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Sample records for general population samples

  1. Sample and population exponents of generalized Taylor's law.

    PubMed

    Giometto, Andrea; Formentin, Marco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Cohen, Joel E; Maritan, Amos

    2015-06-23

    Taylor's law (TL) states that the variance V of a nonnegative random variable is a power function of its mean M; i.e., V = aM(b). TL has been verified extensively in ecology, where it applies to population abundance, physics, and other natural sciences. Its ubiquitous empirical verification suggests a context-independent mechanism. Sample exponents b measured empirically via the scaling of sample mean and variance typically cluster around the value b = 2. Some theoretical models of population growth, however, predict a broad range of values for the population exponent b pertaining to the mean and variance of population density, depending on details of the growth process. Is the widely reported sample exponent b ≃ 2 the result of ecological processes or could it be a statistical artifact? Here, we apply large deviations theory and finite-sample arguments to show exactly that in a broad class of growth models the sample exponent is b ≃ 2 regardless of the underlying population exponent. We derive a generalized TL in terms of sample and population exponents b(jk) for the scaling of the kth vs. the jth cumulants. The sample exponent b(jk) depends predictably on the number of samples and for finite samples we obtain b(jk) ≃ k = j asymptotically in time, a prediction that we verify in two empirical examples. Thus, the sample exponent b ≃ 2 may indeed be a statistical artifact and not dependent on population dynamics under conditions that we specify exactly. Given the broad class of models investigated, our results apply to many fields where TL is used although inadequately understood.

  2. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  3. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    PubMed

    Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management. PMID:24465792

  4. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  5. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience. PMID:23724577

  6. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.

  7. A comparison of the prevalence and risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in two American Indian population samples and in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Shay-Lee; Elias, Brenda; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K

    2014-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts differ when comparing two American Indian reservation samples to the U.S. general population. Data were from the baseline nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5,877) and the representative American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP; N = 3,084). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. American Indians from these Northern Plains and Southwest tribes appeared significantly less likely to have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime when compared with the general population, odds ratio (OR) of 0.49 (99% CI [0.36, 0.66]) and 0.36 (99% CI [0.25, 0.51]), respectively. However, members of the Northern Plains tribe were more likely to have attempted suicide in their lifetime compared with the general population (OR = 1.96, 99% CI [1.45, 2.65]). Suicide attempts without suicidal ideation were more common in the two American Indian samples than in the general population. In contrast, correlates of suicidal behavior appear quite similar when comparing the groups. Increased attention is needed to determine why rates of ideation and attempts may differ in American Indians when compared with the general population.

  8. Time orientation and health-related behaviour: Measurement in general population samples

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Rachel A.; Weinman, John; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Research on health behaviour and time orientation has been hindered by a lack of consensus about appropriate measurement. Study 1 assessed the reliability of the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC) and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) in a general population sample (n = 300). Although more reliable, the CFC was less readable. Study 2 assessed the validity of a shortened ZTPI, measuring future and present orientation, and the full CFC. The measures had good discrimination to distinguish interpersonal differences. Construct validity of present, but not future, orientation as measured by the ZTPI, was evidenced by its mediation of the association between socioeconomic status and expectations of participating in diabetes screening. The CFC mediated this relationship more weakly. Further investigation of present orientation in understanding health-related behaviour is warranted. PMID:20204997

  9. Effects of the home environment on respiratory symptoms of a general population sample in middle Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Carrozzi, L; Paoletti, P; Vellutini, M; DiViggiano, E; Baldacci, S; Modena, P; Pedreschi, M; Mammini, U; di Pede, C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of home environment characteristics were evaluated in a multistage, stratified, cluster sample (N = 3,866) of the general population who lived in the district of Pisa (middle Italy). Each subject completed a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire that contained questions about respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors (e.g., type of heating, fuels used for cooking and heating). Cough and asthma were significantly more frequent in men who did not smoke and who did not use natural gas for cooking and heating. Attacks of shortness of breath accompanied by wheeze, dyspnea, and cardiovascular conditions in female nonsmokers were associated with use of a stove or forced-air circulation for heating; the type of fuel used did not affect this result. Multiple logistic models, which accounted for independent effects of age, smoking status, pack-years, childhood respiratory illness, education, zone of residence, and work exposure to dusts, chemicals, or fumes, showed significantly increased odds ratios for (a) cough and phlegm in males (associated with bottled gas for cooking), (b) wheeze and shortness of breath with wheeze in females (associated with the use of a stove or forced-air circulation). These results, which confirm our previous observations in an unpolluted rural area of north Italy, indicate that characteristics of the home environment, as assessed by questionnaire, may be linked to mild adverse health effects, i.e., respiratory symptoms, in the general population. The results also identify the need to better characterize the dose-response relationship in indoor air pollution monitoring studies that include subsamples of this population.

  10. Prevalence of bulimic behaviors and bulimia among a sample of the general population.

    PubMed

    Warheit, G J; Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Biafora, F A

    1993-03-01

    Data are presented on the prevalence of bulimic symptoms and bulimia among a sample of adults residing in north-central Florida (n = 2,075). The data were gathered between 1984 and 1986. The sample included 1,736 whites and 339 blacks, of whom 1,040 were females and 1,035 were males. A current diagnosis of bulimia was made using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Third Edition (DSM-III), of the American Psychiatric Association. Females had significantly higher rates than did males on nine of the 10 bulimic symptoms. Blacks had symptom rates equal to or greater than whites on eight of the 10 items, and those in the lowest socioeconomic groups (SES) had rates greater than those in the highest SES group on nine of the 10 symptoms. Eight persons, 0.4% of the total sample, met the DSM-III criteria for a diagnosis of bulimia. These included six white females and two black males. Five of the females were aged 18-29 years; one was over 45. Five of the females were in the lower middle SES group; one was in the upper middle SES group. Both of the black males were aged 30-44, and both were in the lowest SES group. The data emphasize the need to distinguish between bulimic type symptoms and bulimia when estimating the prevalence of eating-related problems in the general population. PMID:8465808

  11. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  12. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children in a General Population Sample: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Edward O.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Lin, Hung-Mo; Liao, Duanping; Calhoun, Susan; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Fedok, Fred; Vlasic, Vukmir; Graff, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Assess the prevalence based on clinically meaningful criteria (i.e., blood pressure) and identify risk factors of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in a representative sample of elementary school children. Design: A random sample of the local elementary school children (K-5) were assessed using a two-phased strategy. In phase I a brief questionnaire was completed by a parent of each child in local elementary schools (N = 5,740), with a response rate of 78.5%. In phase II, randomly selected children and their parent spent a night in our sleep laboratory (N = 700) with a response rate of 70.0%. Setting: University sleep laboratory Participants: Children enrolled in local elementary schools. Intervention: None Measurement & Results: Each child was assessed with a full polysomnogram and completed a history/physical examination including an electrocardiogram, otolaryngology examination, and pulmonary evaluation. The prevalence of moderate SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5) was 1.2%. The independent risk factors included nasal abnormalities and minority associated only with mild (1 < AHI < 5) SDB and snoring and waist circumference associated with all levels of SDB. Tonsil size, based on visual inspection, was not an independent risk factor. Conclusion: The prevalence of AHI ≥ 5 was 1.2% in a representative sample of elementary school children. Risk factors for SDB included waist circumference, nasal abnormalities (e.g., chronic sinusitis/rhinitis), and minority. The strong linear relationship between waist circumference and BMI across all degrees of severity of SDB suggests that, as in adults, metabolic factors may be among the most important risk factors for SDB in children. Citation: Bixler EO; Vgontzas AN; Lin HM; Liao D; Calhoun S; Vela-Bueno A; Fedok F; Vlasic V. Sleep disordered breathing in children in a general population sample: prevalence and risk factors. SLEEP 2009;32(6):731-736. PMID:19544748

  13. Asbestos Lung Burden in Necroscopic Samples from the General Population of Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casali, Michelangelo; Carugno, Michele; Cattaneo, Andrea; Consonni, Dario; Mensi, Carolina; Genovese, Umberto; Cavallo, Domenico Maria; Somigliana, Anna; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    The present study analysed the asbestos lung burden in necroscopic samples from 55 subjects free from asbestos-related diseases, collected between 2009 and 2011 in Milan, Italy. Multiple lung samples were analysed by light microscopy (asbestos bodies, AB) and EDXA-scanning electron microscopy (asbestos fibres and other inorganic fibres). Asbestos fibres were detected in 35 (63.6%) subjects, with a higher frequency for amphiboles than for chrysotile. Commercial (CA) and non-commercial amphiboles (NCA) were found in roughly similar frequencies. The estimated median value was 0.11 million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue (mf g(-1)) for all asbestos, 0.09 mf g(-1) for amphiboles. In 44 (80.0%) subjects no chrysotile fibres were detected. A negative relationship between asbestos mass-weighted fibre count and year of birth (and a corresponding positive increase with age) was observed for amphiboles [-4.15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.89 to -2.37], talc (-2.12%, 95% CI = -3.94 to -0.28), and Ti-rich fibres (-3.10%, 95% CI = -5.54 to -0.60), but not for chrysotile (-2.84%, 95% CI = -7.69 to 2.27). Residential district, birthplace, and smoking habit did not affect the lung burden of asbestos or inorganic fibres. Females showed higher burden only for amphiboles (0.12 versus 0.03 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.07) and talc fibres (0.14 versus 0 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.03). Chrysotile fibres were shorter and thinner than amphibole fibres and NCA fibres were thicker than CA ones. The AB prevalence was 16.4% (nine subjects) with concentrations ranging from 10 to 110 AB g(-1) dry, well below the 1000 AB g(-1) threshold for establishing occupational exposure. No AB were found in subjects younger than 30 years. Our study demonstrated detectable levels of asbestos fibres in a sample taken from the general population. The significant increase with age confirmed that amphibole fibres are the most representative of cumulative exposure.

  14. Personality Factors and Suicide Risk in a Representative Sample of the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    Blüml, Victor; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Doering, Stephan; Brähler, Elmar; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. Method Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555) in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. Results Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality. PMID:24124582

  15. Occupational and environmental associations with antinuclear antibodies in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G; Schur, Peter S; Fraser, Patricia A

    2006-12-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are a hallmark feature of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus, and can occur many years before onset of symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the association between exposures and high-titer antinuclear antibodies in the general population (i.e., people who do not have lupus or other systemic autoimmune diseases). Serum was collected from 266 population-based controls who had been frequency-matched to the age and gender distribution of lupus cases in a 60-county study area in the southeastern United States. A detailed occupational history was collected using a structured interview; information was also collected on hair dye use. Antinuclear antibodies were assayed using HEp-2 cells as substrate. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) as a measure of association between exposures and high-titer antinuclear antibody levels, adjusting for age, gender, and race. High-titer antinuclear antibodies (> or =1:160) were observed in 21 subjects (8%). A twofold increased prevalence of high-titer antinuclear antibodies was seen with some occupational exposures (silica dust, pesticides, and sunlight), although none of these individual estimates were statistically significant. The association seen with use of hair dyes was weaker (OR 1.4). There was a suggestion of a dose response with a combined measure based on the summation of exposures (ORs of 1.7, 2.1, and 5.9 for 1, 2, and > or = 3 exposures). These data suggest that occupational exposures may influence the expression of antinuclear antibodies. Larger studies addressing these exposures may provide insights into the mechanisms by which various environmental factors affect the development of autoantibodies and the progression to clinical disease.

  16. Change in pulmonary diffusion capacity in a general population sample over 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Storebø, Michael L.; Eagan, Tomas M. L.; Eide, Geir E.; Gulsvik, Amund; Thorsen, Einar; Bakke, Per S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Data on the change in diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) over time are limited. We aimed to examine change in DLCO (ΔDLCO) over a 9-year period and its predictors. Methods A Norwegian community sample comprising 1,152 subjects aged 18–73 years was examined in 1987 and 1988. Of the 1,109 subjects still alive, 830 (75%) were re-examined in 1996/97. DLCO was measured with the single breath-holding technique. Covariables recorded at baseline included sex, age, height, weight, smoking status, pack years, occupational exposure, educational level, and spirometry. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to examine relations between ΔDLCO and the covariables. Results At baseline, mean [standard deviation (SD)] DLCO was 10.8 (2.4) and 7.8 (1.6) mmol·min−1·kPa−1 in men and women, respectively. Mean (SD) ΔDLCO was −0.24 (1.31) mmol·min−1·kPa−1. ΔDLCO was negatively related to baseline age, DLCO, current smoking, and pack years, and positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and weight. Sex, occupational exposure, and educational level were not related to ΔDLCO. Conclusions In a community sample, more rapid decline in DLCO during 9 years of observation time was related to higher age, baseline current smoking, more pack years, larger weight, and lower FEV1. PMID:27600696

  17. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  18. The disruptive effects of pain on n-back task performance in a large general population sample.

    PubMed

    Attridge, Nina; Noonan, Donna; Eccleston, Christopher; Keogh, Edmund

    2015-10-01

    Pain captures attention, displaces current concerns, and prioritises escape and repair. This attentional capture can be measured by its effects on general cognition. Studies on induced pain, naturally occurring acute pain, and chronic pain all demonstrate a detrimental effect on specific tasks of attention, especially those that involve working memory. However, studies to date have relied on relatively small samples and/or one type of pain, thus restricting our ability to generalise to wider populations. We investigated the effect of pain on an n-back task in a large heterogeneous sample of 1318 adults. Participants were recruited from the general population and tested through the internet. Despite the heterogeneity of pain conditions, participant characteristics, and testing environments, we found a performance decrement on the n-back task for those with pain, compared with those without pain; there were significantly more false alarms on nontarget trials. Furthermore, we also found an effect of pain intensity; performance was poorer in participants with higher intensity compared with that in those with lower intensity pain. We suggest that the effects of pain on attention found in the laboratory occur in more naturalistic settings. Pain is common in the general population, and such interruption may have important, as yet uninvestigated, consequences for tasks of everyday cognition that involve working memory, such as concentration, reasoning, motor planning, and prospective memory.

  19. Risk Factors for Running Away among a General Population Sample of Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Hagewen, Kellie J.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines risk factors for running away and homelessness among a sample of more than 7,000 currently housed youth using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Structural equation modeling results revealed that those with greater levels of family instability and those who ran away at Wave 2 were…

  20. Using a factor mixture modeling approach in alcohol dependence in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups of individuals with drinking problems and the refinement of the diagnostic criteria are inter-related research goals. They have the potential to improve our knowledge of etiology and treatment effects, and to assist in the identification of risk factors or specific genetic factors. Mixture modeling has advantages over traditional modeling that focuses on either the dimensional or categorical latent structure. The mixture modeling combines both latent class and latent trait models, but has not been widely applied in substance use research. The goal of the present study is to assess whether the AD criteria in the population could be better characterized by a continuous dimension, a few discrete subgroups, or a combination of the two. More than seven thousand participants were recruited from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry, and were interviewed to obtain DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, version IV) symptoms and diagnosis of AD. We applied factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture models for symptom items based on the DSM-IV criteria. Our results showed that a mixture model with 1 factor and 3 classes for both genders fit well. The 3 classes were a non-problem drinking group and severe and moderate drinking problem groups. By contrast, models constrained to conform to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were rejected by model fitting indices providing empirical evidence for heterogeneity in the AD diagnosis. Classification analysis showed different characteristics across subgroups, including alcohol-caused behavioral problems, comorbid disorders, age at onset for alcohol-related milestones, and personality. Clinically, the expanded classification of AD may aid in identifying suitable treatments, interventions and additional sources of comorbidity based on these more homogenous subgroups of alcohol use

  1. Gambling onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the general population.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Elizabeth; Tavares, Hermano; Sanches, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Zaleski, Marcos; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2014-05-30

    The goal of this study was to investigate gambling-related behavior, onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the community. A national household survey was conducted in Brazil, covering individuals 14 years old or older. Subjects were screened for at-risk gambling, those testing positive answered a questionnaire about gambling progression, preferred games and DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Out of 3007 respondents, 118 were considered at-risk gamblers according to the Lie/Bet Questionnaire. According to the DSM-IV, 32.7% and 24.9% of those were considered problem and pathological gamblers, respectively. Early at-risk gamblers (onset prior to 20 years of age), were more likely to be male, to prefer non-commercially structured games, and to chase losses while gambling. Young pathological gamblers (under 35 years of age) progressed faster from regular to problem gambling (roughly 2 years) than mature pathological gamblers (12 years). Such findings had not been described before because previous reports focused mostly on clinical samples that lack young, male, early-onset gamblers. Gambling programs have not satisfactorily covered this segment of gamblers. Outreach strategies and early interventions should be provided to prevent these individuals from rapidly evolving into pathological gambling. PMID:24656520

  2. Predictors of Beliefs in Intergroup Forgiveness in a Chilean General Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Manuel; Arnoso, Maitane; Páez, Darío

    2015-01-01

    Original survey data from a Chilean sample (N = 1267) are used to study the socio-demographic and psychosocial determinants of belief in forgiveness attitudes in the context of measuring the impact of truth and reconciliation reports (NTRC, 1991) and Political Imprisonment and Torture (NPIC, 2004) commissions. A linear multiple regression analysis (R 2 = .15; F(8, 1269) = 14.65; p < .001; effect size f 2 = .18) revealed the positive effect of perceived apology sincerity (β = 0.22; p < .001), emotions of anger (β = -0.08; p < .05), and positive social climate (β = 0.08; p < .05). People who believe in the victims' forgiveness feel less anger, have more positive perceptions of the sincerity and efficacy of the apologies, agree to a greater extent that the commission helped to find out the truth about what happened to the victims, and have a greater perception of the social climate as positive. The results show the importance of psychosocial and institutional variables in beliefs about forgiveness, and they suggest differences between interpersonal and intergroup forgiveness processes. PMID:26073461

  3. Heritability of problem drinking and the genetic overlap with personality in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    de Moor, Marleen H M; Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beek, Jenny H D A; Geels, Lot M; Bartels, Meike; de Geus, Eco J C; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the heritability of problem drinking and investigated the phenotypic and genetic relationships between problem drinking and personality. In a sample of 5,870 twins and siblings and 4,420 additional family members from the Netherlands Twin Register. Data on problem drinking (assessed with the AUDIT and CAGE; 12 items) and personality [NEO Five-Factor Inventory (FFI); 60 items] were collected in 2009/2010 by surveys. Confirmatory factor analysis on the AUDIT and CAGE items showed that the items clustered on two separate but highly correlated (r = 0.74) underlying factors. A higher-order factor was extracted that reflected those aspects of problem drinking that are common to the AUDIT and CAGE, which showed a heritability of 40%. The correlations between problem drinking and the five dimensions of personality were small but significant, ranging from 0.06 for Extraversion to -0.12 for Conscientiousness. All personality dimensions (with broad-sense heritabilities between 32 and 55%, and some evidence for non-additive genetic influences) were genetically correlated with problem drinking. The genetic correlations were small to modest (between |0.12| and |0.41|). Future studies with longitudinal data and DNA polymorphisms are needed to determine the biological mechanisms that underlie the genetic link between problem drinking and personality.

  4. Assessment of respiratory effect of air pollution: study design on general population samples.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, S; Carrozzi, L; Viegi, G; Giuntini, C

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an epidemiological model to investigate the relationship between respiratory diseases and environmental air pollution. In the Po Delta prospective study, subjects were investigated before and after a large thermoelectric power plant began operating, in 1980 to 1982 and in 1988 to 1991, respectively. The Pisa prospective study was performed in 1986 to 1988 and in 1991 to 1993, before and after the construction of a new expressway that encircles the city from the North to the Southeast. In each survey, subjects completed the interviewer-administered standardized CNR questionnaire on respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors, and performed lung function tests. In the second survey of each study, skin prick tests, total serum IgE determination, methacholine challenge test and biomarkers (such as sister chromatide exchanges, micronuclei, chromosomal abnormalities, DNA and hemoglobin adducts) were also performed. Concentrations of total suspended particulate and SO2 in both surveys were higher in urban than in rural areas, as well as symptom/disease prevalences and bronchial reactivity. Subgroups of subjects from the two samples were enrolled to perform a specific study on the acute respiratory effects of indoor pollution; the daily presence of symptoms and measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF), daily activity pattern, and assessment of the indoor air quality (particulates < 2.5 mu and NO2) were evaluated. Higher symptom prevalences and PEF variability level were observed in subjects with the highest levels of NO2 or particulates, especially asthmatics. In conclusion, these studies represent a basis for further analyses to better define the relationship between respiratory health and indoor/outdoor pollutant levels.

  5. Coagulation factor V Leiden mutation in sudden fatal pulmonary embolism and in a general northern European population sample.

    PubMed

    Kuismanen, K; Savontaus, M L; Kozlov, A; Vuorio, A F; Sajantila, A

    1999-12-01

    The R506Q point mutation in the gene coding for coagulation factor V (Leiden mutation) is the major underlying defect in resistance to activated protein C (APC), which predisposes to venous thrombosis. The risk of deep vein thrombosis is clearly elevated in carriers of the mutation, but the risk for pulmonary embolism has not been demonstrated to be as high. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the Leiden mutation in an autopsy series of sudden fatal pulmonary embolism cases. PCR and subsequent restriction enzyme digestion were applied for genotyping 164 cases of pulmonary embolism. According to our data, the allele frequency of the Leiden mutation is not higher in sudden fatal pulmonary embolism cases (0.8%, 95% CI 0-1.9%) than in the general Finnish population (1.5%, 95% CI 0-3.3%). In addition to the 97 Finns, we determined the frequency of the Leiden mutation in 255 individuals from the neighbouring populations (Saami, Komi, and Karelians from Russia and Estonians), and found the Saami to have the highest frequency of the Leiden mutation (6.3%, 95% CI 3.2-9.2) in the general northern European population sample studied here.

  6. Associations of carotid intima-media thickness, tobacco smoking and overweight with hearing disorder in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    John, U; Baumeister, S E; Kessler, C; Völzke, H

    2007-11-01

    It has been argued that smoking or overweight might contribute to hearing disorder by atherogenic narrowing of the nutrient arteries to the cochlea. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker for generalized atherosclerosis. We analyzed a subgroup (n=2619) from a general population sample in north-eastern Germany aged 45-81 years (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Assessments included self-statements about hearing disorder and medical examinations of CIMT. Using ordinal logistic regression for data analysis and after adjustment for cigarettes per day, waist circumference, diabetes, exposure to noise, age and sex, we found CIMT remained a predictor of hearing disorder (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.2). Cigarettes per day and waist circumference were related to CIMT but not to hearing disorder. The findings suggest a positive association between CIMT and hearing disorder.

  7. Using a representative sample of workers for constructing the SUMEX French general population based job-exposure matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, A; Goldberg, M; Bonenfant, S; Martin, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) applicable to the general population are usually constructed by using only the expertise of specialists. Aims: To construct a population based JEM for chemical agents from data based on a sample of French workers for surveillance purposes. Methods: The SUMEX job-exposure matrix was constructed from data collected via a cross-sectional survey of a sample of French workers representative of the main economic sectors through the SUMER-94 survey: 1205 occupational physicians questioned 48 156 workers, and inventoried exposure to 102 chemicals. The companies' economic activities and the workers' occupations were coded according to the official French nomenclatures. A segmentation method was used to construct job groups that were homogeneous for exposure prevalence to chemical agents. The matrix was constructed in two stages: consolidation of occupations according to exposure prevalence; and establishment of exposure indices based on individual data from all the subjects in the sample. Results: An agent specific matrix could be constructed for 80 of the chemicals. The quality of the classification obtained for each was variable: globally, the performance of the method was better for less specific and therefore more easy to assess agents, and for exposures specific to certain occupations. Conclusions: Software has been developed to enable the SUMEX matrix to be used by occupational physicians and other prevention professionals responsible for surveillance of the health of the workforce in France. PMID:15208374

  8. Relationship between masculinity and feminity in drinking in alcohol-related behavior in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cantú, M A; Medina-Mora, M E; Gutiérrez, C E

    1990-08-01

    The relationship between gender-related personality traits, on one hand and drinking, permissiveness towards drinking, and social as well as personal problems associated to drinking on the other, was studied in a general population sample from the City of Morelia, Mexico. Four gender-related traits scales were used for measuring assertive and aggressive masculinity and affective and submissive feminity, in addition to a standardized questionnaire for assessing drinking and other associated behavior. Some of the main results showed that people with high scores in affective feminity were less willing to allow drinking. Men who adopted a submissive feminine role and women with high masculine aggressive scores were more permissive as regards drinking. Among men, assertive masculine and affective feminine traits were more characteristic among those who drank than among abtainers. Drinking among women was related to liberal attitudes towards drinking and to aggressive masculinity. As regards the number of drinks consumed per month, assertive masculinity and liberal attitudes among men and affective feminity and liberal attitudes among women predicted the number of drinks. Affective feminity was negatively related to drinking. Regarding drinking-associated problems, frequency of drunkenness and submissive feminity among males predicted greater personal and social problems. Among women, drunkenness frequency and number of drinks were the most significant predictors. Contrary to what has been found in other countries, gender was a better drinking predictor than gender-related personality traits.

  9. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Viegi, G; Paoletti, P; Carrozzi, L; Vellutini, M; Diviggiano, E; Di Pede, C; Pistelli, G; Giutini, G; Lebowitz, M D

    1991-01-01

    We surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) (n = 3289) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy) (n = 2917). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. In particular, rhinitis and wheezing symptoms were higher in all the three urban zones; chronic cough and phlegm were higher in the zone with the automobile exhaust and the additional industrial exposure. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. For example, those living in the urban-industrial zone had an odds ratio of 4.0 (4.3-3.7) for rhinitis and 2.8 (3.0-2.6) for wheeze with respect to those living in the Po Delta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1954948

  10. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  11. Effects of home environment on respiratory symptoms and lung function in a general population sample in north Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Paoletti, P; Carrozzi, L; Vellutini, M; Ballerin, L; Biavati, P; Nardini, G; Di Pede, F; Sapigni, T; Lebowitz, M D

    1991-05-01

    Effects of indoor pollution exposure were evaluated in a general population sample (n = 3,289) living in the Po River Delta area. Prevalence rates of chronic cough in men and dyspnoea in women were significantly higher in association with the use of bottled gas (propane) for cooking instead of natural gas (methane). Chronic cough and phlegm in men and dyspnoea in women were significantly associated with the use of a stove for heating. When combining type of heating and fuel used, in men a trend toward higher prevalence rates of chronic cough and phlegm was shown in those with stove or fan heating (regardless of the fuel); in women the trend reached statistical significance for dyspnoea. The relationship between stove (regardless of fuel) and decrease in forced expirograms was statistically significant only in women. In multiple logistic models, accounting for independent effects of age, smoking, pack-years, parents' smoking, socio-economic status, body mass index, significantly increased odds ratios were found in males for the associations of: bottled gas for cooking with cough (1.66) and dyspnoea (1.81); stove for heating with cough (1.44) and phlegm (1.39); stove fuelled by natural gas and fan or stove fuelled other than by natural gas with cough (1.54 and 1.66). In females, significantly increased odds ratios were found only for dyspnoea when associated with bottled gas for cooking (1.45), stove for heating (1.46), stove fuelled by natural gas (1.58), stove or fan fuelled other than by natural gas (1.73).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. A comparison of the prevalence and risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in two American Indian and a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Shay-Lee; Elias, Brenda; Enns, Murray W.; Sareen, Jitender; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts differ when comparing two American Indian reservation samples to the U.S. general population. Data were from the baseline nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5,877) and the representative American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP; N = 3,084). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. American Indians from these Northern Plains and Southwest tribes appeared significantly less likely to have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime when compared with the general population, odds ratio (OR) of 0.49 (99% CI [0.36, 0.66]) and 0.36 (99% CI [0.25, 0.51]), respectively. However, members of the Northern Plains tribe were more likely to have attempted suicide in their lifetime compared with the general population (OR=1.96, 99% CI [1.45, 2.65]). Suicide attempts without suicidal ideation were more common in the two American Indian samples than in the general population. In contrast, correlates of suicidal behavior appear quite similar when comparing the groups. Increased attention is needed to determine why rates of ideation and attempts may differ in American Indians when compared with the general population. PMID:24065607

  13. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Grimes, Carley; O'Halloran, Siobhan; Land, Mary Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan; Chalmers, John; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-12-16

    The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt.

  14. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Grimes, Carley; O’Halloran, Siobhan; Land, Mary Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan; Chalmers, John; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt. PMID:26694459

  15. Health status of Greek thyroid cancer patients after radioiodine administration compared to a demographically matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Karapanou, Olga; Papadopoulos, Angelos; Vlassopoulou, Barbara; Vassilopoulos, Charalambos; Pappa, Evelina; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Niakas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    The impact of radioiodine-131 ((131)I) treatment on thyroid cancer patients' quality of life is controversial. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 60 patients aged 18-73 years old who had recently underwent near total thyroidectomy due to papillary thyroid cancer and were scheduled for (131)I treatment. On admission to our department, prior to (131)I administration patients underwent clinical and laboratory investigation including routine clinical biochemistry, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was estimated by the SF-36 Health Survey a generic instrument which consisted from eight scales (four for physical and four for mental health). After (131)I administration patients were discharged and approximately 6 months later they were re-evaluated. Our results showed that HRQoL in thyroid cancer patients receiving (131)I treatment is independent of age/gender and thyroid cancer-related variables. All SF-36 scales significantly improved six months after administration (P<0.05). Compared to Greek general population, before (131)I administration all scales were significantly lower (P<0.05). Six months post (131)I administration, scales were significantly lower for physical functioning (P=0.02), physical role (P=0.01), social functioning (P=0.03) and emotional role limitations (P=0.04), whereas the remaining SF-36 scales were comparable to the general population. In conclusion, hypothyroidism and anxiety for the outcome of their disease before (131)I treatment exert a negative impact on thyroid cancer patients. Quality of life improvement post (131)I is mainly attributed to the resumption of euthyroidism and familiarization with treatment and followup procedures rather than (131)I treatment itself. There was no significant difference between patients receiving lower (2220-3700MBq) and higher (3700-7400MBq) dosage. PMID:22741146

  16. Family constellation seminars improve psychological functioning in a general population sample: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. The relationships between sixteen perfluorinated compound concentrations in blood serum and food, and other parameters, in the general population of South Korea with proportionate stratified sampling method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Mug; Hwang, Yong-Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-02-01

    Serum samples were collected from volunteers of various ages and both genders using a proportionate stratified sampling method, to assess the exposure of the general population in Busan, South Korea to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). 16 PFCs were investigated in serum samples from 306 adults (124 males and 182 females) and one day composite diet samples (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) from 20 of the serum donors, to investigate the relationship between food and serum PFC concentrations. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were the dominant PFCs in the serum samples, with mean concentrations of 8.4 and 13 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorotridecanoic acid was the dominant PFC in the composite food samples, ranging from

    samples increased with the age of the volunteer, and were higher in males than in females, similar to the results of other studies. We confirmed from the relationships between questionnaire results and the PFC concentrations in the serum samples, that food is one of the important contribution factors of human exposure to PFCs. However, there were no correlations between the PFC concentrations in the one day composite diet samples and the serum samples, because a one day composite diet sample is not necessarily representative of a person's long-term diet and because of the small number of samples taken. PMID:23834780

  18. Cross-cultural validity of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Psychometric evaluation in a sample of the general French population.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sautron, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    general population.

  19. Association of the DAT1 Genotype with Inattentive Behavior Is Mediated by Reading Ability in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim M.; Savage, Robert; Hocking, Darren R.; Hollis, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) frequently co-occur in the child population and therefore raise the possibility of shared genetic etiology. We used a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach to assess the involvement of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphism in mediating reading disability and…

  20. The Nature of Covariation between Autistic Traits and Clumsiness: A Twin Study in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moruzzi, Sara; Ogliari, Anna; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Battaglia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    While social impairment, difficulties with communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors are central features of Autism Spectrum Disorders, physical clumsiness is a commonly co-occurring feature. In a sample of 398 twin pairs (aged 8-17 years) from the Italian Twin Registry we investigated the nature of the co-variation between a psychometric…

  1. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  2. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  3. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated. Previous…

  4. Gas chromatographic method using electron-capture detection for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples. Biological monitoring of the general population.

    PubMed

    Angerer, J; Käfferlein, H U

    1997-05-23

    Musk xylene (2,4,6-trinitro-1,3-dimethyl-5-tert.-butylbenzene, MX), a synthetic musk often used in different fragrances and soaps to substitute the natural musk, is a potential contaminant of humans. In this publication, a specific and sensitive detection method for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples is described. The clean-up of the blood samples includes an extraction step followed by a solid-phase adsorption to separate MX from other plasma components. Separation and detection was carried out by capillary gas chromatography and an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results were verified using qualitative capillary gas chromatography and a mass selective detector with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). epsilon-Hexachlorocyclohexane (epsilon-HCH) is used as internal standard. The reliability of the GC-ECD method has been proved. The relative standard deviations of the within-series imprecision were 12.7% for samples with a concentration of 0.5 microg/l and 2.1% for samples with a concentration of 5.0 microg/l, whereas the relative standard deviations for the between-day imprecision were 14.9% (0.5 microg/l samples) and 3.4% (5.0 microg/l samples). The losses during sample treatment were between 10.1% and 17.8%. No interfering peaks were observed. The absolute detection limit was 0.1 microg/l plasma. A total of 72 human blood samples were analysed to determine the MX concentrations within the general population. In 66 of the 72 human blood samples, the MX concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 1.12 microg/l plasma for the described method. In six samples no MX was detected. The median concentration was 0.24+/-0.23 microg MX/l plasma. The 95 percentile was 0.79 microg/l. No correlation could be found between MX concentrations and smoking habit, broca index, age, sex as well as fish consumption habits. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate the exposure of the general population to MX.

  5. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. The relative odds of lifetime health conditions and infectious diseases among men who have sex with men compared with a matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Swartz, James A

    2015-03-01

    To address the understudy of health conditions and infectious diseases that are not strictly related to sexual transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), this study examined the relative odds of 10 health conditions and two infectious diseases in a sample of MSM compared with a matched general population sample. MSM (N = 653) living mainly in Chicago were sampled through successive administrations of an Internet-based survey (2008-2010) that assessed physical and mental health, substance use, and HIV status. Propensity score matching was used to obtain a demographically comparable sample of men (N = 653) from aggregated administrations (2008-2012) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Multivariate Firth logistic regressions compared the odds of ever having been diagnosed with each condition or disease, controlling for demographics, substance use, psychological distress, and HIV/AIDS status. MSM were more likely (p < .01) to have experienced: ulcers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3), hypertension (OR = 2.1), liver disease (OR = 5.7), and sexually transmitted infections other than HIV/AIDS (OR = 8.9). Two other conditions, pneumonia and pancreatitis, as well as tuberculosis, were significant at p < .05 but below the statistical threshold used to reduce alpha error. The findings suggest that relative to non-sexual-minority men, MSM are more likely to experience a range of health conditions not specifically attributable to HIV/AIDS, sexual behavior, psychological distress, or substance use. The implications for research on the health status and provision of health care to MSM in light of the study findings are considered.

  7. Relative effects of educational level and occupational social class on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-value<0.03). Also in contrast with some expectations, positive associations between education and POP levels were observed after adjusting for age and BMI in men; e.g., men with university studies had higher HCB concentrations than men with first stage of primary schooling (adjusted GM 153.9 and 80.5ng/g, respectively) (p-value<0.001). When education and social class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age

  8. Rationale and Development of a General Population Well-Being Measure: Psychometric Status of the GP-CORE in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Alice; Barkham, Michael; Evans, Chris; Connell, Janice; Audin, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, development, and psychometric status of a non-clinical self-report measure for the general population (GP) ? including students ? derived from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and hence termed the GP-CORE. In contrast to the CORE-OM, the GP-CORE does not comprise items…

  9. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  10. Relationship between the COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met Polymorphisms, Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Experiences in an Adolescent General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Hugh; Kelleher, Ian; Flannery, Padraig; Clarke, Mary C.; Lynch, Fionnuala; Harley, Michelle; Connor, Dearbhla; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Morris, Derek W.; Cannon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Objective Psychotic experiences occur at a much greater prevalence in the population than psychotic disorders. There has been little research to date, however, on genetic risk for this extended psychosis phenotype. We examined whether COMT or BDNF genotypes were associated with psychotic experiences or interacted with childhood trauma in predicting psychotic experiences. Method Psychiatric interviews and genotyping for COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met were carried out on two population-based samples of 237 individuals aged 11-15 years. Logistic regression was used to examine for main effects by genotype and childhood trauma, controlling for important covariates. This was then compared to a model with a term for interaction between genotype and childhood trauma. Where a possible interaction was detected, this was further explored in stratified analyses. Results While childhood trauma showed a borderline association with psychotic experiences, COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met genotypes were not directly associated with psychotic experiences in the population. Testing for gene x environment interaction was borderline significant in the case of COMT-Val158Met with individuals with the COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype, who had been exposed to childhood trauma borderline significantly more likely to report psychotic experiences than those with Val-Met or Met-Met genotypes. There was no similar interaction by BDNF-Val66Met genotype. Conclusion The COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype may be a genetic moderator of risk for psychotic experiences in individuals exposed to childhood traumatic experiences. PMID:24224001

  11. Moderation of adult depression by the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), childhood abuse and adult traumatic events in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Schwahn, Christian; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Appel, Katja; Barnow, Sven; Nauck, Matthias; Schomerus, Georg; Biffar, Reiner; Rosskopf, Dieter; John, Ulrich; Völzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    The impact of the promoter polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) on mood has been studied by two-way interaction models comprising one environmental factor and genotype variants. However, childhood abuse is assumed to be associated with different psychobiological long-term effects than adult traumatic events. Both types of trauma may interact on an individual basis throughout the lifespan moderating the impact of the 5-HTTLPR s allele on depressive disorders. Therefore, the hypothesis of a three-way interaction among the 5-HTTLPR, childhood abuse and adult traumatic experience was tested. Caucasian subjects (1,974) from the general population in Germany (Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)) were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Childhood abuse was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Adult traumatic events were derived from the SCID interview (DSM-IV) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Global three-way interactions among the 5-HTTLPR, adult traumatic experiences and childhood abuse (P = 0.0007) were found. Carriers of the ss or sl genotypes who had been exposed to childhood abuse and to more than two adult traumatic events had higher mean BDI-II scores (16.0 [95% CI 8.4-23.6]) compared to those carrying the ll genotype (7.6 [4.5-10.7]). These results were supported using a second, more severe definition of childhood abuse (P = 0.02). No two-way interactions were observed (P > 0.05). Childhood abuse and adult traumatic events may act synergistically in interaction with the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR to increase the risk for depressive symptoms independently from the lifetime diagnosis of PTSD.

  12. Sampling Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ilan H.; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and…

  13. Population-Sample Regression in the Estimation of Population Proportions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on a single sample obtained randomly with replacement from a single population, this article examines the regression of population on sample proportions and develops an unbiased estimator of the square of the correlation between them. This estimator turns out to be the regression coefficient. Use of the squared-correlation estimator as a…

  14. Population Education in Geography: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in geography courses. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  15. Generalized group chain acceptance sampling plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Mughal, Abdur Razzaque; Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we proposed an acceptance sampling plan based on generalized group chain truncated life test. The decision on acceptance of a submitted lot can be made by using the cumulative information of the immediately preceding samples. The design parameters of the proposed plan such as the minimum number of groups are found to satisfy the desired quality standard. The benefits of this plan include smaller sample size and reduced overall costs.

  16. California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

  17. Variability of urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolite in general population and comparison of spot, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Lewin, Michael D; Porter, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Urinary mono-hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are commonly used in biomonitoring to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similar to other biologically non-persistent chemicals, OH-PAHs have relatively short biological half-lives (4.4-35 h). Little information is available on their variability in urinary concentrations over time in non-occupationally exposed subjects. This study was designed to (i) examine the variability of nine urinary OH-PAH metabolite concentrations over time and (ii) calculate sample size requirements for future epidemiological studies on the basis of spot urine, first-morning void, and 24-h void sampling. Individual urine samples (n=427) were collected during 1 week from 8 non-occupationally exposed adults. We recorded the time and volume of each urine excretion, dietary details, and driving activities of the participants. Within subjects, the coefficients of variation (CVs) for the wet-weight concentration of OH-PAHs in all samples ranged from 45% to 297%; creatinine adjustment reduced the CV to 19-288% (P<0.001; paired t-test). The simulated 24-h void concentrations were the least variable measure, with CVs ranging from 13% to 182% for the 9 OH-PAHs. Within-day variability contributed on average 84%, and between-day variability accounted for 16% of the total variance of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR). Intraclass correlation coefficients of 1-PYR levels were 0.55 for spot urine samples, 0.65 [corrected] for first-morning voids, and 0.77 [corrected] for 24-h voids, indicating a high degree of correlation between urine measurements collected from the same subject over time. Sample size calculations were performed to estimate the number of subjects required for detecting differences in the geometric mean at a statistical power of 80% for spot urine, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling. These data will aid in the design of future studies of PAHs and possibly other biologically non-persistent chemicals and in

  18. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): Reliability of New Psychiatric Diagnostic Modules and Risk Factors in a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, W. June; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Huang, Boji; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents test-retest reliability statistics and information on internal consistency for new diagnostic modules and risk factor of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV). Test-retest statistics were derived from a random sample of 1,899 adults selected from 34,653 respondents who participated in the 2004–2005 Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Internal consistency of continuous scales was assessed using the entire Wave 2 NESARC. Both test and retest interviews were conducted face-to-face. Test-retest and internal consistency results for diagnoses and symptom scales associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and borderline, narcissistic, and schizotypal personality disorders were predominantly good (kappa > 0.63; ICC > 0.69; alpha > 0.75) and reliability for risk factor measures fell within the good to excellent range (intraclass correlations = 0.50–0.94; alpha = 0.64–0.90). The high degree of reliability found in this study suggests that new AUDADIS-IV diagnostic measures can be useful tools in research settings. The availability of highly reliable measures of risk factors of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders will contribute to the validity of conclusions drawn from future research in the domains of substance use disorder and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:17706375

  19. Pain interference and incident mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders: findings from a representative sample of men and women in the general population.

    PubMed

    Barry, Declan T; Pilver, Corey E; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-11-01

    To examine gender differences in the longitudinal relationship between past-month pain interference and incident mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders, chi-square tests and binomial logistic regression analyses were performed on data obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions from 34,465 adult respondents (47.9% men; 52.1% women) who completed waves 1 (2000-2001) and 2 (2004-2005) data collection. Models were adjusted for potentially confounding factors (i.e., age, race, marital status, educational level, employment, household income, number of stressful life events, number of general medical conditions, and wave-1 psychopathology). Respondents were categorized at wave 1 according to their past-month level of pain interference (i.e., no or low pain interference, moderate pain interference, severe pain interference). Moderate and severe pain interference (as compared to no or low pain interference) in male and female respondents was associated with the incidence of several psychiatric disorders. A stronger relationship was observed in male respondents as compared to female ones between past-month moderate pain interference and a new onset of any mood disorder (OR=1.57, p=0.03) and major depressive disorder (OR=1.60, p=0.03), and between past-month severe pain interference and a new onset of alcohol abuse or dependence (OR=1.69, p=0.045) and nicotine dependence (OR=1.48, p=0.04). These findings suggest that providers should consider screening patients with past-month moderate or severe pain interference for mood, anxiety, and substance-use problems and monitor the possible development of subsequent comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  20. Stress, coping, and depression: testing a new hypothesis in a prospectively studied general population sample of U.S.-born Whites and Blacks.

    PubMed

    Keyes, K M; Barnes, David M; Bates, L M

    2011-03-01

    The scarcity of empirically supported explanations for the Black/White prevalence difference in depression in the U.S. is a conspicuous gap in the literature. Recent evidence suggests that the paradoxical observation of decreased risk of depression but elevated rates of physical illness among Blacks in the U.S. compared with Whites may be accounted for by the use of coping behaviors (e.g., alcohol and nicotine consumption, overeating) among Blacks exposed to high stress levels. Such coping behaviors may mitigate deleterious effects of stressful exposures on mental health while increasing the risk of physical ailments. The racial patterning in mental and physical health outcomes could therefore be explained by this mechanism if a) these behaviors were more prevalent among Blacks than Whites and/or b) the effect of these behavioral responses to stress was differential by race. The present study challenges this hypothesis using longitudinal, nationally-representative data with comprehensive DSM-IV diagnoses. Data are drawn from 34,653 individuals sampled in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results showed that a) Blacks were less likely to engage in alcohol or nicotine consumption at low, moderate, and high levels of stress compared to Whites, and b) there was a significant three-way interaction between race, stress, and coping behavior for BMI only (F = 2.11, df = 12, p = 0.03), but, contrary to the hypothesis, elevated BMI was protective against depression in Blacks at low, not high, levels of stress. Further, engagement in unhealthy behaviors, especially at pathological levels, did not protect against depression in Blacks or in Whites. In sum, the impact of stress and coping processes on depression does not appear to operate differently in Blacks versus Whites. Further research testing innovative hypotheses that would explain the difference in Black/White depression prevalence is

  1. [Does population ecology have general laws?].

    PubMed

    Turchin, P V

    2002-01-01

    There is a widespread opinion among ecologists that ecology lacks general laws. In this paper the author argues that this opinion is mistaken. Taking the case of population dynamics, the author points out that there are several very general law-like propositions that provide the theoretical basis for most population dynamics models that were developed to address specific issues. Some of these foundational principles, like the law of exponential growth, are logically very similar to certain law of physics (Newton's law of intertia, for example, is almost a direct analogue of exponential growth). The author discusses two other principles (population self-limitation and resource-consumer oscillations), as well as the more elementary postulates that underlie them. None of the "laws" that the author proposes for population ecology are new. Collectively ecologists have been using these general principles in guiding development of their models and experiments since the days of Lotka, Volterra, and Gause.

  2. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  3. Population Education in Science: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This science teacher's manual contains nine sample population education lessons adapted from materials produced in several countries in Asia and Oceania. Activities are designed for lower primary through high school students. Included are class discussions, small group activities, and a role-playing situation. Food chains, human dependence upon…

  4. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Johan; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66) and self-reported (n = 313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis. PMID:27569405

  5. Exposure of the general population to gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Akland, G G

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the currently available information on gasoline exposure to the general population. In general, the largest contribution to the time weighted exposures results from exposures while indoors, which are influenced by the outside air, indoor sources, and attached garages. Personal activities, including refueling and commuting, contribute significantly higher exposures but last for only a small portion of the 24-hr time weighted average. The highest exposed group includes those individuals living near large service stations and those with contaminated water supplies. PMID:8020446

  6. Disentangling seasonal bacterioplankton population dynamics by high-frequency sampling.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Markus V; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Andersson, Anders F; Baltar, Federico; Hugerth, Luisa W; Lundin, Daniel; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-07-01

    Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1) . Populations that were persistently dominant, transiently abundant or generally rare were found in several major bacterial groups, implying evolution has favoured a similar variety of life strategies within these groups. These findings suggest that high temporal resolution sampling allows constraining the timescales and frequencies at which distinct populations transition between being abundant or rare, thus potentially providing clues about physical, chemical or biological forcing on bacterioplankton community structure.

  7. Limits of Generalizing in Education Research: Why Criteria for Research Generalization Should Include Population Heterogeneity and Uses of Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Generalization is a critical concept in all research designed to generate knowledge that applies to all elements of a unit (population) while studying only a subset of these elements (sample). Commonly applied criteria for generalizing focus on experimental design or representativeness of samples of the population of units. The criteria…

  8. Monitoring larval populations of the douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: Sampling methods and statistical properties of data. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Paul, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    Procedures for monitoring Larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience of sample these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a geographical monitoring unit. The most practical method is to estimate densities of both insect species simultaneously on a plot by the nondestructive sampling of foliage on lower crown branches of host trees. For best results, sampling methods need to be consistent with monitoring done annually to accumulate continuous databases that reflect the behavior of defoliator populations over a long period of time.

  9. Occupational status, educational level, and the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in a general population sample of middle-aged Swedish men and women: results from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Rosvall, M; Ostergren, P O; Hedblad, B; Isacsson, S O; Janzon, L; Berglund, G

    2000-08-15

    The associations among educational level, occupational status, and atherosclerosis were investigated during 1992-1994 in a general population sample of 4,176 Swedish men and women. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid stenosis were determined by B-mode ultrasound. Socioeconomic differences in mean carotid IMT and odds ratios for carotid stenosis prevalence were estimated. In women, the associations among educational level, occupational status, and IMT were weak. In men, there was no association between education and IMT, while low occupational status was associated with a thicker IMT. Women with low education had an increased odds of carotid stenosis compared with women with high education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.73), while this pattern was weaker among men. Women in manual occupations had an increased odds of carotid stenosis compared with women in high- or medium-level nonmanual occupations (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.36), which could not be seen among men. After adjustment for risk factors, the association between IMT and occupational status in men disappeared, while the associations among educational level, occupational status, and carotid stenosis in women persisted. The results imply that the atherosclerotic process is associated with socioeconomic status in both sexes, and they also indicate the possibility of sex differences in the mechanisms connecting socioeconomic status to atherosclerosis.

  10. Digital superresolution and the generalized sampling theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Sudhakar

    2007-02-01

    The technique of reconstructing a higher-resolution (HR) image of size ML×ML by digitally processing L×L subpixel-shifted lower-resolution (LR) copies of it, each of size M×M, has now become well established. This particular digital superresolution problem is analyzed from the standpoint of the generalized sampling theorem. It is shown both theoretically and by computer simulation that the choice of regularly spaced subpixel shifts for the LR images tends to maximize the robustness and minimize the error of reconstruction of the HR image. In practice, since subpixel-level control of LR image shifts may be nearly impossible to achieve, however, a more likely scenario, which is also discussed, is one involving random subpixel shifts. It is shown that without reasonably tight bounds on the range of random shifts, the reconstruction is likely to fail in the presence of even small amounts of noise unless either reliable prior information or additional data are available.

  11. Defining forgiveness: christian clergy and general population perspectives.

    PubMed

    Macaskill, Ann

    2005-10-01

    The lack of any consensual definition of forgiveness is a serious weakness in the research literature (McCullough, Pargament, & Thoresen, 2000). As forgiveness is at the core of Christianity, this study returns to the Christian source of the concept to explore the meaning of forgiveness for practicing Christian clergy. Comparisons are made with a general population sample and social science definitions of forgiveness to ensure that a shared meaning of forgiveness is articulated. Anglican and Roman Catholic clergy (N = 209) and a general population sample (N = 159) completed a postal questionnaire about forgiveness. There was agreement on the existence of individual differences in forgiveness. Clergy and the general population perceived reconciliation as necessary for forgiveness while there was no consensus within psychology. The clergy suggest that forgiveness is limitless and that repentance is unnecessary, while the general population suggests that there are limits and that repentance is necessary. Psychological definitions do not conceptualize repentance as necessary for forgiveness, and the question of limits has not been addressed, although, within therapy, the implicit assumption is that forgiveness is limitless.

  12. Generalized population models and the nature of genetic drift.

    PubMed

    Der, Ricky; Epstein, Charles L; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2011-09-01

    The Wright-Fisher model of allele dynamics forms the basis for most theoretical and applied research in population genetics. Our understanding of genetic drift, and its role in suppressing the deterministic forces of Darwinian selection has relied on the specific form of sampling inherent to the Wright-Fisher model and its diffusion limit. Here we introduce and analyze a broad class of forward-time population models that share the same mean and variance as the Wright-Fisher model, but may otherwise differ. The proposed class unifies and further generalizes a number of population-genetic processes of recent interest, including the Λ and Cannings processes. Even though these models all have the same variance effective population size, they encode a rich diversity of alternative forms of genetic drift, with significant consequences for allele dynamics. We characterize in detail the behavior of standard population-genetic quantities across this family of generalized models. Some quantities, such as heterozygosity, remain unchanged; but others, such as neutral absorption times and fixation probabilities under selection, deviate by orders of magnitude from the Wright-Fisher model. We show that generalized population models can produce startling phenomena that differ qualitatively from classical behavior - such as assured fixation of a new mutant despite the presence of genetic drift. We derive the forward-time continuum limits of the generalized processes, analogous to Kimura's diffusion limit of the Wright-Fisher process, and we discuss their relationships to the Kingman and non-Kingman coalescents. Finally, we demonstrate that some non-diffusive, generalized models are more likely, in certain respects, than the Wright-Fisher model itself, given empirical data from Drosophila populations.

  13. g in Middle Childhood: Moderate Genetic and Shared Environmental Influence Using Diverse Measures of General Cognitive Ability at 7, 9 and 10 Years in a Large Population Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Oliver S. P.; Arden, Rosalind; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A 2003 paper in this journal reported results from a large sample of twins assessed at 2, 3 and 4 years of age on parent-administered tests and reports of their verbal and nonverbal ability. We found clear evidence for phenotypic general cognitive ability (g) that accounted for about 50% of the variance, for modest genetic influence on g (about…

  14. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  15. 30 CFR 71.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.201 Section... MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  16. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time...

  17. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  18. 30 CFR 71.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.201 Section... MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  19. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time...

  20. 30 CFR 71.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.201 Section... MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  1. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time...

  2. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  3. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time...

  4. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  5. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time...

  6. 30 CFR 71.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.201 Section... MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  7. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health...

  8. Event-Specific Drinking in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Cunningham, John Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It has been well established that college students engage in heavy drinking during specific social events; however, within the general population, evidence of event-specific drinking has been largely indirect. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the temporal variability in daily alcohol consumption in the winter holiday months among residents of a large metropolitan area. Method: A random-digit-dialing telephone survey was conducted of residents who drank alcohol at least once per month. During a 5-week period beginning December 1, 2009, the number of drinks consumed on each day within the past week was collected for 578 participants. Results: Weekly variation in alcohol consumption peaked on Fridays and Saturdays and was particularly high on Christmas and New Year’s Eve. Mean drink consumption was significantly higher on Christmas and New Year’s Eve compared with most weekends within the sampling period. Conclusions: The present findings provide the first direct evidence, with temporal specificity, that alcohol consumption within the general population is highly event specific. Targeted intervention strategies similar to those used within college student samples may be appropriate for reducing or preventing alcohol-related harmful events on a population level. PMID:25343654

  9. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device...

  10. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device...

  11. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device...

  12. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device...

  13. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device...

  14. Sampling considerations for disease surveillance in wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nusser, S.M.; Clark, W.R.; Otis, D.L.; Huang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Disease surveillance in wildlife populations involves detecting the presence of a disease, characterizing its prevalence and spread, and subsequent monitoring. A probability sample of animals selected from the population and corresponding estimators of disease prevalence and detection provide estimates with quantifiable statistical properties, but this approach is rarely used. Although wildlife scientists often assume probability sampling and random disease distributions to calculate sample sizes, convenience samples (i.e., samples of readily available animals) are typically used, and disease distributions are rarely random. We demonstrate how landscape-based simulation can be used to explore properties of estimators from convenience samples in relation to probability samples. We used simulation methods to model what is known about the habitat preferences of the wildlife population, the disease distribution, and the potential biases of the convenience-sample approach. Using chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a simple illustration, we show that using probability sample designs with appropriate estimators provides unbiased surveillance parameter estimates but that the selection bias and coverage errors associated with convenience samples can lead to biased and misleading results. We also suggest practical alternatives to convenience samples that mix probability and convenience sampling. For example, a sample of land areas can be selected using a probability design that oversamples areas with larger animal populations, followed by harvesting of individual animals within sampled areas using a convenience sampling method.

  15. A general consumer-resource population model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  16. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    PubMed

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  17. 52 additional reference population samples for the 55 AISNP panel.

    PubMed

    Pakstis, Andrew J; Haigh, Eva; Cherni, Lotfi; ElGaaied, Amel Ben Ammar; Barton, Alison; Evsanaa, Baigalmaa; Togtokh, Ariunaa; Brissenden, Jane; Roscoe, Janet; Bulbul, Ozlem; Filoglu, Gonul; Gurkan, Cemal; Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Robertson, James M; Li, Cai-Xia; Wei, Yi-Liang; Li, Hui; Soundararajan, Usha; Rajeevan, Haseena; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2015-11-01

    Ancestry inference for a person using a panel of SNPs depends on the variation of frequencies of those SNPs around the world and the amount of reference data available for calculation/comparison. The Kidd Lab panel of 55 AISNPs has been incorporated in commercial kits by both Life Technologies and Illumina for massively parallel sequencing. Therefore, a larger set of reference populations will be useful for researchers using those kits. We have added reference population allele frequencies for 52 population samples to the 73 previously entered so that there are now allele frequencies publicly available in ALFRED and FROG-kb for a total of 125 population samples. PMID:26355664

  18. Mutational pattern of a sample from a critical branching population.

    PubMed

    Delaporte, Cécile; Achaz, Guillaume; Lambert, Amaury

    2016-09-01

    We study a universal object for the genealogy of a sample in populations with mutations: the critical birth-death process with Poissonian mutations, conditioned on its population size at a fixed time horizon. We show how this process arises as the law of the genealogy of a sample in a large class of nearly critical branching populations with rare mutations at birth, namely populations converging, in a large population asymptotic, towards the continuum random tree. We extend this model to populations with random foundation times, with (potentially improper) prior distributions [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], including the so-called uniform ([Formula: see text]) and log-uniform ([Formula: see text]) priors. We first investigate the mutational patterns arising from these models, by studying the site frequency spectrum of a sample with fixed size, i.e. the number of mutations carried by k individuals in the sample. Explicit formulae for the expected frequency spectrum of a sample are provided, in the cases of a fixed foundation time, and of a uniform and log-uniform prior on the foundation time. Second, we establish the convergence in distribution, for large sample sizes, of the (suitably renormalized) tree spanned by the sample with prior [Formula: see text] on the time of origin. We finally prove that the limiting genealogies with different priors can all be embedded in the same realization of a given Poisson point measure. PMID:26748918

  19. Transvestic fetishism in the general population: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2005-01-01

    We used a random sample of 2,450 18-60 year-olds in the general population of Sweden to study the prevalence as well as the social, sexual, and health correlates of transvestic fetishism (sexual arousal from cross-dressing). Almost three percent (2.8%) of men and 0.4% of women reported at least one episode of transvestic fetishism. Separation from parents, same-sex sexual experiences, being easily sexually aroused, pornography use, and higher masturbation frequency were significantly associated with transvestic fetishism. A positive attitude to this sexual practice and paraphilia indicators--sexual arousal from using pain, exposing genitals to a stranger, and spying on others having sex--were particularly strong correlates to the dependent variable. PMID:15859369

  20. Population Education in Social Studies: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in social studies. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  1. The narcissistic personality inventory: applicability in a Swedish population sample.

    PubMed

    Kansi, Juliska

    2003-12-01

    A Swedish translation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) was mailed to 410 participants, aged 21-61 years, randomly sampled from the Swedish general population. The participation rate was 62%. The applicability of a previously published seven-factor structure (Raskin & Terry) and a four-factor structure (Emmons) was investigated. The factor structure found in the present in the Swedish sample corresponded better with Emmons's version. Therefore the four-factor structure was chosen. Because the correspondence to Emmons's factor structure was not perfect, a revised NPI for Swedish use was constructed. The total scale score is usually used, although the Swedish NPI includes four subscales: Leadership/Power, Exhibitionism/Self-admiration. Superiority/Arrogance, and Uniqueness/Entitlement. For the total scale, the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.80 and the test-retest correlation was 0.93. The total scale score correlated with self-esteem as well as the interpersonal style and emotional aspects of psychopathy, supporting the validity of the scale.

  2. A venue-based method for sampling hard-to-reach populations.

    PubMed

    Muhib, F B; Lin, L S; Stueve, A; Miller, R L; Ford, W L; Johnson, W D; Smith, P J

    2001-01-01

    Constructing scientifically sound samples of hard-to-reach populations, also known as hidden populations, is a challenge for many research projects. Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases. The authors describe a venue-based application of time-space sampling (TSS) that addresses the challenges of accessing hard-to-reach populations. The method entails identifying days and times when the target population gathers at specific venues, constructing a sampling frame of venue, day-time units (VDTs), randomly selecting and visiting VDTs (the primary sampling units), and systematically intercepting and collecting information from consenting members of the target population. This allows researchers to construct a sample with known properties, make statistical inference to the larger population of venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of biases that may limit generalization of results to the target population. The authors describe their use of TSS in the ongoing Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY) project to generate a systematic sample of young men who have sex with men. The project is an ongoing community level HIV prevention intervention trial funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The TSS method is reproducible and can be adapted to hard-to-reach populations in other situations, environments, and cultures.

  3. A venue-based method for sampling hard-to-reach populations.

    PubMed Central

    Muhib, F. B.; Lin, L. S.; Stueve, A.; Miller, R. L.; Ford, W. L.; Johnson, W. D.; Smith, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Constructing scientifically sound samples of hard-to-reach populations, also known as hidden populations, is a challenge for many research projects. Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases. The authors describe a venue-based application of time-space sampling (TSS) that addresses the challenges of accessing hard-to-reach populations. The method entails identifying days and times when the target population gathers at specific venues, constructing a sampling frame of venue, day-time units (VDTs), randomly selecting and visiting VDTs (the primary sampling units), and systematically intercepting and collecting information from consenting members of the target population. This allows researchers to construct a sample with known properties, make statistical inference to the larger population of venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of biases that may limit generalization of results to the target population. The authors describe their use of TSS in the ongoing Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY) project to generate a systematic sample of young men who have sex with men. The project is an ongoing community level HIV prevention intervention trial funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The TSS method is reproducible and can be adapted to hard-to-reach populations in other situations, environments, and cultures. PMID:11889287

  4. Risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population.

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, D L; Vierkant, R A; DeStefano, F; Layde, P M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the individual, physical, and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population. METHODS: Population based case-control study in Marshfield epidemiological study area in Wisconsin, USA. Cases were men and women aged 18-69 with newly diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 206 (83.1%) of 248 eligible). Controls were a random sample of residents of the study area who had no history of diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 211 (81.5%) of 259 eligible). Cases and controls were matched by age. Telephone interviews and reviews of medical records obtained height and weight, medical history, average daily hours of exposure to selected physical and organisational work factors, and self ratings on psychosocial work scales. RESULTS: In the final logistic regression model, five work and three non-work variables were associated with risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, after adjusting for age. For each one unit of increase in body mass index (kg/m2), risk increased 8% (odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03 to 1.14). Having a previous musculoskeletal condition was positively associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.03 to 6.23). People reporting the least influence at work had 2.86 times the risk (95% CI, 1.10 to 7.14) than those with the most influence at work. CONCLUSIONS: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a work related disease, although some important measures of occupational exposure, including keyboard use, were not risk factors in this general population study. The mechanism whereby a weight gain of about six pounds increases the risk of disease 8% requires explanation. PMID:9404321

  5. A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1979-01-01

    The Hayne model for line transect sampling is generalized by using an elliptical (rather than circular) flushing model for animal detection. By assuming the ration of major and minor axes lengths is constant for all animals, a model results which allows estimation of population density based directly upon sighting distances and sighting angles. The derived estimator of animal density is a generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling.

  6. General constraints on sampling wildlife on FIA plots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, L.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Geissler, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the constraints to sampling wildlife populations at FIA points. Wildlife sampling programs must have well-defined goals and provide information adequate to meet those goals. Investigators should choose a State variable based on information needs and the spatial sampling scale. We discuss estimation-based methods for three State variables: species richness, abundance, and patch occupancy. All methods incorporate two essential sources of variation: detectability estimation and spatial variation. FIA sampling imposes specific space and time criteria that may need to be adjusted to meet local wildlife objectives.

  7. Generalized Ensemble Sampling of Enzyme Reaction Free Energy Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongsheng; Fajer, Mikolai I.; Cao, Liaoran; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Free energy path sampling plays an essential role in computational understanding of chemical reactions, particularly those occurring in enzymatic environments. Among a variety of molecular dynamics simulation approaches, the generalized ensemble sampling strategy is uniquely attractive for the fact that it not only can enhance the sampling of rare chemical events but also can naturally ensure consistent exploration of environmental degrees of freedom. In this review, we plan to provide a tutorial-like tour on an emerging topic: generalized ensemble sampling of enzyme reaction free energy path. The discussion is largely focused on our own studies, particularly ones based on the metadynamics free energy sampling method and the on-the-path random walk path sampling method. We hope that this mini presentation will provide interested practitioners some meaningful guidance for future algorithm formulation and application study. PMID:27498634

  8. Generalized Ensemble Sampling of Enzyme Reaction Free Energy Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Fajer, M I; Cao, L; Cheng, X; Yang, W

    2016-01-01

    Free energy path sampling plays an essential role in computational understanding of chemical reactions, particularly those occurring in enzymatic environments. Among a variety of molecular dynamics simulation approaches, the generalized ensemble sampling strategy is uniquely attractive for the fact that it not only can enhance the sampling of rare chemical events but also can naturally ensure consistent exploration of environmental degrees of freedom. In this review, we plan to provide a tutorial-like tour on an emerging topic: generalized ensemble sampling of enzyme reaction free energy path. The discussion is largely focused on our own studies, particularly ones based on the metadynamics free energy sampling method and the on-the-path random walk path sampling method. We hope that this minipresentation will provide interested practitioners some meaningful guidance for future algorithm formulation and application study.

  9. Generalized Ensemble Sampling of Enzyme Reaction Free Energy Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Fajer, M I; Cao, L; Cheng, X; Yang, W

    2016-01-01

    Free energy path sampling plays an essential role in computational understanding of chemical reactions, particularly those occurring in enzymatic environments. Among a variety of molecular dynamics simulation approaches, the generalized ensemble sampling strategy is uniquely attractive for the fact that it not only can enhance the sampling of rare chemical events but also can naturally ensure consistent exploration of environmental degrees of freedom. In this review, we plan to provide a tutorial-like tour on an emerging topic: generalized ensemble sampling of enzyme reaction free energy path. The discussion is largely focused on our own studies, particularly ones based on the metadynamics free energy sampling method and the on-the-path random walk path sampling method. We hope that this minipresentation will provide interested practitioners some meaningful guidance for future algorithm formulation and application study. PMID:27498634

  10. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  11. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well. PMID:26107223

  12. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well.

  13. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  14. Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2014-03-30

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population.

  15. Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2014-03-30

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population. PMID:24445165

  16. Prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Doğan, Orhan

    2007-01-15

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population, as assessed in a representative sample of a city in central Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Borderline Personality Disorder section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), and the PTSD-Module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The mean age of participants was 34.8 (S.D.=11.5, range: 18-65); 18.3% of participants (n=115) had a lifetime diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) was the most prevalent diagnosis (8.3%); 1.1% of the population was diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder (DID). Participants with a dissociative disorder had borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, major depression, PTSD, and history of suicide attempt more frequently than did participants without a dissociative disorder. Childhood sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were significant predictors of a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Only 28.7% of the dissociative participants had received psychiatric treatment previously. Because dissociative disorders are trauma-related, significant part of the adult clinical consequences of childhood trauma remains obscure in the minds of mental health professionals and of the overall community. Revisions in diagnostic criteria of dissociative disorders in the DSM-IV are recommended.

  17. An open-population hierarchical distance sampling model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sollmann, Rachel; Beth Gardner,; Richard B Chandler,; Royle, J. Andrew; T Scott Sillett,

    2015-01-01

    Modeling population dynamics while accounting for imperfect detection is essential to monitoring programs. Distance sampling allows estimating population size while accounting for imperfect detection, but existing methods do not allow for direct estimation of demographic parameters. We develop a model that uses temporal correlation in abundance arising from underlying population dynamics to estimate demographic parameters from repeated distance sampling surveys. Using a simulation study motivated by designing a monitoring program for island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), we investigated the power of this model to detect population trends. We generated temporally autocorrelated abundance and distance sampling data over six surveys, using population rates of change of 0.95 and 0.90. We fit the data generating Markovian model and a mis-specified model with a log-linear time effect on abundance, and derived post hoc trend estimates from a model estimating abundance for each survey separately. We performed these analyses for varying number of survey points. Power to detect population changes was consistently greater under the Markov model than under the alternatives, particularly for reduced numbers of survey points. The model can readily be extended to more complex demographic processes than considered in our simulations. This novel framework can be widely adopted for wildlife population monitoring.

  18. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker for Sample Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing is accepted as the “gold” standard for genetic analysis and continues to be used as a validation and reference tool. The idea of using sequence analysis directly for sample characterization has been met with skepticism. However, herein, utility of direct use of sequencing to identify multiple genomes present in samples is presented and reviewed. All samples and “pure” isolates are populations of genomes. Population-Sequencing is the use of probabilistic matching tools in combination with large volumes of sequence information to identify genomes present, based on DNA analysis across entire genomes to determine genome assignments, to calculate confidence scores of major and minor genome content. Accurate genome identification from mixtures without culture purification steps can achieve phylogenetic classification by direct analysis of millions of DNA fragments. Genome sequencing data of mixtures can function as biomarkers for use to interrogate genetic content of samples and to establish a sample profile, inclusive of major and minor genome components, drill down to identify rare SNP and mutation events, compare relatedness of genetic content between samples, profile-to-profile, and provide a probabilistic or statistical scoring confidence for sample characterization and attribution. The application of Population-Sequencing will facilitate sample characterization and genome identification strategies. PMID:26317024

  19. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  20. Sampling methods for monitoring changes in gonococcal populations.

    PubMed Central

    Bindayna, K. M.; Ison, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 160 consecutive isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was collected over a 3-month period. They were tested for their susceptibility to penicillin, erythromycin and spectinomycin and the auxotype and the serotype determined. We have evaluated two sampling methods, the collection of every fifth isolate and the first 20 isolates (10 male and 10 female) each month, to determine whether either is representative of the total population. There was no significant difference between either method of sampling and the total for detecting the predominant auxotypes and serovars or the distributions in antibiotic susceptibility. It is possible to monitor major changes in a gonococcal population, particularly susceptibility to antibiotics, using a sample of the total population. PMID:2528473

  1. Capture-recapture and removal methods for sampling closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Otis, David L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating animal abundance is common in wildlife management and environmental impact asessment. Capture-recapture and removal methods are often used to estimate population size. Statistical Inference From Capture Data On Closed Animal Populations, a monograph by Otis et al. (1978), provides a comprehensive synthesis of much of the wildlife and statistical literature on the methods, as well as some extensions of the general theory. In our primer, we focus on capture-recapture and removal methods for trapping studies in which a population is assumed to be closed and do not treat open-population models, such as the Jolly-Seber model, or catch-effort methods in any detail. The primer, written for students interested in population estimation, is intended for use with the more theoretical monograph.

  2. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  3. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; de Luca, María M; Córdoba, María A; Apezteguía, María C; Basualdo, Juan A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses. METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families. RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309) of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140) among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169) among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter) and housing (satisfactory) among others. CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural, and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite

  4. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    PubMed

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  5. Between and within-family association test of the dopamine receptor D2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol abuse and dependence in a general population sample of adults

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, B.C.; Timberlake, D.; Smolen, A.; Sakai, J.T.; Hopfer, C.J.; Corley, R.P.; Young, S.E.; Stallings, M.C.; Huizinga, D.; Menard, S.; Hartman, C.; Grotpeter, J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dopaminergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the etiology of alcohol use disorders. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the DRD2 gene affects gene expression and has been implicated as a risk factor for alcohol dependence. This polymorphism (TaqIA) has been reported as positively associated with alcohol use disorders in case-control samples, but these results have not been replicated in family-based association studies. These mixed results of association between the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol use disorders may be due to differences in sample size, phenotype definition, heterogeneity of the samples and genetic admixture. Method We conducted tests of association in a sample of 838 adults participating in the National Youth Survey Family Study (NYSFS). We examined whether the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism was associated with a symptom counts measure of alcohol abuse and dependence derived from the DSM-IV and Craving Withdrawal models. Results Tests of association were non-significant across each classification system examined. Power calculations suggested these results were despite the ability to detect an effect size of 1%. Conclusions This study supports other family-based association tests that have reported no association between the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:17446975

  6. Generalized analog thresholding for spike acquisition at ultralow sampling rates.

    PubMed

    He, Bryan D; Wein, Alex; Varshney, Lav R; Kusuma, Julius; Richardson, Andrew G; Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan

    2015-07-01

    Efficient spike acquisition techniques are needed to bridge the divide from creating large multielectrode arrays (MEA) to achieving whole-cortex electrophysiology. In this paper, we introduce generalized analog thresholding (gAT), which achieves millisecond temporal resolution with sampling rates as low as 10 Hz. Consider the torrent of data from a single 1,000-channel MEA, which would generate more than 3 GB/min using standard 30-kHz Nyquist sampling. Recent neural signal processing methods based on compressive sensing still require Nyquist sampling as a first step and use iterative methods to reconstruct spikes. Analog thresholding (AT) remains the best existing alternative, where spike waveforms are passed through an analog comparator and sampled at 1 kHz, with instant spike reconstruction. By generalizing AT, the new method reduces sampling rates another order of magnitude, detects more than one spike per interval, and reconstructs spike width. Unlike compressive sensing, the new method reveals a simple closed-form solution to achieve instant (noniterative) spike reconstruction. The base method is already robust to hardware nonidealities, including realistic quantization error and integration noise. Because it achieves these considerable specifications using hardware-friendly components like integrators and comparators, generalized AT could translate large-scale MEAs into implantable devices for scientific investigation and medical technology. PMID:25904712

  7. Generalized analog thresholding for spike acquisition at ultralow sampling rates

    PubMed Central

    He, Bryan D.; Wein, Alex; Varshney, Lav R.; Kusuma, Julius; Richardson, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient spike acquisition techniques are needed to bridge the divide from creating large multielectrode arrays (MEA) to achieving whole-cortex electrophysiology. In this paper, we introduce generalized analog thresholding (gAT), which achieves millisecond temporal resolution with sampling rates as low as 10 Hz. Consider the torrent of data from a single 1,000-channel MEA, which would generate more than 3 GB/min using standard 30-kHz Nyquist sampling. Recent neural signal processing methods based on compressive sensing still require Nyquist sampling as a first step and use iterative methods to reconstruct spikes. Analog thresholding (AT) remains the best existing alternative, where spike waveforms are passed through an analog comparator and sampled at 1 kHz, with instant spike reconstruction. By generalizing AT, the new method reduces sampling rates another order of magnitude, detects more than one spike per interval, and reconstructs spike width. Unlike compressive sensing, the new method reveals a simple closed-form solution to achieve instant (noniterative) spike reconstruction. The base method is already robust to hardware nonidealities, including realistic quantization error and integration noise. Because it achieves these considerable specifications using hardware-friendly components like integrators and comparators, generalized AT could translate large-scale MEAs into implantable devices for scientific investigation and medical technology. PMID:25904712

  8. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  9. Estimating Population Characteristics from Sparse Matrix Samples of Item Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Concepts behind plausible values in estimating population characteristics from sparse matrix samples of item responses are discussed. The use of marginal analyses is described in the context of the National Assessment of Educational Progress, and the approach is illustrated with Scholastic Aptitude Test data for 9,075 high school seniors. (SLD)

  10. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  11. Population characteristics and the distribution of general medical practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, M J; Klein, R E

    1979-01-01

    By applying the logic of the Resource Allocation Working Party to the analysis of the distribution of general medical practitioners, the relevant Family Practitioner Committee (FPC) populations were weighted according to known patterns of use related to specific characteristics--namely, age, sex, marital state, and socioeconomic group. Comparative weightings were also calculated using standardised mortality ratios. Adjusting the populations to take account of differential use has relatively little impact on national variations in list sizes but an appreciable effect on particular FPCs, notably East and West Sussex, Dorset, and the Isle of Wight. Inequalities in the distribution of general practitioners are increased considerably, however, if figures taking account of the inflation of list sizes and cross-boundary flows are used. To formulate and monitor policy about the distribution of general practitioners more sensitive measures of population and its likely demand for services must be developed. PMID:427409

  12. Procedures for formation of composite samples from segmented populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Frank, Anthony M.; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We used a simulation approach to investigate the implication of two methods of forming composite samples to characterize segmented populations. We illustrate the case where the weight of individual segments varies randomly, a situation common with fish samples. Composite samples from segments such as whole fish or muscle tissue should be formed by homogenizing each segment separately and combining equal-sized portions randomly drawn from each homogenate. This approach permits unbiased estimation of the mean concentration per fish. Estimates of mean contaminant concentration varied little with variation in the number of composite samples analyzed or with composite size (number of segments in a composite sample). However, for a fixed number of composite samples, the precision of the variance estimate increases as composite size increased. In addition, for a fixed number of composites, the estimate of the variance stabilized as more segments were included in the composite samples. Estimates of the variance among fish or other population segments can be recovered using appropriate compositing procedures and specially-designed studies.

  13. Assessing tiger population dynamics using photographic capture-recapture sampling.

    PubMed

    Karanth, K Ullas; Nichols, James D; Kumar, N Samba; Hines, James E

    2006-11-01

    Although wide-ranging, elusive, large carnivore species, such as the tiger, are of scientific and conservation interest, rigorous inferences about their population dynamics are scarce because of methodological problems of sampling populations at the required spatial and temporal scales. We report the application of a rigorous, noninvasive method for assessing tiger population dynamics to test model-based predictions about population viability. We obtained photographic capture histories for 74 individual tigers during a nine-year study involving 5725 trap-nights of effort. These data were modeled under a likelihood-based, "robust design" capture-recapture analytic framework. We explicitly modeled and estimated ecological parameters such as time-specific abundance, density, survival, recruitment, temporary emigration, and transience, using models that incorporated effects of factors such as individual heterogeneity, trap-response, and time on probabilities of photo-capturing tigers. The model estimated a random temporary emigration parameter of gamma" = gamma' = 0.10 +/- 0.069 (values are estimated mean +/- SE). When scaled to an annual basis, tiger survival rates were estimated at S = 0.77 +/- 0.051, and the estimated probability that a newly caught animal was a transient was tau = 0.18 +/- 0.11. During the period when the sampled area was of constant size, the estimated population size N(t) varied from 17 +/- 1.7 to 31 +/- 2.1 tigers, with a geometric mean rate of annual population change estimated as lambda = 1.03 +/- 0.020, representing a 3% annual increase. The estimated recruitment of new animals, B(t), varied from 0 +/- 3.0 to 14 +/- 2.9 tigers. Population density estimates, D, ranged from 7.33 +/- 0.8 tigers/100 km2 to 21.73 +/- 1.7 tigers/100 km2 during the study. Thus, despite substantial annual losses and temporal variation in recruitment, the tiger density remained at relatively high levels in Nagarahole. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis

  14. Assessing tiger population dynamics using photographic capture-recapture sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Hines, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Although wide-ranging, elusive, large carnivore species, such as the tiger, are of scientific and conservation interest, rigorous inferences about their population dynamics are scarce because of methodological problems of sampling populations at the required spatial and temporal scales. We report the application of a rigorous, noninvasive method for assessing tiger population dynamics to test model-based predictions about population viability. We obtained photographic capture histories for 74 individual tigers during a nine-year study involving 5725 trap-nights of effort. These data were modeled under a likelihood-based, ?robust design? capture?recapture analytic framework. We explicitly modeled and estimated ecological parameters such as time-specific abundance, density, survival, recruitment, temporary emigration, and transience, using models that incorporated effects of factors such as individual heterogeneity, trap-response, and time on probabilities of photo-capturing tigers. The model estimated a random temporary emigration parameter of =K' =Y' 0.10 ? 0.069 (values are estimated mean ? SE). When scaled to an annual basis, tiger survival rates were estimated at S = 0.77 ? 0.051, and the estimated probability that a newly caught animal was a transient was = 0.18 ? 0.11. During the period when the sampled area was of constant size, the estimated population size Nt varied from 17 ? 1.7 to 31 ? 2.1 tigers, with a geometric mean rate of annual population change estimated as = 1.03 ? 0.020, representing a 3% annual increase. The estimated recruitment of new animals, Bt, varied from 0 ? 3.0 to 14 ? 2.9 tigers. Population density estimates, D, ranged from 7.33 ? 0.8 tigers/100 km2 to 21.73 ? 1.7 tigers/100 km2 during the study. Thus, despite substantial annual losses and temporal variation in recruitment, the tiger density remained at relatively high levels in Nagarahole. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that protected wild tiger populations can remain

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions.

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions. PMID:26986362

  17. Are there population differences in minutiae frequencies? A comparative study of two Argentinian population samples and one Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Rivaldería, Noemí; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Martín, Luis M; Dipierri, José E; Fernández-Peire, Miguel A; Morillo, Ricardo

    2012-10-10

    In recent years, both scientific and judicial sources have highlighted the need for more knowledge about minutiae variability, in order to improve their statistical application to fingerprint identification. In line with this trend toward improving our knowledge of this subject, the aim of the present study was to calculate the frequency with which 20 types of minutiae appeared in 2780 fingerprint impressions obtained from 278 individuals from two Argentinian population samples (100 individuals from Ramal and 178 from Puna-Quebrada). The different types of minutiae were located, identified, and quantified visually in two areas on the fingerprint, the inside and outside of a circle, the radius of which cut fifteen ridges perpendicularly, starting from the center cut of the axes defining the sectors. The non-equiprobability found in both population samples for the different minutiae types studied demonstrated that the evidential weight provided by these characteristics is not the same when applied in identification processes, whether used quantitatively (numerical standard) or qualitatively (holistic method). The results obtained for both populations were compared statistically with those published previously for a Spanish population sample, which had been collected using the same methodology. This comparison has enabled us to demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of significant differences between populations in minutiae frequencies, independently from the main pattern type.

  18. Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample.

    PubMed

    Stoljarova, Monika; King, Jonathan L; Takahashi, Maiko; Aaspõllu, Anu; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25% of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7% in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85%, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99% for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions.

  19. The reliability and validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK general child population.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct validity and internal consistency were found. Children with identified special needs were found to have significantly higher SRS scores than those without. The findings suggest the SRS performs in similar ways in UK and USA general population samples of children and can be used without modification in the UK. PMID:22277583

  20. The generalized radon transform: Sampling, accuracy and memoryconsiderations

    SciTech Connect

    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; van Ginkel, Michael; Verbeek, Piet W.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2004-09-23

    The generalized Radon (or Hough) transform is a well-known tool for detecting parameterized shapes in an image. The Radon transform is a mapping between the image space and a parameter space. The coordinates of a point in the latter correspond to the parameters of a shape in the image. The amplitude at that point corresponds to the amount of evidence for that shape. In this paper we discuss three important aspects of the Radon transform. The first aspect is discretization. Using concepts from sampling theory we derive a set of sampling criteria for the generalized Radon transform. The second aspect is accuracy. For the specific case of the Radon transform for spheres, we examine how well the location of the maxima matches the true parameters. We derive a correction term to reduce the bias in the estimated radii. The third aspect concerns a projection-based algorithm to reduce memory requirements.

  1. Universality of Generalized Bunching and Efficient Assessment of Boson Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchesnovich, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    It is found that identical bosons (fermions) show a generalized bunching (antibunching) property in linear networks: the absolute maximum (minimum) of the probability that all N input particles are detected in a subset of K output modes of any nontrivial linear M -mode network is attained only by completely indistinguishable bosons (fermions). For fermions K is arbitrary; for bosons it is either (i) arbitrary for only classically correlated bosons or (ii) satisfies K ≥N (or K =1 ) for arbitrary input states of N particles. The generalized bunching allows us to certify in a polynomial in N number of runs that a physical device realizing boson sampling with an arbitrary network operates in the regime of full quantum coherence compatible only with completely indistinguishable bosons. The protocol needs only polynomial classical computations for the standard boson sampling, whereas an analytic formula is available for the scattershot version.

  2. Generalizing in Interaction: Middle School Mathematics Students Making Mathematical Generalizations in a Population-Modeling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2004-01-01

    Generalizing or making claims that extend beyond particular situations is a central mathematical practice and a focus of classroom mathematics instruction. This study examines how aspects of generality are produced through the situated activities of a group of middle school mathematics students working on an 8-week population-modeling project. The…

  3. The positive effects of population-based preferential sampling in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Joseph; Cefalu, Matthew; Bornn, Luke

    2016-10-01

    SummaryIn environmental epidemiology, exposures are not always available at subject locations and must be predicted using monitoring data. The monitor locations are often outside the control of researchers, and previous studies have shown that "preferential sampling" of monitoring locations can adversely affect exposure prediction and subsequent health effect estimation. We adopt a slightly different definition of preferential sampling than is typically seen in the literature, which we call population-based preferential sampling. Population-based preferential sampling occurs when the location of the monitors is dependent on the subject locations. We show the impact that population-based preferential sampling has on exposure prediction and health effect estimation using analytic results and a simulation study. A simple, one-parameter model is proposed to measure the degree to which monitors are preferentially sampled with respect to population density. We then discuss these concepts in the context of PM2.5 and the EPA Air Quality System monitoring sites, which are generally placed in areas of higher population density to capture the population's exposure.

  4. Calling Sample Mix-Ups in Cancer Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Andy G.; Chin, Suet-Feung; Dunning, Mark J.; Caldas, Carlos; Tavaré, Simon; Curtis, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Sample tracking errors have been and always will be a part of the practical implementation of large experiments. It has recently been proposed that expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and their associated effects could be used to identify sample mix-ups and this approach has been applied to a number of large population genomics studies to illustrate the prevalence of the problem. We had adopted a similar approach, termed ‘BADGER’, in the METABRIC project. METABRIC is a large breast cancer study that may have been the first in which eQTL-based detection of mismatches was used during the study, rather than after the event, to aid quality assurance. We report here on the particular issues associated with large cancer studies performed using historical samples, which complicate the interpretation of such approaches. In particular we identify the complications of using tumour samples, of considering cellularity and RNA quality, of distinct subgroups existing in the study population (including family structures), and of choosing eQTLs to use. We also present some results regarding the design of experiments given consideration of these matters. The eQTL-based approach to identifying sample tracking errors is seen to be of value to these studies, but requiring care in its implementation. PMID:22912679

  5. [Poliomyelitis surveillance: seroepidemiologic study on a Piedmont population sample].

    PubMed

    Maiello, A; Ossola, O; Guidetti, A; Zotti, C; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the immunity/receptivity towards the three poliovirus strains, a sample representative of the sex and age composition of the resident population in Piedmont at census 1981, was examined. For each subject data were collected in order to identify the population from social-ambient point of view. For the evaluation of antibodie's title to poliovirus 1, 2, 3, the serums were analyzed with the neutralization method using the microtitolation plates and epithelial larynx cancer cells (HEp-2), like revealing system. The samples with > or = 2 title were considered positives for specific antibodies. To determine the relation between presence/absence of specific poliovirus antibodies and the other variables, a multiple logistic regression was fitted and the odds ratio was calculated. The results of our study show an immunity in all age groups, underlying a herd immunity condition. Furthermore the incomplete antibodies response to the three poliovirus strains seems to be influenced by age only.

  6. Sampling populations of humans across the world: ELSI issues.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Kirby, Emily S

    2012-01-01

    There are an increasing number of population studies collecting data and samples to illuminate gene-environment contributions to disease risk and health. The rising affordability of innovative technologies capable of generating large amounts of data helps achieve statistical power and has paved the way for new international research collaborations. Most data and sample collections can be grouped into longitudinal, disease-specific, or residual tissue biobanks, with accompanying ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI). Issues pertaining to consent, confidentiality, and oversight cannot be examined using a one-size-fits-all approach-the particularities of each biobank must be taken into account. It remains to be seen whether current governance approaches will be adequate to handle the impact of next-generation sequencing technologies on communication with participants in population biobanking studies.

  7. The prevalence of ADHD in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Skipper, Betty J.; Umbach, David M.; Rabiner, David L.; Campbell, Richard A.; Naftel, A. Jack; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies of ADHD prevalence have used population-based samples, multiple informants, and DSM-IV criteria. In addition, children who are asymptomatic while receiving ADHD mediction often have been misclassified. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in elementary school children using DSM-IV critera. Methods We screened 7587 children for ADHD. Teachers of 81% of the children completed a DSM-IV checklist. We then interviewed parents using a structured interview (DISC). Of these, 72% participated. Parent and teacher ratings were combined to determine ADHD status. We also estimated the proportion of cases attributable to other conditions. Results Overall, 15.5% of our sample (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 14.6%-16.4%) met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD. Over 40% of cases reported no previous diagnosis. With additional information, other conditions explained about 9% of cases. Conclusions The prevalence of ADHD in this population-based sample was higher than the 3-7% commonly reported. To compare study results, the methods used to implement the DSM criteria need to be standardized. PMID:24336124

  8. General Health of Foreign-Origin Groups and Native Population

    PubMed Central

    Ardian, Nahid; Mahmoudabad, Seyed Saeid Mazloomy; Ardian, Mahdi; Karimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the mental health of marginal settlers (non-native population) may affect other citizens’ health, the present study attempts to investigate the mental health status of marginal settlers of Yazd. Materials and Methods: this study was a descriptive, cross-sectional research, in which 400 of non-native and native population have participated. To study mental health status of people, a questionnaire was used. The first section of this questionnaire was the 28-item questionnaire of GHQ and the second section dealt with demographic characteristics such as age, sex, employment status, household income, and educational level of the father of the family. The collected data was analyzed using statistical operations of Pearson correlation coefficient, T Student, univariate Anova, and non-parametric Chi Square. Results: The results revealed that the average scores of general health were 20.09±9.84 and 17.04±9.54 for native and non-native population, respectively. Among subscales of general health, the highest and lowest average scores belonged to social dysfunctions, which showed a dangerous mental health status, and depression, respectively. There was significant difference between average score of general health and educational level of the father of the family (p<.001). The temporary employment and leased household differs significantly from the average score of general health among native population. It was indicated that sex was one of the most powerful predictors of mental health and people had more mental health when they grew older. Anxiety was the strongest predictor of general health for both groups. Conclusion: It seems that background factors such as educational level and employment status effect general health of people more than living in marginal settlement. PMID:25168986

  9. Challenges to recruiting population representative samples of female sex workers in China using Respondent Driven Sampling.

    PubMed

    Merli, M Giovanna; Moody, James; Smith, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Weir, Sharon; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    We explore the network coverage of a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in China recruited through Respondent Drive Sampling (RDS) as part of an effort to evaluate the claim of RDS of population representation with empirical data. We take advantage of unique information on the social networks of FSWs obtained from two overlapping studies--RDS and a venue-based sampling approach (PLACE)--and use an exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) framework from local networks to construct a likely network from which our observed RDS sample is drawn. We then run recruitment chains over this simulated network to assess the assumption that the RDS chain referral process samples participants in proportion to their degree and the extent to which RDS satisfactorily covers certain parts of the network. We find evidence that, contrary to assumptions, RDS oversamples low degree nodes and geographically central areas of the network. Unlike previous evaluations of RDS which have explored the performance of RDS sampling chains on a non-hidden population, or the performance of simulated chains over previously mapped realistic social networks, our study provides a robust, empirically grounded evaluation of the performance of RDS chains on a real-world hidden population.

  10. Optimal sampling design for estimating spatial distribution and abundance of a freshwater mussel population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pooler, P.S.; Smith, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We compared the ability of simple random sampling (SRS) and a variety of systematic sampling (SYS) designs to estimate abundance, quantify spatial clustering, and predict spatial distribution of freshwater mussels. Sampling simulations were conducted using data obtained from a census of freshwater mussels in a 40 X 33 m section of the Cacapon River near Capon Bridge, West Virginia, and from a simulated spatially random population generated to have the same abundance as the real population. Sampling units that were 0.25 m 2 gave more accurate and precise abundance estimates and generally better spatial predictions than 1-m2 sampling units. Systematic sampling with ???2 random starts was more efficient than SRS. Estimates of abundance based on SYS were more accurate when the distance between sampling units across the stream was less than or equal to the distance between sampling units along the stream. Three measures for quantifying spatial clustering were examined: Hopkins Statistic, the Clumping Index, and Morisita's Index. Morisita's Index was the most reliable, and the Hopkins Statistic was prone to false rejection of complete spatial randomness. SYS designs with units spaced equally across and up stream provided the most accurate predictions when estimating the spatial distribution by kriging. Our research indicates that SYS designs with sampling units equally spaced both across and along the stream would be appropriate for sampling freshwater mussels even if no information about the true underlying spatial distribution of the population were available to guide the design choice. ?? 2005 by The North American Benthological Society.

  11. Sequence-based genotyping of hepatitis B virus in general population

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali; Moezzi, Ma’soumeh; Imani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. HBV has eight genotypes (A to H) which is the reflection of its genome with their characteristic geographical distribution. Each genotype could have different pathogenic and therapeutic characteristics. There have been few records on HBV genotyping in general population from our region. This study aimed to determine hepatitis B genotypes using sequencing in the general population of Shahrekord, a Southwestern region of Iran. Methods: A total of 3000 serum samples (cluster sampling method) were enrolled from general population tested for HBsAg using ELISA. Using appropriate extraction kit, HBV DNA was extracted from HBsAg positive samples and each was subjected to nested PCR for detection of HBV DNA. Finally, using sequencing, the samples were used for HBV genotyping. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistics, chi square, and Fisher’s exact test. P-value < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: Out of 3000 serum samples, 40 (1.3%) were positive for HBsAg. HBV DNA was detected in 10 out of 40 (25%) of the samples studied. Genotype D was the predominant HBV type found in all of these 10 HBV positive samples. Conclusion: Genotype D is probably the predominant HBV type in our region. PMID:26000259

  12. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  13. Using known populations of pronghorn to evaluate sampling plans and estimators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraft, K.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Samuelson, J.M.; Allen, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although sampling plans and estimators of abundance have good theoretical properties, their performance in real situations is rarely assessed because true population sizes are unknown. We evaluated widely used sampling plans and estimators of population size on 3 known clustered distributions of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Our criteria were accuracy of the estimate, coverage of 95% confidence intervals, and cost. Sampling plans were combinations of sampling intensities (16, 33, and 50%), sample selection (simple random sampling without replacement, systematic sampling, and probability proportional to size sampling with replacement), and stratification. We paired sampling plans with suitable estimators (simple, ratio, and probability proportional to size). We used area of the sampling unit as the auxiliary variable for the ratio and probability proportional to size estimators. All estimators were nearly unbiased, but precision was generally low (overall mean coefficient of variation [CV] = 29). Coverage of 95% confidence intervals was only 89% because of the highly skewed distribution of the pronghorn counts and small sample sizes, especially with stratification. Stratification combined with accurate estimates of optimal stratum sample sizes increased precision, reducing the mean CV from 33 without stratification to 25 with stratification; costs increased 23%. Precise results (mean CV = 13) but poor confidence interval coverage (83%) were obtained with simple and ratio estimators when the allocation scheme included all sampling units in the stratum containing most pronghorn. Although areas of the sampling units varied, ratio estimators and probability proportional to size sampling did not increase precision, possibly because of the clumped distribution of pronghorn. Managers should be cautious in using sampling plans and estimators to estimate abundance of aggregated populations.

  14. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; Morales, Josefina A; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 150 unrelated male individuals from El Salvador, Central America. A total of 131 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 118 were unique. The haplotype diversity (99.08%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.33%) were estimated. R(ST) genetic distances were calculated between El Salvador and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The highest R(ST) genetic distances were found when comparing El Salvador with African populations (0.334 population groups. The Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot analysis, based on pairwise R(ST) values, showed that the general population of El Salvador is closer to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Southern/Central American cluster of Native and Mestizo populations. PMID:19962926

  15. Social integration of juvenile amputees: comparison with a general population.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Revilla, C; Su, I-Ting; García, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective was to assess the social integration of juvenile amputees according to marital status, schooling and occupation, and to compare it with the population of Asturias, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out of the juvenile amputees registered from 1976 to 1999 at the Prosthetics Unit of the Asturias Central Hospital (n=281 amputees). The proportion of single women amongst the amputees was greater than in the population of Asturias (p<0.05). Amongst the male amputees, relative to the general population, there was a larger proportion of the group with primary studies (p<0.001) and a smaller proportion with secondary studies (p<0.001). At the higher level (university) there were no differences, either in men or in women. As regards occupation, amongst the amputees a larger number was found who were retired or unemployed (p<0.05 and p<0.001). In conclusion, juvenile amputees do not show differences compared to the general population with regard to their attendance at a higher or university level of education. However, if their social integration is considered through occupation, male amputees show a greater proportion of unemployment, which is a clear reflection of their handicap. PMID:12812323

  16. Social integration of juvenile amputees: comparison with a general population.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Revilla, C; Su, I-Ting; García, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective was to assess the social integration of juvenile amputees according to marital status, schooling and occupation, and to compare it with the population of Asturias, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out of the juvenile amputees registered from 1976 to 1999 at the Prosthetics Unit of the Asturias Central Hospital (n=281 amputees). The proportion of single women amongst the amputees was greater than in the population of Asturias (p<0.05). Amongst the male amputees, relative to the general population, there was a larger proportion of the group with primary studies (p<0.001) and a smaller proportion with secondary studies (p<0.001). At the higher level (university) there were no differences, either in men or in women. As regards occupation, amongst the amputees a larger number was found who were retired or unemployed (p<0.05 and p<0.001). In conclusion, juvenile amputees do not show differences compared to the general population with regard to their attendance at a higher or university level of education. However, if their social integration is considered through occupation, male amputees show a greater proportion of unemployment, which is a clear reflection of their handicap.

  17. Predictors for mortality from respiratory failure in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Shibata, Yoko; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Nemoto, Takako; Abe, Yuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Michiko; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kimura, Tomomi; Daimon, Makoto; Makino, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for death from respiratory failure in the general population are not established. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who die of respiratory failure in a Japanese general population. In total, 3253 adults aged 40 years or older participated in annual health check in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan from 2004 to 2006. Subject deaths through the end of 2010 were reviewed; 27 subjects died of respiratory failure (pneumonia, n = 22; COPD, n = 1; pulmonary fibrosis, n = 3; and bronchial asthma, n = 1). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that male sex; higher age, high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen; lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol; and history of stroke and gastric ulcer were independent risk factors for respiratory death. On analysis with C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement, addition of the disease history and laboratory data significantly improved the model prediction for respiratory death using age and BMI. In conclusion, we identified risk factors for mortality from respiratory failure in a prospective cohort of a Japanese general population. Men who were older, underweight, hypocholesterolemic, hypercoagulo-fibrinolytic, and had a history of stroke or gastric ulcer had a higher risk of mortality due to respiratory failure. PMID:27180927

  18. Predictors for mortality from respiratory failure in a general population.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Shibata, Yoko; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Nemoto, Takako; Abe, Yuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Michiko; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kimura, Tomomi; Daimon, Makoto; Makino, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for death from respiratory failure in the general population are not established. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who die of respiratory failure in a Japanese general population. In total, 3253 adults aged 40 years or older participated in annual health check in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan from 2004 to 2006. Subject deaths through the end of 2010 were reviewed; 27 subjects died of respiratory failure (pneumonia, n = 22; COPD, n = 1; pulmonary fibrosis, n = 3; and bronchial asthma, n = 1). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that male sex; higher age, high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen; lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol; and history of stroke and gastric ulcer were independent risk factors for respiratory death. On analysis with C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement, addition of the disease history and laboratory data significantly improved the model prediction for respiratory death using age and BMI. In conclusion, we identified risk factors for mortality from respiratory failure in a prospective cohort of a Japanese general population. Men who were older, underweight, hypocholesterolemic, hypercoagulo-fibrinolytic, and had a history of stroke or gastric ulcer had a higher risk of mortality due to respiratory failure. PMID:27180927

  19. Estimating variable effective population sizes from multiple genomes: a sequentially markov conditional sampling distribution approach.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Sara; Harris, Kelley; Song, Yun S

    2013-07-01

    Throughout history, the population size of modern humans has varied considerably due to changes in environment, culture, and technology. More accurate estimates of population size changes, and when they occurred, should provide a clearer picture of human colonization history and help remove confounding effects from natural selection inference. Demography influences the pattern of genetic variation in a population, and thus genomic data of multiple individuals sampled from one or more present-day populations contain valuable information about the past demographic history. Recently, Li and Durbin developed a coalescent-based hidden Markov model, called the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent (PSMC), for a pair of chromosomes (or one diploid individual) to estimate past population sizes. This is an efficient, useful approach, but its accuracy in the very recent past is hampered by the fact that, because of the small sample size, only few coalescence events occur in that period. Multiple genomes from the same population contain more information about the recent past, but are also more computationally challenging to study jointly in a coalescent framework. Here, we present a new coalescent-based method that can efficiently infer population size changes from multiple genomes, providing access to a new store of information about the recent past. Our work generalizes the recently developed sequentially Markov conditional sampling distribution framework, which provides an accurate approximation of the probability of observing a newly sampled haplotype given a set of previously sampled haplotypes. Simulation results demonstrate that we can accurately reconstruct the true population histories, with a significant improvement over the PSMC in the recent past. We apply our method, called diCal, to the genomes of multiple human individuals of European and African ancestry to obtain a detailed population size change history during recent times.

  20. Estimating Variable Effective Population Sizes from Multiple Genomes: A Sequentially Markov Conditional Sampling Distribution Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Sara; Harris, Kelley; Song, Yun S.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, the population size of modern humans has varied considerably due to changes in environment, culture, and technology. More accurate estimates of population size changes, and when they occurred, should provide a clearer picture of human colonization history and help remove confounding effects from natural selection inference. Demography influences the pattern of genetic variation in a population, and thus genomic data of multiple individuals sampled from one or more present-day populations contain valuable information about the past demographic history. Recently, Li and Durbin developed a coalescent-based hidden Markov model, called the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent (PSMC), for a pair of chromosomes (or one diploid individual) to estimate past population sizes. This is an efficient, useful approach, but its accuracy in the very recent past is hampered by the fact that, because of the small sample size, only few coalescence events occur in that period. Multiple genomes from the same population contain more information about the recent past, but are also more computationally challenging to study jointly in a coalescent framework. Here, we present a new coalescent-based method that can efficiently infer population size changes from multiple genomes, providing access to a new store of information about the recent past. Our work generalizes the recently developed sequentially Markov conditional sampling distribution framework, which provides an accurate approximation of the probability of observing a newly sampled haplotype given a set of previously sampled haplotypes. Simulation results demonstrate that we can accurately reconstruct the true population histories, with a significant improvement over the PSMC in the recent past. We apply our method, called diCal, to the genomes of multiple human individuals of European and African ancestry to obtain a detailed population size change history during recent times. PMID:23608192

  1. Generalized Jones matrix method for homogeneous biaxial samples.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi

    2015-08-10

    The generalized Jones matrix (GJM) is a recently introduced tool to describe linear transformations of three-dimensional light fields. Based on this framework, a specific method for obtaining the GJM of uniaxial anisotropic media was recently presented. However, the GJM of biaxial media had not been tackled so far, as the previous method made use of a simplified rotation matrix that lacks a degree of freedom in the three-dimensional rotation, thus being not suitable for calculating the GJM of biaxial media. In this work we propose a general method to derive the GJM of arbitrarily-oriented homogeneous biaxial media. It is based on the differential generalized Jones matrix (dGJM), which is the three-dimensional counterpart of the conventional differential Jones matrix. We show that the dGJM provides a simple and elegant way to describe uniaxial and biaxial media, with the capacity to model multiple simultaneous optical effects. The practical usefulness of this method is illustrated by the GJM modeling of the polarimetric properties of a negative uniaxial KDP crystal and a biaxial KTP crystal for any three-dimensional sample orientation. The results show that this method constitutes an advantageous and straightforward way to model biaxial media, which show a growing relevance for many interesting applications.

  2. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lot; and protected from manipulation, substitution, and improper or careless handling. (2) Official... change in method of sampling. (b) Representative sample. A sample shall not be considered representative... samples, and submitted samples from manipulation, substitution, or improper and careless handling...

  3. Toward high-resolution population genomics using archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Irina; Flegontov, Pavel; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Bruskin, Sergey; Asgharian, Hosseinali; Ponomarenko, Petr; Klyuchnikov, Vladimir; ArunKumar, GaneshPrasad; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Gankin, Yuriy; Rogaev, Evgeny; Nikolsky, Yuri; Baranova, Ancha; Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2016-08-01

    The term 'ancient DNA' (aDNA) is coming of age, with over 1,200 hits in the PubMed database, beginning in the early 1980s with the studies of 'molecular paleontology'. Rooted in cloning and limited sequencing of DNA from ancient remains during the pre-PCR era, the field has made incredible progress since the introduction of PCR and next-generation sequencing. Over the last decade, aDNA analysis ushered in a new era in genomics and became the method of choice for reconstructing the history of organisms, their biogeography, and migration routes, with applications in evolutionary biology, population genetics, archaeogenetics, paleo-epidemiology, and many other areas. This change was brought by development of new strategies for coping with the challenges in studying aDNA due to damage and fragmentation, scarce samples, significant historical gaps, and limited applicability of population genetics methods. In this review, we describe the state-of-the-art achievements in aDNA studies, with particular focus on human evolution and demographic history. We present the current experimental and theoretical procedures for handling and analysing highly degraded aDNA. We also review the challenges in the rapidly growing field of ancient epigenomics. Advancement of aDNA tools and methods signifies a new era in population genetics and evolutionary medicine research. PMID:27436340

  4. Toward high-resolution population genomics using archaeological samples

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Irina; Flegontov, Pavel; Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Bruskin, Sergey; Asgharian, Hosseinali; Ponomarenko, Petr; Klyuchnikov, Vladimir; ArunKumar, GaneshPrasad; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Gankin, Yuriy; Rogaev, Evgeny; Nikolsky, Yuri; Baranova, Ancha; Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘ancient DNA’ (aDNA) is coming of age, with over 1,200 hits in the PubMed database, beginning in the early 1980s with the studies of ‘molecular paleontology’. Rooted in cloning and limited sequencing of DNA from ancient remains during the pre-PCR era, the field has made incredible progress since the introduction of PCR and next-generation sequencing. Over the last decade, aDNA analysis ushered in a new era in genomics and became the method of choice for reconstructing the history of organisms, their biogeography, and migration routes, with applications in evolutionary biology, population genetics, archaeogenetics, paleo-epidemiology, and many other areas. This change was brought by development of new strategies for coping with the challenges in studying aDNA due to damage and fragmentation, scarce samples, significant historical gaps, and limited applicability of population genetics methods. In this review, we describe the state-of-the-art achievements in aDNA studies, with particular focus on human evolution and demographic history. We present the current experimental and theoretical procedures for handling and analysing highly degraded aDNA. We also review the challenges in the rapidly growing field of ancient epigenomics. Advancement of aDNA tools and methods signifies a new era in population genetics and evolutionary medicine research. PMID:27436340

  5. Sampling-variance effects on detecting density dependence from temporal trends in natural populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenk, T.M.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate robustness of four tests to detect density dependence, from series of population abundances, to the addition of sampling variance. Population abundances were generated from random walk, stochastic exponential growth, and density-dependent population models. Population abundance estimates were generated with sampling variances distributed as lognormal and constant coefficients of variation (cv) from 0.00 to 1.00. In general, when data were generated under a random walk, Type I error rates increased rapidly for Bulmer's R, Pollard et al.'s, and Dennis and Taper's tests with increasing magnitude of sampling variance for n > 5 yr and all values of process variation. Bulmer's R* test maintained a constant 5% Type I error rate for n > 5 yr and all magnitudes of sampling variance in the population abundance estimates. When abundances were generated from two stochastic exponential growth models (R = 0.05 and R = 0.10), Type I errors again increased with increasing sampling variance; magnitude of Type I error rates were higher for the slower growing population. Therefore, sampling error inflated Type I error rates, invalidating the tests, for all except Bulmer's R* test. Comparable simulations for abundance estimates generated from a density-dependent growth rate model were conducted to estimate power of the tests. Type II error rates were influenced by the relationship of initial population size to carrying capacity (K), length of time series, as well as sampling error. Given the inflated Type I error rates for all but Bulmer, s R*, power was overestimated for the remaining tests, resulting in density: dependence being detected more often than it existed. Population abundances of natural populations are almost exclusively estimated rather than censused, assuring sampling error. Therefore, because these tests have been shown to be either invalid when only sampling variance occurs in the population abundances (Bulmer's R

  6. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population].

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, p<0.001) with a relative risk of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2) and was twice more frequent for subjects 65 years of age or older compared to subjects younger than 45 years. Approximately 30% of subjects reporting insomnia had difficulties initiating sleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least

  7. Personality comparison of airline pilot incumbents, applicants, and the general population norms on the 16PF.

    PubMed

    Wakcher, Sandra; Cross, Kara; Blackman, Melinda C

    2003-06-01

    Personality comparisons using Cattell's 16PF were made between 137 pilot incumbents, 81 pilot applicants, and the general population norms. No significant differences were found between the scores on the personality factors for the Pilot Incumbents and the Pilot Applicants. Further, the incumbents and applicants who had previous military training versus those who did not had highly similar personalities. However, on nearly every personality factor a significant difference was found between the general population norms and the sample of Pilot Incumbents and Applicants. The Pilot Incumbent/Applicant group scored significantly more intelligent, emotionally stable, and mature in comparison to the general population norms. We believe that it is the high-risk nature of this occupation that leads applicants, wishing to pursue this field, to assess very carefully their own person-job fit and self-select themselves, thus ultimately producing this very distinct "pilot personality profile" described in 1995 by Bartram.

  8. Double sampling to estimate density and population trends in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Earnst, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for estimating density of nesting birds based on double sampling. The approach involves surveying a large sample of plots using a rapid method such as uncorrected point counts, variable circular plot counts, or the recently suggested double-observer method. A subsample of those plots is also surveyed using intensive methods to determine actual density. The ratio of the mean count on those plots (using the rapid method) to the mean actual density (as determined by the intensive searches) is used to adjust results from the rapid method. The approach works well when results from the rapid method are highly correlated with actual density. We illustrate the method with three years of shorebird surveys from the tundra in northern Alaska. In the rapid method, surveyors covered ~10 ha h-1 and surveyed each plot a single time. The intensive surveys involved three thorough searches, required ~3 h ha-1, and took 20% of the study effort. Surveyors using the rapid method detected an average of 79% of birds present. That detection ratio was used to convert the index obtained in the rapid method into an essentially unbiased estimate of density. Trends estimated from several years of data would also be essentially unbiased. Other advantages of double sampling are that (1) the rapid method can be changed as new methods become available, (2) domains can be compared even if detection rates differ, (3) total population size can be estimated, and (4) valuable ancillary information (e.g. nest success) can be obtained on intensive plots with little additional effort. We suggest that double sampling be used to test the assumption that rapid methods, such as variable circular plot and double-observer methods, yield density estimates that are essentially unbiased. The feasibility of implementing double sampling in a range of habitats needs to be evaluated.

  9. Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify the incidence rate of spontaneous dyskinesia (SD) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in a general population and to examine the association between dykinesia and potential risk factors (exposure to metoclopramide [MCP], antipsychotic drugs, and history of diabetes and psychoses). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001 through 2010, based on medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA). Results Thirty-four cases of TD and 229 cases of SD were identified. The incidence rate of TD among persons previously prescribed an antipsychotic or metoclopramide (MCP) (per 1,000) was 4.6 (1.6-7.7) for those with antipsychotic drug use only, 8.5 (4.8-12.2) for those with MCP use only, and 15.0 (2.0-28.1) for those with both antipsychotic and MCP use. In the general population, the incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of TD was 4.3 and of probable SD was 28.7. The incidence rates of TD and SD increased with age and were greater for females. Those with diabetes or psychoses had almost a 3-fold greater risk of TD than those without either of these diseases. Persons with schizophrenia had 31.2 times increased risk of TD than those without the disease. Positive associations also existed between the selected diseases and the incidence rate of probable SD, with persons with schizophrenia having 4.4 times greater risk of SD than those without the disease. Conclusions SD and TD are rare in this general population. Diabetes, psychoses, and especially schizophrenia are positively associated with SD and TD. A higher proportion of those with SD present with spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm) compared more with the TD cases who present more with orofacial muscular problems. PMID:23714238

  10. Consistent estimation of complete neuronal connectivity in large neuronal populations using sparse "shotgun" neuronal activity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of recently proposed "shotgun" sampling approach for the common inputs problem in the functional estimation of neuronal connectivity. We study the asymptotic correctness, the speed of convergence, and the data size requirements of such an approach. We show that the shotgun approach can be expected to allow the inference of complete connectivity matrix in large neuronal populations under some rather general conditions. However, we find that the posterior error of the shotgun connectivity estimator grows quickly with the size of unobserved neuronal populations, the square of average connectivity strength, and the square of observation sparseness. This implies that the shotgun connectivity estimation will require significantly larger amounts of neuronal activity data whenever the number of neurons in observed neuronal populations remains small. We present a numerical approach for solving the shotgun estimation problem in general settings and use it to demonstrate the shotgun connectivity inference in the examples of simulated synfire and weakly coupled cortical neuronal networks. PMID:27515518

  11. Consistent estimation of complete neuronal connectivity in large neuronal populations using sparse "shotgun" neuronal activity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of recently proposed "shotgun" sampling approach for the common inputs problem in the functional estimation of neuronal connectivity. We study the asymptotic correctness, the speed of convergence, and the data size requirements of such an approach. We show that the shotgun approach can be expected to allow the inference of complete connectivity matrix in large neuronal populations under some rather general conditions. However, we find that the posterior error of the shotgun connectivity estimator grows quickly with the size of unobserved neuronal populations, the square of average connectivity strength, and the square of observation sparseness. This implies that the shotgun connectivity estimation will require significantly larger amounts of neuronal activity data whenever the number of neurons in observed neuronal populations remains small. We present a numerical approach for solving the shotgun estimation problem in general settings and use it to demonstrate the shotgun connectivity inference in the examples of simulated synfire and weakly coupled cortical neuronal networks.

  12. Comparison of stage at diagnosis of cancer in patients on dialysis versus the general population

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Shilpa; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Kayani, Zainab Z.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Shahinian, Vahakn B.

    2008-01-01

    Background The frequent medical encounters in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis may allow early detection of malignancies despite generally low rates of cancer screening in this population. It is therefore unclear whether dialysis patients are disadvantaged in terms of cancer diagnosis. To address this issue, we compared stage at diagnosis of cancer in a population-based sample of ESRD patients versus the general population. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database was used to identify ESRD patients with incident cancers from 1992 through 1999. Modified Poisson regression models were used to predict non-localized stage of cancer at diagnosis in ESRD patients versus the general population adjusting for demographics, cancer site, region, year of diagnosis and comorbidity. Two general population comparisons were used: standardized SEER public use data and Medicare non-ESRD controls matched 3:1 to ESRD patients. Results A total of 1629 ESRD patients with incident cancer were identified. Overall, the likelihood of non-localized stage at diagnosis was not significantly different for ESRD patients versus the standardized SEER general population (RR 0.90; 95%CI: 0.81-1.01) or matched Medicare controls (RR 0.97; 95%CI: 0.89-1.07). When analyzed by cancer site, colorectal cancers were significantly more likely to be diagnosed earlier in the ESRD group, whereas prostate cancers were significantly more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage. Conclusion In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, with the notable exception of prostate cancer, ESRD patients are not more likely to present with later stage malignancies compared to the general population. PMID:17702737

  13. Retrospective study of maxilla growth in a Spanish population sample.

    PubMed

    Alió-Sanz, Juan; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Pernía, José-Lorenzo; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2011-03-01

    This study has been designed to evaluate the vertical and sagittal changes in the maxilla due to growth. A sample group was chosen of 38 individuals with normal occlusion, composed of 16 females and 22 males between the ages of 8 and 18. The total sample was divided into three groups: prepubescent (8-11 years), pubescent (12-14 years) and post-pubescent (15-18 years). A series of cephalometric angle parameters (SNA, maxillary height, slope of the palatal plane and maxillary depth) and lineal parameters (effective maxillary length, palatal plane length, middle third of the face height and convexity) were traced. Superimpositions of the initial and final cephalometries in the Ba-N plane and in the Nasion fixed point were carried out to measure growth. An analytic statistical analysis was applied using a Student t test for independent samples in order to evaluate the differences found according to sex. An analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range test was done to study the evolution of each variable throughout the duration of the experiment. In light of the results obtained, we have come to the following conclusions: sagittal growth of the maxilla is constant from the age of 8 to 18 years with an average increase of 0.2 mm/year. Vertical growth, as well as general maxillary growth, is greater in the prepubescent group.

  14. Generalizing the Nomological Network of Psychopathy across Populations Differing on Race and Conviction Status

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, David D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy has shown good construct validity in samples of Caucasian inmates. However, little is known about how well the nomological network surrounding psychopathy generalizes to non-Caucasian and non-incarcerated populations. Using longitudinal and concurrent data from the middle sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, this study demonstrates that the validity of total-and facet-level psychopathy is preserved in African American and non-incarcerated samples. Specifically, similar patterns of association were obtained for child variables (child psychopathy, SES, risk status, parenting, delinquency, peer delinquency, and impulsivity) and adult variables (children, education, incarceration, unemployment, personality, substance use, and APD) across ethnicity and arrest status. PMID:21842962

  15. High prevalence of celiac disease in Italian general population.

    PubMed

    Volta, U; Bellentani, S; Bianchi, F B; Brandi, G; De Franceschi, L; Miglioli, L; Granito, A; Balli, F; Tiribelli, C

    2001-07-01

    The worldwide increase of celiac disease prompted us to assess its prevalence in the Italian general population. The 3483 inhabitants of Campogalliano were tested for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysial antibodies. Twenty subjects showed antibody positivity and duodenal biopsy detected typical mucosal lesions of celiac disease in 17 of them; the remaining three cases had a normal villous architecture, but the finding of increased gamma/delta intraepithelial lymphocytes in all and the heterodimer DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 in two of them was consistent with potential celiac disease. Only one patient had an overt malabsorption syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and severe weakness. In eight subjects atypical symptoms of celiac disease, such as dyspepsia and depression, were present, whereas the remaining subjects were silent. Celiac disease was more frequent in younger age groups. Our cross-sectional design study demonstrates that celiac disease prevalence in the Italian general population is 4.9 per 1000 (95% CI 2.8-7.8), increasing up to 5.7 per 1000 (95% CI 3.5-8.8) with the inclusion of potential cases. PMID:11478502

  16. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lot; and protected from manipulation, substitution, and improper or careless handling. (2) Official... samples, and submitted samples from manipulation, substitution, or improper and careless handling...

  17. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  18. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  19. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  20. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  1. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  2. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  3. Sexual offender recidivism among a population-based prison sample.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated.

  4. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  5. Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: the international experience.

    PubMed

    Porta, Miquel; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballester, Ferran; Selva, Javier; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Llop, Sabrina; López, Tomàs

    2008-05-01

    Assessing the adverse effects on human health of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the impact of policies aiming to reduce human exposure to POPs warrants monitoring body concentrations of POPs in representative samples of subjects. While numerous ad hoc studies are being conducted to understand POPs effects, only a few countries are conducting nationwide surveillance programs of human concentrations of POPs, and even less countries do so in representative samples of the general population. We tried to identify all studies worldwide that analyzed the distribution of concentrations of POPs in a representative sample of the general population, and we synthesized the studies' main characteristics, as design, population, and chemicals analyzed. The most comprehensive studies are the National Reports on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (USA), the German Environmental Survey, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Population-wide studies exist as well in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Flanders (Belgium) and the Canary Islands (Spain). Most such studies are linked with health surveys, which is a highly-relevant additional strength. Only the German and Flemish studies analyzed POPs by educational level, while studies in the USA offer results by ethnic group. The full distribution of POPs concentrations is unknown in many countries. Knowledge gaps include also the interplay of age, gender, period and cohort effects on the prevalence of exposures observed by cross-sectional surveys. Local and global efforts to minimize POPs contamination, like the Stockholm convention, warrant nationwide monitoring of concentrations of POPs in representative samples of the general population. Results of this review show how such studies may be developed and used. PMID:18054079

  6. Prevalence of Titin Truncating Variants in General Population

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinade, Oyediran; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Truncating titin (TTN) mutations, especially in A-band region, represent the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Clinical interpretation of these variants can be challenging, as these variants are also present in reference populations. We carried out systematic analyses of TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) in publicly available reference populations, including, for the first time, data from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The goal was to establish more accurate estimate of prevalence of different TTNtv to allow better clinical interpretation of these findings. Methods and Results Using data from 1000 Genomes Project, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and ExAC, we estimated the prevalence of TTNtv in the population. In the three population datasets, 52–54% of TTNtv were not affecting all TTN transcripts. The frequency of truncations affecting all transcripts in ExAC was 0.36% (0.32% - 0.41%, 95% CI) and 0.19% (0.16% - 0.23%, 95% CI) for those affecting the A-band. In the A-band region, the prevalences of frameshift, nonsense and essential splice site variants were 0.057%, 0.090%, and 0.047% respectively. Cga/Tga (arginine/nonsense–R/*) transitional change at CpG mutation hotspots was the most frequent type of TTN nonsense mutation accounting for 91.3% (21/23) of arginine residue nonsense mutation (R/*) at TTN A-band region. Non-essential splice-site variants had significantly lower proportion of private variants and higher proportion of low-frequency variants compared to essential splice-site variants (P = 0.01; P = 5.1 X 10−4, respectively). Conclusion A-band TTNtv are more rare in the general population than previously reported. Based on this analysis, one in 500 carries a truncation in TTN A-band suggesting the penetrance of these potentially harmful variants is still poorly understood, and some of these variants do not manifest as autosomal dominant DCM. This calls for caution when interpreting TTNtv in individuals and families

  7. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection...

  8. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection...

  9. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection...

  10. 7 CFR 868.33 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identity, quantity, and location of the commodity sampled; the name and mailing address of the applicant... the samples of their representativeness or which would change the physical and chemical properties...

  11. General Allee effect in two-species population biology.

    PubMed

    Livadiotis, G; Elaydi, S

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to present a general framework for the notion of the strong Allee effect in population models, including competition, mutualistic, and predator-prey models. The study is restricted to the strong Allee effect caused by an inter-specific interaction. The main feature of the strong Allee effect is that the extinction equilibrium is an attractor. We show how a 'phase space core' of three or four equilibria is sufficient to describe the essential dynamics of the interaction between two species that are prone to the Allee effect. We will introduce the notion of semistability in planar systems. Finally, we show how the presence of semistable equilibria increases the number of possible Allee effect cores.

  12. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Vojinovic, Dina; Adams, Hieab HH; van der Lee, Sven J; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Brouwer, Rutger; van den Hout, Mirjam CGN; Oole, Edwin; van Rooij, Jeroen; Uitterlinden, Andre; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred FJ; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, GertJan B; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Amin, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterdam Study (RS). The participants whose exomes were sequenced and who were assessed for various cognitive traits were included in the analysis. To determine the association between DMD variants and cognitive ability, linear (mixed) modeling with adjustment for age, sex and education was used. Moreover, Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) was used to test the overall association of the rare genetic variants present in the DMD with cognitive traits. Although no DMD variant surpassed the prespecified significance threshold (P<1 × 10−4), rs147546024:A>G showed strong association (β=1.786, P-value=2.56 × 10−4) with block-design test in the ERF study, while another variant rs1800273:G>A showed suggestive association (β=−0.465, P-value=0.002) with Mini-Mental State Examination test in the RS. Both variants are highly conserved, although rs147546024:A>G is an intronic variant, whereas rs1800273:G>A is a missense variant in the DMD which has a predicted damaging effect on the protein. Further gene-based analysis of DMD revealed suggestive association (P-values=0.087 and 0.074) with general cognitive ability in both cohorts. In conclusion, both single variant and gene-based analyses suggest the existence of variants in the DMD which may affect cognitive functioning in the general populations. PMID:25227141

  13. Latex allergy: a relevant issue in the general pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Kim, K T

    1998-01-01

    Although latex allergy is a widely recognized problem of the pediatric myelomeningocele population and of frequent users of latex products, it is often overlooked in the general pediatric population. The prevalence of latex in common household items and in medical environments increases one's exposure and thus one's possibility of sensitization to latex. Latex allergy may range from mild local reactions such as erythema to more severe systemic reactions such as asthma or anaphylaxis. The immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism of these reactions has been confirmed serologically by the presence of latex-specific immunoglobulin E with radioallergosorbent testing. Because avoidance of latex is currently the only way to prevent reactions, the identification of household items that contain latex is extremely important. However, because inadvertent exposure to latex is not uncommon, Medic-Alert bracelets and an Epi-Pen should be provided for children allergic to latex. Pediatric nurses should consider latex allergy as a possible diagnosis in situations of unexplained allergic or anaphylactic reactions and should be aware of optimal therapeutic interventions. PMID:9987254

  14. VASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND COGNITIVE DECLINE IN A POPULATION SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Mary; Fu, Bo; Snitz, Beth E.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Loewenstein, David A.; Hughes, Tiffany F.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.

    2014-01-01

    We examined several vascular factors in relation to rates of decline in five cognitive domains in a population-based cohort. In an age-stratified random sample (N=1982) aged 65+ years, we assessed at baseline the cognitive domains of attention, executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial function, and also vascular, inflammatory, and metabolic indices. Random effects models generated slopes of cognitive decline over the next four years; linear models identified vascular factors associated with these slopes, adjusting for demographics, baseline cognition, and potential interactions. Several vascular risk factors (history of stroke, diabetes, central obesity, C-Reactive Protein), although associated with lower baseline cognitive performance, did not predict rate of subsequent decline. APOE*4 genotype was associated with accelerated decline in language, memory, and executive functions. Homocysteine elevation was associated with faster decline in executive function. Hypertension (history or systolic blood pressure >140 mm) was associated with slower decline in memory. Baseline alcohol consumption was associated with slower decline in attention, language, and memory. Different indices of vascular risk are associated with low performance and with rates of decline in different cognitive domains. Cardiovascular mechanisms explain at least some of the variance in cognitive decline. Selective survival may also play a role. PMID:24126216

  15. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    PubMed

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (P<0.001), but not in HP; B-Pb levels in women (34.8microg/l) did not differ from those of HP men (36.5microg/l), but were significantly (P<0.001) higher than those of GP women (25.8microg/l). B-Pb levels were not influenced by smoking. B-Cd levels in the homeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (P<0.001) influenced by smoking in both groups, but, surprisingly, the values in GP smokers (men=0.96microg/l, women=0.93microg/l) were lower than those in HP nonsmokers (men=1.06microg/l, women=1.18microg/l). A positive correlation was found between cadmium and lead in both men (P<0.05) and women (P<0.01). Our results indicate that the homeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a

  16. Sleep Difficulties and Insomnia Symptoms in Norwegian Musicians Compared to the General Population and Workforce.

    PubMed

    Vaag, Jonas; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are reported as common among performing artists and musicians. However, epidemiological research comparing musicians to different groups of the general population is lacking. For this study, 4,168 members of the Norwegian Musician's Union were invited to an online survey regarding work and health. Of the 2,121 (51%) respondents, 1,607 were active performing musicians. We measured prevalence of insomnia symptoms using the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS), and compared this sample to a representative sample of the general Norwegian population (n = 2,645). Overall, musicians had higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to the general population (Prevalence Difference 6.9, 95% Confidence Interval 3.9-10.0). Item response analysis showed that this difference was mainly explained by nonrestorative sleep and dissatisfaction with sleep among musicians. An additional analysis, comparing musicians to the general Norwegian workforce (n = 8,518) on sleep difficulties, confirmed this tendency (Prevalence Difference 6.2, 95% Confidence Interval 4.3-8.1). Musicians performing classical, contemporary, rock, and country music reported the highest prevalence of insomnia, and these genres might be of special interest when developing preventative measures, treatment strategies, and further research on sleep difficulties among musicians.

  17. Comparison of chronic analgesic drugs prevalence in Parkinson's disease, other chronic diseases and the general population.

    PubMed

    Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Grolleau, Sabrina; Thalamas, Claire; Bourrel, Robert; Allaria-Lapierre, Valérie; Loï, Robert; Micallef-Roll, Joelle; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently experienced pain. Nevertheless, there are no epidemiological data about frequency of pain in PD. We compare pain prevalence using analgesic prescription in PD patients, in the general population and in two samples of painful patients: diabetics and osteoarthritis patients in France. Data were obtained from the French System of Health Insurance for the year 2005. Medications (antiparkinsonian, antidiabetics drugs and osteoarthritis drugs) were used for identification of PD, diabetic and osteoarthritis patients. We estimated the prevalence of analgesic drugs prescription (at least one analgesic drug) and the prevalence of chronic analgesic drugs prescription (more than 90 DDD of analgesic drug). The study included 11,466 PD patients. PD patients significantly received more prescription of analgesics than the general population (82% versus 77%,) and fewer than patients with osteoarthritis (82% versus 90%). No significant difference was found between PD and diabetic patients. The chronic prescription of analgesic drugs was more prevalent in PD patients (33%) than in the general population (20%) and in diabetic patients (26%) and similar to that in osteoarthritis patients. PD patients were more exposed than the general population and diabetics to opiates, acetaminophen, and adjuvant analgesics chronic use.

  18. Risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma among aircrews and a random sample of the population

    PubMed Central

    Rafnsson, V; Hrafnkelsson, J; Tulinius, H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Hjaltalin, O

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate whether a difference in the prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma in a random sample of the population and among pilots and cabin attendants could explain the increased incidence of malignant melanoma which had been found in previous studies of aircrews. Methods: A questionnaire was used to collect information on hair colour, eye colour, freckles, number of naevi, family history of skin cancer and naevi, skin type, history of sunburn, sunbed, all sunscreen use, and number of sunny vacations. Results: The 239 pilots were all males and there were 856 female cabin attendants, which were compared with 454 males and 1464 females of the same age drawn randomly from the general population. The difference in constitutional and behavioural risk factors for malignant melanoma between the aircrews and the population sample was not substantial. The aircrews had more often used sunscreen and had taken more sunny vacations than the other men and women. The predictive values for use of sunscreen were 0.88 for pilots and 0.85 for cabin attendants and the predictive values for sunny vacation were 1.36 and 1.34 respectively. Conclusion: There was no substantial difference between the aircrew and the random sample of the population with respect to prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma. Thus it is unlikely that the increased incidence of malignant melanoma found in previous studies of pilots and cabin attendants can be solely explained by excessive sun exposure. PMID:14573711

  19. 7 CFR 868.33 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Representative of the commodity in the lot; (iii) Protected by official personnel from manipulation, substitution... protect samples from manipulation, substitution, and improper and careless handling which would...

  20. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population.

  1. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from Honduras.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Mireya; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2009-09-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 128 unrelated male individuals from Honduras, Central America. A total of 112 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 98 were unique. The haplotype diversity (98.99%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.50%) were estimated. Genetic distances were calculated between Honduras and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The analysis of a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, based on pairwise R(ST) genetic distances, allowed to conclude that Honduras is highly differentiated from the African samples (0.343< or =R(ST)< or =0.620; P=0.000) and from a Native American sample from Argentina, Tobas (R(ST)=0.210, P=0.000). Honduras showed a lower genetic distance to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Central American cluster (Mexico and El Salvador).

  2. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from Honduras.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Mireya; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2009-09-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 128 unrelated male individuals from Honduras, Central America. A total of 112 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 98 were unique. The haplotype diversity (98.99%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.50%) were estimated. Genetic distances were calculated between Honduras and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The analysis of a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, based on pairwise R(ST) genetic distances, allowed to conclude that Honduras is highly differentiated from the African samples (0.343< or =R(ST)< or =0.620; P=0.000) and from a Native American sample from Argentina, Tobas (R(ST)=0.210, P=0.000). Honduras showed a lower genetic distance to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Central American cluster (Mexico and El Salvador). PMID:19628418

  3. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator <ϕ* (x) ϕ (y) >, but also more general correlators such as < | ϕ (x) | | ϕ (y) | > or < arg ⁡ (ϕ (x)) arg ⁡ (ϕ (y)) >, as well as condensates like < | ϕ | >, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  4. The spectrum of the liver disease in the general population: lesson from the Dionysos Study.

    PubMed

    Tiribelli, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Differently for what happened for the heart and the cardiovascular diseases, no data were available on the prevalence of the liver disorders in the general population. Based on these considerations we started planning a cohort study aimed to obtain data on how frequent liver disease was in the general population. Two comparable town in Northern Italy (Campogalliano, Modena, and Cormons, Gorizia) were selected on the basis of number of inhabitants, census and socio-economic background, and 6.917 were screened with an overall compliance of 70%, a percentage adequate to validate this type of study. In each patient a semi-quantitative, color-illustrated, food questionnaire including detailed questions on the use of alcoholic beverages was obtained in addition to a detailed physical examination to detect liver and the biliary diseases. Blood sample for ALT, AST, GGT, MCV and platelet count, and HBV and HCV markers were also taken.

  5. A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-11-28

    ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.

  6. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  7. Prevalence of hallucinations and their pathological associations in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M

    2000-12-27

    Hallucinations are perceptual phenomena involved in many fields of pathology. Although clinically widely explored, studies in the general population of these phenomena are scant. This issue was investigated using representative samples of the non-institutionalized general population of the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy aged 15 years or over (N=13,057). These surveys were conducted by telephone and explored mental disorders and hallucinations (visual, auditory, olfactory, haptic and gustatory hallucinations, out-of-body experiences, hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations). Overall, 38.7% of the sample reported hallucinatory experiences (19.6% less than once in a month; 6.4% monthly; 2.7% once a week; and 2.4% more than once a week). These hallucinations occurred, (1) At sleep onset (hypnagogic hallucinations 24.8%) and/or upon awakening (hypnopompic hallucinations 6.6%), without relationship to a specific pathology in more than half of the cases; frightening hallucinations were more often the expression of sleep or mental disorders such as narcolepsy, OSAS or anxiety disorders. (2) During the daytime and reported by 27% of the sample: visual (prevalence of 3.2%) and auditory (0.6%) hallucinations were strongly related to a psychotic pathology (respective OR of 6.6 and 5.1 with a conservative estimate of the lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorders in this sample of 0.5%); and to anxiety (respective OR of 5.0 and 9.1). Haptic hallucinations were reported by 3.1% with current use of drugs as the highest risk factor (OR=9.8). In conclusion, the prevalence of hallucinations in the general population is not negligible. Daytime visual and auditory hallucinations are associated with a greater risk of psychiatric disorders. The other daytime sensory hallucinations are more related to an organic or a toxic disorder.

  8. Population Dynamics of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species on Vineyard Samples of Grapes and Raisins.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; Ho, Yvonne S; Fidelibus, Matthew W

    2016-03-01

    Several species of Aspergillus section Nigri, including potential mycotoxin producers, are common residents of grape vineyards, but the relative population size of individual species throughout the growing season is difficult to determine using traditional isolation and identification methods. Using a quantitative droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method in combination with dilution plating, total Aspergillus section Nigri populations and relative proportions of A. niger, A. welwitschiae, A. carbonarius, and A. tubingensis were measured from vineyard samples without the need for identifying individual fungal isolates. Grapes were sampled from two raisin vineyards (vineyards A and B) at berry set, veraison, harvest, and raisin stages in two consecutive years. Plate counts showed that the total population of Aspergillus section Nigri present on the fruit increased from berry set to raisin and became a larger component of the total recovered fungal population in both vineyards in both years. Results from ddPCR analysis showed that the relative proportion of A. carbonarius among the four species assayed increased later in the season (harvest and raisin) in comparison to earlier in the season (berry set and veraison). Total fungal and Aspergillus section Nigri plate counts were not significantly different between vineyards in either year. However, vineyard A generally showed higher proportions of A. carbonarius in harvest and raisin samples than vineyard B. This coincided with higher incidence and levels of ochratoxin A in vineyard A harvest and raisin fruit than in vineyard B fruit. This work demonstrates that this ddPCR method is a useful tool for culture-independent monitoring of populations of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species during grape and raisin production. PMID:26939655

  9. Antibiotics for the common cold: expectations of Germany's general population.

    PubMed

    Faber, M S; Heckenbach, K; Velasco, E; Eckmanns, T

    2010-09-02

    Physicians mention patients' expectations as a reason for prescribing antibiotics for common (viral) upper respiratory tract infections despite clinical evidence against their use and the physicians' better judgement. We aimed to assess the prevalence of such expectations and factors of influence (knowledge and attitudes) in Germany's general population. In November 2008, 1,778 persons registered with a large market research company were invited to complete an online questionnaire on expectations concerning prescription of antibiotics and on knowledge and attitudes regarding the effectiveness and use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. A total of 1,076 persons aged 15-78 years participated (response: 61%), of whom 91.8% reported using antibiotics 'only if absolutely necessary'. Prescription of antibiotics was expected by 113 (10.5%) of the 1,076 respondents for the common cold and by 997 (92.7%) for pneumonia. In a logistic regression analysis, predictors for expecting a prescription for antibiotics for the common cold included the following opinions: 'common cold or flu can effectively be treated with antibiotics' (prevalence: 37.6%; odds ratio (OR): 9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8 to 24.3) and 'antibiotics should be taken when having a sore throat to prevent more serious illness' (prevalence 8.6%; OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 3.9 to 14.5). Among those expecting a prescription (n=113), 80 (71%) reported that they would trust their physician when he or she deems a prescription unnecessary; a further eight (7%) would be unsatisfied, but would accept the decision. Our results suggest that only a minority expects antibiotics for the treatment of cold symptoms. Physicians should be educated that their decisions not to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold, even when against patients' expectations, are apparently accepted by the majority.

  10. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  11. CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Shea, B; Niezgoda, S; Chakraborty, R

    2001-05-01

    Allele distributions for 12 or 13 CODIS core tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci CSFIPO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, TH01, TPOX, and vWA were determined in 41 population data sets. The major population groups comprise African Americans, U.S. Caucasians, Hispanics, Far East Asians, and Native Americans. There was little evidence for departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) in any of the populations. The FST estimates over all thirteen STR loci are 0.0006 for African Americans, -0.0005 for Caucasians, 0.0021 for Hispanics, 0.0039 for Asians, and 0.0282 for Native Americans.

  12. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol in a general Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Pirard, Catherine; Sagot, Clémence; Deville, Marine; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne

    2012-11-01

    Bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol are among the endocrine disruptors which are widely used in daily products. In this study, we reported total urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol, in order to evaluate the baseline contamination of a general population in Belgium. Bisphenol A and triclosan were detected in respectively 97.7% and 74.6% of the samples examined demonstrating that the general Belgian population is extensively exposed to both chemicals. On the other hand, 4-nonylphenol was not detected in any urine samples analyzed, suggesting either low exposure, inadequate biomarker, or that urine is an inappropriate biological matrix for assessing exposure to nonylphenol commercial mixtures. Geometric mean concentration was determined for bisphenol A at 2.55 μg/l and for triclosan at 2.70 μg/l. No significant difference was observed between levels and gender for both bisphenol A and triclosan. When classified by age, the 20-39 year group showed the highest triclosan levels, while all age groups seemed to be similarly exposed to bisphenol A. Both bisphenol A and triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with creatinine excretion in our healthy population, questioning the relevance of the creatinine adjustment in reporting these chemical levels. Bisphenol A levels in urine of people living in the same home and collected on the same time were fairly correlated, confirming the assumption that dietary intake would be the primary route of exposure. Triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with bisphenol A levels.

  13. [Quality of dental radiographs. A sample from 52 general practices].

    PubMed

    Mol, A; Hack, B; van Aken, J; van Straaten, F J; van Foreest, J D

    1989-12-01

    To assess the quality of dental radiographs in general practice, 1000 radiographs in 52 practices were collected and evaluated. The radiographs were judged by two examiners using standard series of X-ray film, showing different degrees of the nine different types of errors studied. Furthermore, the diagnostic quality was assessed; if the diagnostic value was poor, the cause was registered. Only 3.1% of the investigated radiographs met all the criteria, and the quality of 13.4% was found to be poor. The main causes were filmpositioning, density and errors in the category 'residual'. It also appeared that a combination of errors in one radiograph, which were individually not very serious, resulted in an unacceptable radiograph.

  14. Genetic Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contributes to Neurodevelopmental Traits in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Methods Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Results Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). Conclusions These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. PMID:24673882

  15. Awareness to sun exposure and use of sunscreen by the general population.

    PubMed

    Al Robaee, Ahmad A

    2010-11-01

    Sun exposure has a pathogenic effect on the development of skin cancer, whose prevalence increases worldwide. Educational programs are carried out to change high risk sun exposure behaviours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Saudi population regarding sun exposure and the risk of skin cancers, as well as to study their sun-protective attitudes and practices. A cross-sectional population-based survey using specially devised questionnaire on a stratified random sample of general population in Qassim Province between January and March 2010. One thousand three hundred and seventy six persons participated in the study. A high sun exposure of more than 10 hours per week was reported by 661 persons (48%). Fifty six percent of respondents were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer but the rate of sun screen use was only 8.3%. Socio-demographic factors more likely to be associated with sunscreen use were: females, higher social class, higher levels of education, type 4 skin and married individuals. This study has indicated a low rate of sunscreen use by our population despite reasonably good knowledge about the hazards of sun exposure. This necessitates the need for health education program. We hope that the results of our study will be used for setting up a sun policy for Saudi general public.

  16. Frequency of dissociative identity disorder in the general population in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, G; Doğan, O; Sar, V; Yargiç, L I; Tutkun, H

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder in the general population. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) was administered to 994 subjects in 500 homes who constituted a representative sample of the population of Sivas City, Turkey. The mean DES score was 6.7+/-6.1 (mean +/- SD). Of the 62 respondents who scored above 17 on the DES, 32 (51.6%) could be contacted during the second phase of the study. They were matched for age and gender with a group of respondents who scored below 10 on the scale, and the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) was then administered to both groups. Seventeen subjects (1.7%) received a diagnosis of dissociative disorder according to the structured interview. In the third phase, eight of 17 subjects who had a dissociative disorder on the structured interview could be contacted for a clinical evaluation. They were matched with a nondissociative control group and interviewed by a clinician blind to the structured interview diagnosis. Four of eight subjects were diagnosed clinically with dissociative identity disorder, yielding a minimum prevalence of 0.4%. Dissociative identity disorder is not rare in the general population. Self-rating instruments and structured interviews can be used successfully for screening these cases. Our data, derived from a population with no public awareness about dissociative identity disorder and no exposure to systematic psychotherapy, suggest that dissociative identity disorder cannot be considered simply an iatrogenic artifact, a culture-bound syndrome, or a phenomenon induced by media influences.

  17. Information Processing Profiles of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnekreef, J. Agnes; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Althaus, Monika; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the relationships between several information processing capacities and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a general population sample of 10- to 12-year olds (N = 2,037 51% girls). Methods: Parent-reported behavior problems as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist were used to form four…

  18. IDENTIFYING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental studies examining reproductive endpoints such as spontaneous abortion or fertility often rely on very select study groups (i.e., convenience samples, highly exposed, etc.) that cannot be easily generalized to the overall population. For exposures limited to a parti...

  19. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. PMID:24997168

  20. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination.

  1. Central limit theorem for variable size simple random sampling from a finite population

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.

    1986-02-01

    This paper introduces a sampling plan for finite populations herein called ''variable size simple random sampling'' and compares properties of estimators based on it with results from the usual fixed size simple random sampling without replacement. Necessary and sufficient conditions (in the spirit of Hajek) for the limiting distribution of the sample total (or sample mean) to be normal are given. 19 refs.

  2. Sample-size requirements for evaluating population size structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, J.C.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    A method with an accompanying computer program is described to estimate the number of individuals needed to construct a sample length-frequency with a given accuracy and precision. First, a reference length-frequency assumed to be accurate for a particular sampling gear and collection strategy was constructed. Bootstrap procedures created length-frequencies with increasing sample size that were randomly chosen from the reference data and then were compared with the reference length-frequency by calculating the mean squared difference. Outputs from two species collected with different gears and an artificial even length-frequency are used to describe the characteristics of the method. The relations between the number of individuals used to construct a length-frequency and the similarity to the reference length-frequency followed a negative exponential distribution and showed the importance of using 300-400 individuals whenever possible.

  3. [The HLA system in the Moroccan population: General review].

    PubMed

    Brick, C; Atouf, O; Essakalli, M

    2015-01-01

    The Moroccan population is an interesting study model of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism given its ethnic and genetic diversity. Through an analysis of the literature, this work proposes to establish a balance of knowledge for this population in the field of histocompatibility: HLA diversity, anthropology, transplantation and HLA associations and diseases. This analysis shows that the HLA system has not been fully explored within the Moroccan population. However, the results obtained allowed us to initiate a database reflecting the specific healthy Moroccan population HLA polymorphism to identify immigration flows and relationships with different people of the world and to reveal the association of certain HLA alleles with frequent pathologies. We also propose to analyze the reasons hindering the development of this activity in Morocco and we will try to identify some perspectives. PMID:26597780

  4. Estimating the abundance of clustered animal population by using adaptive cluster sampling and negative binomial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Yizhou; Shifa, Naima

    2013-09-01

    An estimator for finding the abundance of a rare, clustered and mobile population has been introduced. This model is based on adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) to identify the location of the population and negative binomial distribution to estimate the total in each site. To identify the location of the population we consider both sampling with replacement (WR) and sampling without replacement (WOR). Some mathematical properties of the model are also developed.

  5. General and specific components of depression and anxiety in an adolescent population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms often co-occur resulting in a debate about common and distinct features of depression and anxiety. Methods An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a bifactor modelling approach were used to separate a general distress continuum from more specific sub-domains of depression and anxiety in an adolescent community sample (n = 1159, age 14). The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used. Results A three-factor confirmatory factor analysis is reported which identified a) mood and social-cognitive symptoms of depression, b) worrying symptoms, and c) somatic and information-processing symptoms as distinct yet closely related constructs. Subsequent bifactor modelling supported a general distress factor which accounted for the communality of the depression and anxiety items. Specific factors for hopelessness-suicidal thoughts and restlessness-fatigue indicated distinct psychopathological constructs which account for unique information over and above the general distress factor. The general distress factor and the hopelessness-suicidal factor were more severe in females but the restlessness-fatigue factor worse in males. Measurement precision of the general distress factor was higher and spanned a wider range of the population than any of the three first-order factors. Conclusions The general distress factor provides the most reliable target for epidemiological analysis but specific factors may help to refine valid phenotype dimensions for aetiological research and assist in prognostic modelling of future psychiatric episodes. PMID:22151586

  6. [Anxiety and depression in the general population: normal values in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale].

    PubMed

    Hinz, A; Schwarz, R

    2001-05-01

    For the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) psychometric properties were tested and standardised values were calculated on the basis of a representative sample of the German adult population with 2037 persons. The main result was the evidence of age and gender differences for anxiety and depression. Females were more anxious than males. For both dimensions of the HADS a nearly linear age dependency was found which was more pronounced for depression (r = 0.36) than for anxiety (r = 0.14). Standardised values are given for different age and gender groups, and the results of regression analyses are presented. The psychometric properties were satisfying or good, the two-dimensional factorial structure could be replicated. By means of the standardised values and regression coefficients it is now possible to compare patient groups of different age and gender distributions with the general population. PMID:11417357

  7. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  8. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  9. Samples from subdivided populations yield biased estimates of effective size that overestimate the rate of loss of genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Nils; Allendorf, Fred W; Jorde, Per Erik; Laikre, Linda; Hössjer, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Many empirical studies estimating effective population size apply the temporal method that provides an estimate of the variance effective size through the amount of temporal allele frequency change under the assumption that the study population is completely isolated. This assumption is frequently violated, and the magnitude of the resulting bias is generally unknown. We studied how gene flow affects estimates of effective size obtained by the temporal method when sampling from a population system and provide analytical expressions for the expected estimate under an island model of migration. We show that the temporal method tends to systematically underestimate both local and global effective size when populations are connected by gene flow, and the bias is sometimes dramatic. The problem is particularly likely to occur when sampling from a subdivided population where high levels of gene flow obscure identification of subpopulation boundaries. In such situations, sampling in a manner that prevents biased estimates can be difficult. This phenomenon might partially explain the frequently reported unexpectedly low effective population sizes of marine populations that have raised concern regarding the genetic vulnerability of even exceptionally large populations. PMID:24034449

  10. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  11. A microsatellite polymorphism in the von Willebrand factor gene: comparison of allele frequencies in different population samples and evaluation for forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Sajantila, A; Pacek, P; Lukka, M; Syvänen, A C; Nokelainen, P; Sistonen, P; Peltonen, L; Budowle, B

    1994-09-16

    The allele frequencies at the tetranucleotide repeat (TCTA) vWA locus in the vWF gene were determined in the general Finnish population, in a population representing an internal isolate of Finland, in the Vologda-Russian population, and in US Black population samples. The allele and genotype frequencies from these population samples were compared with each other and with those reported from Spanish and British population samples. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between most of the different groups (Finns vs. Vologda-Russians, Finns vs. US Blacks, Finns vs. Spanish, Vologda-Russians vs. US Blacks, Vologda-Russians vs. Spanish, US Blacks vs. Spanish and US Blacks vs. British Caucasians), but not between the two Caucasoid population samples from Finland and Great Britain, nor between or within the subpopulation samples from Finland and those from Vologda-Russia. In addition, the vWA marker was evaluated and demonstrated to be reliable for forensic purposes and paternity testing.

  12. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  13. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  14. Excavating past population structures by surname-based sampling: the genetic legacy of the Vikings in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Georgina R; Balaresque, Patricia; King, Turi E; Hansen, Ziff; Lee, Andrew C; Pergl-Wilson, Giles; Hurley, Emma; Roberts, Stephen J; Waite, Patrick; Jesch, Judith; Jones, Abigail L; Thomas, Mark G; Harding, Stephen E; Jobling, Mark A

    2008-02-01

    The genetic structures of past human populations are obscured by recent migrations and expansions and have been observed only indirectly by inference from modern samples. However, the unique link between a heritable cultural marker, the patrilineal surname, and a genetic marker, the Y chromosome, provides a means to target sets of modern individuals that might resemble populations at the time of surname establishment. As a test case, we studied samples from the Wirral Peninsula and West Lancashire, in northwest England. Place-names and archaeology show clear evidence of a past Viking presence, but heavy immigration and population growth since the industrial revolution are likely to have weakened the genetic signal of a 1,000-year-old Scandinavian contribution. Samples ascertained on the basis of 2 generations of residence were compared with independent samples based on known ancestry in the region plus the possession of a surname known from historical records to have been present there in medieval times. The Y-chromosomal haplotypes of these 2 sets of samples are significantly different, and in admixture analyses, the surname-ascertained samples show markedly greater Scandinavian ancestry proportions, supporting the idea that northwest England was once heavily populated by Scandinavian settlers. The method of historical surname-based ascertainment promises to allow investigation of the influence of migration and drift over the last few centuries in changing the population structure of Britain and will have general utility in other regions where surnames are patrilineal and suitable historical records survive.

  15. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  16. Effects of Sample Size on Estimates of Population Growth Rates Calculated with Matrix Models

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Ian J.; Bruna, Emilio M.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Matrix models are widely used to study the dynamics and demography of populations. An important but overlooked issue is how the number of individuals sampled influences estimates of the population growth rate (λ) calculated with matrix models. Even unbiased estimates of vital rates do not ensure unbiased estimates of λ–Jensen's Inequality implies that even when the estimates of the vital rates are accurate, small sample sizes lead to biased estimates of λ due to increased sampling variance. We investigated if sampling variability and the distribution of sampling effort among size classes lead to biases in estimates of λ. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from a long-term field study of plant demography, we simulated the effects of sampling variance by drawing vital rates and calculating λ for increasingly larger populations drawn from a total population of 3842 plants. We then compared these estimates of λ with those based on the entire population and calculated the resulting bias. Finally, we conducted a review of the literature to determine the sample sizes typically used when parameterizing matrix models used to study plant demography. Conclusions/Significance We found significant bias at small sample sizes when survival was low (survival = 0.5), and that sampling with a more-realistic inverse J-shaped population structure exacerbated this bias. However our simulations also demonstrate that these biases rapidly become negligible with increasing sample sizes or as survival increases. For many of the sample sizes used in demographic studies, matrix models are probably robust to the biases resulting from sampling variance of vital rates. However, this conclusion may depend on the structure of populations or the distribution of sampling effort in ways that are unexplored. We suggest more intensive sampling of populations when individual survival is low and greater sampling of stages with high elasticities. PMID:18769483

  17. Reductions in genetic diversity of Schistosoma mansoni populations under chemotherapeutic pressure: the effect of sampling approach and parasite population definition.

    PubMed

    French, Michael D; Churcher, Thomas S; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Norton, Alice J; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Webster, Joanne P

    2013-11-01

    Detecting potential changes in genetic diversity in schistosome populations following chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) is crucial if we are to fully understand the impact of such chemotherapy with respect to the potential emergence of resistance and/or other evolutionary outcomes of interventions. Doing so by implementing effective, and cost-efficient sampling protocols will help to optimise time and financial resources, particularly relevant to a disease such as schistosomiasis currently reliant on a single available drug. Here we explore the effect on measures of parasite genetic diversity of applying various field sampling approaches, both in terms of the number of (human) hosts sampled and the number of transmission stages (miracidia) sampled per host for a Schistosoma mansoni population in Tanzania pre- and post-treatment with PZQ. In addition, we explore population structuring within and between hosts by comparing the estimates of genetic diversity obtained assuming a 'component population' approach with those using an 'infrapopulation' approach. We found that increasing the number of hosts sampled, rather than the number of miracidia per host, gives more robust estimates of genetic diversity. We also found statistically significant population structuring (using Wright's F-statistics) and significant differences in the measures of genetic diversity depending on the parasite population definition. The relative advantages, disadvantages and, hence, subsequent reliability of these metrics for parasites with complex life-cycles are discussed, both for the specific epidemiological and ecological scenario under study here and for their future application to other areas and schistosome species.

  18. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  19. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  20. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

  2. The magnetosheath electron population at lunar distance - General features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Reasoner, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the electron population in the earth's magnetosheath at lunar distance. The data used were collected by the Apollo 14 charged particle lunar environment experiment (CPLEE) during four inbound (dusk) and three outbound (dawn) passages of the moon through the magnetosheath. The magnetotail has a diameter of 52 earth radii, while the bow-shock cross section is about 91 earth radii. The average boundary locations computed from the complete data set are consistent with the prediction of fluid dynamics. The electron characteristics for the two least-disturbed passages are presented in detail. An examination of the energy spectra shows that a high-energy (200-2000 eV) tail is superimposed on the expected low-energy (40-200 eV) magnetosheath distribution. It is argued that the high-energy magnetosheath electron population originates at the bow shock, rather than from the plasma sheet.

  3. Bootstrapping to Test for Nonzero Population Correlation Coefficients Using Univariate Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, William Howard; DeShea, Lise; Toothaker, Larry E.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Bard, David E.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes 2 new approaches to test a nonzero population correlation ([rho]): the hypothesis-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (HI) and the observed-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (OI). The authors simulated correlated populations with various combinations of normal and skewed variates. With [alpha[subscript "set"

  4. ECOLOGICAL THEORY. A general consumer-resource population model.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J; Dobson, Andrew P; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M

    2015-08-21

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  5. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Chuang, Deng-Min; Lee, Yookyong

    2016-12-01

    Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score) and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice. PMID:27413671

  6. Assessing the Representativeness of Population-Sampled Health Surveys Through Linkage to Administrative Data on Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Emma; Leyland, Alastair H.; McCartney, Gerry; White, Ian R.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Rutherford, Lisa; Graham, Lesley; Gray, Linsay

    2014-01-01

    Health surveys are an important resource for monitoring population health, but selective nonresponse may impede valid inference. This study aimed to assess nonresponse bias in a population-sampled health survey in Scotland, with a focus on alcohol-related outcomes. Nonresponse bias was assessed by examining whether rates of alcohol-related harm (i.e., hospitalization or death) and all-cause mortality among respondents to the Scottish Health Surveys (from 1995 to 2010) were equivalent to those in the general population, and whether the extent of any bias varied according to sociodemographic attributes or over time. Data from consenting respondents (aged 20–64 years) to 6 Scottish Health Surveys were confidentially linked to death and hospitalization records and compared with general population counterparts. Directly age-standardized incidence rates of alcohol-related harm and all-cause mortality were lower among Scottish Health Survey respondents compared with the general population. For all years combined, the survey-to-population rate ratios were 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.76) for the incidence of alcohol-related harm and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.96) for all-cause mortality. Bias was more pronounced among persons residing in more deprived areas; limited evidence was found for regional or temporal variation. This suggests that corresponding underestimation of population rates of alcohol consumption is likely to be socially patterned. PMID:25227767

  7. Correlates of Weight Instability across the Lifespan in a Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Serdar, Kasey L.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research from overweight/obese clinical samples links weight instability to poor health. This study investigated whether negative health outcomes were associated with weight instability in a population-based sample. Method One thousand five hundred ten women and 1,111 men from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry completed questionnaires assessing demographics, body size in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, health satisfaction, and disordered eating. Noneating disorder psychiatric diagnoses were assessed via clinical interviews. Results Weight instability was related to lower health satisfaction and self-esteem, and higher body dissatisfaction, dieting, and binge eating for both sexes. Weight unstable women were more likely to meet criteria for lifetime major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and eating disorders. Weight stable women were more likely to abuse alcohol; however, two of these associations [e.g. weight instability and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and weight stability and alcohol abuse] became non-significant once lifetime binge eating was accounted for, indicating that these forms of psychopathology are more strongly related to binge eating than weight instability itself. No associations between weight stability and psychiatric diagnoses were found in men. Discussion Weight instability is related to mental and physical health concerns for both sexes. It was also specifically associated with depression and eating pathology in women. PMID:20957706

  8. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  9. Chemical abundances in LMC stellar populations. II. The bar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Swaelmen, M.; Hill, V.; Primas, F.; Cole, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    favour of an episode of enhanced star formation a few Gyr ago, occurring in the central parts of the LMC and leading to the formation of the bar. This is in agreement with recently derived star formation histories. Proposals 072.B-0293(B) and 078.B-0323(A), P.I. Vanessa Hill.Full Tables 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and abundances tables for the LMC bar and disc samples are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A44Table 11 is also available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Sampling and specimens: potential application of a general model in geoscience sample registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Habermann, T.; Duclaux, G.

    2011-12-01

    Sampling is a key element of observational science. Specimens are a particular class of sample, in which material is retrieved from its original location and used for ex-situ observations and analysis. Specimens retrieved from difficult locations (e.g. deep ocean sampling, extra-terrestrial sampling) or of rare phenomena, have special scientific value. Material from these may be distributed to multiple laboratories for observation. For maximum utility, reports from the different studies must be recognized and compared. This has been a challenge as the original specimens are often not clearly identified or existing ids are not reported. To mitigate this, the International Geologic Specimen Number (IGSN) provides universal, project-neutral identifiers for geoscience specimens, and SESAR a system for registering those identifiers. Standard descriptive information required for specimen registration was proposed during a SESAR meeting held in February 2011. The standard ISO 19156 'Observations and Measurements' (O&M) includes an information model for basic description of specimens. The specimen model was designed to accommodate a variety of scenarios in chemistry, geochemistry, field geology, and life-sciences, and is believed to be applicable to a wide variety of application domains. O&M is implemented in XML (as a GML Schema) for OGC services and we have recently developed a complementary semantic-web compatible RDF/OWL representation. The GML form is used in several services deployed through AuScope, and for water quality information in WIRADA. The model has underpinned the redevelopment of a large geochemistry database in CSIRO. Capturing the preparation chain is the particular challenge in (geo-) chemistry, so the flexible and scalable model provided by the specimen model in O&M has been critical to its success in this context. This standard model for specimen metadata appears to satisfy all SESAR requirements, so might serve as the basic schema in the SESAR

  11. Correlates of Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Content in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Knez, Judita; Winckelmans, Ellen; Plusquin, Michelle; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Gu, Yumei; Staessen, Jan A.; Nawrot, Tim S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leads to alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis and function that might produce a decrease in mtDNA content within cells. This implies that mtDNA content might be a potential biomarker associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. However, data on correlates of mtDNA content in a general population are sparse. Our goal in the present study was to describe in a randomly recruited population sample the distribution and determinants of peripheral blood mtDNA content. From 2009 to 2013, we examined 689 persons (50.4% women; mean age = 54.4 years) randomly selected from a Flemish population (Flemish Study on Environment, Genes, and Health Outcomes). Relative mtDNA copy number as compared with nuclear DNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood. There was a curvilinear relationship between relative mtDNA copy number and age. mtDNA content slightly increased until the fifth decade of life and declined in older subjects (Page2 = 0.0002). mtDNA content was significantly higher in women (P = 0.007) and increased with platelet count (P < 0.0001), whereas it was inversely associated with white blood cell count (P < 0.0001). We also observed lower mtDNA content in women using estroprogestogens (P = 0.044). This study demonstrated in a general population that peripheral blood mtDNA content is significantly associated with sex and age. Blood mtDNA content is also influenced by platelet and white blood cell counts and estroprogestogen intake. Further studies are required to clarify the impact of chronic inflammation and hormone therapy on mitochondrial function. PMID:26702630

  12. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  14. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys.

    PubMed

    Huber, Manuel B; Reitmeir, Peter; Vogelmann, Martin; Leidl, Reiner

    2016-03-21

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%). Compared with 2012 (59.3%), the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4%) and 2014 (62%). Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%-0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥ 20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population.

  15. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, P<.001) and anxiety (r(s)=.69, P<.001), and somewhat with self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=.30, P<.001) and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=.24, P<.001). Extraversion correlated negatively with symptoms of depression (r(s)=-.47, P<.001), anxiety (r(s)=-.36, P<.001), self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=-.17, P<.001), and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=-.14, P=.004). In multiple regression models, even after adjusting for gender, age, and education, BDI scores were significantly associated with neuroticism, extraversion, and age, whereas BAI scores were associated only with neuroticism. Neuroticism is strongly associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, and intraversion is moderately associated with depressive symptoms in the urban general population. The relationship of these personality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  16. [Schizotypy and verbal memory in the adolescent general population].

    PubMed

    Martinena Palacio, Patricia; Navarro, J Blas; Medina Pradas, Cristina; Baños Yeste, Iris; Sabanés, Arantxa; Vicens Vilanova, Jordi; Alvarez, Eva M; Barrantes Vidal, Neus; Subirá, Susana; Obiols, Jordi E

    2006-08-01

    The following study examines the relationship between verbal memory deficits and schizotypal traits measured psychometrically from a non- clinical adolescent population. In this transversal analytical study participated 139 subjects. They were secondary school students, with ages ranging from 13 to 16 years old (mean= 14, 35; Sta.Dev.= 0, 548). After administrating the scales O-LIFE (psychometrical schizotypy), CVLT (verbal memory), and Letters and Numbers subtest of WAIS-III (working memory), data was analyzed utilizing Pearson correlations and mean comparison test. Results showed lack of relations between schizotypy measures and working memory. Nonetheless, some of the O-LIFE dimensions correlated with verbal memory. These findings support partly the literature reviewed. Yet, more work focused on schizotypy and cognitive deficits as risk factors are suggested.

  17. Predicting acute maxillary sinusitis in a general practice population.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J. G.; Schmidt, H.; Rosborg, J.; Lund, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C reactive protein for acute maxillary sinusitis. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--Danish general practice in cooperation with the otorhinolaryngology and neuroradiology department at Aalborg County Hospital. SUBJECTS--174 patients aged 18-65 years who were suspected by the general practitioner of having acute maxillary sinusitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The independent association of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and concentration of C reactive protein in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis defined as purulent or mucopurulent antral aspirate. RESULTS--Only raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.01) and raised C reactive protein (P = 0.007) were found to be independently associated with a diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis. The combination of the two variables had a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.57. CONCLUSION--Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are useful diagnostic criteria for acute maxillary sinusitis. PMID:7627042

  18. Celebrity Suicides and Their Differential Influence on Suicides in the General Population: A National Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. Methods All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Results Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Conclusion Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide. PMID:25866521

  19. Rubella Seroprevalence among the General Population in Dongguan, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiyan; Wang, Dong; Xiong, Yongzhen; Tang, Hao; Liao, Zhengfa; Ni, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the immunity to rubella infection in Dongguan, China, we conducted a seroprevalence survey on rubella and used ELISA to measure rubella-specific IgG in serum samples. A total of 1,017 individuals aged 0-59 years were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Among them, 904 (88.9%) were seropositive for rubella. Two groups (20-29 and ≥40 years) had seropositivity rates of <90%. In comparison with participants aged ≥20 years, rubella immunization rates were higher in those aged <20 years (83.2% vs. 93.7%, respectively; χ(2) = 28.063, P < 0.001). Among women aged 20-29 years, only 63.8% had antibodies above the protective level. Multivariate analysis revealed that only sex and age were significantly associated with rubella-protective antibody levels. Our results suggest that in the study area, women of childbearing age had a greater serological susceptibility to rubella. Additional vaccinations for rubella of susceptible young adults should be considered, particularly in women of childbearing age.

  20. Multiple Biomarkers and Atrial Fibrillation in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Wild, Philipp S.; Wilde, Sandra; Ojeda, Francisco M.; Schulz, Andreas; Zeller, Tanja; Sinning, Christoph R.; Kunde, Jan; Lackner, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Different biological pathways have been related to atrial fibrillation (AF). Novel biomarkers capturing inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurohumoral activation have not been investigated comprehensively in AF. Methods and Results In the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n = 5000), mean age 56±11 years, 51% males, we measured ten biomarkers representing inflammation (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen), cardiac and vascular function (midregional pro adrenomedullin [MR-proADM], midregional pro atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP], N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [Nt-proBNP], sensitive troponin I ultra [TnI ultra], copeptin, and C-terminal pro endothelin-1), and oxidative stress (glutathioneperoxidase-1, myeloperoxidase) in relation to manifest AF (n = 161 cases). Individuals with AF were older, mean age 64.9±8.3, and more often males, 71.4%. In Bonferroni-adjusted multivariable regression analyses strongest associations per standard deviation increase in biomarker concentrations were observed for the natriuretic peptides Nt-proBNP (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 99.5% confidence interval [CI] 2.14–3.90; P<0.0001), MR-proANP (OR 2.45, 99.5% CI 1.91–3.14; P<0.0001), the vascular function marker MR-proADM (OR 1.54, 99.5% CI 1.20–1.99; P<0.0001), TnI ultra (OR 1.50, 99.5% CI 1.19–1.90; P<0.0001) and. fibrinogen (OR 1.44, 99.5% CI 1.19–1.75; P<0.0001). Based on a model comprising known clinical risk factors for AF, all biomarkers combined resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 0.665 (99.3% CI 0.441–0.888) and an integrated discrimination improvement of >13%. Conclusions In conclusion, in our large, population-based study, we identified novel biomarkers reflecting vascular function, MR-proADM, inflammation, and myocardial damage, TnI ultra, as related to AF; the strong association of natriuretic peptides was confirmed. Prospective studies need to examine whether risk prediction of AF can be enhanced beyond clinical risk

  1. Blood lead levels in the general population of Taiwan, Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Liou, S H; Wu, T N; Chiang, H C; Yang, G Y; Wu, Y Q; Lai, J S; Ho, S T; Guo, Y L; Ko, Y C; Chang, P Y

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental lead exposure of the general population in Taiwan. A total of 2919 residents of Taiwan were selected by multistage sampling methods. The participants were characterized by questionnaires and 10 ml venous blood was collected for blood lead measurement. A quality assurance/quality control program was designed during the analysis of blood lead levels. The mean blood lead level of 2719 residents without occupational lead exposure was 8.29 +/- 5.92 micrograms/dl. After adjustment for age and sex distribution to the Taiwan general population, the mean blood lead level was 8.10 micrograms/dl. Adjusted for an 11% underestimation of blood lead levels among the six laboratories, the mean blood lead level was estimated to be 8.99 micrograms/dl. This study also found that blood lead levels were associated with personal characteristics, i.e., gender, ethnic group, education level; lifestyle factors, i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, sources of drinking water; and residential location, i.e., levels of urbanization, distance of house from the road. However, age, floor of residence, milk consumption, betel nut consumption, and Chinese herbal drug consumption were not found to be associated with blood lead levels. These results show that blood lead levels in Taiwan residents were not higher than in most developed and developing countries. Environmental lead pollution does not seem to be a serious problem in Taiwan.

  2. Prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations in a general population: A group comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kråkvik, Bodil; Larøi, Frank; Kalhovde, Anne Martha; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Kompus, Kristiina; Salvesen, Øyvind; Stiles, Tore C; Vedul-Kjelsås, Einar

    2015-10-01

    The present study was specifically designed to investigate the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in the general population, and sought to compare similarities and differences regarding socio-demographics, mental health and severe life events between individuals who have never experienced AVH with those who had. The study also aimed to compare those who sought professional help for their experience of AVH with those who had not sought help. Through a postal questionnaire, 2,533 participants ages 18 and over from a national survey completed the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale and other measures examining AVH characteristics and other areas related to AVH. In total, 7.3% of the sample reported a life-time prevalence of AVH. Those with AVH were more likely to be single and unemployed, reported higher levels of depression and anxiety, and experienced a higher number of severe life events compared with those without AVH. Only 16% of those who experienced AVH in the general population sought professional help for these experiences. Compared to those who did not seek professional help, participants that had were more likely to experience AVH with a negative content, experience them on a daily basis, undergo negative reactions when experiencing AVH, and resist AVH. In conclusion, the prevalence of AVH was found to be relatively high. The results also revealed higher levels of reduced mental health for individuals who sought professional help, followed by those who did not, compared with those who had never experienced AVH. PMID:26079977

  3. Increased condom use without other major changes in sexual behavior among the general population in Switzerland.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Arber, F; Jeannin, A; Konings, E; Paccaud, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study is part of a continuous evaluation of the Swiss AIDS prevention strategy from 1987 through 1994. METHODS: Annual telephone surveys of samples representative of the general population aged 17 through 45 years have been conducted since 1987 to monitor behavioral change. RESULTS: No major changes in level of sexual activity (lifetime number of partners, frequency of sexual encounters in the past week) or potential exposure to risk of HIV transmission (acquisition of a new steady partner during the year or of casual partners in the last 6 months) were observed. Systematic condom use with a new steady partner increased between 1988 and 1994, from 40% to 64% among 17- to 30-year-olds and from 57% to 72% among those aged 31 to 45. Systematic condom use with casual partners increased from 8% to 56% between 1987 and 1994 among 17- to 30-year-olds and from 22% to 42% between 1989 and 1994 among those aged 31 to 45. Condom use was higher among those with multiple partners. CONCLUSIONS: A general-population approach to AIDS prevention was able to achieve large-scale improvements in condom-based protection against HIV infection without inducing other major changes in sexual behavior. PMID:9146432

  4. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the “self-coldness”, composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a “self-compassion composite”, the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between “self-coldness” and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression—providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself. PMID:26430893

  5. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  6. Using Temporal Sampling to Improve Attribution of Source Populations for Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Goldstien, Sharyn J.; Inglis, Graeme J.; Schiel, David R.; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have applied genetic tools to the identification of source populations and transport pathways for invasive species. However, there are many gaps in the knowledge obtained from such studies because comprehensive and meaningful spatial sampling to meet these goals is difficult to achieve. Sampling populations as they arrive at the border should fill the gaps in source population identification, but such an advance has not yet been achieved with genetic data. Here we use previously acquired genetic data to assign new incursions as they invade populations within New Zealand ports and marinas. We also investigated allelelic frequency change in these recently established populations over a two-year period, and assessed the effect of temporal genetic sampling on our ability to assign new incursions to their population of source. We observed shifts in the allele frequencies among populations, as well as the complete loss of some alleles and the addition of alleles novel to New Zealand, within these recently established populations. There was no significant level of genetic differentiation observed in our samples between years, and the use of these temporal data did alter the assignment probability of new incursions. Our study further suggests that new incursions can add genetic variation to the population in a single introduction event as the founders themselves are often more genetically diverse than theory initially predicted. PMID:23755264

  7. TECHNICAL REPORT ON STANDARDIZATION OF THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY, GENERAL WORKING POPULATION NORMS STUDY FOR PUERTO RICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PREDICTIVE ERROR WHEN APPLYING U.S. MAINLAND NORMS FOR THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY TO THE EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING AND SELECTION PROCESS IN PUERTO RICO, PROMPTED A STUDY TO ESTABLISH LOCAL NORMS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE VERSION, BATERIA GENERAL DE PRUEBAS DE APTITUD. A STRATIFIED QUOTA SAMPLE OF 1,500 PERSONS WAS SELECTED…

  8. General population and HIV prevention: from risk to action.

    PubMed

    Paicheler, G

    1999-11-01

    Since knowledge about AIDS transmission now appears to be very good, many observers are surprised that more people do not practice behavior, like safer sex, designed to minimize risk of contracting the disease. Still, previous studies have not shown that there is a direct link between knowledge and behavior. New models, based on people's concrete experiences, are therefore needed. The goal of this qualitative research, based on 61 in-depth interviews conducted in France, is to describe how people understand the threat of AIDS and how they face the risk of transmission in their sex lives. In order to understand preventive actions, we must study how information is interpreted and how knowledge is integrated, so that people perceive general or personal risk. We must also specify the way in which people distinguish between aspects of risk perception and vulnerability; feelings of personal control, constructed on the basis of social experiences; characteristics of situations; and finally, the dynamics of action. The proposed risk management model accounts for these diverse factors in elucidating the great diversity of actions reported. This dynamic, non-linear model is designed to capture both the impact of perceptive and cognitive elements on action and vice versa.

  9. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  10. Validation of the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire in a Total Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri J.; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of instruments validated for screening of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in general populations and primary care settings. The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) has previously been shown to have good screening properties in clinical settings. We used the ASSQ to screen a total population of 7-9 year-olds (N = 9430)…

  11. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  12. Assessment of occupational exposures in a general population: comparison of different methods

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Burdorf, A.; Vermeulen, R.; Veulemans, H.; Kromhout, H.; Hartog, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative merits of job specific questionnaires and various alternative assessment methods of occupational exposures often used in general population studies. METHODS: Subjects were participants in a hospital based case-control study of risk factors for male infertility. Estimates of exposure to organic solvents and chromium, based on job specific questionnaires, generic questionnaires, self reports of exposure, an external job exposure matrix (JEM), and a population specific JEM were compared with passive diffuse dosimeter results and measurements in urine. Urine samples from the end of the shift were analysed for metabolites of toluene, xylene, several glycol ethers, trichloroethylene, and chromium. Passive dosimeter date, metabolites of specific solvents, and urinary chromium concentrations were available for 89, 267, and 156 subjects, respectively. The alternative methods and measurements in urine were compared by means of the Cohen's kappa statistic and by computing the positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of the alternative methods against measurements in urine. RESULTS: Passive dosimeter results indicated that exposure classifications with job specific questionnaire information could discriminate between high and low exposures. The kappa coefficients were < 0.4, so agreement between the various methods and measurements in urine was poor. Sensitivity of the methods ranged from 0.21 to 0.85, whereas specificity ranged from 0.34 to 0.94. Positive predictive values ranged from 0.19 to 0.58, with the highest values for job specific questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the implementation of job specific questionnaires in a general population study might be worth the extra expense it entails, bearing in mind the paramount importance of avoiding false positive exposure estimates when exposure prevalence is low.   PMID:10448321

  13. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta; Jørgensen, Torben; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-06-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay system in Monica10 and High-performance liquid chromatography in Inter99. Information on CVDs and causes of death was obtained from Danish registries until 31 December 2008. There were 478 cases of IHD, 316 cases of stroke, and 633 deaths during follow-up (mean follow-up 10 years). Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed a significant association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality with a HR = 0.95 (P = 0.005) per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D level. We found no association between vitamin D status and incidence of IHD or stroke (HR = 1.01, P = 0.442 and HR = 1.00, P = 0.920, respectively). In this large general population study, the observed inverse association between serum vitamin D status and all-cause mortality was not explained by a similar inverse association with IHD or stroke. PMID:23015273

  14. Background levels of key biomarkers of chemical exposure within the UK general population--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Levy, L S; Jones, K; Cocker, J; Assem, F L; Capleton, A C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomarkers is now an accepted measure of chemical uptake (possibly exposure) in risk assessment. However, information on background exposures and biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general UK population is limited. This study aims to determine reference ranges for eleven biomarkers of chemical exposure, measurable in urine, within the general adult UK population. The study will involve 400 volunteers throughout the UK and is currently underway. Described here is a pilot study, carried out during August and September 2005 to test the study methodology. The initial results of the postal survey and urinary concentrations for cadmium (UCd) and mercury (UHg) are reported. A total of 78 individuals were recruited by post from the UK Electoral Register, to take part in the pilot study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and provide a urine sample. The overall response rate was 16%, of which 60.3% were female and 39.7% male. Those living in suburban areas accounted for 60% of respondents, current smokers 12.8% and vegetarians 1.3%. Levels of UCd were higher in females compared to males and smoking status influenced levels; smokers displayed higher levels of UCd than individuals who had previously smoked or who had never smoked. The mean, median and range of UHg was 1.12, 0.55 (sampling may be a useful and cost effective method for carrying out biomonitoring studies using urine as the matrix.

  15. Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population

    PubMed Central

    Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Léger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ≥18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (≥2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

  16. Psychotic Experiences and Risk of Violence Perpetration and Arrest in the General Population: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Marjan; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background In cross-sectional, general population studies, psychotic experiences have been associated with an increased risk of physical violence perpetration and arrest. However, longitudinal research on this topic is lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether subjects with psychotic experiences are also at risk of displaying psychological violence. The present study aims to investigate these associations. Method The longitudinal association between baseline psychotic experiences and six-year incidence of violence perpetration and three-year incidence of arrest was studied in a prospective cohort of 6646 general population adults. Logistic regression analyses with varying levels of adjustment were performed in the complete sample and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of baseline mental disorders. Results The presence of psychotic experiences at baseline increased the risk of physical violence, psychological violence and arrest at follow-up. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders reduced all associations considerably. After adjustment, both clinically validated (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 1.09–11.81) and self-reported hallucinations (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.05 7.65) remained significantly associated with physical violence perpetration. Self-reported (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.55–6.03) and clinically validated delusions (OR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.47–7.13) were associated with an increased risk of arrest. There was no significant association between psychotic experiences and incident psychological violence in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion Specific psychotic experiences may differentially predict physical violence perpetration and arrest, even after adjustment for demographics, dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders. However, more longitudinal research with larger sample sizes is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27447190

  17. Stratified Sampling of Neighborhood Sections for Population Estimation: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S.; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M.; Stenger, David A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better estimators of population size in places that have undergone rapid growth and where collection of census data is difficult. We explored simulated estimates of urban population based on survey data from Bo, Sierra Leone, using two approaches: (1) stratified sampling from across 20 neighborhoods and (2) stratified single-stage cluster sampling of only four randomly-sampled neighborhoods. The stratification variables evaluated were (a) occupants per individual residence, (b) occupants per neighborhood, and (c) residential structures per neighborhood. For method (1), stratification variable (a) yielded the most accurate re-estimate of the current total population. Stratification variable (c), which can be estimated from aerial photography and zoning type verification, and variable (b), which could be ascertained by surveying a limited number of households, increased the accuracy of method (2). Small household-level surveys with appropriate sampling methods can yield reasonably accurate estimations of urban populations. PMID:26177479

  18. Stratified Sampling of Neighborhood Sections for Population Estimation: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M; Stenger, David A

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better estimators of population size in places that have undergone rapid growth and where collection of census data is difficult. We explored simulated estimates of urban population based on survey data from Bo, Sierra Leone, using two approaches: (1) stratified sampling from across 20 neighborhoods and (2) stratified single-stage cluster sampling of only four randomly-sampled neighborhoods. The stratification variables evaluated were (a) occupants per individual residence, (b) occupants per neighborhood, and (c) residential structures per neighborhood. For method (1), stratification variable (a) yielded the most accurate re-estimate of the current total population. Stratification variable (c), which can be estimated from aerial photography and zoning type verification, and variable (b), which could be ascertained by surveying a limited number of households, increased the accuracy of method (2). Small household-level surveys with appropriate sampling methods can yield reasonably accurate estimations of urban populations. PMID:26177479

  19. A discussion of chain referral as a method of sampling hard-to-reach populations.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Janice; Preston, Deborah Bray; Cain, Richard E; Starks, Michael T

    2003-04-01

    Nursing research often requires inquiry into sensitive topics that involve hidden or hard- to reach populations. However, identifying and sampling these populations for research purposes is often fraught with difficulties. Barriers include society's lack of tolerance of diverse groups, social stigma, concern for issues of confidentiality, and fear of exposure because of possible threats to security. Chain referral sampling techniques are proposed to minimize bias while maintaining privacy and confidentiality. Techniques of chain referral sampling are detailed for use in researching sensitive topics and hidden populations. When carefully planned and executed, this sampling design offers transcultural nurse researchers a reasonable method for accessing and studying special populations that are particularly hard-to-reach.

  20. Stratified Sampling of Neighborhood Sections for Population Estimation: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M; Stenger, David A

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better estimators of population size in places that have undergone rapid growth and where collection of census data is difficult. We explored simulated estimates of urban population based on survey data from Bo, Sierra Leone, using two approaches: (1) stratified sampling from across 20 neighborhoods and (2) stratified single-stage cluster sampling of only four randomly-sampled neighborhoods. The stratification variables evaluated were (a) occupants per individual residence, (b) occupants per neighborhood, and (c) residential structures per neighborhood. For method (1), stratification variable (a) yielded the most accurate re-estimate of the current total population. Stratification variable (c), which can be estimated from aerial photography and zoning type verification, and variable (b), which could be ascertained by surveying a limited number of households, increased the accuracy of method (2). Small household-level surveys with appropriate sampling methods can yield reasonably accurate estimations of urban populations.

  1. Population and Family Education. Book II. Draft Sample Instructional Materials. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Produced by participants at the Unesco Regional workshop on Population and Family Education held in Bangkok, Thailand, in October 1970, the instructional materials intended for elementary and secondary students are to be considered sample first-draft materials usable for reference purposes by groups responsible for designing population education…

  2. Estimating the Size of Populations at High Risk for HIV Using Respondent-Driven Sampling Data

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Mark S.; Gile, Krista J.; Mar, Corinne M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The study of hard-to-reach populations presents significant challenges. Typically, a sampling frame is not available, and population members are difficult to identify or recruit from broader sampling frames. This is especially true of populations at high risk for HIV/AIDS. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is often used in such settings with the primary goal of estimating the prevalence of infection. In such populations, the number of people at risk for infection and the number of people infected are of fundamental importance. This article presents a case-study of the estimation of the size of the hard-to-reach population based on data collected through RDS. We study two populations of female sex workers and men-who-have-sex-with-men in El Salvador. The approach is Bayesian and we consider different forms of prior information, including using the UNAIDS population size guidelines for this region. We show that the method is able to quantify the amount of information on population size available in RDS samples. As separate validation, we compare our results to those estimated by extrapolating from a capture–recapture study of El Salvadorian cities. The results of our case-study are largely comparable to those of the capture–recapture study when they differ from the UNAIDS guidelines. Our method is widely applicable to data from RDS studies and we provide a software package to facilitate this. PMID:25585794

  3. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  4. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP. PMID:23884906

  5. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andrew C.; Hann, Mark; Ashcroft, Daren M.

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England. Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS) statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations. Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin. PMID:25126140

  6. Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Benseñor, I M; Tófoli, L F; Andrade, L

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in S o Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1) by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness). The odds ratio (OR) for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4), dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6), when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.

  7. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of a Community and General Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fernee, Henk; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Samples recruited at lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) venues have certain benefits, but a major drawback is that these samples are prone to bias as they only contain LGB participants who visit such venues. Empirical data with regard to the potential differences between LGB community samples and LGB general samples may shed some light on the generalizability of research findings from convenience samples recruited through LGB venues. The current study attempted to contribute to existing knowledge by examining differences in social demographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental health between a convenience sample recruited at LGB venues ("community sample," N = 3,403) and an LGB sample recruited from a general research panel in the Netherlands ("panel sample," N = 1,000). Various differences were found. In general, community participants were younger, reported a more exclusive same-sex sexual orientation, were more open about their sexual orientation, had lower levels of internalized homonegativity, and encountered more negative social reactions on their LGB status. They also reported higher levels of psychological distress and suicidality. The Nagelkerke R (2) of the analyses (which were adjusted for sociodemographic differences) ranged from .08 (suicide plans among men) to .27 (sexual attraction among women). However, while the estimates of sociodemographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental well-being differed, the relationships between these constructs were comparable in both samples. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliana Dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the "Physical Health" domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen's work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil's economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  11. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  12. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E Pt. 1356, App. C Appendix C to Part 1356—Calculating Sample Size for...

  13. How Generalizable Is Your Experiment? An Index for Comparing Experimental Samples and Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Although a large-scale experiment can provide an estimate of the average causal impact for a program, the sample of sites included in the experiment is often not drawn randomly from the inference population of interest. In this article, we provide a generalizability index that can be used to assess the degree of similarity between the sample of…

  14. Correspondence analysis of HLA gene frequency data from 124 population samples.

    PubMed

    Greenacre, M J; Degos, L

    1977-01-01

    Correspondence analysis, a variant of principal components analysis, is used to interpret and compare gene frequencies of the HLA system for 124 samples from different populations studied in the Fifth and Sixth International Histocompatibility Workshops. The major advantage of this analysis is that populations and HLA genes are represented simultaneously with respect to the same axes in multidimensional space. This permits the visual interpretation of genetic differences between populations, the relative participation of each gene in the dispersion, and the correspondence between populations and genes. By this method a clear separation of ethnic groups in the world is obtained. Furthermore, within Europe the separation of samples from different countries is concordant with their geographical distances. The HLA system appears sufficiently polymorphic to define a population by its gene frequencies.

  15. A walk-in screening of dementia in the general population in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Wang, Ling-Chun; Ma, Tzu-Chiao; Yang, Yuan-Han

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased in its prevalence due to the increasing aged population. Currently there is no updated data on the prevalence of dementia including its very mild stage in Taiwan. Under the extensive coverage of Mentality Protection Center (MPC), Fo Guang Shan, Taiwan, the volunteers of MPC have conducted the medicine-related services and the screening of dementia by AD8 (ascertainment of dementia 8) that can screen the dementia even at its very mild stage in general population in all Taiwan. From 2011 to 2013, in total, 2,171 participants, 368 in the northern, 549 in the central, 877 in the southern, and 377 in the eastern part, were recruited with the mean age being 66.9 ± 10.2 years old. The ratio of suspected dementia patients, AD8 score greater than or equal to 2, was 13.6% of all recruited participants with their mean AD8 score being 2.9 ± 1.3, mean age being 69.4 ± 10.8 years old, and female predominance being 73.0%. Although this is a screening study, it has extensive coverage of all Taiwan and the use of AD8 is capable of screening very mild dementia. A further study with a randomized sampling to examine the prevalence and incidence of dementia including its very mild stage is encouraged. PMID:24883363

  16. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavatula, Jyotsna; Singh, Lalji

    2006-01-01

    Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use. PMID:17044939

  17. Children's identity matching and oddity: assessing control by specific and general sample-comparison relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Stromer, J B

    1989-01-01

    After children in Experiments 1 and 2 learned identity matching or oddity, control by sample-comparison relations was assessed. Tests for generalized control displayed novel samples and two comparison stimuli, one identical to the sample. Specific relations were tested with identical or nonidentical sample-comparison stimuli from one set of stimuli and substitute comparisons from either the other training set or from a novel set. When tests displayed identical stimuli, patterns of comparison selection suggested control by generalized identity and oddity. However, selection patterns varied when stimuli were nonidentical and familiar or novel substitute comparisons were used. Therefore, control by specific relations is not a precondition for generalized identity and oddity. One set of training stimuli was used in Experiment 3, and generalized performances occurred again. Moreover, control by specific relations was shown by the oddity subjects and 2 of 6 identity subjects. Generalized and specific control may therefore exist simultaneously. In Experiment 4, selections were irregular on tests displaying substitute comparisons and samples and familiar comparison stimuli; this finding supported the relational account of specific sample-comparison control found in Experiment 3. PMID:2921587

  18. Is the Prevalence of Celiac Disease Higher than the General Population in Inflammatory Bowel Diseaese?

    PubMed Central

    Jandaghi, Elahe; Hojatnia, Mona; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbaz-Khani, Bijan; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Ansari, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In some studies inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease were considered to be associated and some belive that this association may influence the prognosis of IBD. However, there is a cosiderable controversy regarding this association. Therefore ,we aimed to assess the association of these two common digestive diseases and evaluate the complications of this association. METHODS In this comparative study, 200 patients with ulceritive colitis (UC) and 206 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) were evaluated for celiac disease using relevant diagnostic tests and pathologic studies. Total IgA, IgA tissue transgulaminase antibody and specific IgA anti endomysial antibody were asseyed. In cases of IgA deficiency, total IgG and IgG tissue TG and IgG anti endomyseal Ab were measured. Patients with increased specific IgA and IgG antibodies for celiac disease, underwent endoscopy and 4 standard samples were obtained. Our results were compared with the results of the prevalence study of celiac disease in the general population. Data were analyzed using analytic and descriptive statistics at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the studied patients, 1 patient with UC had elevated IgA anti tTG antibody and IgA anti-endomysial antibody who underwent endoscopy and celiac was confirmed on pathology. Hence, of the 200 patientswith UC, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in 1 patient (1:200) with no significant difference with the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population (1:166). However, none of our patients with Crohn’s disease had celiac disease (0:206). CONCLUSION We found no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between patients with UC and the general population. Since most of our participants had a mild level of Crohn’s activation, none of those with Crohn’s disease had celiac disease. Complications of IBD including sclerosing cholangitis, may be more common in patients with concurrent celiac disease

  19. Evaluation of factors associated with cadmium exposure and kidney function in the general population.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingai; Choi, Seong-Jin; Kim, Dong-Won; Kim, Na-Young; Bae, Hye-Sun; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2013-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential toxic metal which is widely distributed in the environment. The general population is exposed to low levels of Cd and the kidney is the organ most sensitive to Cd toxicity. This study was performed to simultaneously evaluate Cd exposure, kidney function, and oxidative stress biomarkers in the general population. A total of 643 adults were interviewed to document demographic characteristics, lifestyles, past-medical history, and diet during the last 24 h. We estimated daily Cd intake based on the diet of study subjects who had not been exposed to Cd occupationally. Whole blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed to determine Cd concentrations and kidney function indices (β₂ -microglobulin [β₂-MG], N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase [NAG], metallothionein [MT]). The oxidative stress index (malondialdehyde [MDA]) was determined from the urine. The daily Cd intake from diet was established as 7.07 μg/day. The mean concentration of Cd measured in the blood was 1.22 μg/L and urine was 0.95 μg/g creatinine. The concentrations of Cd in blood and urine were higher in females than in males. The blood levels of Cd were affected by sex, age, and smoking, and urine Cd was influenced by sex, age, and blood Cd. The urine Cd was positively correlated with MT, NAG activity, and MDA in females, but with NAG only in males. The blood Cd was associated with MT in males. Increased NAG activity was observed when Cd in urine reached 1.0 μg Cd/g creatinine and was also affected by age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Urinary MT only responded to Cd in urine or blood. In summary, exposure to Cd in the general population was influenced by various factors including sex, age, and smoking habits. Such exposure might eventually cause tubular damage in the kidneys through the oxidative stress mechanism, and females might be more susceptible than males to Cd exposure under the environment.

  20. Is the Prevalence of Celiac Disease Higher than the General Population in Inflammatory Bowel Diseaese?

    PubMed

    Jandaghi, Elahe; Hojatnia, Mona; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbaz-Khani, Bijan; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Ansari, Reza

    2015-04-01

    BACKGROUND In some studies inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease were considered to be associated and some belive that this association may influence the prognosis of IBD. However, there is a cosiderable controversy regarding this association. Therefore ,we aimed to assess the association of these two common digestive diseases and evaluate the complications of this association. METHODS In this comparative study, 200 patients with ulceritive colitis (UC) and 206 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were evaluated for celiac disease using relevant diagnostic tests and pathologic studies. Total IgA, IgA tissue transgulaminase antibody and specific IgA anti endomysial antibody were asseyed. In cases of IgA deficiency, total IgG and IgG tissue TG and IgG anti endomyseal Ab were measured. Patients with increased specific IgA and IgG antibodies for celiac disease, underwent endoscopy and 4 standard samples were obtained. Our results were compared with the results of the prevalence study of celiac disease in the general population. Data were analyzed using analytic and descriptive statistics at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the studied patients, 1 patient with UC had elevated IgA anti tTG antibody and IgA anti-endomysial antibody who underwent endoscopy and celiac was confirmed on pathology. Hence, of the 200 patientswith UC, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in 1 patient (1:200) with no significant difference with the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population (1:166). However, none of our patients with Crohn's disease had celiac disease (0:206). CONCLUSION We found no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between patients with UC and the general population. Since most of our participants had a mild level of Crohn's activation, none of those with Crohn's disease had celiac disease. Complications of IBD including sclerosing cholangitis, may be more common in patients with concurrent celiac disease

  1. 17 Y-STR haplotype data for a population sample of Residents in the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Laura; Köhnemann, Stephan; Rosique, Melania; Cardoso, Sergio; Zarrabeitia, Maite; Pfeiffer, Heidi; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2012-07-01

    Non autochthonous population is the most numerous group in the Basque Country. This group is named "Residents" to distinguish them from the "Autochthonous Basque" population. In this work, the 17 Y-STR loci distribution of Resident population was studied in a sample of 197 individuals, who were concretely genotyped for DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS439, DYS438, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y GATA H4. Resident population showed a high haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity. The distribution of Y-STRs haplotypes of the Resident population was statistically significant different to the one of the Autochthonous Basque population. The genetic substructure found between Resident and Autochthonous Basque 17 Y-STR haplotype distributions advises for the use of two different databases in the Basque Country, to ensure the most trustworthy frequency estimate in casework. PMID:22342392

  2. Perception of electronic cigarettes in the general population: does their usefulness outweigh their risks?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Ballbè, Montse; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the perceptions of the general population about the harmful effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on users and on those passively exposed to e-cigarettes and the perceptions about e-cigarette usefulness for reducing or eliminating tobacco smoking. Design, setting, and participants We analysed cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the general adult (≥16 years) population of Barcelona, Spain (336 men and 400 women). The fieldwork was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the percentages, adjusted OR and their corresponding 95% CI among participants with some awareness of e-cigarettes (79.2% of the sample). Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the perception about harmfulness for e-cigarette users and for passively exposed non-e-cigarette users, as well as the perception of usefulness for smokers of cigarette cessation and reduction. Results In this sample, 40.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on users, and 27.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on passively exposed bystanders (p<0.001). Particularly, more never-smokers perceived that e-cigarettes had harmful effects on passively exposed bystanders than current smokers (34.4% vs 20.6%; OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.63). More people perceived e-cigarettes as being useful for reducing smoking than for quitting (50.6% vs 29.9%, p<0.001), as well as for reducing smoking than as being harmful to users (50.6% vs 40.1%, p=0.044). Discussion The perception that e-cigarettes are useful for reducing tobacco consumption was more prevalent than the perception that e-cigarettes are harmful to users and to those passively exposed to e-cigarettes. Advertisements and messages about the use of e-cigarettes and their harmful effects should be regulated and based on scientific evidence to avoid creating erroneous ideas about their use. PMID:26534735

  3. Planning for Serious Illness by the General Public: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Elizabeth; Venne, Rosemary; Hunter, Paulette; Surtees, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Background. While rates of advance care documentation amongst the general public remain low, there is increasing recognition of the value of informal planning to address patient preferences in serious illness. Objectives. To determine the associations between personal attributes and formal and informal planning for serious illness across age groups. Methods. This population-based, online survey was conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada, in April, 2012, using a nonclinical sample of 827 adults ranging from 18 to 88 years of age and representative of age, sex, and regional distribution of the province. Associations between key predictor variables and planning for serious illness were assessed using binary logistic regression. Results. While 16.6% of respondents had completed a written living will or advance care plan, half reported having conversations about their treatment wishes or states of health in which they would find it unacceptable to live. Lawyers were the most frequently cited source of assistance for those who had prepared advance care plans. Personal experiences with funeral planning significantly increased the likelihood of activities designed to plan for serious illness. Conclusions. Strategies designed to increase the rate of planning for future serious illness amongst the general public must account for personal readiness. PMID:25025030

  4. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    PubMed Central

    Clamor, Annika; Warmuth, A. Malika; Lincoln, Tania M.

    2015-01-01

    Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP)) may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N = 104; Mage = 27.7 years, SD = 11.2, range 18–70). Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses. PMID:26199758

  5. DEARS particulate matter relationships for personal, indoor, outdoor, and central site settings for a general population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodes, Charles E.; Lawless, Phil A.; Thornburg, Jonathan W.; Williams, Ronald W.; Croghan, Carry W.

    2010-04-01

    This analysis provides the initial summary of PM 2.5 mass concentrations relationships for all seasons and participants for a general population in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). The summary presented highlights the utility of the new methodologies applied, in addition to summarizing the particulate matter (PM) data. Results include the requirement to adjust the exposure data for monitor wearing compliance and measured environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, even though the study design specified a non-smoking household. A 40% wearing compliance acceptance level was suggested as necessary to balance minimizing exposure misclassification (from poor compliance) and having sufficient data to conduct robust statistical analyses. An ETS threshold level equivalent to adding more than 1.5 μg m -3 to the collected sample was found to be necessary to detect changes in the personal exposure factor ( Fpex). It is not completely clear why such a large threshold level was necessary. Statistically significant spatial PM 2.5 gradients were identified in three of the six DEARS neighborhoods in Wayne County. These were expected, given the number of strong, localized PM sources in the Detroit (Michigan) metro area. Some residential outdoor bias levels compared with the central site at Allen Park exceeded 15%. After adjusting for ETS biases, the outdoor contributions to the personal exposure were typically larger by factors from 1.75 to 2.2 compared with those of the non-outdoor sources. The outdoor contribution was larger in the summer than in the winter, which is consistent with the fractions of time spent outdoors in the summer vs. the winter (6.7% vs. 1.1% of the time). Mean personal PM 2.5 cloud levels for the general population DEARS cohort ranged from 1.5 to 3.8 (after ETS adjustment) and were comparable to those reported previously. The personal exposure collections indoors were typically at least 13 times greater than those contributed outdoors.

  6. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  7. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population.

    PubMed

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-04-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( < 6.8 nmol/l) was 31.4 %. Low serum folate was more common among men than women and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 ( < 148 pmol/l) was 4.7 %. Low serum vitamin B12 was significantly associated with female sex, high coffee intake, low folate status, and the TT genotype of the MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. In conclusion, low serum folate was present in almost a third of the adult population in the present study and was associated with several lifestyle factors whereas low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 were less common and only found to be associated with a few lifestyle factors.

  8. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Grankvist, Nina; Krizhanovskii, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. Methods Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones. Results The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0) was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P < 0.001). Plasma osmolality and plasma sodium were somewhat higher in those with a high FRI (mean 294.8 vs. 293.4 mosmol/kg and 140.3 vs. 139.9 mmol/l). Plasma vasopressin was consistently below the limit of detection, and the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, and renin concentrations were similar in subjects with a high or low FRI. The very highest FRI values (≥ 5.0, N = 61) were always accompanied by albuminuria. Conclusion Fluid retention consistent with moderate dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital. PMID:27764121

  9. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  10. Application of adaptive cluster sampling to low-density populations of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Villella, R.F.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels appear to be promising candidates for adaptive cluster sampling because they are benthic macroinvertebrates that cluster spatially and are frequently found at low densities. We applied adaptive cluster sampling to estimate density of freshwater mussels at 24 sites along the Cacapon River, WV, where a preliminary timed search indicated that mussels were present at low density. Adaptive cluster sampling increased yield of individual mussels and detection of uncommon species; however, it did not improve precision of density estimates. Because finding uncommon species, collecting individuals of those species, and estimating their densities are important conservation activities, additional research is warranted on application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussels. However, at this time we do not recommend routine application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussel populations. The ultimate, and currently unanswered, question is how to tell when adaptive cluster sampling should be used, i.e., when is a population sufficiently rare and clustered for adaptive cluster sampling to be efficient and practical? A cost-effective procedure needs to be developed to identify biological populations for which adaptive cluster sampling is appropriate.

  11. Kinematics and chemical properties of the Galactic stellar populations. The HARPS FGK dwarfs sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Hakobyan, A. A.; Sousa, S. G.; Pace, G.; Delgado Mena, E.; Robin, A. C.; Israelian, G.; González Hernández, J. I.

    2013-06-01

    Aims: We analyzed chemical and kinematical properties of about 850 FGK solar neighborhood long-lived dwarfs observed with the HARPS high-resolution spectrograph. The stars in the sample have log g ≥ 4 dex, 5000 ≤ Teff ≤ 6500 K, and - 1.39 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0.55 dex. The aim of this study is to characterize and explore the kinematics and chemical properties of stellar populations of the Galaxy in order to understand their origins and evolution. Methods: We applied a purely chemical analysis approach based on the [α/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plot to separate Galactic stellar populations into the thin disk, thick disk, and high-α metal-rich (hαmr). Then, we explored the population's stellar orbital eccentricity distributions, their correlation with metallicity, and rotational velocity gradients with metallicity in the Galactic disks to provide constraints on the various formation models. Results: We identified a gap in the [α/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane for the α-enhanced stars, and by performing a bootstrapped Monte Carlo test we obtained a probability higher than 99.99% that this gap is not due to small-number statistics. Our analysis shows a negative gradient of the rotational velocity of the thin disk stars with [Fe/H] (-17 km s-1 dex-1), and a steep positive gradient for both the thick disk and hαmr stars with the same magnitude of about +42 km s-1 dex-1. For the thin disk stars we observed no correlation between orbital eccentricities and metallicity, but observed a steep negative gradient for the thick disk and hαmr stars with practically the same magnitude (≈-0.18 dex-1). The correlations observed for the nearby stars (on average 45 pc) using high-precision data, in general agree well with the results obtained for the SDSS sample of stars located farther from the Galactic plane. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radial migration played an important role in the formation and evolution of the thin disk. For the thick disk stars it is not possible to reach a firm

  12. Sampling and Recruitment in Multilevel Studies among Marginalized Urban Populations: The IMPACT Studies

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Marshall, Grant; Fuller, Crystal M.; Weiss, Linda; Beard, John R.; Chan, Christina; Edwards, Vincent; Vlahov, David

    2008-01-01

    Illicit drug use in urban settings is a major public health problem. A range of individual level factors are known to influence drug use and its consequences, and a number of recent studies have suggested that the neighborhood in which an individual lives may also play a role. However, studies seeking to identify neighborhood-level determinants of drug use, particularly among marginalized urban populations, need to overcome significant challenges, particularly in the area of sampling and recruitment. One key issue is defining functional neighborhoods that are relevant to local residents. Another arises from the need to sample a representative or even a diverse population when studying marginalized groups such as illicit drug users. These are common problems that raise particular challenges when both need to be addressed in the same study. For example, many sampling approaches for neighborhood-level studies have included some form of random sample of households, but this may systematically overlook marginalized populations. On the other hand, the sampling approaches commonly used in studies of hidden populations such as chain referral, snow ball, and more recently, respondent-driven sampling, typically expand beyond a geographic “neighborhood.” We describe the organization and rationale for the IMPACT Studies in New York City as a case illustration on how such issues may be addressed. PMID:18214686

  13. Population patterns of Mexican corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults indicated by different sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, D W; Esquivel, J F; Suh, C P C

    2004-04-01

    The Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan & Smith, is a serious pest of corn, Zea mays L., in several areas of Texas. Recent demonstrations of areawide adult control suggest this tactic has promise for rootworm management, but additional information regarding treatment thresholds and sampling methodology is needed. In 2000 and 2001 we examined the influence of distance into the field on rootworm captures by CRW and Pherocon AM traps, the fidelity of trap captures to population estimates from visual counts of beetles on plants (whole plant samples), and the seasonal population patterns indicated by each sampling method. Only the CRW trap consistently indicated reduced trap captures at the field margin compared with other distances. However, trends for the AM trap and whole plant samples suggested sampling on the field margin should be avoided. Population estimates at other distances into the field (2-30 m) were usually statistically similar. Thus, monitoring does not require trap placement far into the field. Both trap types indicated population peaks after flowering in corn, whereas plant samples indicated peak populations during tasseling and flowering. Both the CRW trap and plant samples showed the proportion of female beetles increased as the season progressed, but the CRW trap underestimated the proportion of females until after flowering. Regressions relating captures by traps to counts from plant samples indicated efficiency of both traps increased with increasing plant development. Our findings should increase acceptance of the CRW trap by producers and consultants and provide a rationale for development of improved, plant growth stage-specific treatment thresholds.

  14. Sub-sampling genetic data to estimate black bear population size: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tredick, C.A.; Vaughan, M.R.; Stauffer, D.F.; Simek, S.L.; Eason, T.

    2007-01-01

    Costs for genetic analysis of hair samples collected for individual identification of bears average approximately US$50 [2004] per sample. This can easily exceed budgetary allowances for large-scale studies or studies of high-density bear populations. We used 2 genetic datasets from 2 areas in the southeastern United States to explore how reducing costs of analysis by sub-sampling affected precision and accuracy of resulting population estimates. We used several sub-sampling scenarios to create subsets of the full datasets and compared summary statistics, population estimates, and precision of estimates generated from these subsets to estimates generated from the complete datasets. Our results suggested that bias and precision of estimates improved as the proportion of total samples used increased, and heterogeneity models (e.g., Mh[CHAO]) were more robust to reduced sample sizes than other models (e.g., behavior models). We recommend that only high-quality samples (>5 hair follicles) be used when budgets are constrained, and efforts should be made to maximize capture and recapture rates in the field.

  15. Diet, iron biomarkers and oxidative stress in a representative sample of Mediterranean population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption pattern characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruit, fish, olive oil and red wine has been associated with improvements in the total antioxidant capacity of individuals and reduced incidence of diseases related to oxidation. Also, high body iron levels may contribute to increase the oxidative stress by the generation of reactive oxygen species. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between antioxidant and pro-oxidant factors obtained from the diet and iron biomarkers on lipoprotein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity in a representative sample of the Mediterranean population. Methods Cross-sectional prospective study, carried out with 815 randomly selected subjects (425 women and 390 men). Dietary assessment (3-day food records), iron biomarkers (serum ferritin, serum iron and transferrin saturation), biochemical markers of lipoperoxidation (TBARS), antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and CRP (C-Reactive Protein) were determined. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were applied to analyze the association between diet factors and iron biomarkers on TBARS and ORAC levels. Results We observed that lipoperoxidation measured by TBARS increased by age but no differences were observed by sex. Antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC is independent of age and sex. In general, increasing age, tobacco, heme iron intake from meat and fish and transferrin saturation were independently and positively associated with TBARS, while non-heme iron was negatively associated. Vegetables, vitamin C intake and serum ferritin were positively associated with ORAC, whereas saturated fatty acids and meat intake were negatively associated. Conclusions In our general population, we observed that oxidative stress is related to aging, but antioxidant capacity is not. The highest intake of dietary non-heme iron, vegetables and vitamin C intake exerts a protective effect against oxidation while the highest intake of dietary heme iron from

  16. Polypharmacy in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gracia, Mercedes; Crusells-Canales, María José; Armesto-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Compaired-Turlán, Vicente; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José

    2016-01-01

    Background The percentage of older HIV-positive patients is growing, with an increase in age-related comorbidities and concomitant medication. Objectives To quantify polypharmacy and profile types of non-antiretroviral drugs collected at community pharmacies in 2014 by HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy and to compare these findings with those of the general population. Methods HIV-positive patients (n=199) were compared with a group of patients from the general population (n=8,172), aged between 50 and 64 years. The factors compared were prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 comedications with cumulative defined daily dose [DDD] per drug over 180), percentage of patients who collected each therapeutic class of drug, and median duration for each drug class (based on DDD). Results were stratified by sex. Results Polypharmacy was more common in HIV-positive males than in the male general population (8.9% vs 4.4%, P=0.010). Polypharmacy was also higher in HIV-positive females than in the female general population (11.3% vs 3.4%, P=0.002). Percentage of HIV-positive patients receiving analgesics, anti-infectives, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and respiratory drugs was higher than in the general population, with significant differences between male populations. No differences were observed in proportion of patients receiving cardiovascular drugs. The estimated number of treatment days (median DDDs) were higher in HIV-positive males than in males from the general population for anti-infectives (32.2 vs 20.0, P<0.001) and CNS agents (238.7 vs 120.0, P=0.002). A higher percentage of HIV-positive males than males from the general population received sulfonamides (17.1% vs 1.5%, P<0.001), macrolides (37.1% vs 24.9%, P=0.020), and quinolones (34.3% vs 21.2%, P=0.009). Conclusion Polypharmacy is more common in HIV-positive older males and females than in similarly aged members of the general population. HIV-positive patients received

  17. Polypharmacy in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gracia, Mercedes; Crusells-Canales, María José; Armesto-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Compaired-Turlán, Vicente; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José

    2016-01-01

    Background The percentage of older HIV-positive patients is growing, with an increase in age-related comorbidities and concomitant medication. Objectives To quantify polypharmacy and profile types of non-antiretroviral drugs collected at community pharmacies in 2014 by HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy and to compare these findings with those of the general population. Methods HIV-positive patients (n=199) were compared with a group of patients from the general population (n=8,172), aged between 50 and 64 years. The factors compared were prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 comedications with cumulative defined daily dose [DDD] per drug over 180), percentage of patients who collected each therapeutic class of drug, and median duration for each drug class (based on DDD). Results were stratified by sex. Results Polypharmacy was more common in HIV-positive males than in the male general population (8.9% vs 4.4%, P=0.010). Polypharmacy was also higher in HIV-positive females than in the female general population (11.3% vs 3.4%, P=0.002). Percentage of HIV-positive patients receiving analgesics, anti-infectives, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and respiratory drugs was higher than in the general population, with significant differences between male populations. No differences were observed in proportion of patients receiving cardiovascular drugs. The estimated number of treatment days (median DDDs) were higher in HIV-positive males than in males from the general population for anti-infectives (32.2 vs 20.0, P<0.001) and CNS agents (238.7 vs 120.0, P=0.002). A higher percentage of HIV-positive males than males from the general population received sulfonamides (17.1% vs 1.5%, P<0.001), macrolides (37.1% vs 24.9%, P=0.020), and quinolones (34.3% vs 21.2%, P=0.009). Conclusion Polypharmacy is more common in HIV-positive older males and females than in similarly aged members of the general population. HIV-positive patients received

  18. Ovarian cancer symptom awareness and anticipated delayed presentation in a population sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While ovarian cancer is recognised as having identifiable early symptoms, understanding of the key determinants of symptom awareness and early presentation is limited. A population-based survey of ovarian cancer awareness and anticipated delayed presentation with symptoms was conducted as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP). Methods Women aged over 50 years were recruited using random probability sampling (n = 1043). Computer-assisted telephone interviews were used to administer measures including ovarian cancer symptom recognition, anticipated time to presentation with ovarian symptoms, health beliefs (perceived risk, perceived benefits/barriers to early presentation, confidence in symptom detection, ovarian cancer worry), and demographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the contribution of independent variables to anticipated presentation (categorised as < 3 weeks or ≥ 3 weeks). Results The most well-recognised symptoms of ovarian cancer were post-menopausal bleeding (87.4%), and persistent pelvic (79.0%) and abdominal (85.0%) pain. Symptoms associated with eating difficulties and changes in bladder/bowel habits were recognised by less than half the sample. Lower symptom awareness was significantly associated with older age (p ≤ 0.001), being single (p ≤ 0.001), lower education (p ≤ 0.01), and lack of personal experience of ovarian cancer (p ≤ 0.01). The odds of anticipating a delay in time to presentation of ≥ 3 weeks were significantly increased in women educated to degree level (OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.61 – 4.33, p ≤ 0.001), women who reported more practical barriers (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34 – 1.91, p ≤ 0.001) and more emotional barriers (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.06 – 1.40, p ≤ 0.01), and those less confident in symptom detection (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.42 – 0.73, p ≤ 0.001), but not in those who reported lower

  19. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A.; Coble, Michael D.; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. PMID:21067986

  20. A method for estimating population sex ratio for sage-grouse using noninvasive genetic samples.

    PubMed

    Baumgardt, J A; Goldberg, C S; Reese, K P; Connelly, J W; Musil, D D; Garton, E O; Waits, L P

    2013-05-01

    Population sex ratio is an important metric for wildlife management and conservation, but estimates can be difficult to obtain, particularly for sexually monomorphic species or for species that differ in detection probability between the sexes. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a common method for identifying sex from sources such as hair, feathers or faeces, and is a potential source for estimating sex ratio. If, however, PCR success is sex-biased, naively using NGS could lead to a biased sex ratio estimator. We measured PCR success rates and error rates for amplifying the W and Z chromosomes from greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) faecal samples, examined how success and error rates for sex identification changed in response to faecal sample exposure time, and used simulation models to evaluate precision and bias of three sex assignment criteria for estimating population sex ratio with variable sample sizes and levels of PCR replication. We found PCR success rates were higher for females than males and that choice of sex assignment criteria influenced the bias and precision of corresponding sex ratio estimates. Our simulations demonstrate the importance of considering the interplay between the sex bias of PCR success, number of genotyping replicates, sample size, true population sex ratio and accuracy of assignment rules for designing future studies. Our results suggest that using faecal DNA for estimating the sex ratio of sage-grouse populations has great potential and, with minor adaptations and similar marker evaluations, should be applicable to numerous species.

  1. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A; Coble, Michael D; Parson, Walther

    2011-03-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. PMID:21067986

  2. Statistical issues encountered in the comparison of health-related quality of life in diseased patients to published general population norms: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rose, M S; Koshman, M L; Spreng, S; Sheldon, R

    1999-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to illustrate the statistical problems encountered when comparing health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) in a diseased group to general population norms, and (2) to define age- and gender-standardized dichotomous indicator variables for each health concept and show that these indicator variables facilitate comparisons between the diseased sample and the general population. Our "diseased" group consisted of 136 sequentially consenting patients referred to the syncope clinic for assessment and treatment. Participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire before undergoing diagnostic testing. General population norms for the SF-36 are available from the responses of 2474 participants in the National Survey of Functional Health Status, conducted in 1990 in the United States. Comparison of the SF-36 in a diseased sample with general population norms is difficult, owing to skewed and unusual distributions in both groups. In addition, making comparisons within age and gender strata is difficult if the within strata sample size is small. We propose a dichotomous indicator variable for each health concept that classifies an individual as having impaired health if he or she scored lower than the 25th percentile for the appropriate age and gender general population strata. By definition, the prevalence of impaired health in the general population is 25% for all eight health concepts. Comparison between the eight health-concept variables is easy because the population norm is the same for each of them. These indicator variables are age and gender adjusted, so that even if the sample did not have the age and gender distribution as the general population, comparisons can still be made with the value of 25.

  3. Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using FOURIER series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, B.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.; Lake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A nonparametric, robust density estimation method is explored for the analysis of right-angle distances from a transect line to the objects sighted. The method is based on the FOURIER series expansion of a probability density function over an interval. With only mild assumptions, a general population density estimator of wide applicability is obtained.

  4. Random sparse sampling strategy using stochastic simulation and estimation for a population pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-hui; Wang, Kun; Huang, Ji-han; Xu, Ling; Li, Lu-jin; Sheng, Yu-cheng; Zheng, Qing-shan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the stochastic simulation and estimation method to evaluate the effects of sample size and the number of samples per individual on the model development and evaluation. The pharmacokinetic parameters and inter- and intra-individual variation were obtained from a population pharmacokinetic model of clinical trials of amlodipine. Stochastic simulation and estimation were performed to evaluate the efficiencies of different sparse sampling scenarios to estimate the compartment model. Simulated data were generated a 1000 times and three candidate models were used to fit the 1000 data sets. Fifty-five kinds of sparse sampling scenarios were investigated and compared. The results showed that, 60 samples with three points and 20 samples with five points are recommended, and the quantitative methodology of stochastic simulation and estimation is valuable for efficiently estimating the compartment model and can be used for other similar model development and evaluation approaches. PMID:24493975

  5. Inference of Super-exponential Human Population Growth via Efficient Computation of the Site Frequency Spectrum for Generalized Models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The site frequency spectrum (SFS) and other genetic summary statistics are at the heart of many population genetic studies. Previous studies have shown that human populations have undergone a recent epoch of fast growth in effective population size. These studies assumed that growth is exponential, and the ensuing models leave an excess amount of extremely rare variants. This suggests that human populations might have experienced a recent growth with speed faster than exponential. Recent studies have introduced a generalized growth model where the growth speed can be faster or slower than exponential. However, only simulation approaches were available for obtaining summary statistics under such generalized models. In this study, we provide expressions to accurately and efficiently evaluate the SFS and other summary statistics under generalized models, which we further implement in a publicly available software. Investigating the power to infer deviation of growth from being exponential, we observed that adequate sample sizes facilitate accurate inference; e.g., a sample of 3000 individuals with the amount of data expected from exome sequencing allows observing and accurately estimating growth with speed deviating by ≥10% from that of exponential. Applying our inference framework to data from the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, we found that a model with a generalized growth epoch fits the observed SFS significantly better than the equivalent model with exponential growth (P-value [Formula: see text]). The estimated growth speed significantly deviates from exponential (P-value [Formula: see text]), with the best-fit estimate being of growth speed 12% faster than exponential.

  6. Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population.

  7. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. Patients or Participants: 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18–2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40–1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. Citation: Koyanagi A, Stickley A. The association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms in the general population: a global perspective. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1875–1885. PMID:26085291

  8. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Åke

    2016-02-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a random sample (n = 2,739) was patch tested to PPD. Overall, 5,286 individuals (50.9%) reported having used hair colorants at least once in their lifetime (78% female, 20% male), and 35% had used hair colorants during the last 12 months. Hair colorant avoidance because of any skin problem during the lifetime was reported by 6%. Black henna tattoos had been used by 5.5% during their lifetime. The prevalence of PPD contact allergy was 0.8% (95% confidence interval 0.6-1.0%), with no statistically significant association with gender or hair dye use. The prevalence of PPD in black henna tattoo users was 3.2% versus 0.6% in nonusers (P < 0.001). A clinically relevant positive patch test reaction to PPD related to hair coloring products was found in 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0.0-0.2%). A significant association with PPD contact allergy was observed for subjects who had black henna tattoos in their lifetime, with an age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 9.33 (95% confidence interval 3.45-25.26, P < 0.001). Black henna tattoos are an important risk factor for PPD contact allergy. PMID:26802237

  9. Tension-type headache in Parma's adult general population: a focus on age of onset.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian C; Torelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the age of onset for tension-type headache in a population-based sample in the Parma, distinguishing its different subtypes and considering definite and probable diagnoses. Age of headache onset is a useful clinical feature for differential diagnosis between primary headaches and between primary and secondary headache forms. A total of 904 subjects representative of the Parma's adult general population were interviewed face to face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire specially designed for the diagnosis of primary headaches according to the ICHD-II criteria. In the majority of subjects diagnosed with definite tension-type headache, age of onset was 39 years or less, while mean age of onset was 29.7 years (SD 16.3 years, range 5-79 years), the median being 25 years. Both infrequent and frequent episodic definite tension-type headache first occurred in the majority of cases in the second, third and fourth decades. Subjects with chronic definite tension-type headache reported a later onset in life (i.e. fourth, fifth and sixth decades). In our study, mean age of onset for probable tension-type headache was 23.7 years (SD 9.2 years, range 10-40 years) and the median was 22 years. In no case did we find significant gender differences. Our study results are similar to most of those reported in the literature. Further research needs to be done in the Italian epidemiological context, given the lack of literature reports on this topic.

  10. Transition Densities and Sample Frequency Spectra of Diffusion Processes with Selection and Variable Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Daniel; Steinrücken, Matthias; Song, Yun S.; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Advances in empirical population genetics have made apparent the need for models that simultaneously account for selection and demography. To address this need, we here study the Wright–Fisher diffusion under selection and variable effective population size. In the case of genic selection and piecewise-constant effective population sizes, we obtain the transition density by extending a recently developed method for computing an accurate spectral representation for a constant population size. Utilizing this extension, we show how to compute the sample frequency spectrum in the presence of genic selection and an arbitrary number of instantaneous changes in the effective population size. We also develop an alternate, efficient algorithm for computing the sample frequency spectrum using a moment-based approach. We apply these methods to answer the following questions: If neutrality is incorrectly assumed when there is selection, what effects does it have on demographic parameter estimation? Can the impact of negative selection be observed in populations that undergo strong exponential growth? PMID:25873633

  11. Population Education in Science: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This booklet consists of six sample lessons integrating population education into science instruction. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in terms of content and teaching…

  12. Autosomal STR allele frequencies for the CODIS system from a large random population sample in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Ismael A; Villouta, Pamela; Herrera, Sandra; Melo, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    The thirteen autosomal STR loci of the CODIS system were typed from DNA of 732 unrelated male individuals sampled from different locations in Chile. This is the first report of allele frequencies for the thirteen STRs loci defined in the CODIS system from the Chilean population.

  13. Population Education in Health and Home Economics: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This booklet contains five sample lessons integrating population education into health and home economics instruction. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in content and teaching…

  14. Population Education in Social Studies: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This booklet consists of 10 sample lessons integrating population education into the social studies. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in terms of content and teaching…

  15. SunSmart? Skin Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behaviour in a British Population Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, A.; Waller, J.; Hiom, S.; Swanston, D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has risen rapidly in the UK over the last 20 years, prompting public health organizations to try and raise awareness of the dangers of sun exposure and the need to practice sun-safe behaviour. This study aimed to assess baseline levels of sun-safe knowledge and behaviour in a British population-representative sample,…

  16. Population and Family Education. Draft Sample Instructional Materials. Science/Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The sample first-draft materials, produced by participants at a UNESCO regional workshop on population and family life, are designed as a reference tool to be used by curriculum developers. Divided into two major parts -- in biological science and in mathematics -- the teaching guide is for secondary level students. The first part, consisting of…

  17. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  18. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  19. Temperament, Environment, and Antisocial Behavior in a Population Sample of Preadolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; De Winter, Andrea F.; Ormel, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N = 2230).…

  20. A Systematic Evaluation of ADHD and Comorbid Psychopathology in a Population-Based Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Heather E.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Todd, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Clinical and population samples demonstrate that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs with other disorders. Comorbid disorder clustering within ADHD subtypes is not well studied. Method: Latent class analysis (LCA) examined the co-occurrence of DSM-IV ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD),…

  1. Precision of systematic and random sampling in clustered populations: habitat patches and aggregating organisms.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Richard; Burch, Paul; Matthews, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations of plants and animals spatially cluster because (1) suitable habitat is patchy, and (2) within suitable habitat, individuals aggregate further into clusters of higher density. We compare the precision of random and systematic field sampling survey designs under these two processes of species clustering. Second, we evaluate the performance of 13 estimators for the variance of the sample mean from a systematic survey. Replicated simulated surveys, as counts from 100 transects, allocated either randomly or systematically within the study region, were used to estimate population density in six spatial point populations including habitat patches and Matérn circular clustered aggregations of organisms, together and in combination. The standard one-start aligned systematic survey design, a uniform 10 x 10 grid of transects, was much more precise. Variances of the 10 000 replicated systematic survey mean densities were one-third to one-fifth of those from randomly allocated transects, implying transect sample sizes giving equivalent precision by random survey would need to be three to five times larger. Organisms being restricted to patches of habitat was alone sufficient to yield this precision advantage for the systematic design. But this improved precision for systematic sampling in clustered populations is underestimated by standard variance estimators used to compute confidence intervals. True variance for the survey sample mean was computed from the variance of 10 000 simulated survey mean estimates. Testing 10 published and three newly proposed variance estimators, the two variance estimators (v) that corrected for inter-transect correlation (ν₈ and ν(W)) were the most accurate and also the most precise in clustered populations. These greatly outperformed the two "post-stratification" variance estimators (ν₂ and ν₃) that are now more commonly applied in systematic surveys. Similar variance estimator performance rankings were found with

  2. Precision of systematic and random sampling in clustered populations: habitat patches and aggregating organisms.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Richard; Burch, Paul; Matthews, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations of plants and animals spatially cluster because (1) suitable habitat is patchy, and (2) within suitable habitat, individuals aggregate further into clusters of higher density. We compare the precision of random and systematic field sampling survey designs under these two processes of species clustering. Second, we evaluate the performance of 13 estimators for the variance of the sample mean from a systematic survey. Replicated simulated surveys, as counts from 100 transects, allocated either randomly or systematically within the study region, were used to estimate population density in six spatial point populations including habitat patches and Matérn circular clustered aggregations of organisms, together and in combination. The standard one-start aligned systematic survey design, a uniform 10 x 10 grid of transects, was much more precise. Variances of the 10 000 replicated systematic survey mean densities were one-third to one-fifth of those from randomly allocated transects, implying transect sample sizes giving equivalent precision by random survey would need to be three to five times larger. Organisms being restricted to patches of habitat was alone sufficient to yield this precision advantage for the systematic design. But this improved precision for systematic sampling in clustered populations is underestimated by standard variance estimators used to compute confidence intervals. True variance for the survey sample mean was computed from the variance of 10 000 simulated survey mean estimates. Testing 10 published and three newly proposed variance estimators, the two variance estimators (v) that corrected for inter-transect correlation (ν₈ and ν(W)) were the most accurate and also the most precise in clustered populations. These greatly outperformed the two "post-stratification" variance estimators (ν₂ and ν₃) that are now more commonly applied in systematic surveys. Similar variance estimator performance rankings were found with

  3. The Musicality of Non-Musicians: An Index for Assessing Musical Sophistication in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of ‘musical sophistication’ which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement. PMID:24586929

  4. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  5. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  6. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  7. Scoring the Icecap-a capability instrument. Estimation of a UK general population tariff.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Terry N; Huynh, Elisabeth; Peters, Tim J; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Clemens, Sam; Moody, Alison; Coast, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a best-worst scaling (BWS) study to value the Investigating Choice Experiments Capability Measure for Adults (ICECAP-A), a new capability measure among adults, in a UK setting. A main effects plan plus its foldover was used to estimate weights for each of the four levels of all five attributes. The BWS study was administered to 413 randomly sampled individuals, together with sociodemographic and other questions. Scale-adjusted latent class analyses identified two preference and two (variance) scale classes. Ability to characterize preference and scale heterogeneity was limited, but data quality was good, and the final model exhibited a high pseudo-r-squared. After adjusting for heterogeneity, a population tariff was estimated. This showed that 'attachment' and 'stability' each account for around 22% of the space, and 'autonomy', 'achievement' and 'enjoyment' account for around 18% each. Across all attributes, greater value was placed on the difference between the lowest levels of capability than between the highest. This tariff will enable ICECAP-A to be used in economic evaluation both within the field of health and across public policy generally.

  8. PCDD/PCDF, dl-PCB and PBDE serum levels of Slovak general population.

    PubMed

    Chovancová, Jana; Conka, Kamil; Fabišiková, Anna; Sejáková, Zuzana Stachová; Dömötörová, Milena; Drobná, Beáta; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2012-09-01

    Blood serum specimens from 81 non-occupationally exposed adults residing in four areas close to municipal and waste incinerators as well as metallurgical industry plant and 44 adult subjects coming from control area of Slovakia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). The concentration of total WHO(98)TEQ PCDD/F/dl-PCBs in whole group of donors from areas where known sources causing dioxin contamination are present was significantly higher than in control group of donors (p<0.001). Correlation between the age of donors and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels was confirmed (Spearman's r(PCDD/Fs)=0.543, r(dl-PCBs)=0.521, p<0.001). Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the PBDE congeners in human serum of Slovak general population. The total concentration (congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) in control group was approximately 1.5-times higher in comparison to that of residents coming from areas with supposed environmental pollution. The most abundant congeners in all samples were BDE-47 and BDE-153 with median values of 0.24 ng g(-1) lipid and 0.23ngg(-1) lipid, respectively. The positive association between PBDE values and age of donors was not found.

  9. Migraine and tension-type headache in a general population: psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, B K

    1992-12-01

    In a cross-sectional study of headache disorders in a representative general population, the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache was assessed in relation to various psychosocial factors. The random sample comprised 1000 25-64 year old men and women of whom 740 attended the investigation. The headache disorders were classified on the basis of a clinical interview, a physical and a neurological examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society. None of the sociodemographic variables: marital status, cohabitation, educational level, occupational category or employment status were significantly associated with migraine or tension-type headache. In the univariate analyses tension-type headache was significantly associated with a high Neuroticism score on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire whereas migraine was not. Variables on work conditions and psychosocial factors significantly associated with the headache disorders in univariate analyses were subjected to multivariate analysis. Migraine was significantly associated with exposure to chemicals and fumes at work in women and poor self-appraisal of health in men. In the univariate analyses tension-type headache was significantly related to a series of psychosocial variables. In the multivariate analyses it remained associated with a current feeling of fatigue in both sexes, time-pressure at work in women and exposure to fumes in men.

  10. [Smoking habits in France among general practitioners and the general male population over a twenty-five year period (1966-1991)].

    PubMed

    Fréour, P; Tessier, J F

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys are presented regarding smoking habits among two populations: the general practitioners in France since 1966 to 1991 and the general population of adult men in the same period of time. We add some European and foreign surveys in the same groups of population. These data show a regular and rather slow reduction of percentage of smokers during the last 25 years. We can see, in general, the behaviour of the general practitioners are in advance comparing with the general population of ten to twenty years. If we compare the French data with the foreign one we can see that France is not in a very good situation regarding the decreasing tendency of smoking among the general practitioners and in the general population. This study justify the strengthening of the fight against smoking among adults and doctors. We remind that the very roots of the tabagism are in the youth: specific studies might take in account this core problem. PMID:8319110

  11. A ratio chain-type exponential estimator for finite population mean using double sampling.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mursala

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we have proposed a ratio chain-type exponential estimator for finite population mean of the study variable under double sampling scheme using auxiliary variables. The large sample properties of the suggested strategy are derived up to first order, of approximation, and its competence conditions are carried out under which the suggested estimator is performed better than the other existing estimators discussed in the literature. An empirical study shows that the suggested strategy is more efficient than the other relevant competing estimators under two phase sampling scheme.

  12. Characterizing spatial structure of sediment E. coli populations to inform sampling design.

    PubMed

    Piorkowski, Gregory S; Jamieson, Rob C; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Bezanson, Greg S; Yost, Chris K

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli can persist in streambed sediments and influence water quality monitoring programs through their resuspension into overlying waters. This study examined the spatial patterns in E. coli concentration and population structure within streambed morphological features during baseflow and following stormflow to inform sampling strategies for representative characterization of E. coli populations within a stream reach. E. coli concentrations in bed sediments were significantly different (p = 0.002) among monitoring sites during baseflow, and significant interactive effects (p = 0.002) occurred among monitoring sites and morphological features following stormflow. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression revealed that water velocity and effective particle size (D 10) explained E. coli concentration during baseflow, whereas sediment organic carbon, water velocity and median particle diameter (D 50) were important explanatory variables following stormflow. Principle Coordinate Analysis illustrated the site-scale differences in sediment E. coli populations between disconnected stream segments. Also, E. coli populations were similar among depositional features within a reach, but differed in relation to high velocity features (e.g., riffles). Canonical correspondence analysis resolved that E. coli population structure was primarily explained by spatial (26.9–31.7 %) over environmental variables (9.2–13.1 %). Spatial autocorrelation existed among monitoring sites and morphological features for both sampling events, and gradients in mean particle diameter and water velocity influenced E. coli population structure for the baseflow and stormflow sampling events, respectively. Representative characterization of streambed E. coli requires sampling of depositional and high velocity environments to accommodate strain selectivity among these features owing to sediment and water velocity heterogeneity.

  13. Patients’ perception of differences in general practitioners’ attitudes toward immigrants compared to the general population: Qualicopc Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534

  14. Chinese Version of the EQ-5D Preference Weights: Applicability in a Chinese General Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunmei; Gong, Yanhong; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Shengchao; Yin, Xiaoxv; Dong, Xiaoxin; Li, Wenzhen; Cao, Shiyi; Mkandawire, Naomie; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the reliability, validity and sensitivity of Chinese version of the EQ-5D preference weights in Chinese general people, examine the differences between the China value set and the UK, Japan and Korea value sets, and provide methods for evaluating and comparing the EQ-5D value sets of different countries. Methods A random sample of 2984 community residents (15 years or older) were interviewed using a questionnaire including the EQ-5D scale. Level of agreement, convergent validity, known-groups validity and sensitivity of the EQ-5D China, United Kingdom (UK), Japan and Korea value sets were determined. Results The mean EQ-5D index scores were significantly (P<0.05) different among the UK (0.964), Japan (0.981), Korea (0.987), and China (0.985) weights. High level of agreement (intraclass correlations coefficients > 0.75) and convergent validity (Pearson’s correlation coefficients > 0.95) were found between each paired schemes. The EQ-5D index scores discriminated equally well for the four versions between levels of 10 known-groups (P< 0.05). The effect size and the relative efficiency statistics showed that the China weights had better sensitivity. Conclusions The China EQ-5D preference weights show equivalent psychometric properties with those from the UK, Japan and Korea weights while slightly more sensitive to known group differences than those from the Japan and Korea weights. Considering both psychometric and sociocultural issues, the China scheme should be a priority as an EQ-5D based measure of the health related quality of life in Chinese general population. PMID:27711169

  15. Population Screening Using Sewage Reveals Pan-Resistant Bacteria in Hospital and Community Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mileguir, Fernando; Azar, Roberto; Smollan, Gill; Belausov, Natasha; Rahav, Galia; Shamiss, Ari; Mendelson, Ella; Keller, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical samples in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Hospitals and Community sewage had similar percentage of positive samplings for blaKPC and blaNDM-1. VRE was found to be more abundant in sewage in Israel than MRSA but there were more locations positive for MRSA and VRE bacteria in Hospital sewage than in the Community. Therefore, our upgrade of the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates can be a useful tool for routine screening and monitoring of the population for pan-resistant bacteria using sewage. PMID:27780222

  16. Prognostic Value of Obesity on Both Overall Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Garcia, Isabel; Simarro-Rueda, Marta; Carbayo-Herencia, Julio Antonio; Divisón-Garrote, Juan Antonio; Artigao-Ródenas, Luis Miguel; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Martínez-St. John, Damian Robert James; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity represents an important health problem and its association with cardiovascular risk factors is well-known. The aim of this work was to assess the correlation between obesity and mortality (both, all-cause mortality and the combined variable of all-cause mortality plus the appearance of a non-fatal first cardiovascular event) in a general population sample from the south-east of Spain. Materials and Methods This prospective cohort study used stratified and randomized two-stage sampling. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2] as a predictive variable of mortality and cardiovascular events was assessed after controlling for age, sex, cardiovascular disease history, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, high-density lipoprotein/triglycerides ratio, total cholesterol and smoking with the Cox regression model. Results The mean follow-up time of the 1,248 participants was 10.6 years. The incidence of all-cause mortality during this period was 97 deaths for every 10,000 person/years (95% CI: 80–113) and the incidence of all-cause mortality+cardiovascular morbidity was 143 cases for every 10,000 person/years (95% CI: 124–163). A BMI ≥35 kg/m2 yielded a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.11–3.42) in comparison to non-obese subjects (BMI <30 kg/m2). For the combination of cardiovascular morbidity plus all-cause mortality, a BMI ≥35 kg/m2 had a hazard ratio of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.15–2.93) compared to non-obese subjects. Conclusions A BMI ≥35 kg/m2 is an important predictor of both overall mortality and of the combination of cardiovascular morbidity plus all-cause mortality. PMID:25992570

  17. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein is associated with increased aortic stiffness in a general population.

    PubMed

    Mayer, O; Seidlerová, J; Wohlfahrt, P; Filipovský, J; Vaněk, J; Cífková, R; Windrichová, J; Topolčan, O; Knapen, M H J; Drummen, N E A; Vermeer, C

    2016-07-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a natural inhibitor of calcification, strongly correlates with the extent of coronary calcification. Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the activation of MGP. The nonphosphorylated-uncarboxylated isoform of MGP (dp-ucMGP) reflects the status of this vitamin. We investigated whether there is an association between dp-ucMGP and stiffness of elastic and muscular-type large arteries in a random sample from the general population. In a cross-sectional design, we analyzed 1087 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Aortic and femoro-popliteal pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured using a Sphygmocor device. Dp-ucMGP concentrations were assessed in freshly frozen samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using the InaKtif MGP iSYS pre-commercial kit developed by IDS and VitaK. Aortic PWV significantly (P<0.0001) increased across the dp-ucMGP quartiles. After adjustment for all potential confounders, aortic PWV independently correlated with dp-ucMGP (with beta coefficient (s.d.) 11.61 (5.38) and P-value=0.031). In a categorized manner, subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP (⩾ 671 pmol l(-1)) had a higher risk of elevated aortic PWV, with corresponding adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.73 (1.17-2.5). In contrast, no relation between dp-ucMGP and femoro-popliteal PWV was found. In conclusion, increased dp-ucMGP, which is a circulating biomarker of vitamin K status and vascular calcification, is independently associated with aortic stiffness, but not with stiffness of distal muscular-type arteries.

  18. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein is associated with increased aortic stiffness in a general population.

    PubMed

    Mayer, O; Seidlerová, J; Wohlfahrt, P; Filipovský, J; Vaněk, J; Cífková, R; Windrichová, J; Topolčan, O; Knapen, M H J; Drummen, N E A; Vermeer, C

    2016-07-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a natural inhibitor of calcification, strongly correlates with the extent of coronary calcification. Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the activation of MGP. The nonphosphorylated-uncarboxylated isoform of MGP (dp-ucMGP) reflects the status of this vitamin. We investigated whether there is an association between dp-ucMGP and stiffness of elastic and muscular-type large arteries in a random sample from the general population. In a cross-sectional design, we analyzed 1087 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Aortic and femoro-popliteal pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured using a Sphygmocor device. Dp-ucMGP concentrations were assessed in freshly frozen samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using the InaKtif MGP iSYS pre-commercial kit developed by IDS and VitaK. Aortic PWV significantly (P<0.0001) increased across the dp-ucMGP quartiles. After adjustment for all potential confounders, aortic PWV independently correlated with dp-ucMGP (with beta coefficient (s.d.) 11.61 (5.38) and P-value=0.031). In a categorized manner, subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP (⩾ 671 pmol l(-1)) had a higher risk of elevated aortic PWV, with corresponding adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.73 (1.17-2.5). In contrast, no relation between dp-ucMGP and femoro-popliteal PWV was found. In conclusion, increased dp-ucMGP, which is a circulating biomarker of vitamin K status and vascular calcification, is independently associated with aortic stiffness, but not with stiffness of distal muscular-type arteries. PMID:26016598

  19. Subthreshold and threshold DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in Singapore: Results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siau Pheng; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2015-05-01

    Previous nationally representative studies have reported prevalence of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, subthreshold and threshold GAD expressions remain poorly understood. The current study examined the prevalence, correlates and co-morbidity of a broader diagnosis of GAD in Singapore. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) was an epidemiological survey conducted in the population (N=6616) aged 18 years and older. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to establish mental disorder diagnoses. The lifetime prevalence for subthreshold GAD (2.1%) and threshold GAD (1.5%) in the current sample was found to be lower than in Western populations. Younger age group, Indian ethnicity, previously married, chronic physical conditions, and being unemployed were associated with higher odds of having more severe expression of generalized anxiety. The relatively lower prevalence rate of subthreshold GAD expression suggests possible cultural interferences in the reporting and manifestation of anxiety symptomatology. Despite the low prevalence, significant impacts on functioning and comorbidity among subthreshold generalized anxiety cases indicate the importance of early treatment to ensure a better prognosis.

  20. Attitudes toward minorities: a comparison of homosexuals and the general population.

    PubMed

    Beran, N J; Claybaker, C; Dillon, C; Haverkamp, R J

    1992-01-01

    As a prelude to a media campaign to improve the public image of gays, a gay rights organization in Columbus, Ohio, constructed a questionnaire to assess perceptions of and attitudes toward gays and various other minority groups including blacks, Jews, women, communists, and recovering alcoholics. The questionnaire was administered to two samples in the central Ohio area: a sample of the greater Columbus population at large, and a sample of gays and lesbians. This article reports on the comparative findings from these two samples.

  1. Atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis in general practice and the open population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pols, D. H. J.; Wartna, J. B.; Moed, H.; van Alphen, E. I.; Bohnen, A. M.; Bindels, P. J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether significant differences exist between the self-reported prevalence of atopic disorders in the open population compared with physician diagnosed prevalence of atopic disorders in general practice. Methods Medline (OvidSP), PubMed Publisher, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register databases were systematically reviewed for articles providing data on the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in a GP setting. Studies were only included when they had a cross-sectional or cohort design and included more than 100 children (aged 0-18 years) in a general practice setting. All ISAAC studies (i.e. the open population) that geographically matched a study selected from the first search, were also included. A quality assessment was conducted. The primary outcome measures were prevalence of eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis in children aged 0-18 years. Results The overall quality of the included studies was good. The annual and lifetime prevalences of the atopic disorders varied greatly in both general practice and the open population. On average, the prevalence of atopic disorders was higher in the open population. Conclusion There are significant differences between the self-reported prevalence of atopic disorders in the open population compared with physician diagnosed prevalence of atopic disorders in general practice. Data obtained in the open population cannot simply be extrapolated to the general practice setting. This should be taken into account when considering a research topic or requirements for policy development. GPs should be aware of the possible misclassification of allergic disorders in their practice. Key PointsEpidemiological data on atopic disorders in children can be obtained from various sources, each having its own advantages and limitations.On average, the prevalence of atopic disorders is higher in the open population.GPs should take into account the possible

  2. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  3. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon. PMID:25986501

  4. Simulated Tempering Distributed Replica Sampling, Virtual Replica Exchange, and Other Generalized-Ensemble Methods for Conformational Sampling.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Sarah; Neale, Chris; Pomès, Régis

    2009-10-13

    Generalized-ensemble algorithms in temperature space have become popular tools to enhance conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations. A random walk in temperature leads to a corresponding random walk in potential energy, which can be used to cross over energetic barriers and overcome the problem of quasi-nonergodicity. In this paper, we introduce two novel methods: simulated tempering distributed replica sampling (STDR) and virtual replica exchange (VREX). These methods are designed to address the practical issues inherent in the replica exchange (RE), simulated tempering (ST), and serial replica exchange (SREM) algorithms. RE requires a large, dedicated, and homogeneous cluster of CPUs to function efficiently when applied to complex systems. ST and SREM both have the drawback of requiring extensive initial simulations, possibly adaptive, for the calculation of weight factors or potential energy distribution functions. STDR and VREX alleviate the need for lengthy initial simulations, and for synchronization and extensive communication between replicas. Both methods are therefore suitable for distributed or heterogeneous computing platforms. We perform an objective comparison of all five algorithms in terms of both implementation issues and sampling efficiency. We use disordered peptides in explicit water as test systems, for a total simulation time of over 42 μs. Efficiency is defined in terms of both structural convergence and temperature diffusion, and we show that these definitions of efficiency are in fact correlated. Importantly, we find that ST-based methods exhibit faster temperature diffusion and correspondingly faster convergence of structural properties compared to RE-based methods. Within the RE-based methods, VREX is superior to both SREM and RE. On the basis of our observations, we conclude that ST is ideal for simple systems, while STDR is well-suited for complex systems.

  5. Stellar population properties for a sample of hard X-ray AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, L.; Calvi, V.; Masetti, N.; Parisi, P.; Landi, R.; Maiorano, E.; Minniti, D.; Galaz, G.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to study the stellar population of galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We studied a subsample of hard X-ray emitting AGNs from the INTEGRAL and Swift catalogs, which were previously identified and characterized through optical spectroscopy. Our analysis provides complementary information, namely age and metallicity, which is necessary to complete the panoramic view of these interesting objects. Methods: We selected hard X-ray emitting objects, identified as AGNs, by checking their optical spectra in search of absorption lines suitable for the stellar population analysis. We obtained a final sample consisting of 20 objects with a redshift lower than 0.3. We used the full-spectrum fitting method; particularly, we use penalized pixel method and apply the PPXF code. After masking all the regions affected by emission lines, we fitted the spectra with the MILES single stellar population templates, and we derived mass-weighted ages and metallicities. Results: Most of the objects in our sample show an old stellar population; however, three of them are characterized by a bimodal distribution with a non-negligible contribution from young stars. The values of the mass-weighted metallicity span a wide range with most of them slightly above the solar value. No relations between the stellar population properties and the morphological ones have been found. Table 1 and Figs. 3-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Characterization and Correction of Error in Genome-Wide IBD Estimation for Samples with Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of the genome that is shared identical by descent (IBD) between pairs of individuals is often estimated in studies involving genome-wide SNP data. These estimates can be used to check pedigrees, estimate heritability, and adjust association analyses. We focus on the method of moments technique as implemented in PLINK [Purcell et al., 2007] and other software that estimates the proportions of the genome at which two individuals share 0, 1, or 2 alleles IBD. This technique is based on the assumption that the study sample is drawn from a single, homogeneous, randomly mating population. This assumption is violated if pedigree founders are drawn from multiple populations or include admixed individuals. In the presence of population structure, the method of moments estimator has an inflated variance and can be biased because it relies on sample-based allele frequency estimates. In the case of the PLINK estimator, which truncates genome-wide sharing estimates at zero and one to generate biologically interpretable results, the bias is most often towards over-estimation of relatedness between ancestrally similar individuals. Using simulated pedigrees, we are able to demonstrate and quantify the behavior of the PLINK method of moments estimator under different population structure conditions. We also propose a simple method based on SNP pruning for improving genome-wide IBD estimates when the assumption of a single, homogeneous population is violated. PMID:23740691

  7. Population data for 17 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Stella, A; D'Ovidio, F D; Frati, P; Lenato, G M; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A

    2013-01-01

    The 17 Y-STR loci included in the AmpFLSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit were analyzed in 98 unrelated healthy males from Apulia (Southern Italy). A total of 97 different haplotypes were identified, of which 96 haplotypes were unique and 1 occurred twice. Allele frequencies for each Y-STR locus in pooled sample and estimated value of gene diversity (GD) were evaluated. The lowest value of GD was observed for DYS392 (0.126) and the highest one (0.936) for DYS385. The HD (haplotype diversity) for the studied Y-STR set showed a value of 0.9994, with an HMP (haplotype match probability) value of 0.0006, while the overall DC was 98.98%. Microvariant alleles were found for the DYS458 and DYS385 markers and sequenced. Furthermore, Φ(st)-based genetic distance computation and pair-wise analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test were carried out. When comparing our population with the Apulia sample previously investigated, the AMOVA analysis detected no evidence for significant differentiation. The comparison with all Italian populations submitted to the YHRD website showed no relevant differences with all Southern Italian populations (San Giorgio La Molara, Belvedere, Trapani and Catania) and significant genetic deviation with all Northern Italian populations (Udine, Biella, La Spezia, Modena, Ravenna, Marche and North Sardinia). Moreover, the other populations and meta-populations belonging to the whole Mediterranean area (Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spain) were different from our Apulia sample. The data were submitted to YHRD. PMID:22960096

  8. Allowable sampling period for consensus control of multiple general linear dynamical agents in random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Tian, Yu-Ping

    2010-11-01

    This article studies the consensus problem for a group of sampled-data general linear dynamical agents over random communication networks. Dynamic output feedback protocols are applied to solve the consensus problem. When the sampling period is sufficiently small, it is shown that as long as the mean topology has globally reachable nodes, the mean square consensus can be achieved by selecting protocol parameters so that n - 1 specified subsystems are simultaneously stabilised. However, when the sampling period is comparatively large, it is revealed that differing from low-order integrator multi-agent systems the consensus problem may be unsolvable. By using the hybrid dynamical system theory, an allowable upper bound of sampling period is further proposed. Two approaches to designing protocols are also provided. Simulations are given to illustrate the validity of the proposed approaches.

  9. A general modeling framework for genome ancestral origins in multiparental populations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaozhi; P Boer, Martin; van Eeuwijk, Fred A

    2014-09-01

    The next generation of QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping populations have been designed with multiple founders, where one to a number of generations of intercrossing are introduced prior to the inbreeding phase to increase accumulated recombinations and thus mapping resolution. Examples of such populations are Collaborative Cross (CC) in mice and Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) lines in Arabidopsis. The genomes of the produced inbred lines are fine-grained random mosaics of the founder genomes. In this article, we present a novel framework for modeling ancestral origin processes along two homologous autosomal chromosomes from mapping populations, which is a major component in the reconstruction of the ancestral origins of each line for QTL mapping. We construct a general continuous time Markov model for ancestral origin processes, where the rate matrix is deduced from the expected densities of various types of junctions (recombination breakpoints). The model can be applied to monoecious populations with or without self-fertilizations and to dioecious populations with two separate sexes. The analytic expressions for map expansions and expected junction densities are obtained for mapping populations that have stage-wise constant mating schemes, such as CC and MAGIC. Our studies on the breeding design of MAGIC populations show that the intercross mating schemes do not matter much for large population size and that the overall expected junction density, and thus map resolution, are approximately proportional to the inverse of the number of founders.

  10. Activity and growth of microbial populations in pressurized deep-sea sediment and animal gut samples.

    PubMed

    Tabor, P S; Deming, J W; Ohwada, K; Colwell, R R

    1982-08-01

    Benthic animals and sediment samples were collected at deep-sea stations in the northwest (3,600-m depth) and southeast (4,300- and 5200-m depths) Atlantic Ocean. Utilization rates of [14C]glutamate (0.67 to 0.74 nmol) in sediment suspensions incubated at in situ temperatures and pressures (3 to 5 degrees C and 360, 430, or 520 atmospheres) were relatively slow, ranging from 0.09 to 0.39 nmol g-1 day-1, whereas rates for pressurized samples of gut suspensions varied widely, ranging from no detectable activity to a rapid rate of 986 nmol g-1 day-1. Gut flora from a holothurian specimen and a fish demonstrated rapid, barophilic substrate utilization, based on relative rates calculated for pressurized samples and samples held at 1 atm (101.325 kPa). Substrate utilization by microbial populations in several sediment samples was not inhibited by in situ pressure. Deep-sea pressures did not restrict growth, measured as doubling time, of culturable bacteria present in a northwest Atlantic sediment sample and in a gut suspension prepared from an abyssal scavenging amphipod. From the results of this study, it was concluded that microbial populations in benthic environments can demonstrate significant metabolic activity under deep-ocean conditions of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, rates of microbial activity in the guts of benthic macrofauna are potentially more rapid than in surrounding deep-sea sediments. PMID:6127054

  11. A generalized mixed effects model of abundance for mark-resight data when sampling is without replacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClintock, B.T.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.; Pryde, M.A.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the mark-resight method for estimating abundance when the number of marked individuals is known has become increasingly popular. By using field-readable bands that may be resighted from a distance, these techniques can be applied to many species, and are particularly useful for relatively small, closed populations. However, due to the different assumptions and general rigidity of the available estimators, researchers must often commit to a particular model without rigorous quantitative justification for model selection based on the data. Here we introduce a nonlinear logit-normal mixed effects model addressing this need for a more generalized framework. Similar to models available for mark-recapture studies, the estimator allows a wide variety of sampling conditions to be parameterized efficiently under a robust sampling design. Resighting rates may be modeled simply or with more complexity by including fixed temporal and random individual heterogeneity effects. Using information theory, the model(s) best supported by the data may be selected from the candidate models proposed. Under this generalized framework, we hope the uncertainty associated with mark-resight model selection will be reduced substantially. We compare our model to other mark-resight abundance estimators when applied to mainland New Zealand robin (Petroica australis) data recently collected in Eglinton Valley, Fiordland National Park and summarize its performance in simulation experiments.

  12. A New Screening Programme for Autism in a General Population of Swedish Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Ekeroth, Gunnar; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evidence from early intervention studies of autism has emphasised the need for early diagnosis. Insight into the early presentation of autism is crucial for early recognition, and routine screening can optimise the possibility for early diagnosis. General population screening was conducted for 2.5-year-old children at child health centres in…

  13. Patients Taking Imatinib for CML Have Similar Risk of Death as General Population

    Cancer.gov

    In an international study, the risk of death for chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated with imatinib (Gleevec) who had been in remission for at least 2 years was not different from that of the general population, according to an article in the March 21, 2011 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  14. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  15. RESIDUES AND METABOLITES OF SELECTED PERSISTENT HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS IN BLOOD SPECIMENS FROM A GENERAL POPULATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Health Statistics collaborated with the National Human Monitoring Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a four-year study to assess the exposure of the general population to selected pesticides through analysis of blood serum and uri...

  16. DEARS Particulate Matter Relationships for Personal, Indoor, Outdoor, and Central Site Settings for a General Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    This analysis provides the initial summary of PM2.5 mass concentrations relationships for all seasons and participants for a general population in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). The summary presented highlights the utility of the new methodol...

  17. Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2010-01-01

    Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

  18. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the Internet: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-04-01

    Internet Web sites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. There is a paucity of studies examining the role of the Internet in general population suicide rates. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the prevalence of Internet users was examined in a cross-national study using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Web sites. The prevalence of Internet users was significantly and positively correlated with general population suicide rates in both sexes. On multiple regression analysis the prevalence of Internet users was independently associated with general population suicide rates in males, and this independent relationship in females approached statistical significance. Caution should be exercised in the attribution of a causal relationship and the direction of this relationship because of the cross-sectional and ecological study design whereby the findings are subject to ecological fallacy. However, the findings identify and support a need for further research. PMID:20465349

  19. Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S. General Population: Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Craig A.; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews survey research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the U.S. general population. Results from survey research conducted over the past quarter century are briefly summarized. Three additional national studies related to injuries, crime victimization, and homicide among intimate partners in the United States are also…

  20. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a Northern Mexican city

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (...

  1. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  2. A Sex-Specific Comparison of Major Depressive Disorder Symptomatology in the Canadian Forces and the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Julie; Kinley, D Jolene; Bolton, James M; Zamorski, Mark A; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare major depressive disorder (MDD) symptomatology within men and women in a large, representative sample of Canadian military personnel and civilians. Method: We used the Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being (Cycle 1.2 and Canadian Forces Supplement) (n = 36 984 and n = 8441, respectively) to compare past-year MDD symptomatology among military and civilian women, and military and civilian men. Logistic regression models were used to determine differences in the types of depressive symptoms endorsed in each group. Results: Men in the military with MDD were at lower odds than men in the general population to endorse numerous symptoms of depression, such as hopelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.44; 99% CI 0.23 to 0.83) and inability to cope (AOR 0.53; 99% CI 0.31 to 0.92). Military women with MDD were at lower odds of thinking about their death (AOR 0.52; 99% CI 0.32 to 0.86), relative to women with MDD in the general population. Conclusion: Different MDD symptomatology among males and females in the military, compared with those in the general population, may reflect selection effects (for example, personality characteristics and patterns of comorbidity) or occupational experiences unique to military personnel. Future research examining the mechanisms behind MDD symptomatology in military personnel and civilians is required. PMID:25007423

  3. Sampling characteristics and calibration of snorkel counts to estimate stream fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Pollock, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Snorkeling is a versatile technique for estimating lotic fish population characteristics; however, few investigators have evaluated its accuracy at population or assemblage levels. We evaluated the accuracy of snorkeling using prepositioned areal electrofishing (PAE) for estimating fish populations in a medium-sized Appalachian Mountain river during fall 2008 and summer 2009. Strip-transect snorkel counts were calibrated with PAE counts in identical locations among macrohabitats, fish species or taxa, and seasons. Mean snorkeling efficiency (i.e., the proportion of individuals counted from the true population) among all taxa and seasons was 14.7% (SE, 2.5%), and the highest efficiencies were for River Chub Nocomis micropogon at 21.1% (SE, 5.9%), Central Stoneroller Campostoma anomalum at 20.3% (SE, 9.6%), and darters (Percidae) at 17.1% (SE, 3.7%), whereas efficiencies were lower for shiners (Notropis spp., Cyprinella spp., Luxilus spp.) at 8.2% (SE, 2.2%) and suckers (Catostomidae) at 6.6% (SE, 3.2%). Macrohabitat type, fish taxon, or sampling season did not significantly explain variance in snorkeling efficiency. Mean snorkeling detection probability (i.e., probability of detecting at least one individual of a taxon) among fish taxa and seasons was 58.4% (SE, 6.1%). We applied the efficiencies from our calibration study to adjust snorkel counts from an intensive snorkeling survey conducted in a nearby reach. Total fish density estimates from strip-transect counts adjusted for snorkeling efficiency were 7,288 fish/ha (SE, 1,564) during summer and 15,805 fish/ha (SE, 4,947) during fall. Precision of fish density estimates is influenced by variation in snorkeling efficiency and sample size and may be increased with additional sampling effort. These results demonstrate the sampling properties and utility of snorkeling to characterize lotic fish assemblages with acceptable efficiency and detection probability, less effort, and no mortality, compared with traditional

  4. Rare-Variant Kernel Machine Test for Longitudinal Data from Population and Family Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qi; Weeks, Daniel E.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Yi, Nengjun; Zhang, Kui; Gao, Guimin; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Nianjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The kernel machine (KM) test reportedly performs well in the set-based association test of rare variants. Many studies have been conducted to measure phenotypes at multiple time points, but the standard KM methodology has only been available for phenotypes at a single time point. In addition, family-based designs have been widely used in genetic association studies; therefore, the data analysis method used must appropriately handle familial relatedness. A rare variant test does not currently exist for longitudinal data from family samples. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to introduce an association test for rare variants, which includes multiple longitudinal phenotype measurements for either population or family samples. Methods This approach uses KM regression based on the linear mixed model framework and is applicable to longitudinal data from either population (L-KM) or family samples (LF-KM). Results In our population-based simulation studies, L-KM has good control of Type I error rate and increased power in all the scenarios we considered, compared with other competing methods. Conversely, in the family-based simulation studies, we found an inflated Type I error rate when L-KM was applied directly to the family samples, whereas LF-KM retained the desired Type I error rate and had the best power performance overall. Finally, we illustrate the utility of our proposed LF-KM approach by analyzing data from an association study between rare variants and blood pressure from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 (GAW18). Conclusion We propose a method for rare-variant association testing in population and family samples, using phenotypes measured at multiple time points for each subject. The proposed method has the best power performance compared to competing approaches in our simulation study. PMID:27161037

  5. Evaluation of general response patterns as a diagnostic tool to determining contaminant impacts on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworska, J.S.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Rose, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    Five General Response Patterns by fish populations exposed to stress were hypothesized by P. Colby and K. Munkittrick and D. Dixon. The authors used an individual based model of walleye and yellow perch configured for Oneida Lake, NY to test the generality of these patterns. They compared the yellow perch population responses in mean age, size at age, fraction mature at age, individual fecundity and density under 5 stress conditions. The stresses imposed were: (1) adults mortality; (2) eggs mortality (3) metabolic impacts on juveniles; (4) indirect effects from predator level -- increased predator mortality; (5) indirect effects form prey level -- reduced carrying capacity. Modeled yellow perch responses different from the responses hypothesized by Colby/Munkittrick and Dixon. Their analysis shows that the strength of predator-prey coupling must be considered when using patterns of growth, mortality and reproduction to infer the identity of stressors influencing fish populations.

  6. Dielectrophoresis-Based Sample Handling in General-Purpose Programmable Diagnostic Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Vykoukal, Jody V.

    2009-01-01

    As the molecular origins of disease are better understood, the need for affordable, rapid, and automated technologies that enable microscale molecular diagnostics has become apparent. Widespread use of microsystems that perform sample preparation and molecular analysis could ensure that the benefits of new biomedical discoveries are realized by a maximum number of people, even those in environments lacking any infrastructure. While progress has been made in developing miniaturized diagnostic systems, samples are generally processed off-device using labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional sample preparation methods. We present the concept of an integrated programmable general-purpose sample analysis processor (GSAP) architecture where raw samples are routed to separation and analysis functional blocks contained within a single device. Several dielectrophoresis-based methods that could serve as the foundation for building GSAP functional blocks are reviewed including methods for cell and particle sorting, cell focusing, cell ac impedance analysis, cell lysis, and the manipulation of molecules and reagent droplets. PMID:19684877

  7. Out-of-Sample Generalizations for Supervised Manifold Learning for Classification.

    PubMed

    Vural, Elif; Guillemot, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Supervised manifold learning methods for data classification map high-dimensional data samples to a lower dimensional domain in a structure-preserving way while increasing the separation between different classes. Most manifold learning methods compute the embedding only of the initially available data; however, the generalization of the embedding to novel points, i.e., the out-of-sample extension problem, becomes especially important in classification applications. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised method for building an interpolation function that provides an out-of-sample extension for general supervised manifold learning algorithms studied in the context of classification. The proposed algorithm computes a radial basis function interpolator that minimizes an objective function consisting of the total embedding error of unlabeled test samples, defined as their distance to the embeddings of the manifolds of their own class, as well as a regularization term that controls the smoothness of the interpolation function in a direction-dependent way. The class labels of test data and the interpolation function parameters are estimated jointly with an iterative process. Experimental results on face and object images demonstrate the potential of the proposed out-of-sample extension algorithm for the classification of manifold-modeled data sets. PMID:26812722

  8. The program structure does not reliably recover the correct population structure when sampling is uneven: subsampling and new estimators alleviate the problem.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sebastien J

    2016-05-01

    Inferences of population structure and more precisely the identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals are essential to the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation biology. Such population structure inferences are routinely investigated via the program structure implementing a Bayesian algorithm to identify groups of individuals at Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. While the method is performing relatively well under various population models with even sampling between subpopulations, the robustness of the method to uneven sample size between subpopulations and/or hierarchical levels of population structure has not yet been tested despite being commonly encountered in empirical data sets. In this study, I used simulated and empirical microsatellite data sets to investigate the impact of uneven sample size between subpopulations and/or hierarchical levels of population structure on the detected population structure. The results demonstrated that uneven sampling often leads to wrong inferences on hierarchical structure and downward-biased estimates of the true number of subpopulations. Distinct subpopulations with reduced sampling tended to be merged together, while at the same time, individuals from extensively sampled subpopulations were generally split, despite belonging to the same panmictic population. Four new supervised methods to detect the number of clusters were developed and tested as part of this study and were found to outperform the existing methods using both evenly and unevenly sampled data sets. Additionally, a subsampling strategy aiming to reduce sampling unevenness between subpopulations is presented and tested. These results altogether demonstrate that when sampling evenness is accounted for, the detection of the correct population structure is greatly improved.

  9. An optimization based sampling approach for multiple metrics uncertainty analysis using generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rurui; Li, Yu; Lu, Di; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Huicheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of an epsilon-dominance non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm II (ɛ-NSGAII) as a sampling approach with an aim to improving sampling efficiency for multiple metrics uncertainty analysis using Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE). The effectiveness of ɛ-NSGAII based sampling is demonstrated compared with Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) through analyzing sampling efficiency, multiple metrics performance, parameter uncertainty and flood forecasting uncertainty with a case study of flood forecasting uncertainty evaluation based on Xinanjiang model (XAJ) for Qing River reservoir, China. Results obtained demonstrate the following advantages of the ɛ-NSGAII based sampling approach in comparison to LHS: (1) The former performs more effective and efficient than LHS, for example the simulation time required to generate 1000 behavioral parameter sets is shorter by 9 times; (2) The Pareto tradeoffs between metrics are demonstrated clearly with the solutions from ɛ-NSGAII based sampling, also their Pareto optimal values are better than those of LHS, which means better forecasting accuracy of ɛ-NSGAII parameter sets; (3) The parameter posterior distributions from ɛ-NSGAII based sampling are concentrated in the appropriate ranges rather than uniform, which accords with their physical significance, also parameter uncertainties are reduced significantly; (4) The forecasted floods are close to the observations as evaluated by three measures: the normalized total flow outside the uncertainty intervals (FOUI), average relative band-width (RB) and average deviation amplitude (D). The flood forecasting uncertainty is also reduced a lot with ɛ-NSGAII based sampling. This study provides a new sampling approach to improve multiple metrics uncertainty analysis under the framework of GLUE, and could be used to reveal the underlying mechanisms of parameter sets under multiple conflicting metrics in the uncertainty analysis process.

  10. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Eduardo M.; Gall, Henning; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Lahousse, Lies; Loth, Daan W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Felix, Janine F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP) in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors. Methods Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women) from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg. Results Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0). Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2). Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70), and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1). Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension. Conclusion In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders. PMID:26102085

  11. Recurrent pain is associated with decreased selective attention in a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Gijsen, C P; Dijkstra, J B; van Boxtel, M P J

    2011-01-01

    Studies which have examined the impact of pain on cognitive functioning in the general population are scarce. In the present study we assessed the predictive value of recurrent pain on cognitive functioning in a population-based study (N=1400). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of pain on cognitive functioning in individuals with specific pain complaints (i.e. back pain, gastric pain, muscle pain and headache). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Stroop Color-Word Interference test (Stroop interference), the Letter-Digit-Substitution test (LDST) and the Visual Verbal learning Task (VVLT). Pain was measured with the COOP/WONCA pain scale (Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Information Project/World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practice /Family Physicians). We controlled for the effects of age, sex, level of education and depressive symptoms. It was demonstrated that pain had a negative impact on the performance on the Stroop interference but not on the VVLT and the LDST. This indicates that subjects who reported extreme pain had more problems with selective attention and were more easily distracted. Effects were in general larger in the specific pain groups when compared to the associations found in the total group. Implications of these findings are discussed. The experience of recurrent pain has a negative influence on selective attention in a healthy population.

  12. Nuclear activity and stellar population of a sample of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastoriza, M. G.; Donzelli, C. J.; Bonatto, C.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the nuclear activity and stellar population in a sample of 27 physical galaxy pairs. Equivalent widths of absorption features are used to characterise the nuclear stellar population according to templates: most galaxies of the sample have important flux contributions from stars younger than 10(8) years. According to classical diagnostic-diagrams the galaxies in our sample are either classified as H II regions or have emission line ratios near the transition zone between H II regions and LINERs. Based on the observed spectra, only 4 galaxies show LINER properties and 1 nucleus is a Seyfert 2. We found that the spectrum of a transition object (38% of the sample) can be described by a combination of an AGN with an H II region. As a result, 20 galaxies of the present sample may host a low-luminosity active nucleus. Based on observations made at CASLEO and CTIO. Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO) is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient\\'\\i ficas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  13. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population. PMID:27187429

  14. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population.

  15. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population

    PubMed Central

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population. PMID:27187429

  16. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote essential fluctuations to enhance sampling, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations, for instance on certain interactions of focus. Due to lack of active sampling of configuration response to perturbation transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; and in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which the solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly-solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. Based on a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment analysis suggests that because essential rare events are mainly driven by the compensating

  17. Type-II generalized family-wise error rate formulas with application to sample size determination.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Phillipe; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Liquet, Benoit; Riou, Jérémie

    2016-07-20

    Multiple endpoints are increasingly used in clinical trials. The significance of some of these clinical trials is established if at least r null hypotheses are rejected among m that are simultaneously tested. The usual approach in multiple hypothesis testing is to control the family-wise error rate, which is defined as the probability that at least one type-I error is made. More recently, the q-generalized family-wise error rate has been introduced to control the probability of making at least q false rejections. For procedures controlling this global type-I error rate, we define a type-II r-generalized family-wise error rate, which is directly related to the r-power defined as the probability of rejecting at least r false null hypotheses. We obtain very general power formulas that can be used to compute the sample size for single-step and step-wise procedures. These are implemented in our R package rPowerSampleSize available on the CRAN, making them directly available to end users. Complexities of the formulas are presented to gain insight into computation time issues. Comparison with Monte Carlo strategy is also presented. We compute sample sizes for two clinical trials involving multiple endpoints: one designed to investigate the effectiveness of a drug against acute heart failure and the other for the immunogenicity of a vaccine strategy against pneumococcus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26914402

  18. Covariance estimators for generalized estimating equations (GEE) in longitudinal analysis with small samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Kong, Lan; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Lijun

    2016-05-10

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) is a general statistical method to fit marginal models for longitudinal data in biomedical studies. The variance-covariance matrix of the regression parameter coefficients is usually estimated by a robust "sandwich" variance estimator, which does not perform satisfactorily when the sample size is small. To reduce the downward bias and improve the efficiency, several modified variance estimators have been proposed for bias-correction or efficiency improvement. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on recent developments of modified variance estimators and compare their small-sample performance theoretically and numerically through simulation and real data examples. In particular, Wald tests and t-tests based on different variance estimators are used for hypothesis testing, and the guideline on appropriate sample sizes for each estimator is provided for preserving type I error in general cases based on numerical results. Moreover, we develop a user-friendly R package "geesmv" incorporating all of these variance estimators for public usage in practice. PMID:26585756

  19. Menarcheal age in a sample of Basque schoolgirls: a comparative study with other Spanish populations.

    PubMed

    Rebato, E; Rosique, J; González Apraiz, A

    1994-06-01

    Reported data on age at menarche in a sample of Biscayan schoolgirls are compared with data from several Spanish populations. Though the mean age falls in the range of variation of the Spanish means, the analysis of variance shows significant differences among the series. With regard to the possible secular trend of this event in the Biscay province, both a stability of menarcheal age and a diminution of the process of variability are observed.

  20. Accounting for randomness in measurement and sampling in studying cancer cell population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Siavash; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Lahouti, Farshad; Ullah, Mukhtar; Linnebacher, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the expected temporal evolution of the proportion of different cell types in sample tissues gives an indication about the progression of the disease and its possible response to drugs. Such systems have been modelled using Markov processes. We here consider an experimentally realistic scenario in which transition probabilities are estimated from noisy cell population size measurements. Using aggregated data of FACS measurements, we develop MMSE and ML estimators and formulate two problems to find the minimum number of required samples and measurements to guarantee the accuracy of predicted population sizes. Our numerical results show that the convergence mechanism of transition probabilities and steady states differ widely from the real values if one uses the standard deterministic approach for noisy measurements. This provides support for our argument that for the analysis of FACS data one should consider the observed state as a random variable. The second problem we address is about the consequences of estimating the probability of a cell being in a particular state from measurements of small population of cells. We show how the uncertainty arising from small sample sizes can be captured by a distribution for the state probability. PMID:25257023

  1. General and smoking cessation weight concern in a Hispanic sample of light and intermittent smokers.

    PubMed

    Landrau-Cribbs, Erica; Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed general and cessation related weight concerns in a Hispanic sample of light (≤10 cigarettes per day) and intermittent (non-daily smoking) smokers (LITS) participating in a brief smoking cessation intervention. Three hundred and fifty-four Hispanic LITS (Mage=34.2, SD=14; 51.1% male; 57.9% Mexican American; 59.0% daily light, 41.0% intermittent) completed baseline measures assessing demographics, tobacco use/history, stage of change (SOC), general weight concern, and cessation related weight concern. Three multiple logistic regression models examined potential predictors (i.e., age, gender, SOC, cigarettes per month, smoking status [daily vs non-daily], weight, cessation related weight concern, general weight concern) of general weight concern, cessation related weight concern, and past 30day abstinence (controlling for the intervention). Study results indicated that a majority of participants reported general weight concern (59.6%), and slightly more than a third (35.6%) reported post cessation weight gain concern (mean and median weight tolerated before relapse were within the 10-12lb range). Lower weight and endorsing general weight concern were associated with cessation related weight concern. Female gender, higher weight, and endorsing cessation related weight concern were associated with general weight concern. Monthly cigarette use was associated with smoking cessation at the three-month follow-up. The results indicate a substantial prevalence of general weight concern and non-trivial rates of cessation related weight concern in Hispanic LITS attempting to quit, and greater success in quitting among those who reported lower rates of cigarettes smoked per month.

  2. Parathyroid hormone and risk of heart failure in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanbo; Wang, Wei; Ma, Jianghong; Lin, Baisong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Inconsistent findings have been reported on the association between the parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and risk of heart failure. We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between circulating level of PTH and risk of heart failure in the general population by conducting a meta-analysis. We made a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Embase, VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang databases published until January 2016. Only prospective observational studies reporting the association between circulating level of PTH and risk of heart failure in the general population were selected. Pooled adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the highest versus lowest PTH category. Six studies with 25,207 participants identified. Higher circulating level of PTH was associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HR: 1.38; 95% CI 1.09–1.74) in a random effect model. Subgroup analyses revealed that the risk of heart failure was more pronounced among men (HR: 1.75; 95% CI 1.38–2.22) than in both genders. However, the risk increment was not statistically significant (HR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.76–1.66) in the middle-aged population. Higher PTH level is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of heart failure in the general population. PMID:27749533

  3. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population: wine and resveratrol intake.

    PubMed

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-02-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT)1 activity. We assessed the impact of wine and resveratrol intake, and SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on lung function in the general population. Effects of red and white wine and resveratrol intake on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC were analysed in the population-based Doetinchem cohort (n=3,224). Associations of four tagging SIRT1 SNPs with lung function were analysed in the Doetinchem (n=1,152) and Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen (n=1,390) cohorts. Resveratrol intake was associated with higher FVC levels, and white wine intake with higher FEV(1) levels and lower risk of airway obstruction. SIRT1 SNPs were not significantly associated with level or course of lung function, either directly or indirectly via wine or resveratrol intake. This study shows a positive association of resveratrol intake with lung function in the general population, confirms the previously reported positive association of white wine intake with higher levels of FEV(1), and additionally shows an association with a higher FEV(1)/FVC ratio. These effects probably do not run via SNPs in SIRT1.

  4. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in the Greek general population: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Spantideas, Nikolaos; Drosou, Eirini; Bougea, Anastasia; Assimakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Population-based data regarding the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Greece are very poor. This study estimated the prevalence of GERD symptoms and their risk factors in the Greek adult population. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was answered by a randomly selected population of 340 subjects. The question regarding “heartburn, chest pain, indigestion, or stomach acid coming up” as included in the Reflux Symptom Index was used for prevalence assessment. Results The monthly prevalence of GERD symptoms was found to be 52.0% in the Greek general population, with no statistically significant difference between the two sexes (P>0.05). The age group of 65–79 years showed a higher prevalence rate of GERD. Symptom severity was found to be mild (59.3%) or moderate (27.1%). The number of cigarettes smoked daily (but not smoking duration) as well as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed daily (but not the duration of alcohol drinking) were found to be related to GERD symptoms. No reported concomitant disease or medication was found to be related with GERD symptoms. Conclusion The prevalence of GERD symptoms in the Greek general population was found to be 52.0%. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but not concomitant disease or medications were found to be related with GERD symptoms. PMID:27382324

  6. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS) to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings. PMID:22540266

  7. How absorption selected galaxies trace the general high-redshift galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise

    2015-08-01

    Strong absorption lines seen in quasar spectra arise when the lines of sight to the quasars intersect intervening galaxies. The associated metal absorption lines from the strongest absorption lines, the damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs), allow us to trace the metallicity of galaxies back to redshifts z>5. Typical metallicities range from 0.1-100% solar metallicities with a huge scatter at any given redshift. Understanding the nature of galaxies that host DLAs is one strategy to probe the early phase and origin of stars in the outskirts of present-day galaxy disks.The search for emission from the elusive high-redshift DLA galaxies has reached a mature state now that we have determined how to best identify the absorbing galaxies. From a growing number of emission-line detections from DLA galaxies at redshifts ranging between 0.1 and 3, we can analyse galaxies in both absorption and emission, and probe the gas-phase metallicities in the outskirts and halos of the galaxies.By combining information for galaxies seen in emission and absorption, I will show that there is a relation between DLA metallicities and the host galaxy luminosities similar to the well-known the mass-metallicity relation for luminosity selected galaxies. This implies that DLA galaxies are drawn from the general population of low- to intermediate mass galaxies. We can determine a metallicity gradient in the extended halo of the galaxies out to ~40 kpc, and this allows us to reproduce observed galaxy correlation functions derived from conventional samples of luminosity selected galaxies.

  8. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. Methods and results After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from “Tor Vergata” University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector. The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Most plasma and erythrocyte PUFA were also reduced significantly in HD patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that many classes of PUFAs are lacking in HD patients, due to the removal of nutrients during the dialysis and to persistent malnutrition. A dietary treatment addressed to increase plasma ω-3 PUFAs and to optimize ω-6/ω-3 ratio may exert a protective action and reduce the risk of CVD in HD patient. PMID:24655786

  9. Association between processing speed and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population: focusing on sex differences.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is growing that persons along the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e., those who also display subclinical psychotic symptoms, exhibit deficits across a broad range of neuropsychological domains. Because sex differences in the association between cognitive deficits and psychosis have thus far been mostly neglected, we believe that ours is the first study specifically focused upon those differences when examining the relationship between subclinical psychosis and processing speed. Using a sample of 213 persons from the general population from Zurich, Switzerland, psychotic symptoms were assessed with three different questionnaires including the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, an adaptation of the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies, and the Paranoia Checklist. Processing speed was assessed with the WAIS digit-symbol coding test. Two higher-order psychosis domains were factor-analytically derived from the various psychosis subscales and then subjected to a series of linear regression analyses. The results demonstrate that in both men and women associations between subclinical psychosis domains and processing speed were weak to moderate (β ranging from -0.18 to -0.27; all p<0.05). However, we found no sex-differences in the interrelation of subclinical psychosis and processing speed (ΔR(2)<0.005; p>0.30). In conclusion, it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves only at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) and not across the sub-threshold range. The small magnitude of the effects reported herein conforms to the etiopathology of the disorder. Since schizophrenia and related disorders from the spectrum are assumed to be multifactorial diseases, it follows that many etiological components of small effect are involved. PMID:26070411

  10. Assessing sub-clinical psychosis phenotypes in the general population--a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that expression of a psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of its clinical detection. To date, however, no conceptual certainty has been reported for the validity and reliability of sub-clinical psychosis. Our main objectives were to assess the prevalence rates and severity of various psychosis symptoms in a representative community sample. Furthermore, we wanted to analyze which latent factors are depicted by several currently used psychosis questionnaires. We also examined how those latent factors for sub-clinical psychosis are linked to psychosocial factors, normal personality traits, and coping abilities related to chronic stress. Most of the eight subscales from the Paranoia Checklist and the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies had a very similar type of distribution, i.e., an inverse Gaussian (Wald) distribution. This supported the notion of a continuity of psychotic symptoms, which we would expect to find for continuously distributed symptoms within the general population. Sub-clinical psychosis can be reduced to two different factors - one representing odd beliefs about the world and odd behavior, and the other one representing anomalous perceptions (such as hallucinations). Persons with odd beliefs and behavior are under greater burden and more susceptible to psychosocial risks than are persons with anomalous perceptions. These sub-clinical psychosis syndromes are also related to stable personality traits. In conclusion, we obtained strong support for the notion that there is no natural cut-off separating psychotic illness from good health. Sub-clinical psychosis of any kind is not trivial because it is associated with various types of social disability. PMID:25523751

  11. Longitudinal associations between lifestyle and vitamin D: A general population study with repeated vitamin D measurements.

    PubMed

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Pisinger, Charlotta; Hannemann, Anke; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-02-01

    Several lifestyle factors have been found to be associated with vitamin D status in cross-sectional studies, but it is not clear whether a change in these factors can actually affect the vitamin D level. We investigated the association between repeated measurements of physical activity, body mass index (BMI), diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits, and corresponding levels of vitamin D during 5 years of follow-up of a large general population sample. We included 4185 persons who participated and had vitamin D (serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH-D) measurements in the Inter99 study at baseline (1999-2001) and 5-year follow-up. In a subsample, 25-OH-D was also measured at 1- and 3-year follow-ups. We used mixed models to examine the association between repeated measurements of lifestyle factors and 25-OH-D levels. In multivariable analyses of repeated measurements, the difference in 25-OH-D was -0.32 ng/ml (95 % CI -0.37, -0.28) per 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI; 4.50 ng/ml (95 % CI 3.84, 5.15) for persons moderately/vigorously physically active versus sedentary; 1.82 ng/ml (95 % CI 1.09, 2.56) for persons with healthy versus unhealthy dietary habits; 0.05 ng/ml (95 % CI 0.03, 0.07) per 1 standard drink/weak increase in alcohol consumption; and 0.86 ng/ml (95 % CI 0.36, 1.35) for never smokers versus daily smokers. Our study shows that lower BMI, a higher level of physical activity, a healthier diet and possibly a higher alcohol intake, and not smoking, are associated with higher 25-OH-D levels.

  12. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, Ana M; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18-64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415-2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045-1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future.

  13. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, Ana M; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18-64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415-2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045-1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  14. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  15. GENERAL: A Possible Population-Driven Phase Transition in Cicada Chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Si-Yuan; Jin, Yu-Liang; Zhao, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the collective synchronization of cicada chirping. Using both experimental and phenomenological numerical techniques, here we show that the onset of a periodic two-state acoustic synchronous behavior in cicada chorus depends on a critical size of population Nc = 21, above which a typical chorus state appears periodically with a 30 second-silence state in between, and further clarify its possibility concerning a new class of phase transition, which is unusually driven by population. This work has relevance to acoustic synchronization and to general physics of phase transition.

  16. Study design and sampling intensity for demographic analyses of bear populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Mace, R.D.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The rate of population change through time (??) is a fundamental element of a wildlife population's conservation status, yet estimating it with acceptable precision for bears is difficult. For studies that follow known (usually marked) bears, ?? can be estimated during some defined time by applying either life-table or matrix projection methods to estimates of individual vital rates. Usually however, confidence intervals surrounding the estimate are broader than one would like. Using an estimator suggested by Doak et al. (2005), we explored the precision to be expected in ?? from demographic analyses of typical grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black (U. americanus) bear data sets. We also evaluated some trade-offs among vital rates in sampling strategies. Confidence intervals around ?? were more sensitive to adding to the duration of a short (e.g., 3 yrs) than a long (e.g., 10 yrs) study, and more sensitive to adding additional bears to studies with small (e.g., 10 adult females/yr) than large (e.g., 30 adult females/yr) sample sizes. Confidence intervals of ?? projected using process-only variance of vital rates were only slightly smaller than those projected using total variances of vital rates. Under sampling constraints typical of most bear studies, it may be more efficient to invest additional resources into monitoring recruitment and juvenile survival rates of females already a part of the study, than to simply increase the sample size of study females. ?? 2011 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  17. Serum antinuclear and extractable nuclear antigen antibody prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality in the general population over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Ceribelli, Angela; Generali, Elena; Scirè, Carlo A; Alborghetti, Fausto; Colloredo, Guido; Porrati, Luisa; Achenza, Maria I S; De Santis, Maria; Cavaciocchi, Francesca; Massarotti, Marco; Isailovic, Natasa; Paleari, Valentina; Invernizzi, Pietro; Matthias, Torsten; Zucchi, Alberto; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of ANA and anti-ENA in the general population is not well established, especially their clinical significance in healthy subjects. We herein determined the prevalence and predictive value of serum ANA and anti-ENA for connective tissue diseases (CTD), cancer, and mortality. We took advantage of a randomly selected sample of the 1998 general population (Isola I) consisting of 2828 subjects (53% women, age 43±13 years) from a well-defined Northern Italian area. Serum ANA and anti-ENA were tested on the 2690 samples available in 2012 (Isola II, 50% women, age 58±13 years). Administrative databases were searched for CTD, cancer diagnosis, and death cases occurring between enrollment and December 31, 2013. The hazard ratio (HR) was calculated for incident cases. Serum ANA is positive in 18.1% for any titer and 6.1% for titers ≥1:160, 23% in subjects over 50 years and 13.1% and 6.1% for any titer and titers ≥1:160, respectively, in women. The HR for CTD development was significantly high for all ANA titers, with the highest for ANA ≥1:160 (HR 14.19, 95% CI 3.07-65.68). ANA positivity was not associated with cancer (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.75-1.43), or with mortality (HR adjusted for age and sex 1.40; 95% CI 0.94-2.09). Serum anti-ENA is positive in a minority of subjects with highest figures for anti-nucleosome (1.9%), -histone (1.6%) and -PM/Scl (1.5%). In conclusion, serum ANA prevalence in the general population is highest in senior subjects and in women, while the female predominance is significantly lower compared to overt CTD. Serum ANA is associated with an increased probability of CTD development over time, but does not influence survival or cancer risk.

  18. Density estimation of small-mammal populations using a trapping web and distance sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Otis, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Distance sampling methodology is adapted to enable animal density (number per unit of area) to be estimated from capture-recapture and removal data. A trapping web design provides the link between capture data and distance sampling theory. The estimator of density is D = Mt+1f(0), where Mt+1 is the number of individuals captured and f(0) is computed from the Mt+1 distances from the web center to the traps in which those individuals were first captured. It is possible to check qualitatively the critical assumption on which the web design and the estimator are based. This is a conceptual paper outlining a new methodology, not a definitive investigation of the best specific way to implement this method. Several alternative sampling and analysis methods are possible within the general framework of distance sampling theory; a few alternatives are discussed and an example is given.

  19. A comparison of single-sample estimators of effective population sizes from genetic marker data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinliang

    2016-10-01

    In molecular ecology and conservation genetics studies, the important parameter of effective population size (Ne ) is increasingly estimated from a single sample of individuals taken at random from a population and genotyped at a number of marker loci. Several estimators are developed, based on the information of linkage disequilibrium (LD), heterozygote excess (HE), molecular coancestry (MC) and sibship frequency (SF) in marker data. The most popular is the LD estimator, because it is more accurate than HE and MC estimators and is simpler to calculate than SF estimator. However, little is known about the accuracy of LD estimator relative to that of SF and about the robustness of all single-sample estimators when some simplifying assumptions (e.g. random mating, no linkage, no genotyping errors) are violated. This study fills the gaps and uses extensive simulations to compare the biases and accuracies of the four estimators for different population properties (e.g. bottlenecks, nonrandom mating, haplodiploid), marker properties (e.g. linkage, polymorphisms) and sample properties (e.g. numbers of individuals and markers) and to compare the robustness of the four estimators when marker data are imperfect (with allelic dropouts). Extensive simulations show that SF estimator is more accurate, has a much wider application scope (e.g. suitable to nonrandom mating such as selfing, haplodiploid species, dominant markers) and is more robust (e.g. to the presence of linkage and genotyping errors of markers) than the other estimators. An empirical data set from a Yellowstone grizzly bear population was analysed to demonstrate the use of the SF estimator in practice.

  20. A comparison of single-sample estimators of effective population sizes from genetic marker data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinliang

    2016-10-01

    In molecular ecology and conservation genetics studies, the important parameter of effective population size (Ne ) is increasingly estimated from a single sample of individuals taken at random from a population and genotyped at a number of marker loci. Several estimators are developed, based on the information of linkage disequilibrium (LD), heterozygote excess (HE), molecular coancestry (MC) and sibship frequency (SF) in marker data. The most popular is the LD estimator, because it is more accurate than HE and MC estimators and is simpler to calculate than SF estimator. However, little is known about the accuracy of LD estimator relative to that of SF and about the robustness of all single-sample estimators when some simplifying assumptions (e.g. random mating, no linkage, no genotyping errors) are violated. This study fills the gaps and uses extensive simulations to compare the biases and accuracies of the four estimators for different population properties (e.g. bottlenecks, nonrandom mating, haplodiploid), marker properties (e.g. linkage, polymorphisms) and sample properties (e.g. numbers of individuals and markers) and to compare the robustness of the four estimators when marker data are imperfect (with allelic dropouts). Extensive simulations show that SF estimator is more accurate, has a much wider application scope (e.g. suitable to nonrandom mating such as selfing, haplodiploid species, dominant markers) and is more robust (e.g. to the presence of linkage and genotyping errors of markers) than the other estimators. An empirical data set from a Yellowstone grizzly bear population was analysed to demonstrate the use of the SF estimator in practice. PMID:27288989

  1. Prevalence and correlates of night eating in the German general population.

    PubMed

    de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid; Allison, Kelly C; Brähler, Elmar; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Recently, night eating syndrome (NES) was included into the DSM-5 as an example of "Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders." The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460) with a wide age range (14-85 years). The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, and body weight.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Night Eating in the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid; Allison, Kelly C.; Brähler, Elmar; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Recently, night eating syndrome (NES) was included into the DSM-5 as an example of “Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders.” The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460) with a wide age range (14–85 years). The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, and body weight. PMID:24828066

  3. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved. PMID:27375816

  4. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved.

  5. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use. Method We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors. Results The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese. Conclusion Our findings indicated

  6. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  7. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Liu, Yamin; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian; Zhu, Guangshuo; Abraham, Maria Roselle

    2016-01-01

    Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women). The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001). In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818). In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001) than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers). Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia. PMID:27447659

  8. Metabolome in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a general population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a high prevalence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and lipid abnormalities, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein. More detailed molecular information on the metabolic abnormalities may reveal clues about the pathophysiology of these changes, as well as about disease specificity. Methods We applied comprehensive metabolomics in serum samples from a general population-based study in Finland. The study included all persons with DSM-IV primary psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, n = 45; other non-affective psychosis (ONAP), n = 57; affective psychosis, n = 37) and controls matched by age, sex, and region of residence. Two analytical platforms for metabolomics were applied to all serum samples: a global lipidomics platform based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, which covers molecular lipids such as phospholipids and neutral lipids; and a platform for small polar metabolites based on two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). Results Compared with their matched controls, persons with schizophrenia had significantly higher metabolite levels in six lipid clusters containing mainly saturated triglycerides, and in two small-molecule clusters containing, among other metabolites, (1) branched chain amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine, and (2) proline, glutamic, lactic and pyruvic acids. Among these, serum glutamic acid was elevated in all psychoses (P = 0.0020) compared to controls, while proline upregulation (P = 0.000023) was specific to schizophrenia. After adjusting for medication and metabolic comorbidity in linear mixed models, schizophrenia remained independently associated with higher levels in seven of these eight clusters (P < 0.05 in each cluster). The metabolic abnormalities were less pronounced in persons with ONAP or affective psychosis. Conclusions Our

  9. Unveiling the species-rank abundance distribution by generalizing the Good-Turing sample coverage theory.

    PubMed

    Chao, Anne; Hsieh, T C; Chazdon, Robin L; Colwell, Robert K; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2015-05-01

    Based on a sample of individuals, we focus on inferring the vector of species relative abundance of an entire assemblage and propose a novel estimator of the complete species-rank abundance distribution (RAD). Nearly all previous estimators of the RAD use the conventional "plug-in" estimator Pi (sample relative abundance) of the true relative abundance pi of species i. Because most biodiversity samples are incomplete, the plug-in estimators are applied only to the subset of species that are detected in the sample. Using the concept of sample coverage and its generalization, we propose a new statistical framework to estimate the complete RAD by separately adjusting the sample relative abundances for the set of species detected in the sample and estimating the relative abundances for the set of species undetected in the sample but inferred to be present in the assemblage. We first show that P, is a positively biased estimator of pi for species detected in the sample, and that the degree of bias increases with increasing relative rarity of each species. We next derive a method to adjust the sample relative abundance to reduce the positive bias inherent in j. The adjustment method provides a nonparametric resolution to the longstanding challenge of characterizing the relationship between the true relative abundance in the entire assemblage and the observed relative abundance in a sample. Finally, we propose a method to estimate the true relative abundances of the undetected species based on a lower bound of the number of undetected species. We then combine the adjusted RAD for the detected species and the estimated RAD for the undetected species to obtain the complete RAD estimator. Simulation results show that the proposed RAD curve can unveil the true RAD and is more accurate than the empirical RAD. We also extend our method to incidence data. Our formulas and estimators are illustrated using empirical data sets from surveys of forest spiders (for abundance data) and

  10. Colonic spirochetosis is associated with colonic eosinophilia and irritable bowel syndrome in a general population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marjorie M; Talley, Nicholas J; Inganäs, Linn; Engstrand, Lars; Jones, Michael P; Nyhlin, Henry; Agréus, Lars; Kjellstrom, Lars; Öst, Åke; Andreasson, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder defined by symptoms in the absence of overt pathology. Colonic spirochetosis (CS), defined by histologic observation of spirochetal strains of Brachyspira in colonic biopsies, is uncommon and considered of doubtful significance. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CS in the general population, identify subtle colon pathologies, and evaluate a link with symptoms of IBS. Colonoscopy was performed in 745 subjects (aged 19-70 years, mean age 51 years, 43% male) with biopsies (ileum and 4 colonic sites) from a random population sample, Stockholm, Sweden, who completed a validated questionnaire of gastrointestinal symptoms; IBS was identified by Rome III criteria. CS was identified by histology and immunohistochemistry. In a general population, 17 individuals (2.28%; 95% confidence interval, 1.2%-3.5%) were diagnosed as having CS by histology; 6 (35%) had IBS. CS was always present in the sigmoid colon, but only 14 rectal biopsies. Eosinophils were increased in colon biopsies in CS cases versus controls, in the transverse (P = .02), sigmoid colon (P = .001), and rectum (P = .0005) with subepithelial eosinophil clusters (P = .053). Lymphoid follicles (at any site) were present in 13 CS (P = .0003). There was a 3-fold increased risk of IBS in CS (odds ratio, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-10.11; P = .015). Polyps and diverticular disease were similar in CS cases and controls. The prevalence of CS in a general population is 2% and associated with nonconstipating IBS. Colonic eosinophilia with lymphoid follicles may signify the presence of CS.

  11. [Analysis of the definitive statistics of the 11th General Population and Housing Census].

    PubMed

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1992-01-01

    The 11th General Census of Population and Housing conducted in March 1990 enumerated 2,204,054 inhabitants in Sinaloa, for a density of 37.9 per sq. km. Sinaloa's population thus increased sevenfold from 297,000 in 1900. The proportion of Sinalioans in Mexico's population increased from 2.2% in 1900 to 2.7% in 1990. 38.4% of the population was under age 14, 57.0% was 14064, and 4.6% as over 65. The greatest challenge for the year 2010 will be to meet the demand for educational facilities, employment, and services for the growing elderly population. Sinaloa's population grew at an annual rate of 1.1 between 1980-90. 17 of its 18 municipios showed slowing growth rates between 1980-90, with only Escuinapa increasing its rate. Sinaloa's growth rate of 1.8% is still relatively high, and the population in the year 2000 is projected at 2.6 million. Population distribution and migration present problems that should be more actively addressed. Urban-urban migration is increasing in importance. In 1990, Sinaloa had 5247 localities of which only 85 had more than 2500 inhabitants and 4717 had fewer than 500. Growth of midsize localities with 500-2499 inhabitants may constitute an alternative allowing the demographic deconcentration and decentralization that Sinaloa urgently requires. The lack of jobs, infrastructure, educational and health services, housing, and food in the dispersed 4717 communities with fewer than 500 inhabitants makes them sources of emigration. Sinaloa's population is concentrated along the coast and in the 3 valleys of the north and central regions, which contain 80.8% of the population. One-third of the population lives on 12.1% of the territory in 2 municipios, while 12 municipios covering 67% of the territory contain just 24% of the population. Sinaloa's growth rate has declined from 4.3% between 1960-70 to 3.7% from 1970-80 and 1.8% in 1980-90.

  12. The formation of a generalized categorization repertoire: effect of training with multiple domains, samples, and comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Lanny; Reeve, Kenneth F; Matneja, Priya; Varelas, Antonios; Belanich, James; Fitzer, Adrienne; Shamoun, Kim

    2002-01-01

    The present experiment explored the effects of three variables on the spontaneous categorization of stimuli in perceptually distinct and novel domains. Each of six stimulus domains was created by morphing two images that were the domain endpoints. The endpoints of the domains were male and female faces, two abstract drawings, a car and a truck, two banded-elevation satellite land images, a tree and a cat, and two false-color satellite images. The stimulus variants at each end of a domain defined two potential perceptual classes. Training was conducted in a matching-to-sample format and used stimuli from one or two domains, one or three variants per class as samples, and one or three variants per class as comparisons. The spontaneous categorization of stimuli in the untrained stimulus domains showed the emergence of a generalized categorization repertoire. The proportion of spontaneously categorized stimuli in the new domains was positively related to the number of domains and samples used in training, and was inversely related to the number of comparisons used in training. Differential reaction times demonstrated the discriminability of the stimuli in the emergent classes. This study is among the first to provide an empirical basis for a behavior-analytic model of the development of generalized categorization repertoires in natural settings. PMID:12507005

  13. Eating and body attitudes related to noncompetitive bodybuilding in military and general Hungarian male student populations.

    PubMed

    Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc

    2007-02-01

    Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.

  14. Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general.

    PubMed

    Yashchenko, Varvara; Fossen, Erlend Ignacio; Kielland, Øystein Nordeide; Einum, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates and to represent an important 'third axis' explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesized that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. Here, we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence-based respirometry, we obtain high-precision measures of metabolism. We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. We demonstrate significant variation in mass-specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass-specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude the absence of such biases, and consistent with our results, no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect

  15. Long-term survival following intensive care: subgroup analysis and comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Plenderleith, L; Ridley, S A

    2003-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the very long-term survival of critically ill patients with that of the general population, and examine the association among age, sex, admission diagnosis, APACHE II score and mortality. In a retrospective observational cohort study of prospectively gathered data, 2104 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a teaching hospital in Glasgow from 1985 to 1992, were followed until 1997. Vital status at five years was compared with that of an age- and sex-matched Scottish population. Five-year mortality for the ICU patients was 47.1%, 3.4 times higher than that of the general population. For those surviving intensive care the five-year mortality was 33.4%. Mortality was greater than that of the general population for four years following intensive care unit admission (95% confidence interval included 1.0 at four years). Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for mortality in those admitted to ICU were age, APACHE II score on admission and diagnostic category. Mortality was higher for those admitted with haematological (87.5%) and neurological diseases (61.7%) and septic shock (62.9%). A risk score was produced: Risk Score = 10 (age hazard ratio + APACHE II hazard ratio + diagnosis hazard ratio). None of the patients with a risk score > 100 survived more than five years and for those who survived to five years the mean risk score was 57. Long-term survival following intensive care is not only related to age and severity of illness but also diagnostic category. The risk of mortality in survivors of critical illness matches that of the normal population after four years. Age, severity of illness and diagnosis can be combined to provide an estimate of five-year survival.

  16. Review of sampling hard-to-reach and hidden populations for HIV surveillance.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Robert; Sabin, Keith; Saidel, Tobi; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2005-05-01

    Adequate surveillance of hard-to-reach and 'hidden' subpopulations is crucial to containing the HIV epidemic in low prevalence settings and in slowing the rate of transmission in high prevalence settings. For a variety of reasons, however, conventional facility and survey-based surveillance data collection strategies are ineffective for a number of key subpopulations, particularly those whose behaviors are illegal or illicit. This paper critically reviews alternative sampling strategies for undertaking behavioral or biological surveillance surveys of such groups. Non-probability sampling approaches such as facility-based sentinel surveillance and snowball sampling are the simplest to carry out, but are subject to a high risk of sampling/selection bias. Most of the probability sampling methods considered are limited in that they are adequate only under certain circumstances and for some groups. One relatively new method, respondent-driven sampling, an adaptation of chain-referral sampling, appears to be the most promising for general applications. However, as its applicability to HIV surveillance in resource-poor settings has yet to be established, further field trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be reached.

  17. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Maoz, Dan; Badenes, Carles; Bickerton, Steven J. E-mail: badenes@pitt.edu

    2012-06-01

    We present a method to characterize statistically the parameters of a detached binary sample-binary fraction, separation distribution, and mass-ratio distribution-using noisy radial velocity data with as few as two, randomly spaced, epochs per object. To do this, we analyze the distribution of {Delta}RV{sub max}, the maximum radial velocity difference between any two epochs for the same object. At low values, the core of this distribution is dominated by measurement errors, but for large enough samples there is a high-velocity tail that can effectively constrain the parameters of the binary population. We discuss our approach for the case of a population of detached white dwarf (WD) binaries with separations that are decaying via gravitational wave emission. We derive analytic expressions for the present-day distribution of separations, integrated over the star formation history of the Galaxy, for parameterized initial WD separation distributions at the end of the common-envelope phase. We use Monte Carlo techniques to produce grids of simulated {Delta}RV{sub max} distributions with specific binary population parameters, and the same sampling cadences and radial velocity errors as the observations, and we compare them to the real {Delta}RV{sub max} distribution to constrain the properties of the binary population. We illustrate the sensitivity of the method to both the model and observational parameters. In the particular case of binary WDs, every model population predicts a merger rate per star which can easily be compared to specific Type Ia supernova rates. In a companion paper, we apply the method to a sample of {approx}4000 WDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The binary fractions and separation distribution parameters allowed by the data indicate a rate of WD-WD mergers per unit stellar mass in the Galactic disk, {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} mergers yr{sup -1} M{sup -1}{sub Sun }, remarkably similar to the rate per unit mass of Type Ia

  18. Influenza Hospitalizations Among American Indian/Alaska Native People and in the United States General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Prabhu P.; Callinan, Laura S.; Holman, Robert C.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Bruce, Michael G.; Redd, John T.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bresee, Joseph; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Historically, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have experienced a disproportionate burden of infectious disease morbidity compared with the general US population. We evaluated whether a disparity in influenza hospitalizations exists between AI/AN people and the general US population. Methods.  We used Indian Health Service hospital discharge data (2001–2011) for AI/AN people and 13 State Inpatient Databases (2001–2008) to provide a comparison to the US population. Hospitalization rates were calculated by respiratory year (July–June). Influenza-specific hospitalizations were defined as discharges with any influenza diagnoses. Influenza-associated hospitalizations were calculated using negative binomial regression models that incorporated hospitalization and influenza laboratory surveillance data. Results.  The mean influenza-specific hospitalization rate/100 000 persons/year during the 2001–2002 to 2007–2008 respiratory years was 18.6 for AI/AN people and 15.6 for the comparison US population. The age-adjusted influenza-associated hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (98.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51.6–317.8) was similar to the comparison US population (58.2; CI, 34.7–172.2). By age, influenza-associated hospitalization rates were significantly higher among AI/AN infants (<1 year) (1070.7; CI, 640.7–2969.5) than the comparison US infant population (210.2; CI, 153.5–478.5). Conclusions.  American Indian/Alaska Native people had higher influenza-specific hospitalization rates than the comparison US population; a significant influenza-associated hospitalization rate disparity was detected only among AI/AN infants because of the wide CIs inherent to the model. Taken together, the influenza-specific and influenza-associated hospitalization rates suggest that AI/AN people might suffer disproportionately from influenza illness compared with the general US population. PMID:25734102

  19. Allelic distribution of CCR5 and CCR2 genes in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Romano-Spica, V; Ianni, A; Arzani, D; Cattarini, L; Majore, S; Dean, M

    2000-01-20

    Genetic polymorphisms of CCR5 and CCR2 human chemokine receptors have been associated with resistance during HIV-1 infection and disease progression. The protective effect of mutant alleles at these loci has important implications in AIDS pathogenesis. Chemokine receptors have a role in viral entry into target cells as well as in immune response modulation. In the present report, we studied the frequency of CCR5delta32 and CCR264I allelic variants among a representative sample of the Italian population. Observed allelic frequencies were 0.0454 and 0.0655, respectively. In both cases, genotype distribution was in equilibrium as predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. Taken as a whole, about 21% of the population sample was found to be heterozygous for one or another of those two mutated alleles. Distribution of CCR5delta32 and CCR264I allelic variants within a population can be considered as a measure of genetic susceptibility to HIV infection and disease progression. PMID:10659048

  20. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. PMID:26826550

  1. A novel biomarker panel for irritable bowel syndrome and the application in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Mujagic, Zlatan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Ludwig, Thomas; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Baranska, Agnieszka; Swertz, Morris A.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers that measure gut health and diagnose functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are lacking. The objective was to identify and validate a biomarker panel associated with the pathophysiology of IBS that discriminates IBS from healthy controls (HC), and correlates with GI symptom severity. In a case-control design, various plasma and fecal markers were measured in a cohort of 196 clinical IBS patients and 160 HC without GI symptoms. A combination of biomarkers, which best discriminates between IBS and HC was identified and validated in an independent internal validation set and by permutation testing. The correlation between the biomarker panel and GI symptom severity was tested in IBS patients and in a general population cohort of 958 subjects. A set of 8 biomarker panel was identified to discriminate IBS from HC with high sensitivity (88.1%) and specificity (86.5%). The results for the IBS subtypes were comparable. Moreover, a moderate correlation was found between the biomarker panel and GI symptom scores in the IBS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and the general population cohorts (r = 0.51, p = 0.003). A novel multi-domain biomarker panel has been identified and validated, which correlated moderately to GI symptom severity in IBS and general population subjects. PMID:27263852

  2. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m2), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m2) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m2), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  3. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  4. A novel biomarker panel for irritable bowel syndrome and the application in the general population.

    PubMed

    Mujagic, Zlatan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Ludwig, Thomas; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Baranska, Agnieszka; Swertz, Morris A; Masclee, Ad A M; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Schooten, Frederik J; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M A E

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers that measure gut health and diagnose functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are lacking. The objective was to identify and validate a biomarker panel associated with the pathophysiology of IBS that discriminates IBS from healthy controls (HC), and correlates with GI symptom severity. In a case-control design, various plasma and fecal markers were measured in a cohort of 196 clinical IBS patients and 160 HC without GI symptoms. A combination of biomarkers, which best discriminates between IBS and HC was identified and validated in an independent internal validation set and by permutation testing. The correlation between the biomarker panel and GI symptom severity was tested in IBS patients and in a general population cohort of 958 subjects. A set of 8 biomarker panel was identified to discriminate IBS from HC with high sensitivity (88.1%) and specificity (86.5%). The results for the IBS subtypes were comparable. Moreover, a moderate correlation was found between the biomarker panel and GI symptom scores in the IBS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and the general population cohorts (r = 0.51, p = 0.003). A novel multi-domain biomarker panel has been identified and validated, which correlated moderately to GI symptom severity in IBS and general population subjects. PMID:27263852

  5. Is chrysotile asbestos exposure a significant health risk to the general population?

    PubMed

    Valić, F; Beritic-Stahuljak, D

    1993-06-01

    The main unresolved issues concerning environmental exposure to chrysotile asbestos of the general population are discussed. A review of the results of the measurement of airborne chrysotile fibres in buildings is presented showing that the results have been consistently low with the exception of buildings with damaged friable asbestos-containing material. Quantitative risk assessments are presented indicating that the lifetime risk is small compared to many other environmental risks. Possible adverse health effects of paraoccupational exposures in the case of high domestic airborne asbestos levels cannot be excluded. Both on the basis of electron microscopy analyses of asbestos exposures at locations with heavy traffic, and the very shallow slopes in the exposure-response relationships for increased lung cancer risk, the conclusion is drawn that exposure to airborne asbestos-containing friction materials has not been proven to pose a significant health risk to the general population. Reviewing animal ingestion studies published and all the available epidemiological studies related to asbestos in drinking water, the conclusion is drawn that the carcinogenic risk in the general population is low even in the case of drinking water containing elevated concentrations of chrysotile asbestos.

  6. Trajectories of gambling problems from mid-adolescence to age 30 in a general population cohort.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of gambling starting before adulthood in the general population are either cross-sectional, based on the stability of these behaviors between 2 time points, or cover a short developmental period. The present study aimed at investigating the developmental trajectories of gambling problems across 3 key periods of development, mid-adolescence, early adulthood, and age 30, in a mixed-gender cohort from the general population. Using a semiparametric mixture model, trajectories were computed based on self-reports collected at ages 15 (N = 1,882), 22 (N = 1,785), and 30 (N = 1,358). Two distinct trajectories were identified: 1 trajectory including males and females who were unlikely to have experienced gambling problems across the 15-year period, and 1 trajectory including participants likely to have experienced at least 1 problem over the last 12 months at each time of assessment. Participants following a high trajectory were predominantly male, participated frequently in 3 to 4 different gambling activities, and were more likely to report substance use and problems related to their alcohol and drug consumption at age 30. Thus, gambling problems in the general population are already observable at age 15 in a small group of individuals, who maintain some level of these problems through early adulthood, before moderately but significantly desisting by age 30, while also experiencing other addictive behaviors and related problems. PMID:26168229

  7. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings. PMID:24084761

  8. Pet veterinarians have no increased risk of hepatitis E compared to the general population.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, J R; Valente-Gomes, G; Conceição-Neto, N; Nascimento, M S J

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of autochthonous hepatitis E in industrialized countries associated to genotype 3 has changed substantially the understanding about hepatitis E virus (HEV) circulation. In these countries transmission has been associated to the consumption and direct contact to swine, a well-known reservoir for HEV. More animal reservoirs for HEV might exist since antibodies to HEV have been detected in other animal species, such as dogs and cats. Given the intimate contact between these pets and humans, the potential zoonotic HEV transmission from dogs and cats deserves to be explored. To address this issue, 493 sera from pet veterinarians (373) and matched general population (120) were tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG using a commercial ELISA. Antibodies to HEV were found in 9.9% veterinarians and 13.3% general population. No statistically significant difference was found between these two groups showing that pet veterinarians have no increased risk to hepatitis E compared to the general population. PMID:24610550

  9. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  10. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    PubMed Central

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. Sample and Methods A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. Results LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Discussion Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The

  11. Improving power in small-sample longitudinal studies when using generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Philip M; Burchett, Woodrow W

    2016-09-20

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are often used for the marginal analysis of longitudinal data. Although much work has been performed to improve the validity of GEE for the analysis of data arising from small-sample studies, little attention has been given to power in such settings. Therefore, we propose a valid GEE approach to improve power in small-sample longitudinal study settings in which the temporal spacing of outcomes is the same for each subject. Specifically, we use a modified empirical sandwich covariance matrix estimator within correlation structure selection criteria and test statistics. Use of this estimator can improve the accuracy of selection criteria and increase the degrees of freedom to be used for inference. The resulting impacts on power are demonstrated via a simulation study and application example. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27090375

  12. Improving power in small-sample longitudinal studies when using generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Philip M; Burchett, Woodrow W

    2016-09-20

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are often used for the marginal analysis of longitudinal data. Although much work has been performed to improve the validity of GEE for the analysis of data arising from small-sample studies, little attention has been given to power in such settings. Therefore, we propose a valid GEE approach to improve power in small-sample longitudinal study settings in which the temporal spacing of outcomes is the same for each subject. Specifically, we use a modified empirical sandwich covariance matrix estimator within correlation structure selection criteria and test statistics. Use of this estimator can improve the accuracy of selection criteria and increase the degrees of freedom to be used for inference. The resulting impacts on power are demonstrated via a simulation study and application example. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A general few-projection method for tomographic reconstruction of samples consisting of several distinct materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Glenn R.; Thomas, C. David L.; Clement, John G.; Paganin, David M.; Gureyev, Timur E.

    2010-01-11

    We present a method for tomographic reconstruction of objects containing several distinct materials, which is capable of accurately reconstructing a sample from vastly fewer angular projections than required by conventional algorithms. The algorithm is more general than many previous discrete tomography methods, as: (i) a priori knowledge of the exact number of materials is not required; (ii) the linear attenuation coefficient of each constituent material may assume a small range of a priori unknown values. We present reconstructions from an experimental x-ray computed tomography scan of cortical bone acquired at the SPring-8 synchrotron.

  14. A general Monte Carlo simulation of ED-XRF spectrometers. II: Polarized monochromatic radiation, homogeneous samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, László; Janssens, Koen; Adams, Fred; Rivers, M. L.; Jones, K. W.

    1995-03-01

    A general Monte Carlo code for the simulation of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, described in a previous paper is extended to predict the spectral response of instruments employing polarized exciting radiation. Details of the calculation method specific for the correct simulation of photon-matter scatter interactions in case of polarized X-ray beams are presented. Comparisons are made with experimentally collected spectral data obtained from a monochromatic X-ray fluorescence setup installed at a synchrotron radiation source. The use of the simulation code for quantitative analysis of intermediate and massive samples is also demonstrated.

  15. Modified generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis for stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Huang, Jingjing

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a modified method of generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. The method based on Hausdorff distance presents a different way of time series patterns match showing distinct behaviors of complexity. Simulations are conducted over synthetic and real-world data for providing the comparative study. Results show that the modified method is more sensitive to the change of dynamics and has richer information. In addition, exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the curves obtained from the modified method and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data.

  16. Morphologic Patterns of Lip Prints in a Sample of Croatian Population

    PubMed Central

    Šimović, Marija; Pavušk, Ivan; Muhasilović, Senad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheiloscopy deals with the study of elevations and depressions which form a characteristic pattern on the external surface of the lips. Lip grooves are considered to be unique and analogous to the fingerprint. The aim of the research was to determine the type of grooves on healthy lips of men and women using lip prints in a sample of Croatian population, to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between men and women in the types of grooves and to determine whether there are any differences between male and female lip prints. Material and methods A randomly selected sample of Croatian population consisted of 40 male and 50 female subjects. The samples of lip grooves were classified according to Tsuchihashi classification. Results The research has shown that most women in Croatia belong to Type 2 (40.0%), followed by Type 1 (34.0%), Type 3 (12.0%), Type 4 (8.0%), and Type 5 (6.0%) which is of less importance. Most Croatian men belong to Type 3 (35.0%) and Type 2 (25.0%). A small number of men belong to Type 4 (15.0%), Type 5 (12.5%) and Type1 (12.5%). Conclusion There was a statistically significant difference between men and women regarding the types of lip grooves. PMID:27789909

  17. Estimating ancestral proportions in a multi-ethnic US sample: implications for studies of admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Levran, Orna; Awolesi, Olaoluwakitan; Shen, Pei-Hong; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2012-07-05

    This study was designed to determine the ancestral composition of a multi-ethnic sample collected for studies of drug addictions in New York City and Las Vegas, and to examine the reliability of self-identified ethnicity and three-generation family history data. Ancestry biographical scores for seven clusters corresponding to world major geographical regions were obtained using STRUCTURE, based on genotypes of 168 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), for a sample of 1,291 African Americans (AA), European Americans (EA), and Hispanic Americans (HA) along with data from 1,051 HGDP-CEPH 'diversity panel' as a reference. Self-identified ethnicity and family history data, obtained in an interview, were accurate in identifying the individual major ancestry in the AA and the EA samples (approximately 99% and 95%, respectively) but were not useful for the HA sample and could not predict the extent of admixture in any group. The mean proportions of the combined clusters corresponding to European and Middle Eastern populations in the AA sample, revealed by AIMs analysis, were 0.13. The HA subjects, predominantly Puerto Ricans, showed a highly variable hybrid contribution pattern of clusters corresponding to Europe (0.27), Middle East (0.27), Africa (0.20), and Central Asia (0.14). The effect of admixture on allele frequencies is demonstrated for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (118A > G, 17 C > T) of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). This study reiterates the importance of AIMs in defining ancestry, especially in admixed populations.

  18. Old stellar populations. 5: Absorption feature indices for the complete LICK/IDS sample of stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthey, Guy; Faber, S. M.; Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Burstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one optical absorption features, 11 of which have been previously defined, are automatically measured in a sample of 460 stars. Following Gorgas et al., the indices are summarized in fitting functions that give index strengths as functions of stellar temperature, gravity, and (Fe/H). This project was carried out with the purpose of predicting index strengths in the integrated light of stellar populations of different ages and metallicities, but the data should be valuable for stellar studies in the Galaxy as well. Several of the new indices appear to be promising indicators of metallicity for old stellar populations. A complete list of index data and atmospheric parameters is available in computer-readable form.

  19. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  20. The general pinhole camera: effective and efficient nonuniform sampling for visualization.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Voicu; Rosen, Paul; Arns, Laura; Tricoche, Xavier; Wyman, Chris; Hoffmann, Christoph M

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the general pinhole camera (GPC), defined by a center of projection (i.e., the pinhole), an image plane, and a set of sampling locations in the image plane. We demonstrate the advantages of the GPC in the contexts of remote visualization, focus-plus-context visualization, and extreme antialiasing, which benefit from the GPC sampling flexibility. For remote visualization, we describe a GPC that allows zooming-in at the client without the need for transferring additional data from the server. For focus-plus-context visualization, we describe a GPC with multiple regions of interest with sampling rate continuity to the surrounding areas. For extreme antialiasing, we describe a GPC variant that allows supersampling locally with a very high number of color samples per output pixel (e.g., 1,024{\\times}), supersampling levels that are out of reach for conventional approaches that supersample the entire image. The GPC supports many types of data, including surface geometry, volumetric, and image data, as well as many rendering modes, including highly view-dependent effects such as volume rendering. Finally, GPC visualization is efficient-GPC images are rendered and resampled with the help of graphics hardware at interactive rates.

  1. Comparison of Population Iodine Estimates from 24-Hour Urine and Timed-Spot Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, Mary E.; Swanson, Christine A.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Chen, Te-Ching; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2014-01-01

    Background: Median urine iodine concentration (UIC; μg/L) in spot urine samples is recommended for monitoring population iodine status. Other common measures are iodine:creatinine ratio (I/Cr; μg/g) and estimated 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE; I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr; μg/day). Despite different units, these measures are often used interchangeably, and it is unclear how they compare with the reference standard 24-hour UIE. Methods: Volunteers aged 18–39 years collected all their urine samples for 24 hours (n=400). Voids from morning, afternoon, evening, overnight, and a composite 24-hour sample were analyzed for iodine. We calculated median observed 24-hour UIE and 24-hour UIC, and spot UIC, I/Cr, and two measures of estimated UIE calculated using predicted 24-hour Cr from published estimates by Kesteloot and Joosens (varies by age and sex) and published equations by Mage et al. (varies by age, sex, race, and anthropometric measures). We examined mean differences and relative difference across iodine excretion levels using Bland–Altman plots. Results: Median 24-hour UIE was 173.6 μg/day and 24-hour UIC was 144.8 μg/L. From timed-spot urine samples, estimates were: UIC 147.3–156.2 μg/L; I/Cr 103.6–114.3 μg/g, estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) 145.7–163.3 μg/day; and estimated 24-hour UIE (Mage) 176.5–187.7 μg/day. Iodine measures did not vary consistently by timing of spot urine collection. Compared with observed 24-hour UIE, on average, estimated (Mage) 24-hour UIE was not significantly different, while estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) was significantly different for some ethnicity/sex groups. Compared with 24-hour UIC, on average, spot UIC did not differ. Conclusions: Estimates of UIC, I/Cr, and estimated 24-hour UIE (I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr) from spot urine samples should not be used interchangeably. Estimated 24-hour UIE, where predicted 24-hour Cr varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and

  2. Prevalence of selected genomic deletions and duplications in a French-Canadian population-based sample of newborns.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Tracy; Giroux, Sylvie; Clément, Valérie; Langlois, Sylvie; Friedman, Jan M; Rousseau, François

    2013-07-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis has identified many novel microdeletions or microduplications that produce neurodevelopmental disorders with a recognizable clinical phenotype and that are not observed in normal individuals. However, imbalance of other genomic regions is associated with a variable phenotype with intellectual disability (ID) or autism in some individuals but are also observed in completely normal individuals. Several large studies have reported the prevalence of copy number (CN) variants in people with particular features (e.g., ID, autism, schizophrenia, or epilepsy); few studies have investigated the prevalence of genomic CN changes in the general population. We used a high-throughput method to screen 6813 consecutive cord blood samples from a predominantly French-Canadian population to assess genomic CN in five genomic regions: 1p36, 15q11-q13, 16p11.2, 16p11.2-p12.2, and 22q11.2. We identified one deletion and one duplication within 1p36, two deletions of 15q11-q13, eight deletions of 16p11.2-p12.2, two deletions and five duplications of 16p11.2, and six duplications of 22q11.2. This study provides estimates of the frequency of CN variants in an unselected population. Our findings have important implications for genetic counseling. PMID:24498606

  3. Prevalence and Trends of the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Epidemic in General Population - A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Zhiquan; Xin, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis assessing the prevalence and trends of the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) epidemic in general population. Method Studies that reported prevalence rates of AAA from the general population were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and reference lists for the period between 1988 and 2013. Studies were included if they reported prevalence rates of AAA in general population from the community. In stratified analyses possible sources of bias, including areas difference, age, gender and diameter of aneurysms were examined. Publication bias was assessed with Egger's test method. Results 56 studies were identified. The overall pooled prevalence of AAA was 4.8% (4.3%, 5.3%). Stratified analyses showed the following results, areas difference: America 2.2% (2.2%, 2.2%), Europe 2.5% (2.4%, 2.5%), Australia 6.7% (6.5%, 7.0%), Asia 0.5% (0.3%, 0.7%); gender difference: male 6.0% (5.3%, 6.7%), female 1.6% (1.2%, 1.9%); age difference: 55–64years 1.3% (1.2%, 1.5%), 65–74 years 2.8% (2.7%, 2.9%), 75–84 years1.2%(1.1%, 1.3%), ≥85years0.6% (0.4%, 0.7%); aortic diameters difference: 30–39 mm, 3.3% (2.8%, 3.9%), 40–49 mm,0.7% (0.4%,1.0%), ≥50 mm, 0.4% (0.3%, 0.5%). The prevalence of AAA has decreased in Europe from 1988 to 2013. Hypertension, smoking, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, claudication and renal insufficiency were risk factors for AAA in Europe. Conclusion AAA is common in general population. The prevalence of AAA is higher in Australia than America and Europe. The pooled prevalence in western countries is higher than the Asia. Future research requires a larger database on the epidemiology of AAA in general population. PMID:24312543

  4. The seduction of general practice and illegitimate birth of an expanded role in population health care.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen; Docherty, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    To reduce health inequalities and improve quality in health care, health policy initiatives in countries including New Zealand and the United Kingdom are expecting general practice to share responsibilities for a population approach to health care. This is giving increased emphasis to preventative care, including health promotion. Reasoned debate on this policy is overdue, not least in New Zealand, where clinicians within general practice appear to have been seduced by the lack of clarity in health policy into accepting this policy without question. They appear to disregard implications of the policy for redefining the nature and scope of their discipline (and of public health), including their own role as providers of personal care. This paper suggests that a population health approach is inappropriate in general practice when this approach weakens personal care and involves health promotion activity of unknown safety and effectiveness. The example of intentional weight loss to reduce overweight is used to illustrate these issues. We argue for a restricted range of general practice services.

  5. Counting Cats: Spatially Explicit Population Estimates of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Using Unstructured Sampling Data.

    PubMed

    Broekhuis, Femke; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M

    2016-01-01

    Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed 'hotspots' of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species.

  6. Counting Cats: Spatially Explicit Population Estimates of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Using Unstructured Sampling Data

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuis, Femke; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.

    2016-01-01

    Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed ‘hotspots’ of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species. PMID:27135614

  7. Efficient estimation of abundance for patchily distributed populations via two-phase, adaptive sampling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Runge, J.P.; Barker, R.J.; Schofield, M.R.; Fonnesbeck, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many organisms are patchily distributed, with some patches occupied at high density, others at lower densities, and others not occupied. Estimation of overall abundance can be difficult and is inefficient via intensive approaches such as capture-mark-recapture (CMR) or distance sampling. We propose a two-phase sampling scheme and model in a Bayesian framework to estimate abundance for patchily distributed populations. In the first phase, occupancy is estimated by binomial detection samples taken on all selected sites, where selection may be of all sites available, or a random sample of sites. Detection can be by visual surveys, detection of sign, physical captures, or other approach. At the second phase, if a detection threshold is achieved, CMR or other intensive sampling is conducted via standard procedures (grids or webs) to estimate abundance. Detection and CMR data are then used in a joint likelihood to model probability of detection in the occupancy sample via an abundance-detection model. CMR modeling is used to estimate abundance for the abundance-detection relationship, which in turn is used to predict abundance at the remaining sites, where only detection data are collected. We present a full Bayesian modeling treatment of this problem, in which posterior inference on abundance and other parameters (detection, capture probability) is obtained under a variety of assumptions about spatial and individual sources of heterogeneity. We apply the approach to abundance estimation for two species of voles (Microtus spp.) in Montana, USA. We also use a simulation study to evaluate the frequentist properties of our procedure given known patterns in abundance and detection among sites as well as design criteria. For most population characteristics and designs considered, bias and mean-square error (MSE) were low, and coverage of true parameter values by Bayesian credibility intervals was near nominal. Our two-phase, adaptive approach allows efficient estimation of

  8. Patterns of skin disease in a sample of the federal prison population: a retrospective chart review

    PubMed Central

    Gavigan, Geneviève; McEvoy, Alana; Walker, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermatology in vulnerable populations is under-researched. Our objective was to analyze the most commonly referred skin diseases affecting the Correctional Service Canada inmates in Ontario. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, retrospective chart review of inmate patients seen from 2008 until 2013 was performed. Two groups of patients were included in the analysis: those assessed in-person, and those evaluated by e-consult. Results: In the in-person patient group, the 3 most common diagnoses were acne, psoriasis and other superficial mycoses. For the e-consult group, the 3 most frequent diagnoses were acne, psoriasis and rosacea. There was a clear bias toward more inmates being seen in-person where the service was provided (Collins Bay Institution) than from other correctional institutions in Eastern Ontario. Interpretation: Most of the skin diseases that affected the incarcerated population studied were common afflictions, similar to those affecting the general population, which is in agreement with other studies. Future studies investigating skin diseases in male and female inmates across Canada would bestow more generalizable data. PMID:27398381

  9. Epidemiological Characterization and Risk Factors of Allergic Rhinitis in the General Population in Guangzhou City in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi Bin; Peng, Hua; Lu, Han Gui; Yang, Yan; Yin, Jia; Li, Tian Ying

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in China has increased with an apparent geographic variation. The current study aims to investigate the AR prevalence/classification, diagnosis/treatment conditions, trigger factors, and risk factors in the general population of Guangzhou, the third biggest city in China. A cross-sectional survey was performed in the citizens in Guangzhou from December 2009 to March 2010 by using a stratified multistage cluster sampling method. All subjects were asked to complete a comprehensive questionnaire via a face to face interview. A total of 9,899 questionnaires were valid. The prevalence rate of AR in the general population of Guangzhou was 6.24%, with a significant higher prevalence in urban area (8.32%) versus rural area (3.43%). Among the AR subjects, most (87%) were diagnosed with intermittent AR and 87% suffered from moderate-severe symptoms. High percentages of the AR patients did not have previously physician-based diagnosis (34%) or specific medical treatment (55%). Morning time, winter season, and cold air were the most common trigger factors of AR. Family history of AR, current living place, living place during babyhood, smoking, home renovation, and pet ownership were the significant risk factors associated with AR prevalence in the population. The study demonstrated comprehensive epidemiological and clinical information about the AR in Guangzhou population. Change of living environment and lifestyles had strong impacts on the prevalence of AR. Public health policies should help the patients benefit from a proper diagnosis/treatment and specifically target the local risk factors, in order to control the AR incidence. PMID:25514026

  10. Predictors of PCP, OH-PCBs, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in a general female Norwegian population.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Charlotta; Lund, Eiliv; Frøyland, Livar; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-08-01

    the OH-PCBs, regardless of their PCB precursors. As PCP is one of the dominating organic contaminants within the general female Norwegian population, future research on human concentrations, exposure routes and potential health effects of PCP is encouraged. Continued monitoring of human OH-PCB levels should also be performed as they could be present at levels almost as high as the PCBs and they are expected to be more toxic than their mother substances.

  11. Plasma vitamins A, C and E in the general population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; New, A L; Lee, B L; Ong, C N

    1998-03-01

    The National University of Singapore Heart Study measured cardiovascular risk factors, including selected plasma vitamins, on a random sample of the general population aged 30 to 69 years. Plasma vitamins A and E were normal and similar by ethnic group. Mean plasma vitamin A levels were: Chinese (males 0.68 and females 0.52 mg/L), Malays (males 0.67 and females 0.54 mg/L), and Indians (males 0.66 and females 0.51 mg/L). Mean plasma vitamin E levels were: Chinese (males 12.6 and females 12.6 mg/L), Malays (males 13.6 and females 13.3 mg/L), and Indians (males 12.9 and females 12.8 mg/L). No person had plasma vitamin A deficiency (< 0.01 mg/L) and only 0.1% had vitamin E deficiency (< 5.0 mg/L). In contrast, plasma vitamin C was on the low side and higher in Chinese than Malays and Indians. Mean plasma vitamin C levels were: Chinese (males 6.3 and females 8.4 mg/L), Malays (males 5.1 and females 6.4 mg/L), and Indians (males 5.7 and females 6.9 mg/L). Likewise, the proportions with plasma vitamin C deficiency (< 2.0 mg/L) were lower in Chinese (males 14.4 and females 0.7%), than Malays (males 19.7 and females 7.2%), and Indians (males 17.8 and females 11.0%). Relatively low levels of plasma vitamin C may contribute to the high rates of coronary heart disease and cancer in Singapore. In particular, lower plasma vitamin C in Malays and Indians than Chinese may contribute to their higher rates of coronary heart disease. However, plasma vitamin C does not seem to be involved in the higher rates of cancer in Chinese than Malays and Indians. The findings suggest a relatively low intake of fresh fruits and a higher intake is recommended. Also, food sources of vitamin C may be destroyed by the high cooking temperatures of local cuisines, especially the Malay and Indian ones. PMID:9663300

  12. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    -AD variance. Multivariable regression showed significant relationship between white matter hyperintensities volume and hypertension (P = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.023), smoking (P = 0.002) and education level (P = 0.003). The only significant association with cognitive tests was with the immediate recall of the California verbal and learning memory test. No significant association was present with the APOE genotype. These results support the hypothesis that white matter hyperintensities contribute to patterns of brain atrophy found in beyond-normal brain ageing in the general population. White matter hyperintensities also contribute to brain atrophy patterns in regions related to Alzheimer's disease dementia, in agreement with their known additive role to the likelihood of dementia. Preventive strategies reducing the odds to develop cardiovascular disease and white matter hyperintensities could decrease the incidence or delay the onset of dementia.

  13. Perceptions of generic medication in the general population, doctors and pharmacists: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Sarah; Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Stephens, Melika H; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate negative perceptions about generic medicines and evaluate the proportions of lay people, doctors and pharmacists who hold these perceptions. Design A systematic review of observational studies. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Scopus. Eligibility criteria Quantitative data from cross-sectional and prospective studies published in English after 1980, using self-report measures to evaluate perceptions about generic medicines, presented as percentages of the total sample assessed. Results After screening 2737 articles, 52 articles were included in the final analysis. A high proportion of doctors, pharmacists and lay people had negative perceptions of generics. Lay people were significantly more likely to view generics as less effective than branded medication (35.6%, 95% CI 34.8% to 36.4%) compared to doctors (28.7%, 27.5% to 29.9%) and pharmacists (23.6%, 21.2% to 26.2%), p<0.0001. Pharmacists (33.4%, 31.0% to 35.9%) were significantly more likely to believe generics were of inferior quality compared to branded medication than were doctors (28.0%, 26.3% to 29.9%), p=0.0006, and lay people (25.1%, 24.2% to 26.0%), p<0.0001. Doctors believed generics caused more side effects than branded medication (24.4%, 22.2% to 26.9%), compared to pharmacists (17.6%, 15.3% to 20.1%) and lay people (18.8%, 17.8% to 19.8%), p<0.0001. Doctors (28.5%, 26.9% to 30.2%) and pharmacists (25.4%, 21.4% to 29.9%) had significantly more safety concerns about generics than did lay people (18.0%, 17.0% to 19.0%), p≤0.0002. A greater proportion of lay people felt negatively about generic substitution (34.0%, 33.2% to 34.9%), compared to doctors (24.1%, 22.0% to 26.4%) and pharmacists (11.0%, 9.6% to 12.7%), p<0.0001. Rates of negative perceptions of generics do not appear to have changed substantially over time in the general population or among physician groups, p≥0.431, but such negative beliefs show a decreasing trend in pharmacists over the study period

  14. The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. Methods We surveyed flight attendants from two domestic U.S. airlines in 2007 and compared the prevalence of their health conditions to contemporaneous cohorts in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. We weighted the prevalence of flight attendant conditions to match the age distribution in the NHANES and compared the two populations stratified by gender using the Standardized Prevalence Ratio (SPR). For leading health conditions in flight attendants, we analyzed the association between job tenure and health outcomes in logistic regression models. Results Compared to the NHANES population (n =5,713), flight attendants (n = 4,011) had about a 3-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis despite considerably lower levels of smoking. In addition, the prevalence of cardiac disease in female flight attendants was 3.5 times greater than the general population while their prevalence of hypertension and being overweight was significantly lower. Flight attendants reported 2 to 5.7 times more sleep disorders, depression, and fatigue, than the general population. Female flight attendants reported 34% more reproductive cancers. Health conditions that increased with longer job tenure as a flight attendant were chronic bronchitis, heart disease in females, skin cancer, hearing loss, depression and anxiety, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education, and smoking. Conclusions This study found higher rates of specific diseases in flight attendants

  15. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-10-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of [euro ]75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands.

  16. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of €75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands. PMID:27165008

  17. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. PMID:27046393

  18. How do medical students value health on the EQ-5D? Evaluation of hypothetical health states compared to the general population

    PubMed Central

    Barbist, Maria-Theresa; Renn, Daniela; Noisternig, Bianca; Rumpold, Gerhard; Höfer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical students gain a particular perspective on health problems during their medical education. This article describes how medical students value 10 hypothetical health states using the EQ-5D compared to the general population. Methods Based on a sample of 161 medical students (male: 41%) we compared valuations of 10 hypothetical EQ-5D health states collected in face to face interviews with the valuations of the general population. Self-reported health on the EQ-5D was also collected. Results Every third health state was valuated higher by the medical students compared to data of the general population. The differences were independent of the severity of the hypothetical health state. Concerning the self-reported health, the majority of the students (66%) reported no problems in the five EQ-5D domains (EQ-5D VAS M = 87.3 ± 9.6 SD). However, when compared to an age-matched sample the medical students show significantly more problems in the area of pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. Conclusion Medical students have a tendency to value health states higher than the general public. Medical professionals should be continuously aware that their assessment of the patients health state can differ from the valuations of the general population. PMID:19077240

  19. Clinical evaluation of nonsyndromic dental anomalies in Dravidian population: A cluster sample analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamunadevi, Andamuthu; Selvamani, M.; Vinitha, V.; Srivandhana, R.; Balakrithiga, M.; Prabhu, S.; Ganapathy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To record the prevalence rate of dental anomalies in Dravidian population and analyze the percentage of individual anomalies in the population. Methodology: A cluster sample analysis was done, where 244 subjects studying in a dental institution were all included and analyzed for occurrence of dental anomalies by clinical examination, excluding third molars from analysis. Results: 31.55% of the study subjects had dental anomalies and shape anomalies were more prevalent (22.1%), followed by size (8.6%), number (3.2%) and position anomalies (0.4%). Retained deciduous was seen in 1.63%. Among the individual anomalies, Talon's cusp (TC) was seen predominantly (14.34%), followed by microdontia (6.6%) and supernumerary cusps (5.73%). Conclusion: Prevalence rate of dental anomalies in the Dravidian population is 31.55% in the present study, exclusive of third molars. Shape anomalies are more common, and TC is the most commonly noted anomaly. Varying prevalence rate is reported in different geographical regions of the world. PMID:26538906

  20. [Anxiety and depression among the epileptics in general population in Benin (Western Africa)].

    PubMed

    Nubukpo, P; Houinato, D; Preux, P-M; Avodé, G; Clément, J-P

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess prevalence of depression and anxiety among epileptic patients and to compare it to a control population, a matched case-control survey was performed in 196 persons above 18 Year old (98 epileptics and 98 controls matched according to sex, age 10 and social environment) in Republic of Benin (West Africa), using Goldberg's Depression and Anxiety scale. Two main investigators helped by 5 sociology students were trained on a questionnaire by a psychiatrist skilled with public health matters. People taking part in the survey are epileptic patients who already used health services. Inclusions took place within 17 communes of four departments (Mono, Zou, Ouémé, Atlantique) located in Southern part of Benin. The questionnaire used an Identity sheet and the Goldberg Depression Scale. Results are shown as mean standard deviations, for quantitative values, and percents for qualitative ones. Comparisons of proportions in qualitative variables are carried out using c2 test or Fisher's exact test. Comparisons of means rates between subject's groups are carried out with a Student t test or variance analysis. The correlations between two quantitative variables were assessed by linear correlation coefficient. Significance threshold chosen for the whole set of statistics analysis is 0.05. The majority of interviewed epileptic patients is young (average 32.6 11.5 Years old). A male predominance exists (sex ratio 1.28). 93% of interviewed persons live within their family, are married or cohabit (controls: 98.2%; cases: 87.9%); 57.4% are married (controls: 70%; cases: 44%). The most represented professional categories are craftsmen and shopkeepers (29.2%) as well as farmers (19.5%). Most of recruited patients live in an urban setting (55.4%) and 63.6% of interviewed persons had been living in the area of survey for over 10 Years. The most represented religion within the sample is Christian religion (67.7%), Animists (23.3%) and Muslims (5.8%). 97% of epileptic

  1. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection. PMID:22298707

  2. Insulation workers in Belfast. 1. Comparison of a random sample with a control population1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, William F. M.; Langlands, Jean H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Wallace, W. F. M., and Langlands, J. H. M. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 211-216. Insulation workers in Belfast. 1. Comparison of a random sample with a control population. A sample of 50 men was chosen at random from the population of asbestos insulators in Belfast and matched with a control series of men of similar occupational group with respect to age, height, and smoking habit. Significantly more of the insulators complained of cough and sputum and had basal rales on examination. Clubbing was assessed by means of measurements of the hyponychial angle of both index fingers. These angles were significantly greater in the group of insulators. Twenty-one insulators had ϰ-rays which showed pleural calcification with or without pulmonary fibrosis; one control ϰ-ray showed pulmonary fibrosis. The insulators had no evidence of airways obstruction but static lung volume was reduced and their arterial oxygen tension was lower than that of the controls and their alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was greater. PMID:5557841

  3. The relationship between iodine intake and serum thyroglobulin in the general population.

    PubMed

    Bílek, R; Čeřovská, J; Zamrazil, V

    2015-01-01

    The relationship is shown between a concentration of urinary iodine and serum thyroglobulin in population studies carried out on a general population that was randomly selected from the registry of the General Health Insurance Company (individuals aged 6-98 years, 1751 males, 2420 females). The individuals were divided into subgroups with a urinary iodine concentration of <50, 50-99, 100-199, 200-299 and >/=300 microg/l. The mean and median of thyroglobulin were calculated in these subgroups. Tg concentrations were dependent on gender (malesgeneral, thyroglobulin serum concentrations higher than 40 microg/l should be an indicator for determining urinary iodine.

  4. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bromet, Evelyn J.; AlKhafaji, Abdulzahra Mohammed; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE) in the Iraqi general population. Methods The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006–2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46%) of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year). Conclusions MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:26230265

  5. Incidence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement in the general population: a prospective registration study

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Maarten A.; Mathijssen, Nina M.C.; Bloem, Rolf M.

    2016-01-01

    Groin pain is a frequent cause of discomfort in patients and highly prevalent in active patients. One of the diagnoses causing groin pain is femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the incidence of FAI in the general population is unknown. This study aimed to identify the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a cohort of 31 451 patients in the Netherlands during 1 year. A cooperation of 16 general practitioners (GPs) participated in this prospective registry. All GPs were educated in the clinical manifestation of FAI and the physical examination for FAI. Patients of all ages were registered when presenting with ‘groin pain’. Between July 2013 and July 2014, 84 patients aged between 15 and 60 years of age presented with groin pain, reflecting an incidence of 0.44%. Of these patients, 17% (14 patients) were radiologically diagnosed with FAI. Another 30% of these patients had a high clinical suspicion for FAI. This is the first report on the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a general population diagnosed by GPs. Of all 84 patients presenting with groin pain, 17% were diagnosed with FAI. Creating awareness of FAI in GPs helps identifying patients that might benefit from FAI treatment. PMID:27583159

  6. Incidence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement in the general population: a prospective registration study.

    PubMed

    Röling, Maarten A; Mathijssen, Nina M C; Bloem, Rolf M

    2016-08-01

    Groin pain is a frequent cause of discomfort in patients and highly prevalent in active patients. One of the diagnoses causing groin pain is femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the incidence of FAI in the general population is unknown. This study aimed to identify the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a cohort of 31 451 patients in the Netherlands during 1 year. A cooperation of 16 general practitioners (GPs) participated in this prospective registry. All GPs were educated in the clinical manifestation of FAI and the physical examination for FAI. Patients of all ages were registered when presenting with 'groin pain'. Between July 2013 and July 2014, 84 patients aged between 15 and 60 years of age presented with groin pain, reflecting an incidence of 0.44%. Of these patients, 17% (14 patients) were radiologically diagnosed with FAI. Another 30% of these patients had a high clinical suspicion for FAI. This is the first report on the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a general population diagnosed by GPs. Of all 84 patients presenting with groin pain, 17% were diagnosed with FAI. Creating awareness of FAI in GPs helps identifying patients that might benefit from FAI treatment. PMID:27583159

  7. Alcohol consumption among the elderly in a general population, Erie County, New York.

    PubMed Central

    Mirand, A L; Welte, J W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Relatively few studies of drinking among the elderly have been completed despite the growing proportional representation of the elderly in the US population. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of and to observe whether active or health-oriented lifestyles are associated with heavy drinking among the elderly. METHODS. Random-digit dialing telephone interviews were conducted with 2325 Erie County, New York, general population residents aged 60 years or older. RESULTS. The prevalence of heavy drinking was 6%. Adjusted analyses showed positive associations between heavy drinking and being male, having suburban residency, and currently using cigarettes. Negative relationships were observed between heavy drinking and socioeconomic status, rural residency, and degree of health orientation. Age and level of active lifestyle were not significant contributors to the model. CONCLUSIONS. Of the studied variables, health orientation offers the greatest opportunity to address heavy drinking among the elderly. PMID:8669522

  8. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  9. Ischemic heart disease among the general Mongolian population: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is considered to be a pivotal health problem in Mongolia. To summarize the existing epidemiology of IHD in the general Mongolian population is crucial for primary prevention. The present review summarized population-based epidemiological data of IHD in Mongolia. When epidemiological studies were extracted from databases, very limited studies were available. The frequencies of IHD and IHD-attributable death rates appeared to be high and have an increased tendency in Mongolia. This could to be due to a gradually worsening state of potential IHD-related risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus. This might indicate an urgent need of strategies for IHD and related risk factors. Anti-IHD strategies, such as more epidemiological studies and campaigns to increase awareness of IHD, at nationwide public health levels would be required in Mongolia for more effective prevention.

  10. Relationship between religious social support and general social support with health behaviors in a national sample of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Debnam, Katrina; Holt, Cheryl L; Clark, Eddie M; Roth, David L; Southward, Penny

    2012-04-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in the United States and have significant behavioral origins. African Americans suffer a disproportionate burden of chronic disease relative to other US racial/ethnic groups. Previous research supports an association between both general and religious social support and health behaviors that impact the risk of chronic disease. The present study examined the relative contributions of these constructs to a variety of health behaviors in a national probability sample of African American men and women (N = 2,370). A telephone interview assessing fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and current cigarette use was completed by participants. Results showed that several dimensions of religious social support predicted fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate physical activity, and alcohol use over and above the role of general social support. Findings highlight the unique role of religious support in this population in the context of health behaviors. Implications for health promotion interventions are discussed.

  11. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of malondialdehyde DNA adducts in a representative sample of the Florence City population.

    PubMed

    Saieva, Calogero; Peluso, Marco; Palli, Domenico; Cellai, Filippo; Ceroti, Marco; Selvi, Valeria; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Assedi, Melania; Munnia, Armelle; Masala, Giovanna

    2016-07-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic compound that can react with DNA to form several types of DNA adducts including the deoxyguanosine adduct (M1dG). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between individual dietary and lifestyle habits and M1dG levels, measured in peripheral leukocytes in a large representative sample of the general population of Florence City (Italy). Selected anthropometric measurements, detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and blood samples were available for 313 adults of the Florence City Sample enrolled in the frame of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. A multivariate regression analysis adjusted for selected individual characteristics possibly related to M1dG levels (sex, age, BMI, smoke, physical activity level, education level, total caloric intake and a Mediterranean dietary score) was performed to estimate the association between these parameters and M1dG levels. M1dG levels were significantly higher in women (P = 0.014) and lower in moderately active or active subjects (P = 0.037).We also found a significant inverse association with the Modified Mediterranean dietary score (P for trend = 0.049), particularly evident for the highest categories of adherence. Our results indicate that M1dG levels can be modulated by selected individual characteristics such as gender, physical activity and a Mediterranean dietary pattern.

  12. Urinary excretion and daily intake rates of diethyl phthalate in the general Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Walker, Mike; Guay, Mireille; Aylward, Lesa

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed the trends in the body-weight-adjusted urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations and the diethyl ethyl phthalate (DEP) daily intake estimates in the general Canadian population (aged 6-49 years) using the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009 dataset. The creatinine correction approach, as well as the urine volume approach in a simple one compartment model were used to calculate the daily urinary MEP excretion rates and DEP intake rates in individual survey participants. Using multiple regression models, we have estimated least square geometric means (LSGMs) of body-weight-adjusted MEP concentration, daily excretion and intake rates among different age groups and sex. We observed that body weight affects the trends in the MEP concentrations significantly among children (aged 6-11 years), adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and adults (aged 20-49 years). The body-weight-adjusted MEP concentrations in children were significantly higher than those in adults. On the other hand the DEP daily intakes in children were significantly lower than those in adults. We did not observe any differences in the DEP daily intake rates between males and females. Although the urinary MEP concentrations are correlated well with DEP daily intake estimates in the overall population, one should be cautious when directly using the urinary concentrations to compare the intake trends in the sub-populations (e.g. children vs. adults) as these trends are governed by additional physiological factors. The DEP daily intake calculated using the creatinine approach and that using the urine volume approach were similar to each other. The estimated geometric mean and 95th percentile of DEP daily intake in the general Canadian population are 2 and 20 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. These daily intake estimates are significantly lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's oral reference dose of 800 μg/kg-bw/day. PMID:25217994

  13. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross