State of Connecticut.

  20. Gravitational Wave in Linear General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    General relativity is the best theory currently available to describe the interaction due to gravity. Within Albert Einstein's field equations this interaction is described by means of the spatiotemporal curvature generated by the matter-energy content in the universe. Weyl worked on the existence of perturbations of the curvature of space-time that propagate at the speed of light, which are known as Gravitational Waves, obtained to a first approximation through the linearization of the field equations of Einstein. Weyl's solution consists of taking the field equations in a vacuum and disturbing the metric, using the Minkowski metric slightly perturbed by a factor ɛ greater than zero but much smaller than one. If the feedback effect of the field is neglected, it can be considered as a weak field solution. After introducing the disturbed metric and ignoring ɛ terms of order greater than one, we can find the linearized field equations in terms of the perturbation, which can then be expressed in terms of the Dalambertian operator of the perturbation equalized to zero. This is analogous to the linear wave equation in classical mechanics, which can be interpreted by saying that gravitational effects propagate as waves at the speed of light. In addition to this, by studying the motion of a particle affected by this perturbation through the geodesic equation can show the transversal character of the gravitational wave and its two possible states of polarization. It can be shown that the energy carried by the wave is of the order of 1/c5 where c is the speed of light, which explains that its effects on matter are very small and very difficult to detect.

  1. Blended General Linear Methods based on Generalized BDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnano, Luigi; Magherini, Cecilia

    2008-09-01

    General Linear Methods were introduced in order to encompass a large family of numerical methods for the solution of ODE-IVPs, ranging from LMF to RK formulae. In so doing, it is possible to obtain methods able to overcome typical drawbacks of the previous classes of methods. For example, stability limitations of LMF and order reduction for RK methods. Nevertheless, these goals are usually achieved at the price of a higher computational cost. Consequently, many efforts have been done in order to derive GLMs with particular features, to be exploited for their efficient implementation. In recent years, the derivation of GLMs from particular Boundary Value Methods (BVMs), namely the family of Generalized BDF (GBDF), has been proposed for the numerical solution of stiff ODE-IVPs. Here, this approach is further developed in order to derive GLMs combining good stability and accuracy properties with the possibility of efficiently solving the generated discrete problems via the blended implementation of the methods.

  2. Evaluating the double Poisson generalized linear model.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yaotian; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the applicability of the double Poisson (DP) generalized linear model (GLM) for analyzing motor vehicle crash data characterized by over- and under-dispersion and (2) compare the performance of the DP GLM with the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (COM-Poisson) GLM in terms of goodness-of-fit and theoretical soundness. The DP distribution has seldom been investigated and applied since its first introduction two decades ago. The hurdle for applying the DP is related to its normalizing constant (or multiplicative constant) which is not available in closed form. This study proposed a new method to approximate the normalizing constant of the DP with high accuracy and reliability. The DP GLM and COM-Poisson GLM were developed using two observed over-dispersed datasets and one observed under-dispersed dataset. The modeling results indicate that the DP GLM with its normalizing constant approximated by the new method can handle crash data characterized by over- and under-dispersion. Its performance is comparable to the COM-Poisson GLM in terms of goodness-of-fit (GOF), although COM-Poisson GLM provides a slightly better fit. For the over-dispersed data, the DP GLM performs similar to the NB GLM. Considering the fact that the DP GLM can be easily estimated with inexpensive computation and that it is simpler to interpret coefficients, it offers a flexible and efficient alternative for researchers to model count data.

  3. Holonomy groups in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.S.; Kay, W.

    1988-02-01

    The infinitesimal holonomy group structure of space-time is discussed and related to the Petrov type of the Weyl tensor and the algebraic (Segre) type of the energy-momentum tensor. The number of covariant derivatives of the curvature tensor required to determine the infinitesimal holonomy group is determined in each case and the complete classification scheme is tabulated. Some special cases of physical interest are investigated in more detail. A geometrical approach is followed throughout.

  4. Symmetry Groups for Linear Programming Relaxations of Orthogonal Array Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Symmetry Groups for Linear Programming Relaxations of Orthogonal Array Problems THESIS MARCH 2015 David M. Arquette, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENC...work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-MS-15-M-003 SYMMETRY GROUPS FOR LINEAR...PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENC-MS-15-M-003 SYMMETRY GROUPS FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING RELAXATIONS OF ORTHOGONAL ARRAY PROBLEMS David M

  5. Linear integral equations and renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, W.; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1984-08-01

    A formulation of the position-space renormalization-group (RG) technique is used to analyze the singular behavior of solutions to a number of integral equations used in the theory of the liquid state. In particular, we examine the truncated Kirkwood-Salsburg equation, the Ornstein-Zernike equation, and a simple nonlinear equation used in the mean-field theory of liquids. We discuss the differences in applying the position-space RG to lattice systems and to fluids, and the need for an explicit free-energy rescaling assumption in our formulation of the RG for integral equations. Our analysis provides one natural way to define a "fractal" dimension at a phase transition.

  6. Centering, Scale Indeterminacy, and Differential Item Functioning Detection in Hierarchical Generalized Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Yuk Fai; Kamata, Akihito

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss and illustrate two centering and anchoring options available in differential item functioning (DIF) detection studies based on the hierarchical generalized linear and generalized linear mixed modeling frameworks. We compared and contrasted the assumptions of the two options, and examined the properties of their DIF…

  7. Centering, Scale Indeterminacy, and Differential Item Functioning Detection in Hierarchical Generalized Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Yuk Fai; Kamata, Akihito

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss and illustrate two centering and anchoring options available in differential item functioning (DIF) detection studies based on the hierarchical generalized linear and generalized linear mixed modeling frameworks. We compared and contrasted the assumptions of the two options, and examined the properties of their DIF…

  8. Linear stability of general magnetically insulated electron flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swegle, J. A.; Mendel, C. W., Jr.; Seidel, D. B.; Quintenz, J. P.

    1984-03-01

    A linear stability theory for magnetically insulated systems was formulated by linearizing the general 3-D, time dependent theory of Mendel, Seidel, and Slut. It is found that, case of electron trajectories which are nearly laminar, with only small transverse motion, several suggestive simplifications occur in the eigenvalue equations.

  9. The General Linear Model and Direct Standardization: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Roderick J. A.; Pullum, Thomas W.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods of analyzing nonorthogonal (uneven cell sizes) cross-classified data sets are compared. The methods are direct standardization and the general linear model. The authors illustrate when direct standardization may be a desirable method of analysis. (JKS)

  10. Modeling local item dependence with the hierarchical generalized linear model.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hong; Wang, Shudong; Kamata, Akihito

    2005-01-01

    Local item dependence (LID) can emerge when the test items are nested within common stimuli or item groups. This study proposes a three-level hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to model LID when LID is due to such contextual effects. The proposed three-level HGLM was examined by analyzing simulated data sets and was compared with the Rasch-equivalent two-level HGLM that ignores such a nested structure of test items. The results demonstrated that the proposed model could capture LID and estimate its magnitude. Also, the two-level HGLM resulted in larger mean absolute differences between the true and the estimated item difficulties than those from the proposed three-level HGLM. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the proposed three-level HGLM estimated the ability distribution variance unaffected by the LID magnitude, while the two-level HGLM with no LID consideration increasingly underestimated the ability variance as the LID magnitude increased.

  11. Linear mixed-effects modeling approach to FMRI group analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Saad, Ziad S.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Pine, Daniel S.; Cox, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional group analysis is usually performed with Student-type t-test, regression, or standard AN(C)OVA in which the variance–covariance matrix is presumed to have a simple structure. Some correction approaches are adopted when assumptions about the covariance structure is violated. However, as experiments are designed with different degrees of sophistication, these traditional methods can become cumbersome, or even be unable to handle the situation at hand. For example, most current FMRI software packages have difficulty analyzing the following scenarios at group level: (1) taking within-subject variability into account when there are effect estimates from multiple runs or sessions; (2) continuous explanatory variables (covariates) modeling in the presence of a within-subject (repeated measures) factor, multiple subject-grouping (between-subjects) factors, or the mixture of both; (3) subject-specific adjustments in covariate modeling; (4) group analysis with estimation of hemodynamic response (HDR) function by multiple basis functions; (5) various cases of missing data in longitudinal studies; and (6) group studies involving family members or twins. Here we present a linear mixed-effects modeling (LME) methodology that extends the conventional group analysis approach to analyze many complicated cases, including the six prototypes delineated above, whose analyses would be otherwise either difficult or unfeasible under traditional frameworks such as AN(C)OVA and general linear model (GLM). In addition, the strength of the LME framework lies in its flexibility to model and estimate the variance–covariance structures for both random effects and residuals. The intraclass correlation (ICC) values can be easily obtained with an LME model with crossed random effects, even at the presence of confounding fixed effects. The simulations of one prototypical scenario indicate that the LME modeling keeps a balance between the control for false positives and the

  12. Bilayer linearized tensor renormalization group approach for thermal tensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yong-Liang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Yun-Jing; Li, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Thermal tensor networks constitute an efficient and versatile representation for quantum lattice models at finite temperatures. By Trotter-Suzuki decomposition, one obtains a D +1 dimensional TTN for the D -dimensional quantum system and then employs efficient renormalizaton group (RG) contractions to obtain the thermodynamic properties with high precision. The linearized tensor renormalization group (LTRG) method, which can be used to contract TTN efficiently and calculate the thermodynamics, is briefly reviewed and then generalized to a bilayer form. We dub this bilayer algorithm as LTRG++ and explore its performance in both finite- and infinite-size systems, finding the numerical accuracy significantly improved compared to single-layer algorithm. Moreover, we show that the LTRG++ algorithm in an infinite-size system is in essence equivalent to transfer-matrix renormalization group method, while reformulated in a tensor network language. As an application of LTRG++, we simulate an extended fermionic Hubbard model numerically, where the phase separation phenomenon, ground-state phase diagram, as well as quantum criticality-enhanced magnetocaloric effects, are investigated.

  13. From linear to generalized linear mixed models: A case study in repeated measures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Compared to traditional linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) can offer better correspondence between response variables and explanatory models, yielding more efficient estimates and tests in the analysis of data from designed experiments. Using proportion data from a designed...

  14. Linear Programming Solutions of Generalized Linear Impulsive Correction for Geostationary Stationkeeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Woo

    1996-06-01

    The generalized linear impulsive correction problem is applied to make a linear programming problem for optimizing trajectory of an orbiting spacecraft. Numerical application for the stationkeeping maneuver problem of geostationary satellite shows that this problem can efficiently find the optimal solution of the stationkeeping parameters, such as velocity changes, and the points of impulse by using the revised simplex method.

  15. Generalized perceptual linear prediction features for animal vocalization analysis.

    PubMed

    Clemins, Patrick J; Johnson, Michael T

    2006-07-01

    A new feature extraction model, generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP), is developed to calculate a set of perceptually relevant features for digital signal analysis of animal vocalizations. The gPLP model is a generalized adaptation of the perceptual linear prediction model, popular in human speech processing, which incorporates perceptual information such as frequency warping and equal loudness normalization into the feature extraction process. Since such perceptual information is available for a number of animal species, this new approach integrates that information into a generalized model to extract perceptually relevant features for a particular species. To illustrate, qualitative and quantitative comparisons are made between the species-specific model, generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP), and the original PLP model using a set of vocalizations collected from captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The models that incorporate perceptional information outperform the original human-based models in both visualization and classification tasks.

  16. Generalized Weyl-Heisenberg (GWH) groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaani Farashahi, Arash

    2014-09-01

    Let be a locally compact group, be a locally compact Abelian (LCA) group, be a continuous homomorphism, and let be the semi-direct product of and with respect to the continuous homomorphism . In this article, we introduce the Generalized Weyl-Heisenberg (GWH) group associate with the semi-direct product group . We will study basic properties of from harmonic analysis aspects. Finally, we will illustrate applications of these methods in the case of some well-known semi-direct product groups.

  17. A general non-linear multilevel structural equation mixture model

    PubMed Central

    Kelava, Augustin; Brandt, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In the past 2 decades latent variable modeling has become a standard tool in the social sciences. In the same time period, traditional linear structural equation models have been extended to include non-linear interaction and quadratic effects (e.g., Klein and Moosbrugger, 2000), and multilevel modeling (Rabe-Hesketh et al., 2004). We present a general non-linear multilevel structural equation mixture model (GNM-SEMM) that combines recent semiparametric non-linear structural equation models (Kelava and Nagengast, 2012; Kelava et al., 2014) with multilevel structural equation mixture models (Muthén and Asparouhov, 2009) for clustered and non-normally distributed data. The proposed approach allows for semiparametric relationships at the within and at the between levels. We present examples from the educational science to illustrate different submodels from the general framework. PMID:25101022

  18. Linear equations in general purpose codes for stiff ODEs

    SciTech Connect

    Shampine, L. F.

    1980-02-01

    It is noted that it is possible to improve significantly the handling of linear problems in a general-purpose code with very little trouble to the user or change to the code. In such situations analytical evaluation of the Jacobian is a lot cheaper than numerical differencing. A slight change in the point at which the Jacobian is evaluated results in a more accurate Jacobian in linear problems. (RWR)

  19. Generalized Linear Multi-Frequency Imaging in VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, S.; Ladygin, V.; Guirin, I.

    2004-07-01

    In VLBI, generalized Linear Multi-Frequency Imaging (MFI) consists of multi-frequency synthesis (MFS) and multi-frequency analysis (MFA) of the VLBI data obtained from observations on various frequencies. A set of linear deconvolution MFI algorithms is described. The algorithms make it possible to obtain high quality images interpolated on any given frequency inside any given bandwidth, and to derive reliable estimates of spectral indexes for radio sources with continuum spectrum.

  20. A Matrix Approach for General Higher Order Linear Recurrences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    properties of linear recurrences (such as the well-known Fibonacci and Pell sequences ). In [2], Er defined k linear recurring sequences of order at...the nth term of the ith generalized order-k Fibonacci sequence . Communicated by Lee See Keong. Received: March 26, 2009; Revised: August 28, 2009...6], the author gave the generalized order-k Fibonacci and Pell (F-P) sequence as follows: For m ≥ 0, n > 0 and 1 ≤ i ≤ k uin = 2 muin−1 + u i n−2

  1. Optimal explicit strong-stability-preserving general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E.; Sandu, A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper constructs strong-stability-preserving general linear time-stepping methods that are well suited for hyperbolic PDEs discretized by the method of lines. These methods generalize both Runge-Kutta (RK) and linear multistep schemes. They have high stage orders and hence are less susceptible than RK methods to order reduction from source terms or nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. A global optimization strategy is used to find the most efficient schemes that have low storage requirements. Numerical results illustrate the theoretical findings.

  2. Uncertainty relations, zero point energy and the linear canonical group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    1993-01-01

    The close relationship between the zero point energy, the uncertainty relations, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group-theoretic perspective enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. In particular the generalized Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relations are analyzed. An elementary method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented.

  3. Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2012-07-01

    We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green's function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1-9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126-140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.

  4. Beam envelope calculations in general linear coupled lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Groening, Lars; Xiao, Chen; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2015-01-15

    The envelope equations and Twiss parameters (β and α) provide important bases for uncoupled linear beam dynamics. For sophisticated beam manipulations, however, coupling elements between two transverse planes are intentionally introduced. The recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory offers an effective way of describing the linear beam dynamics in such coupled systems with a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory. In this work, we present numerical solutions to the symmetrized matrix envelope equation for β which removes the gauge freedom in the matrix envelope equation for w. Furthermore, we construct the transfer and beam matrices in terms of the generalized Twiss parameters, which enables calculation of the beam envelopes in arbitrary linear coupled systems.

  5. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models for the Analysis of Judge Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muckle, Timothy J.; Karabatsos, George

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the Rasch model is a special two-level hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM). This article demonstrates that the many-faceted Rasch model (MFRM) is also a special case of the two-level HGLM, with a random intercept representing examinee ability on a test, and fixed effects for the test items, judges, and possibly other…

  6. Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…

  7. Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…

  8. [Balint group--aid to general practitioner].

    PubMed

    Simunović, Rajka; Bilić, Vedran; Kumbrija, Suzana; Blazeković-Milaković, Sanja

    2004-01-01

    Professional education of general practitioner is mainly focused on biomedical aspects of treating somatic diseases, while psychological components of somatic diseases, as well as doctor-patient relationship, are generally neglected. General practitioner is in healing process daily exposed to considerable frustrations in relationships with patients. Some frustrations stem from unrecognized and neglected psychological and emotional aspects of somatic diseases which manifest in the doctor-patient relationship. The aim of this work is to show that Balint group can enhance general practitioner's professional capability, as well as his professional satisfaction, teaching him how to recognize psychological needs and problems which are integral part of somatic diseases and doctor-patient relationship as well.

  9. Linkage Group Xix of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Has a Linear Map

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, J. A.; Johnson, D. E.; Dutcher, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Linkage group XIX (or the UNI linkage group) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been reported to show a circular meiotic recombination map. A circular map predicts the existence of strong chiasma and chromatid interference, which would lead to an excess number of two-strand double crossovers during meiosis. We have tested this prediction in multipoint crosses. Our results are consistent with a linear linkage group that shows positive chiasma interference and no chromatid interference. Chiasma interference occurs both within arms and across the centromere. Of the original loci that contributed to the circular map, we find that two map to other linkage groups and a third cannot be retested because the mutant strain that defined it has been lost. A second reported unusual property for linkage group XIX was the increase in meiotic recombination with increases in temperature during a period that precedes the onset of meiosis. Although we observed changes in recombination frequencies in some intervals on linkage group XIX in crosses to CC-1952, and in strains heterozygous for the mutation ger1 at 16°, we also show that our strains do not exhibit the previously observed patterns of temperature-sensitive recombination for two different pairs of loci on linkage group XIX. We conclude that linkage group XIX has a linear genetic map that is not significantly different from other Chlamydomonas linkage groups. PMID:8462847

  10. Testing non-linearity and directedness of interactions between neural groups in the macaque inferotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, W A; Valdes, P; Bosch, J; Biscay, R; Jimenez, J C; Rodriguez, L M; Rodriguez, V; Kreiter, A K; Singer, W

    1999-12-15

    Information processing in the visual cortex depends on complex and context sensitive patterns of interactions between neuronal groups in many different cortical areas. Methods used to date for disentangling this functional connectivity presuppose either linearity or instantaneous interactions, assumptions that are not necessarily valid. In this paper a general framework that encompasses both linear and non-linear modelling of neurophysiological time series data by means of Local Linear Non-linear Autoregressive models (LLNAR) is described. Within this framework a new test for non-linearity of time series and for non-linearity of directedness of neural interactions based on LLNAR is presented. These tests assess the relative goodness of fit of linear versus non-linear models via the bootstrap technique. Additionally, a generalised definition of Granger causality is presented based on LLNAR that is valid for both linear and non-linear systems. Finally, the use of LLNAR for measuring non-linearity and directional influences is illustrated using artificial data, reference data as well as local field potentials (LFPs) from macaque area TE. LFP data is well described by the linear variant of LLNAR. Models of this sort, including lagged values of the preceding 25 to 60 ms, revealed the existence of both uni- and bi-directional influences between recording sites.

  11. Generalized linear mixed models for meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Platt, R W; Leroux, B G; Breslow, N

    1999-03-30

    We examine two strategies for meta-analysis of a series of 2 x 2 tables with the odds ratio modelled as a linear combination of study level covariates and random effects representing between-study variation. Penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL), an approximate inference technique for generalized linear mixed models, and a linear model fitted by weighted least squares to the observed log-odds ratios are used to estimate regression coefficients and dispersion parameters. Simulation results demonstrate that both methods perform adequate approximate inference under many conditions, but that neither method works well in the presence of highly sparse data. Under certain conditions with small cell frequencies the PQL method provides better inference.

  12. A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: bimetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G.

    2017-01-01

    We implement the method developed in [1] to construct the most general parametrised action for linear cosmological perturbations of bimetric theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background, and identify the complete form of the action invariant under diffeomorphism transformations, as well as the number of free parameters characterising this cosmological class of theories. We discuss, in detail, the case without derivative interactions, and compare our results with those found in massive bigravity.

  13. Electromagnetic axial anomaly in a generalized linear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata

    2017-06-01

    We construct the electromagnetic anomaly effective term for a generalized linear sigma model with two chiral nonets, one with a quark-antiquark structure, the other one with a four-quark content. We compute in the leading order of this framework the decays into two photons of six pseudoscalars: π0(137 ), π0(1300 ), η (547 ), η (958 ), η (1295 ) and η (1760 ). Our results agree well with the available experimental data.

  14. Credibility analysis of risk classes by generalized linear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Ovgucan Karadag; Sucu, Meral

    2016-06-01

    In this paper generalized linear model (GLM) and credibility theory which are frequently used in nonlife insurance pricing are combined for reliability analysis. Using full credibility standard, GLM is associated with limited fluctuation credibility approach. Comparison criteria such as asymptotic variance and credibility probability are used to analyze the credibility of risk classes. An application is performed by using one-year claim frequency data of a Turkish insurance company and results of credible risk classes are interpreted.

  15. The Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group Recommendations for the First Course in Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents five recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group: (1) The syllabus must respond to the client disciplines; (2) The first course should be matrix oriented; (3) Faculty should consider the needs and interests of students; (4) Faculty should use technology; and (5) At least one follow-up course should be required. Provides a…

  16. Residuals analysis of the generalized linear models for longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C

    2000-05-30

    The generalized estimation equation (GEE) method, one of the generalized linear models for longitudinal data, has been used widely in medical research. However, the related sensitivity analysis problem has not been explored intensively. One of the possible reasons for this was due to the correlated structure within the same subject. We showed that the conventional residuals plots for model diagnosis in longitudinal data could mislead a researcher into trusting the fitted model. A non-parametric method, named the Wald-Wolfowitz run test, was proposed to check the residuals plots both quantitatively and graphically. The rationale proposedin this paper is well illustrated with two real clinical studies in Taiwan.

  17. Linear spin-2 fields in most general backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Schmidt-May, Angnis; von Strauss, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    We derive the full perturbative equations of motion for the most general background solutions in ghost-free bimetric theory in its metric formulation. Clever field redefinitions at the level of fluctuations enable us to circumvent the problem of varying a square-root matrix appearing in the theory. This greatly simplifies the expressions for the linear variation of the bimetric interaction terms. We show that these field redefinitions exist and are uniquely invertible if and only if the variation of the square-root matrix itself has a unique solution, which is a requirement for the linearized theory to be well defined. As an application of our results we examine the constraint structure of ghost-free bimetric theory at the level of linear equations of motion for the first time. We identify a scalar combination of equations which is responsible for the absence of the Boulware-Deser ghost mode in the theory. The bimetric scalar constraint is in general not manifestly covariant in its nature. However, in the massive gravity limit the constraint assumes a covariant form when one of the interaction parameters is set to zero. For that case our analysis provides an alternative and almost trivial proof of the absence of the Boulware-Deser ghost. Our findings generalize previous results in the metric formulation of massive gravity and also agree with studies of its vielbein version.

  18. Comparative Study of Algorithms for Automated Generalization of Linear Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimjon, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sukhmani, R. S. G. S.

    2014-11-01

    Automated generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both geographic information system (GIS) and mapping fields. All geographic phenomenon and the processes are bound to the scale, as it is impossible for human being to observe the Earth and the processes in it without decreasing its scale. To get optimal results, cartographers and map-making agencies develop set of rules and constraints, however these rules are under consideration and topic for many researches up until recent days. Reducing map generating time and giving objectivity is possible by developing automated map generalization algorithms (McMaster and Shea, 1988). Modification of the scale traditionally is a manual process, which requires knowledge of the expert cartographer, and it depends on the experience of the user, which makes the process very subjective as every user may generate different map with same requirements. However, automating generalization based on the cartographic rules and constrains can give consistent result. Also, developing automated system for map generation is the demand of this rapid changing world. The research that we have conveyed considers only generalization of the roads, as it is one of the indispensable parts of a map. Dehradun city, Uttarakhand state of India was selected as a study area. The study carried out comparative study of the generalization software sets, operations and algorithms available currently, also considers advantages and drawbacks of the existing software used worldwide. Research concludes with the development of road network generalization tool and with the final generalized road map of the study area, which explores the use of open source python programming language and attempts to compare different road network generalization algorithms. Thus, the paper discusses the alternative solutions for automated generalization of linear objects using GIS-technologies. Research made on automated of road network

  19. Parametrizing linear generalized Langevin dynamics from explicit molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Fabian; Karsten, Sven; Ivanov, Sergei D.; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Fundamental understanding of complex dynamics in many-particle systems on the atomistic level is of utmost importance. Often the systems of interest are of macroscopic size but can be partitioned into a few important degrees of freedom which are treated most accurately and others which constitute a thermal bath. Particular attention in this respect attracts the linear generalized Langevin equation, which can be rigorously derived by means of a linear projection technique. Within this framework, a complicated interaction with the bath can be reduced to a single memory kernel. This memory kernel in turn is parametrized for a particular system studied, usually by means of time-domain methods based on explicit molecular dynamics data. Here, we discuss that this task is more naturally achieved in frequency domain and develop a Fourier-based parametrization method that outperforms its time-domain analogues. Very surprisingly, the widely used rigid bond method turns out to be inappropriate in general. Importantly, we show that the rigid bond approach leads to a systematic overestimation of relaxation times, unless the system under study consists of a harmonic bath bi-linearly coupled to the relevant degrees of freedom.

  20. Linearized pseudo-Einstein equations on the Heisenberg group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Jacobowitz, Howard

    2017-02-01

    We study the pseudo-Einstein equation R11bar = 0 on the Heisenberg group H1 = C × R. We consider first order perturbations θɛ =θ0 + ɛ θ and linearize the pseudo-Einstein equation about θ0 (the canonical Tanaka-Webster flat contact form on H1 thought of as a strictly pseudoconvex CR manifold). If θ =e2uθ0 the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation is Δb u - 4 | Lu|2 = 0 where Δb is the sublaplacian of (H1 ,θ0) and L bar is the Lewy operator. We solve the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation on a bounded domain Ω ⊂H1 by applying subelliptic theory i.e. existence and regularity results for weak subelliptic harmonic maps. We determine a solution u to the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation, possessing Heisenberg spherical symmetry, and such that u(x) → - ∞ as | x | → + ∞.

  1. Linear and nonlinear propagation of water wave groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Donelan, M. A.; Hui, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a study of the evolution of waveforms with known analytical group shapes, in the form of both transient wave groups and the cloidal (cn) and dnoidal (dn) wave trains as derived from the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The waveforms were generated in a long wind-wave tank of the Canada Centre for Inland Waters. It was found that the low-amplitude transients behaved as predicted by the linear theory and that the cn and dn wave trains of moderate steepness behaved almost as predicted by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Some of the results did not fit into any of the available theories for waves on water, but they provide important insight on how actual groups of waves propagate and on higher-order effects for a transient waveform.

  2. Extracting Embedded Generalized Networks from Linear Programming Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    E EXTRACTING EMBEDDED GENERALIZED NETWORKS FROM LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS by Gerald G. Brown * . ___Richard D. McBride * R. Kevin Wood LcL7...authorized. EA Gerald ’Brown Richar-rD. McBride 46;val Postgrduate School University of Southern California Monterey, California 93943 Los Angeles...REOT UBE . OV S.SF- PERFOING’ CAORG soN UER. 7. AUTNOR(a) S. CONTRACT ON GRANT NUME111() Gerald G. Brown Richard D. McBride S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  3. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Zehui; Guo Juan; Gao Jiangrui

    2006-05-15

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  4. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Bruno G. da

    2014-06-15

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  5. General covariance from the quantum renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, Vasudev

    2017-03-01

    The quantum renormalization group (QRG) is a realization of holography through a coarse-graining prescription that maps the beta functions of a quantum field theory thought to live on the "boundary" of some space to holographic actions in the "bulk" of this space. A consistency condition will be proposed that translates into general covariance of the gravitational theory in the D +1 dimensional bulk. This emerges from the application of the QRG on a planar matrix field theory living on the D dimensional boundary. This will be a particular form of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition that the generating functional of the boundary theory needs to satisfy. In the bulk, this condition forces the Poisson bracket algebra of the scalar and vector constraints of the dual gravitational theory to close in a very specific manner, namely, the manner in which the corresponding constraints of general relativity do. A number of features of the gravitational theory will be fixed as a consequence of this form of the Poisson bracket algebra. In particular, it will require the metric beta function to be of the gradient form.

  6. General quantum constraints on detector noise in continuous linear measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Haixing

    2017-01-01

    In quantum sensing and metrology, an important class of measurement is the continuous linear measurement, in which the detector is coupled to the system of interest linearly and continuously in time. One key aspect involved is the quantum noise of the detector, arising from quantum fluctuations in the detector input and output. It determines how fast we acquire information about the system and also influences the system evolution in terms of measurement backaction. We therefore often categorize it as the so-called imprecision noise and quantum backaction noise. There is a general Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation that constrains the magnitude of and the correlation between these two types of quantum noise. The main result of this paper is to show that, when the detector becomes ideal, i.e., at the quantum limit with minimum uncertainty, not only does the uncertainty relation takes the equal sign as expected, but also there are two new equalities. This general result is illustrated by using the typical cavity QED setup with the system being either a qubit or a mechanical oscillator. Particularly, the dispersive readout of a qubit state, and the measurement of mechanical motional sideband asymmetry are considered.

  7. Generalized linear mixed model for segregation distortion analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Haimao; Xu, Shizhong

    2011-11-11

    Segregation distortion is a phenomenon that the observed genotypic frequencies of a locus fall outside the expected Mendelian segregation ratio. The main cause of segregation distortion is viability selection on linked marker loci. These viability selection loci can be mapped using genome-wide marker information. We developed a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) under the liability model to jointly map all viability selection loci of the genome. Using a hierarchical generalized linear mixed model, we can handle the number of loci several times larger than the sample size. We used a dataset from an F(2) mouse family derived from the cross of two inbred lines to test the model and detected a major segregation distortion locus contributing 75% of the variance of the underlying liability. Replicated simulation experiments confirm that the power of viability locus detection is high and the false positive rate is low. Not only can the method be used to detect segregation distortion loci, but also used for mapping quantitative trait loci of disease traits using case only data in humans and selected populations in plants and animals.

  8. Generalized linear mixed model for segregation distortion analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Segregation distortion is a phenomenon that the observed genotypic frequencies of a locus fall outside the expected Mendelian segregation ratio. The main cause of segregation distortion is viability selection on linked marker loci. These viability selection loci can be mapped using genome-wide marker information. Results We developed a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) under the liability model to jointly map all viability selection loci of the genome. Using a hierarchical generalized linear mixed model, we can handle the number of loci several times larger than the sample size. We used a dataset from an F2 mouse family derived from the cross of two inbred lines to test the model and detected a major segregation distortion locus contributing 75% of the variance of the underlying liability. Replicated simulation experiments confirm that the power of viability locus detection is high and the false positive rate is low. Conclusions Not only can the method be used to detect segregation distortion loci, but also used for mapping quantitative trait loci of disease traits using case only data in humans and selected populations in plants and animals. PMID:22078575

  9. Hierarchical Shrinkage Priors and Model Fitting for High-dimensional Generalized Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Nengjun; Ma, Shuangge

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and other scientific studies routinely generate very many predictor variables, which can be naturally grouped, with predictors in the same groups being highly correlated. It is desirable to incorporate the hierarchical structure of the predictor variables into generalized linear models for simultaneous variable selection and coefficient estimation. We propose two prior distributions: hierarchical Cauchy and double-exponential distributions, on coefficients in generalized linear models. The hierarchical priors include both variable-specific and group-specific tuning parameters, thereby not only adopting different shrinkage for different coefficients and different groups but also providing a way to pool the information within groups. We fit generalized linear models with the proposed hierarchical priors by incorporating flexible expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms into the standard iteratively weighted least squares as implemented in the general statistical package R. The methods are illustrated with data from an experiment to identify genetic polymorphisms for survival of mice following infection with Listeria monocytogenes. The performance of the proposed procedures is further assessed via simulation studies. The methods are implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/). PMID:23192052

  10. A new family of gauges in linearized general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2000-05-01

    For vacuum Maxwell theory in four dimensions, a supplementary condition exists (due to Eastwood and Singer) which is invariant under conformal rescalings of the metric, in agreement with the conformal symmetry of the Maxwell equations. Thus, starting from the de Donder gauge, which is not conformally invariant but is the gravitational counterpart of the Lorenz gauge, one can consider, led by formal analogy, a new family of gauges in general relativity, which involve fifth-order covariant derivatives of metric perturbations. The admissibility of such gauges in the classical theory is first proven in the cases of linearized theory about flat Euclidean space or flat Minkowski spacetime. In the former, the general solution of the equation for the fulfillment of the gauge condition after infinitesimal diffeomorphisms involves a 3-harmonic 1-form and an inverse Fourier transform. In the latter, one needs instead the kernel of powers of the wave operator, and a contour integral. The analysis is also used to put restrictions on the dimensionless parameter occurring in the DeWitt supermetric, while the proof of admissibility is generalized to a suitable class of curved Riemannian backgrounds. Eventually, a non-local construction of the tensor field is obtained which makes it possible to achieve conformal invariance of the above gauges.

  11. On homogeneous second order linear general quantum difference equations.

    PubMed

    Faried, Nashat; Shehata, Enas M; El Zafarani, Rasha M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the β-Cauchy problem of second order β-difference equations [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text], in a neighborhood of the unique fixed point [Formula: see text] of the strictly increasing continuous function β, defined on an interval [Formula: see text]. These equations are based on the general quantum difference operator [Formula: see text], which is defined by [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. We also construct a fundamental set of solutions for the second order linear homogeneous β-difference equations when the coefficients are constants and study the different cases of the roots of their characteristic equations. Finally, we drive the Euler-Cauchy β-difference equation.

  12. Optimization in generalized linear models: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Eliana Costa e.; Correia, Aldina; Lopes, Isabel Cristina

    2016-06-01

    The maximum likelihood method is usually chosen to estimate the regression parameters of Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and also for hypothesis testing and goodness of fit tests. The classical method for estimating GLM parameters is the Fisher scores. In this work we propose to compute the estimates of the parameters with two alternative methods: a derivative-based optimization method, namely the BFGS method which is one of the most popular of the quasi-Newton algorithms, and the PSwarm derivative-free optimization method that combines features of a pattern search optimization method with a global Particle Swarm scheme. As a case study we use a dataset of biological parameters (phytoplankton) and chemical and environmental parameters of the water column of a Portuguese reservoir. The results show that, for this dataset, BFGS and PSwarm methods provided a better fit, than Fisher scores method, and can be good alternatives for finding the estimates for the parameters of a GLM.

  13. Using parallel banded linear system solvers in generalized eigenvalue problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong; Moss, William F.

    1993-01-01

    Subspace iteration is a reliable and cost effective method for solving positive definite banded symmetric generalized eigenproblems, especially in the case of large scale problems. This paper discusses an algorithm that makes use of two parallel banded solvers in subspace iteration. A shift is introduced to decompose the banded linear systems into relatively independent subsystems and to accelerate the iterations. With this shift, an eigenproblem is mapped efficiently into the memories of a multiprocessor and a high speed-up is obtained for parallel implementations. An optimal shift is a shift that balances total computation and communication costs. Under certain conditions, we show how to estimate an optimal shift analytically using the decay rate for the inverse of a banded matrix, and how to improve this estimate. Computational results on iPSC/2 and iPSC/860 multiprocessors are presented.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions.

  15. Multivariate sparse group lasso for the multivariate multiple linear regression with an arbitrary group structure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanming; Zhu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Summary We propose a multivariate sparse group lasso variable selection and estimation method for data with high-dimensional predictors as well as high-dimensional response variables. The method is carried out through a penalized multivariate multiple linear regression model with an arbitrary group structure for the regression coefficient matrix. It suits many biology studies well in detecting associations between multiple traits and multiple predictors, with each trait and each predictor embedded in some biological functioning groups such as genes, pathways or brain regions. The method is able to effectively remove unimportant groups as well as unimportant individual coefficients within important groups, particularly for large p small n problems, and is flexible in handling various complex group structures such as overlapping or nested or multilevel hierarchical structures. The method is evaluated through extensive simulations with comparisons to the conventional lasso and group lasso methods, and is applied to an eQTL association study. PMID:25732839

  16. Adaptive Error Estimation in Linearized Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chechelnitsky, Michael Y.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods are routinely used in oceanography. The statistics of the model and measurement errors need to be specified a priori. This study addresses the problem of estimating model and measurement error statistics from observations. We start by testing innovation based methods of adaptive error estimation with low-dimensional models in the North Pacific (5-60 deg N, 132-252 deg E) to TOPEX/POSEIDON (TIP) sea level anomaly data, acoustic tomography data from the ATOC project, and the MIT General Circulation Model (GCM). A reduced state linear model that describes large scale internal (baroclinic) error dynamics is used. The methods are shown to be sensitive to the initial guess for the error statistics and the type of observations. A new off-line approach is developed, the covariance matching approach (CMA), where covariance matrices of model-data residuals are "matched" to their theoretical expectations using familiar least squares methods. This method uses observations directly instead of the innovations sequence and is shown to be related to the MT method and the method of Fu et al. (1993). Twin experiments using the same linearized MIT GCM suggest that altimetric data are ill-suited to the estimation of internal GCM errors, but that such estimates can in theory be obtained using acoustic data. The CMA is then applied to T/P sea level anomaly data and a linearization of a global GFDL GCM which uses two vertical modes. We show that the CMA method can be used with a global model and a global data set, and that the estimates of the error statistics are robust. We show that the fraction of the GCM-T/P residual variance explained by the model error is larger than that derived in Fukumori et al.(1999) with the method of Fu et al.(1993). Most of the model error is explained by the barotropic mode. However, we find that impact of the change in the error statistics on the data assimilation estimates is very small. This is explained by the large

  17. Adaptive Error Estimation in Linearized Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chechelnitsky, Michael Y.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods are routinely used in oceanography. The statistics of the model and measurement errors need to be specified a priori. This study addresses the problem of estimating model and measurement error statistics from observations. We start by testing innovation based methods of adaptive error estimation with low-dimensional models in the North Pacific (5-60 deg N, 132-252 deg E) to TOPEX/POSEIDON (TIP) sea level anomaly data, acoustic tomography data from the ATOC project, and the MIT General Circulation Model (GCM). A reduced state linear model that describes large scale internal (baroclinic) error dynamics is used. The methods are shown to be sensitive to the initial guess for the error statistics and the type of observations. A new off-line approach is developed, the covariance matching approach (CMA), where covariance matrices of model-data residuals are "matched" to their theoretical expectations using familiar least squares methods. This method uses observations directly instead of the innovations sequence and is shown to be related to the MT method and the method of Fu et al. (1993). Twin experiments using the same linearized MIT GCM suggest that altimetric data are ill-suited to the estimation of internal GCM errors, but that such estimates can in theory be obtained using acoustic data. The CMA is then applied to T/P sea level anomaly data and a linearization of a global GFDL GCM which uses two vertical modes. We show that the CMA method can be used with a global model and a global data set, and that the estimates of the error statistics are robust. We show that the fraction of the GCM-T/P residual variance explained by the model error is larger than that derived in Fukumori et al.(1999) with the method of Fu et al.(1993). Most of the model error is explained by the barotropic mode. However, we find that impact of the change in the error statistics on the data assimilation estimates is very small. This is explained by the large

  18. Process Setting through General Linear Model and Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjuntichai, Angsumalin

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the efficiency of the flow-wrap packaging process in soap industry through the reduction of defectives. At the 95% confidence level, with the regression analysis, the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimper are found to be the significant factors for the flow-wrap process with respect to the number/percentage of defectives. Twenty seven experiments have been designed and performed according to three levels of each controllable factor. With the general linear model (GLM), the suggested values for the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimpers are 185, 85 and 85° C, respectively while the response surface method (RSM) provides the optimal process conditions at 186, 89 and 88° C. Due to different assumptions between percentage of defective and all three temperature parameters, the suggested conditions from the two methods are then slightly different. Fortunately, the estimated percentage of defectives at 5.51% under GLM process condition and the predicted percentage of defectives at 4.62% under RSM process condition are not significant different. But at 95% confidence level, the percentage of defectives under RSM condition can be much lower approximately 2.16% than those under GLM condition in accordance with wider variation. Lastly, the percentages of defectives under the conditions suggested by GLM and RSM are reduced by 55.81% and 62.95%, respectively.

  19. Variational Bayesian Parameter Estimation Techniques for the General Linear Model

    PubMed Central

    Starke, Ludger; Ostwald, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Variational Bayes (VB), variational maximum likelihood (VML), restricted maximum likelihood (ReML), and maximum likelihood (ML) are cornerstone parametric statistical estimation techniques in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. However, the theoretical underpinnings of these model parameter estimation techniques are rarely covered in introductory statistical texts. Because of the widespread practical use of VB, VML, ReML, and ML in the neuroimaging community, we reasoned that a theoretical treatment of their relationships and their application in a basic modeling scenario may be helpful for both neuroimaging novices and practitioners alike. In this technical study, we thus revisit the conceptual and formal underpinnings of VB, VML, ReML, and ML and provide a detailed account of their mathematical relationships and implementational details. We further apply VB, VML, ReML, and ML to the general linear model (GLM) with non-spherical error covariance as commonly encountered in the first-level analysis of fMRI data. To this end, we explicitly derive the corresponding free energy objective functions and ensuing iterative algorithms. Finally, in the applied part of our study, we evaluate the parameter and model recovery properties of VB, VML, ReML, and ML, first in an exemplary setting and then in the analysis of experimental fMRI data acquired from a single participant under visual stimulation. PMID:28966572

  20. Generalized linear model for estimation of missing daily rainfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurul Aishah; Deni, Sayang Mohd; Ramli, Norazan Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of rainfall data with no missingness is vital in various applications including climatological, hydrological and meteorological study. The issue of missing data is a serious concern since it could introduce bias and lead to misleading conclusions. In this study, five imputation methods including simple arithmetic average, normal ratio method, inverse distance weighting method, correlation coefficient weighting method and geographical coordinate were used to estimate the missing data. However, these imputation methods ignored the seasonality in rainfall dataset which could give more reliable estimation. Thus this study is aimed to estimate the missingness in daily rainfall data by using generalized linear model with gamma and Fourier series as the link function and smoothing technique, respectively. Forty years daily rainfall data for the period from 1975 until 2014 which consists of seven stations at Kelantan region were selected for the analysis. The findings indicated that the imputation methods could provide more accurate estimation values based on the least mean absolute error, root mean squared error and coefficient of variation root mean squared error when seasonality in the dataset are considered.

  1. Canonical differential calculus on quantum general linear groups and supergroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudbery, A.

    1992-06-01

    We specify a set of relations between non-commuting matrix elements and their differentials, defined in terms of an R-matrix satisfying the braid relation, which are uniquely determined by the requirements of consistency with the relations between non-commuting coordinates and their differentials. We also give a necessary condition for the existence of a matrix inverse (antipode) in the form of an additional equation to be satisfied by the R-matrix.

  2. Are There Optical Solitary Wave Solutions in Linear Media with Group Velocity Dispersion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhonghao; Zhou, Guosheng

    1996-01-01

    A generalized exact optical bright solitary wave solution in a three dimensional dispersive linear medium is presented. The most interesting property of the solution is that it can exist in the normal group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) region. In addition, another peculiar feature is that it may achieve a condition of 'zero-dispersion' to the media so that a solitary wave of arbitrarily small amplitude may be propagated with no dependence on is pulse width.

  3. Generalized t-statistic for two-group classification.

    PubMed

    Komori, Osamu; Eguchi, Shinto; Copas, John B

    2015-06-01

    In the classic discriminant model of two multivariate normal distributions with equal variance matrices, the linear discriminant function is optimal both in terms of the log likelihood ratio and in terms of maximizing the standardized difference (the t-statistic) between the means of the two distributions. In a typical case-control study, normality may be sensible for the control sample but heterogeneity and uncertainty in diagnosis may suggest that a more flexible model is needed for the cases. We generalize the t-statistic approach by finding the linear function which maximizes a standardized difference but with data from one of the groups (the cases) filtered by a possibly nonlinear function U. We study conditions for consistency of the method and find the function U which is optimal in the sense of asymptotic efficiency. Optimality may also extend to other measures of discriminatory efficiency such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The optimal function U depends on a scalar probability density function which can be estimated non-parametrically using a standard numerical algorithm. A lasso-like version for variable selection is implemented by adding L1-regularization to the generalized t-statistic. Two microarray data sets in the study of asthma and various cancers are used as motivating examples.

  4. A general protocol to afford enantioenriched linear homoprenylic amines.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Irene; Foubelo, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gomez, Jose C

    2013-11-21

    The reaction of a readily obtained chiral branched homoprenylamonium salt with a range of aldehydes, including aliphatic substrates, affords the corresponding linear isomers in good yields and enantioselectivities.

  5. A general approach to mixed effects modeling of residual variances in generalized linear mixed models

    PubMed Central

    Kizilkaya, Kadir; Tempelman, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    We propose a general Bayesian approach to heteroskedastic error modeling for generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) in which linked functions of conditional means and residual variances are specified as separate linear combinations of fixed and random effects. We focus on the linear mixed model (LMM) analysis of birth weight (BW) and the cumulative probit mixed model (CPMM) analysis of calving ease (CE). The deviance information criterion (DIC) was demonstrated to be useful in correctly choosing between homoskedastic and heteroskedastic error GLMM for both traits when data was generated according to a mixed model specification for both location parameters and residual variances. Heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were fitted, respectively, to BW and CE data on 8847 Italian Piemontese first parity dams in which residual variances were modeled as functions of fixed calf sex and random herd effects. The posterior mean residual variance for male calves was over 40% greater than that for female calves for both traits. Also, the posterior means of the standard deviation of the herd-specific variance ratios (relative to a unitary baseline) were estimated to be 0.60 ± 0.09 for BW and 0.74 ± 0.14 for CE. For both traits, the heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were chosen over their homoskedastic error counterparts based on DIC values. PMID:15588567

  6. Connections between Generalizing and Justifying: Students' Reasoning with Linear Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Amy B.

    2007-01-01

    Research investigating algebra students' abilities to generalize and justify suggests that they experience difficulty in creating and using appropriate generalizations and proofs. Although the field has documented students' errors, less is known about what students do understand to be general and convincing. This study examines the ways in which…

  7. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  8. On the Feasibility of a Generalized Linear Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    generealized linear program by applying the same algorithm to a "phase-one" problem without requiring that the initial basic feasible solution to the latter be non-degenerate. secUrMTY C.AMlIS CAYI S OP ?- PAeES( UII -W & ,

  9. Generalizing a Categorization of Students' Interpretations of Linear Kinematics Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque…

  10. Generalizing a Categorization of Students' Interpretations of Linear Kinematics Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque…

  11. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  12. A Heuristic Ceiling Point Algorithm for General Integer Linear Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    narrowly satisfies the il h constraint: taking a unit step from x toward the ilh constraining hyperplane in a direction parallel to some coordinate...Business, Stanford Univesity , Stanford, Calif., December 1964. Hillier, F., "Efficient Heuristic Procedures for Integer Linear Programming with an Inte- rior

  13. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The general linear inverse problem - Implication of surface waves and free oscillations for earth structure.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggins, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The discrete general linear inverse problem reduces to a set of m equations in n unknowns. There is generally no unique solution, but we can find k linear combinations of parameters for which restraints are determined. The parameter combinations are given by the eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix. The number k is determined by the ratio of the standard deviations of the observations to the allowable standard deviations in the resulting solution. Various linear combinations of the eigenvectors can be used to determine parameter resolution and information distribution among the observations. Thus we can determine where information comes from among the observations and exactly how it constraints the set of possible models. The application of such analyses to surface-wave and free-oscillation observations indicates that (1) phase, group, and amplitude observations for any particular mode provide basically the same type of information about the model; (2) observations of overtones can enhance the resolution considerably; and (3) the degree of resolution has generally been overestimated for many model determinations made from surface waves.

  15. Analysis and Regulation of Nonlinear and Generalized Linear Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-06

    But this intuition is based on a linearized analysis, and may well be too conservative -or even totally inappropiate - for a particular (global...in the field of stochastic estimation. Given a time series, it is often possible to compute sufficient statistics of the associated process...and dynamically updating sufficient statistics with finite resources had received almost no attention in the literature, and turns out to be

  16. Generalizing a categorization of students' interpretations of linear kinematics graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque Country, Spain (University of the Basque Country). We discuss how we adapted the categorization to accommodate a much more diverse student cohort and explain how the prior knowledge of students may account for many differences in the prevalence of approaches and success rates. Although calculus-based physics students make fewer mistakes than algebra-based physics students, they encounter similar difficulties that are often related to incorrectly dividing two coordinates. We verified that a qualitative understanding of kinematics is an important but not sufficient condition for students to determine a correct value for the speed. When comparing responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs with responses to isomorphic questions on linear water level versus time graphs, we observed that the context of a question influences the approach students use. Neither qualitative understanding nor an ability to find the slope of a context-free graph proved to be a reliable predictor for the approach students use when they determine the instantaneous speed.

  17. Generalized linear IgA dermatosis with palmar involvement.

    PubMed

    Norris, Ivy N; Haeberle, M Tye; Callen, Jeffrey P; Malone, Janine C

    2015-09-17

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a sub-epidermal blistering disorder characterized by deposition of IgA along the basement membrane zone (BMZ) as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. The diagnosis is made by clinicopathologic correlation with immunofluorescence confirmation. Differentiation from other bullous dermatoses is important because therapeutic measures differ. Prompt initiation of the appropriate therapies can have a major impact on outcomes. We present three cases with prominent palmar involvement to alert the clinician of this potential physical exam finding and to consider LABD in the right context.

  18. Commensurate Priors for Incorporating Historical Information in Clinical Trials Using General and Generalized Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Brian P; Sargent, Daniel J; Carlin, Bradley P

    2012-08-28

    Assessing between-study variability in the context of conventional random-effects meta-analysis is notoriously difficult when incorporating data from only a small number of historical studies. In order to borrow strength, historical and current data are often assumed to be fully homogeneous, but this can have drastic consequences for power and Type I error if the historical information is biased. In this paper, we propose empirical and fully Bayesian modifications of the commensurate prior model (Hobbs et al., 2011) extending Pocock (1976), and evaluate their frequentist and Bayesian properties for incorporating patient-level historical data using general and generalized linear mixed regression models. Our proposed commensurate prior models lead to preposterior admissible estimators that facilitate alternative bias-variance trade-offs than those offered by pre-existing methodologies for incorporating historical data from a small number of historical studies. We also provide a sample analysis of a colon cancer trial comparing time-to-disease progression using a Weibull regression model.

  19. Commensurate Priors for Incorporating Historical Information in Clinical Trials Using General and Generalized Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Brian P.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Carlin, Bradley P.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing between-study variability in the context of conventional random-effects meta-analysis is notoriously difficult when incorporating data from only a small number of historical studies. In order to borrow strength, historical and current data are often assumed to be fully homogeneous, but this can have drastic consequences for power and Type I error if the historical information is biased. In this paper, we propose empirical and fully Bayesian modifications of the commensurate prior model (Hobbs et al., 2011) extending Pocock (1976), and evaluate their frequentist and Bayesian properties for incorporating patient-level historical data using general and generalized linear mixed regression models. Our proposed commensurate prior models lead to preposterior admissible estimators that facilitate alternative bias-variance trade-offs than those offered by pre-existing methodologies for incorporating historical data from a small number of historical studies. We also provide a sample analysis of a colon cancer trial comparing time-to-disease progression using a Weibull regression model. PMID:24795786

  20. Linear polarization of a group of symbiotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, E.; García, L. G.; Piirola, V.; Scaltriti, F.; Quiroga, C.

    2000-08-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of a set of symbiotic stars, made at several epochs during the period 1994-1998. Evidence of intrinsic polarization is looked for from the wavelength dependence of the polarization degree and position angle in UBVRI bands. The results have also been analysed to search for temporal variability of polarization. Several objects have shown a polarization spectrum different from that produced by interstellar dust grains and/or polarimetric variations on time scales as short as several days or months, indicating the presence of polarization component of circumstellar origin. Based on observations taken at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, the Secretaría de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  1. Role of group velocity in tracking field energy in linear dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Michael J.; Glasgow, S. A.; Peatross, Justin B.

    2001-11-01

    A new context for the group delay function (valid for pulses of arbitrary bandwidth) is presented for electromagnetic pulses propagating in a uniform linear dielectric medium. The traditional formulation of group velocity is recovered by taking a narrowband limit of this generalized context. The arrival time of a light pulse at a point in space is defined using a time expectation integral over the Poynting vector. The delay between pulse arrival times at two distinct points consists of two parts: a spectral superposition of group delays and a delay due to spectral reshaping via absorption or amplification. The use of the new context is illustrated for pulses propagating both superluminally and subluminally. The inevitable transition to subluminal behavior for any initially superluminal pulse is also demonstrated.

  2. Algebraic linearization of dynamics of Calogero type for any Coxeter group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caseiro, R.; Françoise, J.-P.; Sasaki, R.

    2000-07-01

    Calogero-Moser systems can be generalized for any root system (including the noncrystallographic cases). The algebraic linearization of the generalized Calogero-Moser systems and of their quadratic (respectively quartic) perturbations are discussed.

  3. A study of the linear free energy model for DNA structures using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Yavari, M.

    2016-06-15

    We generalize the results of Nesterenko [13, 14] and Gogilidze and Surovtsev [15] for DNA structures. Using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism, we investigate solutions of the equilibrium shape equations for the linear free energy model.

  4. Using Parallel Banded Linear System Solvers in Generalized Eigenvalue Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    systems. The PPT algorithm is similar to an algorithm introduced by Lawrie and Sameh in [18]. The PDD algorithm is a variant of PPT which uses the fa-t...AND L. JOHNSSON, Solving banded systems on a parallel processor, Parallel Comput., 5 (1987), pp. 219-246. [10] J. J. DONGARRA AND A. SAMEH , On some...symmetric generalized matrix eigenvalur problem, SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 14 (1993). [18] D. H. LAWRIE AND A. H. SAMEH , The computation and

  5. Linear Transformations, Projection Operators and Generalized Inverses; A Geometric Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    all direct complements of a and k respectively. Proof. From the representation (2.6) G m T P GMO = Tm a.1 Then A Tm Pa.1 A A Tm A =A, using (1.13) T P...closed range on Hibert spaces. ’p he V 5 0 •0 • -S. 19 " 6. REFERENCES 1. Langenhop, C. E. (1967). On generalized inverse of matrices. Siam J Appl . Math

  6. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures.

  7. Transferability of regional permafrost disturbance susceptibility modelling using generalized linear and generalized additive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudy, Ashley C. A.; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Treitz, Paul; van Ewijk, Karin Y.

    2016-07-01

    To effectively assess and mitigate risk of permafrost disturbance, disturbance-prone areas can be predicted through the application of susceptibility models. In this study we developed regional susceptibility models for permafrost disturbances using a field disturbance inventory to test the transferability of the model to a broader region in the Canadian High Arctic. Resulting maps of susceptibility were then used to explore the effect of terrain variables on the occurrence of disturbances within this region. To account for a large range of landscape characteristics, the model was calibrated using two locations: Sabine Peninsula, Melville Island, NU, and Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, NU. Spatial patterns of disturbance were predicted with a generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM), each calibrated using disturbed and randomized undisturbed locations from both locations and GIS-derived terrain predictor variables including slope, potential incoming solar radiation, wetness index, topographic position index, elevation, and distance to water. Each model was validated for the Sabine and Fosheim Peninsulas using independent data sets while the transferability of the model to an independent site was assessed at Cape Bounty, Melville Island, NU. The regional GLM and GAM validated well for both calibration sites (Sabine and Fosheim) with the area under the receiver operating curves (AUROC) > 0.79. Both models were applied directly to Cape Bounty without calibration and validated equally with AUROC's of 0.76; however, each model predicted disturbed and undisturbed samples differently. Additionally, the sensitivity of the transferred model was assessed using data sets with different sample sizes. Results indicated that models based on larger sample sizes transferred more consistently and captured the variability within the terrain attributes in the respective study areas. Terrain attributes associated with the initiation of disturbances were

  8. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  9. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  10. Computer analysis of general linear networks using digraphs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O.; Chan, S.-P.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the application of digraphs in analyzing general electronic networks, and development of a computer program based on a particular digraph method developed by Chen. The Chen digraph method is a topological method for solution of networks and serves as a shortcut when hand calculations are required. The advantage offered by this method of analysis is that the results are in symbolic form. It is limited, however, by the size of network that may be handled. Usually hand calculations become too tedious for networks larger than about five nodes, depending on how many elements the network contains. Direct determinant expansion for a five-node network is a very tedious process also.

  11. Computer analysis of general linear networks using digraphs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O.; Chan, S.-P.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the application of digraphs in analyzing general electronic networks, and development of a computer program based on a particular digraph method developed by Chen. The Chen digraph method is a topological method for solution of networks and serves as a shortcut when hand calculations are required. The advantage offered by this method of analysis is that the results are in symbolic form. It is limited, however, by the size of network that may be handled. Usually hand calculations become too tedious for networks larger than about five nodes, depending on how many elements the network contains. Direct determinant expansion for a five-node network is a very tedious process also.

  12. Bayesian generalized linear mixed modeling of Tuberculosis using informative priors.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Oluwatobi Blessing; Lougue, Siaka; Woldegerima, Woldegebriel Assefa

    2017-01-01

    TB is rated as one of the world's deadliest diseases and South Africa ranks 9th out of the 22 countries with hardest hit of TB. Although many pieces of research have been carried out on this subject, this paper steps further by inculcating past knowledge into the model, using Bayesian approach with informative prior. Bayesian statistics approach is getting popular in data analyses. But, most applications of Bayesian inference technique are limited to situations of non-informative prior, where there is no solid external information about the distribution of the parameter of interest. The main aim of this study is to profile people living with TB in South Africa. In this paper, identical regression models are fitted for classical and Bayesian approach both with non-informative and informative prior, using South Africa General Household Survey (GHS) data for the year 2014. For the Bayesian model with informative prior, South Africa General Household Survey dataset for the year 2011 to 2013 are used to set up priors for the model 2014.

  13. Bayesian generalized linear mixed modeling of Tuberculosis using informative priors

    PubMed Central

    Woldegerima, Woldegebriel Assefa

    2017-01-01

    TB is rated as one of the world’s deadliest diseases and South Africa ranks 9th out of the 22 countries with hardest hit of TB. Although many pieces of research have been carried out on this subject, this paper steps further by inculcating past knowledge into the model, using Bayesian approach with informative prior. Bayesian statistics approach is getting popular in data analyses. But, most applications of Bayesian inference technique are limited to situations of non-informative prior, where there is no solid external information about the distribution of the parameter of interest. The main aim of this study is to profile people living with TB in South Africa. In this paper, identical regression models are fitted for classical and Bayesian approach both with non-informative and informative prior, using South Africa General Household Survey (GHS) data for the year 2014. For the Bayesian model with informative prior, South Africa General Household Survey dataset for the year 2011 to 2013 are used to set up priors for the model 2014. PMID:28257437

  14. Case stories in general practice: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Flottorp, Signe; Stensland, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the interactive process of sharing case stories in small-group activity in general practice. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting Peer-group meetings of doctors attending specialist training or continuous medical education in general practice. Participants Twenty female and 30 male doctors working in general practice in Norway. Results The storyline of case presentations included detailed stories with emotional engagement, co-authored by other group members. The stories initiated discussions and reflections concerning patients’ and doctors’ perspectives, medical ethics as well as clinical problems. The safe atmosphere allowed testing out boundaries of socially shared knowledge. Conclusions Sharing case stories in small groups in general practice initiated interaction that facilitated meaning-making, reflection and peer support. PMID:22874630

  15. An Application of General System Theory (GST) to Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Charles O.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the compatibility of General System Theory (GST) with the traditional counseling literature in explicating a therapy group's progression through Tuckman's (1965, 1977) developmental stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning). Description uses both traditional group literature and GST concepts. (Author/NB)

  16. An Application of General System Theory (GST) to Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Charles O.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the compatibility of General System Theory (GST) with the traditional counseling literature in explicating a therapy group's progression through Tuckman's (1965, 1977) developmental stages (forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning). Description uses both traditional group literature and GST concepts. (Author/NB)

  17. Generalized Conformal and Superconformal Group Actions and Jordan Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günaydin, Murat

    We study the "conformal groups" of Jordan algebras along the lines suggested by Kantor. They provide a natural generalization of the concept of conformal transformations that leave two-angle invariant to spaces where "p-angle" (p ≥ 2) can be defined. We give an oscillator realization of the generalized conformal groups of Jordan algebras and Jordan triple systems. A complete list of the generalized conformal algebras of simple Jordan algebras and Hermitian Jordan triple systems is given. These results are then extended to Jordan superalgebras and super Jordan triple systems. By going to a coordinate representation of the (super)oscillators one then obtains the differential operators representing the action of these generalized (super) conformal groups on the corresponding (super) spaces. The superconformal algebras of the Jordan superalgebras in Kac's classification is also presented.

  18. Generalized geometry, T-duality, and renormalization group flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    We interpret the physical B-field renormalization group flow in the language of Courant algebroids, clarifying the sense in which this flow is the natural ;Ricci flow; for generalized geometry. Next we show that the B-field renormalization group flow preserves T-duality in a natural sense. As corollaries we obtain new long time existence results for the B-field renormalization group flow.

  19. Decoding "us" and "them": Neural representations of generalized group concepts.

    PubMed

    Cikara, Mina; Van Bavel, Jay J; Ingbretsen, Zachary A; Lau, Tatiana

    2017-05-01

    Humans form social coalitions in every society on earth, yet we know very little about how the general concepts us and them are represented in the brain. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that the human capacity for group affiliation is a byproduct of adaptations that evolved for tracking coalitions in general. These theories suggest that humans possess a common neural code for the concepts in-group and out-group, regardless of the category by which group boundaries are instantiated. The authors used multivoxel pattern analysis to identify the neural substrates of generalized group concept representations. They trained a classifier to encode how people represented the most basic instantiation of a specific social group (i.e., arbitrary teams created in the lab with no history of interaction or associated stereotypes) and tested how well the neural data decoded membership along an objectively orthogonal, real-world category (i.e., political parties). The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/middle cingulate cortex and anterior insula were associated with representing groups across multiple social categories. Restricting the analyses to these regions in a separate sample of participants performing an explicit categorization task, the authors replicated cross-categorization classification in anterior insula. Classification accuracy across categories was driven predominantly by the correct categorization of in-group targets, consistent with theories indicating in-group preference is more central than out-group derogation to group perception and cognition. These findings highlight the extent to which social group concepts rely on domain-general circuitry associated with encoding stimuli's functional significance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Quasi-periodic solutions for quasi-linear generalized KdV equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Filippo

    2017-05-01

    We prove the existence of Cantor families of small amplitude, linearly stable, quasi-periodic solutions of quasi-linear autonomous Hamiltonian generalized KdV equations. We consider the most general quasi-linear quadratic nonlinearity. The proof is based on an iterative Nash-Moser algorithm. To initialize this scheme, we need to perform a bifurcation analysis taking into account the strongly perturbative effects of the nonlinearity near the origin. In particular, we implement a weak version of the Birkhoff normal form method. The inversion of the linearized operators at each step of the iteration is achieved by pseudo-differential techniques, linear Birkhoff normal form algorithms and a linear KAM reducibility scheme.

  1. Minimum deformations of commutative algebra and linear group GL(n)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupnik, B. M.

    1993-06-01

    In the algebra of formal series M q ( x i ), the relations of generalized commutativity that preserve the tensor I q grading and depend on parameters q(i, k) are considered. A norm of the differential calculus on M q consistent with the I q grading is chosen. A new construction of a symmetrized tensor product of algebras of the type M q ( x i ) and a corresponding definition of the minimally deformed linear group QGL(n) and Lie algebra qgl(n) are proposed. A study is made of the connection of QGL(n) and qgl(n) with the special matrix algebra Mat( n, Q), which consists of matrices with noncommuting elements. The deformed determinant in the algebra Mat( n, Q) is defined. The exponential mapping in the algebra Mat( n, Q) is considered on the basis of the Campbell-Hausdorff formula.

  2. The Generalized Logit-Linear Item Response Model for Binary-Designed Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM), which represents the item-solving process as a series of dichotomous operations or steps. The GLLIRM assumes that the probability function of the item response is a logistic function of a linear composite of basic parameters which describe the operations, and the…

  3. Generalized linear porokeratosis: a rare entity with excellent response to acitretin.

    PubMed

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Varghese, Bincy; Barara, Meenu; Nangia, Anita

    2011-05-15

    Linear porokeratosis is a rare disorder of keratinization that usually presents at birth. We report a 17-year-old male with generalized linear porokeratosis, a very rare variant of porokeratosis, with extensive involvement of the trunk and extremities along with nail and genital involvement. The patient was treated with oral acitretin with excellent clinical response.

  4. Doubly robust estimation of generalized partial linear models for longitudinal data with dropouts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huiming; Fu, Bo; Qin, Guoyou; Zhu, Zhongyi

    2017-04-03

    We develop a doubly robust estimation of generalized partial linear models for longitudinal data with dropouts. Our method extends the highly efficient aggregate unbiased estimating function approach proposed in Qu et al. (2010) to a doubly robust one in the sense that under missing at random (MAR), our estimator is consistent when either the linear conditional mean condition is satisfied or a model for the dropout process is correctly specified. We begin with a generalized linear model for the marginal mean, and then move forward to a generalized partial linear model, allowing for nonparametric covariate effect by using the regression spline smoothing approximation. We establish the asymptotic theory for the proposed method and use simulation studies to compare its finite sample performance with that of Qu's method, the complete-case generalized estimating equation (GEE) and the inverse-probability weighted GEE. The proposed method is finally illustrated using data from a longitudinal cohort study.

  5. Group analysis of general Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opanasenko, Stanislav; Bihlo, Alexander; Popovych, Roman O.

    2017-08-01

    The complete group classification problem for the class of (1+1)-dimensional rth order general variable-coefficient Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equations is solved for arbitrary values of r greater than or equal to two. We find the equivalence groupoids of this class and its various subclasses obtained by gauging equation coefficients with equivalence transformations. Showing that this class and certain gauged subclasses are normalized in the usual sense, we reduce the complete group classification problem for the entire class to that for the selected maximally gauged subclass, and it is the latter problem that is solved efficiently using the algebraic method of group classification. Similar studies are carried out for the two subclasses of equations with coefficients depending at most on the time or space variable, respectively. Applying an original technique, we classify Lie reductions of equations from the class under consideration with respect to its equivalence group. Studying alternative gauges for equation coefficients with equivalence transformations allows us not only to justify the choice of the most appropriate gauge for the group classification but also to construct for the first time classes of differential equations with nontrivial generalized equivalence group such that equivalence-transformation components corresponding to equation variables locally depend on nonconstant arbitrary elements of the class. For the subclass of equations with coefficients depending at most on the time variable, which is normalized in the extended generalized sense, we explicitly construct its extended generalized equivalence group in a rigorous way. The new notion of effective generalized equivalence group is introduced.

  6. Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group: Efficient algorithms for strongly correlated excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-01

    Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.

  7. Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group: efficient algorithms for strongly correlated excited states.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Naoki; Wouters, Sebastian; Van Neck, Dimitri; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-01-14

    Linear response theory for the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG-LRT) was first presented in terms of the DMRG renormalization projectors [J. J. Dorando, J. Hachmann, and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 184111 (2009)]. Later, with an understanding of the manifold structure of the matrix product state (MPS) ansatz, which lies at the basis of the DMRG algorithm, a way was found to construct the linear response space for general choices of the MPS gauge in terms of the tangent space vectors [J. Haegeman, J. I. Cirac, T. J. Osborne, I. Pižorn, H. Verschelde, and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 070601 (2011)]. These two developments led to the formulation of the Tamm-Dancoff and random phase approximations (TDA and RPA) for MPS. This work describes how these LRTs may be efficiently implemented through minor modifications of the DMRG sweep algorithm, at a computational cost which scales the same as the ground-state DMRG algorithm. In fact, the mixed canonical MPS form implicit to the DMRG sweep is essential for efficient implementation of the RPA, due to the structure of the second-order tangent space. We present ab initio DMRG-TDA results for excited states of polyenes, the water molecule, and a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster.

  8. Generalized linear mixed models can detect unimodal species-environment relationships.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Tahira; Ter Braak, Cajo J F

    2013-01-01

    Niche theory predicts that species occurrence and abundance show non-linear, unimodal relationships with respect to environmental gradients. Unimodal models, such as the Gaussian (logistic) model, are however more difficult to fit to data than linear ones, particularly in a multi-species context in ordination, with trait modulated response and when species phylogeny and species traits must be taken into account. Adding squared terms to a linear model is a possibility but gives uninterpretable parameters. This paper explains why and when generalized linear mixed models, even without squared terms, can effectively analyse unimodal data and also presents a graphical tool and statistical test to test for unimodal response while fitting just the generalized linear mixed model. The R-code for this is supplied in Supplemental Information 1.

  9. Group classification of a generalized Black-Scholes-Merton equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhkov, Y.; Dimas, S.

    2014-07-01

    The complete group classification of a generalization of the Black-Scholes-Merton model is carried out by making use of the underlying equivalence and additional equivalence transformations. For each nonlinear case obtained through this classification, invariant solutions are given. To that end, two boundary conditions of financial interest are considered, the terminal and the barrier option conditions.

  10. Trends in High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among General Population Groups in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W. N.; de Vlas, Sake J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Results We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Discussion Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population. PMID:24236121

  11. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  12. On the Bohl and general exponents of the discrete time-varying linear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezabitowski, Michał

    2014-12-01

    Many properties of dynamical systems may be characterized by certain numbers called characteristic exponents. The most important are: Lyapunov, Bohl and general exponents. In this paper we investigate relations between certain subtypes of the general exponents of discrete time-varying linear systems, namely the senior lower and the junior upper once. The main contribution of the paper is to construct an example of a system with the senior lower exponent strictly smaller than the junior upper general exponents.

  13. Flexible Approaches to Computing Mediated Effects in Generalized Linear Models: Generalized Estimating Equations and Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluchter, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    In behavioral research, interest is often in examining the degree to which the effect of an independent variable X on an outcome Y is mediated by an intermediary or mediator variable M. This article illustrates how generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling can be used to estimate the indirect or mediated effect, defined as the amount by…

  14. Flexible Approaches to Computing Mediated Effects in Generalized Linear Models: Generalized Estimating Equations and Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluchter, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    In behavioral research, interest is often in examining the degree to which the effect of an independent variable X on an outcome Y is mediated by an intermediary or mediator variable M. This article illustrates how generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling can be used to estimate the indirect or mediated effect, defined as the amount by…

  15. An efficient method for generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.

  16. Grouping in sparse random-dot patterns: linear and nonlinear mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, Ramanujan S.; Papathomas, Thomas V.; Gorea, Andrei

    1997-06-01

    This study reports on experiments conducted with human observers to investigate the properties of linear and non- linear, perceptual grouping mechanisms by using reverse- polarity sparse random-dot patterns. The stimuli were generated by spatially superimposing a sparse set of randomly distributed square elements onto a copy of the original set that was expanded or rotated about the center of the screen. In the control experiment both the original and transformed sets contained elements of identical luminance contrast with the background. The main experiments involved a reverse- contrast random-dot pattern, in which the transformed set consisted of elements of equal contrast magnitude but opposite polarity to that of the original set. At least two competing global percepts are possible: 'forward grouping' in which perceived grouping agrees with the physical transformation; or 'reverse grouping' in a direction orthogonal to that of the 'forward grouping.' The two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task was to report the direction of the global grouping. For the control experiment, the observers reported forward grouping both at the fovea and eccentricities of up to 4 degrees; as expected, no reverse grouping was observed. With the reverse-polarity stimulus, reverse grouping was observed at high eccentricities and low contrasts, but forward grouping dominated under foveal viewing. In another experiment, the influence of chromatic mechanisms was studied by using opposite-contrast red elements on a yellow background. In this experiment reverse grouping was not observed, which indicates that color mechanisms veto reverse grouping. Reverse grouping can be hypothesized to be the result of processing by linear oriented spatial mechanisms, in analogy with reverse-phi motion. Forward grouping, on the other hand, can be explained by non-linear preprocessing (such s squaring or full-wave rectification).

  17. Optimal explicit strong-stability-preserving general linear methods : complete results.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Sandu, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.

    2009-03-03

    This paper constructs strong-stability-preserving general linear time-stepping methods that are well suited for hyperbolic PDEs discretized by the method of lines. These methods generalize both Runge-Kutta (RK) and linear multistep schemes. They have high stage orders and hence are less susceptible than RK methods to order reduction from source terms or nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. A global optimization strategy is used to find the most efficient schemes that have low storage requirements. Numerical results illustrate the theoretical findings.

  18. Summary goodness-of-fit statistics for binary generalized linear models with noncanonical link functions.

    PubMed

    Canary, Jana D; Blizzard, Leigh; Barry, Ronald P; Hosmer, David W; Quinn, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    Generalized linear models (GLM) with a canonical logit link function are the primary modeling technique used to relate a binary outcome to predictor variables. However, noncanonical links can offer more flexibility, producing convenient analytical quantities (e.g., probit GLMs in toxicology) and desired measures of effect (e.g., relative risk from log GLMs). Many summary goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistics exist for logistic GLM. Their properties make the development of GOF statistics relatively straightforward, but it can be more difficult under noncanonical links. Although GOF tests for logistic GLM with continuous covariates (GLMCC) have been applied to GLMCCs with log links, we know of no GOF tests in the literature specifically developed for GLMCCs that can be applied regardless of link function chosen. We generalize the Tsiatis GOF statistic originally developed for logistic GLMCCs, (TG), so that it can be applied under any link function. Further, we show that the algebraically related Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) and Pigeon-Heyse (J(2) ) statistics can be applied directly. In a simulation study, TG, HL, and J(2) were used to evaluate the fit of probit, log-log, complementary log-log, and log models, all calculated with a common grouping method. The TG statistic consistently maintained Type I error rates, while those of HL and J(2) were often lower than expected if terms with little influence were included. Generally, the statistics had similar power to detect an incorrect model. An exception occurred when a log GLMCC was incorrectly fit to data generated from a logistic GLMCC. In this case, TG had more power than HL or J(2) .

  19. A generalized concordance correlation coefficient based on the variance components generalized linear mixed models for overdispersed count data.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Josep L

    2010-09-01

    The classical concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) to measure agreement among a set of observers assumes data to be distributed as normal and a linear relationship between the mean and the subject and observer effects. Here, the CCC is generalized to afford any distribution from the exponential family by means of the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) theory and applied to the case of overdispersed count data. An example of CD34+ cell count data is provided to show the applicability of the procedure. In the latter case, different CCCs are defined and applied to the data by changing the GLMM that fits the data. A simulation study is carried out to explore the behavior of the procedure with a small and moderate sample size. © 2009, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

  1. Linear and nonlinear associations between general intelligence and personality in Project TALENT.

    PubMed

    Major, Jason T; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2014-04-01

    Research on the relations of personality traits to intelligence has primarily been concerned with linear associations. Yet, there are no a priori reasons why linear relations should be expected over nonlinear ones, which represent a much larger set of all possible associations. Using 2 techniques, quadratic and generalized additive models, we tested for linear and nonlinear associations of general intelligence (g) with 10 personality scales from Project TALENT (PT), a nationally representative sample of approximately 400,000 American high school students from 1960, divided into 4 grade samples (Flanagan et al., 1962). We departed from previous studies, including one with PT (Reeve, Meyer, & Bonaccio, 2006), by modeling latent quadratic effects directly, controlling the influence of the common factor in the personality scales, and assuming a direction of effect from g to personality. On the basis of the literature, we made 17 directional hypotheses for the linear and quadratic associations. Of these, 53% were supported in all 4 male grades and 58% in all 4 female grades. Quadratic associations explained substantive variance above and beyond linear effects (mean R² between 1.8% and 3.6%) for Sociability, Maturity, Vigor, and Leadership in males and Sociability, Maturity, and Tidiness in females; linear associations were predominant for other traits. We discuss how suited current theories of the personality-intelligence interface are to explain these associations, and how research on intellectually gifted samples may provide a unique way of understanding them. We conclude that nonlinear models can provide incremental detail regarding personality and intelligence associations.

  2. General linear methods and friends: Toward efficient solutions of multiphysics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandu, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Time dependent multiphysics partial differential equations are of great practical importance as they model diverse phenomena that appear in mechanical and chemical engineering, aeronautics, astrophysics, meteorology and oceanography, financial modeling, environmental sciences, etc. There is no single best time discretization for the complex multiphysics systems of practical interest. We discuss "multimethod" approaches that combine different time steps and discretizations using the rigourous frameworks provided by Partitioned General Linear Methods and Generalize-structure Additive Runge Kutta Methods..

  3. Prediction of formability for non-linear deformation history using generalized forming limit concept (GFLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Wolfram; Suh, Joungsik

    2013-12-01

    The prediction of formability is one of the most important tasks in sheet metal process simulation. The common criterion in industrial applications is the Forming Limit Curve (FLC). The big advantage of FLCs is the easy interpretation of simulation or measurement data in combination with an ISO standard for the experimental determination. However, the conventional FLCs are limited to almost linear and unbroken strain paths, i.e. deformation histories with non-linear strain increments often lead to big differences in comparison to the prediction of the FLC. In this paper a phenomenological approach, the so-called Generalized Forming Limit Concept (GFLC), is introduced to predict the localized necking on arbitrary deformation history with unlimited number of non-linear strain increments. The GFLC consists of the conventional FLC and an acceptable number of experiments with bi-linear deformation history. With the idea of the new defined "Principle of Equivalent Pre-Forming" every deformation state built up of two linear strain increments can be transformed to a pure linear strain path with the same used formability of the material. In advance this procedure can be repeated as often as necessary. Therefore, it allows a robust and cost effective analysis of beginning instability in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for arbitrary deformation histories. In addition, the GFLC is fully downwards compatible to the established FLC for pure linear strain paths.

  4. Estimation of Complex Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Measurement and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) is technically challenging because of the intractable likelihoods that involve high dimensional integrations over random effects. The problem is magnified when the random effects have a crossed design and thus the data cannot be reduced to small independent clusters. A…

  5. Regression Is a Univariate General Linear Model Subsuming Other Parametric Methods as Special Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Sherry

    Although the concept of the general linear model (GLM) has existed since the 1960s, other univariate analyses such as the t-test and the analysis of variance models have remained popular. The GLM produces an equation that minimizes the mean differences of independent variables as they are related to a dependent variable. From a computer printout…

  6. Structural Modeling of Measurement Error in Generalized Linear Models with Rasch Measures as Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a structural analysis for generalized linear models when some explanatory variables are measured with error and the measurement error variance is a function of the true variables. The focus is on latent variables investigated on the basis of questionnaires and estimated using item response theory models. Latent variable…

  7. Estimation of Complex Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Measurement and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) is technically challenging because of the intractable likelihoods that involve high dimensional integrations over random effects. The problem is magnified when the random effects have a crossed design and thus the data cannot be reduced to small independent clusters. A…

  8. The microcomputer scientific software series 2: general linear model--regression.

    Treesearch

    Harold M. Rauscher

    1983-01-01

    The general linear model regression (GLMR) program provides the microcomputer user with a sophisticated regression analysis capability. The output provides a regression ANOVA table, estimators of the regression model coefficients, their confidence intervals, confidence intervals around the predicted Y-values, residuals for plotting, a check for multicollinearity, a...

  9. Modeling containment of large wildfires using generalized linear mixed-model analysis

    Treesearch

    Mark Finney; Isaac C. Grenfell; Charles W. McHugh

    2009-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the United States to contain large wildland fires, but the factors contributing to suppression success remain poorly understood. We used a regression model (generalized linear mixed-model) to model containment probability of individual fires, assuming that containment was a repeated-measures problem (fixed effect) and...

  10. Structural Modeling of Measurement Error in Generalized Linear Models with Rasch Measures as Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a structural analysis for generalized linear models when some explanatory variables are measured with error and the measurement error variance is a function of the true variables. The focus is on latent variables investigated on the basis of questionnaires and estimated using item response theory models. Latent variable…

  11. Assessing erectile neurogenic dysfunction from heart rate variability through a Generalized Linear Mixed Model framework.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Elmer Andrés; Souza Neto, E P; Abry, P; Macchiavelli, R; Balzarini, M; Cuzin, B; Baude, C; Frutoso, J; Gharib, C

    2010-07-01

    The low (LF) vs. high (HF) frequency energy ratio, computed from the spectral decomposition of heart beat intervals, has become a major tool in cardiac autonomic system control and sympatho-vagal balance studies. The (statistical) distributions of response variables designed from ratios of two quantities, such as the LF/HF ratio, are likely to non-normal, hence preventing e.g., from a relevant use of the t-test. Even using a non-parametric formulation, the solution may be not appropriate as the test statistics do not account for correlation and heteroskedasticity, such as those that can be observed when several measures are taken from the same patient. The analyses for such type of data require the application of statistical models which do not assume a priori independence. In this spirit, the present contribution proposes the use of the Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) framework to assess differences between groups of measures performed over classes of patients. Statistical linear mixed models allow the inclusion of at least one random effect, besides the error term, which induces correlation between observations from the same subject. Moreover, by using GLMM, practitioners could assume any probability distribution, within the exponential family, for the data, and naturally model heteroskedasticity. Here, the sympatho-vagal balance expressed as LF/HF ratio of patients suffering neurogenic erectile dysfunction under three different body positions was analyzed in a case-control protocol by means of a GLMM under gamma and Gaussian distributed responses assumptions. The gamma GLMM model was compared with the normal linear mixed model (LMM) approach conducted using raw and log transformed data. Both raw GLMM gamma and log transformed LMM allow better inference for factor effects, including correlations between observations from the same patient under different body position compared to the raw LMM. The gamma GLMM provides a more natural distribution assumption

  12. Three-photon circular dichroism: towards a generalization of chiroptical non-linear light absorption.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Ruud, Kenneth

    2016-02-07

    We present the theory of three-photon circular dichroism (3PCD), a novel non-linear chiroptical property not yet described in the literature. We derive the observable absorption cross section including the orientational average of the necessary seventh-rank tensors and provide origin-independent expressions for 3PCD using either a velocity-gauge treatment of the electric dipole operator or a length-gauge formulation using London atomic orbitals. We present the first numerical results for hydrogen peroxide, 3-methylcyclopentanone (MCP) and 4-helicene, including also a study of the origin dependence and basis set convergence of 3PCD. We find that for the 3PCD-brightest low-lying Rydberg state of hydrogen peroxide, the dichroism is extremely basis set dependent, with basis set convergence not being reached before a sextuple-zeta basis is used, whereas for the MCP and 4-helicene molecules, the basis set dependence is more moderate and at the triple-zeta level the 3PCD contributions are more or less converged irrespective of whether the considered states are Rydberg states or not. The character of the 3PCD-brightest states in MCP is characterized by a fairly large charge-transfer character from the carbonyl group to the ring system. In general, the quadrupole contributions to 3PCD are found to be very small.

  13. Using the group of non-linear cells design metamaterial bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Song, Xin; Hu, Xiaolei; Gu, Jinliang

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the wave propagation in one-dimensional metamaterial bar with attached group of non-linear local oscillators by using analytical and numerical models. The focus is on the influence of group of non-linear cells on the filtering properties of the bar in the 1000Hz to 2000Hz range. Group of Periodic cells with alternating properties exhibit interesting dynamic characteristics that enable them to act as filters. Waves can propagate along bars within specific bands of frequencies called pass bands, and attenuate within bands of frequencies called gaps. Gaps in structures with group of periodic cells are located according on the frequency of cells. From the cell, we can yield the effect negative stiffness and effect negative mass. We can also design the gaps from attached oscillators or cells. In the uniform case the gap is located around the resonant frequency of the oscillators, and thus a stop band can be created in the lower frequency range. In the case with group of non-linear cells the results show that the position of the gap can be designed, and the design depends on the amplitude and the degree of non-linear cells.

  14. Generalized entropies and the transformation group of superstatistics

    PubMed Central

    Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan; Gell-Mann, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Superstatistics describes statistical systems that behave like superpositions of different inverse temperatures β, so that the probability distribution is , where the “kernel” f(β) is nonnegative and normalized [∫f(β)dβ = 1]. We discuss the relation between this distribution and the generalized entropic form . The first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms are assumed to hold. It then turns out that for a given distribution there are two different ways to construct the entropy. One approach uses escort probabilities and the other does not; the question of which to use must be decided empirically. The two approaches are related by a duality. The thermodynamic properties of the system can be quite different for the two approaches. In that connection, we present the transformation laws for the superstatistical distributions under macroscopic state changes. The transformation group is the Euclidean group in one dimension.

  15. Study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of dendrimers using density matrix renormalization group method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Ramasesha, S.

    2009-08-01

    We have used the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method to study the linear and nonlinear optical responses of first generation nitrogen based dendrimers with donor acceptor groups. We have employed Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian to model the interacting π electrons in these systems. Within the DMRG method we have used an innovative scheme to target excited states with large transition dipole to the ground state. This method reproduces exact optical gaps and polarization in systems where exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is possible. We have used a correction vector method which tacitly takes into account the contribution of all excited states, to obtain the ground state polarizibility, first hyperpolarizibility, and two photon absorption cross sections. We find that the lowest optical excitations as well as the lowest excited triplet states are localized. It is interesting to note that the first hyperpolarizibility saturates more rapidly with system size compared to linear polarizibility unlike that of linear polyenes.

  16. Study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of dendrimers using density matrix renormalization group method.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Ramasesha, S

    2009-08-21

    We have used the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method to study the linear and nonlinear optical responses of first generation nitrogen based dendrimers with donor acceptor groups. We have employed Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian to model the interacting pi electrons in these systems. Within the DMRG method we have used an innovative scheme to target excited states with large transition dipole to the ground state. This method reproduces exact optical gaps and polarization in systems where exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is possible. We have used a correction vector method which tacitly takes into account the contribution of all excited states, to obtain the ground state polarizibility, first hyperpolarizibility, and two photon absorption cross sections. We find that the lowest optical excitations as well as the lowest excited triplet states are localized. It is interesting to note that the first hyperpolarizibility saturates more rapidly with system size compared to linear polarizibility unlike that of linear polyenes.

  17. Implementing general quantum measurements on linear optical and solid-state qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2013-03-01

    We show a systematic construction for implementing general measurements on a single qubit, including both strong (or projection) and weak measurements. We mainly focus on linear optical qubits. The present approach is composed of simple and feasible elements, i.e., beam splitters, wave plates, and polarizing beam splitters. We show how the parameters characterizing the measurement operators are controlled by the linear optical elements. We also propose a method for the implementation of general measurements in solid-state qubits. Furthermore, we show an interesting application of the general measurements, i.e., entanglement amplification. YO is partially supported by the SPDR Program, RIKEN. SA and FN acknowledge ARO, NSF grant No. 0726909, JSPS-RFBR contract No. 12-02-92100, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), MEXT Kakenhi on Quantum Cybernetics, and the JSPS via its FIRST program.

  18. Elliptical galaxies kinematics within general relativity with renormalization group effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Davi C.

    2012-09-01

    The renormalization group framework can be applied to Quantum Field Theory on curved space-time, but there is no proof whether the beta-function of the gravitational coupling indeed goes to zero in the far infrared or not. In a recent paper [1] we have shown that the amount of dark matter inside spiral galaxies may be negligible if a small running of the General Relativity coupling G is present (δG/G{sub 0}∼<10{sup −7} across a galaxy). Here we extend the proposed model to elliptical galaxies and present a detailed analysis on the modeling of NGC 4494 (an ordinary elliptical) and NGC 4374 (a giant elliptical). In order to compare our results to a well known alternative model to the standard dark matter picture, we also evaluate NGC 4374 with MOND. In this galaxy MOND leads to a significative discrepancy with the observed velocity dispersion curve and has a significative tendency towards tangential anisotropy. On the other hand, the approach based on the renormalization group and general relativity (RGGR) could be applied with good results to these elliptical galaxies and is compatible with lower mass-to-light ratios (of about the Kroupa IMF type)

  19. Secret Message Decryption: Group Consulting Projects Using Matrices and Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurski, Katharine F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe two short group projects for finite mathematics students that incorporate matrices and linear programming into fictional consulting requests presented as a letter to the students. The students are required to use mathematics to decrypt secret messages in one project involving matrix multiplication and inversion. The second project…

  20. Secret Message Decryption: Group Consulting Projects Using Matrices and Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurski, Katharine F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe two short group projects for finite mathematics students that incorporate matrices and linear programming into fictional consulting requests presented as a letter to the students. The students are required to use mathematics to decrypt secret messages in one project involving matrix multiplication and inversion. The second project…

  1. The linear stability of plane stagnation-point flow against general disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattkus, K.; Davis, S. H.

    1991-02-01

    The linear-stability theory of plane stagnation-point flow against an infinite flat plate is re-examined. Disturbances are generalized from those of Goertler type to include other types of variations along the plate. It is shown that Hiemenz flow is linearly stable and that the Goertler-type modes are those that decay slowest. This work then rationalizes the use of such self-similar disturbances on Hiemenz flow and shows how questions of disturbance structure can be approached on other self-similar flows.

  2. The linear stability of plane stagnation-point flow against general disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brattkus, K.; Davis, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    The linear-stability theory of plane stagnation-point flow against an infinite flat plate is re-examined. Disturbances are generalized from those of Goertler type to include other types of variations along the plate. It is shown that Hiemenz flow is linearly stable and that the Goertler-type modes are those that decay slowest. This work then rationalizes the use of such self-similar disturbances on Hiemenz flow and shows how questions of disturbance structure can be approached on other self-similar flows.

  3. The linear stability of plane stagnation-point flow against general disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brattkus, K.; Davis, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    The linear-stability theory of plane stagnation-point flow against an infinite flat plate is re-examined. Disturbances are generalized from those of Goertler type to include other types of variations along the plate. It is shown that Hiemenz flow is linearly stable and that the Goertler-type modes are those that decay slowest. This work then rationalizes the use of such self-similar disturbances on Hiemenz flow and shows how questions of disturbance structure can be approached on other self-similar flows.

  4. Estimate of influenza cases using generalized linear, additive and mixed models.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Manuel; Domínguez, Ángela; Pilar Muñoz, M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between reported cases of influenza in Catalonia (Spain). Covariates analyzed were: population, age, data of report of influenza, and health region during 2010-2014 using data obtained from the SISAP program (Institut Catala de la Salut - Generalitat of Catalonia). Reported cases were related with the study of covariates using a descriptive analysis. Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models and Generalized Additive Mixed Models were used to estimate the evolution of the transmission of influenza. Additive models can estimate non-linear effects of the covariates by smooth functions; and mixed models can estimate data dependence and variability in factor variables using correlations structures and random effects, respectively. The incidence rate of influenza was calculated as the incidence per 100 000 people. The mean rate was 13.75 (range 0-27.5) in the winter months (December, January, February) and 3.38 (range 0-12.57) in the remaining months. Statistical analysis showed that Generalized Additive Mixed Models were better adapted to the temporal evolution of influenza (serial correlation 0.59) than classical linear models.

  5. Estimate of influenza cases using generalized linear, additive and mixed models

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, Manuel; Domínguez, Ángela; Pilar Muñoz, M

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between reported cases of influenza in Catalonia (Spain). Covariates analyzed were: population, age, data of report of influenza, and health region during 2010–2014 using data obtained from the SISAP program (Institut Catala de la Salut - Generalitat of Catalonia). Reported cases were related with the study of covariates using a descriptive analysis. Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models and Generalized Additive Mixed Models were used to estimate the evolution of the transmission of influenza. Additive models can estimate non-linear effects of the covariates by smooth functions; and mixed models can estimate data dependence and variability in factor variables using correlations structures and random effects, respectively. The incidence rate of influenza was calculated as the incidence per 100 000 people. The mean rate was 13.75 (range 0–27.5) in the winter months (December, January, February) and 3.38 (range 0–12.57) in the remaining months. Statistical analysis showed that Generalized Additive Mixed Models were better adapted to the temporal evolution of influenza (serial correlation 0.59) than classical linear models. PMID:25483550

  6. Conditional Akaike information under generalized linear and proportional hazards mixed models

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, M. C.; Overholser, R.; Xu, R.; Vaida, F.

    2011-01-01

    We study model selection for clustered data, when the focus is on cluster specific inference. Such data are often modelled using random effects, and conditional Akaike information was proposed in Vaida & Blanchard (2005) and used to derive an information criterion under linear mixed models. Here we extend the approach to generalized linear and proportional hazards mixed models. Outside the normal linear mixed models, exact calculations are not available and we resort to asymptotic approximations. In the presence of nuisance parameters, a profile conditional Akaike information is proposed. Bootstrap methods are considered for their potential advantage in finite samples. Simulations show that the performance of the bootstrap and the analytic criteria are comparable, with bootstrap demonstrating some advantages for larger cluster sizes. The proposed criteria are applied to two cancer datasets to select models when the cluster-specific inference is of interest. PMID:22822261

  7. Semiparametric Analysis of Heterogeneous Data Using Varying-Scale Generalized Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Xie, Minge; Simpson, Douglas G; Carroll, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a class of heteroscedastic generalized linear regression models in which a subset of the regression parameters are rescaled nonparametrically, and develops efficient semiparametric inferences for the parametric components of the models. Such models provide a means to adapt for heterogeneity in the data due to varying exposures, varying levels of aggregation, and so on. The class of models considered includes generalized partially linear models and nonparametrically scaled link function models as special cases. We present an algorithm to estimate the scale function nonparametrically, and obtain asymptotic distribution theory for regression parameter estimates. In particular, we establish that the asymptotic covariance of the semiparametric estimator for the parametric part of the model achieves the semiparametric lower bound. We also describe bootstrap-based goodness-of-scale test. We illustrate the methodology with simulations, published data, and data from collaborative research on ultrasound safety.

  8. Group analysis of the time fractional generalized diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkarian, Elham; Reza Hejazi, S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the time fractional derivatives (Riemann-Liouville) of non-linear anomalous diffusion equation. Using Lie symmetry method, we show this equation can be reduced to Erdelyi-Kober fractional derivatives type. Then all of the symmetry vector fields and some exact solutions of our time fractional non-linear equation are obtained.

  9. A review of linear response theory for general differentiable dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2009-04-01

    The classical theory of linear response applies to statistical mechanics close to equilibrium. Away from equilibrium, one may describe the microscopic time evolution by a general differentiable dynamical system, identify nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) and study how these vary under perturbations of the dynamics. Remarkably, it turns out that for uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems (those satisfying the 'chaotic hypothesis'), the linear response away from equilibrium is very similar to the linear response close to equilibrium: the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations hold, and the fluctuation-dispersion theorem survives in a modified form (which takes into account the oscillations around the 'attractor' corresponding to the NESS). If the chaotic hypothesis does not hold, two new phenomena may arise. The first is a violation of linear response in the sense that the NESS does not depend differentiably on parameters (but this nondifferentiability may be hard to see experimentally). The second phenomenon is a violation of the dispersion relations: the susceptibility has singularities in the upper half complex plane. These 'acausal' singularities are actually due to 'energy nonconservation': for a small periodic perturbation of the system, the amplitude of the linear response is arbitrarily large. This means that the NESS of the dynamical system under study is not 'inert' but can give energy to the outside world. An 'active' NESS of this sort is very different from an equilibrium state, and it would be interesting to see what happens for active states to the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem.

  10. Log-normal frailty models fitted as Poisson generalized linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Katharina; Wienke, Andreas; Kuss, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The equivalence of a survival model with a piecewise constant baseline hazard function and a Poisson regression model has been known since decades. As shown in recent studies, this equivalence carries over to clustered survival data: A frailty model with a log-normal frailty term can be interpreted and estimated as a generalized linear mixed model with a binary response, a Poisson likelihood, and a specific offset. Proceeding this way, statistical theory and software for generalized linear mixed models are readily available for fitting frailty models. This gain in flexibility comes at the small price of (1) having to fix the number of pieces for the baseline hazard in advance and (2) having to "explode" the data set by the number of pieces. In this paper we extend the simulations of former studies by using a more realistic baseline hazard (Gompertz) and by comparing the model under consideration with competing models. Furthermore, the SAS macro %PCFrailty is introduced to apply the Poisson generalized linear mixed approach to frailty models. The simulations show good results for the shared frailty model. Our new %PCFrailty macro provides proper estimates, especially in case of 4 events per piece. The suggested Poisson generalized linear mixed approach for log-normal frailty models based on the %PCFrailty macro provides several advantages in the analysis of clustered survival data with respect to more flexible modelling of fixed and random effects, exact (in the sense of non-approximate) maximum likelihood estimation, and standard errors and different types of confidence intervals for all variance parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generalized similarity, renormalization groups, and nonlinear clocks for multiscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; O'Malley, D.; Cushman, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    Fixed points of the renormalization group operator Rp ,rX(t)≡X(rt)/rp are said to be p-self-similar. Here X (t) is an arbitrary stochastic process. The concept of a p-self-similar process is generalized via the renormalization group operator RF ,GX(t)=F[X(G(t))], where F and G are bijections on (-∞,∞) and [0,∞), respectively. If X (t) is a fixed point of RF ,G, then X (t) is said to be (F,G)-self-similar. We say Y (t) is (F,G)-X (t)-similar if RF ,GX(t)=Y(t) in distribution. Exit time distributions and finite-size Lyapunov exponents were obtained for these latter processes. A power law multiscaling process is defined with a multipower-law clock. This process is employed to statistically represent diffusion in a nanopore, a monolayer fluid confined between atomically structured surfaces. The tools presented provide a straightforward method to statistically represent any multiscaling process in time.

  12. Generalized similarity, renormalization groups, and nonlinear clocks for multiscaling.

    PubMed

    Park, M; O'Malley, D; Cushman, J H

    2014-04-01

    Fixed points of the renormalization group operator Rp,rX(t)≡X(rt)/rp are said to be p-self-similar. Here X(t) is an arbitrary stochastic process. The concept of a p-self-similar process is generalized via the renormalization group operator RF,GX(t)=F[X(G(t))], where F and G are bijections on (-∞,∞) and [0,∞), respectively. If X(t) is a fixed point of RF,G, then X(t) is said to be (F,G)-self-similar. We say Y(t) is (F,G)-X(t)-similar if RF,GX(t)=Y(t) in distribution. Exit time distributions and finite-size Lyapunov exponents were obtained for these latter processes. A power law multiscaling process is defined with a multipower-law clock. This process is employed to statistically represent diffusion in a nanopore, a monolayer fluid confined between atomically structured surfaces. The tools presented provide a straightforward method to statistically represent any multiscaling process in time.

  13. Invariance of the generalized oscillator under a linear transformation of the related system of orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the families of polynomials P = { P n ( x)} n=0 ∞ and Q = { Q n ( x)} n=0 ∞ orthogonal on the real line with respect to the respective probability measures μ and ν. We assume that { Q n ( x)} n=0 ∞ and { P n ( x)} n=0 ∞ are connected by linear relations. In the case k = 2, we describe all pairs (P,Q) for which the algebras A P and A Q of generalized oscillators generated by { Qn(x)} n=0 ∞ and { Pn(x)} n=0 ∞ coincide. We construct generalized oscillators corresponding to pairs (P,Q) for arbitrary k ≥ 1.

  14. Use of generalized linear models and digital data in a forest inventory of Northern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moisen, Gretchen G.; Edwards, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Forest inventories, like those conducted by the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) in the Rocky Mountain Region, are under increased pressure to produce better information at reduced costs. Here we describe our efforts in Utah to merge satellite-based information with forest inventory data for the purposes of reducing the costs of estimates of forest population totals and providing spatial depiction of forest resources. We illustrate how generalized linear models can be used to construct approximately unbiased and efficient estimates of population totals while providing a mechanism for prediction in space for mapping of forest structure. We model forest type and timber volume of five tree species groups as functions of a variety of predictor variables in the northern Utah mountains. Predictor variables include elevation, aspect, slope, geographic coordinates, as well as vegetation cover types based on satellite data from both the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Thematic Mapper (TM) platforms. We examine the relative precision of estimates of area by forest type and mean cubic-foot volumes under six different models, including the traditional double sampling for stratification strategy. Only very small gains in precision were realized through the use of expensive photointerpreted or TM-based data for stratification, while models based on topography and spatial coordinates alone were competitive. We also compare the predictive capability of the models through various map accuracy measures. The models including the TM-based vegetation performed best overall, while topography and spatial coordinates alone provided substantial information at very low cost.

  15. Extending local canonical correlation analysis to handle general linear contrasts for FMRI data.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingwu; Nandy, Rajesh; Curran, Tim; Cordes, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Local canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a multivariate method that has been proposed to more accurately determine activation patterns in fMRI data. In its conventional formulation, CCA has several drawbacks that limit its usefulness in fMRI. A major drawback is that, unlike the general linear model (GLM), a test of general linear contrasts of the temporal regressors has not been incorporated into the CCA formalism. To overcome this drawback, a novel directional test statistic was derived using the equivalence of multivariate multiple regression (MVMR) and CCA. This extension will allow CCA to be used for inference of general linear contrasts in more complicated fMRI designs without reparameterization of the design matrix and without reestimating the CCA solutions for each particular contrast of interest. With the proper constraints on the spatial coefficients of CCA, this test statistic can yield a more powerful test on the inference of evoked brain regional activations from noisy fMRI data than the conventional t-test in the GLM. The quantitative results from simulated and pseudoreal data and activation maps from fMRI data were used to demonstrate the advantage of this novel test statistic.

  16. Extending Local Canonical Correlation Analysis to Handle General Linear Contrasts for fMRI Data

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mingwu; Nandy, Rajesh; Curran, Tim; Cordes, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Local canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a multivariate method that has been proposed to more accurately determine activation patterns in fMRI data. In its conventional formulation, CCA has several drawbacks that limit its usefulness in fMRI. A major drawback is that, unlike the general linear model (GLM), a test of general linear contrasts of the temporal regressors has not been incorporated into the CCA formalism. To overcome this drawback, a novel directional test statistic was derived using the equivalence of multivariate multiple regression (MVMR) and CCA. This extension will allow CCA to be used for inference of general linear contrasts in more complicated fMRI designs without reparameterization of the design matrix and without reestimating the CCA solutions for each particular contrast of interest. With the proper constraints on the spatial coefficients of CCA, this test statistic can yield a more powerful test on the inference of evoked brain regional activations from noisy fMRI data than the conventional t-test in the GLM. The quantitative results from simulated and pseudoreal data and activation maps from fMRI data were used to demonstrate the advantage of this novel test statistic. PMID:22461786

  17. Application of the Hyper-Poisson Generalized Linear Model for Analyzing Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    PubMed

    Khazraee, S Hadi; Sáez-Castillo, Antonio Jose; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    The hyper-Poisson distribution can handle both over- and underdispersion, and its generalized linear model formulation allows the dispersion of the distribution to be observation-specific and dependent on model covariates. This study's objective is to examine the potential applicability of a newly proposed generalized linear model framework for the hyper-Poisson distribution in analyzing motor vehicle crash count data. The hyper-Poisson generalized linear model was first fitted to intersection crash data from Toronto, characterized by overdispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized by underdispersion. The results of this study are promising. When fitted to the Toronto data set, the goodness-of-fit measures indicated that the hyper-Poisson model with a variable dispersion parameter provided a statistical fit as good as the traditional negative binomial model. The hyper-Poisson model was also successful in handling the underdispersed data from Korea; the model performed as well as the gamma probability model and the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model previously developed for the same data set. The advantages of the hyper-Poisson model studied in this article are noteworthy. Unlike the negative binomial model, which has difficulties in handling underdispersed data, the hyper-Poisson model can handle both over- and underdispersed crash data. Although not a major issue for the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model, the effect of each variable on the expected mean of crashes is easily interpretable in the case of this new model.

  18. A regularized point process generalized linear model for assessing the functional connectivity in the cat motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Putrino, David F; Ba, Demba E; Ghosh, Soumya; Barbieri, Riccardo; Brown, Emery N

    2009-01-01

    Identification of multiple simultaneously recorded neural spike train recordings is an important task in understanding neuronal dependency, functional connectivity, and temporal causality in neural systems. An assessment of the functional connectivity in a group of ensemble cells was performed using a regularized point process generalized linear model (GLM) that incorporates temporal smoothness or contiguity of the solution. An efficient convex optimization algorithm was then developed for the regularized solution. The point process model was applied to an ensemble of neurons recorded from the cat motor cortex during a skilled reaching task. The implications of this analysis to the coding of skilled movement in primary motor cortex is discussed.

  19. Linear and non-linear heart rate metrics for the assessment of anaesthetists' workload during general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Schneider, F; Kowalewskij, A; Jordan, D; Hapfelmeier, A; Kochs, E F; Wagner, K J; Schulz, C M

    2016-12-01

    Excessive workload may impact the anaesthetists' ability to adequately process information during clinical practice in the operation room and may result in inaccurate situational awareness and performance. This exploratory study investigated heart rate (HR), linear and non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics and subjective ratings scales for the assessment of workload associated with the anaesthesia stages induction, maintenance and emergence. HR and HRV metrics were calculated based on five min segments from each of the three anaesthesia stages. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of the investigated metrics was calculated to assess their ability to discriminate between the stages of anaesthesia. Additionally, a multiparametric approach based on logistic regression models was performed to further evaluate whether linear or non-linear heart rate metrics are suitable for the assessment of workload. Mean HR and several linear and non-linear HRV metrics including subjective workload ratings differed significantly between stages of anaesthesia. Permutation Entropy (PeEn, AUC=0.828) and mean HR (AUC=0.826) discriminated best between the anaesthesia stages induction and maintenance. In the multiparametric approach using logistic regression models, the model based on non-linear heart rate metrics provided a higher AUC compared with the models based on linear metrics. In this exploratory study based on short ECG segment analysis, PeEn and HR seem to be promising to separate workload levels between different stages of anaesthesia. The multiparametric analysis of the regression models favours non-linear heart rate metrics over linear metrics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B.

    1996-06-05

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field $L^ab$ to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution $L_G^ab$, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of $G$-structures on manifolds with torsion.

  1. Fitting host-parasitoid models with CV2 > 1 using hierarchical generalized linear models.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, J N; Noh, M S; Lee, Y; Alston, R D; Norowi, H M; Powell, W; Rennolls, K

    2000-01-01

    The powerful general Pacala-Hassell host-parasitoid model for a patchy environment, which allows host density-dependent heterogeneity (HDD) to be distinguished from between-patch, host density-independent heterogeneity (HDI), is reformulated within the class of the generalized linear model (GLM) family. This improves accessibility through the provision of general software within well-known statistical systems, and allows a rich variety of models to be formulated. Covariates such as age class, host density and abiotic factors may be included easily. For the case where there is no HDI, the formulation is a simple GLM. When there is HDI in addition to HDD, the formulation is a hierarchical generalized linear model. Two forms of HDI model are considered, both with between-patch variability: one has binomial variation within patches and one has extra-binomial, overdispersed variation within patches. Examples are given demonstrating parameter estimation with standard errors, and hypothesis testing. For one example given, the extra-binomial component of the HDI heterogeneity in parasitism is itself shown to be strongly density dependent. PMID:11416907

  2. Construction of invariants of the coadjoint representation of Lie groups using linear algebra methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnyavko, O. L.; Shirokov, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    We offer a method for constructing invariants of the coadjoint representation of Lie groups that reduces this problem to known problems of linear algebra. This method is based on passing to symplectic coordinates on the coadjoint representation orbits, which play the role of local coordinates on those orbits. The corresponding transition functions are their parametric equations. Eliminating the symplectic coordinates from the transition functions, we can obtain the complete set of invariants. The proposed method allows solving the problem of constructing invariants of the coadjoint representation for Lie groups with an arbitrary dimension and structure.

  3. Generalized approach to global renormalization-group theory for fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, A. Sai Venkata; Menon, S. V. G.

    2012-04-01

    The global renormalization-group theory (GRGT) for fluids is derived starting with the square-gradient approximation for the Helmholtz free energy functional such that any mean-field free energy density and direct correlation function can be employed. The new derivation uses Wilson's functions for representing density fluctuations, thereby relaxing the assumption of cosine variation of density fluctuations used in earlier approaches. The generality of the present approach is shown by deriving the relationships to the earlier developments. A qualitative way to infer the free parameters in the present form of GRGT is also suggested. The new theory is applied to square-well fluids of ranges 1.5 and 3.0 (in units of hard-sphere diameter) and Lennard-Jones fluids. It is shown that the present theory produces a flat isotherm in the two-phase region. Thus the theory accounts for fluctuations at all length scales and avoids the use of Maxwell's construction. An analysis of the liquid-vapor phase diagrams and the critical constants obtained for different potentials shows that, with a mean-field free energy density that is accurate away from the critical region and an appropriate coarse graining length for the mean-field theory, GRGT can provide results in good agreement with the simulation and experimental results.

  4. Bayesian Variable Selection and Computation for Generalized Linear Models with Conjugate Priors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hui; Huang, Lan; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Kim, Sungduk

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we consider theoretical and computational connections between six popular methods for variable subset selection in generalized linear models (GLM's). Under the conjugate priors developed by Chen and Ibrahim (2003) for the generalized linear model, we obtain closed form analytic relationships between the Bayes factor (posterior model probability), the Conditional Predictive Ordinate (CPO), the L measure, the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), the Aikiake Information Criterion (AIC), and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in the case of the linear model. Moreover, we examine computational relationships in the model space for these Bayesian methods for an arbitrary GLM under conjugate priors as well as examine the performance of the conjugate priors of Chen and Ibrahim (2003) in Bayesian variable selection. Specifically, we show that once Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samples are obtained from the full model, the four Bayesian criteria can be simultaneously computed for all possible subset models in the model space. We illustrate our new methodology with a simulation study and a real dataset.

  5. Normality of raw data in general linear models: The most widespread myth in statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, Marc; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2003-01-01

    In years of statistical consulting for ecologists and wildlife biologists, by far the most common misconception we have come across has been the one about normality in general linear models. These comprise a very large part of the statistical models used in ecology and include t tests, simple and multiple linear regression, polynomial regression, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA). There is a widely held belief that the normality assumption pertains to the raw data rather than to the model residuals. We suspect that this error may also occur in countless published studies, whenever the normality assumption is tested prior to analysis. This may lead to the use of nonparametric alternatives (if there are any), when parametric tests would indeed be appropriate, or to use of transformations of raw data, which may introduce hidden assumptions such as multiplicative effects on the natural scale in the case of log-transformed data. Our aim here is to dispel this myth. We very briefly describe relevant theory for two cases of general linear models to show that the residuals need to be normally distributed if tests requiring normality are to be used, such as t and F tests. We then give two examples demonstrating that the distribution of the response variable may be nonnormal, and yet the residuals are well behaved. We do not go into the issue of how to test normality; instead we display the distributions of response variables and residuals graphically.

  6. Generalized Degrees of Freedom and Adaptive Model Selection in Linear Mixed-Effects Models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Shen, Xiaotong; Mumford, Sunni L

    2012-03-01

    Linear mixed-effects models involve fixed effects, random effects and covariance structure, which require model selection to simplify a model and to enhance its interpretability and predictability. In this article, we develop, in the context of linear mixed-effects models, the generalized degrees of freedom and an adaptive model selection procedure defined by a data-driven model complexity penalty. Numerically, the procedure performs well against its competitors not only in selecting fixed effects but in selecting random effects and covariance structure as well. Theoretically, asymptotic optimality of the proposed methodology is established over a class of information criteria. The proposed methodology is applied to the BioCycle study, to determine predictors of hormone levels among premenopausal women and to assess variation in hormone levels both between and within women across the menstrual cycle.

  7. The general linear model and fMRI: does love last forever?

    PubMed

    Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Brett, Matthew

    2012-08-15

    In this review, we first set out the general linear model (GLM) for the non technical reader, as a tool able to do both linear regression and ANOVA within the same flexible framework. We present a short history of its development in the fMRI community, and describe some interesting examples of its early use. We offer a few warnings, as the GLM relies on assumptions that may not hold in all situations. We conclude with a few wishes for the future of fMRI analyses, with or without the GLM. The appendix develops some aspects of use of contrasts for testing for the more technical reader. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of generalized linear mixed models for network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yu-Kang

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, a new statistical method-network meta-analysis-has been developed to address limitations in traditional pairwise meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis incorporates all available evidence into a general statistical framework for comparisons of multiple treatments. Bayesian network meta-analysis, as proposed by Lu and Ades, also known as "mixed treatments comparisons," provides a flexible modeling framework to take into account complexity in the data structure. This article shows how to implement the Lu and Ades model in the frequentist generalized linear mixed model. Two examples are provided to demonstrate how centering the covariates for random effects estimation within each trial can yield correct estimation of random effects. Moreover, under the correct specification for random effects estimation, the dummy coding and contrast basic parameter coding schemes will yield the same results. It is straightforward to incorporate covariates, such as moderators and confounders, into the generalized linear mixed model to conduct meta-regression for multiple treatment comparisons. Moreover, this approach may be extended easily to other types of outcome variables, such as continuous, counts, and multinomial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Assessing correlation of clustered mixed outcomes from a multivariate generalized linear mixed model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Wehrly, Thomas E

    2015-02-20

    The classic concordance correlation coefficient measures the agreement between two variables. In recent studies, concordance correlation coefficients have been generalized to deal with responses from a distribution from the exponential family using the univariate generalized linear mixed model. Multivariate data arise when responses on the same unit are measured repeatedly by several methods. The relationship among these responses is often of interest. In clustered mixed data, the correlation could be present between repeated measurements either within the same observer or between different methods on the same subjects. Indices for measuring such association are needed. This study proposes a series of indices, namely, intra-correlation, inter-correlation, and total correlation coefficients to measure the correlation under various circumstances in a multivariate generalized linear model, especially for joint modeling of clustered count and continuous outcomes. The proposed indices are natural extensions of the concordance correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the methodology with simulation studies. A case example of osteoarthritis study is provided to illustrate the use of these proposed indices. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Random generalized linear model: a highly accurate and interpretable ensemble predictor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensemble predictors such as the random forest are known to have superior accuracy but their black-box predictions are difficult to interpret. In contrast, a generalized linear model (GLM) is very interpretable especially when forward feature selection is used to construct the model. However, forward feature selection tends to overfit the data and leads to low predictive accuracy. Therefore, it remains an important research goal to combine the advantages of ensemble predictors (high accuracy) with the advantages of forward regression modeling (interpretability). To address this goal several articles have explored GLM based ensemble predictors. Since limited evaluations suggested that these ensemble predictors were less accurate than alternative predictors, they have found little attention in the literature. Results Comprehensive evaluations involving hundreds of genomic data sets, the UCI machine learning benchmark data, and simulations are used to give GLM based ensemble predictors a new and careful look. A novel bootstrap aggregated (bagged) GLM predictor that incorporates several elements of randomness and instability (random subspace method, optional interaction terms, forward variable selection) often outperforms a host of alternative prediction methods including random forests and penalized regression models (ridge regression, elastic net, lasso). This random generalized linear model (RGLM) predictor provides variable importance measures that can be used to define a “thinned” ensemble predictor (involving few features) that retains excellent predictive accuracy. Conclusion RGLM is a state of the art predictor that shares the advantages of a random forest (excellent predictive accuracy, feature importance measures, out-of-bag estimates of accuracy) with those of a forward selected generalized linear model (interpretability). These methods are implemented in the freely available R software package randomGLM. PMID:23323760

  11. Robust root clustering for linear uncertain systems using generalized Lyapunov theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of matrix root clustering in subregions of a complex plane for linear state space models with real parameter uncertainty. The nominal matrix root clustering theory of Gutman & Jury (1981) using the generalized Liapunov equation is extended to the perturbed matrix case, and bounds are derived on the perturbation to maintain root clustering inside a given region. The theory makes it possible to obtain an explicit relationship between the parameters of the root clustering region and the uncertainty range of the parameter space.

  12. Robust root clustering for linear uncertain systems using generalized Lyapunov theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of matrix root clustering in subregions of a complex plane for linear state space models with real parameter uncertainty. The nominal matrix root clustering theory of Gutman & Jury (1981) using the generalized Liapunov equation is extended to the perturbed matrix case, and bounds are derived on the perturbation to maintain root clustering inside a given region. The theory makes it possible to obtain an explicit relationship between the parameters of the root clustering region and the uncertainty range of the parameter space.

  13. Capelli bitableaux and Z-forms of general linear Lie superalgebras.

    PubMed Central

    Brini, A; Teolis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The combinatorics of the enveloping algebra UQ(pl(L)) of the general linear Lie superalgebra of a finite dimensional Z2-graded Q-vector space is studied. Three non-equivalent Z-forms of UQ(pl(L)) are introduced: one of these Z-forms is a version of the Kostant Z-form and the others are Lie algebra analogs of Rota and Stein's straightening formulae for the supersymmetric algebra Super[L P] and for its dual Super[L* P*]. The method is based on an extension of Capelli's technique of variabili ausiliarie to algebras containing positively and negatively signed elements. PMID:11607048

  14. Experimenting Clinical Pathways in General Practice: a Focus Group Investigation with Italian General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Zannini, Lucia; Cattaneo, Cesarina; Peduzzi, Paolo; Lopiccoli, Silvia; Auxilia, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB), Italy, to develop general practitioners’ (GPs) care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs’ involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients’ and professionals’ satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Design and Methods Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs) held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. Results Four major themes emerged: i) clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii) they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs’ role; iii) nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv) the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Conclusions Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs’ adherence and commitment. Acknowledgments the Authors thank Dr. AP. Cantù and Dr D. Cereda who participated in the two focus groups as observers. PMID:25181354

  15. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  16. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  17. Linear and nonlinear quantification of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during propofol general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Purdon, Patrick L; Pierce, Eric T; Harrell, Grace; Walsh, John; Salazar, Andres F; Tavares, Casie L; Brown, Emery N; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) may provide important information in clinical practice of anesthesia and postoperative care. In this paper, we apply a point process method to assess dynamic RSA during propofol general anesthesia. Specifically, an inverse Gaussian probability distribution is used to model the heartbeat interval, whereas the instantaneous mean is identified by a linear or bilinear bivariate regression on the previous R-R intervals and respiratory measures. The estimated second-order bilinear interaction allows us to evaluate the nonlinear component of the RSA. The instantaneous RSA gain and phase can be estimated with an adaptive point process filter. The algorithm's ability to track non-stationary dynamics is demonstrated using one clinical recording. Our proposed statistical indices provide a valuable quantitative assessment of instantaneous cardiorespiratory control and heart rate variability (HRV) during general anesthesia.

  18. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-15

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum.

  19. Generalized linear sampling method for elastic-wave sensing of heterogeneous fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourahmadian, Fatemeh; Guzina, Bojan B.; Haddar, Houssem

    2017-05-01

    A theoretical foundation is developed for the active seismic reconstruction of fractures endowed with spatially varying interfacial conditions (e.g. partially closed fractures, hydraulic fractures). The proposed indicator functional carries a superior localization property with no significant sensitivity to the fracture’s contact condition, measurement errors, or illumination frequency. This is accomplished through the paradigm of the {F}\\sharp -factorization technique and the recently developed generalized linear sampling method (GLSM) applied to elastodynamics. The direct scattering problem is formulated in the frequency domain where the fracture surface is illuminated by a set of incident plane waves, while monitoring the induced scattered field in the form of (elastic) far-field patterns. The analysis of the well-posedness of the forward problem leads to an admissibility condition on the fracture’s (linearized) contact parameters. This in turn contributes to the establishment of the applicability of the {F}\\sharp -factorization method, and consequently aids the formulation of a convex GLSM cost functional whose minimizer can be computed without iterations. Such a minimizer is then used to construct a robust fracture indicator function, whose performance is illustrated through a set of numerical experiments. For completeness, the results of the GLSM reconstruction are compared to those obtained by the classical linear sampling method (LSM).

  20. Neutron source strength measurements for Varian, Siemens, Elekta, and General Electric linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Followill, David S; Stovall, Marilyn S; Kry, Stephen F; Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2003-01-01

    The shielding calculations for high energy (>10 MV) linear accelerators must include the photoneutron production within the head of the accelerator. Procedures have been described to calculate the treatment room door shielding based on the neutron source strength (Q value) for a specific accelerator and energy combination. Unfortunately, there is currently little data in the literature stating the neutron source strengths for the most widely used linear accelerators. In this study, the neutron fluence for 36 linear accelerators, including models from Varian, Siemens, Elekta/Philips, and General Electric, was measured using gold-foil activation. Several of the models and energy combinations had multiple measurements. The neutron fluence measured in the patient plane was independent of the surface area of the room, suggesting that neutron fluence is more dependent on the direct neutron fluence from the head of the accelerator than from room scatter. Neutron source strength, Q, was determined from the measured neutron fluences. As expected, Q increased with increasing photon energy. The Q values ranged from 0.02 for a 10 MV beam to 1.44(x10(12)) neutrons per photon Gy for a 25 MV beam. The most comprehensive set of neutron source strength values, Q, for the current accelerators in clinical use are presented for use in calculating room shielding.

  1. Wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional linear and nonlinear generalized Fibonacci lattices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenjun; Tong, Peiqing; Gong, Jiangbin; Li, Baowen

    2011-05-01

    The spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional linear and nonlinear generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices is studied numerically. The GF lattices can be classified into two classes depending on whether or not the lattice possesses the Pisot-Vijayaraghavan property. For linear GF lattices of the first class, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time. For linear GF lattices of the second class, in the regime of a weak on-site potential, wave packet spreading is close to ballistic diffusion, whereas in the regime of a strong on-site potential, it displays stairlike growth in both the second moment and the participation number. Nonlinear GF lattices are then investigated in parallel. For the first class of nonlinear GF lattices, the second moment of the wave packet still grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow simultaneously. For the second class of nonlinear GF lattices, an analogous phenomenon is observed for the weak on-site potential only. For a strong on-site potential that leads to an enhanced nonlinear self-trapping effect, neither the second moment nor the participation number grows with time. The results can be useful in guiding experiments on the expansion of noninteracting or interacting cold atoms in quasiperiodic optical lattices.

  2. On linear groups of degree 2 over a finite commutative ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkirov, Evgenii L.; Eser, Hasan

    2014-08-20

    Let p > 3 be a prime number and F{sub p} be a field of p elements. Let K be a commutative and associative ring obtained by adjoining to F{sub p} an element α such that α satisfies a polynomial over F{sub p} and a polynomial of the least degree whose root is α can be written as a product of distinct polynomials irreducible over F{sub p}. We prove that the special linear group SL{sub 2}(K) is generated by two elementary transvections ( (table) ), ( (table) )

  3. A Comparison between Linear IRT Observed-Score Equating and Levine Observed-Score Equating under the Generalized Kernel Equating Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, linear item response theory (IRT) observed-score equating is compared under a generalized kernel equating framework with Levine observed-score equating for nonequivalent groups with anchor test design. Interestingly, these two equating methods are closely related despite being based on different methodologies. Specifically, when…

  4. Thermodynamic bounds and general properties of optimal efficiency and power in linear responses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-10-01

    We study the optimal exergy efficiency and power for thermodynamic systems with an Onsager-type "current-force" relationship describing the linear response to external influences. We derive, in analytic forms, the maximum efficiency and optimal efficiency for maximum power for a thermodynamic machine described by a N×N symmetric Onsager matrix with arbitrary integer N. The figure of merit is expressed in terms of the largest eigenvalue of the "coupling matrix" which is solely determined by the Onsager matrix. Some simple but general relationships between the power and efficiency at the conditions for (i) maximum efficiency and (ii) optimal efficiency for maximum power are obtained. We show how the second law of thermodynamics bounds the optimal efficiency and the Onsager matrix and relate those bounds together. The maximum power theorem (Jacobi's Law) is generalized to all thermodynamic machines with a symmetric Onsager matrix in the linear-response regime. We also discuss systems with an asymmetric Onsager matrix (such as systems under magnetic field) for a particular situation and we show that the reversible limit of efficiency can be reached at finite output power. Cooperative effects are found to improve the figure of merit significantly in systems with multiply cross-correlated responses. Application to example systems demonstrates that the theory is helpful in guiding the search for high performance materials and structures in energy researches.

  5. Thermodynamic bounds and general properties of optimal efficiency and power in linear responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-10-01

    We study the optimal exergy efficiency and power for thermodynamic systems with an Onsager-type "current-force" relationship describing the linear response to external influences. We derive, in analytic forms, the maximum efficiency and optimal efficiency for maximum power for a thermodynamic machine described by a N ×N symmetric Onsager matrix with arbitrary integer N. The figure of merit is expressed in terms of the largest eigenvalue of the "coupling matrix" which is solely determined by the Onsager matrix. Some simple but general relationships between the power and efficiency at the conditions for (i) maximum efficiency and (ii) optimal efficiency for maximum power are obtained. We show how the second law of thermodynamics bounds the optimal efficiency and the Onsager matrix and relate those bounds together. The maximum power theorem (Jacobi's Law) is generalized to all thermodynamic machines with a symmetric Onsager matrix in the linear-response regime. We also discuss systems with an asymmetric Onsager matrix (such as systems under magnetic field) for a particular situation and we show that the reversible limit of efficiency can be reached at finite output power. Cooperative effects are found to improve the figure of merit significantly in systems with multiply cross-correlated responses. Application to example systems demonstrates that the theory is helpful in guiding the search for high performance materials and structures in energy researches.

  6. Age- and region-specific hepatitis B prevalence in Turkey estimated using generalized linear mixed models: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To provide a clear picture of the current hepatitis B situation, the authors performed a systematic review to estimate the age- and region-specific prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Turkey. Methods A total of 339 studies with original data on the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Turkey and published between 1999 and 2009 were identified through a search of electronic databases, by reviewing citations, and by writing to authors. After a critical assessment, the authors included 129 studies, divided into categories: 'age-specific'; 'region-specific'; and 'specific population group'. To account for the differences among the studies, a generalized linear mixed model was used to estimate the overall prevalence across all age groups and regions. For specific population groups, the authors calculated the weighted mean prevalence. Results The estimated overall population prevalence was 4.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.58, 5.76, and the estimated total number of CHB cases was about 3.3 million. The outcomes of the age-specific groups varied from 2.84, (95% CI: 2.60, 3.10) for the 0-14-yearolds to 6.36 (95% CI: 5.83, 6.90) in the 25-34-year-old group. Conclusion There are large age-group and regional differences in CHB prevalence in Turkey, where CHB remains a serious health problem. PMID:22151620

  7. A method for assigning species into groups based on generalized Mahalanobis distance between habitat model coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.J.; Heglund, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat association models are commonly developed for individual animal species using generalized linear modeling methods such as logistic regression. We considered the issue of grouping species based on their habitat use so that management decisions can be based on sets of species rather than individual species. This research was motivated by a study of western landbirds in northern Idaho forests. The method we examined was to separately fit models to each species and to use a generalized Mahalanobis distance between coefficient vectors to create a distance matrix among species. Clustering methods were used to group species from the distance matrix, and multidimensional scaling methods were used to visualize the relations among species groups. Methods were also discussed for evaluating the sensitivity of the conclusions because of outliers or influential data points. We illustrate these methods with data from the landbird study conducted in northern Idaho. Simulation results are presented to compare the success of this method to alternative methods using Euclidean distance between coefficient vectors and to methods that do not use habitat association models. These simulations demonstrate that our Mahalanobis-distance- based method was nearly always better than Euclidean-distance-based methods or methods not based on habitat association models. The methods used to develop candidate species groups are easily explained to other scientists and resource managers since they mainly rely on classical multivariate statistical methods. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. On the linear representations of the symmetry groups of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotfas, Nicolae

    2006-08-01

    The positions of atoms forming a carbon nanotube are usually described by using a system of generators of the symmetry group. Each atomic position corresponds to an element of the set {\\bb Z}\\times \\{0,1,\\ldots,n\\} \\times \\{0,1\\} , where n depends on the considered nanotube. We obtain an alternative, rather different description by starting from a three-axes description of the honeycomb lattice. In our mathematical model, which is a factor space defined by an equivalence relation in the set \\{(v_0,v_1,v_2)\\in {\\bb Z}^3\\mid v_0+v_1+v_2\\in \\{0,1\\}\\} , the neighbours of an atomic position can be described in a simpler way, and the mathematical objects with geometric or physical significance have a simpler and more symmetric form. We present some results concerning the linear representations of the symmetry groups of single-wall carbon nanotubes in order to illustrate the proposed approach.

  9. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile; Couzin, Iain D

    2010-09-02

    Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law) distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  10. Extending trust to immigrants: Generalized trust, cross-group friendship and anti-immigrant sentiments in 21 European societies.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Meta; Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas; Van Laar, Colette

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, we expand on the literature by testing whether generalized trust is negatively related to anti-immigrant sentiments in Europe. Second, we examine to what extent the relation between generalized trust and anti-immigrant sentiments is dependent upon cross-group friendships. We apply multilevel linear regression modeling to representative survey data enriched with levels of ethnic diversity covering 21 European countries. Results show that both generalized trust and cross-group friendship are negatively related to anti-immigrant sentiments. However, there is a negligible positive relation between generalized trust and cross-group friendship (r = .10), and we can clearly observe that they operate independently from one another. Hence, trusting actors are not more likely to form more cross-group friendships, and cross-group friendship do not lead to the development of more generalized trust. Instead, the findings show that generalized trust leads immigrants too to be included in the radius of trusted others and, as a consequence, the benign effects of generalized trust apply to them as well. We conclude that the strength of generalized trust is a form of generalization, beyond the confines of individual variations in intergroup experiences.

  11. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haworth, C M A; Wright, M J; Luciano, M; Martin, N G; de Geus, E J C; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bartels, M; Posthuma, D; Boomsma, D I; Davis, O S P; Kovas, Y; Corley, R P; Defries, J C; Hewitt, J K; Olson, R K; Rhea, S-A; Wadsworth, S J; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Thompson, L A; Hart, S A; Petrill, S A; Lubinski, D; Plomin, R

    2010-11-01

    Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases significantly and linearly from 41% in childhood (9 years) to 55% in adolescence (12 years) and to 66% in young adulthood (17 years) in a sample of 11 000 pairs of twins from four countries, a larger sample than all previous studies combined. In addition to its far-reaching implications for neuroscience and molecular genetics, this finding suggests new ways of thinking about the interface between nature and nurture during the school years. Why, despite life's 'slings and arrows of outrageous fortune', do genetically driven differences increasingly account for differences in general cognitive ability? We suggest that the answer lies with genotype-environment correlation: as children grow up, they increasingly select, modify and even create their own experiences in part based on their genetic propensities.

  12. On relating the generalized equivalent uniform dose formalism to the linear-quadratic model.

    PubMed

    Djajaputra, David; Wu, Qiuwen

    2006-12-01

    Two main approaches are commonly used in the literature for computing the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) in radiotherapy. The first approach is based on the cell-survival curve as defined in the linear-quadratic model. The second approach assumes that EUD can be computed as the generalized mean of the dose distribution with an appropriate fitting parameter. We have analyzed the connection between these two formalisms by deriving explicit formulas for the EUD which are applicable to normal distributions. From these formulas we have established an explicit connection between the two formalisms. We found that the EUD parameter has strong dependence on the parameters that characterize the distribution, namely the mean dose and the standard deviation around the mean. By computing the corresponding parameters for clinical dose distributions, which in general do not follow the normal distribution, we have shown that our results are also applicable to actual dose distributions. Our analysis suggests that caution should be used in using generalized EUD approach for reporting and analyzing dose distributions.

  13. Biaxial ordering of terminal diene groups in lipid membranes: an infrared linear dichroism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, H.; Gutberlet, T.; Anikin, A.

    1999-11-01

    The molecular order within the hydrophobic core of membranes of the diene lipid di-tetradecadienoylphosphatidylcholine was studied by means of infrared spectroscopy on multibilayer assemblies which orient macroscopically on the surface of an attenuated total reflection crystal. The relative humidity and temperature were used as variable parameters to demonstrate that there were profound differences in the melting transition of lipids possessing predominantly cis and trans diene groups. The cis isomer undergoes the phase transition at a vapor pressure which is increased by ∽0.15 GPa when compared with that of the trans isomer. The methylene wagging band progression gives no indication of differences between the acyl chain conformation of the cis and trans forms in the gel state. The frequencies of a number of absorption bands of the diene groups reveal that these moieties are predominantly in the s-trans conformation to accommodate a favorable packing within the bilayer. The linear dichroism of selected in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of the diene groups gives indications of the biaxial ordering of these moieties. We present the basic equations for the quantitative analysis of IR dichroism data of lamellar structures in terms of transverse and longitudinal molecular order parameters. It turns out that the planes of the rigid diene groups orient preferentially in a perpendicular direction with respect to the bilayer surface and parallel to each other forming in this way a layer of well-aligned diene groups in the bilayer center. This finding is confirmed by the results of X-ray measurements. We suggest that the partial interdigitation of the diene groups of the sn-1 acyl chains promotes the formation of the inverse H II phase and/or enables the formation of covalent bonds between both the monolayers upon polymerization of diene lipids.

  14. An Efficient Test for Gene-Environment Interaction in Generalized Linear Mixed Models with Family Data.

    PubMed

    Mazo Lopera, Mauricio A; Coombes, Brandon J; de Andrade, Mariza

    2017-09-27

    Gene-environment (GE) interaction has important implications in the etiology of complex diseases that are caused by a combination of genetic factors and environment variables. Several authors have developed GE analysis in the context of independent subjects or longitudinal data using a gene-set. In this paper, we propose to analyze GE interaction for discrete and continuous phenotypes in family studies by incorporating the relatedness among the relatives for each family into a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and by using a gene-based variance component test. In addition, we deal with collinearity problems arising from linkage disequilibrium among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by considering their coefficients as random effects under the null model estimation. We show that the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of such random effects in the GLMM is equivalent to the ridge regression estimator. This equivalence provides a simple method to estimate the ridge penalty parameter in comparison to other computationally-demanding estimation approaches based on cross-validation schemes. We evaluated the proposed test using simulation studies and applied it to real data from the Baependi Heart Study consisting of 76 families. Using our approach, we identified an interaction between BMI and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) gene associated with diabetes.

  15. A generalized fuzzy linear programming approach for environmental management problem under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yurui; Huang, Guohe; Veawab, Amornvadee

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a generalized fuzzy linear programming (GFLP) method was developed to deal with uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets that exist in the constraints and objective function. A stepwise interactive algorithm (SIA) was advanced to solve GFLP model and generate solutions expressed as fuzzy sets. To demonstrate its application, the developed GFLP method was applied to a regional sulfur dioxide (SO2) control planning model to identify effective SO2 mitigation polices with a minimized system performance cost under uncertainty. The results were obtained to represent the amount of SO2 allocated to different control measures from different sources. Compared with the conventional interval-parameter linear programming (ILP) approach, the solutions obtained through GFLP were expressed as fuzzy sets, which can provide intervals for the decision variables and objective function, as well as related possibilities. Therefore, the decision makers can make a tradeoff between model stability and the plausibility based on solutions obtained through GFLP and then identify desired policies for SO2-emission control under uncertainty.

  16. Model Averaging Methods for Weight Trimming in Generalized Linear Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Michael R

    2009-03-01

    In sample surveys where units have unequal probabilities of inclusion, associations between the inclusion probability and the statistic of interest can induce bias in unweighted estimates. This is true even in regression models, where the estimates of the population slope may be biased if the underlying mean model is misspecified or the sampling is nonignorable. Weights equal to the inverse of the probability of inclusion are often used to counteract this bias. Highly disproportional sample designs have highly variable weights; weight trimming reduces large weights to a maximum value, reducing variability but introducing bias. Most standard approaches are ad hoc in that they do not use the data to optimize bias-variance trade-offs. This article uses Bayesian model averaging to create "data driven" weight trimming estimators. We extend previous results for linear regression models (Elliott 2008) to generalized linear regression models, developing robust models that approximate fully-weighted estimators when bias correction is of greatest importance, and approximate unweighted estimators when variance reduction is critical.

  17. Two-stage method of estimation for general linear growth curve models.

    PubMed

    Stukel, T A; Demidenko, E

    1997-06-01

    We extend the linear random-effects growth curve model (REGCM) (Laird and Ware, 1982, Biometrics 38, 963-974) to study the effects of population covariates on one or more characteristics of the growth curve when the characteristics are expressed as linear combinations of the growth curve parameters. This definition includes the actual growth curve parameters (the usual model) or any subset of these parameters. Such an analysis would be cumbersome using standard growth curve methods because it would require reparameterization of the original growth curve. We implement a two-stage method of estimation based on the two-stage growth curve model used to describe the response. The resulting generalized least squares (GLS) estimator for the population parameters is consistent, asymptotically efficient, and multivariate normal when the number of individuals is large. It is also robust to model misspecification in terms of bias and efficiency of the parameter estimates compared to maximum likelihood with the usual REGCM. We apply the method to a study of factors affecting the growth rate of salmonellae in a cubic growth model, a characteristic that cannot be analyzed easily using standard techniques.

  18. Towards downscaling precipitation for Senegal - An approach based on generalized linear models and weather types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, H. W.; Vrac, M.; Lengaigne, M.; Sultan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Changes in precipitation patterns with potentially less precipitation and an increasing risk for droughts pose a threat to water resources and agricultural yields in Senegal. Precipitation in this region is dominated by the West-African Monsoon being active from May to October, a seasonal pattern with inter-annual to decadal variability in the 20th century which is likely to be affected by climate change. We built a generalized linear model for a full spatial description of rainfall in Senegal. The model uses season, location, and a discrete set of weather types as predictors and yields a spatially continuous description of precipitation occurrences and intensities. Weather types have been defined on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis using zonal and meridional winds, as well as relative humidity. This model is suitable for downscaling precipitation, particularly precipitation occurrences relevant for drough risk mapping.

  19. General linear codes for fault-tolerant matrix operations on processor arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, V. S. S.; Abraham, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Various checksum codes have been suggested for fault-tolerant matrix computations on processor arrays. Use of these codes is limited due to potential roundoff and overflow errors. Numerical errors may also be misconstrued as errors due to physical faults in the system. In this a set of linear codes is identified which can be used for fault-tolerant matrix operations such as matrix addition, multiplication, transposition, and LU-decomposition, with minimum numerical error. Encoding schemes are given for some of the example codes which fall under the general set of codes. With the help of experiments, a rule of thumb for the selection of a particular code for a given application is derived.

  20. Analysis of linear two-dimensional general rate model for chromatographic columns of cylindrical geometry.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Shamsul; Uche, David U; Khan, Farman U; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2017-05-05

    This work is concerned with the analytical solutions and moment analysis of a linear two-dimensional general rate model (2D-GRM) describing the transport of a solute through a chromatographic column of cylindrical geometry. Analytical solutions are derived through successive implementation of finite Hankel and Laplace transformations for two different sets of boundary conditions. The process is further analyzed by deriving analytical temporal moments from the Laplace domain solutions. Radial gradients are typically neglected in liquid chromatography studies which are particularly important in the case of non-perfect injections. Several test problems of single-solute transport are considered. The derived analytical results are validated against the numerical solutions of a high resolution finite volume scheme. The derived analytical results can play an important role in further development of liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Generalization of the ordinary state-based peridynamic model for isotropic linear viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, Rolland; Tabiai, Ilyass; Laberge Lebel, Louis; Lévesque, Martin

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a generalization of the original ordinary state-based peridynamic model for isotropic linear viscoelasticity. The viscoelastic material response is represented using the thermodynamically acceptable Prony series approach. It can feature as many Prony terms as required and accounts for viscoelastic spherical and deviatoric components. The model was derived from an equivalence between peridynamic viscoelastic parameters and those appearing in classical continuum mechanics, by equating the free energy densities expressed in both frameworks. The model was simplified to a uni-dimensional expression and implemented to simulate a creep-recovery test. This implementation was finally validated by comparing peridynamic predictions to those predicted from classical continuum mechanics. An exact correspondence between peridynamics and the classical continuum approach was shown when the peridynamic horizon becomes small, meaning peridynamics tends toward classical continuum mechanics. This work provides a clear and direct means to researchers dealing with viscoelastic phenomena to tackle their problem within the peridynamic framework.

  2. Regional differences of outpatient physician supply as a theoretical economic and empirical generalized linear model.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Graf von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2015-11-17

    Regional differences in physician supply can be found in many health care systems, regardless of their organizational and financial structure. A theoretical model is developed for the physicians' decision on office allocation, covering demand-side factors and a consumption time function. To test the propositions following the theoretical model, generalized linear models were estimated to explain differences in 412 German districts. Various factors found in the literature were included to control for physicians' regional preferences. Evidence in favor of the first three propositions of the theoretical model could be found. Specialists show a stronger association to higher populated districts than GPs. Although indicators for regional preferences are significantly correlated with physician density, their coefficients are not as high as population density. If regional disparities should be addressed by political actions, the focus should be to counteract those parameters representing physicians' preferences in over- and undersupplied regions.

  3. Constraining the general linear model for sensible hemodynamic response function waveforms.

    PubMed

    Ciftçi, Koray; Sankur, Bülent; Kahya, Yasemin P; Akin, Ata

    2008-08-01

    We propose a method to do constrained parameter estimation and inference from neuroimaging data using general linear model (GLM). Constrained approach precludes unrealistic hemodynamic response function (HRF) estimates to appear at the outcome of the GLM analysis. The permissible ranges of waveform parameters were determined from the study of a repertoire of plausible waveforms. These parameter intervals played the role of prior distributions in the subsequent Bayesian analysis of the GLM, and Gibbs sampling was used to derive posterior distributions. The method was applied to artificial null data and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data. The results show that constraining the GLM eliminates unrealistic HRF waveforms and decreases false activations, without affecting the inference for "realistic" activations, which satisfy the constraints.

  4. Compact tunable silicon photonic differential-equation solver for general linear time-invariant systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayang; Cao, Pan; Hu, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xinhong; Pan, Ting; Yang, Yuxing; Qiu, Ciyuan; Tremblay, Christine; Su, Yikai

    2014-10-20

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal differential-equation solver that can be used to solve ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterizing general linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The photonic device implemented by an add-drop microring resonator (MRR) with two tunable interferometric couplers is monolithically integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with a compact footprint of ~60 μm × 120 μm. By thermally tuning the phase shifts along the bus arms of the two interferometric couplers, the proposed device is capable of solving first-order ODEs with two variable coefficients. The operation principle is theoretically analyzed, and system testing of solving ODE with tunable coefficients is carried out for 10-Gb/s optical Gaussian-like pulses. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the fabricated device as a tunable photonic ODE solver.

  5. Solving the Linear Balance Equation on the Globe as a Generalized Inverse Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Huei-Iin; Robertson, Franklin R.

    1999-01-01

    A generalized (pseudo) inverse technique was developed to facilitate a better understanding of the numerical effects of tropical singularities inherent in the spectral linear balance equation (LBE). Depending upon the truncation, various levels of determinancy are manifest. The traditional fully-determined (FD) systems give rise to a strong response, while the under-determined (UD) systems yield a weak response to the tropical singularities. The over-determined (OD) systems result in a modest response and a large residual in the tropics. The FD and OD systems can be alternatively solved by the iterative method. Differences in the solutions of an UD system exist between the inverse technique and the iterative method owing to the non- uniqueness of the problem. A realistic balanced wind was obtained by solving the principal components of the spectral LBE in terms of vorticity in an intermediate resolution. Improved solutions were achieved by including the singular-component solutions which best fit the observed wind data.

  6. Solving the Linear Balance Equation on the Globe as a Generalized Inverse Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Huei-Iin; Robertson, Franklin R.

    1999-01-01

    A generalized (pseudo) inverse technique was developed to facilitate a better understanding of the numerical effects of tropical singularities inherent in the spectral linear balance equation (LBE). Depending upon the truncation, various levels of determinancy are manifest. The traditional fully-determined (FD) systems give rise to a strong response, while the under-determined (UD) systems yield a weak response to the tropical singularities. The over-determined (OD) systems result in a modest response and a large residual in the tropics. The FD and OD systems can be alternatively solved by the iterative method. Differences in the solutions of an UD system exist between the inverse technique and the iterative method owing to the non- uniqueness of the problem. A realistic balanced wind was obtained by solving the principal components of the spectral LBE in terms of vorticity in an intermediate resolution. Improved solutions were achieved by including the singular-component solutions which best fit the observed wind data.

  7. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  8. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  9. Ab initio characterization of the quantum linear-zigzag transition using density matrix renormalization group calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvi, Pietro; Calarco, Tommaso; Morigi, Giovanna; Montangero, Simone

    2014-03-01

    Ions of the same charge inside confining potentials can form crystalline structures which can be controlled by means of the ion density and of the external trap parameters. In particular, a linear chain of trapped ions exhibits a transition to a zigzag equilibrium configuration, which is controlled by the strength of the transverse confinement. Studying this phase transition in the quantum regime is a challenging problem, even when employing numerical methods to simulate microscopically quantum many-body systems. Here we present a compact analytical treatment to map the original long-range problem into a short-range quantum field theory on a lattice. We provide a complete numerical architecture, based on the density matrix renormalization group, to address the effective quantum ϕ4 model. This technique is instrumental in giving a complete characterization of the phase diagram, as well as pinpointing the universality class of the criticality.

  10. On Parametrization of the Linear GL(4,C) and Unitary SU(4) Groups in Terms of Dirac Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Red'Kov, Victor M.; Bogush, Andrei A.; Tokarevskaya, Natalia G.

    2008-02-01

    Parametrization of 4 × 4-matrices G of the complex linear group GL(4,C) in terms of four complex 4-vector parameters (k,m,n,l) is investigated. Additional restrictions separating some subgroups of GL(4,C) are given explicitly. In the given parametrization, the problem of inverting any 4 × 4 matrix G is solved. Expression for determinant of any matrix G is found: det G = F(k,m,n,l). Unitarity conditions G+ = G-1 have been formulated in the form of non-linear cubic algebraic equations including complex conjugation. Several simplest solutions of these unitarity equations have been found: three 2-parametric subgroups G1, G2, G3 - each of subgroups consists of two commuting Abelian unitary groups; 4-parametric unitary subgroup consis! ting of a product of a 3-parametric group isomorphic SU(2) and 1-parametric Abelian group. The Dirac basis of generators Λk, being of Gell-Mann type, substantially differs from the basis λi used in the literature on SU(4) group, formulas relating them are found - they permit to separate SU(3) subgroup in SU(4). Special way to list 15 Dirac generators of GL(4,C) can be used {Λk} = {μiÅνjÅ(μiVνj = KÅL ÅM )}, which permit to factorize SU(4) transformations according to S = eiaμ eibνeikKeilLeimM, where two first factors commute with each other and are isomorphic to SU(2) group, the three last ones are 3-parametric groups, each of them consisting of three Abelian commuting unitary subgroups. Besides, the structure of fifteen Dirac matrices Λk permits to separate twenty 3-parametric subgroups in SU(4) isomorphic to SU(2); those subgroups might be used as bigger elementary blocks in constructing of a general transformation SU(4). It is shown how one can specify the present approach for the pseudounitary group SU(2,2) and SU(3,1).

  11. A Bayesian approach for inducing sparsity in generalized linear models with multi-category response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The dimension and complexity of high-throughput gene expression data create many challenges for downstream analysis. Several approaches exist to reduce the number of variables with respect to small sample sizes. In this study, we utilized the Generalized Double Pareto (GDP) prior to induce sparsity in a Bayesian Generalized Linear Model (GLM) setting. The approach was evaluated using a publicly available microarray dataset containing 99 samples corresponding to four different prostate cancer subtypes. Results A hierarchical Sparse Bayesian GLM using GDP prior (SBGG) was developed to take into account the progressive nature of the response variable. We obtained an average overall classification accuracy between 82.5% and 94%, which was higher than Support Vector Machine, Random Forest or a Sparse Bayesian GLM using double exponential priors. Additionally, SBGG outperforms the other 3 methods in correctly identifying pre-metastatic stages of cancer progression, which can prove extremely valuable for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Importantly, using Geneset Cohesion Analysis Tool, we found that the top 100 genes produced by SBGG had an average functional cohesion p-value of 2.0E-4 compared to 0.007 to 0.131 produced by the other methods. Conclusions Using GDP in a Bayesian GLM model applied to cancer progression data results in better subclass prediction. In particular, the method identifies pre-metastatic stages of prostate cancer with substantially better accuracy and produces more functionally relevant gene sets. PMID:26423345

  12. Quantum groups as generalized gauge symmetries in WZNW models. Part II. The quantized model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Furlan, P.

    2017-07-01

    This is the second part of a paper dealing with the "internal" (gauge) symmetry of the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) model on a compact Lie group G. It contains a systematic exposition, for G = SU( n), of the canonical quantization based on the study of the classical model (performed in the first part) following the quantum group symmetric approach first advocated by L.D. Faddeev and collaborators. The internal symmetry of the quantized model is carried by the chiral WZNW zero modes satisfying quadratic exchange relations and an n-linear determinant condition. For generic values of the deformation parameter the Fock representation of the zero modes' algebra gives rise to a model space of U q ( sl( n)). The relevant root of unity case is studied in detail for n = 2 when a "restricted" (finite dimensional) quotient quantum group is shown to appear in a natural way. The module structure of the zero modes' Fock space provides a specific duality with the solutions of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation for the four point functions of primary fields suggesting the existence of an extended state space of logarithmic CFT type. Combining left and right zero modes (i.e., returning to the 2 D model), the rational CFT structure shows up in a setting reminiscent to covariant quantization of gauge theories in which the restricted quantum group plays the role of a generalized gauge symmetry.

  13. Topological crystalline materials: General formulation, module structure, and wallpaper groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Gomi, Kiyonori

    2017-06-01

    We formulate topological crystalline materials on the basis of the twisted equivariant K theory. Basic ideas of the twisted equivariant K theory are explained with application to topological phases protected by crystalline symmetries in mind, and systematic methods of topological classification for crystalline materials are presented. Our formulation is applicable to bulk gapful topological crystalline insulators/superconductors and their gapless boundary and defect states, as well as bulk gapless topological materials such as Weyl and Dirac semimetals, and nodal superconductors. As an application of our formulation, we present a complete classification of topological crystalline surface states, in the absence of time-reversal invariance. The classification works for gapless surface states of three-dimensional insulators, as well as full gapped two-dimensional insulators. Such surface states and two-dimensional insulators are classified in a unified way by 17 wallpaper groups, together with the presence or the absence of (sublattice) chiral symmetry. We identify the topological numbers and their representations under the wallpaper group operation. We also exemplify the usefulness of our formulation in the classification of bulk gapless phases. We present a class of Weyl semimetals and Weyl superconductors that are topologically protected by inversion symmetry.

  14. Comparing a single case to a control group - Applying linear mixed effects models to repeated measures data.

    PubMed

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15-20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample.

  15. General linear response formula for non integrable systems obeying the Vlasov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patelli, Aurelio; Ruffo, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Long-range interacting N-particle systems get trapped into long-living out-of-equilibrium stationary states called quasi-stationary states (QSS). We study here the response to a small external perturbation when such systems are settled into a QSS. In the N → ∞ limit the system is described by the Vlasov equation and QSS are mapped into stable stationary solutions of such equation. We consider this problem in the context of a model that has recently attracted considerable attention, the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model. For such a model, stationary inhomogeneous and homogeneous states determine an integrable dynamics in the mean-field effective potential and an action-angle transformation allows one to derive an exact linear response formula. However, such a result would be of limited interest if restricted to the integrable case. In this paper, we show how to derive a general linear response formula which does not use integrability as a requirement. The presence of conservation laws (mass, energy, momentum, etc.) and of further Casimir invariants can be imposed a posteriori. We perform an analysis of the infinite time asymptotics of the response formula for a specific observable, the magnetization in the HMF model, as a result of the application of an external magnetic field, for two stationary stable distributions: the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium distribution and the Fermi-Dirac one. When compared with numerical simulations the predictions of the theory are very good away from the transition energy from inhomogeneous to homogeneous states. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.

  16. A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C; Chock, D P; Winkler, S L

    1999-01-01

    Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:10064552

  17. A Generalized Linear Model for Estimating Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields from Responses to Natural Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Ana; Schumacher, Joseph W.; Schneider, David M.; Paninski, Liam; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2011-01-01

    In the auditory system, the stimulus-response properties of single neurons are often described in terms of the spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF), a linear kernel relating the spectrogram of the sound stimulus to the instantaneous firing rate of the neuron. Several algorithms have been used to estimate STRFs from responses to natural stimuli; these algorithms differ in their functional models, cost functions, and regularization methods. Here, we characterize the stimulus-response function of auditory neurons using a generalized linear model (GLM). In this model, each cell's input is described by: 1) a stimulus filter (STRF); and 2) a post-spike filter, which captures dependencies on the neuron's spiking history. The output of the model is given by a series of spike trains rather than instantaneous firing rate, allowing the prediction of spike train responses to novel stimuli. We fit the model by maximum penalized likelihood to the spiking activity of zebra finch auditory midbrain neurons in response to conspecific vocalizations (songs) and modulation limited (ml) noise. We compare this model to normalized reverse correlation (NRC), the traditional method for STRF estimation, in terms of predictive power and the basic tuning properties of the estimated STRFs. We find that a GLM with a sparse prior predicts novel responses to both stimulus classes significantly better than NRC. Importantly, we find that STRFs from the two models derived from the same responses can differ substantially and that GLM STRFs are more consistent between stimulus classes than NRC STRFs. These results suggest that a GLM with a sparse prior provides a more accurate characterization of spectrotemporal tuning than does the NRC method when responses to complex sounds are studied in these neurons. PMID:21264310

  18. Solutions for Determining the Significance Region Using the Johnson-Neyman Type Procedure in Generalized Linear (Mixed) Models.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ann A; Zerbe, Gary O

    2011-12-01

    Researchers often compare the relationship between an outcome and covariate for two or more groups by evaluating whether the fitted regression curves differ significantly. When they do, researchers need to determine the "significance region," or the values of the covariate where the curves significantly differ. In analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), the Johnson-Neyman procedure can be used to determine the significance region; for the hierarchical linear model (HLM), the Miyazaki and Maier (M-M) procedure has been suggested. However, neither procedure can assume nonnormally distributed data. Furthermore, the M-M procedure produces biased (downward) results because it uses the Wald test, does not control the inflated Type I error rate due to multiple testing, and requires implementing multiple software packages to determine the significance region. In this article, we address these limitations by proposing solutions for determining the significance region suitable for generalized linear (mixed) model (GLM or GLMM). These proposed solutions incorporate test statistics that resolve the biased results, control the Type I error rate using Scheffé's method, and uses a single statistical software package to determine the significance region.

  19. Musculoskeletal disorders among a group of Iranian general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Tirgar, Aram; Javanshir, Khodabakhsh; Talebian, Arash; Amini, Fatemeh; Parhiz, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Dentists have to remain in a fixed position during dental practices for the accuracy required, therefore they are susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Considering the infrequency of ergonomics studies in general dental practitioners (GDPs), especially in cervical region, this study aimed to reviews MSDs in the neck region among GDPs. An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out among the GDPs in 2011. A total of 60 dentists (40 males and 20 females) were examined through a combination of questionnaires (concerning their demographic information) such as the Nordic standardized musculoskeletal disorder questionnaire (NMQ) and Body Discomfort Assessment questionnaire (BDA). Each dentist's working posture was assessed using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and deep cervical flexor muscle endurance through a Craniocervical Flexion test (CCFT). Descriptive statistical indexes and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis, while considering p< 0.05. The mean dental practice experience was 16.9 ± 5.6 years with average 41.2 ± 13.4 working hours per week. About 45% of dentists took regular exercises weekly. Some 83.3% of these dentists expressed to be suffering from the cervical pain, whereas, 56.7% complained about back pains and 41% shoulder problems. Female dentists were found more at risk of neckache, discomfort and pain in shoulder and hand than males. Greater pain frequency in knee was found in more experienced and older age dentists (P= 0.07). Results from the CCF test showed that the deep cervical flexor muscles endurance increased with regular exercise and decreased with aging. Many dentists experience the MSDs, especially in cervical region, as a consequence of occupational stresses. Therefore, detecting occupational risk factors, standards of work position, regular exercise and following ergonomic policy are intensely recommended.

  20. Linear propargylic alcohol functionality attached to the indazole-7-carboxamide as a JAK1-specific linear probe group.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Shin, Heerim; Cho, Seo Young; Chong, Youhoon

    2014-02-01

    Selective inhibition of JAK1 has recently been proposed as an appropriate therapeutic rationale for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, through pairwise comparison and 3D alignment of the JAK isozyme structures bound to the same inhibitor molecule, we reasoned that an alkynol functionality would serve as an isozyme-specific probe group, which would enable the resulting inhibitor to differentiate the ATP-binding site of JAK1 from those of other isozymes. The 3-alkynolyl-5-(4'-indazolyl)indazole-7-carboxamide derivatives were thus prepared, and in vitro evaluation of their inhibitory activity against the JAK isozymes revealed that the propargyl alcohol functionality endowed the 5-(4'-indazolyl)indazole-7-carboxamide scaffold with JAK1 selectivity over other JAK isozymes, particularly JAK2.

  1. Development and validation of a general purpose linearization program for rigid aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Antoniewicz, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A FORTRAN program that provides the user with a powerful and flexible tool for the linearization of aircraft models is discussed. The program LINEAR numerically determines a linear systems model using nonlinear equations of motion and a user-supplied, nonlinear aerodynamic model. The system model determined by LINEAR consists of matrices for both the state and observation equations. The program has been designed to allow easy selection and definition of the state, control, and observation variables to be used in a particular model. Also, included in the report is a comparison of linear and nonlinear models for a high performance aircraft.

  2. MGMRES: A generalization of GMRES for solving large sparse nonsymmetric linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.M.; Chen, J.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The authors are concerned with the solution of the linear system (1): Au = b, where A is a real square nonsingular matrix which is large, sparse and non-symmetric. They consider the use of Krylov subspace methods. They first choose an initial approximation u{sup (0)} to the solution {bar u} = A{sup {minus}1}B of (1). They also choose an auxiliary matrix Z which is nonsingular. For n = 1,2,{hor_ellipsis} they determine u{sup (n)} such that u{sup (n)} {minus} u{sup (0)}{epsilon}K{sub n}(r{sup (0)},A) where K{sub n}(r{sup (0)},A) is the (Krylov) subspace spanned by the Krylov vectors r{sup (0)}, Ar{sup (0)}, {hor_ellipsis}, A{sup n{minus}1}r{sup 0} and where r{sup (0)} = b{minus}Au{sup (0)}. If ZA is SPD they also require that (u{sup (n)}{minus}{bar u}, ZA(u{sup (n)}{minus}{bar u})) be minimized. If, on the other hand, ZA is not SPD, then they require that the Galerkin condition, (Zr{sup n}, v) = 0, be satisfied for all v{epsilon}K{sub n}(r{sup (0)}, A) where r{sup n} = b{minus}Au{sup (n)}. In this paper the authors consider a generalization of GMRES. This generalized method, which they refer to as `MGMRES`, is very similar to GMRES except that they let Z = A{sup T}Y where Y is a nonsingular matrix which is symmetric by not necessarily SPD.

  3. Efficient analysis of Q-level nested hierarchical general linear models given ignorable missing data.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yongyun; Raudenbush, Stephen W

    2013-09-28

    This article extends single-level missing data methods to efficient estimation of a Q-level nested hierarchical general linear model given ignorable missing data with a general missing pattern at any of the Q levels. The key idea is to reexpress a desired hierarchical model as the joint distribution of all variables including the outcome that are subject to missingness, conditional on all of the covariates that are completely observed and to estimate the joint model under normal theory. The unconstrained joint model, however, identifies extraneous parameters that are not of interest in subsequent analysis of the hierarchical model and that rapidly multiply as the number of levels, the number of variables subject to missingness, and the number of random coefficients grow. Therefore, the joint model may be extremely high dimensional and difficult to estimate well unless constraints are imposed to avoid the proliferation of extraneous covariance components at each level. Furthermore, the over-identified hierarchical model may produce considerably biased inferences. The challenge is to represent the constraints within the framework of the Q-level model in a way that is uniform without regard to Q; in a way that facilitates efficient computation for any number of Q levels; and also in a way that produces unbiased and efficient analysis of the hierarchical model. Our approach yields Q-step recursive estimation and imputation procedures whose qth-step computation involves only level-q data given higher-level computation components. We illustrate the approach with a study of the growth in body mass index analyzing a national sample of elementary school children.

  4. Predicting estuarine use patterns of juvenile fish with Generalized Linear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Le Pape, O.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2013-03-01

    Statistical models are key for estimating fish distributions based on environmental variables, and validation is generally advocated as indispensable but seldom applied. Generalized Linear Models were applied to distributions of juvenile Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus and Dicentrarchus labrax in response to environmental variables throughout Portuguese estuaries. Species-specific Delta models with two sub-models were used: Binomial (presence/absence); Gamma (density when present). Models were fitted and tested on separate data sets to estimate the accuracy and robustness of predictions. Temperature, salinity and mud content in sediment were included in most models for presence/absence; salinity and depth in most models for density (when present). In Binomial models (presence/absence), goodness-of-fit, accuracy and robustness varied concurrently among species, and fair to high accuracy and robustness were attained for all species, in models with poor to high goodness-of-fit. But in Gamma models (density when present), goodness-of-fit was not indicative of accuracy and robustness. Only for Platichthys flesus were Gamma and also coupled Delta models (density) accurate and robust, despite some moderate bias and inconsistency in predicted density. The accuracy and robustness of final density estimations were defined by the accuracy and robustness of the estimations of presence/absence and density (when present) provided by the sub-models. The mismatches between goodness-of-fit, accuracy and robustness of positive density models, as well as the difference in performance of presence/absence and density models demonstrated the importance of validation procedures in the evaluation of the value of habitat suitability models as predictive tools.

  5. The overlooked potential of Generalized Linear Models in astronomy-II: Gamma regression and photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; de Souza, R. S.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Hilbe, J.

    2015-04-01

    Machine learning techniques offer a precious tool box for use within astronomy to solve problems involving so-called big data. They provide a means to make accurate predictions about a particular system without prior knowledge of the underlying physical processes of the data. In this article, and the companion papers of this series, we present the set of Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) as a fast alternative method for tackling general astronomical problems, including the ones related to the machine learning paradigm. To demonstrate the applicability of GLMs to inherently positive and continuous physical observables, we explore their use in estimating the photometric redshifts of galaxies from their multi-wavelength photometry. Using the gamma family with a log link function we predict redshifts from the PHoto-z Accuracy Testing simulated catalogue and a subset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey from Data Release 10. We obtain fits that result in catastrophic outlier rates as low as ∼1% for simulated and ∼2% for real data. Moreover, we can easily obtain such levels of precision within a matter of seconds on a normal desktop computer and with training sets that contain merely thousands of galaxies. Our software is made publicly available as a user-friendly package developed in Python, R and via an interactive web application. This software allows users to apply a set of GLMs to their own photometric catalogues and generates publication quality plots with minimum effort. By facilitating their ease of use to the astronomical community, this paper series aims to make GLMs widely known and to encourage their implementation in future large-scale projects, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  6. Generalized Jeans' Escape of Pick-Up Ions in Quasi-Linear Relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    Jeans escape is a well-validated formulation of upper atmospheric escape that we have generalized to estimate plasma escape from ionospheres. It involves the computation of the parts of particle velocity space that are unbound by the gravitational potential at the exobase, followed by a calculation of the flux carried by such unbound particles as they escape from the potential well. To generalize this approach for ions, we superposed an electrostatic ambipolar potential and a centrifugal potential, for motions across and along a divergent magnetic field. We then considered how the presence of superthermal electrons, produced by precipitating auroral primary electrons, controls the ambipolar potential. We also showed that the centrifugal potential plays a small role in controlling the mass escape flux from the terrestrial ionosphere. We then applied the transverse ion velocity distribution produced when ions, picked up by supersonic (i.e., auroral) ionospheric convection, relax via quasi-linear diffusion, as estimated for cometary comas [1]. The results provide a theoretical basis for observed ion escape response to electromagnetic and kinetic energy sources. They also suggest that super-sonic but sub-Alfvenic flow, with ion pick-up, is a unique and important regime of ion-neutral coupling, in which plasma wave-particle interactions are driven by ion-neutral collisions at densities for which the collision frequency falls near or below the gyro-frequency. As another possible illustration of this process, the heliopause ribbon discovered by the IBEX mission involves interactions between the solar wind ions and the interstellar neutral gas, in a regime that may be analogous [2].

  7. Efficient Analysis of Q-Level Nested Hierarchical General Linear Models Given Ignorable Missing Data

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yongyun; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends single-level missing data methods to efficient estimation of a Q-level nested hierarchical general linear model given ignorable missing data with a general missing pattern at any of the Q levels. The key idea is to reexpress a desired hierarchical model as the joint distribution of all variables including the outcome that are subject to missingness, conditional on all of the covariates that are completely observed; and to estimate the joint model under normal theory. The unconstrained joint model, however, identifies extraneous parameters that are not of interest in subsequent analysis of the hierarchical model, and that rapidly multiply as the number of levels, the number of variables subject to missingness, and the number of random coefficients grow. Therefore, the joint model may be extremely high dimensional and difficult to estimate well unless constraints are imposed to avoid the proliferation of extraneous covariance components at each level. Furthermore, the over-identified hierarchical model may produce considerably biased inferences. The challenge is to represent the constraints within the framework of the Q-level model in a way that is uniform without regard to Q; in a way that facilitates efficient computation for any number of Q levels; and also in a way that produces unbiased and efficient analysis of the hierarchical model. Our approach yields Q-step recursive estimation and imputation procedures whose qth step computation involves only level-q data given higher-level computation components. We illustrate the approach with a study of the growth in body mass index analyzing a national sample of elementary school children. PMID:24077621

  8. Fast inference in generalized linear models via expected log-likelihoods

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Alexandro D.; Paninski, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Generalized linear models play an essential role in a wide variety of statistical applications. This paper discusses an approximation of the likelihood in these models that can greatly facilitate computation. The basic idea is to replace a sum that appears in the exact log-likelihood by an expectation over the model covariates; the resulting “expected log-likelihood” can in many cases be computed significantly faster than the exact log-likelihood. In many neuroscience experiments the distribution over model covariates is controlled by the experimenter and the expected log-likelihood approximation becomes particularly useful; for example, estimators based on maximizing this expected log-likelihood (or a penalized version thereof) can often be obtained with orders of magnitude computational savings compared to the exact maximum likelihood estimators. A risk analysis establishes that these maximum EL estimators often come with little cost in accuracy (and in some cases even improved accuracy) compared to standard maximum likelihood estimates. Finally, we find that these methods can significantly decrease the computation time of marginal likelihood calculations for model selection and of Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for sampling from the posterior parameter distribution. We illustrate our results by applying these methods to a computationally-challenging dataset of neural spike trains obtained via large-scale multi-electrode recordings in the primate retina. PMID:23832289

  9. Assessment of cross-frequency coupling with confidence using generalized linear models

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, M. A.; Eden, U. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain voltage activity displays distinct neuronal rhythms spanning a wide frequency range. How rhythms of different frequency interact – and the function of these interactions – remains an active area of research. Many methods have been proposed to assess the interactions between different frequency rhythms, in particular measures that characterize the relationship between the phase of a low frequency rhythm and the amplitude envelope of a high frequency rhythm. However, an optimal analysis method to assess this cross-frequency coupling (CFC) does not yet exist. New Method Here we describe a new procedure to assess CFC that utilizes the generalized linear modeling (GLM) framework. Results We illustrate the utility of this procedure in three synthetic examples. The proposed GLM-CFC procedure allows a rapid and principled assessment of CFC with confidence bounds, scales with the intensity of the CFC, and accurately detects biphasic coupling. Comparison with Existing Methods Compared to existing methods, the proposed GLM-CFC procedure is easily interpretable, possesses confidence intervals that are easy and efficient to compute, and accurately detects biphasic coupling. Conclusions The GLM-CFC statistic provides a method for accurate and statistically rigorous assessment of CFC. PMID:24012829

  10. Projecting nuisance flooding in a warming climate using generalized linear models and Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberg-Rodes, Alexander; Moftakhari, Hamed R.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Shahbaba, Babak; Sanders, Brett F.; Matthew, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Nuisance flooding corresponds to minor and frequent flood events that have significant socioeconomic and public health impacts on coastal communities. Yearly averaged local mean sea level can be used as proxy to statistically predict the impacts of sea level rise (SLR) on the frequency of nuisance floods (NFs). In this study, we use generalized linear models (GLM) and Gaussian Process (GP) models combined to (i) estimate the frequency of NF associated with the change in mean sea level, and (ii) quantify the associated uncertainties via a novel and statistically robust approach. We calibrate our models to the water level data from 18 tide gauges along the coasts of United States, and after validation, we estimate the frequency of NF associated with the SLR projections in year 2030 (under RCPs 2.6 and 8.5), along with their 90% bands, at each gauge. The historical NF-SLR data are very noisy, and show large changes in variability (heteroscedasticity) with SLR. Prior models in the literature do not properly account for the observed heteroscedasticity, and thus their projected uncertainties are highly suspect. Among the models used in this study, the Negative Binomial Distribution GLM with GP best characterizes the uncertainties associated with NF estimates; on validation data ≈93% of the points fall within the 90% credible limit, showing our approach to be a robust model for uncertainty quantification.

  11. The overlooked potential of Generalized Linear Models in astronomy, I: Binomial regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Cameron, E.; Killedar, M.; Hilbe, J.; Vilalta, R.; Maio, U.; Biffi, V.; Ciardi, B.; Riggs, J. D.

    2015-09-01

    Revealing hidden patterns in astronomical data is often the path to fundamental scientific breakthroughs; meanwhile the complexity of scientific enquiry increases as more subtle relationships are sought. Contemporary data analysis problems often elude the capabilities of classical statistical techniques, suggesting the use of cutting edge statistical methods. In this light, astronomers have overlooked a whole family of statistical techniques for exploratory data analysis and robust regression, the so-called Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). In this paper-the first in a series aimed at illustrating the power of these methods in astronomical applications-we elucidate the potential of a particular class of GLMs for handling binary/binomial data, the so-called logit and probit regression techniques, from both a maximum likelihood and a Bayesian perspective. As a case in point, we present the use of these GLMs to explore the conditions of star formation activity and metal enrichment in primordial minihaloes from cosmological hydro-simulations including detailed chemistry, gas physics, and stellar feedback. We predict that for a dark mini-halo with metallicity ≈ 1.3 × 10-4Z⨀, an increase of 1.2 × 10-2 in the gas molecular fraction, increases the probability of star formation occurrence by a factor of 75%. Finally, we highlight the use of receiver operating characteristic curves as a diagnostic for binary classifiers, and ultimately we use these to demonstrate the competitive predictive performance of GLMs against the popular technique of artificial neural networks.

  12. Developing a methodology to predict PM10 concentrations in urban areas using generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J M; Teodoro, F; Cerdeira, R; Coelho, L M R; Kumar, Prashant; Carvalho, M G

    2016-09-01

    A methodology to predict PM10 concentrations in urban outdoor environments is developed based on the generalized linear models (GLMs). The methodology is based on the relationship developed between atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants (i.e. CO, NO2, NOx, VOCs, SO2) and meteorological variables (i.e. ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speed) for a city (Barreiro) of Portugal. The model uses air pollution and meteorological data from the Portuguese monitoring air quality station networks. The developed GLM considers PM10 concentrations as a dependent variable, and both the gaseous pollutants and meteorological variables as explanatory independent variables. A logarithmic link function was considered with a Poisson probability distribution. Particular attention was given to cases with air temperatures both below and above 25°C. The best performance for modelled results against the measured data was achieved for the model with values of air temperature above 25°C compared with the model considering all ranges of air temperatures and with the model considering only temperature below 25°C. The model was also tested with similar data from another Portuguese city, Oporto, and results found to behave similarly. It is concluded that this model and the methodology could be adopted for other cities to predict PM10 concentrations when these data are not available by measurements from air quality monitoring stations or other acquisition means.

  13. Establishment of a new initial dose plan for vancomycin using the generalized linear mixed model.

    PubMed

    Kourogi, Yasuyuki; Ogata, Kenji; Takamura, Norito; Tokunaga, Jin; Setoguchi, Nao; Kai, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Emi; Chiyotanda, Susumu

    2017-04-08

    When administering vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM), the initial dose is adjusted to ensure that the steady-state trough value (Css-trough) remains within the effective concentration range. However, the Css-trough (population mean method predicted value [PMMPV]) calculated using the population mean method (PMM) often deviate from the effective concentration range. In this study, we used the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) for initial dose planning to create a model that accurately predicts Css-trough, and subsequently assessed its prediction accuracy. The study included 46 subjects whose trough values were measured after receiving VCM. We calculated the Css-trough (Bayesian estimate predicted value [BEPV]) from the Bayesian estimates of trough values. Using the patients' medical data, we created models that predict the BEPV and selected the model with minimum information criterion (GLMM best model). We then calculated the Css-trough (GLMMPV) from the GLMM best model and compared the BEPV correlation with GLMMPV and with PMMPV. The GLMM best model was {[0.977 + (males: 0.029 or females: -0.081)] × PMMPV + 0.101 × BUN/adjusted SCr - 12.899 × SCr adjusted amount}. The coefficients of determination for BEPV/GLMMPV and BEPV/PMMPV were 0.623 and 0.513, respectively. We demonstrated that the GLMM best model was more accurate in predicting the Css-trough than the PMM.

  14. Characterizing the performance of the Conway-Maxwell Poisson generalized linear model.

    PubMed

    Francis, Royce A; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Guikema, Seth D; Dhavala, Soma Sekhar; Lord, Dominique; LaRocca, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Count data are pervasive in many areas of risk analysis; deaths, adverse health outcomes, infrastructure system failures, and traffic accidents are all recorded as count events, for example. Risk analysts often wish to estimate the probability distribution for the number of discrete events as part of doing a risk assessment. Traditional count data regression models of the type often used in risk assessment for this problem suffer from limitations due to the assumed variance structure. A more flexible model based on the Conway-Maxwell Poisson (COM-Poisson) distribution was recently proposed, a model that has the potential to overcome the limitations of the traditional model. However, the statistical performance of this new model has not yet been fully characterized. This article assesses the performance of a maximum likelihood estimation method for fitting the COM-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM). The objectives of this article are to (1) characterize the parameter estimation accuracy of the MLE implementation of the COM-Poisson GLM, and (2) estimate the prediction accuracy of the COM-Poisson GLM using simulated data sets. The results of the study indicate that the COM-Poisson GLM is flexible enough to model under-, equi-, and overdispersed data sets with different sample mean values. The results also show that the COM-Poisson GLM yields accurate parameter estimates. The COM-Poisson GLM provides a promising and flexible approach for performing count data regression.

  15. Statistical Methods for Quality Control of Steel Coils Manufacturing Process using Generalized Linear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díaz, J. Carlos

    2009-11-01

    Fault detection and diagnosis is an important problem in process engineering. Process equipments are subject to malfunctions during operation. Galvanized steel is a value added product, furnishing effective performance by combining the corrosion resistance of zinc with the strength and formability of steel. Fault detection and diagnosis is an important problem in continuous hot dip galvanizing and the increasingly stringent quality requirements in automotive industry has also demanded ongoing efforts in process control to make the process more robust. When faults occur, they change the relationship among these observed variables. This work compares different statistical regression models proposed in the literature for estimating the quality of galvanized steel coils on the basis of short time histories. Data for 26 batches were available. Five variables were selected for monitoring the process: the steel strip velocity, four bath temperatures and bath level. The entire data consisting of 48 galvanized steel coils was divided into sets. The first training data set was 25 conforming coils and the second data set was 23 nonconforming coils. Logistic regression is a modeling tool in which the dependent variable is categorical. In most applications, the dependent variable is binary. The results show that the logistic generalized linear models do provide good estimates of quality coils and can be useful for quality control in manufacturing process.

  16. A generalized linear model for peak calling in ChIP-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has become a routine for detecting genome-wide protein-DNA interaction. The success of ChIP-Seq data analysis highly depends on the quality of peak calling (i.e., to detect peaks of tag counts at a genomic location and evaluate if the peak corresponds to a real protein-DNA interaction event). The challenges in peak calling include (1) how to combine the forward and the reverse strand tag data to improve the power of peak calling and (2) how to account for the variation of tag data observed across different genomic locations. We introduce a new peak calling method based on the generalized linear model (GLMNB) that utilizes negative binomial distribution to model the tag count data and account for the variation of background tags that may randomly bind to the DNA sequence at varying levels due to local genomic structures and sequence contents. We allow local shifting of peaks observed on the forward and the reverse stands, such that at each potential binding site, a binding profile representing the pattern of a real peak signal is fitted to best explain the observed tag data with maximum likelihood. Our method can also detect multiple peaks within a local region if there are multiple binding sites in the region.

  17. Population Decoding of Motor Cortical Activity using a Generalized Linear Model with Hidden States

    PubMed Central

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Paninski, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (lowering the Mean Square Error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. PMID:20359500

  18. Generalized linear discriminant analysis: a unified framework and efficient model selection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuiwang; Ye, Jieping

    2008-10-01

    High-dimensional data are common in many domains, and dimensionality reduction is the key to cope with the curse-of-dimensionality. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a well-known method for supervised dimensionality reduction. When dealing with high-dimensional and low sample size data, classical LDA suffers from the singularity problem. Over the years, many algorithms have been developed to overcome this problem, and they have been applied successfully in various applications. However, there is a lack of a systematic study of the commonalities and differences of these algorithms, as well as their intrinsic relationships. In this paper, a unified framework for generalized LDA is proposed, which elucidates the properties of various algorithms and their relationships. Based on the proposed framework, we show that the matrix computations involved in LDA-based algorithms can be simplified so that the cross-validation procedure for model selection can be performed efficiently. We conduct extensive experiments using a collection of high-dimensional data sets, including text documents, face images, gene expression data, and gene expression pattern images, to evaluate the proposed theories and algorithms.

  19. Profile local linear estimation of generalized semiparametric regression model for longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liuquan; Zhou, Jie

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the generalized semiparametric regression model for longitudinal data where the covariate effects are constant for some and time-varying for others. Different link functions can be used to allow more flexible modelling of longitudinal data. The nonparametric components of the model are estimated using a local linear estimating equation and the parametric components are estimated through a profile estimating function. The method automatically adjusts for heterogeneity of sampling times, allowing the sampling strategy to depend on the past sampling history as well as possibly time-dependent covariates without specifically model such dependence. A K -fold cross-validation bandwidth selection is proposed as a working tool for locating an appropriate bandwidth. A criteria for selecting the link function is proposed to provide better fit of the data. Large sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated. Large sample pointwise and simultaneous confidence intervals for the regression coefficients are constructed. Formal hypothesis testing procedures are proposed to check for the covariate effects and whether the effects are time-varying. A simulation study is conducted to examine the finite sample performances of the proposed estimation and hypothesis testing procedures. The methods are illustrated with a data example. PMID:23471814

  20. Fast inference in generalized linear models via expected log-likelihoods.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Alexandro D; Paninski, Liam

    2014-04-01

    Generalized linear models play an essential role in a wide variety of statistical applications. This paper discusses an approximation of the likelihood in these models that can greatly facilitate computation. The basic idea is to replace a sum that appears in the exact log-likelihood by an expectation over the model covariates; the resulting "expected log-likelihood" can in many cases be computed significantly faster than the exact log-likelihood. In many neuroscience experiments the distribution over model covariates is controlled by the experimenter and the expected log-likelihood approximation becomes particularly useful; for example, estimators based on maximizing this expected log-likelihood (or a penalized version thereof) can often be obtained with orders of magnitude computational savings compared to the exact maximum likelihood estimators. A risk analysis establishes that these maximum EL estimators often come with little cost in accuracy (and in some cases even improved accuracy) compared to standard maximum likelihood estimates. Finally, we find that these methods can significantly decrease the computation time of marginal likelihood calculations for model selection and of Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for sampling from the posterior parameter distribution. We illustrate our results by applying these methods to a computationally-challenging dataset of neural spike trains obtained via large-scale multi-electrode recordings in the primate retina.

  1. Population decoding of motor cortical activity using a generalized linear model with hidden states.

    PubMed

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas; Paninski, Liam

    2010-06-15

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (reducing the mean square error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications.

  2. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    SciTech Connect

    Yock, Adam D. Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  3. Dental treatment under general anesthesia in a group of patients with cerebral palsy and a group of healthy pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Escanilla-Casal, Alejandro; Aznar-Gómez, Mirella; Viaño, José M.; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This is a comparative study between two groups, one of healthy children and the other of children with cerebral palsy, which underwent dental treatment under general anesthesia at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona. The purpose of the study was to compare and determine oral pathology, frequency, severity and postoperative complications in pediatric patients with and without an underlying disease which undergo a dental treatment under general anesthesia. Key words:General anesthesia, cerebral palsy, pediatric patients. PMID:24608223

  4. A theorem on orbit structures (strata) of compact linear Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, G.

    1983-04-01

    We present a comprehensive constructive proof of a theorem characterizing the tangent space to a stratum (orbit structure) of the Euclidean space Rn, seat of an orthogonal representation of a compact group G. The characterization is made in terms of gradients of a complete set (integrity basis) of G-invariant polynomials. In a recent paper [M. Abud and G. Sartori, Phys. Lett. B 104, 147 (1981)], the theorem, which may be considered a generalization of a theorem by Michel [C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. A 272, 433 (1971)], has been shown to be effective in the determination of the equations of the strata and in the determination of natural extrema of G-invariant functions.

  5. 26 CFR 1.79-1 - Group-term life insurance-general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group-term life insurance-general rules. 1.79-1...-term life insurance—general rules. (a) What is group-term life insurance? Life insurance is not group-term life insurance for purposes of section 79 unless it meets the following conditions: (1)...

  6. A general linear model-based approach for inferring selection to climate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many efforts have been made to detect signatures of positive selection in the human genome, especially those associated with expansion from Africa and subsequent colonization of all other continents. However, most approaches have not directly probed the relationship between the environment and patterns of variation among humans. We have designed a method to identify regions of the genome under selection based on Mantel tests conducted within a general linear model framework, which we call MAntel-GLM to Infer Clinal Selection (MAGICS). MAGICS explicitly incorporates population-specific and genome-wide patterns of background variation as well as information from environmental values to provide an improved picture of selection and its underlying causes in human populations. Results Our results significantly overlap with those obtained by other published methodologies, but MAGICS has several advantages. These include improvements that: limit false positives by reducing the number of independent tests conducted and by correcting for geographic distance, which we found to be a major contributor to selection signals; yield absolute rather than relative estimates of significance; identify specific geographic regions linked most strongly to particular signals of selection; and detect recent balancing as well as directional selection. Conclusions We find evidence of selection associated with climate (P < 10-5) in 354 genes, and among these observe a highly significant enrichment for directional positive selection. Two of our strongest 'hits’, however, ADRA2A and ADRA2C, implicated in vasoconstriction in response to cold and pain stimuli, show evidence of balancing selection. Our results clearly demonstrate evidence of climate-related signals of directional and balancing selection. PMID:24053227

  7. Generalized Functional Linear Models for Gene-based Case-Control Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mills, James L.; Carter, Tonia C.; Lobach, Iryna; Wilson, Alexander F.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-01-01

    By using functional data analysis techniques, we developed generalized functional linear models for testing association between a dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region while adjusting for covariates. Both fixed and mixed effect models are developed and compared. Extensive simulations show that Rao's efficient score tests of the fixed effect models are very conservative since they generate lower type I errors than nominal levels, and global tests of the mixed effect models generate accurate type I errors. Furthermore, we found that the Rao's efficient score test statistics of the fixed effect models have higher power than the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified version (SKAT-O) in most cases when the causal variants are both rare and common. When the causal variants are all rare (i.e., minor allele frequencies less than 0.03), the Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests have similar or slightly lower power than SKAT and SKAT-O. In practice, it is not known whether rare variants or common variants in a gene are disease-related. All we can assume is that a combination of rare and common variants influences disease susceptibility. Thus, the improved performance of our models when the causal variants are both rare and common shows that the proposed models can be very useful in dissecting complex traits. We compare the performance of our methods with SKAT and SKAT-O on real neural tube defects and Hirschsprung's disease data sets. The Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests are more sensitive than SKAT and SKAT-O in the real data analysis. Our methods can be used in either gene-disease genome-wide/exome-wide association studies or candidate gene analyses. PMID:25203683

  8. Generalized functional linear models for gene-based case-control association studies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Lobach, Iryna; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Weeks, Daniel E; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-11-01

    By using functional data analysis techniques, we developed generalized functional linear models for testing association between a dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region while adjusting for covariates. Both fixed and mixed effect models are developed and compared. Extensive simulations show that Rao's efficient score tests of the fixed effect models are very conservative since they generate lower type I errors than nominal levels, and global tests of the mixed effect models generate accurate type I errors. Furthermore, we found that the Rao's efficient score test statistics of the fixed effect models have higher power than the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified version (SKAT-O) in most cases when the causal variants are both rare and common. When the causal variants are all rare (i.e., minor allele frequencies less than 0.03), the Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests have similar or slightly lower power than SKAT and SKAT-O. In practice, it is not known whether rare variants or common variants in a gene region are disease related. All we can assume is that a combination of rare and common variants influences disease susceptibility. Thus, the improved performance of our models when the causal variants are both rare and common shows that the proposed models can be very useful in dissecting complex traits. We compare the performance of our methods with SKAT and SKAT-O on real neural tube defects and Hirschsprung's disease datasets. The Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests are more sensitive than SKAT and SKAT-O in the real data analysis. Our methods can be used in either gene-disease genome-wide/exome-wide association studies or candidate gene analyses.

  9. Protein structure validation by generalized linear model root-mean-square deviation prediction.

    PubMed

    Bagaria, Anurag; Jaravine, Victor; Huang, Yuanpeng J; Montelione, Gaetano T; Güntert, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale initiatives for obtaining spatial protein structures by experimental or computational means have accentuated the need for the critical assessment of protein structure determination and prediction methods. These include blind test projects such as the critical assessment of protein structure prediction (CASP) and the critical assessment of protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (CASD-NMR). An important aim is to establish structure validation criteria that can reliably assess the accuracy of a new protein structure. Various quality measures derived from the coordinates have been proposed. A universal structural quality assessment method should combine multiple individual scores in a meaningful way, which is challenging because of their different measurement units. Here, we present a method based on a generalized linear model (GLM) that combines diverse protein structure quality scores into a single quantity with intuitive meaning, namely the predicted coordinate root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between the present structure and the (unavailable) "true" structure (GLM-RMSD). For two sets of structural models from the CASD-NMR and CASP projects, this GLM-RMSD value was compared with the actual accuracy given by the RMSD value to the corresponding, experimentally determined reference structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The correlation coefficients between actual (model vs. reference from PDB) and predicted (model vs. "true") heavy-atom RMSDs were 0.69 and 0.76, for the two datasets from CASD-NMR and CASP, respectively, which is considerably higher than those for the individual scores (-0.24 to 0.68). The GLM-RMSD can thus predict the accuracy of protein structures more reliably than individual coordinate-based quality scores.

  10. Node-Splitting Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Evaluation of Inconsistency in Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu-Kang, Tu

    2016-12-01

    Network meta-analysis for multiple treatment comparisons has been a major development in evidence synthesis methodology. The validity of a network meta-analysis, however, can be threatened by inconsistency in evidence within the network. One particular issue of inconsistency is how to directly evaluate the inconsistency between direct and indirect evidence with regard to the effects difference between two treatments. A Bayesian node-splitting model was first proposed and a similar frequentist side-splitting model has been put forward recently. Yet, assigning the inconsistency parameter to one or the other of the two treatments or splitting the parameter symmetrically between the two treatments can yield different results when multi-arm trials are involved in the evaluation. We aimed to show that a side-splitting model can be viewed as a special case of design-by-treatment interaction model, and different parameterizations correspond to different design-by-treatment interactions. We demonstrated how to evaluate the side-splitting model using the arm-based generalized linear mixed model, and an example data set was used to compare results from the arm-based models with those from the contrast-based models. The three parameterizations of side-splitting make slightly different assumptions: the symmetrical method assumes that both treatments in a treatment contrast contribute to inconsistency between direct and indirect evidence, whereas the other two parameterizations assume that only one of the two treatments contributes to this inconsistency. With this understanding in mind, meta-analysts can then make a choice about how to implement the side-splitting method for their analysis. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling psychophysical data at the population-level: the generalized linear mixed model.

    PubMed

    Moscatelli, Alessandro; Mezzetti, Maura; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2012-10-25

    In psychophysics, researchers usually apply a two-level model for the analysis of the behavior of the single subject and the population. This classical model has two main disadvantages. First, the second level of the analysis discards information on trial repetitions and subject-specific variability. Second, the model does not easily allow assessing the goodness of fit. As an alternative to this classical approach, here we propose the Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). The GLMM separately estimates the variability of fixed and random effects, it has a higher statistical power, and it allows an easier assessment of the goodness of fit compared with the classical two-level model. GLMMs have been frequently used in many disciplines since the 1990s; however, they have been rarely applied in psychophysics. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the issue of estimating the point-of-subjective-equivalence (PSE) within the GLMM framework has never been addressed. Therefore the article has two purposes: It provides a brief introduction to the usage of the GLMM in psychophysics, and it evaluates two different methods to estimate the PSE and its variability within the GLMM framework. We compare the performance of the GLMM and the classical two-level model on published experimental data and simulated data. We report that the estimated values of the parameters were similar between the two models and Type I errors were below the confidence level in both models. However, the GLMM has a higher statistical power than the two-level model. Moreover, one can easily compare the fit of different GLMMs according to different criteria. In conclusion, we argue that the GLMM can be a useful method in psychophysics.

  12. Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Landmann, Tobias; Kyalo, Richard; Ong'amo, George; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Sulieman, Saad; Ru, Bruno Le

    2017-05-01

    Average maize yield in eastern Africa is 2.03 t ha-1 as compared to global average of 6.06 t ha-1 due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In eastern Africa, maize yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% and 21% of the total production. The objective of the present study was to explore the possibility of RapidEye spectral data to assess stem borer larva densities in maize fields in two study sites in Kenya. RapidEye images were acquired for the Bomet (western Kenya) test site on the 9th of December 2014 and on 27th of January 2015, and for Machakos (eastern Kenya) a RapidEye image was acquired on the 3rd of January 2015. Five RapidEye spectral bands as well as 30 spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were utilized to predict per field maize stem borer larva densities using generalized linear models (GLMs), assuming Poisson ('Po') and negative binomial ('NB') distributions. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were used to assess the models performance using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The Zero-inflated NB ('ZINB') models outperformed the 'NB' models and stem borer larva densities could only be predicted during the mid growing season in December and early January in both study sites, respectively (RMSE = 0.69-1.06 and RPD = 8.25-19.57). Overall, all models performed similar when all the 30 SVIs (non-nested) and only the significant (nested) SVIs were used. The models developed could improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers within integrated pest management (IPM) interventions.

  13. A generalized harmonic balance method for forced non-linear oscillations: the subharmonic cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. J.

    1992-12-01

    This paper summarizes and extends results in two previous papers, published in conference proceedings, on a variant of the generalized harmonic balance method (GHB) and its application to obtain subharmonic solutions of forced non-linear oscillation problems. This method was introduced as an alternative to the method of multiple scales, and it essentially consists of two parts. First, the part of the multiple scales method used to reduce the problem to a set of differential equations is used to express the solution as a sum of terms of various harmonics with unknown, time dependent coefficients. Second, the form of solution so obtained is substituted into the original equation and the coefficients of each harmonic are set to zero. Key equations of approximations for a subharmonic case are derived for the cases of both "small" damping and excitations, and "Large" damping and excitations, which are shown to be identical, in the intended order of approximation, to those obtained by Nayfeh using the method of multiple scales. Detailed numerical formulations, including the derivation of the initial conditions, are presented, as well as some numerical results for the frequency-response relations and the time evolution of various harmonic components. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between results by GHB and by integrating the original differential equation directly. The improved efficiency in obtaining numerical solutions using GHB as compared with integrating the original differential equation is demonstrated also. For the case of large damping and excitations and for non-trivial solutions, it is noted that there exists a threshold value of the force beyond which no subharmonic excitations are possible.

  14. Determinants of hospital closure in South Korea: use of a hierarchical generalized linear model.

    PubMed

    Noh, Maengseok; Lee, Youngjo; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Il; Lee, Moo-Song; Khang, Young-Ho

    2006-11-01

    Understanding causes of hospital closure is important if hospitals are to survive and continue to fulfill their missions as the center for health care in their neighborhoods. Knowing which hospitals are most susceptible to closure can be of great use for hospital administrators and others interested in hospital performance. Although prior studies have identified a range of factors associated with increased risk of hospital closure, most are US-based and do not directly relate to health care systems in other countries. We examined determinants of hospital closure in a nationally representative sample: 805 hospitals established in South Korea before 1996 were examined-hospitals established in 1996 or after were excluded. Major organizational changes (survival vs. closure) were followed for all South Korean hospitals from 1996 through 2002. With the use of a hierarchical generalized linear model, a frailty model was used to control correlation among repeated measurements for risk factors for hospital closure. Results showed that ownership and hospital size were significantly associated with hospital closure. Urban hospitals were less likely to close than rural hospitals. However, the urban location of a hospital was not associated with hospital closure after adjustment for the proportion of elderly. Two measures for hospital competition (competitive beds and 1-Hirshman--Herfindalh index) were positively associated with risk of hospital closure before and after adjustment for confounders. In addition, annual 10% change in competitive beds was significantly predictive of hospital closure. In conclusion, yearly trends in hospital competition as well as the level of hospital competition each year affected hospital survival. Future studies need to examine the contribution of internal factors such as management strategies and financial status to hospital closure in South Korea.

  15. The linear co-variance between joint muscle torques is not a generalized principle.

    PubMed

    Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci; Dionísio, Valdeci Carlos; Lerena, Mario Adrian Misailidis; Marconi, Nadia Fernanda; Almeida, Gil Lúcio

    2009-06-01

    In 1996, Gottlieb et al. [Gottlieb GL, Song Q, Hong D, Almeida GL, Corcos DM. Coordinating movement at two joints: A principle of linear covariance. J Neurophysiol 1996;75(4):1760-4] identified a linear co-variance between the joint muscle torques generated at two connected joints. The joint muscle torques changed directions and magnitudes in a synchronized and linear fashion and called it the principle of linear co-variance. Here we showed that this principle cannot hold for some class of movements. Neurologically normal subjects performed multijoint movements involving elbow and shoulder with reversal towards three targets in the sagittal plane without any constraints. The movement kinematics was calculated using the X and Y coordinates of the markers positioned over the joints. Inverse dynamics was used to calculate the joint muscle, interaction and net torques. We found that for the class of voluntary movements analyzed, the joint muscle torques of the elbow and the shoulder were not linearly correlated. The same was observed for the interaction torques. But, the net torques at both joints, i.e., the sum of the interaction and the joint muscle torques were linearly correlated. We showed that by decoupling the joint muscle torques, but keeping the net torques linearly correlated, the CNS was able to generate fast and accurate movements with straight fingertip paths. The movement paths were typical of the ones in which the joint muscle torques were linearly correlated.

  16. Assessing the Tangent Linear Behaviour of Common Tracer Transport Schemes and Their Use in a Linearised Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Kent, James

    2015-01-01

    The linearity of a selection of common advection schemes is tested and examined with a view to their use in the tangent linear and adjoint versions of an atmospheric general circulation model. The schemes are tested within a simple offline one-dimensional periodic domain as well as using a simplified and complete configuration of the linearised version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5). All schemes which prevent the development of negative values and preserve the shape of the solution are confirmed to have nonlinear behaviour. The piecewise parabolic method (PPM) with certain flux limiters, including that used by default in GEOS-5, is found to support linear growth near the shocks. This property can cause the rapid development of unrealistically large perturbations within the tangent linear and adjoint models. It is shown that these schemes with flux limiters should not be used within the linearised version of a transport scheme. The results from tests using GEOS-5 show that the current default scheme (a version of PPM) is not suitable for the tangent linear and adjoint model, and that using a linear third-order scheme for the linearised model produces better behaviour. Using the third-order scheme for the linearised model improves the correlations between the linear and non-linear perturbation trajectories for cloud liquid water and cloud liquid ice in GEOS-5.

  17. Assessing the Tangent Linear Behaviour of Common Tracer Transport Schemes and Their Use in a Linearised Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Kent, James

    2015-01-01

    The linearity of a selection of common advection schemes is tested and examined with a view to their use in the tangent linear and adjoint versions of an atmospheric general circulation model. The schemes are tested within a simple offline one-dimensional periodic domain as well as using a simplified and complete configuration of the linearised version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5). All schemes which prevent the development of negative values and preserve the shape of the solution are confirmed to have nonlinear behaviour. The piecewise parabolic method (PPM) with certain flux limiters, including that used by default in GEOS-5, is found to support linear growth near the shocks. This property can cause the rapid development of unrealistically large perturbations within the tangent linear and adjoint models. It is shown that these schemes with flux limiters should not be used within the linearised version of a transport scheme. The results from tests using GEOS-5 show that the current default scheme (a version of PPM) is not suitable for the tangent linear and adjoint model, and that using a linear third-order scheme for the linearised model produces better behaviour. Using the third-order scheme for the linearised model improves the correlations between the linear and non-linear perturbation trajectories for cloud liquid water and cloud liquid ice in GEOS-5.

  18. On the Global and Linear Convergence of the Generalized Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    This paper shows that global linear convergence can be guaranteed under the above assumptions on strong convexity and Lipschitz gradient on one of the...linear convergence can be guaranteed under the above assumptions on strong convexity and Lipschitz gradient on one of the two functions, along with certain...extensive literature on the ADM and its applications , there are very few results on its rate of convergence until the very recent past. Work [13] shows

  19. On the dynamics of canopy resistance: Generalized linear estimation and relationships with primary micrometeorological variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmak, Suat; Mutiibwa, Denis

    2010-08-01

    The 1-D and single layer combination-based energy balance Penman-Monteith (PM) model has limitations in practical application due to the lack of canopy resistance (rc) data for different vegetation surfaces. rc could be estimated by inversion of the PM model if the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) rate is known, but this approach has its own set of issues. Instead, an empirical method of estimating rc is suggested in this study. We investigated the relationships between primary micrometeorological parameters and rc and developed seven models to estimate rc for a nonstressed maize canopy on an hourly time step using a generalized-linear modeling approach. The most complex rc model uses net radiation (Rn), air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), relative humidity (RH), wind speed at 3 m (u3), aerodynamic resistance (ra), leaf area index (LAI), and solar zenith angle (Θ). The simplest model requires Rn, Ta, and RH. We present the practical implementation of all models via experimental validation using scaled up rc data obtained from the dynamic diffusion porometer-measured leaf stomatal resistance through an extensive field campaign in 2006. For further validation, we estimated ETa by solving the PM model using the modeled rc from all seven models and compared the PM ETa estimates with the Bowen ratio energy balance system (BREBS)-measured ETa for an independent data set in 2005. The relationships between hourly rc versus Ta, RH, VPD, Rn, incoming shortwave radiation (Rs), u3, wind direction, LAI, Θ, and ra were presented and discussed. We demonstrated the negative impact of exclusion of LAI when modeling rc, whereas exclusion of ra and Θ did not impact the performance of the rc models. Compared to the calibration results, the validation root mean square difference between observed and modeled rc increased by 5 s m-1 for all rc models developed, ranging from 9.9 s m-1 for the most complex model to 22.8 s m-1 for the simplest model, as compared with the

  20. Meta-analysis of Complex Diseases at Gene Level with Generalized Functional Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Chiu, Chi-Yang; Chen, Wei; Ren, Haobo; Li, Yun; Boehnke, Michael; Amos, Christopher I; Moore, Jason H; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-02-01

    We developed generalized functional linear models (GFLMs) to perform a meta-analysis of multiple case-control studies to evaluate the relationship of genetic data to dichotomous traits adjusting for covariates. Unlike the previously developed meta-analysis for sequence kernel association tests (MetaSKATs), which are based on mixed-effect models to make the contributions of major gene loci random, GFLMs are fixed models; i.e., genetic effects of multiple genetic variants are fixed. Based on GFLMs, we developed chi-squared-distributed Rao's efficient score test and likelihood-ratio test (LRT) statistics to test for an association between a complex dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants. We then performed extensive simulations to evaluate the empirical type I error rates and power performance of the proposed tests. The Rao's efficient score test statistics of GFLMs are very conservative and have higher power than MetaSKATs when some causal variants are rare and some are common. When the causal variants are all rare [i.e., minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.03], the Rao's efficient score test statistics have similar or slightly lower power than MetaSKATs. The LRT statistics generate accurate type I error rates for homogeneous genetic-effect models and may inflate type I error rates for heterogeneous genetic-effect models owing to the large numbers of degrees of freedom and have similar or slightly higher power than the Rao's efficient score test statistics. GFLMs were applied to analyze genetic data of 22 gene regions of type 2 diabetes data from a meta-analysis of eight European studies and detected significant association for 18 genes (P < 3.10 × 10(-6)), tentative association for 2 genes (HHEX and HMGA2; P ≈ 10(-5)), and no association for 2 genes, while MetaSKATs detected none. In addition, the traditional additive-effect model detects association at gene HHEX. GFLMs and related tests can analyze rare or common variants or a combination of the two and

  1. A methodology for evaluation of parent-mutant competition using a generalized non-linear ecosystem model

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1973-01-01

    A generalized, non-linear population dynamics model of an ecosystem is used to investigate the direction of selective pressures upon a mutant by studying the competition between parent and mutant populations. The model has the advantages of considering selection as operating on the phenotype, of retaining the interaction of the mutant population with the ecosystem as a...

  2. EVALUATING PREDICTIVE ERRORS OF A COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL MODEL USING A GENERAL LINEAR MODEL AND LEAST SQUARE MEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A General Linear Model (GLM) was used to evaluate the deviation of predicted values from expected values for a complex environmental model. For this demonstration, we used the default level interface of the Regional Mercury Cycling Model (R-MCM) to simulate epilimnetic total mer...

  3. Dental treatment under general anesthesia in a group of patients with cerebral palsy and a group of healthy pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Escanilla-Casal, Alejandro; Aznar-Gómez, Mirella; Viaño, José-María; López-Giménez, Ana; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    This is a comparative study between two groups, one of healthy children and the other of children with cerebral palsy, which underwent dental treatment under general anesthesia at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona. The purpose of the study was to compare and determine oral pathology, frequency, severity and postoperative complications in pediatric patients with and without an underlying disease which undergo a dental treatment under general anesthesia.

  4. A Community Needs Index for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program Planning: Application of Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glen D; Mesler, Kristine; Kacica, Marilyn A

    2017-02-06

    Objective The objective is to estimate community needs with respect to risky adolescent sexual behavior in a way that is risk-adjusted for multiple community factors. Methods Generalized linear mixed modeling was applied for estimating teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence by postal ZIP code in New York State, in a way that adjusts for other community covariables and residual spatial autocorrelation. A community needs index was then obtained by summing the risk-adjusted estimates of pregnancy and STD cases. Results Poisson regression with a spatial random effect was chosen among competing modeling approaches. Both the risk-adjusted caseloads and rates were computed for ZIP codes, which allowed risk-based prioritization to help guide funding decisions for a comprehensive adolescent pregnancy prevention program. Conclusions This approach provides quantitative evidence of community needs with respect to risky adolescent sexual behavior, while adjusting for other community-level variables and stabilizing estimates in areas with small populations. Therefore, it was well accepted by the affected groups and proved valuable for program planning. This methodology may also prove valuable for follow up program evaluation. Current research is directed towards further improving the statistical modeling approach and applying to different health and behavioral outcomes, along with different predictor variables.

  5. Misconceptions in the use of the General Linear Model applied to functional MRI: a tutorial for junior neuro-imagers

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril R.

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial presents several misconceptions related to the use the General Linear Model (GLM) in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The goal is not to present mathematical proofs but to educate using examples and computer code (in Matlab). In particular, I address issues related to (1) model parameterization (modeling baseline or null events) and scaling of the design matrix; (2) hemodynamic modeling using basis functions, and (3) computing percentage signal change. Using a simple controlled block design and an alternating block design, I first show why “baseline” should not be modeled (model over-parameterization), and how this affects effect sizes. I also show that, depending on what is tested; over-parameterization does not necessarily impact upon statistical results. Next, using a simple periodic vs. random event related design, I show how the hemodynamic model (hemodynamic function only or using derivatives) can affects parameter estimates, as well as detail the role of orthogonalization. I then relate the above results to the computation of percentage signal change. Finally, I discuss how these issues affect group analyses and give some recommendations. PMID:24478622

  6. 26 CFR 1.79-1 - Group-term life insurance-general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... one dollar of paid-up whole-life insurance) at the employee's attained age at the beginning of the... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Group-term life insurance-general rules. 1.79-1...-term life insurance—general rules. (a) What is group-term life insurance? Life insurance is not...

  7. 26 CFR 1.79-1 - Group-term life insurance-general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... one dollar of paid-up whole-life insurance) at the employee's attained age at the beginning of the... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Group-term life insurance-general rules. 1.79-1...-term life insurance—general rules. (a) What is group-term life insurance? Life insurance is not...

  8. Partitioning the set of subgroups of a finite group using Thompson's generalized characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Michael P.

    For a collection of subgroups P of a finite group G, we define the counting function psiP(g) = |{ x ∈ G: ∈ P }|. We partition the set of subgroups of G by defining an equivalence relation so that psiP is a generalized character for every equivalence class P. In some groups the equivalence relation can be refined to produce more generalized characters. We classify all refinements for elementary abelian p-groups of order p3, dihedral groups, and the direct product of a dihedral group of order 2 p and a cyclic group.

  9. Reader Reaction On the generalized Kruskal-Wallis test for genetic association studies incorporating group uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baolin; Guan, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Summary Acar and Sun (2013, Biometrics, 69, 427-435) presented a generalized Kruskal-Wallis (GKW) test for genetic association studies that incorporated the genotype uncertainty and showed its robust and competitive performance compared to existing methods. We present another interesting way to derive the GKW test via a rank linear model. PMID:25351417

  10. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-15

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  11. GENERAL: A Study on Stochastic Resonance in Biased Subdiffusive Smoluchowski Systems within Linear Response Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Juan; Kang, Yan-Mei

    2010-08-01

    The method of matrix continued fraction is used to investigate stochastic resonance (SR) in the biased subdiffusive Smoluchowski system within linear response range. Numerical results of linear dynamic susceptibility and spectral amplification factor are presented and discussed in two-well potential and mono-well potential with different subdiffusion exponents. Following our observation, the introduction of a bias in the potential weakens the SR effect in the subdiffusive system just as in the normal diffusive case. Our observation also discloses that the subdiffusion inhibits the low-frequency SR, but it enhances the high-frequency SR in the biased Smoluchowski system, which should reflect a “flattening" influence of the subdiffusion on the linear susceptibility.

  12. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-01

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  13. Evidence for the conjecture that sampling generalized cat states with linear optics is hard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Peter P.; Motes, Keith R.; Knott, Paul A.; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Munro, William J.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling has been presented as a simplified model for linear optical quantum computing. In the boson-sampling model, Fock states are passed through a linear optics network and sampled via number-resolved photodetection. It has been shown that this sampling problem likely cannot be efficiently classically simulated. This raises the question as to whether there are other quantum states of light for which the equivalent sampling problem is also computationally hard. We present evidence, without using a full complexity proof, that a very broad class of quantum states of light—arbitrary superpositions of two or more coherent states—when evolved via passive linear optics and sampled with number-resolved photodetection, likely implements a classically hard sampling problem.

  14. A generalized hybrid transfinite element computational approach for nonlinear/linear unified thermal/structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1987-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a new hybrid computational approach for applicability for nonlinear/linear thermal structural analysis. The proposed transfinite element approach is a hybrid scheme as it combines the modeling versatility of contemporary finite elements in conjunction with transform methods and the classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. Applicability of the proposed formulations for nonlinear analysis is also developed. Several test cases are presented to include nonlinear/linear unified thermal-stress and thermal-stress wave propagations. Comparative results validate the fundamental capablities of the proposed hybrid transfinite element methodology.

  15. Non-linear generalization of the relativistic Schrödinger equations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, U.; Sorg, M.

    1996-09-01

    The theory of the relativistic Schrödinger equations is further developped and extended to non-linear field equations. The technical advantage of the relativistic Schroedinger approach is demonstrated explicitly by solving the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations including a non-linear Higgs potential in case of a Robertson-Walker universe. The numerical results yield the effect of dynamical self-diagonalization of the Hamiltonian which corresponds to a kind of quantum de-coherence being enabled by the inflation of the universe.

  16. Linear ion trap with a deterministic voltage of the general form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhdestvenskii, Yu. V.; Rudyi, S. S.

    2017-04-01

    An analysis of the stability zones of a linear ion trap in the case of applying the voltage of the common form to the electrodes has been presented. The possibility of the localization of ions for specific types of periodic (but not harmonic) signals has been investigated. It has been shown that, when changing the types of temporal functions of the applied voltage the control by both trapping and dynamics of ions in a linear radiofrequency (RF) trap occurs, while preserving its design. The latest developments present new possibilities of implementing devices based on single ions, e.g., quantum frequency standards and quantum processors.

  17. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yen Vinokur, Marcel; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  18. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  19. General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel

    2015-04-07

    This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy

  20. Commentary on the statistical properties of noise and its implication on general linear models in functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Theodore J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique that uses low levels of light to measure changes in cerebral blood oxygenation levels. In the majority of NIRS functional brain studies, analysis of this data is based on a statistical comparison of hemodynamic levels between a baseline and task or between multiple task conditions by means of a linear regression model: the so-called general linear model. Although these methods are similar to their implementation in other fields, particularly for functional magnetic resonance imaging, the specific application of these methods in fNIRS research differs in several key ways related to the sources of noise and artifacts unique to fNIRS. In this brief communication, we discuss the application of linear regression models in fNIRS and the modifications needed to generalize these models in order to deal with structured (colored) noise due to systemic physiology and noise heteroscedasticity due to motion artifacts. The objective of this work is to present an overview of these noise properties in the context of the linear model as it applies to fNIRS data. This work is aimed at explaining these mathematical issues to the general fNIRS experimental researcher but is not intended to be a complete mathematical treatment of these concepts. PMID:26989756

  1. Recent advances toward a general purpose linear-scaling quantum force field.

    PubMed

    Giese, Timothy J; Huang, Ming; Chen, Haoyuan; York, Darrin M

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus There is need in the molecular simulation community to develop new quantum mechanical (QM) methods that can be routinely applied to the simulation of large molecular systems in complex, heterogeneous condensed phase environments. Although conventional methods, such as the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method, are adequate for many problems, there remain other applications that demand a fully quantum mechanical approach. QM methods are generally required in applications that involve changes in electronic structure, such as when chemical bond formation or cleavage occurs, when molecules respond to one another through polarization or charge transfer, or when matter interacts with electromagnetic fields. A full QM treatment, rather than QM/MM, is necessary when these features present themselves over a wide spatial range that, in some cases, may span the entire system. Specific examples include the study of catalytic events that involve delocalized changes in chemical bonds, charge transfer, or extensive polarization of the macromolecular environment; drug discovery applications, where the wide range of nonstandard residues and protonation states are challenging to model with purely empirical MM force fields; and the interpretation of spectroscopic observables. Unfortunately, the enormous computational cost of conventional QM methods limit their practical application to small systems. Linear-scaling electronic structure methods (LSQMs) make possible the calculation of large systems but are still too computationally intensive to be applied with the degree of configurational sampling often required to make meaningful comparison with experiment. In this work, we present advances in the development of a quantum mechanical force field (QMFF) suitable for application to biological macromolecules and condensed phase simulations. QMFFs leverage the benefits provided by the LSQM and QM/MM approaches to produce a fully QM method that is able to

  2. Comparing Regression Coefficients between Nested Linear Models for Clustered Data with Generalized Estimating Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jun; Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Comparing regression coefficients between models when one model is nested within another is of great practical interest when two explanations of a given phenomenon are specified as linear models. The statistical problem is whether the coefficients associated with a given set of covariates change significantly when other covariates are added into…

  3. Comparing Regression Coefficients between Nested Linear Models for Clustered Data with Generalized Estimating Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jun; Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Comparing regression coefficients between models when one model is nested within another is of great practical interest when two explanations of a given phenomenon are specified as linear models. The statistical problem is whether the coefficients associated with a given set of covariates change significantly when other covariates are added into…

  4. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  5. Intraoperative radiation therapy using mobile electron linear accelerators: report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 72.

    PubMed

    Beddar, A Sam; Biggs, Peter J; Chang, Sha; Ezzell, Gary A; Faddegon, Bruce A; Hensley, Frank W; Mills, Michael D

    2006-05-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been customarily performed either in a shielded operating suite located in the operating room (OR) or in a shielded treatment room located within the Department of Radiation Oncology. In both cases, this cancer treatment modality uses stationary linear accelerators. With the development of new technology, mobile linear accelerators have recently become available for IORT. Mobility offers flexibility in treatment location and is leading to a renewed interest in IORT. These mobile accelerator units, which can be transported any day of use to almost any location within a hospital setting, are assembled in a nondedicated environment and used to deliver IORT. Numerous aspects of the design of these new units differ from that of conventional linear accelerators. The scope of this Task Group (TG-72) will focus on items that particularly apply to mobile IORT electron systems. More specifically, the charges to this Task Group are to (i) identify the key differences between stationary and mobile electron linear accelerators used for IORT, (ii) describe and recommend the implementation of an IORT program within the OR environment, (iii) present and discuss radiation protection issues and consequences of working within a nondedicated radiotherapy environment, (iv) describe and recommend the acceptance and machine commissioning of items that are specific to mobile electron linear accelerators, and (v) design and recommend an efficient quality assurance program for mobile systems.

  6. Some Numerical Methods for Exponential Analysis with Connection to a General Identification Scheme for Linear Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    generalized nodel described by Eykhoff [1, 2], Astrom and Eykhoff [3], and on pages 209-220 of Eykhoff [4]. The origin of the general- ized model can be...aspects of process-parameter estimation," IEEE Trans. Auto. Control, October 1963, pp. 347-357. 3. K. J. Astrom and P. Eykhoff, "System

  7. Large deformation image classification using generalized locality-constrained linear coding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Niethammer, Marc; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been demonstrated to be very useful for clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A common approach to using MR images for AD detection is to spatially normalize the images by non-rigid image registration, and then perform statistical analysis on the resulting deformation fields. Due to the high nonlinearity of the deformation field, recent studies suggest to use initial momentum instead as it lies in a linear space and fully encodes the deformation field. In this paper we explore the use of initial momentum for image classification by focusing on the problem of AD detection. Experiments on the public ADNI dataset show that the initial momentum, together with a simple sparse coding technique-locality-constrained linear coding (LLC)--can achieve a classification accuracy that is comparable to or even better than the state of the art. We also show that the performance of LLC can be greatly improved by introducing proper weights to the codebook.

  8. Estimation of genetic variance for macro- and micro-environmental sensitivity using double hierarchical generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Han A; Rönnegård, Lars; Fikse, W Freddy; Veerkamp, Roel F; Strandberg, Erling

    2013-07-04

    Genetic variation for environmental sensitivity indicates that animals are genetically different in their response to environmental factors. Environmental factors are either identifiable (e.g. temperature) and called macro-environmental or unknown and called micro-environmental. The objectives of this study were to develop a statistical method to estimate genetic parameters for macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities simultaneously, to investigate bias and precision of resulting estimates of genetic parameters and to develop and evaluate use of Akaike's information criterion using h-likelihood to select the best fitting model. We assumed that genetic variation in macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities is expressed as genetic variance in the slope of a linear reaction norm and environmental variance, respectively. A reaction norm model to estimate genetic variance for macro-environmental sensitivity was combined with a structural model for residual variance to estimate genetic variance for micro-environmental sensitivity using a double hierarchical generalized linear model in ASReml. Akaike's information criterion was constructed as model selection criterion using approximated h-likelihood. Populations of sires with large half-sib offspring groups were simulated to investigate bias and precision of estimated genetic parameters. Designs with 100 sires, each with at least 100 offspring, are required to have standard deviations of estimated variances lower than 50% of the true value. When the number of offspring increased, standard deviations of estimates across replicates decreased substantially, especially for genetic variances of macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities. Standard deviations of estimated genetic correlations across replicates were quite large (between 0.1 and 0.4), especially when sires had few offspring. Practically, no bias was observed for estimates of any of the parameters. Using Akaike's information criterion the true genetic

  9. Estimation of genetic variance for macro- and micro-environmental sensitivity using double hierarchical generalized linear models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variation for environmental sensitivity indicates that animals are genetically different in their response to environmental factors. Environmental factors are either identifiable (e.g. temperature) and called macro-environmental or unknown and called micro-environmental. The objectives of this study were to develop a statistical method to estimate genetic parameters for macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities simultaneously, to investigate bias and precision of resulting estimates of genetic parameters and to develop and evaluate use of Akaike’s information criterion using h-likelihood to select the best fitting model. Methods We assumed that genetic variation in macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities is expressed as genetic variance in the slope of a linear reaction norm and environmental variance, respectively. A reaction norm model to estimate genetic variance for macro-environmental sensitivity was combined with a structural model for residual variance to estimate genetic variance for micro-environmental sensitivity using a double hierarchical generalized linear model in ASReml. Akaike’s information criterion was constructed as model selection criterion using approximated h-likelihood. Populations of sires with large half-sib offspring groups were simulated to investigate bias and precision of estimated genetic parameters. Results Designs with 100 sires, each with at least 100 offspring, are required to have standard deviations of estimated variances lower than 50% of the true value. When the number of offspring increased, standard deviations of estimates across replicates decreased substantially, especially for genetic variances of macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities. Standard deviations of estimated genetic correlations across replicates were quite large (between 0.1 and 0.4), especially when sires had few offspring. Practically, no bias was observed for estimates of any of the parameters. Using Akaike

  10. Expected Estimating Equation using Calibration Data for Generalized Linear Models with a Mixture of Berkson and Classical Errors in Covariates

    PubMed Central

    de Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Lee, Shen-Ming; Wang, Ching-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Data collected in many epidemiological or clinical research studies are often contaminated with measurement errors that may be of classical or Berkson error type. The measurement error may also be a combination of both classical and Berkson errors and failure to account for both errors could lead to unreliable inference in many situations. We consider regression analysis in generalized linear models when some covariates are prone to a mixture of Berkson and classical errors and calibration data are available only for some subjects in a subsample. We propose an expected estimating equation approach to accommodate both errors in generalized linear regression analyses. The proposed method can consistently estimate the classical and Berkson error variances based on the available data, without knowing the mixture percentage. Its finite-sample performance is investigated numerically. Our method is illustrated by an application to real data from an HIV vaccine study. PMID:24009099

  11. Two Group Development Patterns of Virtual Learning Teams: Linear Progression and Adaptive Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Seung Won

    2006-01-01

    This study examined member behaviors, distribution of performed behaviors, and development-shaping forces in order to identify group development patterns of virtual learning teams. Participants of this study were 7 newly formed virtual learning teams working on a final group project in a 12-week online graduate-level course. Examining the group…

  12. Two Group Development Patterns of Virtual Learning Teams: Linear Progression and Adaptive Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Seung Won

    2006-01-01

    This study examined member behaviors, distribution of performed behaviors, and development-shaping forces in order to identify group development patterns of virtual learning teams. Participants of this study were 7 newly formed virtual learning teams working on a final group project in a 12-week online graduate-level course. Examining the group…

  13. CABARET scheme for the numerical solution of aeroacoustics problems: Generalization to linearized one-dimensional Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloviznin, V. M.; Karabasov, S. A.; Kozubskaya, T. K.; Maksimov, N. V.

    2009-12-01

    A generalization of the CABARET finite difference scheme is proposed for linearized one-dimensional Euler equations based on the characteristic decomposition into local Riemann invariants. The new method is compared with several central finite difference schemes that are widely used in computational aeroacoustics. Numerical results for the propagation of an acoustic wave in a homogeneous field and the refraction of this wave through a contact discontinuity obtained on a strongly nonuniform grid are presented.

  14. Solution of a General Linear Complementarity Problem Using Smooth Optimization and Its Application to Bilinear Programming and LCP

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, L.; Friedlander, A.; Guedes, M.; Judice, J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper addresses a General Linear Complementarity Problem (GLCP) that has found applications in global optimization. It is shown that a solution of the GLCP can be computed by finding a stationary point of a differentiable function over a set defined by simple bounds on the variables. The application of this result to the solution of bilinear programs and LCPs is discussed. Some computational evidence of its usefulness is included in the last part of the paper.

  15. On the Energy Release Rate for Dynamic Transient Anti-Plane Shear Crack Propagation in a General Linear Viscoelastic Body

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    properties.> Moreover, it is found that whether or not a failure zone is incorporated into the model si nif icantly influences both quantitatively and...Moreover, it is found that whether or not a failure zone is incorporated into the model significantly influences both quantitatively and...Hopf technique, Willis constructed the dynamic stress intensity factor (SIP) for a standard linear solid material model and general crack face

  16. Principal components and generalized linear modeling in the correlation between hospital admissions and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Juliana Bottoni; Reisen, Valdério Anselmo; Santos, Jane Méri; Franco, Glaura Conceição

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between concentrations of air pollutants and admissions for respiratory causes in children. METHODS Ecological time series study. Daily figures for hospital admissions of children aged < 6, and daily concentrations of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO) were analyzed in the Região da Grande Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2010. For statistical analysis, two techniques were combined: Poisson regression with generalized additive models and principal model component analysis. Those analysis techniques complemented each other and provided more significant estimates in the estimation of relative risk. The models were adjusted for temporal trend, seasonality, day of the week, meteorological factors and autocorrelation. In the final adjustment of the model, it was necessary to include models of the Autoregressive Moving Average Models (p, q) type in the residuals in order to eliminate the autocorrelation structures present in the components. RESULTS For every 10:49 μg/m3 increase (interquartile range) in levels of the pollutant PM10 there was a 3.0% increase in the relative risk estimated using the generalized additive model analysis of main components-seasonal autoregressive – while in the usual generalized additive model, the estimate was 2.0%. CONCLUSIONS Compared to the usual generalized additive model, in general, the proposed aspect of generalized additive model − principal component analysis, showed better results in estimating relative risk and quality of fit. PMID:25119940

  17. Generalized Jack polynomials and the AGT relations for the SU(3) group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S.; Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We find generalized Jack polynomials for the SU(3) group and verify that their Selberg averages for several first levels are given by Nekrasov functions. To compute the averages, we derive recurrence relations for the Selberg integrals.

  18. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  19. Does a physical activity program in the nursing home impact on depressive symptoms? A generalized linear mixed-model approach.

    PubMed

    Diegelmann, Mona; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver K; Schnabel, Eva-Luisa; Hauer, Klaus

    2017-04-18

    Physical activity (PA) may counteract depressive symptoms in nursing home (NH) residents considering biological, psychological, and person-environment transactional pathways. Empirical results, however, have remained inconsistent. Addressing potential shortcomings of previous research, we examined the effect of a whole-ecology PA intervention program on NH residents' depressive symptoms using generalized linear mixed-models (GLMMs). We used longitudinal data from residents of two German NHs who were included without any pre-selection regarding physical and mental functioning (n = 163, Mage = 83.1, 53-100 years; 72% female) and assessed on four occasions each three months apart. Residents willing to participate received a 12-week PA training program. Afterwards, the training was implemented in weekly activity schedules by NH staff. We ran GLMMs to account for the highly skewed depressive symptoms outcome measure (12-item Geriatric Depression Scale-Residential) by using gamma distribution. Exercising (n = 78) and non-exercising residents (n = 85) showed a comparable level of depressive symptoms at pretest. For exercising residents, depressive symptoms stabilized between pre-, posttest, and at follow-up, whereas an increase was observed for non-exercising residents. The intervention group's stabilization in depressive symptoms was maintained at follow-up, but increased further for non-exercising residents. Implementing an innovative PA intervention appears to be a promising approach to prevent the increase of NH residents' depressive symptoms. At the data-analytical level, GLMMs seem to be a promising tool for intervention research at large, because all longitudinally available data points and non-normality of outcome data can be considered.

  20. General solution of the diffusion equation with a nonlocal diffusive term and a linear force term.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, L C; Mendes, R S; Lenzi, E K; Lenzi, M K

    2006-10-01

    We obtain a formal solution for a large class of diffusion equations with a spatial kernel dependence in the diffusive term. The presence of this kernel represents a nonlocal dependence of the diffusive process and, by a suitable choice, it has the spatial fractional diffusion equations as a particular case. We also consider the presence of a linear external force and source terms. In addition, we show that a rich class of anomalous diffusion, e.g., the Lévy superdiffusion, can be obtained by an appropriated choice of kernel.

  1. Identification of general linear relationships between activation energies and enthalpy changes for dissociation reactions at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Angelos; Liu, Z-P; Zhang, C J; Alavi, Ali; King, David A; Hu, P

    2003-04-02

    The activation energy to reaction is a key quantity that controls catalytic activity. Having used ab inito calculations to determine an extensive and broad ranging set of activation energies and enthalpy changes for surface-catalyzed reactions, we show that linear relationships exist between dissociation activation energies and enthalpy changes. Known in the literature as empirical Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relationships, we identify and discuss the physical origin of their presence in heterogeneous catalysis. The key implication is that merely from knowledge of adsorption energies the barriers to catalytic elementary reaction steps can be estimated.

  2. Use of a generalized linear model to evaluate range forage production estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, John E.; Joyce, Linda A.

    1986-05-01

    Interdisciplinary teams have been used in federal land planning and in the private sector to reach consensus on the environmental impact of management. When a large data base is constructed, verifiability of the accuracy of the coded estimates and the underlying assumptions becomes a problem. A mechanism is provided by the use of a linear statistical model to evaluate production coefficients in terms of errors in coding and underlying assumptions. The technique can be used to evaluate other intuitive models depicting natural resource production in relation to prescribed variables, such as site factors or secondary succession.

  3. A general algorithm for control problems with variable parameters and quasi-linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayón, L.; Grau, J. M.; Ruiz, M. M.; Suárez, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that is able to solve optimal control problems in which the modelling of the system contains variable parameters, with the added complication that, in certain cases, these parameters can lead to control problems governed by quasi-linear equations. Combining the techniques of Pontryagin's Maximum Principle and the shooting method, an algorithm has been developed that is not affected by the values of the parameters, being able to solve conventional problems as well as cases in which the optimal solution is shown to be bang-bang with singular arcs.

  4. General University Requirements at Hong Kong Polytechnic University: Evaluation Findings Based on Student Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel Tan Lei; Yu, Lu; Wu, Florence Ka Yu; Chai, Wen Yu

    2015-01-01

    Under the new four-year undergraduate programme, a general education framework titled "General University Requirements" (GUR) has been developed and implemented since 2012/2013 at Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). To evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the GUR in its first year, focus group interviews with students…

  5. Modeling Learning in Doubly Multilevel Binary Longitudinal Data Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models: An Application to Measuring and Explaining Word Learning.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2016-04-01

    When word learning is supported by instruction in experimental studies for adolescents, word knowledge outcomes tend to be collected from complex data structure, such as multiple aspects of word knowledge, multilevel reader data, multilevel item data, longitudinal design, and multiple groups. This study illustrates how generalized linear mixed models can be used to measure and explain word learning for data having such complexity. Results from this application provide deeper understanding of word knowledge than could be attained from simpler models and show that word knowledge is multidimensional and depends on word characteristics and instructional contexts.

  6. A General Method for Solving Systems of Non-Linear Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The method of steepest descent is modified so that accelerated convergence is achieved near a root. It is assumed that the function of interest can be approximated near a root by a quadratic form. An eigenvector of the quadratic form is found by evaluating the function and its gradient at an arbitrary point and another suitably selected point. The terminal point of the eigenvector is chosen to lie on the line segment joining the two points. The terminal point found lies on an axis of the quadratic form. The selection of a suitable step size at this point leads directly to the root in the direction of steepest descent in a single step. Newton's root finding method not infrequently diverges if the starting point is far from the root. However, the current method in these regions merely reverts to the method of steepest descent with an adaptive step size. The current method's performance should match that of the Levenberg-Marquardt root finding method since they both share the ability to converge from a starting point far from the root and both exhibit quadratic convergence near a root. The Levenberg-Marquardt method requires storage for coefficients of linear equations. The current method which does not require the solution of linear equations requires more time for additional function and gradient evaluations. The classic trade off of time for space separates the two methods.

  7. A substructure coupling procedure applicable to general linear time-invariant dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, T. G.; Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A substructure synthesis procedure applicable to structural systems containing general nonconservative terms is presented. In their final form, the nonself-adjoint substructure equations of motion are cast in state vector form through the use of a variational principle. A reduced-order mode for each substructure is implemented by representing the substructure as a combination of a small number of Ritz vectors. For the method presented, the substructure Ritz vectors are identified as a truncated set of substructure eigenmodes, which are typically complex, along with a set of generalized real attachment modes. The formation of the generalized attachment modes does not require any knowledge of the substructure flexible modes; hence, only the eigenmodes used explicitly as Ritz vectors need to be extracted from the substructure eigenproblem. An example problem is presented to illustrate the method.

  8. The Exact Solution for Linear Thermoelastic Axisymmetric Deformations of Generally Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed exact solution is presented for laminated-composite circular cylinders with general wall construction and that undergo axisymmetric deformations. The overall solution is formulated in a general, systematic way and is based on the solution of a single fourth-order, nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients in which the radial displacement is the dependent variable. Moreover, the effects of general anisotropy are included and positive-definiteness of the strain energy is used to define uniquely the form of the basis functions spanning the solution space of the ordinary differential equation. Loading conditions are considered that include axisymmetric edge loads, surface tractions, and temperature fields. Likewise, all possible axisymmetric boundary conditions are considered. Results are presented for five examples that demonstrate a wide range of behavior for specially orthotropic and fully anisotropic cylinders.

  9. General theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the linear transport theory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanal, M.

    1972-01-01

    A general theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the one-speed neutron transport theory is presented. The formulation is also applicable to the 'gray' problems of radiative transfer. The Green's function for the purely absorbing medium is utilized in obtaining the normal mode expansion of the angular densities for both interior and exterior problems. As the integral equations for unknown coefficients are regular, a general class of reduction operators is introduced to reduce such regular integral equations to singular ones with a Cauchy-type kernel. Such operators then permit one to solve the singular integral equations by the standard techniques due to Muskhelishvili. We discuss several spherically symmetric problems. However, the treatment is kept sufficiently general to deal with problems lacking azimuthal symmetry. In particular the procedure seems to work for regions whose boundary coincides with one of the coordinate surfaces for which the Helmholtz equation is separable.

  10. Optimization of biochemical systems by linear programming and general mass action model representations.

    PubMed

    Marín-Sanguino, Alberto; Torres, Néstor V

    2003-08-01

    A new method is proposed for the optimization of biochemical systems. The method, based on the separation of the stoichiometric and kinetic aspects of the system, follows the general approach used in the previously presented indirect optimization method (IOM) developed within biochemical systems theory. It is called GMA-IOM because it makes use of the generalized mass action (GMA) as the model system representation form. The GMA representation avoids flux aggregation and thus prevents possible stoichiometric errors. The optimization of a system is used to illustrate and compare the features, advantages and shortcomings of both versions of the IOM method as a general strategy for designing improved microbial strains of biotechnological interest. Special attention has been paid to practical problems for the actual implementation of the new proposed strategy, such as the total protein content of the engineered strain or the deviation from the original steady state and its influence on cell viability.

  11. General theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the linear transport theory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanal, M.

    1972-01-01

    A general theory of spherically symmetric boundary-value problems of the one-speed neutron transport theory is presented. The formulation is also applicable to the 'gray' problems of radiative transfer. The Green's function for the purely absorbing medium is utilized in obtaining the normal mode expansion of the angular densities for both interior and exterior problems. As the integral equations for unknown coefficients are regular, a general class of reduction operators is introduced to reduce such regular integral equations to singular ones with a Cauchy-type kernel. Such operators then permit one to solve the singular integral equations by the standard techniques due to Muskhelishvili. We discuss several spherically symmetric problems. However, the treatment is kept sufficiently general to deal with problems lacking azimuthal symmetry. In particular the procedure seems to work for regions whose boundary coincides with one of the coordinate surfaces for which the Helmholtz equation is separable.

  12. Group versus Individual Training in Establishing Generalization of Language Skills with Severely Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Peter R.; Scott, Teri L.

    1981-01-01

    Eight severely mentally handicapped adults were taught two adjective concepts--one adjective using group training and one adjective using individual instruction. Although group and individual training were equally effective in terms of rates of acquisition, generalization was 45 percent greater when exemplars of each adjective concept were taught…

  13. Closed and Open Systems: The Tavistock Group from a General System Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugel, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    Describes phases in the life of a Tavistock group composed of college students using concepts from Von Bertalanffy's general systems theory, MacKenzie's role theory, and Kantor's family theory. Discusses early, middle, and late phases of typical 16-session group as it moves from a closed to an open system. (Author/NB)

  14. Closed and Open Systems: The Tavistock Group from a General System Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugel, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    Describes phases in the life of a Tavistock group composed of college students using concepts from Von Bertalanffy's general systems theory, MacKenzie's role theory, and Kantor's family theory. Discusses early, middle, and late phases of typical 16-session group as it moves from a closed to an open system. (Author/NB)

  15. Linear stability of plane Poiseuille flow over a generalized Stokes layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadrio, Maurizio; Martinelli, Fulvio; Schmid, Peter J.

    2011-12-01

    Linear stability of plane Poiseuille flow subject to spanwise velocity forcing applied at the wall is studied. The forcing is stationary and sinusoidally distributed along the streamwise direction. The long-term aim of the study is to explore a possible relationship between the modification induced by the wall forcing to the stability characteristic of the unforced Poiseuille flow and the signifcant capabilities demonstrated by the same forcing in reducing turbulent friction drag. We present in this paper the statement of the mathematical problem, which is considerably more complex that the classic Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire approach, owing to the streamwise-varying boundary condition. We also report some preliminary results which, although not yet conclusive, describe the effects of the wall forcing on modal and non-modal characteristics of the flow stability.

  16. A generalized analog implementation of piecewise linear neuron models using CCII building blocks.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Hamid; Ahmadi, Arash; Bavandpour, Mohammad; Sharifipoor, Ozra

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a set of reconfigurable analog implementations of piecewise linear spiking neuron models using second generation current conveyor (CCII) building blocks. With the same topology and circuit elements, without W/L modification which is impossible after circuit fabrication, these circuits can produce different behaviors, similar to the biological neurons, both for a single neuron as well as a network of neurons just by tuning reference current and voltage sources. The models are investigated, in terms of analog implementation feasibility and costs, targeting large scale hardware implementations. Results show that, in order to gain the best performance, area and accuracy; these models can be compromised. Simulation results are presented for different neuron behaviors with CMOS 350 nm technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Robust conic generalized partial linear models using RCMARS method - A robustification of CGPLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen, Ayşe; Weber, Gerhard Wilhelm

    2012-11-01

    GPLM is a combination of two different regression models each of which is used to apply on different parts of the data set. It is also adequate to high dimensional, non-normal and nonlinear data sets having the flexibility to reflect all anomalies effectively. In our previous study, Conic GPLM (CGPLM) was introduced using CMARS and Logistic Regression. According to a comparison with CMARS, CGPLM gives better results. In this study, we include the existence of uncertainty in the future scenarios into CMARS and linear/logit regression part in CGPLM and robustify it with robust optimization which is dealt with data uncertainty. Moreover, we apply RCGPLM on a small data set as a numerical experience from the financial sector.

  18. Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

  19. Iterative solution of general sparse linear systems on clusters of workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Gen-Ching; Saad, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Solving sparse irregularly structured linear systems on parallel platforms poses several challenges. First, sparsity makes it difficult to exploit data locality, whether in a distributed or shared memory environment. A second, perhaps more serious challenge, is to find efficient ways to precondition the system. Preconditioning techniques which have a large degree of parallelism, such as multicolor SSOR, often have a slower rate of convergence than their sequential counterparts. Finally, a number of other computational kernels such as inner products could ruin any gains gained from parallel speed-ups, and this is especially true on workstation clusters where start-up times may be high. In this paper we discuss these issues and report on our experience with PSPARSLIB, an on-going project for building a library of parallel iterative sparse matrix solvers.

  20. Dynamic renormalization group study of a generalized continuum model of crystalline surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cuerno, Rodolfo; Moro, Esteban

    2002-01-01

    We apply the Nozières-Gallet dynamic renormalization group (RG) scheme to a continuum equilibrium model of a d-dimensional surface relaxing by linear surface tension and linear surface diffusion, and which is subject to a lattice potential favoring discrete values of the height variable. The model thus interpolates between the overdamped sine-Gordon model and a related continuum model of crystalline tensionless surfaces. The RG flow predicts the existence of an equilibrium roughening transition only for d=2 dimensional surfaces, between a flat low-temperature phase and a rough high-temperature phase in the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) universality class. The surface is always in the flat phase for any other substrate dimensions d>2. For any value of d, the linear surface diffusion mechanism is an irrelevant perturbation of the linear surface tension mechanism, but may induce long crossovers within which the scaling properties of the linear molecular-beam epitaxy equation are observed, thus increasing the value of the sine-Gordon roughening temperature. This phenomenon originates in the nonlinear lattice potential, and is seen to occur even in the absence of a bare surface tension term. An important consequence of this is that a crystalline tensionless surface is asymptotically described at high temperatures by the EW universality class.

  1. Maximum Marginal Likelihood Estimation of a Monotonic Polynomial Generalized Partial Credit Model with Applications to Multiple Group Analysis.

    PubMed

    Falk, Carl F; Cai, Li

    2016-06-01

    We present a semi-parametric approach to estimating item response functions (IRF) useful when the true IRF does not strictly follow commonly used functions. Our approach replaces the linear predictor of the generalized partial credit model with a monotonic polynomial. The model includes the regular generalized partial credit model at the lowest order polynomial. Our approach extends Liang's (A semi-parametric approach to estimate IRFs, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 2007) method for dichotomous item responses to the case of polytomous data. Furthermore, item parameter estimation is implemented with maximum marginal likelihood using the Bock-Aitkin EM algorithm, thereby facilitating multiple group analyses useful in operational settings. Our approach is demonstrated on both educational and psychological data. We present simulation results comparing our approach to more standard IRF estimation approaches and other non-parametric and semi-parametric alternatives.

  2. Antitumor activities and interaction with DNA of oxaliplatin-type platinum complexes with linear or branched alkoxyacetates as leaving groups.

    PubMed

    Yin, Runting; Gou, Shaohua; Liu, Xia; Lou, Liguang

    2011-08-01

    Five oxaliplatin-typed platinum complexes containing trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane chelating platinum cores, characteristic of linear or branched alkoxycarboxylates as leaving groups, were biologically evaluated. These compounds showed higher antitumor activity, lower toxicity in vivo than cisplatin or oxaliplatin. And the results revealed that the antitumor activity and interaction with DNA of these compounds were highly related to the nature of leaving groups. Among these complexes, 5a, cis-(trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane) bis (2-tert-butoxyacetate) platinum(II), showed the highest antitumor activity and the lowest toxicity.

  3. Analyzing Group Level Effects with Clustered Data Using Taylor Series Linearization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Clustered data (e.g., students within schools) are often analyzed in educational research where data are naturally nested. As a consequence, multilevel modeling (MLM) has commonly been used to study the contextual or group-level (e.g., school) effects on individual outcomes. The current study investigates the use of an alternative procedure to…

  4. Comparing Linear Discriminant Function with Logistic Regression for the Two-Group Classification Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin

    The Monte Carlo study compared the performance of predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and that of logistic regression (LR) for the two-group classification problem. Prior probabilities were used for classification, but the cost of misclassification was assumed to be equal. The study used a fully crossed three-factor experimental design (with…

  5. FIDDLE: A Computer Code for Finite Difference Development of Linear Elasticity in Generalized Curvilinear Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical solver based on finite-difference solution of three-dimensional elastodynamic equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates has been developed and used to generate data such as radial and tangential stresses over various gear component geometries under rotation. The geometries considered are an annulus, a thin annular disk, and a thin solid disk. The solution is based on first principles and does not involve lumped parameter or distributed parameter systems approach. The elastodynamic equations in the velocity-stress formulation that are considered here have been used in the solution of problems of geophysics where non-rotating Cartesian grids are considered. For arbitrary geometries, these equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions have been cast in generalized curvilinear coordinates in the present study.

  6. Emergent Dynamics of a Generalized Lohe Model on Some Class of Lie Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Ko, Dongnam; Ryoo, Sang Woo

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a Lohe group which is a new class of matrix Lie groups and present a continuous dynamical system for the synchronization of group elements in a Lohe group. The Lohe group includes classical Lie groups such as the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic groups, and since Lohe groups need not be compact, global existence of ODEs may fail. The proposed dynamical system generalizes the Lohe model (Lohe in J Phys A 43:465301, 2010; Lohe in J Phys A 42:395101-395126, 2009) itself a nonabelian generalization of the Kuramoto model, and alongside we also generalize the analytical framework (Ha and Ryoo in J Stat Phys 163:411-439, 2016) of emergent and unique phase-locked states. For the construction of the phase-locked states, we introduce Lyapunov functions measuring the ensemble diameter and the dissimilarity between two Lohe flows, and derive Gronwall-type differential inequalities for them. The global existence of solutions then become a consequence of the boundedness of these Lyapunov functions. Our sufficient framework for the emergent dynamics is formulated in terms of coupling strength and initial states, and it leads to the global existence of solutions and the formation and uniqueness of a phase-locked asymptotic state. As a concrete example, we demonstrate how our theory can show emergent phenomenon on the Heisenberg group, where all initial configurations tend to a unique phase-locked state exponentially fast.

  7. A generalized Lyapunov theory for robust root clustering of linear state space models with real parameter uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of analyzing and designing controllers for linear systems subject to real parameter uncertainty is considered. An elegant, unified theory for robust eigenvalue placement is presented for a class of D-regions defined by algebraic inequalities by extending the nominal matrix root clustering theory of Gutman and Jury (1981) to linear uncertain time systems. The author presents explicit conditions for matrix root clustering for different D-regions and establishes the relationship between the eigenvalue migration range and the parameter range. The bounds are all obtained by one-shot computation in the matrix domain and do not need any frequency sweeping or parameter gridding. The method uses the generalized Lyapunov theory for getting the bounds.

  8. A novel synchronization scheme with a simple linear control and guaranteed convergence time for generalized Lorenz chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chun-Fu; Sun, Yeong-Jeu; Wang, Wen-June

    2012-12-01

    In this study, exponential finite-time synchronization for generalized Lorenz chaotic systems is investigated. The significant contribution of this paper is that master-slave synchronization is achieved within a pre-specified convergence time and with a simple linear control. The designed linear control consists of two parts: one achieves exponential synchronization, and the other realizes finite-time synchronization within a guaranteed convergence time. Furthermore, the control gain depends on the parameters of the exponential convergence rate, the finite-time convergence rate, the bound of the initial states of the master system, and the system parameter. In addition, the proposed approach can be directly and efficiently applied to secure communication. Finally, four numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the feasibility and correctness of the obtained results.

  9. Classical and Generalized Solutions of Time-Dependent Linear Differential Algebraic Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-15

    matrix pencils, [G59]. The book [GrM86] also contains a treatment of the general system (1.1) utilizing a condition of "transferabilitv’" which...C(t) and N(t) are analytic functions of t and N(t) is nilpotent upper (or lower) triangular for all t E J. From the structure of N(t), it follows that...the operator Y(t)l7 n is nilpotent , so that (1.2b) has the unique solution z = E (-1)k(N(t)-)kg, and (1.2a) is k=1 it an explicit ODE. But no

  10. General relation between the group delay and dwell time in multicomponent electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Feng; Lu, Junqiang

    2016-10-01

    For multicomponent electron scattering states, we derive a general relation between the Wigner group delay and the Bohmian dwell time. It is found that the definition of group delay should account for the phase of the spinor wave functions of propagating modes. The difference between the group delay and dwell time comes from both the interference delay and the decaying modes. For barrier tunneling of helical electrons on a surface of topological insulators, our calculations including the trigonal-warping term show that the decaying modes can contribute greatly to the group delay. The derived relation between the group delay and the dwell time is helpful to unify the two definitions of tunneling time in a quite general situation.

  11. An efficient hierarchical generalized linear mixed model for pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lily; Jia, Peilin; Wolfinger, Russell D; Chen, Xi; Grayson, Britney L; Aune, Thomas M; Zhao, Zhongming

    2011-03-01

    In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex diseases, genetic variants having real but weak associations often fail to be detected at the stringent genome-wide significance level. Pathway analysis, which tests disease association with combined association signals from a group of variants in the same pathway, has become increasingly popular. However, because of the complexities in genetic data and the large sample sizes in typical GWAS, pathway analysis remains to be challenging. We propose a new statistical model for pathway analysis of GWAS. This model includes a fixed effects component that models mean disease association for a group of genes, and a random effects component that models how each gene's association with disease varies about the gene group mean, thus belongs to the class of mixed effects models. The proposed model is computationally efficient and uses only summary statistics. In addition, it corrects for the presence of overlapping genes and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Via simulated and real GWAS data, we showed our model improved power over currently available pathway analysis methods while preserving type I error rate. Furthermore, using the WTCCC Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) dataset, we demonstrated mixed model analysis identified meaningful biological processes that agreed well with previous reports on T1D. Therefore, the proposed methodology provides an efficient statistical modeling framework for systems analysis of GWAS. The software code for mixed models analysis is freely available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/LilyWang.

  12. Wavelet-generalized least squares: a new BLU estimator of linear regression models with 1/f errors.

    PubMed

    Fadili, M J; Bullmore, E T

    2002-01-01

    Long-memory noise is common to many areas of signal processing and can seriously confound estimation of linear regression model parameters and their standard errors. Classical autoregressive moving average (ARMA) methods can adequately address the problem of linear time invariant, short-memory errors but may be inefficient and/or insufficient to secure type 1 error control in the context of fractal or scale invariant noise with a more slowly decaying autocorrelation function. Here we introduce a novel method, called wavelet-generalized least squares (WLS), which is (to a good approximation) the best linear unbiased (BLU) estimator of regression model parameters in the context of long-memory errors. The method also provides maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of the Hurst exponent (which can be readily translated to the fractal dimension or spectral exponent) characterizing the correlational structure of the errors, and the error variance. The algorithm exploits the whitening or Karhunen-Loéve-type property of the discrete wavelet transform to diagonalize the covariance matrix of the errors generated by an iterative fitting procedure after both data and design matrix have been transformed to the wavelet domain. Properties of this estimator, including its Cramèr-Rao bounds, are derived theoretically and compared to its empirical performance on a range of simulated data. Compared to ordinary least squares and ARMA-based estimators, WLS is shown to be more efficient and to give excellent type 1 error control. The method is also applied to some real (neurophysiological) data acquired by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human brain. We conclude that wavelet-generalized least squares may be a generally useful estimator of regression models in data complicated by long-memory or fractal noise.

  13. Methodological Quality and Reporting of Generalized Linear Mixed Models in Clinical Medicine (2000–2012): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Casals, Martí; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Carrasco, Josep L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Modeling count and binary data collected in hierarchical designs have increased the use of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) in medicine. This article presents a systematic review of the application and quality of results and information reported from GLMMs in the field of clinical medicine. Methods A search using the Web of Science database was performed for published original articles in medical journals from 2000 to 2012. The search strategy included the topic “generalized linear mixed models”,“hierarchical generalized linear models”, “multilevel generalized linear model” and as a research domain we refined by science technology. Papers reporting methodological considerations without application, and those that were not involved in clinical medicine or written in English were excluded. Results A total of 443 articles were detected, with an increase over time in the number of articles. In total, 108 articles fit the inclusion criteria. Of these, 54.6% were declared to be longitudinal studies, whereas 58.3% and 26.9% were defined as repeated measurements and multilevel design, respectively. Twenty-two articles belonged to environmental and occupational public health, 10 articles to clinical neurology, 8 to oncology, and 7 to infectious diseases and pediatrics. The distribution of the response variable was reported in 88% of the articles, predominantly Binomial (n = 64) or Poisson (n = 22). Most of the useful information about GLMMs was not reported in most cases. Variance estimates of random effects were described in only 8 articles (9.2%). The model validation, the method of covariate selection and the method of goodness of fit were only reported in 8.0%, 36.8% and 14.9% of the articles, respectively. Conclusions During recent years, the use of GLMMs in medical literature has increased to take into account the correlation of data when modeling qualitative data or counts. According to the current recommendations, the quality of

  14. Building functional groups of marine benthic macroinvertebrates on the basis of general community assembly mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, Nikolaos; Bacher, Cédric; Desroy, Nicolas; Jean, Fred

    2017-03-01

    The accurate reproduction of the spatial and temporal dynamics of marine benthic biodiversity requires the development of mechanistic models, based on the processes that shape macroinvertebrate communities. The modelled entities should, accordingly, be able to adequately represent the many functional roles that are performed by benthic organisms. With this goal in mind, we applied the emergent group hypothesis (EGH), which assumes functional equivalence within and functional divergence between groups of species. The first step of the grouping involved the selection of 14 biological traits that describe the role of benthic macroinvertebrates in 7 important community assembly mechanisms. A matrix of trait values for the 240 species that occurred in the Rance estuary (Brittany, France) in 1995 formed the basis for a hierarchical classification that generated 20 functional groups, each with its own trait values. The functional groups were first evaluated based on their ability to represent observed patterns of biodiversity. The two main assumptions of the EGH were then tested, by assessing the preservation of niche attributes among the groups and the neutrality of functional differences within them. The generally positive results give us confidence in the ability of the grouping to recreate functional diversity in the Rance estuary. A first look at the emergent groups provides insights into the potential role of community assembly mechanisms in shaping biodiversity patterns. Our next steps include the derivation of general rules of interaction and their incorporation, along with the functional groups, into mechanistic models of benthic biodiversity.

  15. Biohybrid Control of General Linear Systems Using the Adaptive Filter Model of Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Emma D.; Assaf, Tareq; Pearson, Martin J.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Dean, Paul; Anderson, Sean R.; Porrill, John

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit has been successfully applied to biological motor control problems, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and to sensory processing problems, such as the adaptive cancelation of reafferent noise. It has also been successfully applied to problems in robotics, such as adaptive camera stabilization and sensor noise cancelation. In previous applications to inverse control problems, the algorithm was applied to the velocity control of a plant dominated by viscous and elastic elements. Naive application of the adaptive filter model to the displacement (as opposed to velocity) control of this plant results in unstable learning and control. To be more generally useful in engineering problems, it is essential to remove this restriction to enable the stable control of plants of any order. We address this problem here by developing a biohybrid model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme, which stabilizes the control algorithm for strictly proper plants. We evaluate the performance of this novel cerebellar-inspired algorithm with MRAC scheme in the experimental control of a dielectric electroactive polymer, a class of artificial muscle. The results show that the augmented cerebellar algorithm is able to accurately control the displacement response of the artificial muscle. The proposed solution not only greatly extends the practical applicability of the cerebellar-inspired algorithm, but may also shed light on cerebellar involvement in a wider range of biological control tasks. PMID:26257638

  16. Biohybrid Control of General Linear Systems Using the Adaptive Filter Model of Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emma D; Assaf, Tareq; Pearson, Martin J; Rossiter, Jonathan M; Dean, Paul; Anderson, Sean R; Porrill, John

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit has been successfully applied to biological motor control problems, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and to sensory processing problems, such as the adaptive cancelation of reafferent noise. It has also been successfully applied to problems in robotics, such as adaptive camera stabilization and sensor noise cancelation. In previous applications to inverse control problems, the algorithm was applied to the velocity control of a plant dominated by viscous and elastic elements. Naive application of the adaptive filter model to the displacement (as opposed to velocity) control of this plant results in unstable learning and control. To be more generally useful in engineering problems, it is essential to remove this restriction to enable the stable control of plants of any order. We address this problem here by developing a biohybrid model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme, which stabilizes the control algorithm for strictly proper plants. We evaluate the performance of this novel cerebellar-inspired algorithm with MRAC scheme in the experimental control of a dielectric electroactive polymer, a class of artificial muscle. The results show that the augmented cerebellar algorithm is able to accurately control the displacement response of the artificial muscle. The proposed solution not only greatly extends the practical applicability of the cerebellar-inspired algorithm, but may also shed light on cerebellar involvement in a wider range of biological control tasks.

  17. A generalized linear mixed model for longitudinal binary data with a marginal logit link function

    PubMed Central

    Parzen, Michael; Ghosh, Souparno; Lipsitz, Stuart; Sinha, Debajyoti; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Mallick, Bani K.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Longitudinal studies of a binary outcome are common in the health, social, and behavioral sciences. In general, a feature of random effects logistic regression models for longitudinal binary data is that the marginal functional form, when integrated over the distribution of the random effects, is no longer of logistic form. Recently, Wang and Louis (2003) proposed a random intercept model in the clustered binary data setting where the marginal model has a logistic form. An acknowledged limitation of their model is that it allows only a single random effect that varies from cluster to cluster. In this paper, we propose a modification of their model to handle longitudinal data, allowing separate, but correlated, random intercepts at each measurement occasion. The proposed model allows for a flexible correlation structure among the random intercepts, where the correlations can be interpreted in terms of Kendall’s τ. For example, the marginal correlations among the repeated binary outcomes can decline with increasing time separation, while the model retains the property of having matching conditional and marginal logit link functions. Finally, the proposed method is used to analyze data from a longitudinal study designed to monitor cardiac abnormalities in children born to HIV-infected women. PMID:21532998

  18. Point particle binary system with components of different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño M, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-05-01

    A study of binary systems composed of two point particles with different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity with a Minkowski background is provided. The present paper generalizes a previous study by Bishop et al. The boundary conditions at the world tubes generated by the particles's orbits are explored, where the metric variables are decomposed in spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The power lost by the emission of gravitational waves is computed using the Bondi News function. The power found is the well-known result obtained by Peters and Mathews using a different approach. This agreement validates the approach considered here. Several multipole term contributions to the gravitational radiation field are also shown.

  19. FUSED KERNEL-SPLINE SMOOTHING FOR REPEATEDLY MEASURED OUTCOMES IN A GENERALIZED PARTIALLY LINEAR MODEL WITH FUNCTIONAL SINGLE INDEX.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fei; Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    We propose a generalized partially linear functional single index risk score model for repeatedly measured outcomes where the index itself is a function of time. We fuse the nonparametric kernel method and regression spline method, and modify the generalized estimating equation to facilitate estimation and inference. We use local smoothing kernel to estimate the unspecified coefficient functions of time, and use B-splines to estimate the unspecified function of the single index component. The covariance structure is taken into account via a working model, which provides valid estimation and inference procedure whether or not it captures the true covariance. The estimation method is applicable to both continuous and discrete outcomes. We derive large sample properties of the estimation procedure and show different convergence rate of each component of the model. The asymptotic properties when the kernel and regression spline methods are combined in a nested fashion has not been studied prior to this work even in the independent data case.

  20. Airfoil profiles for minimum pressure drag at supersonic velocities -- general analysis with application to linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Dean R

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is made of the airfoil profile for minimum pressure drag at zero lift in supersonic flow. In the first part of the report a general method is developed for calculating the profile having the least pressure drag for a given auxiliary condition, such as a given structural requirement or a given thickness ratio. The various structural requirements considered include bending strength, bending stiffness, torsional strength, and torsional stiffness. No assumption is made regarding the trailing-edge thickness; the optimum value is determined in the calculations as a function of the base pressure. To illustrate the general method, the optimum airfoil, defined as the airfoil having minimum pressure drag for a given auxiliary condition, is calculated in a second part of the report using the equations of linearized supersonic flow.

  1. FUSED KERNEL-SPLINE SMOOTHING FOR REPEATEDLY MEASURED OUTCOMES IN A GENERALIZED PARTIALLY LINEAR MODEL WITH FUNCTIONAL SINGLE INDEX*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fei; Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalized partially linear functional single index risk score model for repeatedly measured outcomes where the index itself is a function of time. We fuse the nonparametric kernel method and regression spline method, and modify the generalized estimating equation to facilitate estimation and inference. We use local smoothing kernel to estimate the unspecified coefficient functions of time, and use B-splines to estimate the unspecified function of the single index component. The covariance structure is taken into account via a working model, which provides valid estimation and inference procedure whether or not it captures the true covariance. The estimation method is applicable to both continuous and discrete outcomes. We derive large sample properties of the estimation procedure and show different convergence rate of each component of the model. The asymptotic properties when the kernel and regression spline methods are combined in a nested fashion has not been studied prior to this work even in the independent data case. PMID:26283801

  2. A Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model in Combination with Dispersion Modeling to Improve Sib-Pair Linkage Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woojoo; Kim, Jeonghwan; Lee, Youngjo; Park, Taesung; Suh, Young Ju

    2015-01-01

    We explored a hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) in combination with dispersion modeling to improve the sib-pair linkage analysis based on the revised Haseman-Elston regression model for a quantitative trait. A dispersion modeling technique was investigated for sib-pair linkage analysis using simulation studies and real data applications. We considered 4 heterogeneous dispersion settings according to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the various statistical models based on the Haseman-Elston regression model. Our numerical studies demonstrated that susceptibility loci could be detected well by modeling the dispersion parameter appropriately. In particular, the HGLM had better performance than the linear regression model and the ordinary linear mixed model when the SNR is low, i.e., when substantial noise was present in the data. The study shows that the HGLM in combination with dispersion modeling can be utilized to identify multiple markers showing linkage to familial complex traits accurately. Appropriate dispersion modeling might be more powerful to identify markers closest to the major genes which determine a quantitative trait. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Generalization of the tensor renormalization group approach to 3-D or higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Peiyuan

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a way of generalizing the tensor renormalization group (TRG) is proposed. Mathematically, the connection between patterns of tensor renormalization group and the concept of truncation sequence in polytope geometry is discovered. A theoretical contraction framework is therefore proposed. Furthermore, the canonical polyadic decomposition is introduced to tensor network theory. A numerical verification of this method on the 3-D Ising model is carried out.

  4. Generalized Uncertainty Quantification for Linear Inverse Problems in X-ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Michael James

    2014-04-25

    In industrial and engineering applications, X-ray radiography has attained wide use as a data collection protocol for the assessment of material properties in cases where direct observation is not possible. The direct measurement of nuclear materials, particularly when they are under explosive or implosive loading, is not feasible, and radiography can serve as a useful tool for obtaining indirect measurements. In such experiments, high energy X-rays are pulsed through a scene containing material of interest, and a detector records a radiograph by measuring the radiation that is not attenuated in the scene. One approach to the analysis of these radiographs is to model the imaging system as an operator that acts upon the object being imaged to produce a radiograph. In this model, the goal is to solve an inverse problem to reconstruct the values of interest in the object, which are typically material properties such as density or areal density. The primary objective in this work is to provide quantitative solutions with uncertainty estimates for three separate applications in X-ray radiography: deconvolution, Abel inversion, and radiation spot shape reconstruction. For each problem, we introduce a new hierarchical Bayesian model for determining a posterior distribution on the unknowns and develop efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for sampling from the posterior. A Poisson likelihood, based on a noise model for photon counts at the detector, is combined with a prior tailored to each application: an edge-localizing prior for deconvolution; a smoothing prior with non-negativity constraints for spot reconstruction; and a full covariance sampling prior based on a Wishart hyperprior for Abel inversion. After developing our methods in a general setting, we demonstrate each model on both synthetically generated datasets, including those from a well known radiation transport code, and real high energy radiographs taken at two U. S. Department of Energy

  5. The generalized cross-validation method applied to geophysical linear traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassrei, A.; Oliveira, N. P.

    2009-12-01

    The oil industry is the major user of Applied Geophysics methods for the subsurface imaging. Among different methods, the so-called seismic (or exploration seismology) methods are the most important. Tomography was originally developed for medical imaging and was introduced in exploration seismology in the 1980's. There are two main classes of geophysical tomography: those that use only the traveltimes between sources and receivers, which is a cinematic approach and those that use the wave amplitude itself, being a dynamic approach. Tomography is a kind of inverse problem, and since inverse problems are usually ill-posed, it is necessary to use some method to reduce their deficiencies. These difficulties of the inverse procedure are associated with the fact that the involved matrix is ill-conditioned. To compensate this shortcoming, it is appropriate to use some technique of regularization. In this work we make use of regularization with derivative matrices, also called smoothing. There is a crucial problem in regularization, which is the selection of the regularization parameter lambda. We use generalized cross validation (GCV) as a tool for the selection of lambda. GCV chooses the regularization parameter associated with the best average prediction for all possible omissions of one datum, corresponding to the minimizer of GCV function. GCV is used for an application in traveltime tomography, where the objective is to obtain the 2-D velocity distribution from the measured values of the traveltimes between sources and receivers. We present results with synthetic data, using a geological model that simulates different features, like a fault and a reservoir. The results using GCV are very good, including those contaminated with noise, and also using different regularization orders, attesting the feasibility of this technique.

  6. Interaction between participants in focus groups with older patients and general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Moen, Janne; Antonov, Karolina; Nilsson, J Lars G; Ring, Lena

    2010-05-01

    Group interaction is put forward as the principal advantage for focus group research, although rarely reported on. The aim of the article is to contribute to the methodological knowledge regarding focus group research by providing an empirical example of the application of the Lehoux, Poland, and Daudelin template suggested for analysis of the interaction in focus groups. The data source was 18 focus groups' performance in Sweden: 12 with older patients and 6 with general practitioners (GPs). GPs found common ground in belonging to the same profession, whereas the older patients, instead of constituting a group in the word's real sense, started just sharing a common focus. We found the template easy to understand and use, except for identifying participants' explicit and implicit purposes for participating. Furthermore, adding an interaction analysis to the content analysis helped us appreciate and clarify the contexts from which these data were created.

  7. On equations of motion on Siegel-Jacobi spaces generated by linear Hamiltonians in the generators of the Jacobi group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berceanu, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    It is proved that the equations of classical motion and the quantum evolution on the Siegel-Jacobi disk generated by a Hamiltonian linear in the generators of the Jacobi group Gj1 obtained by the Wei-Norman method and a method used in the context of Berezin's quantization are identical. In a certain set of variables the motion on the Siegel disk and C are decoupled. The geometric significance and the meaning in the context of coherent states of this coordinates are emphasized.

  8. A generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming approach for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Guo, Ping

    2017-10-01

    The vague and fuzzy parametric information is a challenging issue in irrigation water management problems. In response to this problem, a generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming (GFCCFP) model is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The model can be derived from integrating generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (GFCCP) into a linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. Therefore, it can solve ratio optimization problems associated with fuzzy parameters, and examine the variation of results under different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and necessary. It has advantages in: (1) balancing the economic and resources objectives directly; (2) analyzing system efficiency; (3) generating more flexible decision solutions by giving different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and (4) supporting in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, credibility level and weight coefficient. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the GFCCFP model can be obtained. Moreover, factorial analysis on the two parameters (i.e. λ and γ) indicates that the weight coefficient is a main factor compared with credibility level for system efficiency. These results can be effective for support reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.

  9. Generalized Confidence Intervals for Intra- and Inter-subject Coefficients of Variation in Linear Mixed-effects Models.

    PubMed

    Forkman, Johannes

    2017-06-15

    Linear mixed-effects models are linear models with several variance components. Models with a single random-effects factor have two variance components: the random-effects variance, i. e., the inter-subject variance, and the residual error variance, i. e., the intra-subject variance. In many applications, it is practice to report variance components as coefficients of variation. The intra- and inter-subject coefficients of variation are the square roots of the corresponding variances divided by the mean. This article proposes methods for computing confidence intervals for intra- and inter-subject coefficients of variation using generalized pivotal quantities. The methods are illustrated through two examples. In the first example, precision is assessed within and between runs in a bioanalytical method validation. In the second example, variation is estimated within and between main plots in an agricultural split-plot experiment. Coverage of generalized confidence intervals is investigated through simulation and shown to be close to the nominal value.

  10. Application of a generalized linear mixed model to analyze mixture toxicity: survival of brown trout affected by copper and zinc.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Increased concerns about the toxicity of chemical mixtures have led to greater emphasis on analyzing the interactions among the mixture components based on observed effects. The authors applied a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze survival of brown trout (Salmo trutta) acutely exposed to metal mixtures that contained copper and zinc. Compared with dominant conventional approaches based on an assumption of concentration addition and the concentration of a chemical that causes x% effect (ECx), the GLMM approach has 2 major advantages. First, binary response variables such as survival can be modeled without any transformations, and thus sample size can be taken into consideration. Second, the importance of the chemical interaction can be tested in a simple statistical manner. Through this application, the authors investigated whether the estimated concentration of the 2 metals binding to humic acid, which is assumed to be a proxy of nonspecific biotic ligand sites, provided a better prediction of survival effects than dissolved and free-ion concentrations of metals. The results suggest that the estimated concentration of metals binding to humic acid is a better predictor of survival effects, and thus the metal competition at the ligands could be an important mechanism responsible for effects of metal mixtures. Application of the GLMM (and the generalized linear model) presents an alternative or complementary approach to analyzing mixture toxicity. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Mediation analysis when a continuous mediator is measured with error and the outcome follows a generalized linear model.

    PubMed

    Valeri, Linda; Lin, Xihong; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2014-12-10

    Mediation analysis is a popular approach to examine the extent to which the effect of an exposure on an outcome is through an intermediate variable (mediator) and the extent to which the effect is direct. When the mediator is mis-measured, the validity of mediation analysis can be severely undermined. In this paper, we first study the bias of classical, non-differential measurement error on a continuous mediator in the estimation of direct and indirect causal effects in generalized linear models when the outcome is either continuous or discrete and exposure-mediator interaction may be present. Our theoretical results as well as a numerical study demonstrate that in the presence of non-linearities, the bias of naive estimators for direct and indirect effects that ignore measurement error can take unintuitive directions. We then develop methods to correct for measurement error. Three correction approaches using method of moments, regression calibration, and SIMEX are compared. We apply the proposed method to the Massachusetts General Hospital lung cancer study to evaluate the effect of genetic variants mediated through smoking on lung cancer risk.

  12. Instability and change detection in exponential families and generalized linear models, with a study of Atlantic tropical storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Chatterjee, S.

    2014-11-01

    Exponential family statistical distributions, including the well-known normal, binomial, Poisson, and exponential distributions, are overwhelmingly used in data analysis. In the presence of covariates, an exponential family distributional assumption for the response random variables results in a generalized linear model. However, it is rarely ensured that the parameters of the assumed distributions are stable through the entire duration of the data collection process. A failure of stability leads to nonsmoothness and nonlinearity in the physical processes that result in the data. In this paper, we propose testing for stability of parameters of exponential family distributions and generalized linear models. A rejection of the hypothesis of stable parameters leads to change detection. We derive the related likelihood ratio test statistic. We compare the performance of this test statistic to the popular normal distributional assumption dependent cumulative sum (Gaussian CUSUM) statistic in change detection problems. We study Atlantic tropical storms using the techniques developed here, so to understand whether the nature of these tropical storms has remained stable over the last few decades.

  13. Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Binary Data: Are Matching Results from Penalized Quasi-Likelihood and Numerical Integration Less Biased?

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Andrea; Platt, Robert; Atherton, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Background Over time, adaptive Gaussian Hermite quadrature (QUAD) has become the preferred method for estimating generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes. However, penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) is still used frequently. In this work, we systematically evaluated whether matching results from PQL and QUAD indicate less bias in estimated regression coefficients and variance parameters via simulation. Methods We performed a simulation study in which we varied the size of the data set, probability of the outcome, variance of the random effect, number of clusters and number of subjects per cluster, etc. We estimated bias in the regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters as estimated via PQL and QUAD. We ascertained if similarity of estimated regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters predicted less bias. Results Overall, we found that the absolute percent bias of the odds ratio estimated via PQL or QUAD increased as the PQL- and QUAD-estimated odds ratios became more discrepant, though results varied markedly depending on the characteristics of the dataset Conclusions Given how markedly results varied depending on data set characteristics, specifying a rule above which indicated biased results proved impossible. This work suggests that comparing results from generalized linear mixed models estimated via PQL and QUAD is a worthwhile exercise for regression coefficients and variance components obtained via QUAD, in situations where PQL is known to give reasonable results. PMID:24416249

  14. General expressions for R1ρ relaxation for N-site chemical exchange and the special case of linear chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Hans; Rance, Mark; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of dynamic processes in proteins and nucleic acids by spin-locking NMR experiments has been facilitated by the development of theoretical expressions for the R1ρ relaxation rate constant covering a variety of kinetic situations. Herein, we present a generalized approximation to the chemical exchange, Rex, component of R1ρ for arbitrary kinetic schemes, assuming the presence of a dominant major site population, derived from the negative reciprocal trace of the inverse Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix. This approximation is equivalent to first-order truncation of the characteristic polynomial derived from the Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix. For three- and four-site chemical exchange, the first-order approximations are sufficient to distinguish different kinetic schemes. We also introduce an approach to calculate R1ρ for linear N-site schemes, using the matrix determinant lemma to reduce the corresponding 3N × 3N Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix to a 3 × 3 matrix. The first- and second order-expansions of the determinant of this 3 × 3 matrix are closely related to previously derived equations for two-site exchange. The second-order approximations for linear N-site schemes can be used to obtain more accurate approximations for non-linear N-site schemes, such as triangular three-site or star four-site topologies. The expressions presented herein provide powerful means for the estimation of Rex contributions for both low (CEST-limit) and high (R1ρ-limit) radiofrequency field strengths, provided that the population of one state is dominant. The general nature of the new expressions allows for consideration of complex kinetic situations in the analysis of NMR spin relaxation data.

  15. 49 CFR 214.335 - On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups, general. 214.335 Section 214.335 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker...

  16. Modeling Differential Item Functioning Using a Generalization of the Multiple-Group Bifactor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Minjeong; Rijmen, Frank; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a generalization of the multiple-group bifactor model that extends the classical bifactor model for categorical outcomes by relaxing the typical assumption of independence of the specific dimensions. In addition to the means and variances of all dimensions, the correlations among the specific dimensions are allowed to differ…

  17. Effectiveness of Facilitating Small-Group Learning in Large Lecture Classes: A General Chemistry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, D. C.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a study designed to investigate the effectiveness of peer-led, small-group discussions in a large (N greater than 400) general chemistry course usually taught in a traditional lecture format. The administrative structure, the training of the peer facilitators, and the achievement of students exposed to this environment…

  18. General Biology, 1971 Revised Syllabus of a Course for Credit as a Group 3 Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus for a general biology course (which may be used for one Group III credit as an elective toward a New York State Regents High School Diploma) contains five major units. These units - Life Functions, Systems of the Human Body, Continuation of Life, The Green Plants, and Classification and Evolution - are designed to "involve the…

  19. Promoting Student Learning through Group Problem Solving in General Chemistry Recitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalingam, Madhu; Schaefer, Fred; Morlino, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We describe the implementation and effects of group problem solving in recitation sections associated with the general chemistry course at a small private science university. Recitation sections of approximately 45 students are used to supplement large (approximately 180 students) lecture sections. The primary goal of recitation is working in…

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF A GENERAL GROUP TEST FOR PUERTO RICAN STUDENTS IN THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROCA, PABLO

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO DEVELOP A GROUP TEST OF GENERAL ABILITY WHICH WILL ACCURATELY ASSESS THE INTELLECTUAL CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE PUERTO RICAN SCHOOLS. THE OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO DETERMINE WHAT COMMON INTELLECTUAL TASKS INDICATE MENTAL ABILITY IN SPANISH-SPEAKING PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER ENGLISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN…

  1. Small Group Instruction for Students with Autism: General Case Training and Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Birkan, Bunyamin

    2010-01-01

    A multiple-probe design across response chains and students was used to evaluate the combined instructional effects of progressive time delay, general case training, and observational learning on the food and drink preparation skills of three children with autism. All instruction was delivered in a group learning arrangement. The data suggested…

  2. Small Group Instruction for Students with Autism: General Case Training and Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Birkan, Bunyamin

    2010-01-01

    A multiple-probe design across response chains and students was used to evaluate the combined instructional effects of progressive time delay, general case training, and observational learning on the food and drink preparation skills of three children with autism. All instruction was delivered in a group learning arrangement. The data suggested…

  3. Learning-Related Behaviors: Small Group Reading Instruction in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Stacy L.

    2013-01-01

    Supplemental small group reading instruction is frequently provided in the general education setting to struggling students at elementary schools that use response to intervention frameworks. Although building reading proficiency is the main focus of the intervention, students' learning-related behaviors should also be addressed to improve…

  4. Teaching Is Learning--Maximum Incentive, Minimum Discipline in Student Groups Teaching General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, Mark

    2001-02-01

    A novel form of teaching and test scoring has been developed, in which student group work and test performance are linked to bonus points on weekly quizzes. A class of 71 students was divided into 12 groups of five or six students. The groups taught sections of a general chemistry class, and their test grades were adjusted upward on the basis of the scores achieved for each quiz or test. The scoring technique involves the possibility of only upward adjustments, to maximize positive reinforcement for good test performance. Work requirements resulting from this technique, for both the students and the faculty member, are discussed.

  5. Lie group classification of the nonlinear generalized Kompaneets equations with two functional parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, S.; Patsiuk, O.

    2017-08-01

    We study the nonlinear generalized Kompaneets equations (GKEs) with two functional parameters. By using the Lie-Ovsiannikov algorithm, we carried out the group classification of the equations. It is shown that the kernel algebra of the full groups of the GKEs is the one-dimensional Lie algebra. We obtained nine non-equivalent (up to transformations from the equivalence group) nonlinear GKEs that allow wider invariance algebras than the kernel one. We found a number of exact solutions of those GKEs, which have the maximal symmetry properties.

  6. Providing mentorship support to general surgery residents: a model for structured group facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Caitlin; Bennett, Sean; Carver, David; El Tawil, Karim; Fabbro, Sarah; Howatt, Neil; Noei, Farahnaz; Rae, Rachel; Haggar, Fatima; Arnaout, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mentorship is foundational to surgical training, with recognized benefits for both mentees and mentors. The University of Ottawa General Surgery Mentorship Program was developed as a module-based group facilitation program to support inclusive personal and professional development of junior general surgery residents. The group format provided an opportunity for both vertical and horizontal mentorship relationships between staff mentors and resident mentees. Perceived benefits of program participants were evaluated at the conclusion of the first year of the program. The program was well-received by staff and resident participants and may provide a time-efficient and inclusive mentorship structure with the additional benefit of peer support. We review the development and implementation of the program to date and share our mentorship experience to encourage the growth of formal mentorship opportunities within general surgery training programs. PMID:26424687

  7. Incorporating cancer risk information into general practice: a qualitative study using focus groups with health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Silarova, Barbora; Ward, Alison; Youell, Jane; Muir, Kenneth R; Campbell, Jackie; Warcaba, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background It is estimated that approximately 40% of all cases of cancer are attributable to lifestyle factors. Providing people with personalised information about their future risk of cancer may help promote behaviour change. Aim To explore the views of health professionals on incorporating personalised cancer risk information, based on lifestyle factors, into general practice. Design and setting Qualitative study using data from six focus groups with a total of 24 general practice health professionals from the NHS Nene Clinical Commissioning Group in England. Method The focus groups were guided by a schedule covering current provision of lifestyle advice relating to cancer and views on incorporating personalised cancer risk information. Data were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and then analysed using thematic analysis. Results Providing lifestyle advice was viewed as a core activity within general practice but the influence of lifestyle on cancer risk was rarely discussed. The word ‘cancer’ was seen as a potentially powerful motivator for lifestyle change but the fact that it could generate health anxiety was also recognised. Most focus group participants felt that a numerical risk estimate was more likely to influence behaviour than generic advice. All felt that general practice should provide this information, but there was a clear need for additional resources for it to be offered widely. Conclusion Study participants were in support of providing personalised cancer risk information in general practice. The findings highlight a number of potential benefits and challenges that will inform the future development of interventions in general practice to promote behaviour change for cancer prevention. PMID:28193618

  8. Developing patient reference groups within general practice: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Smiddy, Jane; Reay, Joanne; Peckham, Stephen; Williams, Lorraine; Wilson, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) are required to demonstrate meaningful patient and public engagement and involvement (PPEI). Recent health service reforms have included financial incentives for general practices to develop patient reference groups (PRGs). To explore the impact of the patient participation direct enhanced service (DES) on development of PRGs, the influence of PRGs on decision making within general practice, and their interface with CCGs. A mixed-methods approach within three case study sites in England. Three case study sites were tracked for 18 months as part of an evaluation of PPEI in commissioning. A sub-study focused on PRGs utilising documentary and web-based analysis; results were mapped against findings of the main study. Evidence highlighted variations in the establishment of PRGs, with the number of active PRGs via practice websites ranging from 27% to 93%. Such groups were given a number of descriptions such as patient reference groups, patient participation groups, and patient forums. Data analysis highlighted that the mode of operation varied between virtual and tangible groups and whether they were GP- or patient-led, such analysis enabled the construction of a typology of PRGs. Evidence reviewed suggested that groups functioned within parameters of the DES with activities limited to practice level. Data analysis highlighted a lack of strategic vision in relation to such groups, particularly their role within an overall patient and PPEI framework). Findings identified diversity in the operationalisation of PRGs. Their development does not appear linked to a strategic vision or overall PPEI framework. Although local pragmatic issues are important to patients, GPs must ensure that PRGs develop strategic direction if health reforms are to be addressed. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  9. The general Lie group and similarity solutions for the one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D.

    1985-01-01

    The general Lie point transformation group and the associated reduced differential equations and similarity forms for the solutions are derived here for the coupled (nonlinear) Vlasov-Maxwell equations in one spatial dimension. The case of one species in a background is shown to admit a larger group than the multispecies case. Previous exact solutions are shown to be special cases of the above solutions, and many of the new solutions are found to constrain the form of the distribution function much more than, for example, the BGK solutions do. The individual generators of the Lie group are used to find the possible subgroups. Finally, a simple physical argument is given to show that the asymptotic solution for a one-species, one-dimensional plasma is one of the general similarity solutions.

  10. The general Lie group and similarity solutions for the one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D.

    1985-01-01

    The general Lie point transformation group and the associated reduced differential equations and similarity forms for the solutions are derived here for the coupled (nonlinear) Vlasov-Maxwell equations in one spatial dimension. The case of one species in a background is shown to admit a larger group than the multispecies case. Previous exact solutions are shown to be special cases of the above solutions, and many of the new solutions are found to constrain the form of the distribution function much more than, for example, the BGK solutions do. The individual generators of the Lie group are used to find the possible subgroups. Finally, a simple physical argument is given to show that the asymptotic solution for a one-species, one-dimensional plasma is one of the general similarity solutions.

  11. Generalization of verbal conditioning to verbal and nonverbal behavior: group therapy with chronic psychiatric patients1

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Dorothy A.; Briddell, Dan W.; Wilson, G. Terence

    1974-01-01

    Twelve chronic hospitalized female patients received token reinforcement contingent on two separate classes of verbalizations: (a) positive statements about optional activities available in the hospital setting, and (b) positive statements about people. Cross-class generalization of reinforced verbal responses about activities to overt behavior was tested by actual participation in activities; within-class generalization of verbal responses about people to verbalizations in another stimulus setting was assessed in a structured interview situation. A multiple baseline design with contingency reversals was employed to demonstrate experimental control of both classes of verbalizations in the group sessions. Positive statements about activities generalized to actual participation in activities, while generalization of positive statements about people to verbalization in the extragroup setting did not occur. PMID:4465377

  12. A computer program for the generalized chi-square analysis of competing risks grouped survival data (CRISCAT).

    PubMed

    Stanish, W M; Chi, G Y; Johnson, W D; Koch, G G; Landis, J R; Liu-Chi, S

    1978-09-01

    CRISCAT is a computer program for the analysis of grouped survival data with competing risks via weighted least squares methods. Competing risks adjustments are obtained from general matrix operations using many of the strategies employed in a previously developed program (GENCAT) for multivariate categorical data. CRISCAT computes survival rates at several time points for multiple causes of failure, where each rate is adjusted for other causes in the sense that failure due to thes other causes has been eliminated as a risk. The program can generate functions of the adjusted survival rates, to which asymptotic regression models may be fit. CRISCAT yields test statistics for hypotheses involving either these functions or estimated model parameters. Thus, this computational algorithm links competing risks theory to linear models methods for contingency table analysis and provides a unified approach to estimation and hypothesis testing of functions involving competing risks adjusted rates.

  13. Implementing evidence-based medicine in general practice: a focus group based study

    PubMed Central

    Hannes, Karin; Leys, Marcus; Vermeire, Etienne; Aertgeerts, Bert; Buntinx, Frank; Depoorter, Anne-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the past years concerns are rising about the use of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) in health care. The calls for an increase in the practice of EBM, seem to be obstructed by many barriers preventing the implementation of evidence-based thinking and acting in general practice. This study aims to explore the barriers of Flemish GPs (General Practitioners) to the implementation of EBM in routine clinical work and to identify possible strategies for integrating EBM in daily work. Methods We used a qualitative research strategy to gather and analyse data. We organised focus groups between September 2002 and April 2003. The focus group data were analysed using a combined strategy of 'between-case' analysis and 'grounded theory approach'. Thirty-one general practitioners participated in four focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants. Results A basic classification model documents the influencing factors and actors on a micro-, meso- as well as macro-level. Patients, colleagues, competences, logistics and time were identified on the micro-level (the GPs' individual practice), commercial and consumer organisations on the meso-level (institutions, organisations) and health care policy, media and specific characteristics of evidence on the macro-level (policy level and international scientific community). Existing barriers and possible strategies to overcome these barriers were described. Conclusion In order to implement EBM in routine general practice, an integrated approach on different levels needs to be developed. PMID:16153300

  14. The Influences of Group and Independent General Practice on Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, E. M.

    1965-01-01

    When the practices of four general practitioners, members of multispecialist-general practitioner salaried groups (clinic doctors) were compared with those of four independent general practitioners (solo practitioners), it was noted that: group practice patients had more office laboratory investigation and greater in-hospital consultation and referral. On the other hand, independent practitioners' patients seemed to receive more personal attention from the doctor, a fuller explanation of diagnosis and treatment during office hours, more drug samples and more laboratory investigation in hospital. Group and independent practices are similar with respect to the rate of follow-up visits, the volume of preventive medicine, the number of radiographs and special procedures, the total number of drugs ordered, and the in-hospital formal written consultation rate and office consultation rate. The similarities between two types of practice may be a result of the interaction of group and independent practice in the same community. It is concluded that the team approach to medical care is not incompatible with independent practice. PMID:14323656

  15. Balint Groups as a Means to Increase Job Satisfaction and Prevent Burnout Among General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE General practitioners (GPs) occupy a central position in health care and often have demanding working situations. This corps shows signs of exhaustion, and many consider quitting their job or plan to retire early. It is therefore urgent to find ways of improving GP’s satisfaction with their work. One approach might be Balint group participation. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ experience of participating in Balint groups and its influence on their work life. METHODS We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study. Nine GPs who had participated in Balint groups for 3 to 15 years were interviewed. A phenomenologic analysis was carried out to describe the phenomenon of Balint group participation. RESULTS The GPs perceived that their Balint group participation influenced their work life. Analyses revealed several interrelating themes: competence, professional identity, and a sense of security, which increased through parallel processes, creating a base of endurance and satisfaction, thus enabling the GPs to rediscover the joy of being a physician. CONCLUSIONS The GPs in this study described their Balint group participation as beneficial and essential to their work life as physicians in several ways. It seemed to increase their competence in patient encounters and enabled them to endure in their job and find joy and challenge in their relationships with patients. Balint groups might thus help GPs handle a demanding work life and prevent burnout. These groups might not suit all GPs, however, and additional ways to reduce stress and increase job satisfaction should be offered. PMID:18332406

  16. AN ALMOST LINEAR TIME ALGORITHM FOR A GENERAL HAPLOTYPE SOLUTION ON TREE PEDIGREES WITH NO RECOMBINATION AND ITS EXTENSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin

    2010-01-01

    We study the haplotype inference problem from pedigree data under the zero recombination assumption, which is well supported by real data for tightly linked markers (i.e. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) over a relatively large chromosome segment. We solve the problem in a rigorous mathematical manner by formulating genotype constraints as a linear system of inheritance variables. We then utilize disjoint-set structures to encode connectivity information among individuals, to detect constraints from genotypes, and to check consistency of constraints. On a tree pedigree without missing data, our algorithm can output a general solution as well as the number of total specific solutions in a nearly linear time O(mn · α(n)), where m is the number of loci, n is the number of individuals and α is the inverse Ackermann function, which is a further improvement over existing ones. We also extend the idea to looped pedigrees and pedigrees with missing data by considering existing (partial) constraints on inheritance variables. The algorithm has been implemented in C++ and will be incorporated into our PedPhase package. Experimental results show that it can correctly identify all 0-recombinant solutions with great efficiency. Comparisons with other two popular algorithms show that the proposed algorithm achieves 10 to 105-fold improvements over a variety of parameter settings. The experimental study also provides empirical evidences on the complexity bounds suggested by theoretical analysis. PMID:19507288

  17. A generalized electrostatic micro-mirror (GEM) model for a two-axis convex piecewise linear shaped MEMS mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. L.; Edwards, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    MEMS micro-mirror technology offers the opportunity to replace larger optical actuators with smaller, faster ones for lidar, network switching, and other beam steering applications. Recent developments in modeling and simulation of MEMS two-axis (tip-tilt) mirrors have resulted in closed-form solutions that are expressed in terms of physical, electrical and environmental parameters related to the MEMS device. The closed-form analytical expressions enable dynamic time-domain simulations without excessive computational overhead and are referred to as the Micro-mirror Pointing Model (MPM). Additionally, these first-principle models have been experimentally validated with in-situ static, dynamic, and stochastic measurements illustrating their reliability. These models have assumed that the mirror has a rectangular shape. Because the corners can limit the dynamic operation of a rectangular mirror, it is desirable to shape the mirror, e.g., mitering the corners. Presented in this paper is the formulation of a generalized electrostatic micromirror (GEM) model with an arbitrary convex piecewise linear shape that is readily implemented in MATLAB and SIMULINK for steady-state and dynamic simulations. Additionally, such a model permits an arbitrary shaped mirror to be approximated as a series of linearly tapered segments. Previously, "effective area" arguments were used to model a non-rectangular shaped mirror with an equivalent rectangular one. The GEM model shows the limitations of this approach and provides a pre-fabrication tool for designing mirror shapes.

  18. Correlated-imaging-based chosen plaintext attack on general cryptosystems composed of linear canonical transforms and phase encodings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a chosen-plaintext attack scheme on general optical cryptosystems that use linear canonical transform and phase encoding based on correlated imaging. The plaintexts are chosen as Gaussian random real number matrixes, and the corresponding ciphertexts are regarded as prior knowledge of the proposed attack method. To establish the reconstruct of the secret plaintext, correlated imaging is employed using the known resources. Differing from the reported attack methods, there is no need to decipher the distribution of the decryption key. The original secret image can be directly recovered by the attack in the absence of decryption key. In addition, the improved cryptosystems combined with pixel scrambling operations are also vulnerable to the proposed attack method. Necessary mathematical derivations and numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the proposed attack scheme.

  19. Parametric Variable Selection in Generalized Partially Linear Models with an Application to Assess Condom Use by HIV-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Chenlei; Liang, Hua; Martinson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    To study significant predictors of condom use in HIV-infected adults, we propose the use of generalized partially linear models and develop a variable selection procedure incorporating a least squares approximation. Local polynomial regression and spline smoothing techniques are used to estimate the baseline nonparametric function. The asymptotic normality of the resulting estimate is established. We further demonstrate that, with the proper choice of the penalty functions and the regularization parameter, the resulting estimate performs as well as an oracle procedure. Finite sample performance of the proposed inference procedure is assessed by Monte Carlo simulation studies. An application to assess condom use by HIV-infected patients gains some interesting results, which can not be obtained when an ordinary logistic model is used. PMID:21465515

  20. SAS macro programs for geographically weighted generalized linear modeling with spatial point data: applications to health research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2012-08-01

    An increasing interest in exploring spatial non-stationarity has generated several specialized analytic software programs; however, few of these programs can be integrated natively into a well-developed statistical environment such as SAS. We not only developed a set of SAS macro programs to fill this gap, but also expanded the geographically weighted generalized linear modeling (GWGLM) by integrating the strengths of SAS into the GWGLM framework. Three features distinguish our work. First, the macro programs of this study provide more kernel weighting functions than the existing programs. Second, with our codes the users are able to better specify the bandwidth selection process compared to the capabilities of existing programs. Third, the development of the macro programs is fully embedded in the SAS environment, providing great potential for future exploration of complicated spatially varying coefficient models in other disciplines. We provided three empirical examples to illustrate the use of the SAS macro programs and demonstrated the advantages explained above.

  1. Variable selection in Bayesian generalized linear-mixed models: an illustration using candidate gene case-control association studies.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Miao-Yu

    2015-03-01

    The problem of variable selection in the generalized linear-mixed models (GLMMs) is pervasive in statistical practice. For the purpose of variable selection, many methodologies for determining the best subset of explanatory variables currently exist according to the model complexity and differences between applications. In this paper, we develop a "higher posterior probability model with bootstrap" (HPMB) approach to select explanatory variables without fitting all possible GLMMs involving a small or moderate number of explanatory variables. Furthermore, to save computational load, we propose an efficient approximation approach with Laplace's method and Taylor's expansion to approximate intractable integrals in GLMMs. Simulation studies and an application of HapMap data provide evidence that this selection approach is computationally feasible and reliable for exploring true candidate genes and gene-gene associations, after adjusting for complex structures among clusters. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Event-Triggered Schemes on Leader-Following Consensus of General Linear Multiagent Systems Under Different Topologies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenying; Ho, Daniel W C; Li, Lulu; Cao, Jinde

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the leader-following consensus for multiagent systems with general linear dynamics by means of event-triggered scheme (ETS). We propose three types of schemes, namely, distributed ETS (distributed-ETS), centralized ETS (centralized-ETS), and clustered ETS (clustered-ETS) for different network topologies. All these schemes guarantee that all followers can track the leader eventually. It should be emphasized that all event-triggered protocols in this paper depend on local information and their executions are distributed. Moreover, it is shown that such event-triggered mechanism can significantly reduce the frequency of control's update. Further, positive inner-event time intervals are assured for those cases of distributed-ETS, centralized-ETS, and clustered-ETS. In addition, two methods are proposed to avoid continuous communication between agents for event detection. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the ETSs.

  3. Metrics of separation performance in chromatography: Part 3: General separation performance of linear solvent strength gradient liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Leonid M; Desmet, Gert

    2015-09-25

    The separation performance metrics defined in Part 1 of this series are applied to the evaluation of general separation performance of linear solvent strength (LSS) gradient LC. Among the evaluated metrics was the peak capacity of an arbitrary segment of a chromatogram. Also evaluated were the peak width, the separability of two solutes, the utilization of separability, and the speed of analysis-all at an arbitrary point of a chromatogram. The means are provided to express all these metrics as functions of an arbitrary time during LC analysis, as functions of an arbitrary outlet solvent strength changing during the analysis, as functions of parameters of the solutes eluting during the analysis, and as functions of several other factors. The separation performance of gradient LC is compared with the separation performance of temperature-programmed GC evaluated in Part 2.

  4. Cadmium-hazard mapping using a general linear regression model (Irr-Cad) for rapid risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Robert W; Noble, Andrew D; Pongsakul, P; Sukreeyapongse, O; Chinabut, N

    2009-02-01

    Research undertaken over the last 40 years has identified the irrefutable relationship between the long-term consumption of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated rice and human Cd disease. In order to protect public health and livelihood security, the ability to accurately and rapidly determine spatial Cd contamination is of high priority. During 2001-2004, a General Linear Regression Model Irr-Cad was developed to predict the spatial distribution of soil Cd in a Cd/Zn co-contaminated cascading irrigated rice-based system in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand (Longitude E 98 degrees 59'-E 98 degrees 63' and Latitude N 16 degrees 67'-16 degrees 66'). The results indicate that Irr-Cad accounted for 98% of the variance in mean Field Order total soil Cd. Preliminary validation indicated that Irr-Cad 'predicted' mean Field Order total soil Cd, was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated (R (2) = 0.92) with 'observed' mean Field Order total soil Cd values. Field Order is determined by a given field's proximity to primary outlets from in-field irrigation channels and subsequent inter-field irrigation flows. This in turn determines Field Order in Irrigation Sequence (Field Order(IS)). Mean Field Order total soil Cd represents the mean total soil Cd (aqua regia-digested) for a given Field Order(IS). In 2004-2005, Irr-Cad was utilized to evaluate the spatial distribution of total soil Cd in a 'high-risk' area of Mae Sot District. Secondary validation on six randomly selected field groups verified that Irr-Cad predicted mean Field Order total soil Cd and was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with the observed mean Field Order total soil Cd with R (2) values ranging from 0.89 to 0.97. The practical applicability of Irr-Cad is in its minimal input requirements, namely the classification of fields in terms of Field Order(IS), strategic sampling of all primary fields and laboratory based determination of total soil Cd (T-Cd(P)) and the use of a weighed coefficient for Cd (Coeff

  5. Whole-body PET parametric imaging employing direct 4D nested reconstruction and a generalized non-linear Patlak model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Rahmim, Arman

    2014-03-01

    Graphical analysis is employed in the research setting to provide quantitative estimation of PET tracer kinetics from dynamic images at a single bed. Recently, we proposed a multi-bed dynamic acquisition framework enabling clinically feasible whole-body parametric PET imaging by employing post-reconstruction parameter estimation. In addition, by incorporating linear Patlak modeling within the system matrix, we enabled direct 4D reconstruction in order to effectively circumvent noise amplification in dynamic whole-body imaging. However, direct 4D Patlak reconstruction exhibits a relatively slow convergence due to the presence of non-sparse spatial correlations in temporal kinetic analysis. In addition, the standard Patlak model does not account for reversible uptake, thus underestimating the influx rate Ki. We have developed a novel whole-body PET parametric reconstruction framework in the STIR platform, a widely employed open-source reconstruction toolkit, a) enabling accelerated convergence of direct 4D multi-bed reconstruction, by employing a nested algorithm to decouple the temporal parameter estimation from the spatial image update process, and b) enhancing the quantitative performance particularly in regions with reversible uptake, by pursuing a non-linear generalized Patlak 4D nested reconstruction algorithm. A set of published kinetic parameters and the XCAT phantom were employed for the simulation of dynamic multi-bed acquisitions. Quantitative analysis on the Ki images demonstrated considerable acceleration in the convergence of the nested 4D whole-body Patlak algorithm. In addition, our simulated and patient whole-body data in the postreconstruction domain indicated the quantitative benefits of our extended generalized Patlak 4D nested reconstruction for tumor diagnosis and treatment response monitoring.

  6. Increasing opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations: findings from focus groups with general dentists in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Psoter, Walter J; Morse, Douglas E; Sánchez-Ayendez, Melba; Vega, Carmen M Vélez; Aguilar, Maria L; Buxó-Martinez, Carmen J; Psoter, Jodi A; Kerr, Alexander R; Lane, Christina M; Scaringi, Vincent J; Elias, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identify educational and training modalities that dentists in Puerto Rico (PR) believe will increase the quality and quantity of opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations (OCS) in dental offices on the island. The study was conducted in three phases: a systematic search of relevant literature, an expert review and consensus panel, and focus groups (FG) involving PR general dentists. To increase OCS by dentists in PR, the FG participants proposed a small group, hands-on OCS training, an integrated oral cancer course, and readily available videos, photographs, and computer simulations to further demonstrate OCS performance and facilitate differential diagnosis. OCS training requirements for licensure and re-licensure, improving OCS dentist-patient communication skills, and establishment of an oral lesion referral center were also viewed favorably. In conclusion, general dentists in our FGs believed the quality and quantity of OCS in Puerto Rico can be increased through the application of specific continuing education and training modalities.

  7. Increasing opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations: findings from focus groups with general dentists in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Psoter, Walter J.; Morse, Douglas E.; Sánchez-Ayendez, Melba; Vega, Carmen M Vélez; Aguilar, Maria L.; Buxó-Martinez, Carmen J; Psoter, Jodi A.; Kerr, Alexander R.; Lane, Christina M.; Scaringi, Vincent J; Elias, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify educational and training modalities that dentists in Puerto Rico (PR) believe will increase the quality and quantity of opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations (OCS) in dental offices on the island. Methods The study was conducted in three phases: a systematic search of relevant literature, an expert review and consensus panel, and focus groups (FG) involving PR general dentists. Results To increase OCS by dentists in PR, the FG participants proposed small group, hands-on OCS training, an integrated oral cancer course, and readily-available videos, photographs, and computer simulations to further demonstrate OCS performance and facilitate differential diagnosis. OCS training requirements for licensure and relicensure, improving OCS dentist-patient communication skills, and establishment of an oral lesion referral center were also viewed favorably. Conclusions General dentists in our FGs believed the quality and quantity of OCS in Puerto Rico can be increased through the application of specific continuing education and training modalities. PMID:24894606

  8. Identifying competencies required for medication prescribing for general practice residents: a nominal group technique study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teaching of medication prescribing is a specific challenge in general practice curriculum. The aim of this study was to identify and rank the competencies required for prescribing medication for general practice residents in France. Methods Qualitative consensus study using the nominal group technique. We invited different stakeholders of the general practice curriculum and medication use in primary care to a series of meetings. The nominal group technique allowed for the quick development of a list of consensual and ranked answers to the following question: “At the end of their general practice curriculum, in terms of medication prescribing, what should residents be able to do?”. Results Four meetings were held that involved a total of 31 participants, enabling the creation of a final list of 29 ranked items, grouped in 4 domains. The four domains identified were ‘pharmacology’, ‘regulatory standards’, ‘therapeutics’, and ‘communication (both with patients and healthcare professionals)’. Overall, the five items the most highly valued across the four meetings were: ‘write a legible and understandable prescription’, ‘identify specific populations’, ‘prescribe the doses and durations following the indication’, ‘explain a lack of medication prescription to the patient’, ‘decline inappropriate medication request’. The ‘communication skills’ domain was the domain with the highest number of items (10 items), and with the most highly-valued items. Conclusion The study results suggest a need for developing general practice residents’ communication skills regarding medication prescribing. PMID:25084813

  9. Focus group evaluation of teachers' views on a new general education program in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Chi, Xinli

    2017-02-01

    Using teachers' focus group interviews (n=40), this study examined the impact of the General University Requirements (GUR) implemented at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). Results showed that teachers were generally satisfied with the GUR subjects and its implementation in its second year. Teachers regarded the design of GUR subjects was good and the students generally welcomed the subjects. Interactive teaching and learning methods adopted in GUR subjects such as fieldwork, hands-on projects, and team debates were highly appreciated by the respondents. Teachers also reflected that the GUR had promoted the intrapersonal and interpersonal development of the students. However, several challenges were also reported by teachers, including the difficulty level of Freshman Seminar subjects and lack of interaction in some GUR subjects, which suggested directions for further improvements.

  10. Using a generalized linear mixed model approach to explore the role of age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles in children's reach estimation accuracy.

    PubMed

    Caçola, Priscila M; Pant, Mohan D

    2014-10-01

    The purpose was to use a multi-level statistical technique to analyze how children's age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles interact to affect accuracy on reach estimation tasks via Motor Imagery and Visual Imagery. Results from the Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis (GLMM) indicated that only the 7-year-old age group had significant random intercepts for both tasks. Motor proficiency predicted accuracy in reach tasks, and cognitive styles (object scale) predicted accuracy in the motor imagery task. GLMM analysis is suitable to explore age and other parameters of development. In this case, it allowed an assessment of motor proficiency interacting with age to shape how children represent, plan, and act on the environment.

  11. Renormalization group equations and matching in a general quantum field theory with kinetic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Renato M.; Malinský, Michal; Staub, Florian

    2013-11-01

    We work out a set of simple rules for adopting the two-loop renormalization group equations of a generic gauge field theory given in the seminal works of Machacek and Vaughn to the most general case with an arbitrary number of Abelian gauge factors and comment on the extra subtleties possibly encountered upon matching a set of effective gauge theories in such a framework.

  12. Generalization of Weber's adiabatic bond charge model to amorphous group IV semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winer, K.; Wooten, F.

    1984-11-01

    The generalization of Weber's adiabatic bond charge model to amorphous group IV semiconductors is described. Methods of relaxing the coordinates to their equilibrium configuration and of calculating the dynamical matrix for the phonon spectra are given. Particular emphasis is given to the optimization of the Coulomb subroutines required in this model. Estimates of computation time are included for the calculation of equilibrium configuration on a Cray computer.

  13. Patient participation in general practice based undergraduate teaching: a focus group study of patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Park, Sophie E; Allfrey, Caroline; Jones, Melvyn M; Chana, Jasprit; Abbott, Ciara; Faircloth, Sofia; Higgins, Nicola; Abdullah, Laila

    2017-04-01

    Patients make a crucial contribution to undergraduate medical education. Although a national resource is available for patients participating in research, none is as yet available for education. This study aimed to explore what information patients would like about participation in general practice based undergraduate medical education, and how they would like to obtain this information. Two focus groups were conducted in London-based practices involved in both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Patients both with and without teaching experience were recruited using leaflets, posters, and patient participation groups. An open-ended topic guide explored three areas: perceived barriers that participants anticipated or had experienced; patient roles in medical education; and what help would support participation. Focus groups were audiorecorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Patients suggested ways of professionalising the teaching process. These were: making information available to patients about confidentiality, iterative consent, and normalising teaching in the practice. Patients highlighted the importance of relationships, making information available about their GPs' involvement in teaching, and initiating student-patient interactions. Participants emphasised educational principles to maximise exchange of information, including active participation of students, patient identification of student learner needs, and exchange of feedback. This study will inform development of patient information resources to support their participation in teaching and access to information both before and during general practice based teaching encounters. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  14. Accounting for uncertainty in confounder and effect modifier selection when estimating average causal effects in generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zigler, Corwin Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Confounder selection and adjustment are essential elements of assessing the causal effect of an exposure or treatment in observational studies. Building upon work by Wang et al. (2012, Biometrics 68, 661-671) and Lefebvre et al. (2014, Statistics in Medicine 33, 2797-2813), we propose and evaluate a Bayesian method to estimate average causal effects in studies with a large number of potential confounders, relatively few observations, likely interactions between confounders and the exposure of interest, and uncertainty on which confounders and interaction terms should be included. Our method is applicable across all exposures and outcomes that can be handled through generalized linear models. In this general setting, estimation of the average causal effect is different from estimation of the exposure coefficient in the outcome model due to noncollapsibility. We implement a Bayesian bootstrap procedure to integrate over the distribution of potential confounders and to estimate the causal effect. Our method permits estimation of both the overall population causal effect and effects in specified subpopulations, providing clear characterization of heterogeneous exposure effects that may vary considerably across different covariate profiles. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in small sample size situations with 100-150 observations and 50 covariates. The method is applied to data on 15,060 US Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor between 2000 and 2009 to evaluate whether surgery reduces hospital readmissions within 30 days of diagnosis.

  15. Effect of Smoothing in Generalized Linear Mixed Models on the Estimation of Covariance Parameters for Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Mullah, Muhammad Abu Shadeque; Benedetti, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Besides being mainly used for analyzing clustered or longitudinal data, generalized linear mixed models can also be used for smoothing via restricting changes in the fit at the knots in regression splines. The resulting models are usually called semiparametric mixed models (SPMMs). We investigate the effect of smoothing using SPMMs on the correlation and variance parameter estimates for serially correlated longitudinal normal, Poisson and binary data. Through simulations, we compare the performance of SPMMs to other simpler methods for estimating the nonlinear association such as fractional polynomials, and using a parametric nonlinear function. Simulation results suggest that, in general, the SPMMs recover the true curves very well and yield reasonable estimates of the correlation and variance parameters. However, for binary outcomes, SPMMs produce biased estimates of the variance parameters for high serially correlated data. We apply these methods to a dataset investigating the association between CD4 cell count and time since seroconversion for HIV infected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for DSM-IV Among Four Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christina M.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Norton, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous studies have established the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV revealing excellent diagnostic specificity and sensitivity as well as good test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity (Newman et al., 2002). Recent analyses with other measures of anxiety symptoms have revealed differences across racial or national groups. Given that the GAD-Q-IV was tested primarily on Caucasian (78%) participants, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV across four racial groups: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian. A student sample of 585 undergraduate psychology students completed the GAD-Q-IV as well as other measures of anxiety symptoms. A clinical replication sample was obtained from 188 clinical participants who completed the GAD-Q-IV as part of a larger psychotherapy study. Results indicated excellent and very similar factor structures in the student sample, and similar psychometric properties across both samples across the racial groups. Implications for the use of the GAD-Q-IV across racial groups are discussed. PMID:20830629

  17. 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Groups as General Protectants for Hydroxyl, Phosphate, and Carboxyl Functions.

    PubMed

    Brzezinska, Jolanta; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Kaczyński, Tomasz P; Krygier, Dominika; Ratajczak, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Marcin K

    2017-03-02

    Application of 2-pyridinyl thermolabile protecting groups (2-PyTPGs) for protection of hydroxyl, phosphate, and carboxyl functions is presented in this unit. Their characteristic feature is a unique removal process following the intramolecular cyclization mechanism and induced only by temperature rise. Deprotection rate of 2-PyTPGs is dependent on certain parameters, such as solvent (aqueous or non-aqueous medium), pH values, and electron distribution in a pyridine ring. The presented approach pertains not only to protecting groups but also to an advanced system of controlling certain properties of 2-pyridinyl derivatives. We improved the "chemical switch" method, allowing us to regulate the protecting group stability by inversing the electron distribution in 2-PyTPG. Together with pH values manipulation, this allows us to regulate the protecting group stability. Moreover, phosphite cyclization to oxazaphospholidine provides a very stable but easily reversible tool for phosphate protection/modifications. For all TPGs we confirmed their utility in a system of protecting groups. This concept can contribute to designing the general protecting group that could be useful in bioorganic chemistry. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Complexation of Mercury(II) in Soil Organic Matter: EXAFS Evidence for Linear Two-Coordination with Reduced Sulfur Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Skyllberg,U.; Bloom, P.; Qian, J.; Lin, C.; Bleam, W.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg) is to a great extent controlling biologically mediated processes, such as mercury methylation, in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Of utmost importance are complexation reactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM), indirectly determining concentrations of bioavailable, inorganic Hg species. Two previous extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies have revealed that reduced organic sulfur (S) and oxygen/nitrogen (O/N) groups are involved in the complexation of Hg(II) to humic substances extracted from organic soils. In this work, covering intact organic soils and extending to much lower concentrations of Hg than before, we show that Hg is complexed by two reduced organic S groups (likely thiols) at a distance of 2.33 Angstroms in a linear configuration. Furthermore, a third reduced S (likely an organic sulfide) was indicated to contribute with a weaker second shell attraction at a distance of 2.92-3.08 Angstroms. When all high-affinity S sites, corresponding to 20-30% of total reduced organic S, were saturated, a structure involving one carbonyl-O or amino-N at 2.07 Angstroms and one carboxyl-O at 2.84 Angstroms in the first shell, and two second shell C atoms at an average distance of 3.14 Angstroms, gave the best fit to data. Similar results were obtained for humic acid extracted from an organic wetland soil. We conclude that models that are in current use to describe the biogeochemistry of mercury and to calculate thermodynamic processes need to include a two-coordinated complexation of Hg(II) to reduced organic sulfur groups in NOM in soils and waters.

  19. Acceptance criteria for flattening filter-free photon beam from standard medical electron linear accelerator: AERB task group recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Sahani, G.; Sharma, S. D.; Sharma, P. K. Dash; Deshpande, D. D.; Negi, P. S.; Sathianarayanan, V. K.; Rath, G. K.

    2014-01-01

    Medical electron linear accelerators with the capability of generating unflat photon (flattening filter-free, FFF) beams are also available commercially for clinical applications in radiotherapy. However, the beam characteristics evaluation criteria and parameters are not yet available for such photon beams. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) of India constituted a Task Group comprising experts from regulatory agency, advisory body/research and technical institutions, and clinical radiotherapy centers in the country to evolve and recommend the acceptance criteria for the flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. The Task Group thoroughly reviewed the literature and inputs of the manufactures/suppliers of the FFF linac and recommended a set of dosimetry parameters for evaluating the characteristics of the unflat photon beam. The recommendations included the evaluation of quality index, degree of unflatness, difference in percentage surface dose between flat and unflat photon beams, percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth, off-axis-ratios and radiation beam penumbra. The recommended parameters were evaluated for FFF photon beams generated by three different models of the linac, and it was observed that recommended evaluation methods are simple and easy to be implemented with the existing dosimetry and quality assurance infrastructure of the linac facilities of the radiotherapy departments. Recommendations were also made for periodic quality control check of the unflat photon beams and constancy evaluation in the beam characteristics. PMID:25525307

  20. [Non linear principal component analysis and clues for a differential approach of five groups experiencing social precariousness].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C

    2008-01-01

    We wished to develop an original way of taking care of people experiencing great social precariousness. Our purpose was to develop communication and relational skills, to stimulate expression of emotions and feelings, to bring out personal resources, to increase well-being, motivation and self-esteem, and thus favour rehabilitation. Our sample is composed of long-term unemployed people, of people benefiting from measures of integration into the working process, of people living in community homes, of drug addicts, and of drug-addicted female prisoners. Our research is based on an integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology, with rating scales for the artistic production and observational frames for items of verbal and non-verbal behaviour completing the psychometric questionnaires. It is an action research; we use art therapy, which is a common practice in the health sector, especially with subjects having problems expressing there feelings through words. We have carried out a non linear principal component analysis (PRINCALS) on the data of the projective test (Rotter), as well as a between groups comparison of the responses to the questionnaire on life satisfaction (FLZ), with the help of the Mann-Whitney test. It is from these comparisons that we are able to draw out a few clues for differential treating strategies, depending on the inclusion into the five sub-groups that we have followed.

  1. The statistical performance of an MCF-7 cell culture assay evaluated using generalized linear mixed models and a score test.

    PubMed

    Rey deCastro, B; Neuberg, Donna

    2007-05-30

    Biological assays often utilize experimental designs where observations are replicated at multiple levels, and where each level represents a separate component of the assay's overall variance. Statistical analysis of such data usually ignores these design effects, whereas more sophisticated methods would improve the statistical power of assays. This report evaluates the statistical performance of an in vitro MCF-7 cell proliferation assay (E-SCREEN) by identifying the optimal generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) that accurately represents the assay's experimental design and variance components. Our statistical assessment found that 17beta-oestradiol cell culture assay data were best modelled with a GLMM configured with a reciprocal link function, a gamma error distribution, and three sources of design variation: plate-to-plate; well-to-well, and the interaction between plate-to-plate variation and dose. The gamma-distributed random error of the assay was estimated to have a coefficient of variation (COV) = 3.2 per cent, and a variance component score test described by X. Lin found that each of the three variance components were statistically significant. The optimal GLMM also confirmed the estrogenicity of five weakly oestrogenic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 17, 49, 66, 74, and 128). Based on information criteria, the optimal gamma GLMM consistently out-performed equivalent naive normal and log-normal linear models, both with and without random effects terms. Because the gamma GLMM was by far the best model on conceptual and empirical grounds, and requires only trivially more effort to use, we encourage its use and suggest that naive models be avoided when possible. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An assessment of career satisfaction among a group of general dental practitioners in Staffordshire.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, J; Stewardson, D A; Shugars, D A; Burke, F J T

    2005-06-11

    To assess the level of job satisfaction among general dental practitioners from one area of England, and to assess the association of various personal and work related factors with job satisfaction. Postal questionnaire survey. General dental practices in South Staffordshire, Wolverhampton and Dudley, England. An anonymous questionnaire posted to all 396 registered dentists in the above areas. A 75% response rate was achieved. Data were analysed using non-parametric statistics for any significant differences in the scores for stress, respect, overall professional satisfaction, quality of life and overall job satisfaction according to the different demographic groupings of the dentists (alpha =0.05). Dentists with an area of special interest had higher scores in all categories except quality of life. Overall job satisfaction was higher among private dentists, and those in group practices and in non-rural locations. The highest bi-variate correlation occurred between overall job satisfaction and overall professional satisfaction, delivery of care, income, respect and professional time. Job satisfaction was judged to be good among this group. Stress was the factor associated with the greatest dissatisfaction. This survey produced similar results to preceding US studies, and suggests ways of improving job satisfaction.

  3. Human diversity in Jordan: polymorphic Alu insertions in general Jordanian and Bedouin groups.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Daniela; Sadiq, May; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Khabour, Omar; Alkaraki, Almuthanna; Esteban, Esther; Via, Marc; Moral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Jordan, located in the Levant region, is an area crucial for the investigation of human migration between Africa and Eurasia. However, the genetic history of Jordanians has yet to be clarified, including the origin of the Bedouins today resident in Jordan. Here, we provide new genetic data on autosomal independent markers in two Jordanian population samples (Bedouins and the general population) to begin to examine the genetic diversity inside this country and to provide new information about the genetic position of these populations in the context of the Mediterranean and Middle East area. The markers analyzed were 18 Alu polymorphic insertions characterized by their identity by descent, known ancestral state (lack of insertion), and apparent selective neutrality. The results indicate significant genetic diffferences between Bedouins and general Jordanians (p = 0.038). Whereas Bedouins show a close genetic proximity to North Africans, general Jordanians appear genetically more similar to other Middle East populations. In general, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that Bedouins had an important role in the peopling of Jordan and constitute the original substrate of the current population. However, migration into Jordan in recent years likely has contributed to the diversity among current Jordanian population groups. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  4. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry and colorimetry in a general linear model for the determination of the age of bruises.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Vanessa K; Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-12-01

    Bruises can have medicolegal significance such that the age of a bruise may be an important issue. This study sought to determine if colorimetry or reflectance spectrophotometry could be employed to objectively estimate the age of bruises. Based on a previously described method, reflectance spectrophotometric scans were obtained from bruises using a Cary 100 Bio spectrophotometer fitted with a fibre-optic reflectance probe. Measurements were taken from the bruise and a control area. Software was used to calculate the first derivative at 490 and 480 nm; the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin was calculated using an isobestic point method and a software application converted the scan data into colorimetry data. In addition, data on factors that might be associated with the determination of the age of a bruise: subject age, subject sex, degree of trauma, bruise size, skin color, body build, and depth of bruise were recorded. From 147 subjects, 233 reflectance spectrophotometry scans were obtained for analysis. The age of the bruises ranged from 0.5 to 231.5 h. A General Linear Model analysis method was used. This revealed that colorimetric measurement of the yellowness of a bruise accounted for 13% of the bruise age. By incorporation of the other recorded data (as above), yellowness could predict up to 32% of the age of a bruise-implying that 68% of the variation was dependent on other factors. However, critical appraisal of the model revealed that the colorimetry method of determining the age of a bruise was affected by skin tone and required a measure of the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin, which is obtained by spectrophotometric methods. Using spectrophotometry, the first derivative at 490 nm alone accounted for 18% of the bruise age estimate. When additional factors (subject sex, bruise depth and oxygenation of hemoglobin) were included in the General Linear Model this increased to 31%-implying that 69% of the variation was dependent on other factors. This

  5. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  6. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  7. PyR@TE. Renormalization group equations for general gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyonnet, F.; Schienbein, I.; Staub, F.; Wingerter, A.

    2014-03-01

    Although the two-loop renormalization group equations for a general gauge field theory have been known for quite some time, deriving them for specific models has often been difficult in practice. This is mainly due to the fact that, albeit straightforward, the involved calculations are quite long, tedious and prone to error. The present work is an attempt to facilitate the practical use of the renormalization group equations in model building. To that end, we have developed two completely independent sets of programs written in Python and Mathematica, respectively. The Mathematica scripts will be part of an upcoming release of SARAH 4. The present article describes the collection of Python routines that we dubbed PyR@TE which is an acronym for “Python Renormalization group equations At Two-loop for Everyone”. In PyR@TE, once the user specifies the gauge group and the particle content of the model, the routines automatically generate the full two-loop renormalization group equations for all (dimensionless and dimensionful) parameters. The results can optionally be exported to LaTeX and Mathematica, or stored in a Python data structure for further processing by other programs. For ease of use, we have implemented an interactive mode for PyR@TE in form of an IPython Notebook. As a first application, we have generated with PyR@TE the renormalization group equations for several non-supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model and found some discrepancies with the existing literature. Catalogue identifier: AERV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 924959 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 495197 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer

  8. Analytic Coarse-Mesh Finite-Difference Method Generalized for Heterogeneous Multidimensional Two-Group Diffusion Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Cabellos, Oscar; Aragones, Jose M.; Ahnert, Carol

    2003-05-15

    In order to take into account in a more effective and accurate way the intranodal heterogeneities in coarse-mesh finite-difference (CMFD) methods, a new equivalent parameter generation methodology has been developed and tested. This methodology accounts for the dependence of the nodal homogeneized two-group cross sections and nodal coupling factors, with interface flux discontinuity (IFD) factors that account for heterogeneities on the flux-spectrum and burnup intranodal distributions as well as on neighbor effects.The methodology has been implemented in an analytic CMFD method, rigorously obtained for homogeneous nodes with transverse leakage and generalized now for heterogeneous nodes by including IFD heterogeneity factors. When intranodal mesh node heterogeneity vanishes, the heterogeneous solution tends to the analytic homogeneous nodal solution. On the other hand, when intranodal heterogeneity increases, a high accuracy is maintained since the linear and nonlinear feedbacks on equivalent parameters have been shown to be as a very effective way of accounting for heterogeneity effects in two-group multidimensional coarse-mesh diffusion calculations.

  9. Lepton mixing patterns from the group Σ (36 ×3 ) with a generalized C P transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Shu-jun

    2017-04-01

    The group Σ (36 ×3 ) with the generalized C P transformation is introduced to predict the mixing pattern of leptons. Various combinations of Abelian residual flavor symmetries with C P transformations are surveyed. Six mixing patterns could accommodate the fit data of neutrinos oscillation at the 3 σ level. Among them, two patterns predict the nontrivial Dirac C P phase, around ±5 7 ° or ±12 3 ° , which is in accordance with the result of the literature and the recent fit data. Furthermore, one pattern could satisfy the experimental constraints at the 1 σ level.

  10. An extension of Poincaré group based on generalized Fermi–Walker coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llosa, Josep

    2017-10-01

    The class of accelerated and rotating reference frames has been studied on the basis of generalized Fermi–Walker coordinates. We obtain the infinitesimal transformations connecting any two of these frames and also their commutation relations. We thus have an infinite dimensional extension of the Poincaré algebra and, although it turns out to be Abelian extension, and hence trivial, it is noteworthy that, contrarily to Lorentz boosts, acceleration and rotational boost generators commute with each other and with the generators of Poincaré group as well.

  11. Trajectories of Change in University Students' General Views of Group Work Following One Single Group Assignment: Significance of Instructional Context and Multidimensional Aspects of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wosnitza, Marold; Volet, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how distinct trajectories of change in students' general views of group work over the duration of one single group assignment could be explained by multidimensional aspects of their experience and the overall instructional context. Science (336) and Education (377) students involved in a semester-long group assignment…

  12. Trajectories of Change in University Students' General Views of Group Work Following One Single Group Assignment: Significance of Instructional Context and Multidimensional Aspects of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wosnitza, Marold; Volet, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how distinct trajectories of change in students' general views of group work over the duration of one single group assignment could be explained by multidimensional aspects of their experience and the overall instructional context. Science (336) and Education (377) students involved in a semester-long group assignment…

  13. Towards a feasible model for shared decision making: focus group study with general practice registrars

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Adrian; Gwyn, Richard; Grol, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views of general practice registrars about involving patients in decisions and to assess the feasibility of using the shared decision making model by means of simulated general practice consultations. Design Qualitative study based on focus group interviews. Setting General practice vocational training schemes in south Wales. Participants 39 general practice registrars and eight course organisers (acting as observers) attended four sessions; three simulated patients attended each time. Method After an introduction to the principles and suggested stages of shared decision making the registrars conducted and observed a series of consultations about choices of treatment with simulated patients using verbal, numerical, and graphical data formats. Reactions were elicited by using focus group interviews after each consultation and content analysis undertaken. Results Registrars in general practice report not being trained in the skills required to involve patients in clinical decisions. They had a wide range of opinions about “involving patients in decisions,” ranging from protective paternalism (“doctor knows best”), through enlightened self interest (lightening the load), to the potential rewards of a more egalitarian relationship with patients. The work points to three contextual precursors for the process: the availability of reliable information, appropriate timing of the decision making process, and the readiness of patients to accept an active role in their own management. Conclusions Sharing decisions entails sharing the uncertainties about the outcomes of medical processes and involves exposing the fact that data are often unavailable or not known; this can cause anxiety to both patient and clinician. Movement towards further patient involvement will depend on both the skills and the attitudes of professionals, and this work shows the steps that need to be taken if further progress is to be made in this direction. Key messages

  14. General characterization of Tityus fasciolatus scorpion venom. Molecular identification of toxins and localization of linear B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, T M; Guimarães-Okamoto, P T C; Machado-de-Avila, R A; Oliveira, D; Melo, M M; Lobato, Z I; Kalapothakis, E; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-06-01

    This communication describes the general characteristics of the venom from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus fasciolatus, which is an endemic species found in the central Brazil (States of Goiás and Minas Gerais), being responsible for sting accidents in this area. The soluble venom obtained from this scorpion is toxic to mice being the LD50 is 2.984 mg/kg (subcutaneally). SDS-PAGE of the soluble venom resulted in 10 fractions ranged in size from 6 to 10-80 kDa. Sheep were employed for anti-T. fasciolatus venom serum production. Western blotting analysis showed that most of these venom proteins are immunogenic. T. fasciolatus anti-venom revealed consistent cross-reactivity with venom antigens from Tityus serrulatus. Using known primers for T. serrulatus toxins, we have identified three toxins sequences from T. fasciolatus venom. Linear epitopes of these toxins were localized and fifty-five overlapping pentadecapeptides covering complete amino acid sequence of the three toxins were synthesized in cellulose membrane (spot-synthesis technique). The epitopes were located on the 3D structures and some important residues for structure/function were identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Depth-compensated diffuse optical tomography enhanced by general linear model analysis and an anatomical atlas of human head.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2014-01-15

    One of the main challenges in functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is to accurately recover the depth of brain activation, which is even more essential when differentiating true brain signals from task-evoked artifacts in the scalp. Recently, we developed a depth-compensated algorithm (DCA) to minimize the depth localization error in DOT. However, the semi-infinite model that was used in DCA deviated significantly from the realistic human head anatomy. In the present work, we incorporated depth-compensated DOT (DC-DOT) with a standard anatomical atlas of human head. Computer simulations and human measurements of sensorimotor activation were conducted to examine and prove the depth specificity and quantification accuracy of brain atlas-based DC-DOT. In addition, node-wise statistical analysis based on the general linear model (GLM) was also implemented and performed in this study, showing the robustness of DC-DOT that can accurately identify brain activation at the correct depth for functional brain imaging, even when co-existing with superficial artifacts.

  16. Assessing intervention efficacy on high-risk drinkers using generalized linear mixed models with a new class of link functions.

    PubMed

    Prates, Marcos O; Aseltine, Robert H; Dey, Dipak K; Yan, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Brief interventions with high-risk drinkers during an emergency department (ED) visit are of great interest due to their possible efficacy and low cost. In a collaborative study with patients recruited at 14 academic ED across the United States, we examined the self-reported number of drinks per week by each patient following the exposure to a brief intervention. Count data with overdispersion have been mostly analyzed with generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), of which only a limited number of link functions are available. Different choices of link function provide different fit and predictive power for a particular dataset. We propose a class of link functions from an alternative way to incorporate random effects in a GLMM, which encompasses many existing link functions as special cases. The methodology is naturally implemented in a Bayesian framework, with competing links selected with Bayesian model selection criteria such as the conditional predictive ordinate (CPO). In application to the ED intervention study, all models suggest that the intervention was effective in reducing the number of drinks, but some new models are found to significantly outperform the traditional model as measured by CPO. The validity of CPO in link selection is confirmed in a simulation study that shared the same characteristics as the count data from high-risk drinkers. The dataset and the source code for the best fitting model are available in Supporting Information.

  17. Automatic optimal filament segmentation with sub-pixel accuracy using generalized linear models and B-spline level-sets.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xun; Geyer, Veikko F; Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Howard, Jonathon; Sbalzarini, Ivo F

    2016-08-01

    Biological filaments, such as actin filaments, microtubules, and cilia, are often imaged using different light-microscopy techniques. Reconstructing the filament curve from the acquired images constitutes the filament segmentation problem. Since filaments have lower dimensionality than the image itself, there is an inherent trade-off between tracing the filament with sub-pixel accuracy and avoiding noise artifacts. Here, we present a globally optimal filament segmentation method based on B-spline vector level-sets and a generalized linear model for the pixel intensity statistics. We show that the resulting optimization problem is convex and can hence be solved with global optimality. We introduce a simple and efficient algorithm to compute such optimal filament segmentations, and provide an open-source implementation as an ImageJ/Fiji plugin. We further derive an information-theoretic lower bound on the filament segmentation error, quantifying how well an algorithm could possibly do given the information in the image. We show that our algorithm asymptotically reaches this bound in the spline coefficients. We validate our method in comprehensive benchmarks, compare with other methods, and show applications from fluorescence, phase-contrast, and dark-field microscopy.

  18. SNP_NLMM: A SAS Macro to Implement a Flexible Random Effects Density for Generalized Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Models

    PubMed Central

    Vock, David M.; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios A.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear and nonlinear mixed models (GMMMs and NLMMs) are commonly used to represent non-Gaussian or nonlinear longitudinal or clustered data. A common assumption is that the random effects are Gaussian. However, this assumption may be unrealistic in some applications, and misspecification of the random effects density may lead to maximum likelihood parameter estimators that are inconsistent, biased, and inefficient. Because testing if the random effects are Gaussian is difficult, previous research has recommended using a flexible random effects density. However, computational limitations have precluded widespread use of flexible random effects densities for GLMMs and NLMMs. We develop a SAS macro, SNP_NLMM, that overcomes the computational challenges to fit GLMMs and NLMMs where the random effects are assumed to follow a smooth density that can be represented by the seminonparametric formulation proposed by Gallant and Nychka (1987). The macro is flexible enough to allow for any density of the response conditional on the random effects and any nonlinear mean trajectory. We demonstrate the SNP_NLMM macro on a GLMM of the disease progression of toenail infection and on a NLMM of intravenous drug concentration over time. PMID:24688453

  19. Acute toxicity of ammonia (NH3-N) in sewage effluent to Chironomus riparius: II. Using a generalized linear model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monda, D.P.; Galat, D.L.; Finger, S.E.; Kaiser, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Toxicity of un-ionized ammonia (NH3-N) to the midge, Chironomus riparius was compared, using laboratory culture (well) water and sewage effluent (≈0.4 mg/L NH3-N) in two 96-h, static-renewal toxicity experiments. A generalized linear model was used for data analysis. For the first and second experiments, respectively, LC50 values were 9.4 mg/L (Test 1A) and 6.6 mg/L (Test 2A) for ammonia in well water, and 7.8 mg/L (Test 1B) and 4.1 mg/L (Test 2B) for ammonia in sewage effluent. Slopes of dose-response curves for Tests 1A and 2A were equal, but mortality occurred at lower NH3-N concentrations in Test 2A (unequal intercepts). Response ofC. riparius to NH3 in effluent was not consistent; dose-response curves for tests 1B and 2B differed in slope and intercept. Nevertheless, C. riparius was more sensitive to ammonia in effluent than in well water in both experiments, indicating a synergistic effect of ammonia in sewage effluent. These results demonstrate the advantages of analyzing the organisms entire range of response, as opposed to generating LC50 values, which represent only one point on the dose-response curve.

  20. A Sequence Kernel Association Test for Dichotomous Traits in Family Samples under a Generalized Linear Mixed Model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi; Tiwari, Hemant K; Yi, Nengjun; Gao, Guimin; Zhang, Kui; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Cui, Xiangqin; Liu, Nianjun

    2015-01-01

    The existing methods for identifying multiple rare variants underlying complex diseases in family samples are underpowered. Therefore, we aim to develop a new set-based method for an association study of dichotomous traits in family samples. We introduce a framework for testing the association of genetic variants with diseases in family samples based on a generalized linear mixed model. Our proposed method is based on a kernel machine regression and can be viewed as an extension of the sequence kernel association test (SKAT and famSKAT) for application to family data with dichotomous traits (F-SKAT). Our simulation studies show that the original SKAT has inflated type I error rates when applied directly to family data. By contrast, our proposed F-SKAT has the correct type I error rate. Furthermore, in all of the considered scenarios, F-SKAT, which uses all family data, has higher power than both SKAT, which uses only unrelated individuals from the family data, and another method, which uses all family data. We propose a set-based association test that can be used to analyze family data with dichotomous phenotypes while handling genetic variants with the same or opposite directions of effects as well as any types of family relationships. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Projected changes in precipitation and temperature over the Canadian Prairie Provinces using the Generalized Linear Model statistical downscaling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asong, Z. E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a multisite multivariate statistical downscaling approach based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework is developed to downscale daily observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. First, large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and temperature records are used to calibrate GLMs for the 1971-2000 period. Then the calibrated models are used to generate daily sequences of precipitation and temperature for the 1962-2005 historical (conditioned on NCEP predictors), and future period (2006-2100) using outputs from five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5) Earth System Models corresponding to Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP): RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. The results indicate that the fitted GLMs are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and temperature fields. According to the downscaled future climate, mean precipitation is projected to increase in summer and decrease in winter while minimum temperature is expected to warm faster than the maximum temperature. Climate extremes are projected to intensify with increased radiative forcing.

  2. Complex-number representation of informed basis functions in general linear modeling of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengwei; Wang, Zhishun; He, Lianghua

    2012-03-30

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), measuring Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD), is a widely used tool to reveal spatiotemporal pattern of neural activity in human brain. Standard analysis of fMRI data relies on a general linear model and the model is constructed by convolving the task stimuli with a hypothesized hemodynamic response function (HRF). To capture possible phase shifts in the observed BOLD response, the informed basis functions including canonical HRF and its temporal derivative, have been proposed to extend the hypothesized hemodynamic response in order to obtain a good fitting model. Different t contrasts are constructed from the estimated model parameters for detecting the neural activity between different task conditions. However, the estimated model parameters corresponding to the orthogonal basis functions have different physical meanings. It remains unclear how to combine the neural features detected by the two basis functions and construct t contrasts for further analyses. In this paper, we have proposed a novel method for representing multiple basis functions in complex domain to model the task-driven fMRI data. Using this method, we can treat each pair of model parameters, corresponding respectively to canonical HRF and its temporal derivative, as one complex number for each task condition. Using the specific rule we have defined, we can conveniently perform arithmetical operations on the estimated model parameters and generate different t contrasts. We validate this method using the fMRI data acquired from twenty-two healthy participants who underwent an auditory stimulation task.

  3. Towards obtaining spatiotemporally precise responses to continuous sensory stimuli in humans: a general linear modeling approach to EEG.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Nuno R; Whelan, Robert; Foxe, John J; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-08-15

    Noninvasive investigation of human sensory processing with high temporal resolution typically involves repeatedly presenting discrete stimuli and extracting an average event-related response from scalp recorded neuroelectric or neuromagnetic signals. While this approach is and has been extremely useful, it suffers from two drawbacks: a lack of naturalness in terms of the stimulus and a lack of precision in terms of the cortical response generators. Here we show that a linear modeling approach that exploits functional specialization in sensory systems can be used to rapidly obtain spatiotemporally precise responses to complex sensory stimuli using electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrate the method by example through the controlled modulation of the contrast and coherent motion of visual stimuli. Regressing the data against these modulation signals produces spatially focal, highly temporally resolved response measures that are suggestive of specific activation of visual areas V1 and V6, respectively, based on their onset latency, their topographic distribution and the estimated location of their sources. We discuss our approach by comparing it with fMRI/MRI informed source analysis methods and, in doing so, we provide novel information on the timing of coherent motion processing in human V6. Generalizing such an approach has the potential to facilitate the rapid, inexpensive spatiotemporal localization of higher perceptual functions in behaving humans.

  4. Multisite multivariate modeling of daily precipitation and temperature in the Canadian Prairie Provinces using generalized linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asong, Zilefac E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-11-01

    Based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework, a multisite stochastic modelling approach is developed using daily observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Temperature is modeled using a two-stage normal-heteroscedastic model by fitting mean and variance components separately. Likewise, precipitation occurrence and conditional precipitation intensity processes are modeled separately. The relationship between precipitation and temperature is accounted for by using transformations of precipitation as covariates to predict temperature fields. Large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and temperature records are used to calibrate these models for the 1971-2000 period. Validation of the developed models is performed on both pre- and post-calibration period data. Results of the study indicate that the developed models are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and temperature fields, such as inter-site and inter-variable correlation structure, and systematic regional variations present in observed sequences. A number of simulated weather statistics ranging from seasonal means to characteristics of temperature and precipitation extremes and some of the commonly used climate indices are also found to be in close agreement with those derived from observed data. This GLM-based modelling approach will be developed further for multisite statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model outputs to explore climate variability and change in this region of Canada.

  5. Optimizing the general linear model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy: an adaptive hemodynamic response function approach

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Dan, Haruka; Watanabe, Eiju

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies utilize a general linear model (GLM) approach, which serves as a standard statistical method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. While fMRI solely measures the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, fNIRS measures the changes of oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) signals at a temporal resolution severalfold higher. This suggests the necessity of adjusting the temporal parameters of a GLM for fNIRS signals. Thus, we devised a GLM-based method utilizing an adaptive hemodynamic response function (HRF). We sought the optimum temporal parameters to best explain the observed time series data during verbal fluency and naming tasks. The peak delay of the HRF was systematically changed to achieve the best-fit model for the observed oxy- and deoxy-Hb time series data. The optimized peak delay showed different values for each Hb signal and task. When the optimized peak delays were adopted, the deoxy-Hb data yielded comparable activations with similar statistical power and spatial patterns to oxy-Hb data. The adaptive HRF method could suitably explain the behaviors of both Hb parameters during tasks with the different cognitive loads during a time course, and thus would serve as an objective method to fully utilize the temporal structures of all fNIRS data. PMID:26157973

  6. Generalized linear solvation energy model applied to solute partition coefficients in ionic liquid-supercritical carbon dioxide systems.

    PubMed

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Sťavíková, Lenka; Roth, Michal

    2012-08-10

    Biphasic solvent systems composed of an ionic liquid (IL) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) have become frequented in synthesis, extractions and electrochemistry. In the design of related applications, information on interphase partitioning of the target organics is essential, and the infinite-dilution partition coefficients of the organic solutes in IL-scCO(2) systems can conveniently be obtained by supercritical fluid chromatography. The data base of experimental partition coefficients obtained previously in this laboratory has been employed to test a generalized predictive model for the solute partition coefficients. The model is an amended version of that described before by Hiraga et al. (J. Supercrit. Fluids, in press). Because of difficulty of the problem to be modeled, the model involves several different concepts - linear solvation energy relationships, density-dependent solvent power of scCO(2), regular solution theory, and the Flory-Huggins theory of athermal solutions. The model shows a moderate success in correlating the infinite-dilution solute partition coefficients (K-factors) in individual IL-scCO(2) systems at varying temperature and pressure. However, larger K-factor data sets involving multiple IL-scCO(2) systems appear to be beyond reach of the model, especially when the ILs involved pertain to different cation classes.

  7. Sample size calculation based on generalized linear models for differential expression analysis in RNA-seq data.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-I; Shyr, Yu

    2016-12-01

    As RNA-seq rapidly develops and costs continually decrease, the quantity and frequency of samples being sequenced will grow exponentially. With proteomic investigations becoming more multivariate and quantitative, determining a study's optimal sample size is now a vital step in experimental design. Current methods for calculating a study's required sample size are mostly based on the hypothesis testing framework, which assumes each gene count can be modeled through Poisson or negative binomial distributions; however, these methods are limited when it comes to accommodating covariates. To address this limitation, we propose an estimating procedure based on the generalized linear model. This easy-to-use method constructs a representative exemplary dataset and estimates the conditional power, all without requiring complicated mathematical approximations or formulas. Even more attractive, the downstream analysis can be performed with current R/Bioconductor packages. To demonstrate the practicability and efficiency of this method, we apply it to three real-world studies, and introduce our on-line calculator developed to determine the optimal sample size for a RNA-seq study.

  8. Estimation of breeding values for mean and dispersion, their variance and correlation using double hierarchical generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Felleki, M; Lee, D; Lee, Y; Gilmour, A R; Rönnegård, L

    2012-12-01

    The possibility of breeding for uniform individuals by selecting animals expressing a small response to environment has been studied extensively in animal breeding. Bayesian methods for fitting models with genetic components in the residual variance have been developed for this purpose, but have limitations due to the computational demands. We use the hierarchical (h)-likelihood from the theory of double hierarchical generalized linear models (DHGLM) to derive an estimation algorithm that is computationally feasible for large datasets. Random effects for both the mean and residual variance parts of the model are estimated together with their variance/covariance components. An important feature of the algorithm is that it can fit a correlation between the random effects for mean and variance. An h-likelihood estimator is implemented in the R software and an iterative reweighted least square (IRWLS) approximation of the h-likelihood is implemented using ASReml. The difference in variance component estimates between the two implementations is investigated, as well as the potential bias of the methods, using simulations. IRWLS gives the same results as h-likelihood in simple cases with no severe indication of bias. For more complex cases, only IRWLS could be used, and bias did appear. The IRWLS is applied on the pig litter size data previously analysed by Sorensen & Waagepetersen (2003) using Bayesian methodology. The estimates we obtained by using IRWLS are similar to theirs, with the estimated correlation between the random genetic effects being -0·52 for IRWLS and -0·62 in Sorensen & Waagepetersen (2003).

  9. Automatic optimal filament segmentation with sub-pixel accuracy using generalized linear models and B-spline level-sets

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xun; Geyer, Veikko F.; Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Howard, Jonathon; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.

    2016-01-01

    Biological filaments, such as actin filaments, microtubules, and cilia, are often imaged using different light-microscopy techniques. Reconstructing the filament curve from the acquired images constitutes the filament segmentation problem. Since filaments have lower dimensionality than the image itself, there is an inherent trade-off between tracing the filament with sub-pixel accuracy and avoiding noise artifacts. Here, we present a globally optimal filament segmentation method based on B-spline vector level-sets and a generalized linear model for the pixel intensity statistics. We show that the resulting optimization problem is convex and can hence be solved with global optimality. We introduce a simple and efficient algorithm to compute such optimal filament segmentations, and provide an open-source implementation as an ImageJ/Fiji plugin. We further derive an information-theoretic lower bound on the filament segmentation error, quantifying how well an algorithm could possibly do given the information in the image. We show that our algorithm asymptotically reaches this bound in the spline coefficients. We validate our method in comprehensive benchmarks, compare with other methods, and show applications from fluorescence, phase-contrast, and dark-field microscopy. PMID:27104582

  10. The overlooked potential of generalized linear models in astronomy - III. Bayesian negative binomial regression and globular cluster populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Hilbe, J. M.; Buelens, B.; Riggs, J. D.; Cameron, E.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Chies-Santos, A. L.; Killedar, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the third in a series illustrating the power of generalized linear models (GLMs) for the astronomical community, we elucidate the potential of the class of GLMs which handles count data. The size of a galaxy's globular cluster (GC) population (NGC) is a prolonged puzzle in the astronomical literature. It falls in the category of count data analysis, yet it is usually modelled as if it were a continuous response variable. We have developed a Bayesian negative binomial regression model to study the connection between NGC and the following galaxy properties: central black hole mass, dynamical bulge mass, bulge velocity dispersion and absolute visual magnitude. The methodology introduced herein naturally accounts for heteroscedasticity, intrinsic scatter, errors in measurements in both axes (either discrete or continuous) and allows modelling the population of GCs on their natural scale as a non-negative integer variable. Prediction intervals of 99 per cent around the trend for expected NGC comfortably envelope the data, notably including the Milky Way, which has hitherto been considered a problematic outlier. Finally, we demonstrate how random intercept models can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type. Bayesian variable selection methodology allows for automatically identifying galaxy types with different productions of GCs, suggesting that on average S0 galaxies have a GC population 35 per cent smaller than other types with similar brightness.

  11. Hierarchical multivariate mixture generalized linear models for the analysis of spatial data: An application to disease mapping.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    Disease mapping of a single disease has been widely studied in the public health setup. Simultaneous modeling of related diseases can also be a valuable tool both from the epidemiological and from the statistical point of view. In particular, when we have several measurements recorded at each spatial location, we need to consider multivariate models in order to handle the dependence among the multivariate components as well as the spatial dependence between locations. It is then customary to use multivariate spatial models assuming the same distribution through the entire population density. However, in many circumstances, it is a very strong assumption to have the same distribution for all the areas of population density. To overcome this issue, we propose a hierarchical multivariate mixture generalized linear model to simultaneously analyze spatial Normal and non-Normal outcomes. As an application of our proposed approach, esophageal and lung cancer deaths in Minnesota are used to show the outperformance of assuming different distributions for different counties of Minnesota rather than assuming a single distribution for the population density. Performance of the proposed approach is also evaluated through a simulation study. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469

  13. General intellectual impairment in chronic right hemisphere damaged patients with anosognosia: a group study.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, F; Gialanella, B; Stampatori, C; Scarpazza, C

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluates the possible relations between cognitive impairment, persisting anosognosia for hemiplegia and peripersonal neglect. Thirty eight chronic right hemisphere stroke patients were divided in three age- and education-matched groups: A (n = 13) patients with left hemiparesis, peripersonal neglect, and anosognosia for hemiplegia; B (n = 12) patients with left hemiparesis and peripersonal neglect, and C (n = 13) patients with left hemiparesis only. We used MMSE and WAIS Verbal IQ and verbal subtests to assess cognitive impairment in patients, in order to avoid a bias due to visuospatial deficit, which is common in patients with neglect. VIQ, Information, Digit Span and Vocabulary WAIS subtests as well as MMSE were found to be significantly lower in group A versus group B. No difference was found in any test between groups B and C, indicating a general worse cognition in patients compared to those without anosognosia for hemiplegia. Patients with anosognosia for hemiplegia also showed larger brain lesions and, more frequently, frontal, parietal, temporal and basal ganglia involvement, particularly if they had low verbal IQ, indicating a relationship between cognitive impairment, persisting anosognosia for hemiplegia and large right hemisphere lesions.

  14. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ava Elizabeth; Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs.

  15. Quantum groups as generalized gauge symmetries in WZNW models. Part I. The classical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Furlan, P.

    2017-07-01

    Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) models over compact Lie groups G constitute the best studied class of (two dimensional, 2 D) rational conformal field theories (RCFTs). A WZNW chiral state space is a finite direct sum of integrable representations of the corresponding affine (current) algebra, and the correlation functions of primary fields are monodromy invariant combinations of left times right sector conformal blocks solving the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation. However, even in this very well understood case of 2 D RCFT, the "internal" (gauge) symmetry that governs the ensuing fusion rules remains unclear. On the other hand, the canonical approach to the classical chiral WZNW theory developed by Faddeev, Alekseev, Shatashvili, Gawedzki and Falceto reveals its Poisson-Lie symmetry. After a covariant quantization, the latter gives rise to an associated quantum group symmetry which naturally requires an extension of the state space. This paper contains a review of earlier work on the subject with a special emphasis, in the case G = SU( n), on the emerging chiral "WZNW zero modes" which provide an adequate algebraic description of the internal symmetry structure of the model. Combining further left and right zero modes, one obtains a specific dynamical quantum group, the structure of its Fock representation resembling the axiomatic approach to gauge theories in which a "restricted" quantum group plays the role of a generalized gauge symmetry.

  16. The Weyl group and asymptotics: All supergravity billiards have a closed form general integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fré, Pietro; Sorin, Alexander S.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we show that all supergravity billiards corresponding to σ-models on any U/H non-compact-symmetric space and obtained by compactifying supergravity to D=3 admit a closed form general integral depending analytically on a complete set of integration constants. The key point in establishing the integration algorithm is provided by an upper triangular embedding of the solvable Lie algebra associated with U/H into sl(N,R) which is guaranteed to exist for all non-compact symmetric spaces and also for homogeneous special geometries non-corresponding to symmetric spaces. In this context we establish a remarkable relation between the end-points of the time-flow and the properties of the Weyl group. The asymptotic states of the developing Universe are in one-to-one correspondence with the elements of the Weyl group which is a property of the Tits-Satake universality classes and not of their single representatives. Furthermore the Weyl group admits a natural ordering in terms of ℓ, the number of reflections with respect to the simple roots. The direction of time flows is always from the minimal accessible value of ℓ to the maximum one or vice versa.

  17. Influence of a dichlophenyl group on the geometric structure, electronic properties, and static linear polarizability of La at C{sub 74}

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Chunmei; Deng Kaiming; Tan Weishi; Yuan Yongbo; Liu Yuzhen; Wu Haiping; Huang Decai; Hu Fenglan; Yang Jinlong; Wang Xin

    2007-07-15

    The generalized gradient approximation based on density functional theory is used to study which effects are brought by the dichlophenyl group C{sub 6}H{sub 3}Cl{sub 2} on the geometric structure, electronic properties, and static linear polarizability of La at C{sub 74}. It is found that the most favorable endohedral site of a La atom in La at C{sub 74}, similar to the cases of Ca at C{sub 74} and Eu at C{sub 74}, is off-center under a [6, 6] double bond along the C{sub 2} axis on the {sigma}{sub h} plane, yielding a structure marked as La at C{sub 74}-2. It is interesting that the La at C{sub 74} molecule has 1{mu}{sub B} magnetic moment, while La at C{sub 74}(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}Cl{sub 2}) has a closed-shell electronic structure. With respect to the static linear polarizability, La at C{sub 74}-2 has a nonzero value only in the positive z direction 679.6 A{sup 3} and shows a giant anisotropic polarizability due to its low C{sub 2v}-symmetric structure in contrast to the isotropic polarizability of C{sub 60} with I{sub h}-symmetric structure as well as the transference of about three electrons from the La atom to the carbon cage. However, the three components along the x, y, and z directions for La at C{sub 74}(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}Cl{sub 2}) are, respectively, 998.7, 821.4, and 710.3 A{sup 3} with the mean value 843.5 A{sup 3}, much larger than that of La at C{sub 74}-2. The static linear polarizability anisotropy of La at C{sub 74}(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}Cl{sub 2}) 251.9 A{sup 3} is much smaller than that of La at C{sub 74} 679.6 A{sup 3} because the inclined dichlorophenyl group completely destroys the C{sub 2v} symmetry of La at C{sub 74}-2.

  18. Nonperturbative renormalization group for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation: general framework and first applications.

    PubMed

    Canet, Léonie; Chaté, Hugues; Delamotte, Bertrand; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2011-12-01

    We present an analytical method, rooted in the nonperturbative renormalization group, that allows one to calculate the critical exponents and the correlation and response functions of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) growth equation in all its different regimes, including the strong-coupling one. We analyze the symmetries of the KPZ problem and derive an approximation scheme that satisfies the linearly realized ones. We implement this scheme at the minimal order in the response field, and show that it yields a complete, qualitatively correct phase diagram in all dimensions, with reasonable values for the critical exponents in physical dimensions. We also compute in one dimension the full (momentum and frequency dependent) correlation function, and the associated universal scaling function. We find a very satisfactory quantitative agreement with the exact result from Prähofer and Spohn [J. Stat. Phys. 115, 255 (2004)]. In particular, we obtain for the universal amplitude ratio g_{0}≃1.149(18), to be compared with the exact value g_{0}=1.1504... (the Baik and Rain [J. Stat. Phys. 100, 523 (2000)] constant). We emphasize that all these results, which can be systematically improved, are obtained with sole input the bare action and its symmetries, without further assumptions on the existence of scaling or on the form of the scaling function.

  19. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Student Response System in Teaching Biology to the Non-Major Utilizing Nine Group-Paced, Linear Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessler, William Carl

    This paper presents the procedures, results, and conclusions of a study designed to determine the effectiveness of an electronic student response system in teaching biology to the non-major. Nine group-paced linear programs were used. Subjects were 664 college students divided into treatment and control groups. The effectiveness of the response…

  20. Statistical Downscaling of Seasonal Forecasts and Climate Change Scenarios using Generalized Linear Modeling Approach for Stochastic Weather Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Katz, R. W.; Rajagopalan, B.; Podesta, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Climate forecasts and climate change scenarios are typically provided in the form of monthly or seasonally aggregated totals or means. But time series of daily weather (e.g., precipitation amount, minimum and maximum temperature) are commonly required for use in agricultural decision-making. Stochastic weather generators constitute one technique to temporally downscale such climate information. The recently introduced approach for stochastic weather generators, based generalized linear modeling (GLM), is convenient for this purpose, especially with covariates to account for seasonality and teleconnections (e.g., with the El Niño phenomenon). Yet one important limitation of stochastic weather generators is a marked tendency to underestimate the observed interannual variance of seasonally aggregated variables. To reduce this “overdispersion” phenomenon, we incorporate time series of seasonal total precipitation and seasonal mean minimum and maximum temperature in the GLM weather generator as covariates. These seasonal time series are smoothed using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS) to avoid introducing underdispersion. Because the aggregate variables appear explicitly in the weather generator, downscaling to daily sequences can be readily implemented. The proposed method is applied to time series of daily weather at Pergamino and Pilar in the Argentine Pampas. Seasonal precipitation and temperature forecasts produced by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) are used as prototypes. In conjunction with the GLM weather generator, a resampling scheme is used to translate the uncertainty in the seasonal forecasts (the IRI format only specifies probabilities for three categories: below normal, near normal, and above normal) into the corresponding uncertainty for the daily weather statistics. The method is able to generate potentially useful shifts in the probability distributions of seasonally aggregated precipitation and

  1. Kalman estimator- and general linear model-based on-line brain activation mapping by near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that recently has been developed to measure the changes of cerebral blood oxygenation associated with brain activities. To date, for functional brain mapping applications, there is no standard on-line method for analysing NIRS data. Methods In this paper, a novel on-line NIRS data analysis framework taking advantages of both the general linear model (GLM) and the Kalman estimator is devised. The Kalman estimator is used to update the GLM coefficients recursively, and one critical coefficient regarding brain activities is then passed to a t-statistical test. The t-statistical test result is used to update a topographic brain activation map. Meanwhile, a set of high-pass filters is plugged into the GLM to prevent very low-frequency noises, and an autoregressive (AR) model is used to prevent the temporal correlation caused by physiological noises in NIRS time series. A set of data recorded in finger tapping experiments is studied using the proposed framework. Results The obtained results suggest that the method can effectively track the task related brain activation areas, and prevent the noise distortion in the estimation while the experiment is running. Thereby, the potential of the proposed method for real-time NIRS-based brain imaging was demonstrated. Conclusions This paper presents a novel on-line approach for analysing NIRS data for functional brain mapping applications. This approach demonstrates the potential of a real-time-updating topographic brain activation map. PMID:21138595

  2. Documenting organisational development in general practice using a group-based assessment method: the Maturity Matrix.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Tina; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Løgstrup, Louise; Buch, Martin Sandberg; Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    The Maturity Matrix (MM) comprises a formative evaluation instrument for primary care practices to self-assess their degree of organisational development in a group setting, guided by an external facilitator. The practice teams discuss organisational development, score their own performance and set improvement goals for the following year. The objective of this project was to introduce a translated and culturally adapted version of the MM in Denmark, to test its feasibility, to promote and document organisational change in general practices and to analyse associations between the recorded change(s) and structural factors in practices and the factors associated with the MM process. MM was used by general practices in three counties in Denmark, in two assessment sessions 1 year apart. First rounds of MM visits were carried out in 2006-2007 in 60 practice teams (320 participants (163 GPs, 157 staff)) and the second round in 2007-2008. A total of 48 practice teams (228 participants (117 GPs; 111 staff) participated in both sessions. The MM sessions were the primary intervention. Moreover, in about half of the practices, the facilitator reminded practice teams of their goals by sending them the written report of the initial session and contacted the practices regularly by telephone reminding them of the goals they had set. Those practice teams had password-protected access to their own and benchmark data. Where the minimum possible is 0 and maximum possible is 8, the mean overall MM score increased from 4.4 to 5.3 (difference=0.9, 95%, CI 0.76 to 1.06) from first to second sessions, indicating that development had taken place as measured by this group-based self-evaluation method. There was some evidence that lower-scoring dimensions were prioritised and more limited evidence that the prioritisation and interventions between meetings were helpful to achieve changes. This study provides evidence that MM worked well in general practices in Denmark. Practice teams appeared

  3. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC) serves as a general sensor of damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Steven M.; Hawkins, Edward K.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Hlaing, Aye Su; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Chazin, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC) serves as the primary initiating factor in the global genome nucleotide excision repair pathway (GG-NER). Recent reports suggest XPC also stimulates repair of oxidative lesions by base excision repair. However, whether XPC distinguishes among various types of DNA lesions remains unclear. Although the DNA binding properties of XPC have been studied by several groups, there is a lack of consensus over whether XPC discriminates between DNA damaged by lesions associated with NER activity versus those that are not. In this study we report a high-throughput fluorescence anisotropy assay used to measure the DNA binding affinity of XPC for a panel of DNA substrates containing a range of chemical lesions in a common sequence. Our results demonstrate that while XPC displays a preference for binding damaged DNA, the identity of the lesion has little effect on the binding affinity of XPC. Moreover, XPC was equally capable of binding to DNA substrates containing lesions not repaired by GG-NER. Our results support an indirect read-out model for sensing the presence of lesions by human XPC and suggest XPC may act as a general sensor of damaged DNA capable of recognizing DNA containing lesions not repaired by NER. PMID:24051049

  4. Obesity in general practice: a focus group study on patient experiences.

    PubMed

    Malterud, Kirsti; Ulriksen, Kjersti

    2010-12-01

    To explore obese patients' experiences with GPs' management of their weight problems. Focus-group study with a purposive sample of 13 participants (eight women and five men), aged 30-55 years, with BMI above 40, or BMI above 35 with additional weight-related problems. Two focus-group interviews were conducted, inviting the participants to speak about their health care experiences from general practice. Analysis applied Systematic Text Condensation inspired by Giorgi's approach, searching for issues describing or discussing participants' experiences of GPs' obesity management. Obese patients want their GPs to put their weight problems on the agenda. When the patient appears reluctant, it may be a sign of embarrassment rather than rejection of the issue. However, restricted attention to obesity could lead to neglect of patients' problems. Participants complained that GPs often demonstrated insufficient engagement and knowledge regarding service resources for obesity treatment, leaving the responsibility for information on available referral resources to the patient. Finally, considerate attitudes in the GPs are needed for follow-up to be experienced as helpful by the patients. Vulnerable feelings of failure could be reinforced by well-intended advice. Degrading attitudes were perceived as especially subversive when they came from doctors. The challenge for the GP is to increase his or her competence in individualized and evidence-based counselling, while acknowledging the efforts needed by the patient to achieve permanent change, and shifting attention from shame to coping.

  5. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Testing Linear Combinations of Group Means under Variance Heterogeneity with Applications to Meta and Moderation Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen; Jan, Show-Li

    2015-01-01

    The general formulation of a linear combination of population means permits a wide range of research questions to be tested within the context of ANOVA. However, it has been stressed in many research areas that the homogeneous variances assumption is frequently violated. To accommodate the heterogeneity of variance structure, the…

  6. An Application of Interactive Computer Graphics to the Study of Inferential Statistics and the General Linear Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    v List of Tables .......................................... vi A bstract ............................................. vii...Population Mean of a Normally Distributed Random Variable .............. 53 Linear Simple Regression to Estimate E(Y I X) ......... 58 V . Conclusions and...Appendix A .......................................... 66 Bibliography .......................................... 156 V ita

  7. Permutation-based variance component test in generalized linear mixed model with application to multilocus genetic association study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Zhao, Yang; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Ting; Chen, Feng

    2015-04-22

    In many medical studies the likelihood ratio test (LRT) has been widely applied to examine whether the random effects variance component is zero within the mixed effects models framework; whereas little work about likelihood-ratio based variance component test has been done in the generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), where the response is discrete and the log-likelihood cannot be computed exactly. Before applying the LRT for variance component in GLMM, several difficulties need to be overcome, including the computation of the log-likelihood, the parameter estimation and the derivation of the null distribution for the LRT statistic. To overcome these problems, in this paper we make use of the penalized quasi-likelihood algorithm and calculate the LRT statistic based on the resulting working response and the quasi-likelihood. The permutation procedure is used to obtain the null distribution of the LRT statistic. We evaluate the permutation-based LRT via simulations and compare it with the score-based variance component test and the tests based on the mixture of chi-square distributions. Finally we apply the permutation-based LRT to multilocus association analysis in the case-control study, where the problem can be investigated under the framework of logistic mixed effects model. The simulations show that the permutation-based LRT can effectively control the type I error rate, while the score test is sometimes slightly conservative and the tests based on mixtures cannot maintain the type I error rate. Our studies also show that the permutation-based LRT has higher power than these existing tests and still maintains a reasonably high power even when the random effects do not follow a normal distribution. The application to GAW17 data also demonstrates that the proposed LRT has a higher probability to identify the association signals than the score test and the tests based on mixtures. In the present paper the permutation-based LRT was developed for variance

  8. Direct 4D parametric imaging for linearized models of reversibly binding PET tracers using generalized AB-EM reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rahmim, Arman; Zhou, Yun; Tang, Jing; Lu, Lijun; Sossi, Vesna; Wong, Dean F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to high noise levels in the voxel kinetics, development of reliable parametric imaging algorithms remains as one of most active areas in dynamic brain PET imaging, which in the vast majority of cases involves receptor/transporter studies with reversibly binding tracers. As such, the focus of this work has been to develop a novel direct 4D parametric image reconstruction scheme for such tracers. Based on a relative equilibrium (RE) graphical analysis formulation (Zhou et al., 2009b), we developed a closed-form 4D EM algorithm to directly reconstruct distribution volume (DV) parametric images within a plasma input model, as well as DV ratio (DVR) images within a reference tissue model scheme (wherein an initial reconstruction was used to estimate the reference tissue time-activity-curves). A particular challenge with the direct 4D EM formulation is that the intercept parameters in graphical (linearized) analysis of reversible tracers (e.g. Logan or RE analysis) are commonly negative (unlike for irreversible tracers; e.g. using Patlak analysis). Subsequently, we focused our attention on the AB-EM algorithm, derived by Byrne (1998) to allow inclusion of prior information about the lower (A) and upper (B) bounds for image values. We then generalized this algorithm to the 4D EM framework thus allowing negative intercept parameters. Furthermore, our 4D AB-EM algorithm incorporated, and emphasized the use of spatially varying lower bounds to achieve enhanced performance. As validation, the means of parameters estimated from 55 human 11C-raclopride dynamic PET studies were used for extensive simulations using a mathematical brain phantom. Images were reconstructed using conventional indirect as well as proposed direct parametric imaging methods. Noise vs. bias quantitative measurements were performed in various regions of the brain. Direct 4D EM reconstruction resulted in notable qualitative and quantitative accuracy improvements (over 35% noise reduction, with matched

  9. Developing a Measure of General Academic Ability: An Application of Maximal Reliability and Optimal Linear Combination to High School Students' Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Raykov, Tenko; AL-Qataee, Abdullah Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with developing a measure of general academic ability (GAA) for high school graduates who apply to colleges, as well as with the identification of optimal weights of the GAA indicators in a linear combination that yields a composite score with maximal reliability and maximal predictive validity, employing the framework of…

  10. Symposium on General Linear Model Approach to the Analysis of Experimental Data in Educational Research (Athens, Georgia, June 29-July 1, 1967). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashaw, W. L., Ed.; Findley, Warren G., Ed.

    This volume contains the five major addresses and subsequent discussion from the Symposium on the General Linear Models Approach to the Analysis of Experimental Data in Educational Research, which was held in 1967 in Athens, Georgia. The symposium was designed to produce systematic information, including new methodology, for dissemination to the…

  11. Developing a Measure of General Academic Ability: An Application of Maximal Reliability and Optimal Linear Combination to High School Students' Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Raykov, Tenko; AL-Qataee, Abdullah Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with developing a measure of general academic ability (GAA) for high school graduates who apply to colleges, as well as with the identification of optimal weights of the GAA indicators in a linear combination that yields a composite score with maximal reliability and maximal predictive validity, employing the framework of…

  12. Performance of meta-GGA Functionals on General Main Group Thermochemistry, Kinetics, and Noncovalent Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hao, Pan; Sun, Jianwei; Xiao, Bing; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Csonka, Gábor I; Tao, Jianmin; Glindmeyer, Stephen; Perdew, John P

    2013-01-08

    Among the computationally efficient semilocal density functionals for the exchange-correlation energy, meta-generalized-gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) are potentially the most accurate. Here, we assess the performance of three new meta-GGAs (revised Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria or revTPSS, regularized revTPSS or regTPSS, and meta-GGA made simple or MGGA_MS), within and beyond their "comfort zones," on Grimme's big test set of main-group molecular energetics (thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions). We compare them against the standard Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) GGA, TPSS, and Minnesota M06L meta-GGAs, and Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid of GGA with exact exchange. The overall performance of these three new meta-GGA functionals is similar. However, dramatic differences occur for different test sets. For example, M06L and MGGA_MS perform best for the test sets that contain noncovalent interactions. For the 14 Diels-Alder reaction energies in the "difficult" DARC subset, the mean absolute error ranges from 3 kcal mol(-1) (MGGA_MS) to 15 kcal mol(-1) (B3LYP), while for some other reaction subsets the order of accuracy is reversed; more generally, the tested new semilocal functionals outperform the standard B3LYP for ring reactions. Some overall improvement is found from long-range dispersion corrections for revTPSS and regTPSS but not for MGGA_MS. Formal and universality criteria for the functionals are also discussed.

  13. Unaccompanied refugee minors in Germany: attitudes of the general population towards a vulnerable group.

    PubMed

    Plener, Paul L; Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Brähler, Elmar; Sukale, Thorsten; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-06-01

    Germany saw an increase in numbers of refugees in 2015, with nearly a third being below the age of 18. Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) present an especially vulnerable group. In addition to pre-flight and flight stress, the acculturation process can work as potential stressor, and we wanted to explore attitudes towards URM. We conducted a study in a representative sample (n = 2524) of the German population (ages 14 years or older) between January and March 2016. Only 22.8% of participants thought that Germany could accompany more URM. While few participants argued in support of immediate deportation of URM in general (38.6%) or of URM from the Middle East (35.3%), a majority advocated for immediate deportations of URM from the Balkan region (62%) or from Africa (51.1%). Difference in the variance regarding attitudes towards deportation was explained mostly by right-wing political attitudes as well as by islamophobic attitudes and general rejection of asylum seekers. High rates of approval were found for guaranteeing the same chances to schooling or apprenticeship for URM as to German children and for bestowing URM a right to permanent residence if they were able to complete school or apprenticeship. Education and qualification are key to integration. Studies about needs and wishes of URM consistently report a high motivation to learn the language of their new host country and attend school. At this point, hopes of URM and expectations of society meet, which underlines the importance of participation in education as key factor in integration.

  14. Intensive care discharge summaries for general practice staff: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Bench, Suzanne; Cornish, Jocelyn; Xyrichis, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how patients and relatives can be supported after hospital discharge is a UK research priority. Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge summaries are a simple way of providing GPs with the information they require to coordinate ongoing care, but little evidence is available to guide best practice. This study aimed at better understanding the information needs of GP staff (GPs and practice nurses) supporting former patients of ICUs and their families following discharge from hospital, and identifying the barriers/facilitators associated with ICU-primary care information transfer. This was a qualitative exploratory study of practices and participants throughout the UK. Audiotaped focus group discussions, complemented by small-group/individual interviews, were conducted with 15 former patients of ICUs, four relatives, and 20 GP staff between June and September 2015. Demographic data were captured by questionnaire and qualitative data were thematically analysed. Findings suggest variability in discharge information experiences and blurred lines of responsibility between hospital and GP staff, and patients/relatives. Continuity of care was affected by delayed or poor communication from the hospital; GPs' limited contact with patients from critical care; and a lack of knowledge of the effects of critical illness or resources available to ameliorate these difficulties. Time pressures and information technology were, respectively, the most commonly mentioned barrier and facilitator. Effective rehabilitation after a critical illness requires a coordinated and comprehensive approach, incorporating the provision of well-completed, timely, and relevant ICU-primary care discharge information. Health professionals need an improved understanding of critical illness, and patients and families must be included in all aspects of the information-sharing process. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  15. Pathways to hostile collective action: The roles of general attitudes toward the advantaged group and situational anger.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Erping

    2012-12-01

    Collective action is a group behavior that aims to improve the status, power, or influence of an entire group. The present study focused on hostile collective action performed for releasing negative emotions, and explored a pathway including the roles of general attitudes toward the advantaged group and situational group-based anger in predicting the disadvantaged groups' hostile collective action. Group-level data were collected via a laboratory experiment. The results obtained using multiple regression analysis suggested that general attitudes toward the advantaged group formed before the trigger event predicted hostile collective action indirectly through the mediating effects of situational group-based anger and collective action tendencies, which were both produced after that trigger event. In addition, situational group-based anger predicted hostile collective action fully through collective action tendencies. These pathways provided a continuous process of hostile collective action in which general attitudes toward the advantaged group that were formed before the trigger events would influence situational group-based anger when the trigger events occurred, and then affected hostile collective action for responding to these events. Thus, hostile collective action could be predicted before the trigger events by monitoring the disadvantaged groups' attitudes toward the advantaged group. Moreover, reducing destructive collective action by improving intergroup attitudes through some effective interventions was discussed in this study. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. What do General Practitioners think of written reflection? A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Pamela; Gorolay, Sarita; Curtis, Anthony; Harris, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Written reflection has become a key part of evidence for assessment for General Practitioners (GPs) and GP Specialist Trainees (GPSTs), as it is thought to enhance the reflective process and demonstrate on-going learning. However, the educational value of mandatory reflection has been questioned, and there is little evidence on the acceptability of written reflection to clinicians. To explore the views of GPs and GPSTs on the use of written reflection in the MRCGP and NHS appraisal. A qualitative approach with GPs and GPSTs from the South of England. Three focus group discussions with 11 GPs and 14 GPSTs. Thematic analysis was used on the coded texts. There were diverse views on the value of written reflection. Some participants with particular learning styles found it useful; some viewed it as a 'tick-box' exercise and as a game. Some questioned its value as a tool for quality improvement. Its use may have opportunity costs on clinical work, other learning and leisure time. Written reflection produced strong feelings among participants. Research is needed to gauge how commonly these feelings are held, to allow informed decisions on the place of written reflection in education and assessment.

  17. Will-Nordtvedt PPN formalism applied to renormalization group extensions of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniato, Júnior D.; Rodrigues, Davi C.; de Almeida, Álefe O. F.; Bertini, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    We apply the full Will-Nordtvedt version of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism to a class of general relativity extensions that are based on nontrivial renormalization group (RG) effects at large scales. We focus on a class of models in which the gravitational coupling constant G is correlated with the Newtonian potential. A previous PPN analysis considered a specific realization of the RG effects, and only within the Eddington-Robertson-Schiff version of the PPN formalism, which is a less complete and robust PPN formulation. Here we find stronger, more precise bounds, and with less assumptions. We also consider the external potential effect (EPE), which is an effect that is intrinsic to this framework and depends on the system environment (it has some qualitative similarities to the screening mechanisms of modified gravity theories). We find a single particular RG realization that is not affected by the EPE. Some physical systems have been pointed out as candidates for measuring the possible RG effects in gravity at large scales; for any of them the Solar System bounds need to be considered.

  18. A generating set direct search augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with a combination of general and linear constraints.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Robert Michael (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Torczon, Virginia Joanne (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2006-08-01

    We consider the solution of nonlinear programs in the case where derivatives of the objective function and nonlinear constraints are unavailable. To solve such problems, we propose an adaptation of a method due to Conn, Gould, Sartenaer, and Toint that proceeds by approximately minimizing a succession of linearly constrained augmented Lagrangians. Our modification is to use a derivative-free generating set direct search algorithm to solve the linearly constrained subproblems. The stopping criterion proposed by Conn, Gould, Sartenaer and Toint for the approximate solution of the subproblems requires explicit knowledge of derivatives. Such information is presumed absent in the generating set search method we employ. Instead, we show that stationarity results for linearly constrained generating set search methods provide a derivative-free stopping criterion, based on a step-length control parameter, that is sufficient to preserve the convergence properties of the original augmented Lagrangian algorithm.

  19. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comparison of Four Linear Equating Methods for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design Using Simulation Methods. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…

  1. 77 FR 50617 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... rule expands upon existing stone fruit and tree nut crop groups by establishing new crop subgroups and..., the rule expands upon existing stone fruit and tree nut crop groups by adding new commodities and... Crop Group 13-07: Berry and Small Fruit Group and Large Shrub/Tree Berry Subgroup 13-07C. As a...

  2. Generalization of Muscle Strength Capacities as Assessed From Different Variables, Tests, and Muscle Groups.

    PubMed

    Cuk, Ivan; Prebeg, Goran; Sreckovic, Sreten; Mirkov, Dragan M; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-02-01

    Cuk, I, Prebeg, G, Sreckovic, S, Mirkov, DM, and Jaric, S. Generalization of muscle strength capacities as assessed from different variables, tests, and muscle groups. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 305-312, 2017-The muscle strength capacities to exert force under various movement conditions have been indiscriminately assessed from various strength tests and variables applied on different muscles. We tested the hypotheses that the distinctive strength capacities would be revealed (H1) through different strength tests, and (H2) through different strength variables. Alternatively, (H3) all strength variables independent of the selected test could depict the same strength capacity of the tested muscle. Sixty subjects performed both the standard strength test and the test of alternating contractions of 6 pairs of antagonistic muscles acting in different leg and arm joints. The dependent variables obtained from each test and muscle were the maximum isometric force and the rate of force development. A confirmatory principle component analysis set to 2 factors explained 31.9% of the total variance. The factor loadings discerned between the tested arm and leg muscles, but not between the strength tests and variables. An exploratory analysis applied on the same data revealed 6 factors that explained 60.1% of the total variance. Again, the individual factors were mainly loaded by different tests and variables obtained from the same pair of antagonistic muscles. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of the muscle strength capacity of the tested individual should be based on a single strength test and variable obtained from a number of different muscles, than on a single muscle tested through different tests and variables. The selected muscles should act in different limbs and joints, while the maximum isometric force should be the variable of choice.

  3. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  5. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  6. ELAS: A general-purpose computer program for the equilibrium problems of linear structures. Volume 2: Documentation of the program. [subroutines and flow charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, S.

    1969-01-01

    A general purpose digital computer program for the in-core solution of linear equilibrium problems of structural mechanics is documented. The program requires minimum input for the description of the problem. The solution is obtained by means of the displacement method and the finite element technique. Almost any geometry and structure may be handled because of the availability of linear, triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, hexahedral, conical, triangular torus, and quadrilateral torus elements. The assumption of piecewise linear deflection distribution insures monotonic convergence of the deflections from the stiffer side with decreasing mesh size. The stresses are provided by the best-fit strain tensors in the least squares at the mesh points where the deflections are given. The selection of local coordinate systems whenever necessary is automatic. The core memory is used by means of dynamic memory allocation, an optional mesh-point relabelling scheme and imposition of the boundary conditions during the assembly time.

  7. Evolutionary tree design: An exploratory study of the influence of linear versus branching format on visitors' interpretation and understanding across age groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Teresa Elise

    This exploratory study sought to investigate the influence of tree graphic design---specifically linear versus branching depictions of taxa---on visitors in three different age groups (aged 11-13, 14-18, adults) interpretation and understanding using a multiple-case study strategy. The findings from this research indicate that linear and branched depictions elicit qualitatively different narratives and explanations about the relationships between the taxa in all age groups. Branched tree graphics support scientifically appropriate explanations of evolutionary relationships, i.e. that taxa are related via shared or common ancestry; while linear representations reinforce intuitive interpretations of ancestor-descendant or anagenic relationships. Furthermore, differences in the language used for linear and branched trees suggests that there is a spectrum within an analogy of developmental change that is thought to serve as a transitional concept between intuitive and scientific understanding--with 'evolved from' for branched depictions of taxa representing a shift towards an interpretation of shared ancestry rather than an individual transformation from one thing into another. In addition, branched graphics appear to support the correct reading and interpretation of shared or common ancestry in tree diagrams. Mixed reasoning was common and overall reasoning patterns were broadly similar among participants in all age groups, however, older youth (aged 14 to 18) and adults often provided more detail in their explanations and sometimes included references to evolutionary ideas such as variation, inheritance and selection.

  8. Symmetry Groups and New Exact Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Canonical Generalized KP Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Hua; Liu, Xi-Qiang; Bai, Cheng-Lin

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, the modified CK's direct method to find symmetry groups of nonlinear partial differential equation is extended to (2+1)-dimensional variable coefficient canonical generalized KP (VCCGKP) equation. As a result, symmetry groups, Lie point symmetry group and Lie symmetry for the VCCGKP equation are obtained. In fact, the Lie point symmetry group coincides with that obtained by the standard Lie group approach. Applying the given Lie symmetry, we obtain five types of similarity reductions and a lot of new exact solutions, including hyperbolic function solutions, triangular periodic solutions, Jacobi elliptic function solutions and rational solutions, for the VCCGKP equation.

  9. An Alternative to Ancova When Group Regressions are Heterogeneous: The Generalized Johnson-Neyman Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Fred

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Johnson-Neyman Procedure (JN-Procedure) appropriate to multiple groups and covariables, and demonstrate its use in the analysis of group differences. A sequence of significance tests which makes it possible to identify the most parsimonious analysis of group differences appropriate to a given set of…

  10. Patterns, Quantities, and Linear Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    Pattern generalization and a focus on quantities are important aspects of algebraic reasoning. This article describes two different approaches to teaching and learning linear functions for middle school students. One group focused on patterns in number tables, and the other group worked primarily with real-world quantities. This article highlights…

  11. Scalar-Tensor gravity with system-dependent potential and its relation with Renormalization Group extended General Relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Davi C.; Piattella, Oliver F.; Chauvineau, Bertrand E-mail: Bertrand.Chauvineau@oca.eu

    2015-09-01

    We show that Renormalization Group extensions of the Einstein-Hilbert action for large scale physics are not, in general, a particular case of standard Scalar-Tensor (ST) gravity. We present a new class of ST actions, in which the potential is not necessarily fixed at the action level, and show that this extended ST theory formally contains the Renormalization Group case. We also propose here a Renormalization Group scale setting identification that is explicitly covariant and valid for arbitrary relativistic fluids.

  12. The 'heartsink' patient revisited. The Welsh Philosophy And General Practice discussion Group.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, C C; Evans, M

    1999-01-01

    The term 'heartsink patient' is now part of the vocabulary of general practice. But what and where is the heartsink? How should the phenomenon be studied? What are the implications of differing interpretations for general practice? The heartsink patient presents personal, social, and soteriological (pertaining to salvation) problems in physical terms. This poses a fundamental challenge to the philosophical foundations of general practice. Emphasizing a biomedical role justifies questioning the legitimacy of 'heartsinks' as patients. Alternatively, general practice should reassert its acceptance of suffering, whatever its origin and presentation. This would justify accommodating a far greater range of problems than simply those explained by biomedicine alone, and make general practice soteriological to the core. PMID:10343431

  13. Accuracy assessment of the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation and reparametrization of the OBC generalized Born model for nucleic acids and nucleic acid-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2015-04-05

    The generalized Born model in the Onufriev, Bashford, and Case (Onufriev et al., Proteins: Struct Funct Genet 2004, 55, 383) implementation has emerged as one of the best compromises between accuracy and speed of computation. For simulations of nucleic acids, however, a number of issues should be addressed: (1) the generalized Born model is based on a linear model and the linearization of the reference Poisson-Boltmann equation may be questioned for highly charged systems as nucleic acids; (2) although much attention has been given to potentials, solvation forces could be much less sensitive to linearization than the potentials; and (3) the accuracy of the Onufriev-Bashford-Case (OBC) model for nucleic acids depends on fine tuning of parameters. Here, we show that the linearization of the Poisson Boltzmann equation has mild effects on computed forces, and that with optimal choice of the OBC model parameters, solvation forces, essential for molecular dynamics simulations, agree well with those computed using the reference Poisson-Boltzmann model.

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Application of Generalized Inverse to ILS Estimation of Overidentified Equations in Linear Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-15

    paper is a compromise in the same nature as the 2SLS. We use the Moore - Penrose (MP) generalized inverse to... Moore - Penrose generalized inverse ; Indirect Least Squares; 1’wo Stage Least Squares; Instrumental Variables; Limited Information Maximum L-..clihood...Abstract -In this paper , we propose a procedure based on the use of the Moore - Penrose inverse of matrices for deriving unique Indirect Least Squares

  15. 75 FR 807 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revision to General Tolerance Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... telephone number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ram Cromwell, Field and External...- mail address: cromwell.rame@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General Information A. Does this...

  16. Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) on Riemannian Manifolds with Applications to Statistical Analysis of Diffusion Weighted Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Adluru, Nagesh; Collins, Maxwell D.; Chung, Moo K.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Davidson, Richard J.; Singh, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Linear regression is a parametric model which is ubiquitous in scientific analysis. The classical setup where the observations and responses, i.e., (xi, yi) pairs, are Euclidean is well studied. The setting where yi is manifold valued is a topic of much interest, motivated by applications in shape analysis, topic modeling, and medical imaging. Recent work gives strategies for max-margin classifiers, principal components analysis, and dictionary learning on certain types of manifolds. For parametric regression specifically, results within the last year provide mechanisms to regress one real-valued parameter, xi ∈ R, against a manifold-valued variable, yi ∈ . We seek to substantially extend the operating range of such methods by deriving schemes for multivariate multiple linear regression —a manifold-valued dependent variable against multiple independent variables, i.e., f : Rn → . Our variational algorithm efficiently solves for multiple geodesic bases on the manifold concurrently via gradient updates. This allows us to answer questions such as: what is the relationship of the measurement at voxel y to disease when conditioned on age and gender. We show applications to statistical analysis of diffusion weighted images, which give rise to regression tasks on the manifold GL(n)/O(n) for diffusion tensor images (DTI) and the Hilbert unit sphere for orientation distribution functions (ODF) from high angular resolution acquisition. The companion open-source code is available on nitrc.org/projects/riem_mglm. PMID:25580070

  17. Multiple Linear Regressions by Maximizing the Likelihood under Assumption of Generalized Gauss-Laplace Distribution of the Error.

    PubMed

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Bálint, Donatella; Bolboacă, Sorana D

    2016-01-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis is widely used to link an outcome with predictors for better understanding of the behaviour of the outcome of interest. Usually, under the assumption that the errors follow a normal distribution, the coefficients of the model are estimated by minimizing the sum of squared deviations. A new approach based on maximum likelihood estimation is proposed for finding the coefficients on linear models with two predictors without any constrictive assumptions on the distribution of the errors. The algorithm was developed, implemented, and tested as proof-of-concept using fourteen sets of compounds by investigating the link between activity/property (as outcome) and structural feature information incorporated by molecular descriptors (as predictors). The results on real data demonstrated that in all investigated cases the power of the error is significantly different by the convenient value of two when the Gauss-Laplace distribution was used to relax the constrictive assumption of the normal distribution of the error. Therefore, the Gauss-Laplace distribution of the error could not be rejected while the hypothesis that the power of the error from Gauss-Laplace distribution is normal distributed also failed to be rejected.

  18. Multiple Linear Regressions by Maximizing the Likelihood under Assumption of Generalized Gauss-Laplace Distribution of the Error

    PubMed Central

    Jäntschi, Lorentz

    2016-01-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis is widely used to link an outcome with predictors for better understanding of the behaviour of the outcome of interest. Usually, under the assumption that the errors follow a normal distribution, the coefficients of the model are estimated by minimizing the sum of squared deviations. A new approach based on maximum likelihood estimation is proposed for finding the coefficients on linear models with two predictors without any constrictive assumptions on the distribution of the errors. The algorithm was developed, implemented, and tested as proof-of-concept using fourteen sets of compounds by investigating the link between activity/property (as outcome) and structural feature information incorporated by molecular descriptors (as predictors). The results on real data demonstrated that in all investigated cases the power of the error is significantly different by the convenient value of two when the Gauss-Laplace distribution was used to relax the constrictive assumption of the normal distribution of the error. Therefore, the Gauss-Laplace distribution of the error could not be rejected while the hypothesis that the power of the error from Gauss-Laplace distribution is normal distributed also failed to be rejected. PMID:28090215

  19. Functional specialization and generalization for grouping of stimuli based on colour and motion

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir; Stutters, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to learn whether the principle of functional specialization that is evident at the level of the prestriate visual cortex extends to areas that are involved in grouping visual stimuli according to attribute, and specifically according to colour and motion. Subjects viewed, in an fMRI scanner, visual stimuli composed of moving dots, which could be either coloured or achromatic; in some stimuli the moving coloured dots were randomly distributed or moved in random directions; in others, some of the moving dots were grouped together according to colour or to direction of motion, with the number of groupings varying from 1 to 3. Increased activation was observed in area V4 in response to colour grouping and in V5 in response to motion grouping while both groupings led to activity in separate though contiguous compartments within the intraparietal cortex. The activity in all the above areas was parametrically related to the number of groupings, as was the prominent activity in Crus I of the cerebellum where the activity resulting from the two types of grouping overlapped. This suggests (a) that, the specialized visual areas of the prestriate cortex have functions beyond the processing of visual signals according to attribute, namely that of grouping signals according to colour (V4) or motion (V5); (b) that the functional separation evident in visual cortical areas devoted to motion and colour, respectively, is maintained at the level of parietal cortex, at least as far as grouping according to attribute is concerned; and (c) that, by contrast, this grouping-related functional segregation is not maintained at the level of the cerebellum. PMID:23415950

  20. Functional specialization and generalization for grouping of stimuli based on colour and motion.

    PubMed

    Zeki, Semir; Stutters, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to learn whether the principle of functional specialization that is evident at the level of the prestriate visual cortex extends to areas that are involved in grouping visual stimuli according to attribute, and specifically according to colour and motion. Subjects viewed, in an fMRI scanner, visual stimuli composed of moving dots, which could be either coloured or achromatic; in some stimuli the moving coloured dots were randomly distributed or moved in random directions; in others, some of the moving dots were grouped together according to colour or to direction of motion, with the number of groupings varying from 1 to 3. Increased activation was observed in area V4 in response to colour grouping and in V5 in response to motion grouping while both groupings led to activity in separate though contiguous compartments within the intraparietal cortex. The activity in all the above areas was parametrically related to the number of groupings, as was the prominent activity in Crus I of the cerebellum where the activity resulting from the two types of grouping overlapped. This suggests (a) that, the specialized visual areas of the prestriate cortex have functions beyond the processing of visual signals according to attribute, namely that of grouping signals according to colour (V4) or motion (V5); (b) that the functional separation evident in visual cortical areas devoted to motion and colour, respectively, is maintained at the level of parietal cortex, at least as far as grouping according to attribute is concerned; and (c) that, by contrast, this grouping-related functional segregation is not maintained at the level of the cerebellum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.