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Sample records for general population samples

  1. Sample and population exponents of generalized Taylor’s law

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Formentin, Marco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Cohen, Joel E.; Maritan, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Taylor’s law (TL) states that the variance V of a nonnegative random variable is a power function of its mean M; i.e., V=aMb. TL has been verified extensively in ecology, where it applies to population abundance, physics, and other natural sciences. Its ubiquitous empirical verification suggests a context-independent mechanism. Sample exponents b measured empirically via the scaling of sample mean and variance typically cluster around the value b=2. Some theoretical models of population growth, however, predict a broad range of values for the population exponent b pertaining to the mean and variance of population density, depending on details of the growth process. Is the widely reported sample exponent b≃2 the result of ecological processes or could it be a statistical artifact? Here, we apply large deviations theory and finite-sample arguments to show exactly that in a broad class of growth models the sample exponent is b≃2 regardless of the underlying population exponent. We derive a generalized TL in terms of sample and population exponents bjk for the scaling of the kth vs. the jth cumulants. The sample exponent bjk depends predictably on the number of samples and for finite samples we obtain bjk≃k/j asymptotically in time, a prediction that we verify in two empirical examples. Thus, the sample exponent b≃2 may indeed be a statistical artifact and not dependent on population dynamics under conditions that we specify exactly. Given the broad class of models investigated, our results apply to many fields where TL is used although inadequately understood. PMID:25941384

  2. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  3. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  4. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  5. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.

  6. [Intima-media thickness in a middle-old age sample of the Spanish general population].

    PubMed

    Calmarza, Pilar; Trejo, José María; Lapresta, Carlos; López, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain reference values of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in a middle and old-aged sample of the Spanish general population and to establish the 75(th) percentile above which it is necessary to control more strictly other cardiovascular risk factors. To determine cIMT values and the number of carotid plaques in age and sex subgroups, and whether there are differences between them. Lipids, apolipoproteins, number of carotid atherosclerotic plaques if any, and cIMT of both common carotid arteries were determined in 171 individuals, representative of the adult general population of Burgos (Spain). The median age of the patients was 63 years (interquartile range = 20) and the 75th percentile of carotid IMT was 0,88 mm and 0,81 mm in men and women, respectively. This study shows that the values of cIMT median increase with age and are higher in men than in women in all age groups, except in individuals over 74 years where cIMT median values are similar. The presence or absence of atherosclerotic plaques was not statistically different between men and women at different ages. This population study shows the reference values of cIMT in a middle and old-aged sample of the Spanish population and shows that age, male gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and personal history of coronary heart disease are the main determinants of increased cIMT. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of psychiatric medications in schizophrenia and other psychoses in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Nykänen, Salla; Puska, Virpi; Tolonen, Jussi-Pekka; Salo, Henri; Isohanni, Matti; Koponen, Hannu; Pirkola, Sami; Penttilä, Matti; Haapea, Marianne; Moilanen, Jani; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika

    2016-01-30

    The information on the use of psychiatric medications in general population-based samples is limited. Our aim was to analyse the use of psychiatric medications and factors associated with antipsychotic use in psychoses in a general population sample. Fifty-five persons with schizophrenia, 21 with bipolar psychosis or psychotic depression and 20 with other psychoses from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were examined at about 43 years of age. The frequency of use and dosage of psychiatric medication and the factors associated with the use of antipsychotics were analysed. Antipsychotics were used by 85% of schizophrenia, 65% of bipolar psychosis or psychotic depression and 62% of other psychoses cases; antidepressants were used by 22%, 60% and 33%; and benzodiazepines by 42%, 35% and 10%, respectively. In all the diagnostic groups, higher symptom scores and a higher number of hospital days were associated with the use of antipsychotics. In schizophrenia and other psychoses, poorer social and occupational functioning, and in other psychoses, female gender and lower education were also associated with the use of antipsychotics. Our results may partly indicate that, especially in schizophrenia, the effectiveness of antipsychotics is not as good as expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory: psychometric properties in an adolescent general population sample.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2012-07-01

    Onset of social phobia (SP) typically occurs in adolescence. Short screening instruments for its assessment are needed for use in primary health and school settings. The 3-item Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) has demonstrated effectiveness in screening for generalized SP (GSP) in adults. This study examined the psychometrics of the Mini-SPIN in an adolescent general population sample. Three hundred fifty adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were clinically interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version for identification of SP and other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I disorders, blind to their Mini-SPIN status. Associations between SP; subclinical SP; other anxiety, depressive, and disruptive disorders; and Mini-SPIN scores were examined, and diagnostic efficiency statistics were calculated. The association between Mini-SPIN scores and the generalized subtype of SP was also examined. As in adults, the Mini-SPIN items differentiated subjects with SP from those without. A score of 6 points or greater was found optimal in predicting SP with a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 84%, and positive and negative predictive values of 26% and 99%. The Mini-SPIN also possessed discriminative validity, as scores were higher for adolescents with SP than they were for those with depressive, disruptive, and other anxiety disorders. The Mini-SPIN was also able to differentiate adolescents with GSP from the rest of the sample. The Mini-SPIN has good psychometrics for screening SP in adolescents from general population and may have value in screening for GSP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Cook, Trevor M; Wang, Jianli

    2010-04-19

    Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047). Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes than those who were born in Canada. In the

  10. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in general population samples of North and Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Pedreschi, M; Baldacci, S; Chiaffi, L; Pistelli, F; Modena, P; Vellutini, M; Di Pede, F; Carrozzi, L

    1999-11-01

    Four cross-sectional general population surveys in Italy: northern rural Po Delta area (1980-1982, n = 3284; 1988-1991, n = 2841), and central urban Pisa area (1985-1988, n = 3865; 1991-1993, n = 2841). To analyse changes in prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases. Prospective epidemiological studies by standardised interviewer-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases tended to be higher in males (except for dyspnea and pleuritis), in the urban area (more polluted), and in the second surveys; moreover, they increased with age. Asthma peaked in those aged under 25 years and over 64 years. The highest prevalence rates were shown by current smokers of both sexes for all respiratory symptoms and by ex-smoker males for all respiratory diseases, while female current smokers reported chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma more frequently. The most clear-cut trend towards increase between the two surveys within each area was exhibited by wheeze and asthma. These findings highlight the relevance of sex, age and smoking habit, as well as the possible effects of air pollution, in relation to respiratory symptoms. They also indicate a trend towards an increase in asthma symptoms in Italian general population samples in the 1990s, and an under-estimate of medically diagnosed chronic respiratory diseases.

  11. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    PubMed

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the home environment on respiratory symptoms of a general population sample in middle Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Carrozzi, L; Paoletti, P; Vellutini, M; DiViggiano, E; Baldacci, S; Modena, P; Pedreschi, M; Mammini, U; di Pede, C

    1992-01-01

    The effects of home environment characteristics were evaluated in a multistage, stratified, cluster sample (N = 3,866) of the general population who lived in the district of Pisa (middle Italy). Each subject completed a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire that contained questions about respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors (e.g., type of heating, fuels used for cooking and heating). Cough and asthma were significantly more frequent in men who did not smoke and who did not use natural gas for cooking and heating. Attacks of shortness of breath accompanied by wheeze, dyspnea, and cardiovascular conditions in female nonsmokers were associated with use of a stove or forced-air circulation for heating; the type of fuel used did not affect this result. Multiple logistic models, which accounted for independent effects of age, smoking status, pack-years, childhood respiratory illness, education, zone of residence, and work exposure to dusts, chemicals, or fumes, showed significantly increased odds ratios for (a) cough and phlegm in males (associated with bottled gas for cooking), (b) wheeze and shortness of breath with wheeze in females (associated with the use of a stove or forced-air circulation). These results, which confirm our previous observations in an unpolluted rural area of north Italy, indicate that characteristics of the home environment, as assessed by questionnaire, may be linked to mild adverse health effects, i.e., respiratory symptoms, in the general population. The results also identify the need to better characterize the dose-response relationship in indoor air pollution monitoring studies that include subsamples of this population.

  13. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p < .001). In males with IA, Cluster C personality disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment.

  14. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p < .001). In males with IA, Cluster C personality disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Discussion and conclusion: Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment. PMID:28005417

  15. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  16. Help-seeking in people with exceptional experiences: results from a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other persons with EE, but preferred seeing a

  17. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individuals with the clinical questionnaire. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the SCOFF were 53.7 and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion The SCOFF showed good levels of specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high percentage of false negatives. Given the low sensitivity found in our sample the SCOFF is likely to be a suboptimal measure for the identification of ED in the community. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:312–316) PMID:25504212

  18. Suicide ideation and attempts and bullying in children and adolescents: psychiatric and general population samples.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.

  19. Prevalence and incidence of external genital warts in a sample of Italian general female population.

    PubMed

    Suligoi, Barbara; Vittori, Giorgio; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Timelli, Laura; Corsini, Dario; Fattorini, Giovanni; Mariani, Luciano

    2017-02-06

    The Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted virus worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate: 1) the prevalence and the incidence of external genital warts (eGW) in a sample of women attending community outpatient clinics and 2) the total number of eGW cases in the Italian female population aged 15-64 years. A prospective study was performed for a 12-month period between 2009 and 2010, among a sample of women attending community gynecological outpatient clinics located throughout Italy. Demographic data, for every woman aged 15-64 years, were collected. For women diagnosed with eGW, behavioral and clinical data were recorded. Prevalence of eGW was calculated as the proportion between the number of women with eGW and that of women visiting any of the participating gynecologists; incidence of eGW was calculated as the proportion between the number of women with a new diagnosis of eGW and that of women visiting any of the participating gynecologists. Standardized prevalence by age was used to estimate the number of eGW cases occurring in the Italian female population aged 15-64 years. In 2009-2010, 44 community gynecologists were included in the network. In one-year period, 16,410 women visited any of the participating gynecologists; 63 women were diagnosed with eGW, corresponding to a prevalence of 3.8 cases per 1,000 women per year (95%CI: 2.9-4.9). The incidence of eGW was 3.0 cases per 1,000 women per year (95%CI: 2.2-3.9). Women aged 15-24 years showed both the highest prevalence and incidence. Prevalence and incidence significantly decreased by increasing age group (p <0.001), and were higher in Southern Italy compared to Central-Northern Italy. The estimated number of women with eGW among women aged 15-64 years in Italy, in 2010, was approximately 69,000. These data show a high prevalence and incidence of eGW among young women in Italy, stress the effectiveness of community clinical networks in investigating STI epidemiology

  20. Is hypersexuality dimensional? Evidence for the DSM-5 from general population and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A; Långström, Niklas

    2011-12-01

    Hypersexual Disorder is currently being considered for inclusion in the DSM-5. To inform this process, we investigated the latent structure of the hypersexuality construct using Meehl's (1995) taxometric method. Data on sexual interests and behaviors were obtained from 2,101 general population males and females in Sweden and 716 male sex offenders from the United States. Taxometric analyses of self-report indicators of hypersexuality supported a dimensional interpretation of latent structure in both samples. These findings suggest that individual differences in hypersexuality are quantitative (matter of degree) rather than qualitative (difference in kind) in nature, at least when self-report data were used. This is another way of saying that hypersexuality is organized along a continuum of increasing sexual frequency and preoccupation, with clinical cases of hypersexuality falling at the upper end of the continuum or dimension. We conclude that the proposed inclusion of Hypersexual Disorder in the DSM-5 should acknowledge the lack of non-arbitrary breaks in the latent symptoms continuum which runs from very low to very high engagement in sexual behavior and preoccupation. The diagnostic threshold should therefore be decided from an analysis of external data on severity, comorbidity, and prognosis for individuals with sub-threshold and full diagnoses, respectively. Additionally, dimensional assessment of Hypersexual Disorder should be part of clinical diagnostic practice.

  1. Asbestos Lung Burden in Necroscopic Samples from the General Population of Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casali, Michelangelo; Carugno, Michele; Cattaneo, Andrea; Consonni, Dario; Mensi, Carolina; Genovese, Umberto; Cavallo, Domenico Maria; Somigliana, Anna; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    The present study analysed the asbestos lung burden in necroscopic samples from 55 subjects free from asbestos-related diseases, collected between 2009 and 2011 in Milan, Italy. Multiple lung samples were analysed by light microscopy (asbestos bodies, AB) and EDXA-scanning electron microscopy (asbestos fibres and other inorganic fibres). Asbestos fibres were detected in 35 (63.6%) subjects, with a higher frequency for amphiboles than for chrysotile. Commercial (CA) and non-commercial amphiboles (NCA) were found in roughly similar frequencies. The estimated median value was 0.11 million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue (mf g(-1)) for all asbestos, 0.09 mf g(-1) for amphiboles. In 44 (80.0%) subjects no chrysotile fibres were detected. A negative relationship between asbestos mass-weighted fibre count and year of birth (and a corresponding positive increase with age) was observed for amphiboles [-4.15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.89 to -2.37], talc (-2.12%, 95% CI = -3.94 to -0.28), and Ti-rich fibres (-3.10%, 95% CI = -5.54 to -0.60), but not for chrysotile (-2.84%, 95% CI = -7.69 to 2.27). Residential district, birthplace, and smoking habit did not affect the lung burden of asbestos or inorganic fibres. Females showed higher burden only for amphiboles (0.12 versus 0.03 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.07) and talc fibres (0.14 versus 0 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.03). Chrysotile fibres were shorter and thinner than amphibole fibres and NCA fibres were thicker than CA ones. The AB prevalence was 16.4% (nine subjects) with concentrations ranging from 10 to 110 AB g(-1) dry, well below the 1000 AB g(-1) threshold for establishing occupational exposure. No AB were found in subjects younger than 30 years. Our study demonstrated detectable levels of asbestos fibres in a sample taken from the general population. The significant increase with age confirmed that amphibole fibres are the most representative of cumulative exposure.

  2. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models.

  3. Personality Factors and Suicide Risk in a Representative Sample of the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    Blüml, Victor; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Doering, Stephan; Brähler, Elmar; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. Method Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555) in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. Results Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality. PMID:24124582

  4. Occupational and environmental associations with antinuclear antibodies in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G; Schur, Peter S; Fraser, Patricia A

    2006-12-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are a hallmark feature of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus, and can occur many years before onset of symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the association between exposures and high-titer antinuclear antibodies in the general population (i.e., people who do not have lupus or other systemic autoimmune diseases). Serum was collected from 266 population-based controls who had been frequency-matched to the age and gender distribution of lupus cases in a 60-county study area in the southeastern United States. A detailed occupational history was collected using a structured interview; information was also collected on hair dye use. Antinuclear antibodies were assayed using HEp-2 cells as substrate. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) as a measure of association between exposures and high-titer antinuclear antibody levels, adjusting for age, gender, and race. High-titer antinuclear antibodies (> or =1:160) were observed in 21 subjects (8%). A twofold increased prevalence of high-titer antinuclear antibodies was seen with some occupational exposures (silica dust, pesticides, and sunlight), although none of these individual estimates were statistically significant. The association seen with use of hair dyes was weaker (OR 1.4). There was a suggestion of a dose response with a combined measure based on the summation of exposures (ORs of 1.7, 2.1, and 5.9 for 1, 2, and > or = 3 exposures). These data suggest that occupational exposures may influence the expression of antinuclear antibodies. Larger studies addressing these exposures may provide insights into the mechanisms by which various environmental factors affect the development of autoantibodies and the progression to clinical disease.

  5. Change in pulmonary diffusion capacity in a general population sample over 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Storebø, Michael L.; Eagan, Tomas M. L.; Eide, Geir E.; Gulsvik, Amund; Thorsen, Einar; Bakke, Per S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Data on the change in diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) over time are limited. We aimed to examine change in DLCO (ΔDLCO) over a 9-year period and its predictors. Methods A Norwegian community sample comprising 1,152 subjects aged 18–73 years was examined in 1987 and 1988. Of the 1,109 subjects still alive, 830 (75%) were re-examined in 1996/97. DLCO was measured with the single breath-holding technique. Covariables recorded at baseline included sex, age, height, weight, smoking status, pack years, occupational exposure, educational level, and spirometry. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to examine relations between ΔDLCO and the covariables. Results At baseline, mean [standard deviation (SD)] DLCO was 10.8 (2.4) and 7.8 (1.6) mmol·min−1·kPa−1 in men and women, respectively. Mean (SD) ΔDLCO was −0.24 (1.31) mmol·min−1·kPa−1. ΔDLCO was negatively related to baseline age, DLCO, current smoking, and pack years, and positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and weight. Sex, occupational exposure, and educational level were not related to ΔDLCO. Conclusions In a community sample, more rapid decline in DLCO during 9 years of observation time was related to higher age, baseline current smoking, more pack years, larger weight, and lower FEV1. PMID:27600696

  6. HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Mutsindiri, Reggie; Chawira, Godwin; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2–14 years) in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%). Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort. Results HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.8%) and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03) or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04) but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0%) were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener GAD-7, based on a large German general population sample.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Andreas; Klein, Annette M; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Wirkner, Kerstin; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-03-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scales GAD-7 and GAD-2 are instruments for the assessment of anxiety. The aims of this study are to test psychometric properties of these questionnaires, to provide normative values, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic factors, quality of life, psychological variables, and behavioral factors. A German community sample (n=9721) with an age range of 18-80 years was surveyed using the GAD-7 and several other questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the unidimensionality and measurement invariance of the GAD-7 across age and gender. Females were more anxious than males (mean scores: M=4.07 vs. M=3.01; effect size: d=0.33). There was no linear age trend. A total of 5.9% fulfilled the cut-off criterion of 10 and above. Anxiety was correlated with low quality of life, fatigue, low habitual optimism, physical complaints, sleep problems, low life satisfaction, low social support, low education, unemployment, and low income. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were also associated with heightened anxiety, especially in women. When comparing the GAD-7 (7 items) with the ultra-short GAD-2 (2 items), the GAD-7 instrument was superior to the GAD-2 regarding several psychometric criteria. The response rate (33%) was low. Because of the cross-sectional character of the study, causal conclusions cannot be drawn. A further limitation is the lack of a gold standard for diagnosing anxiety. The GAD-7 can be recommended for use in clinical research and routine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The disruptive effects of pain on n-back task performance in a large general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Attridge, Nina; Noonan, Donna; Eccleston, Christopher; Keogh, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pain captures attention, displaces current concerns, and prioritises escape and repair. This attentional capture can be measured by its effects on general cognition. Studies on induced pain, naturally occurring acute pain, and chronic pain all demonstrate a detrimental effect on specific tasks of attention, especially those that involve working memory. However, studies to date have relied on relatively small samples and/or one type of pain, thus restricting our ability to generalise to wider populations. We investigated the effect of pain on an n-back task in a large heterogeneous sample of 1318 adults. Participants were recruited from the general population and tested through the internet. Despite the heterogeneity of pain conditions, participant characteristics, and testing environments, we found a performance decrement on the n-back task for those with pain, compared with those without pain; there were significantly more false alarms on nontarget trials. Furthermore, we also found an effect of pain intensity; performance was poorer in participants with higher intensity compared with that in those with lower intensity pain. We suggest that the effects of pain on attention found in the laboratory occur in more naturalistic settings. Pain is common in the general population, and such interruption may have important, as yet uninvestigated, consequences for tasks of everyday cognition that involve working memory, such as concentration, reasoning, motor planning, and prospective memory. PMID:26020226

  9. Risk Factors for Running Away among a General Population Sample of Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Hagewen, Kellie J.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines risk factors for running away and homelessness among a sample of more than 7,000 currently housed youth using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Structural equation modeling results revealed that those with greater levels of family instability and those who ran away at Wave 2 were…

  10. Risk Factors for Running Away among a General Population Sample of Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Hagewen, Kellie J.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines risk factors for running away and homelessness among a sample of more than 7,000 currently housed youth using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Structural equation modeling results revealed that those with greater levels of family instability and those who ran away at Wave 2 were…

  11. Risk of hospitalization among survivors of childhood and adolescent acute lymphoblastic leukemia compared to siblings and a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Ou, Judy Y; Smits-Seemann, Rochelle R; Kaul, Sapna; Fluchel, Mark N; Sweeney, Carol; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2017-08-01

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) has a high survival rate, but cancer-related late effects in the early post-treatment years need documentation. Hospitalizations are an indicator of the burden of late effects. We identify rates and risk factors for hospitalization from five to ten years after diagnosis for childhood and adolescent ALL survivors compared to siblings and a matched population sample. 176 ALL survivors were diagnosed at ≤22 years between 1998 and 2008 and treated at an Intermountain Healthcare facility. The Utah Population Database identified siblings, an age- and sex-matched sample of the Utah population, and statewide inpatient hospital discharges. Sex- and birth year-adjusted Poisson models with Generalized Estimating Equations and robust standard errors calculated rates and rate ratios. Cox proportional hazards models identified demographic and clinical risk factors for hospitalizations among survivors. Hospitalization rates for survivors (Rate:3.76, 95% CI=2.22-6.36) were higher than siblings (Rate:2.69, 95% CI=1.01-7.18) and the population sample (Rate:1.87, 95% CI=1.13-3.09). Compared to siblings and population comparisons, rate ratios (RR) were significantly higher for survivors diagnosed between age 6 and 22 years (RR:2.87, 95% CI=1.03-7.97 vs siblings; RR:2.66, 95% CI=1.17-6.04 vs population comparisons). Rate ratios for diagnosis between 2004 and 2008 were significantly higher compared to the population sample (RR:4.29, 95% CI=1.49, 12.32), but not siblings (RR:2.73, 95% CI=0.54, 13.68). Survivors originally diagnosed with high-risk ALL did not have a significantly higher risk than siblings or population comparators. However, high-risk ALL survivors (Hazard ratio [HR]:3.36, 95% CI=1.33-8.45) and survivors diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 (HR:9.48, 95% CI=1.93-46.59) had the highest risk compared to their survivor counterparts. Five to ten years after diagnosis is a sensitive time period for hospitalizations in the ALL population. Survivors of

  12. Misbeliefs About Gambling in a Convenience Sample from the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Alexander; Bamert, Anthony; Sani, Anna-Maria

    2016-12-31

    We examined knowledge about the role of randomness in gambling and the principle of independence of events, in a community sample. We also investigated whether this knowledge varies according to gender and age. A convenience sample of 1257 residents in French-speaking Switzerland, aged 18-88 years (28.5% of women) completed a short online questionnaire. This assessed the perceived role of human skills in four different games as well as beliefs relating to the principle of independence of events. The results show that 19.5% of the respondents perceived Roulette as a game for which the outcome is determined by skill. They also showed that 15.1% of the respondents did not hold beliefs about the independence of events principle. Gender and age differences were also observed: Men were proportionally more likely to hold erroneous beliefs about gambling skills and the independence of events, compared to women. The 18-25 year-old age group attributed Roulette outcomes to the gambler's skill more frequently than the older categories. The implications of these findings for prevention and social support are discussed.

  13. Mental health treatment dropout and its correlates in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianLi

    2007-03-01

    Dropping out of mental health treatment prematurely may affect treatment outcome. However, we have limited knowledge about the epidemiology of mental health treatment dropout. The objectives of this analysis were to estimate the rates of dropout in individuals who had received mental health treatment provided by different health professionals and to identify factors associated with mental health treatment dropout. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health-Well-being were used. Participants who had used mental health services in the past 12 months were included in the analysis (n=3556). The percentages dropping out of mental health treatment provided by various health professionals were estimated. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment dropout. The overall rate of dropout from mental health treatment in the past 12 months was 22.3%. Participants who had used services provided by family doctors/general practitioners had the lowest rate of dropout (11.8%). The dropout rate was 22.7% in those who were treated by psychiatrists and was 21.9% in participants who had seen psychologists. Young (15-25 years), nonwhite and individuals who reported having had a mood disorder or having had substance dependence were more likely to terminate treatment prematurely. In Canada, a large percentage of individuals who use mental health services prematurely terminate their treatment. Clinical factors may play important roles in treatment dropout. Patients with substance dependence and those with mood disorders have a high risk of treatment dropout.

  14. Lead and cadmium levels in blood samples from the general population of Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Friberg, L.; Lind, B.; Jawaid, M.

    1983-02-01

    Lead and cadmium was determined in whole blood samples obtained from 473 nonoccupationally exposed adult persons in Sweden in 1980. Analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry equipped with an electrothermal atomization unit. Blood lead concentrations were shown to be significantly influenced by sex, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption. Current male smokers had a median blood lead level of 92 ..mu..g Pb/liter, as compared to 77 ..mu..g Pb/liter for nonsmokers. For females the corresponding values were 69 ..mu..g Pb/liter and 57 ..mu..g Pb/liter for current smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between stated alcohol consumption and blood lead in most of the different sex and smoking categories. People living in apartments close to streets with heavy traffic in Stockholm had slightly, but not significantly, higher blood lead levels when compared to people living in areas of this city with low traffic density. Blood cadmium levels were very strongly affected by smoking habits. A significant correlation existed between the number of cigarettes consumed daily and blood cadmium concentration. The median blood cadmium level for nonsmoking males was 0.2 ..mu..g Cd/liter (less than or equal to0.2, detection limit) and for females 0.3 ..mu..g Cd/liter. About 90% of the current male and female smokers had cadmium concentrations in blood of 0.6 ..mu..g Cd/liter or more.

  15. Predictors of Beliefs in Intergroup Forgiveness in a Chilean General Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Manuel; Arnoso, Maitane; Páez, Darío

    2015-06-15

    Original survey data from a Chilean sample (N = 1267) are used to study the socio-demographic and psychosocial determinants of belief in forgiveness attitudes in the context of measuring the impact of truth and reconciliation reports (NTRC, 1991) and Political Imprisonment and Torture (NPIC, 2004) commissions. A linear multiple regression analysis (R 2 = .15; F(8, 1269) = 14.65; p < .001; effect size f 2 = .18) revealed the positive effect of perceived apology sincerity (β = 0.22; p < .001), emotions of anger (β = -0.08; p < .05), and positive social climate (β = 0.08; p < .05). People who believe in the victims' forgiveness feel less anger, have more positive perceptions of the sincerity and efficacy of the apologies, agree to a greater extent that the commission helped to find out the truth about what happened to the victims, and have a greater perception of the social climate as positive. The results show the importance of psychosocial and institutional variables in beliefs about forgiveness, and they suggest differences between interpersonal and intergroup forgiveness processes.

  16. Associations of carotid intima-media thickness, tobacco smoking and overweight with hearing disorder in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    John, U; Baumeister, S E; Kessler, C; Völzke, H

    2007-11-01

    It has been argued that smoking or overweight might contribute to hearing disorder by atherogenic narrowing of the nutrient arteries to the cochlea. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker for generalized atherosclerosis. We analyzed a subgroup (n=2619) from a general population sample in north-eastern Germany aged 45-81 years (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Assessments included self-statements about hearing disorder and medical examinations of CIMT. Using ordinal logistic regression for data analysis and after adjustment for cigarettes per day, waist circumference, diabetes, exposure to noise, age and sex, we found CIMT remained a predictor of hearing disorder (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.2). Cigarettes per day and waist circumference were related to CIMT but not to hearing disorder. The findings suggest a positive association between CIMT and hearing disorder.

  17. Coagulation factor V Leiden mutation in sudden fatal pulmonary embolism and in a general northern European population sample.

    PubMed

    Kuismanen, K; Savontaus, M L; Kozlov, A; Vuorio, A F; Sajantila, A

    1999-12-06

    The R506Q point mutation in the gene coding for coagulation factor V (Leiden mutation) is the major underlying defect in resistance to activated protein C (APC), which predisposes to venous thrombosis. The risk of deep vein thrombosis is clearly elevated in carriers of the mutation, but the risk for pulmonary embolism has not been demonstrated to be as high. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the Leiden mutation in an autopsy series of sudden fatal pulmonary embolism cases. PCR and subsequent restriction enzyme digestion were applied for genotyping 164 cases of pulmonary embolism. According to our data, the allele frequency of the Leiden mutation is not higher in sudden fatal pulmonary embolism cases (0.8%, 95% CI 0-1.9%) than in the general Finnish population (1.5%, 95% CI 0-3.3%). In addition to the 97 Finns, we determined the frequency of the Leiden mutation in 255 individuals from the neighbouring populations (Saami, Komi, and Karelians from Russia and Estonians), and found the Saami to have the highest frequency of the Leiden mutation (6.3%, 95% CI 3.2-9.2) in the general northern European population sample studied here.

  18. Using a representative sample of workers for constructing the SUMEX French general population based job-exposure matrix.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, A; Goldberg, M; Bonenfant, S; Martin, J C

    2004-07-01

    Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) applicable to the general population are usually constructed by using only the expertise of specialists. To construct a population based JEM for chemical agents from data based on a sample of French workers for surveillance purposes. The SUMEX job-exposure matrix was constructed from data collected via a cross-sectional survey of a sample of French workers representative of the main economic sectors through the SUMER-94 survey: 1205 occupational physicians questioned 48 156 workers, and inventoried exposure to 102 chemicals. The companies' economic activities and the workers' occupations were coded according to the official French nomenclatures. A segmentation method was used to construct job groups that were homogeneous for exposure prevalence to chemical agents. The matrix was constructed in two stages: consolidation of occupations according to exposure prevalence; and establishment of exposure indices based on individual data from all the subjects in the sample. An agent specific matrix could be constructed for 80 of the chemicals. The quality of the classification obtained for each was variable: globally, the performance of the method was better for less specific and therefore more easy to assess agents, and for exposures specific to certain occupations. Software has been developed to enable the SUMEX matrix to be used by occupational physicians and other prevention professionals responsible for surveillance of the health of the workforce in France.

  19. Using a representative sample of workers for constructing the SUMEX French general population based job-exposure matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, A; Goldberg, M; Bonenfant, S; Martin, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Job-exposure matrices (JEMs) applicable to the general population are usually constructed by using only the expertise of specialists. Aims: To construct a population based JEM for chemical agents from data based on a sample of French workers for surveillance purposes. Methods: The SUMEX job-exposure matrix was constructed from data collected via a cross-sectional survey of a sample of French workers representative of the main economic sectors through the SUMER-94 survey: 1205 occupational physicians questioned 48 156 workers, and inventoried exposure to 102 chemicals. The companies' economic activities and the workers' occupations were coded according to the official French nomenclatures. A segmentation method was used to construct job groups that were homogeneous for exposure prevalence to chemical agents. The matrix was constructed in two stages: consolidation of occupations according to exposure prevalence; and establishment of exposure indices based on individual data from all the subjects in the sample. Results: An agent specific matrix could be constructed for 80 of the chemicals. The quality of the classification obtained for each was variable: globally, the performance of the method was better for less specific and therefore more easy to assess agents, and for exposures specific to certain occupations. Conclusions: Software has been developed to enable the SUMEX matrix to be used by occupational physicians and other prevention professionals responsible for surveillance of the health of the workforce in France. PMID:15208374

  20. Are offending trajectories identified in population sample studies relevant for treatment settings? A comparison of long-term offending trajectories in individuals treated for substance abuse in adolescence, to a matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Molero, Yasmina; Larsson, Agne; Tengström, Anders; Eklund, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Most studies on offending heterogeneity have been conducted with general population samples. It is not clear to what extent these can inform such outcomes for individuals with substance use disorders specifically. The aim of this study is to compare the offending trajectories of individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence with a matched general population sample, and to test for gender differences in this respect. Growth mixture models were applied to identify offending trajectories from age 15 to 33 of 1568 individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence, and in a matched population-based sample of 1500 individuals. Several parallel trajectories for men and for women were identified in both samples. The substance misuse treatment sample, however, had higher levels of offending, larger offender classes, longer careers and two additional, distinct trajectories. Although there were similarities between the men and women, the men were more heterogeneous offenders. There were two distinct offending trajectories among male substance misusers-decreasing high level and decreasing low level offending. Differences between substance using and general population samples indicate that results from the latter could underestimate the severity, heterogeneity, and persistence of offending trajectories if merely generalised to individuals with substance use disorders. Our results also indicated that population--based samples might be underpowered for detecting female offending heterogeneity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Finite-sample corrected generalized estimating equation of population average treatment effects in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Scott, JoAnna M; deCamp, Allan; Juraska, Michal; Fay, Michael P; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-04-01

    Stepped wedge designs are increasingly commonplace and advantageous for cluster randomized trials when it is both unethical to assign placebo, and it is logistically difficult to allocate an intervention simultaneously to many clusters. We study marginal mean models fit with generalized estimating equations for assessing treatment effectiveness in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials. This approach has advantages over the more commonly used mixed models that (1) the population-average parameters have an important interpretation for public health applications and (2) they avoid untestable assumptions on latent variable distributions and avoid parametric assumptions about error distributions, therefore, providing more robust evidence on treatment effects. However, cluster randomized trials typically have a small number of clusters, rendering the standard generalized estimating equation sandwich variance estimator biased and highly variable and hence yielding incorrect inferences. We study the usual asymptotic generalized estimating equation inferences (i.e., using sandwich variance estimators and asymptotic normality) and four small-sample corrections to generalized estimating equation for stepped wedge cluster randomized trials and for parallel cluster randomized trials as a comparison. We show by simulation that the small-sample corrections provide improvement, with one correction appearing to provide at least nominal coverage even with only 10 clusters per group. These results demonstrate the viability of the marginal mean approach for both stepped wedge and parallel cluster randomized trials. We also study the comparative performance of the corrected methods for stepped wedge and parallel designs, and describe how the methods can accommodate interval censoring of individual failure times and incorporate semiparametric efficient estimators.

  2. Confirmatory factor analytical study of the WHOQOL-Bref: experience with Sudanese general population and psychiatric samples.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, Jude U; Awadalla, Abdel W; El-Abassi, Abdul-Hamid M; Jacob, Anila

    2007-08-01

    The widespread international use of the 26-item WHO Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL-Bref) necessitates the assessment of its factor structure across cultures. For, alternative factor models may provide a better explanation of the data than the WHO 4- and 6-domain models. The objectives of the study were: to assess the factor structure of the WHOQOL-Bref in a Sudanese general population sample; and use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and path analysis (PA) to see how well the model thus generated fits into the WHOQOL-Bref data of Sudanese psychiatric patients and their family caregivers. In exploratory factor analysis (FA) with all items, data from 623 general population subjects were used to generate a 5-domain model. In CFA and PA, the model was tested on the data of 300 psychiatric outpatients and their caregivers, using four goodness of fit (GOF) criteria in Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS). In the path relationships for our model, the dependent variable was the item on overall QOL (OQOL). For the WHO 6-domain model, the general facet on health and QOL was the dependent variable. Two of the five factors ("personal relations" and "environment") from our FA were similar to the WHO's. In CFA, the four GOF criteria were met by our 5-domain model and WHO's 4-domain model on the psychiatric data. In PA, these two models met the GOF criteria on the general population data. The direct predictors of OQOL were our factors: "life satisfaction" and "sense of enjoyment". For the general facet, predictors were WHO domains: "environment", "physical health" and "independence'. The findings support the credentials of WHO's 4-domain model as a universal QOL construct; and the impression that analysis of WHOQOL-Bref could benefit from including all the items in FA and using OQOL as a dependent variable. The clinical significance is that by more of such studies, a combination of domains from the WHO models and the local models would be generated and used to develop

  3. Affective reactivity to daily life stress: Relationship to positive psychotic and depressive symptoms in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Booij, Sanne H; Snippe, Evelien; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Wichers, Marieke; Wigman, Johanna T W

    2018-01-01

    Increased affective reactivity to daily life stress has been found in individuals with psychosis and depression, and in those at risk for these conditions. Because depressive and psychotic symptoms often co-occur, increased affective reactivity in these disorders may be explained by the presence of depressive symptoms, psychotic symptoms, or both. Therefore, we examined whether affective reactivity to daily stress is related to positive psychotic symptoms, independently of depressive symptoms, and vice versa. We used data from an intensive sampling study in the general population (n = 411), with three measurements a day (t = 90). The following subjective stressors were assessed: appraisal of activities, appraisal of social interactions, and experienced physical discomfort. Affective reactivity was conceptualized as both the positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) response to these stressors. By means of mixed model analyses, it was examined whether affective reactivity was independently related to depressive and/or positive psychotic symptoms. The PA response to activities and NA response to social interactions were negatively and positively related to depressive symptoms, respectively, independent of psychotic symptoms. In contrast, no (in)dependent association was found between positive psychotic symptoms and affective reactivity to any of the daily life stressors. These findings were confirmed in a subsample with increased symptoms. The prevalence of positive psychotic symptoms was relatively low in this general population sample. Increased affect reactivity predicts depressive symptoms, but not positive psychotic symptoms. Affective reactivity may still facilitate the development of psychotic symptomatology via its impact on depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Family-based association test of the 5HTTLPR and aggressive behavior in a general population sample of children.

    PubMed

    Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew; Hewitt, John K

    2006-05-01

    A promoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) has functional effects on an important physiologic process involved in serotonin (5HT) signaling. Despite the fact that variation in the 5HT system has long been implicated in the etiology of aggressive behaviors, only a few association-based studies with mixed results have been reported. We conducted family-based tests of association in a sample of 366 families from which 1187 genotypes of the 5HTTLPR were generated using polymerase chain reaction. Ratings of aggressive behavior were obtained from parents and teachers longitudinally using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher Report Form (TRF), instruments widely used in behavioral and psychiatric genetics. Within-family tests suggest an association between the s-allele of the 5HTTLPR and higher aggressive behavior in middle childhood. The strongest association was at age 9 and for an aggregate measure of teacher-rated aggressive behavior. This is the first report of an association analysis of the 5HTTLPR in a general population sample of school-age children. The results provide some support for the hypothesis that the functional effects of the 5HTTLPR s-allele are associated with higher levels of aggressive behavior in middle childhood.

  5. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Viegi, G. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson ); Paoletti, P.; Carrozzi, L.; Vellutini, M.; Diviggiano, E.; Pistelli, G.; Giutini, G. ); Di Pede, C. Occupational Medicine Service, Toscana ); Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. The conclusion, these preliminary analyses indicate an urban factor related to the rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in Italy in the 1980s.

  6. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms and Association with Oppositional Defiant and Other Disorders in a General Population Child Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Susan D.; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), has generated appreciable controversy since its inception, primarily in regard to its validity as a distinct disorder from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The goal of our study was to determine if the two DSM-5 DMDD symptoms (persistently irritable or angry mood and severe recurrent temper outbursts) occurred independently of other disorders, particularly ODD. Other DSM-5 DMDD criteria were not assessed. Methods: Maternal ratings of the two DMDD symptoms, clinical diagnosis of ODD using DSM-5 symptom criteria, and psychological problem scores (anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were analyzed in a population sample, 6–12 years of age (n = 665). Results: The prevalence of DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts both rated by mothers as often or very often a problem) was 9%. In all, 92% of children with DMDD symptoms had ODD, and 66% of children with ODD had DMDD symptoms, indicating that it is very unlikely to have DMDD symptoms without ODD, but that ODD can occur without DMDD symptoms. Comorbid psychological problems (anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and ADHD) in addition to ODD did not increase the risk of having DMDD symptoms beyond that for ODD alone. Only 3% of children with psychological problems other than ODD had DMDD symptoms. Conclusions: Our general population findings are similar to those for a psychiatric sample, suggesting that DMDD cannot be differentiated from ODD based on symptomatology. Therefore, it is important to assess all DSM criteria and to examine for comorbid psychopathology when considering a diagnosis of DMDD. Our results support the recommendation made by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision

  7. Relationship between masculinity and feminity in drinking in alcohol-related behavior in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cantú, M A; Medina-Mora, M E; Gutiérrez, C E

    1990-08-01

    The relationship between gender-related personality traits, on one hand and drinking, permissiveness towards drinking, and social as well as personal problems associated to drinking on the other, was studied in a general population sample from the City of Morelia, Mexico. Four gender-related traits scales were used for measuring assertive and aggressive masculinity and affective and submissive feminity, in addition to a standardized questionnaire for assessing drinking and other associated behavior. Some of the main results showed that people with high scores in affective feminity were less willing to allow drinking. Men who adopted a submissive feminine role and women with high masculine aggressive scores were more permissive as regards drinking. Among men, assertive masculine and affective feminine traits were more characteristic among those who drank than among abtainers. Drinking among women was related to liberal attitudes towards drinking and to aggressive masculinity. As regards the number of drinks consumed per month, assertive masculinity and liberal attitudes among men and affective feminity and liberal attitudes among women predicted the number of drinks. Affective feminity was negatively related to drinking. Regarding drinking-associated problems, frequency of drunkenness and submissive feminity among males predicted greater personal and social problems. Among women, drunkenness frequency and number of drinks were the most significant predictors. Contrary to what has been found in other countries, gender was a better drinking predictor than gender-related personality traits.

  8. The psychometric properties of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) in a general population sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mewton, Louise; Kessler, Ronald C; Slade, Tim; Hobbs, Megan J; Brownhill, Louise; Birrell, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-10-01

    The 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6; Kessler et al., 2002) is a screener for psychological distress that has robust psychometric properties among adults. Given that a significant proportion of adolescents experience mental illness, there is a need for measures that accurately and reliably screen for mental disorders in this age group. This study examined the psychometric properties of the K6 in a large general population sample of adolescents (N = 4,434; mean age = 13.5 years; 44.6% male). Factor analyses were conducted to examine the dimensionality of the K6 in adolescents and to investigate sex-based measurement invariance. This study also evaluated the K6 as a predictor of scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997). The K6 demonstrated high levels of internal consistency, with the 6 items loading primarily on 1 factor. Consistent with previous research, females reported higher mean levels of psychological distress when compared with males. The identification of sex-based measurement noninvariance in the item thresholds indicated that these mean differences most likely represented reporting bias in the K6 items rather than true differences in the underlying psychological distress construct. The K6 was a fair to good predictor of abnormal scores on the SDQ, but predictive utility was relatively low among males. Future research needs to focus on refining and augmenting the K6 scale to maximize its utility in adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  10. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  11. Characteristics of subjects with comorbidity of symptoms of generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders and the corresponding threshold and subthreshold conditions in an Arab general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Ohaeri, Jude U.; Awadalla, Abdel W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There is controversy about differential meaningfulness between comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)/ major depressive disorder (MDD), the corresponding “pure” disorders and subthreshold conditions. We compared subjects who met DSM-IVTR criteria of symptoms and functional impairment for comorbid GAD/MDD, versus those with GAD, MDD, subthreshold conditions, and without significant symptoms. The comparison measures were socio-demographics, clinical severity, and quality of life (QOL). Material/Methods Participants (N=3155: 55.1% female, aged 16–87 yrs) were a general population sample of Kuwaitis who self-completed DSM-IVTR criteria-based questionnaires and the WHOQOL-BREF in 2006/7. We scrutinized the questionnaires and classified them into categories. Results Of the 273 GAD and 210 MDD cases, the prevalence of comorbidity among cases with GAD was 30.8%, and 40% among MDD. Of the 398 subthreshold GAD and 194 subthreshold MDD cases, 58 had subthreshold anxiety/depression comorbidity. Comorbid threshold GAD/MDD cases were significantly older, and more likely to be women, divorced and unemployed, compared with GAD and MDD. In all measures, the threshold GAD/MDD comorbidity was the severest condition. There was a monotonic decrease in QOL with increasing anxiety-depression symptoms. For the predictors of subjective QOL, the GAD/MDD comorbidity group differed markedly from the others. Conclusions The high prevalence of comorbidity and subthreshold conditions supports the recommendation to assess them routinely, regardless of the primary reason for consultation. Our findings support a dimensional model with comorbid GAD/MDD at the higher end of a continuum, and differing from the “pure” conditions by a later onset and predictors of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22367127

  12. A comparison of the prevalence and risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in two American Indian and a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Shay-Lee; Elias, Brenda; Enns, Murray W.; Sareen, Jitender; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts differ when comparing two American Indian reservation samples to the U.S. general population. Data were from the baseline nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5,877) and the representative American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP; N = 3,084). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. American Indians from these Northern Plains and Southwest tribes appeared significantly less likely to have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime when compared with the general population, odds ratio (OR) of 0.49 (99% CI [0.36, 0.66]) and 0.36 (99% CI [0.25, 0.51]), respectively. However, members of the Northern Plains tribe were more likely to have attempted suicide in their lifetime compared with the general population (OR=1.96, 99% CI [1.45, 2.65]). Suicide attempts without suicidal ideation were more common in the two American Indian samples than in the general population. In contrast, correlates of suicidal behavior appear quite similar when comparing the groups. Increased attention is needed to determine why rates of ideation and attempts may differ in American Indians when compared with the general population. PMID:24065607

  13. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Grimes, Carley; O'Halloran, Siobhan; Land, Mary Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan; Chalmers, John; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-12-16

    The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt.

  14. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Grimes, Carley; O’Halloran, Siobhan; Land, Mary Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan; Chalmers, John; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt. PMID:26694459

  15. Health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) among homeless persons compared to a general population sample in Stockholm County, 2006.

    PubMed

    Sun, Sun; Irestig, Robert; Burström, Bo; Beijer, Ulla; Burström, Kristina

    2012-03-01

    To describe and compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among homeless persons with a general population sample in Stockholm County, 2006, and to analyse the importance of certain social determinants of health among the homeless. Face-to-face interviews with 155 homeless persons and a postal survey to a general population sample, mainly based on the same questionnaire, including questions on social determinants of health and HRQoL measured with the EQ-5D. Chronic illness was three times more common among the homeless. HRQoL was worse among homeless persons than in the general population sample: the homeless reported more problems, especially more severe problems, in all the EQ-5D dimensions and had considerably lower EQ-5D(index) and EQ(VAS) score than the general population. Most problems were reported in the dimension anxiety/depression. Among the homeless, longer duration and more severe degree of homelessness lowered HRQoL, but few determinants were statistically significantly related to HRQoL. Having mental disease significantly lowered HRQoL. This study was an attempt to include hard-to-reach groups in an assessment of population health. Homeless persons had considerably worse HRQoL than the general population and reported most problems in the dimension anxiety/depression. Some diseases may contribute to causing homelessness; others may be seen as consequences. Homeless persons are a vulnerable group in society. Further interview studies are needed based on larger sample of homeless persons to explore health determinants such as sex, age, socioeconomic factors, duration and degree of homelessness, and health-related behaviours among the homeless persons.

  16. Efficient generalized least squares method for mixed population and family-based samples in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Yang, James; Levin, Albert M; Montgomery, Courtney G; Datta, Indrani; Trudeau, Sheri; Adrianto, Indra; McKeigue, Paul; Iannuzzi, Michael C; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2014-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that draw samples from multiple studies with a mixture of relationship structures are becoming more common. Analytical methods exist for using mixed-sample data, but few methods have been proposed for the analysis of genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions. Using GWAS data from a study of sarcoidosis susceptibility genes in related and unrelated African Americans, we explored the current analytic options for genotype association testing in studies using both unrelated and family-based designs. We propose a novel method-generalized least squares (GLX)-to estimate both SNP and G×E interaction effects for categorical environmental covariates and compared this method to generalized estimating equations (GEE), logistic regression, the Cochran-Armitage trend test, and the WQLS and MQLS methods. We used simulation to demonstrate that the GLX method reduces type I error under a variety of pedigree structures. We also demonstrate its superior power to detect SNP effects while offering computational advantages and comparable power to detect G×E interactions versus GEE. Using this method, we found two novel SNPs that demonstrate a significant genome-wide interaction with insecticide exposure-rs10499003 and rs7745248, located in the intronic and 3' UTR regions of the FUT9 gene on chromosome 6q16.1.

  17. Efficient Generalized Least Squares Method for Mixed Population and Family-based Samples in Genome-wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Yang, James; Levin, Albert M.; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Datta, Indrani; Trudeau, Sheri; Adrianto, Indra; McKeigue, Paul; Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that draw samples from multiple studies with a mixture of relationship structures are becoming more common. Analytical methods exist for using mixed-sample data, but few methods have been proposed for the analysis of genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions. Using GWAS data from a study of sarcoidosis susceptibility genes in related and unrelated African Americans, we explored the current analytic options for genotype association testing in studies using both unrelated and family-based designs. We propose a novel method—generalized least squares (GLX)—to estimate both SNP and G×E interaction effects for categorical environmental covariates and compared this method to generalized estimating equations (GEE), logistic regression, the Cochran–Armitage trend test, and the WQLS and MQLS methods. We used simulation to demonstrate that the GLX method reduces type I error under a variety of pedigree structures. We also demonstrate its superior power to detect SNP effects while offering computational advantages and comparable power to detect G×E interactions versus GEE. Using this method, we found two novel SNPs that demonstrate a significant genome-wide interaction with insecticide exposure—rs10499003 and rs7745248, located in the intronic and 3′ UTR regions of the FUT9 gene on chromosome 6q16.1. PMID:24845555

  18. Family constellation seminars improve psychological functioning in a general population sample: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor in different forms of chronic airflow obstruction in a general population sample.

    PubMed Central

    Knudson, R J; Kaltenborn, W T; Burrows, B

    1990-01-01

    The single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO), TLCO/alveolar volume (VA), and standard spirometric indices were measured in a survey of the randomly selected population sample of 1174 subjects enrolled in the Tucson epidemiological study of airways obstructive disease. Subjects were subdivided according to whether the FEV1/FVC ratio was under 65%, 65-75%, or over 75%. The influence of smoking on TLCO was accounted for by expressing TLCO as a percentage of the expected value-that is, of the value expected from the reported cigarette consumption. The 63 subjects who gave a history of physician confirmed asthma in reply to a questionnaire tended to have high values for TLCO, even when FEV1/FVC was reduced. In the absence of a given diagnosis of asthma, however, TLCO and TLCO/VA were reduced when the FEV1/FVC ratio was reduced, whether or not a clinical diagnosis of emphysema had been reported. This suggests that these subjects may have undiagnosed emphysema. This cross sectional analysis of our survey data suggests that subjects in our sample with spirometric evidence of chronic airflow obstruction have different forms of disease, characterised by different physiological features, in addition to the different risk factors and clinical courses reported earlier. Images PMID:2396232

  20. Dietary Intake of Potassium and Associated Dietary Factors among Representative Samples of Japanese General Population: NIPPON DATA 80/90

    PubMed Central

    Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Rumana, Nahid; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary potassium intake and associated other dietary factors among a representative sample cohort of Japanese population. Methods We obtained data from NIPPON DATA80 and 90 that were conducted with the National Nutrition Surveys in 1980 and in 1990. Then we estimated nutrient and food intakes of individuals in the National Nutrition Survey of 1980 and that of 1990, which were adjusted on the basis of data of the National Nutrition Survey of 1995. We analyzed data for 10 422 participants (4585 men and 5837 women) in NIPPON DATA80 and 8342 participants (3488 men and 4854 women) in NIPPON DATA90 having dietary potassium intake information. Results In NIPPON DATA80 and 90 it was observed that there was a significant relationship between the dietary potassium intake and age for both men and women. Higher potassium intake was associated with higher age, intake of protein, iron, calcium, sodium, vitamins, and fiber. Regarding food groups, lower amount of dietary cereals, rice, flour, fats and oils were associated with higher dietary potassium for both men and women. On the other hand, higher intake of nuts, potatoes, soy beans, fruits, vegetables, mushrooms, sea algae, fish and shellfish were associated with higher dietary potassium. Conclusions We obtained the mean dietary potassium intake and its association with other dietary nutrient intake in Japanese adults as the baseline data in NIPPON DATA80 and in NIPPON DATA90. PMID:20351479

  1. Dietary intake of potassium and associated dietary factors among representative samples of Japanese general population: NIPPON DATA 80/90.

    PubMed

    Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Rumana, Nahid; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary potassium intake and associated other dietary factors among a representative sample cohort of Japanese population. We obtained data from NIPPON DATA80 and 90 that were conducted with the National Nutrition Surveys in 1980 and in 1990. Then we estimated nutrient and food intakes of individuals in the National Nutrition Survey of 1980 and that of 1990, which were adjusted on the basis of data of the National Nutrition Survey of 1995. We analyzed data for 10,422 participants (4585 men and 5837 women) in NIPPON DATA80 and 8342 participants (3488 men and 4854 women) in NIPPON DATA90 having dietary potassium intake information. In NIPPON DATA80 and 90 it was observed that there was a significant relationship between the dietary potassium intake and age for both men and women. Higher potassium intake was associated with higher age, intake of protein, iron, calcium, sodium, vitamins, and fiber. Regarding food groups, lower amount of dietary cereals, rice, flour, fats and oils were associated with higher dietary potassium for both men and women. On the other hand, higher intake of nuts, potatoes, soy beans, fruits, vegetables, mushrooms, sea algae, fish and shellfish were associated with higher dietary potassium. We obtained the mean dietary potassium intake and its association with other dietary nutrient intake in Japanese adults as the baseline data in NIPPON DATA80 and in NIPPON DATA90.

  2. Working Memory Capacity and Psychotic-Like Experiences in a General Population Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ziermans, Tim B.

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) impairment is a common feature in individuals with schizophrenia and high-risk for psychosis and a promising target for early intervention strategies. However, it is unclear to what extent WM impairment parallels specific behavioral symptoms along the psychosis continuum. To address this issue, the current study investigated the relation of WM capacity with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in a large Swedish population sample (N = 1012) of adolescents and young adults (M = 24.4 years, range 12–35). WM was assessed with two online computer tasks: a task where participants had to identify and remember the location of an odd shape and a task of remembering and following instructions. PLE scores were derived from a translated symptom questionnaire (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences), which includes positive, negative, and depressive symptom scales. Positive and negative symptom scales were further subdivided into symptom clusters based on factor analyses. The results showed that low WM capacity was modestly associated with increased reports of bizarre experiences (BE) and depressive symptoms, after controlling for age, gender, and global symptom scores. Interestingly, when analyses were repeated for separate age groups, low WM was exclusively associated with a higher frequency of BE for young adults (20–27 years) and with depressive symptoms for older adults (28–35 years). These findings suggest that specific PLEs can be indicative of reduced WM capacity in early adulthood, which in turn may reflect an increased risk for psychosis and a greater need for targeted intervention. In contrast, during adolescence individual differences in cognitive development may influence the strength of the relationships and thereby mask potential vulnerabilities for psychopathology. PMID:24348432

  3. Assessing modern health worries: dimensionality and factorial invariance across age and sex of the Modern Health Worries Scale in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Rief, Winfried; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2014-10-01

    Previous work suggests a four-factor structure of the Modern Health Worries Scale. This study is the first to investigate its dimensionality and factorial invariance across age and sex in a representative population sample (N = 2524) using confirmatory factor analysis. The proposed four-factor model failed to achieve good model fit. Model fit was optimized by allowing correlating error terms resulting in acceptable model fit. Multi-group analysis revealed invariance across age and sex. Our study proved the proposed four-factor structure across age and sex. Consequently, the Modern Health Worries Scale can be applied in general population surveys using subscale scores. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. The relationships between sixteen perfluorinated compound concentrations in blood serum and food, and other parameters, in the general population of South Korea with proportionate stratified sampling method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Mug; Hwang, Yong-Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-02-01

    Serum samples were collected from volunteers of various ages and both genders using a proportionate stratified sampling method, to assess the exposure of the general population in Busan, South Korea to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). 16 PFCs were investigated in serum samples from 306 adults (124 males and 182 females) and one day composite diet samples (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) from 20 of the serum donors, to investigate the relationship between food and serum PFC concentrations. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were the dominant PFCs in the serum samples, with mean concentrations of 8.4 and 13 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorotridecanoic acid was the dominant PFC in the composite food samples, ranging from

    samples increased with the age of the volunteer, and were higher in males than in females, similar to the results of other studies. We confirmed from the relationships between questionnaire results and the PFC concentrations in the serum samples, that food is one of the important contribution factors of human exposure to PFCs. However, there were no correlations between the PFC concentrations in the one day composite diet samples and the serum samples, because a one day composite diet sample is not necessarily representative of a person's long-term diet and because of the small number of samples taken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a general population sample compared to a sample recruited for a study on the genetics of addiction.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Jonsson, Fridrik H; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Almarsdottir, Anna B; Heimisdottir, Maria; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Runarsdottir, Valgerdur A; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E

    2014-02-01

    Personality traits are major determinants of social behavior influencing various diseases including addiction. Twin and family studies suggest personality and addiction to be under genetic influence. Identification of DNA susceptibility variants relies on valid and reliable phenotyping approaches. We present results of psychometric testing of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a population sample (N=657) and a sample recruited for a study on addiction genetics (N=3,804). The Icelandic NEO-FFI demonstrated internal consistency and temporal stability. Factor analyses supported the five-factor structure. Icelandic norms were compared to American norms and language translations selected for geographical and cultural proximity to Iceland. Multiple discriminant function analysis using NEO-FFI trait scores and gender as independent variables predicted membership in recruitment groups for 47.3% of addiction study cases (N=3,804), with accurate predictions made for 69.5% of individuals with treated addiction and 43.3% of their first-degree relatives. Correlations between NEO-FFI scores and the discriminant function suggested a combination of high neuroticism, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness predicted membership in the Treated group.

  6. Cross-cultural validity of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Psychometric evaluation in a sample of the general French population.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sautron, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    general population.

  7. Association of the DAT1 Genotype with Inattentive Behavior Is Mediated by Reading Ability in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim M.; Savage, Robert; Hocking, Darren R.; Hollis, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) frequently co-occur in the child population and therefore raise the possibility of shared genetic etiology. We used a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach to assess the involvement of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphism in mediating reading disability and…

  8. Association of the DAT1 Genotype with Inattentive Behavior Is Mediated by Reading Ability in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim M.; Savage, Robert; Hocking, Darren R.; Hollis, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) frequently co-occur in the child population and therefore raise the possibility of shared genetic etiology. We used a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach to assess the involvement of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphism in mediating reading disability and…

  9. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  10. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  11. The Nature of Covariation between Autistic Traits and Clumsiness: A Twin Study in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moruzzi, Sara; Ogliari, Anna; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Battaglia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    While social impairment, difficulties with communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors are central features of Autism Spectrum Disorders, physical clumsiness is a commonly co-occurring feature. In a sample of 398 twin pairs (aged 8-17 years) from the Italian Twin Registry we investigated the nature of the co-variation between a psychometric…

  12. The Nature of Covariation between Autistic Traits and Clumsiness: A Twin Study in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moruzzi, Sara; Ogliari, Anna; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Battaglia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    While social impairment, difficulties with communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors are central features of Autism Spectrum Disorders, physical clumsiness is a commonly co-occurring feature. In a sample of 398 twin pairs (aged 8-17 years) from the Italian Twin Registry we investigated the nature of the co-variation between a psychometric…

  13. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  14. How does emotional wellbeing relate to underachievement in a general population sample of young adolescents: a neurocognitive perspective

    PubMed Central

    van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    Underachievement in school during early adolescence predicts future economic and personal difficulties. Particular neurocognitive skills on the domain of executive functions start to mature during adolescence. This fact and the physical and psychological changes typical for the transition from childhood to adulthood make adolescents vulnerable to emotional problems. The current study investigated the relationship between mild emotional problems which are highly prevalent among adolescents and underachievement in school, and the role of neurocognitive functioning in this relation. This study was conducted in a substantial sample of typical developing young adolescents who just made the transition to secondary education. Pupils were on average 12.5 years old (standard deviation 0.5), and 45% of the included sample were girls. Emotional wellbeing was associated with underachievement [Odds ratio (OR) 5.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.06–8.68] after adjusting for background variables. Self-reported neurocognitive functioning partly explained the relation between emotional wellbeing and underachievement (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.23–3.99), yet, emotional wellbeing remained statistically associated with underachievement after correcting for additional confounders (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.08–3.66). The observed findings suggest that emotional wellbeing plays an essential role in underachievement during the first year of secondary education. PMID:24098291

  15. Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Sebastian; Reichenberg, Abraham; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-04-28

    To compare the annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype and of registered diagnoses for autism spectrum disorder during a 10 year period in children. Population based study. Child and Adolescent Twin Study and national patient register, Sweden. 19, 993 twins (190 with autism spectrum disorder) and all children (n=1,078,975; 4620 with autism spectrum disorder) born in Sweden over a 10 year period from 1993 to 2002. Annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype (that is, symptoms on which the diagnostic criteria are based) assessed by a validated parental telephone interview (the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory), and annual prevalence of reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register. The annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype was stable during the 10 year period (P=0.87 for linear time trend). In contrast, there was a monotonic significant increase in prevalence of registered diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register (P<0.001 for linear trend). The prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype has remained stable in children in Sweden while the official prevalence for registered, clinically diagnosed, autism spectrum disorder has increased substantially. This suggests that administrative changes, affecting the registered prevalence, rather than secular factors affecting the pathogenesis, are important for the increase in reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. © Lundström et al 2015.

  16. Sub-threshold panic attacks and agoraphobic avoidance increase comorbidity of mental disorders: results from an adult general population sample.

    PubMed

    Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Fenske, Kristin; Stender, Jan P; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Hapke, Ulfert; Hamm, Alfons O

    2013-06-01

    Full-blown panic attacks are frequently associated with other mental disorders. Most comorbidity analyses did not discriminate between isolated panic attacks vs. panic attacks that occurred in the context of a panic disorder and rarely evaluated the impact of comorbid agoraphobia. Moreover, there are no larger scale epidemiological studies regarding the influence of sub-threshold panic attacks. 4075 German-speaking respondents aged 18-64 were interviewed using the fully structured Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Limited symptom attacks, isolated panic attacks, and panic disorder were associated with other lifetime DSM-IV disorders with monotonically increasing odds and increasing tendency for multiple comorbidities across the three groups. The presence of agoraphobia was associated with more frequent comorbidity in all panic subgroups and also in persons who never experienced panic attacks. The present study suggests that populations with isolated or limited symptom should be carefully attended to in clinical practice, especially if agoraphobia is present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gas chromatographic method using electron-capture detection for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples. Biological monitoring of the general population.

    PubMed

    Angerer, J; Käfferlein, H U

    1997-05-23

    Musk xylene (2,4,6-trinitro-1,3-dimethyl-5-tert.-butylbenzene, MX), a synthetic musk often used in different fragrances and soaps to substitute the natural musk, is a potential contaminant of humans. In this publication, a specific and sensitive detection method for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples is described. The clean-up of the blood samples includes an extraction step followed by a solid-phase adsorption to separate MX from other plasma components. Separation and detection was carried out by capillary gas chromatography and an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results were verified using qualitative capillary gas chromatography and a mass selective detector with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). epsilon-Hexachlorocyclohexane (epsilon-HCH) is used as internal standard. The reliability of the GC-ECD method has been proved. The relative standard deviations of the within-series imprecision were 12.7% for samples with a concentration of 0.5 microg/l and 2.1% for samples with a concentration of 5.0 microg/l, whereas the relative standard deviations for the between-day imprecision were 14.9% (0.5 microg/l samples) and 3.4% (5.0 microg/l samples). The losses during sample treatment were between 10.1% and 17.8%. No interfering peaks were observed. The absolute detection limit was 0.1 microg/l plasma. A total of 72 human blood samples were analysed to determine the MX concentrations within the general population. In 66 of the 72 human blood samples, the MX concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 1.12 microg/l plasma for the described method. In six samples no MX was detected. The median concentration was 0.24+/-0.23 microg MX/l plasma. The 95 percentile was 0.79 microg/l. No correlation could be found between MX concentrations and smoking habit, broca index, age, sex as well as fish consumption habits. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate the exposure of the general population to MX.

  18. Facial emotion recognition in adolescents with psychotic-like experiences: a school-based sample from the general population.

    PubMed

    Roddy, S; Tiedt, L; Kelleher, I; Clarke, M C; Murphy, J; Rawdon, C; Roche, R A P; Calkins, M E; Richard, J A; Kohler, C G; Cannon, M

    2012-10-01

    Psychotic symptoms, also termed psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in the absence of psychotic disorder, are common in adolescents and are associated with increased risk of schizophrenia-spectrum illness in adulthood. At the same time, schizophrenia is associated with deficits in social cognition, with deficits particularly documented in facial emotion recognition (FER). However, little is known about the relationship between PLEs and FER abilities, with only one previous prospective study examining the association between these abilities in childhood and reported PLEs in adolescence. The current study was a cross-sectional investigation of the association between PLEs and FER in a sample of Irish adolescents. The Adolescent Psychotic-Like Symptom Screener (APSS), a self-report measure of PLEs, and the Penn Emotion Recognition-40 Test (Penn ER-40), a measure of facial emotion recognition, were completed by 793 children aged 10-13 years. Children who reported PLEs performed significantly more poorly on FER (β=-0.03, p=0.035). Recognition of sad faces was the major driver of effects, with children performing particularly poorly when identifying this expression (β=-0.08, p=0.032). The current findings show that PLEs are associated with poorer FER. Further work is needed to elucidate causal relationships with implications for the design of future interventions for those at risk of developing psychosis.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in a general population-based sample in Mysore district, Karnataka state, southern India.

    PubMed

    Munro, Helen L; Pradeep, Banandur S; Jayachandran, A Ayyanat; Lowndes, Catherine M; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Jagannathan, Latha; Mendonca, Kevin; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Alary, Michel

    2008-12-01

    To estimate HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence within the general population of Mysore district, and to examine differences in the distribution of risk factors associated with HIV prevalence stratified by sex. A community-based study was conducted in Mysore, Karnataka state, southern India, between October 2005 and November 2006; final sample size 4653. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and blood and urine specimens collected to measure HIV and STI prevalences. Risk factors for HIV among men and women were examined using weighted and clustered logistic regression. Weighted HIV prevalence was 0.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.09] overall and 0.7% (0.35-1.08) and 0.9% (0.51-1.37) in rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection was 2.8% for men and 1.8% for women. In multivariate analysis, higher HIV prevalence was associated with ever having used a condom [odds ratio (OR) 2.75, 95% CI 1.01-7.47] and number of lifetime partners for men (OR 6.9, 95% CI 2.18-21.91). For women, HIV infection was associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse (OR 10.51, 95% CI 2.05-53.79), number of lifetime partners and reporting 'don't know' for whether ever had anal sex (OR 9.10, 95% CI 1.14-72.34). HIV prevalence in the general population of Mysore was found to be comparable to recent prevalence estimates for Karnataka state, and also similar to recent prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic attenders for the district. Few modifiable risk factors for HIV infection were identified. There is evidence from this study that high-risk behaviour may have been underreported, but the prevalence of STI was generally low.

  20. Molecular studies of Mendelian disorders, embryonic neoplasias, and polymorphisms in selected samples of the general population. A contribution to the genetic characterization of the Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, F; Coral, R; Peñaloza, R; Arenas, D; González, M; Barrientos, C; Buentello, L

    1995-01-01

    Molecular studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzymes, as well as intragenic STRs and newly designed primers, were performed in patients with Duchenne-Becker muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The usefulness of these methodologies in the precise identification of mutational changes, in carrier detection and in the understanding of neoplastic transformations, as well as its applications in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, are discussed. In addition, genetic polymorphisms in the beta globin gene cluster and in mtDNA were investigated. All these studies, the first performed in our population, contribute to establish the genetic origin and to a better characterization of the Mexican population.

  1. Population samples and genotyping technology.

    PubMed

    Mack, S J; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Single, R M; Meyer, D; Hill, J; Dron, H A; Jani, A J; Thomson, G; Erlich, H A

    2007-04-01

    The 14th International HLA (human leukocyte antigen) Immunogenetics Workshop (14th-IHIWS) Biostatistics and Anthropology/Human Genetic Diversity project continues the population sampling, genotype data generation, and biostatistic analyses of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop Anthropology/Human Genetic Diversity Component, with the overall goal of further characterizing global HLA allele and haplotype diversity and better describing the relationships between major histocompatibility complex diversity, geography, linguistics, and population history. Since the 13th Workshop, new investigators have and continue to be recruited to the project and new high-resolution class I and class II genotype data are being generated for 112 population samples from around the world.

  2. Symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder among people presenting for cosmetic dental treatment: a comparative study of cosmetic dental patients and a general population sample.

    PubMed

    De Jongh, A; Aartman, I H A; Parvaneh, H; Ilik, M

    2009-08-01

    To determine appearance concerns of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment. This cross-sectional comparative study included consecutive patients of six different cosmetic clinics (n = 170), and a sample of the general population (n = 878). A study-specific self-report questionnaire was administered to document demographic and appearance concerns. Presence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was assessed based on DSM-IV criteria. Cosmetic dental patients did not differ from the reference sample with regard to happiness and satisfaction as regards their appearance. However, differences were found with regard to frequency of previous general cosmetic (16.5% versus 5.9%) and cosmetic dental (47.9% versus 24.8%) procedures. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of the cosmetic dental patients sufficed for the two key screening criteria of BDD (9.5% versus 5.5%), and for the full diagnostic screening of BDD (4.2% versus 1.5%) compared with the respondents of the reference group. The results suggest that symptoms of BDD are relatively common among patients attending cosmetic clinics. It is important to assess the long-term effects of comprehensive cosmetic procedures, particularly in patients with disproportionate appearance concerns.

  3. Structural validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) in a sample of the general Spanish population.

    PubMed

    González Rodríguez, Manuel; Avero Delgado, Pedro; Rovella, Anna Teresa; Cubas León, Rosario

    2008-11-01

    This paper introduces the validation of the Spanish adaptation of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) by Wegner and Zanakos (1994). A sample of 833 people from the general population completed the WBSI along with other questionnaires. The exploratory factor analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution accounting for 51.8% of the cumulative variance. This structure is comprised of the two following factors: unwanted intrusive thoughts (alpha = .87, r = .70) and actions of distraction and suppression of thoughts (alpha = .80, r = .60). Both internal consistency reliability (alpha = .89) and test-retest reliability (r = .71) showed adequate homogeneity, sound consistency, and stability over time. The results are discussed bearing in mind both isolated factors and the possible relationships of the suppression factor with automatic negative thoughts and insomnia.

  4. Moment-to-moment transfer of positive emotions in daily life predicts future course of depression in both general population and patient samples.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Petra; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Peeters, Frenk; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Positive affect (PA) is closely linked to prevention of, and recovery from, depression. Previous studies have investigated PA reactivity to pleasant situations with respect to its protective properties in relation to mood disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine, and replicate, whether moment-to-moment transfer of PA in daily life (PA persistence) is relevant to the prediction of future course of depression. Individuals from three different studies (one general population sample (n=540), and two patient samples (n=43 and n=50) with matching controls (n=39 and n=21, respectively)) participated in an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) study. Time-lagged multilevel analyses were used to assess the degree of transfer (or persistence) of momentary positive affective states over time, in relation to naturalistic outcome (study 1) or treatment outcome (studies 2 and 3). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90R) in sample 1 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) in samples 2 and 3. In study 1, participants with greater momentary PA persistence were less likely to show depressive symptoms at follow-up. In study 2, patients were more likely to respond to treatment if they displayed greater momentary PA persistence, particularly in those with recurrent depression. In study 3, patients with greater momentary PA persistence were similarly more likely to respond to treatment, especially when treated with imipramine rather than placebo. The ability to transfer PA from one moment to the next is an important factor in the prevention of and recovery from depressive symptoms. Patients with recurrent depression and those who receive antidepressants rather than placebo may benefit most from this effect. The results suggest that treatment-induced improvement in depression is mediated by increased levels of momentary transfer of PA in daily life, acquisition of which may be contingent on duration of exposure to depressive experience.

  5. Generalized q-sampling imaging.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Wedeen, Van Jay; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2010-09-01

    Based on the Fourier transform relation between diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) signals and the underlying diffusion displacement, a new relation is derived to estimate the spin distribution function (SDF) directly from diffusion MR signals. This relation leads to an imaging method called generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI), which can obtain the SDF from the shell sampling scheme used in q-ball imaging (QBI) or the grid sampling scheme used in diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI). The accuracy of GQI was evaluated by a simulation study and an in vivo experiment in comparison with QBI and DSI. The simulation results showed that the accuracy of GQI was comparable to that of QBI and DSI. The simulation study of GQI also showed that an anisotropy index, named quantitative anisotropy, was correlated with the volume fraction of the resolved fiber component. The in vivo images of GQI demonstrated that SDF patterns were similar to the ODFs reconstructed by QBI or DSI. The tractography generated from GQI was also similar to those generated from QBI and DSI. In conclusion, the proposed GQI method can be applied to grid or shell sampling schemes and can provide directional and quantitative information about the crossing fibers.

  6. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. The relative odds of lifetime health conditions and infectious diseases among men who have sex with men compared with a matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Swartz, James A

    2015-03-01

    To address the understudy of health conditions and infectious diseases that are not strictly related to sexual transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), this study examined the relative odds of 10 health conditions and two infectious diseases in a sample of MSM compared with a matched general population sample. MSM (N = 653) living mainly in Chicago were sampled through successive administrations of an Internet-based survey (2008-2010) that assessed physical and mental health, substance use, and HIV status. Propensity score matching was used to obtain a demographically comparable sample of men (N = 653) from aggregated administrations (2008-2012) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Multivariate Firth logistic regressions compared the odds of ever having been diagnosed with each condition or disease, controlling for demographics, substance use, psychological distress, and HIV/AIDS status. MSM were more likely (p < .01) to have experienced: ulcers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3), hypertension (OR = 2.1), liver disease (OR = 5.7), and sexually transmitted infections other than HIV/AIDS (OR = 8.9). Two other conditions, pneumonia and pancreatitis, as well as tuberculosis, were significant at p < .05 but below the statistical threshold used to reduce alpha error. The findings suggest that relative to non-sexual-minority men, MSM are more likely to experience a range of health conditions not specifically attributable to HIV/AIDS, sexual behavior, psychological distress, or substance use. The implications for research on the health status and provision of health care to MSM in light of the study findings are considered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Relative effects of educational level and occupational social class on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-value<0.03). Also in contrast with some expectations, positive associations between education and POP levels were observed after adjusting for age and BMI in men; e.g., men with university studies had higher HCB concentrations than men with first stage of primary schooling (adjusted GM 153.9 and 80.5ng/g, respectively) (p-value<0.001). When education and social class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age

  9. Decline in semen concentration and morphology in a sample of 26 609 men close to general population between 1989 and 2005 in France

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, M.; Le Moal, J.; Wagner, V.; Royère, D.; De Mouzon, J.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are temporal trends and values of semen quality parameters in France identifiable in partners of totally infertile women? SUMMARY ANSWER Among a sample of 26 609 partners of totally infertile women undergoing an assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in the whole of France over a 17-year period, there was a continuous decrease in semen concentration of about 1.9% per year and a significant decrease in the percentage with morphologically normal forms but no global trend for motility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY A global decrease in human sperm quality is still debated as geographical differences have been shown, and many criticisms have risen concerning studies with small and biased study populations or inappropriate statistical methodology. However, growing biological, toxicological, experimental and human exposure data support the endocrine disruptors' hypothesis assuming that fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors could impair reproductive outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This was a retrospective and descriptive study using data registered by Fivnat, the professional association in charge of statistics for ART in France during the 1989–2005 study period. Data were provided by 126 main ART centres over the whole metropolitan territory. The source population included 154 712 men, aged 18–70, who were partners of couples undergoing their first ART cycle and for whom semen quality indicators (concentration, total motility and percentage of morphologically normal forms), measured on fresh ejaculated semen, were available. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The study population was 26 609 partners of women who had both tubes either absent or blocked. The temporal trends for each indicator of semen quality were modelled using a generalized additive model that allowed for nonlinear relationships between variables and were adjusted for season and age. In-depth sensitivity analyses included the reiteration of the analysis on data from a

  10. Variety of gambling activities from adolescence to age 30 and association with gambling problems: a 15-year longitudinal study of a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    To estimate trajectories of gambling variety from mid-adolescence to age 30 years, and compare the different trajectory groups with regard to the type and the frequency of gambling activities practiced and gambling-related problems. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Province of Quebec, Canada. A mixed-gender general population cohort assessed at ages 15 (n=1882), 22 (n=1785) and 30 (n=1358). Adolescent and adult versions of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Group-based trajectory analysis identified three distinct trajectories: a late-onset low trajectory (26.7% of sample) initiating gambling at age 22, an early-onset low trajectory (64.8% of sample), characterized by one to two different activities from age 15 onwards and a high trajectory (8.4% of sample), with an average of four to five different activities from age 15 to 30. Males (14.2%) were four times more likely to be on a high trajectory than females (3.5%) (P<0.001). Preferred types of gambling activities were similar across the three trajectories. Participants on a high trajectory reported higher gambling frequency at ages 15 and 30, and were more likely to experience problem gambling at age 30: 3.09 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.66, 5.75] and 2.26 (95% CI=1.27, 4.04) times more, respectively, than late-onset low and early-onset low participants, even when socio-economic status (SES), frequency of gambling and problem gambling in adolescence, gender, age 30 education, SES and frequency of gambling were controlled. Engaging in several different types of gambling in early adulthood appears to be a risk factor for emergence of problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Assessment of rates of recanting and hair testing as a biological measure of drug use in a general population sample of young people.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michelle; Sullivan, John; Ring, Susan M; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the extent of and factors associated with denial of previously reported cannabis and other illicit drug use, and assess the potential of hair testing for measuring substance use in general population samples. Birth cohort study. United Kingdom, 1991-present. A total of 3643 participants who provided hair and self-report measures of cannabis and other illicit drug use in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 18 years. Denial of ever use of cannabis and other illicit drugs at age 18 following previously reported use. Positive hair drug tests for cannabis and other illicit drugs, and expected numbers of false positives and false negatives based on expected sensitivity and specificity. Cannabis and other illicit drug use was reported by 1223 and 393 individuals, respectively, before age 18 years. Of these 176 (14.4%) and 99 (25.2%), respectively, denied use at age 18. Denial of cannabis use decreased with the reporting of other substances and antisocial behaviour. Cannabis and other illicit drug use at age 18 was reported by 547 (22.5%) and 203 (8.4%) individuals, respectively. Of these, 111 (20.3%) and 13 (6.4%) were hair-positive for cannabis and other illicit drugs, respectively. Based on hair testing for cannabis use we expect 0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-169] false positives and 394 (95% CI = 323-449) false negatives compared to observed 362 potential false positives and 436 potential false negatives based on self-report. In hair-positive individuals, reporting the use of other substances and antisocial behaviour decreased the odds of a negative self-report. Hair analysis provides an unreliable marker of substance use in general population samples. People who report more frequent substance use before age 18 are less likely to later deny previous substance use at age 18 than people who report occasional use. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study

  12. Assessment of rates of recanting and hair testing as a biological measure of drug use in a general population sample of young people

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John; Ring, Susan M.; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims We investigate the extent of and factors associated with denial of previously reported cannabis and other illicit drug use, and assess the potential of hair testing for measuring substance use in general population samples. Design Birth cohort study. Setting United Kingdom, 1991–present. Participants A total of 3643 participants who provided hair and self‐report measures of cannabis and other illicit drug use in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 18 years. Measurements Denial of ever use of cannabis and other illicit drugs at age 18 following previously reported use. Positive hair drug tests for cannabis and other illicit drugs, and expected numbers of false positives and false negatives based on expected sensitivity and specificity. Findings Cannabis and other illicit drug use was reported by 1223 and 393 individuals, respectively, before age 18 years. Of these 176 (14.4%) and 99 (25.2%), respectively, denied use at age 18. Denial of cannabis use decreased with the reporting of other substances and antisocial behaviour. Cannabis and other illicit drug use at age 18 was reported by 547 (22.5%) and 203 (8.4%) individuals, respectively. Of these, 111 (20.3%) and 13 (6.4%) were hair‐positive for cannabis and other illicit drugs, respectively. Based on hair testing for cannabis use we expect 0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0–169] false positives and 394 (95% CI = 323–449) false negatives compared to observed 362 potential false positives and 436 potential false negatives based on self‐report. In hair‐positive individuals, reporting the use of other substances and antisocial behaviour decreased the odds of a negative self‐report. Conclusions Hair analysis provides an unreliable marker of substance use in general population samples. People who report more frequent substance use before age 18 are less likely to later deny previous substance use at age 18 than people who report occasional use. PMID

  13. Nonprobability Web Surveys to Measure Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes in the General Population: A Comparison With a Probability Sample Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. Objective The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. Results For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Conclusions Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web

  14. The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, B; Warner, J; Hutchinson, E; Dean, T; Rowlandson, P; Gant, C; Grundy, J; Fitzgerald, C; Stevenson, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether artificial food colourings and a preservative in the diet of 3 year old children in the general population influence hyperactive behaviour. Methods: A sample of 1873 children were screened in their fourth year for the presence of hyperactivity at baseline (HA), of whom 1246 had skin prick tests to identify atopy (AT). Children were selected to form the following groups: HA/AT, not-HA/AT, HA/not-AT, and not-HA/not-AT (n = 277). After baseline assessment, children were subjected to a diet eliminating artificial colourings and benzoate preservatives for one week; in the subsequent three week within subject double blind crossover study they received, in random order, periods of dietary challenge with a drink containing artificial colourings (20 mg daily) and sodium benzoate (45 mg daily) (active period), or a placebo mixture, supplementary to their diet. Behaviour was assessed by a tester blind to dietary status and by parents' ratings. Results: There were significant reductions in hyperactive behaviour during the withdrawal phase. Furthermore, there were significantly greater increases in hyperactive behaviour during the active than the placebo period based on parental reports. These effects were not influenced by the presence or absence of hyperactivity, nor by the presence or absence of atopy. There were no significant differences detected based on objective testing in the clinic. Conclusions: There is a general adverse effect of artificial food colouring and benzoate preservatives on the behaviour of 3 year old children which is detectable by parents but not by a simple clinic assessment. Subgroups are not made more vulnerable to this effect by their prior levels of hyperactivity or by atopy. PMID:15155391

  15. Rationale and Development of a General Population Well-Being Measure: Psychometric Status of the GP-CORE in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Alice; Barkham, Michael; Evans, Chris; Connell, Janice; Audin, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, development, and psychometric status of a non-clinical self-report measure for the general population (GP) ? including students ? derived from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and hence termed the GP-CORE. In contrast to the CORE-OM, the GP-CORE does not comprise items…

  16. Rationale and Development of a General Population Well-Being Measure: Psychometric Status of the GP-CORE in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Alice; Barkham, Michael; Evans, Chris; Connell, Janice; Audin, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, development, and psychometric status of a non-clinical self-report measure for the general population (GP) ? including students ? derived from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and hence termed the GP-CORE. In contrast to the CORE-OM, the GP-CORE does not comprise items…

  17. Black Family Planning: Attitudes of Leaders and a General Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William G.; And Others

    Attitudes of black leaders and a general black population sample toward birth control and family planning issues were "Pro Birth Control" and "Genocide Fears." The leaders questioned held positions in twenty national black organizations, while the general population samples were taken from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Charlotte, North Carolina.…

  18. Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females.

    PubMed

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-report measure of autistic traits. It is frequently cited in diverse fields and has been administered to adults of at least average intelligence with autism and to nonclinical controls, as well as to clinical control groups such as those with schizophrenia, prosopagnosia, anorexia, and depression. However, there has been no empirical systematic review of the AQ since its inception in 2001. The present study reports a comprehensive systematic review of the literature to estimate a reliable mean AQ score in individuals without a diagnosis of an autism spectrum condition (ASC), in order to establish a reference norm for future studies. A systematic search of computerized databases was performed to identify studies that administered the AQ to nonclinical participant samples representing the adult male and female general population. Inclusion was based on a set of formalized criteria that evaluated the quality of the study, the usage of the AQ, and the population being assessed. After selection, 73 articles, detailing 6,934 nonclinical participants, as well as 1,963 matched clinical cases of ASC (from available cohorts within each individual study), were analyzed. Mean AQ score for the nonclinical population was 16.94 (95% CI 11.6, 20.0), while mean AQ score for the clinical population with ASC was found to be 35.19 (95% CI 27.6, 41.1). In addition, in the nonclinical population, a sex difference in autistic traits was found, although no sex difference in AQ score was seen in the clinical ASC population. These findings have implications for the study of autistic traits in the general population. Here, we confirm previous norms with more rigorous data and for the first time establish average AQ scores based on a systematic review, for populations of adult males and females with and without ASC. Finally, we advise future researchers to avoid risk of bias by carefully considering the recruitment strategy for both clinical and

  19. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  20. Medication Adherence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Glombiewski, Julia A.; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Glaesmer, Heide; Braehler, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to medication is low in specific populations who need chronic medication. However, adherence to medication is also of interest in a more general fashion, independent of specific populations or side effects of particular drugs. If clinicians and researchers expect patients to show close to full adherence, it is relevant to know how likely the achievement of this goal is. Population based rates can provide an estimate of efforts needed to achieve near complete adherence in patient populations. The objective of the study was to collect normative data for medication nonadherence in the general population. Methods and Findings We assessed 2,512 persons (a representative sample of German population). Adherence was measured by Rief Adherence Index. We also assessed current medication intake and side effects. We found that at least 33% of Germans repeatedly fail to follow their doctor's recommendations regarding pharmacological treatments and only 25% of Germans describe themselves as fully adherent. Nonadherence to medication occurs more often in younger patients with higher socioeconomic status taking short-term medications than in older patients with chronic conditions. Experience with medication side effects was the most prominent predictor of nonadherence. Conclusions The major strengths of our study are a representative sample and a novel approach to assess adherence. Nonadherece seems to be commonplace in the general population. Therefore adherence cannot be expected per se but needs special efforts on behalf of prescribers and public health initiatives. Nonadherence to medication should not only be considered as a drug-specific behaviour problem, but as a behaviour pattern that is independent of the prescribed medication. PMID:23272064

  1. Validating the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2) in two Danish samples: a comparison between female eating disorder patients and females from the general population.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2009-11-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory, Version 2 (EDI-2) is a questionnaire used clinically and in research all over the world. EDI-2 is cross-culturally valid, yet normative values may depend on culture. Norms and reliability of the Danish version have to date been lacking, and will be presented in this article, comparing patients (N = 575) and controls (N = 881). Also, internal reliability of scales is tested for both groups. Differences between norms of the Danish and the North American version of EDI were small but significant for all scales except asceticism (eating disorder patients) and ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust and maturity fears (normal controls). For both groups the internal consistency was >0.70 for all subscales except asceticism. Although differences across the eating disorder diagnostic groups were dubious, the EDI-2 is useful to screen for eating problems in the general population as well as to rate progress and outcome among eating disorder patients.

  2. Measures of bronchodilator response of FEV1, FVC and SVC in a Swedish general population sample aged 50–64 years, the SCAPIS Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Torén, K; Bake, B; Olin, A-C; Engström, G; Blomberg, A; Vikgren, J; Hedner, J; Brandberg, J; Persson, HL; Sköld, CM; Rosengren, A; Bergström, G; Janson, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Data are lacking from general population studies on how to define changes in lung function after bronchodilation. This study aimed to analyze different measures of bronchodilator response of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and slow vital capacity (SVC). Materials and methods Data were derived from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study (SCAPIS) Pilot study. This analysis comprised 1,050 participants aged 50–64 years from the general population. Participants were investigated using a questionnaire, and FEV1, FVC and SVC were recorded before and 15 minutes after inhalation of 400 µg of salbutamol. A bronchodilator response was defined as the relative change from baseline value expressed as the difference in units of percent predicted normal. Predictors of bronchodilator responses were assessed using multiple linear regression models. Airway obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio below lower limit of normal (LLN) before bronchodilation, and COPD was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio below LLN after bronchodilation. Physician-diagnosed asthma was defined as an affirmative answer to “Have you ever had asthma diagnosed by a physician?”. Asymptomatic never-smokers were defined as those not reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, physician-diagnosed COPD or emphysema, current wheeze or chronic bronchitis and being a lifelong never-smoker. Results Among all subjects, the greatest bronchodilator responses (FEV1, FVC and SVC) were found in subjects with asthma or COPD. The upper 95th percentile of bronchodilator responses in asymptomatic never-smokers was 8.7% for FEV1, 4.2% for FVC and 5.0% for SVC. The bronchodilator responses were similar between men and women. In a multiple linear regression model comprising all asymptomatic never-smokers, the bronchodilator response of FEV1 was significantly associated with airway obstruction and height. Conclusion When the bronchodilator response in asymptomatic never-smokers is

  3. The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Åslund, Cecilia; Larm, Peter; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W

    2014-09-28

    Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.

  4. Moderation of adult depression by the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), childhood abuse and adult traumatic events in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Schwahn, Christian; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Appel, Katja; Barnow, Sven; Nauck, Matthias; Schomerus, Georg; Biffar, Reiner; Rosskopf, Dieter; John, Ulrich; Völzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    The impact of the promoter polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) on mood has been studied by two-way interaction models comprising one environmental factor and genotype variants. However, childhood abuse is assumed to be associated with different psychobiological long-term effects than adult traumatic events. Both types of trauma may interact on an individual basis throughout the lifespan moderating the impact of the 5-HTTLPR s allele on depressive disorders. Therefore, the hypothesis of a three-way interaction among the 5-HTTLPR, childhood abuse and adult traumatic experience was tested. Caucasian subjects (1,974) from the general population in Germany (Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)) were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Childhood abuse was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Adult traumatic events were derived from the SCID interview (DSM-IV) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Global three-way interactions among the 5-HTTLPR, adult traumatic experiences and childhood abuse (P = 0.0007) were found. Carriers of the ss or sl genotypes who had been exposed to childhood abuse and to more than two adult traumatic events had higher mean BDI-II scores (16.0 [95% CI 8.4-23.6]) compared to those carrying the ll genotype (7.6 [4.5-10.7]). These results were supported using a second, more severe definition of childhood abuse (P = 0.02). No two-way interactions were observed (P > 0.05). Childhood abuse and adult traumatic events may act synergistically in interaction with the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR to increase the risk for depressive symptoms independently from the lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components: findings from a Finnish general population sample and the Diabetes Prevention Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Eriksson, Johan G; Lindström, Jaana; Hämäläinen, Helena; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Laakso, Mauri; Louheranta, Anne; Mannelin, Marjo; Rastas, Merja; Salminen, Virpi; Aunola, Sirkka; Sundvall, Jouko; Valle, Timo; Lahtela, Jorma; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2004-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in two independent Finnish study cohorts. The prevalence of the MetS by modified World Health Organization criteria was analyzed in different categories of glucose tolerance in a cross-sectional, population-based sample of 2,049 individuals (FINRISK) aged 45-64 years and in 522 participants of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In the FINRISK cohort, the MetS was present in 38.8% of the men and 22.2% of the women. The prevalence was 14.4 and 10.1% in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, 74.0 and 52.2% in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, 84.8 and 65.4% in subjects with IGT, and 91.5 and 82.7% in subjects with type 2 diabetes in men and women, respectively. Among women, the prevalence of the MetS increased with increasing age. In the DPS cohort, the MetS was present in 78.4% of the men and 72.2% of the women with IGT. The MetS was extremely common in middle-aged subjects The high prevalence in men was mostly due to their high waist-to-hip ratio. The prevalence of the MetS increased in both sexes with deterioration in glucose regulation. Approximately 75% of the subjects with IGT had the MetS. Because the syndrome includes the major risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular diseases and is the major antecedent for type 2 diabetes, concerted preventive action should be targeted to control all the features of the MetS.

  6. Stability of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms (Irritable-Angry Mood and Temper Outbursts) Throughout Childhood and Adolescence in a General Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S D; Mathiowetz, C; Kokotovich, C; Waxmonsky, J; Baweja, R; Calhoun, S L; Bixler, E O

    2015-11-01

    DSM-5 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a controversial new diagnosis. The DSM-5 conceptualizes DMDD as persistent and chronic, but the stability of the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) over time is not known. Mothers rated DMDD symptoms in a population-based sample of 376 children (54 % male) evaluated at 6-12 years (M 9) and again an average of 8 years later (M 16). Mean scores on irritable-angry mood plus temper outbursts at baseline and follow-up were below sometimes a problem, but were higher at baseline than follow-up. Irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts were both often or very often a problem for 9 % of children at baseline, 6 % at follow-up, and 3 % at baseline and follow-up. Only 29 % of children whose baseline symptoms were often or very often continued to have follow-up symptoms at this level (remission rate 71 %). Less than half (45 %) of the children whose symptoms were often or very often at follow-up had these symptoms 8 years earlier (55 % new cases). Our finding of 71 % remission and 55 % new cases indicates instability of DMDD symptoms over an 8-year period. However, the finding that 29 % still had symptoms often or very often 8 years later is clinically significant. DMDD symptoms were found in only one child who did not have symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder, ADHD, anxiety, or depression. This suggests that DMDD symptoms are a feature of multiple disorders, particularly ODD, and do not occur in isolation, questioning the validity of DMDD as a unique and independent diagnosis.

  7. From samples to populations in retinex models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianini, Gabriele

    2017-05-01

    Some spatial color algorithms, such as Brownian Milano retinex (MI-retinex) and random spray retinex (RSR), are based on sampling. In Brownian MI-retinex, memoryless random walks (MRWs) explore the neighborhood of a pixel and are then used to compute its output. Considering the relative redundancy and inefficiency of MRW exploration, the algorithm RSR replaced the walks by samples of points (the sprays). Recent works point to the fact that a mapping from the sampling formulation to the probabilistic formulation of the corresponding sampling process can offer useful insights into the models, at the same time featuring intrinsically noise-free outputs. The paper continues the development of this concept and shows that the population-based versions of RSR and Brownian MI-retinex can be used to obtain analytical expressions for the outputs of some test images. The comparison of the two analytic expressions from RSR and from Brownian MI-retinex demonstrates not only that the two outputs are, in general, different but also that they depend in a qualitatively different way upon the features of the image.

  8. Generalized Sampling Theorem for Bandpass Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokes, Ales

    2006-12-01

    The reconstruction of an unknown continuously defined function[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] from the samples of the responses of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] linear time-invariant (LTI) systems sampled by the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]th Nyquist rate is the aim of the generalized sampling. Papoulis (1977) provided an elegant solution for the case where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is a band-limited function with finite energy and the sampling rate is equal to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] times cutoff frequency. In this paper, the scope of the Papoulis theory is extended to the case of bandpass signals. In the first part, a generalized sampling theorem (GST) for bandpass signals is presented. The second part deals with utilizing this theorem for signal recovery from nonuniform samples, and an efficient way of computing images of reconstructing functions for signal recovery is discussed.

  9. Sampling Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ilan H.; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and…

  10. Changes in some personality traits after recovery from alcohol dependence/abuse, anxiety and depression--results of a 5-year follow-up in a general population sample of women.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Anette; Hensing, Gunnel; Sundh, Valter; Spak, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse stability of and change in personality traits in a general population sample of women over 5 years. Specific questions were how personality traits changed after a first episode of alcohol dependence/abuse (ADA), anxiety or depression disorders and after remission of an episode. The study was based on data from a longitudinal general population-based survey titled, "Women and alcohol in Göteborg (WAG)". A total of 641 women were interviewed in 1990 or 1995 and re-interviewed after 5 years. Personality traits were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses given according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd revised edition (DSM-III-R). Mean T-scores (KSP) for the general population sample were stable between initial assessment and follow-up 5 years later. Correlations between assessments were high for most KSP scores, indicating high individual stability. For women with resolved ADA, KSP scores were normalized to five scales at the follow-up assessment: somatic anxiety, muscular tension, monotony avoidance, social desirability and irritability. Women who recovered from anxiety disorders during the follow-up had decreased scores in somatic anxiety and muscular tension and increased scores in verbal aggression. Women who developed ADA during follow-up had increased scores on the scales impulsiveness and verbal aggression. Women who developed depression during follow-up had increased monotony avoidance. Personality traits were generally stable in this adult female population but some personality traits changed in association with changes in psychiatric disorders. This knowledge could be useful in evaluation of treatment needs and treatment outcome.

  11. Phenotypic "g" Early in Life: On the Etiology of General Cognitive Ability in a Large Population Sample of Twin Children Aged 2-4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinath, Frank M.; Ronald, Angelica; Harlaar, Nicole; Price, Thomas S.; Plomin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Studied the emergence of general cognitive ability ("g") in early development and its genetic developmental etiology in 6,963 pairs of twins at 2, 3, and 4 years. Findings show phenotypic "g" to be evident early in life, with genetic influence less in early childhood than in middle childhood or after adolescence and that…

  12. California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

  13. Variability of Urinary Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolite in General Population and Comparison of Spot, First-Morning, and 24-Hour Void Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C.; Lewin, Michael D; Porter, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Urinary hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are commonly used in biomonitoring to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similar to other biologically non-persistent chemicals, OH-PAHs have relatively short biological half-lives (4.4–35 hours). Little information is available on their variability in urinary concentrations over time in non- occupationally exposed subjects. This study was designed to (i) study the variability of 9 urinary OH-PAH metabolite concentrations over time and (ii) calculate sample size requirements for future epidemiological studies based on spot urine, first morning void and 24-hour void sampling. Individual urine samples (n = 427) were collected during one week from 8 non-occupationally exposed adults. We recorded the time and volume of each urine excretion, dietary details, and the driving activities of the participants. Within subjects, the coefficients of variation (CV) for the wet-weight concentration of OH-PAHs in all samples ranged from 45% to 297%; creatinine adjustment reduced the CV to 19–288% (p < 0.001; paired t-test). The simulated 24-hour void concentrations were the least variable measure, with CVs ranging 13–182% for the 9 OH-PAHs. Within-day variability contributed on average 84%, and between-day variability accounted for 16% of the total variance of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of 1-PYR levels were 0.55 for spot urine samples, 0.60 for first-morning voids, and 0.76 for 24-hour voids, indicating a high degree of correlation between urine measurements collected from the same subject over time. Sample size calculations were performed to estimate the number of subjects needed for detecting differences in geometric mean at a statistical power of 80% for spot urine, first-morning, and 24-hour void sampling. These data will aid in the design of future studies of PAHs and possibly other biologically non-persistent chemicals and the interpretation of

  14. Population Education in Geography: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in geography courses. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  15. Systematic sampling of discrete and continuous populations: sample selection and the choice of estimator

    Treesearch

    Harry T. Valentine; David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2009-01-01

    Systematic sampling is easy, efficient, and widely used, though it is not generally recognized that a systematic sample may be drawn from the population of interest with or without restrictions on randomization. The restrictions or the lack of them determine which estimators are unbiased, when using the sampling design as the basis for inference. We describe the...

  16. Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations

    Treesearch

    William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...

  17. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): Reliability of New Psychiatric Diagnostic Modules and Risk Factors in a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, W. June; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Huang, Boji; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents test-retest reliability statistics and information on internal consistency for new diagnostic modules and risk factor of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV). Test-retest statistics were derived from a random sample of 1,899 adults selected from 34,653 respondents who participated in the 2004–2005 Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Internal consistency of continuous scales was assessed using the entire Wave 2 NESARC. Both test and retest interviews were conducted face-to-face. Test-retest and internal consistency results for diagnoses and symptom scales associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and borderline, narcissistic, and schizotypal personality disorders were predominantly good (kappa > 0.63; ICC > 0.69; alpha > 0.75) and reliability for risk factor measures fell within the good to excellent range (intraclass correlations = 0.50–0.94; alpha = 0.64–0.90). The high degree of reliability found in this study suggests that new AUDADIS-IV diagnostic measures can be useful tools in research settings. The availability of highly reliable measures of risk factors of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders will contribute to the validity of conclusions drawn from future research in the domains of substance use disorder and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:17706375

  18. Optimisation of sampling windows design for population pharmacokinetic experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes an approach for optimising sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments. Sampling windows designs are more practical in late phase drug development where patients are enrolled in many centres and in out-patient clinic settings. Collection of samples under the uncontrolled environment at these centres at fixed times may be problematic and can result in uninformative data. Population pharmacokinetic sampling windows design provides an opportunity to control when samples are collected by allowing some flexibility and yet provide satisfactory parameter estimation. This approach uses information obtained from previous experiments about the model and parameter estimates to optimise sampling windows for population pharmacokinetic experiments within a space of admissible sampling windows sequences. The optimisation is based on a continuous design and in addition to sampling windows the structure of the population design in terms of the proportion of subjects in elementary designs, number of elementary designs in the population design and number of sampling windows per elementary design is also optimised. The results obtained showed that optimal sampling windows designs obtained using this approach are very efficient for estimating population PK parameters and provide greater flexibility in terms of when samples are collected. The results obtained also showed that the generalized equivalence theorem holds for this approach.

  19. Pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder and concordance with treatment guidelines: survey of a general population sample referred to a tertiary care service

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many new approaches have been adopted for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) in the past few years, which strived to produce more positive outcomes. To enhance the quality of care, several guideline recommendations have been developed. For study purposes, we monitored the prescription of psychotropic drugs administered to bipolar patients who had been referred to tertiary care services, and assessed the degree to which treatment met specific guidelines. Methods Between December 2006 and February 2009, we assessed 113 individuals suffering from BD who had been referred to the Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre (ROMHC) Mood Disorders Program by physicians within the community, mostly general practitioners. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR was used to assess diagnosis. The prescribed treatment was compared with specific Canadian guidelines (CANMAT, 2009). Univariate analyses and logistic regression were used to assess the contribution of demographic and clinical factors for concordance of treatment with guidelines. Results Thirty-two subjects had BD type I (BD-I), and 81 subjects had BD type II (BD-II). All subjects with BD-I, and 90% of the BD-II group were given at least one psychotropic treatment. Lithium was more often prescribed for subjects with BD-I (62%) than those with BD-II (19%). Antidepressants were the most frequently prescribed class of psychotropics. Sixty-eight percent of subjects received treatment concordant with guidelines by medication and dose. The presence of a current hypomanic episode was independently associated with poorer concordance to guidelines. In more than half the cases, the inappropriate use of antidepressants was at the origin of the non concordance of treatment with respect to guidelines. Absence of psychotropic treatment in bipolar II patients and inadequate dosage of mood stabilizers were the two other main causes of non concordance with guidelines. Conclusions The factors related to treatment not

  20. Men who pay for sex in Spain and condom use: prevalence and correlates in a representative sample of the general population.

    PubMed

    Belza, M J; de la Fuente, L; Suárez, M; Vallejo, F; García, M; López, M; Barrio, G; Bolea, A

    2008-06-01

    To estimate the percentage of men who have paid for heterosexual sex in Spain and the percentage who used condoms. To identify the main factors associated with these behaviours and to describe opinions about condoms. Sexual behaviour probability sample survey in men aged 18-49 years resident in Spain in 2003 (n = 5153). Computer-assisted face to face and self interview was used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. 25.4% (n = 1306) of the men had paid for heterosexual sex at some time in their lives; 13.3% (n = 687) in the last 5 years and 5.7% (n = 295) in the last 12 months. In the logistic analysis this behaviour was associated with older age, lower education, being unmarried, foreign birth, being a practicing member of a religious group, unsatisfactory communication with parents about sex, age under 16 years at first sexual intercourse and having been drunk in the last 30 days. Of the men who had paid for sex in the previous 5 years, 95% (n = 653) had used a condom in the most recent paid contact. In the multivariate analysis, not using a condom was associated with age over 30 years and first sexual intercourse before age 16 years. Men who did not use condoms in the last commercial intercourse had more negative opinions about condoms. The prevalence of paying for heterosexual sex among Spanish men is the highest ever described in developed countries. The many variables associated with paying for sex and condom use permit the characterisation of male clients of prostitution and should facilitate targeting HIV prevention policies.

  1. Stress, coping, and depression: testing a new hypothesis in a prospectively studied general population sample of U.S.-born Whites and Blacks.

    PubMed

    Keyes, K M; Barnes, David M; Bates, L M

    2011-03-01

    The scarcity of empirically supported explanations for the Black/White prevalence difference in depression in the U.S. is a conspicuous gap in the literature. Recent evidence suggests that the paradoxical observation of decreased risk of depression but elevated rates of physical illness among Blacks in the U.S. compared with Whites may be accounted for by the use of coping behaviors (e.g., alcohol and nicotine consumption, overeating) among Blacks exposed to high stress levels. Such coping behaviors may mitigate deleterious effects of stressful exposures on mental health while increasing the risk of physical ailments. The racial patterning in mental and physical health outcomes could therefore be explained by this mechanism if a) these behaviors were more prevalent among Blacks than Whites and/or b) the effect of these behavioral responses to stress was differential by race. The present study challenges this hypothesis using longitudinal, nationally-representative data with comprehensive DSM-IV diagnoses. Data are drawn from 34,653 individuals sampled in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results showed that a) Blacks were less likely to engage in alcohol or nicotine consumption at low, moderate, and high levels of stress compared to Whites, and b) there was a significant three-way interaction between race, stress, and coping behavior for BMI only (F = 2.11, df = 12, p = 0.03), but, contrary to the hypothesis, elevated BMI was protective against depression in Blacks at low, not high, levels of stress. Further, engagement in unhealthy behaviors, especially at pathological levels, did not protect against depression in Blacks or in Whites. In sum, the impact of stress and coping processes on depression does not appear to operate differently in Blacks versus Whites. Further research testing innovative hypotheses that would explain the difference in Black/White depression prevalence is

  2. A general methodology for population analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazov, Petar; Lazov, Igor

    2014-12-01

    For a given population with N - current and M - maximum number of entities, modeled by a Birth-Death Process (BDP) with size M+1, we introduce utilization parameter ρ, ratio of the primary birth and death rates in that BDP, which, physically, determines (equilibrium) macrostates of the population, and information parameter ν, which has an interpretation as population information stiffness. The BDP, modeling the population, is in the state n, n=0,1,…,M, if N=n. In presence of these two key metrics, applying continuity law, equilibrium balance equations concerning the probability distribution pn, n=0,1,…,M, of the quantity N, pn=Prob{N=n}, in equilibrium, and conservation law, and relying on the fundamental concepts population information and population entropy, we develop a general methodology for population analysis; thereto, by definition, population entropy is uncertainty, related to the population. In this approach, what is its essential contribution, the population information consists of three basic parts: elastic (Hooke's) or absorption/emission part, synchronization or inelastic part and null part; the first two parts, which determine uniquely the null part (the null part connects them), are the two basic components of the Information Spectrum of the population. Population entropy, as mean value of population information, follows this division of the information. A given population can function in information elastic, antielastic and inelastic regime. In an information linear population, the synchronization part of the information and entropy is absent. The population size, M+1, is the third key metric in this methodology. Namely, right supposing a population with infinite size, the most of the key quantities and results for populations with finite size, emerged in this methodology, vanish.

  3. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  4. Population Education in Science: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This science teacher's manual contains nine sample population education lessons adapted from materials produced in several countries in Asia and Oceania. Activities are designed for lower primary through high school students. Included are class discussions, small group activities, and a role-playing situation. Food chains, human dependence upon…

  5. Population Education in Health: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This manual for home economics teachers contains eight sample lessons on health issues related to population growth. Among the topics treated are nutrition, family health, communicable diseases, causes of high mortality, and community health services. Lessons are designed for lower primary through high school students. A scope and sequence chart…

  6. Population Education in Mathematics: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This mathematics teacher's manual contains ten sample lessons on population growth and demography that were adapted from materials produced in several countries in Asia and Oceania. Among the mathematics concepts and skills students apply during these lessons are set theory, cardinal and ordinal numbers, frequency tallies, percentages, ratios,…

  7. Population Education in Health: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This manual for home economics teachers contains eight sample lessons on health issues related to population growth. Among the topics treated are nutrition, family health, communicable diseases, causes of high mortality, and community health services. Lessons are designed for lower primary through high school students. A scope and sequence chart…

  8. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  9. Population Education in Mathematics: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This mathematics teacher's manual contains ten sample lessons on population growth and demography that were adapted from materials produced in several countries in Asia and Oceania. Among the mathematics concepts and skills students apply during these lessons are set theory, cardinal and ordinal numbers, frequency tallies, percentages, ratios,…

  10. Population Education in Science: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This science teacher's manual contains nine sample population education lessons adapted from materials produced in several countries in Asia and Oceania. Activities are designed for lower primary through high school students. Included are class discussions, small group activities, and a role-playing situation. Food chains, human dependence upon…

  11. Chronic Disease in a General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Kathleen N.; Kamberg, Caren J.; Goldberg, George A.; Brook, Robert H.; Keeler, Emmett B.; Calabro, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Using questionnaire and physical screening examination data for a general population of 4,962 adults aged 18 to 61 years enrolled in the Rand Health Insurance Experiment, we calculated the prevalence of 13 chronic illnesses and assessed disease impact. Low-income men had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia, chronic airway disease and hearing impairment than their high-income counterparts, low-income women a higher prevalence of congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hearing impairment and vision impairment. Of our sample, 30% had one chronic condition and 16% had two or more. Several significant pairs or “clusters” of chronic illnesses were found. With few exceptions (diabetes, hypertension), the use of physician care in the previous year for a specific condition tended to be low. Disease impact (worry, activity restriction) was widespread but mild. Persons with angina, congestive heart failure, mild chronic joint disorders and peptic ulcer disease reported a greater impact than persons with other illnesses. PMID:3788141

  12. Poisson sampling: a sampling strategy for concurrently establishing freedom from disease and estimating population characteristics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael S; Ebel, Eric D; Wells, Scott J

    2009-05-01

    Surveys of animal populations are often designed to either demonstrate freedom from disease or to estimate parameters that describe the population, such as disease prevalence, proportion of vaccinated animals, or average animal weight and value. Targeted surveillance is a sampling approach where animals are selected for testing based on the presence of characteristics that indicate a higher probability of disease. This approach can substantially reduce the sample size that is required to demonstrate freedom from disease, but inferences about other population parameters are generally not possible because the sample design often lacks the properties required for making inferences in a traditional survey sample. Determining which animals to sample can also be difficult when either more than one characteristic exists or the characteristic is a continuous attribute, such as age or weight. Poisson sampling is an unequal probability sampling design that can provide efficiencies similar to targeted surveillance while allowing inferences for other population parameters. The adaptation of Poisson sampling to animal surveys is described. A simulation study, based on sampling a flock of sheep, is used to demonstrate the reductions in sample size that are possible with Poisson sampling. The study showed that the sample size required for a flock-level sensitivity of 0.95 when using Poisson sampling was less than half that required when using simple random sampling. The performance of estimators for prevalence of scrapie and distribution of genotypes are also compared.

  13. What's more general than a whole population?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Statistical inference is commonly said to be inapplicable to complete population studies, such as censuses, due to the absence of sampling variability. Nevertheless, in recent years, studies of whole populations, e.g., all cases of a certain cancer in a given country, have become more common, and often report p values and confidence intervals regardless of such concerns. With reference to the social science literature, the current paper explores the circumstances under which statistical inference can be meaningful for such studies. It concludes that its use implicitly requires a target population which is wider than the whole population studied - for example future cases, or a supranational geographic region - and that the validity of such statistical analysis depends on the generalizability of the whole to the target population.

  14. [Skin sampling for the general practitioner].

    PubMed

    André, J; Richert, B

    2015-09-01

    Skin samplings are easily performed in general practice. They include skin biopsies, nail clippings, skin scrappings, hair pluckings as well as trichograms. The different types of skin biopsies are curetage, shaving, punch and elliptic biopsies. They are most commonly used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin conditions and cutaneous tumors. The biopsies are performed under local anesthesia and each has specific indications. Their complications are minimal. In order to obtain as much information as possible the lesion to be biopsied should be judiciously selected, harvested without being harmed and sent to a skin-oriented pathologist. Nail clippings, skin scrapings and hair plucking allow diagnosis of superficial skin mycosis (tinea, pityriasis versicolor) and are mandatory before prescribing systemic treatment. Scrapping of an itch mite burrow may sometimes reveal the sarcopte. Trichogram may be useful in the work up of a hair loss.

  15. [Which route leads from chronic back pain to depression? A path analysis on direct and indirect effects using the cognitive mediators catastrophizing and helplessness/hopelessness in a general population sample].

    PubMed

    Fahland, R A; Kohlmann, T; Hasenbring, M; Feng, Y-S; Schmidt, C O

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pain and depression are highly comorbid; however, the longitudinal link is only partially understood. This study examined direct and indirect effects of chronic back pain on depression using path analysis in a general population sample, focussing on cognitive mediator variables. Analyses are based on 413 participants (aged 18-75 years) in a population-based postal survey on back pain who reported chronic back pain at baseline. Follow-up data were collected after 1 year. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Fear-avoidance-beliefs (FABQ), catastrophizing and helplessness/hopelessness (KRSS) were considered as cognitive mediators. Data were analyzed using path analysis. Chronic back pain had no direct effect on depression at follow-up when controlling for cognitive mediators. A mediating effect emerged for helplessness/hopelessness but not for catastrophizing or fear-avoidance beliefs. These results support the cognitive mediation hypothesis which assumes that psychological variables mediate the association between pain and depression. The importance of helplessness/hopelessness is of relevance for the treatment of patients with chronic back pain.

  16. Characteristics of Hyperacusis in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Johan; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n=66) and self-reported (n=313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n=2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis. PMID:27569405

  17. [Screening of the delta-F508 mutation and analysis of two Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of the CFTR gene, in a sample of the general population of Valparaíso, Chile].

    PubMed

    Vera, Alejandra; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos F; González, Francisco J; Molina, Graciela

    2005-07-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) carrier rate in Chile was estimated to be 1/40. CF is caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. Delta F508 mutation is the most common in CF patients in Chile and worldwide. Delta F508 has linkage disequilibrium with two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), often used to define the haplotypic frameworks of CF mutations. To know the frequency of the delta F508 mutation and to establish the SNPs, M470V and T854T, haplotypic frequency, in a Valparaiso general population sample. Fifty subjects were studied. Genetic material was obtained from blood samples, amplified by PCR and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Two of the 100 chromosomes analyzed, carried the delta F508 mutation. Therefore, the observed frequency carrier rate (0.02) was higher than the expected (0.01). Both carrier chromosomes had the same SNPs haplotypic framework (1-2). In normal chromosomes, the haplotype 2-1 was the most common. These results suggest that the chromosomes that bear delta F508 mutation have most likely a Mediterranean European origin, since this haplotypic framework has been reported in that region. We suggest that CF could be more common in Valparaiso than it was previously.

  18. Infants consider both the sample and the sampling process in inductive generalization

    PubMed Central

    Gweon, Hyowon; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Schulz, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to make inductive inferences from sparse data is a critical aspect of human learning. However, the properties observed in a sample of evidence depend not only on the true extension of those properties but also on the process by which evidence is sampled. Because neither the property extension nor the sampling process is directly observable, the learner's ability to make accurate generalizations depends on what is known or can be inferred about both variables. In particular, different inferences are licensed if samples are drawn randomly from the whole population (weak sampling) than if they are drawn only from the property's extension (strong sampling). Given a few positive examples of a concept, only strong sampling supports flexible inferences about how far to generalize as a function of the size and composition of the sample. Here we present a Bayesian model of the joint dependence between observed evidence, the sampling process, and the property extension and test the model behaviorally with human infants (mean age: 15 months). Across five experiments, we show that in the absence of behavioral cues to the sampling process, infants make inferences consistent with the use of strong sampling; given explicit cues to weak or strong sampling, they constrain their inferences accordingly. Finally, consistent with quantitative predictions of the model, we provide suggestive evidence that infants’ inferences are graded with respect to the strength of the evidence they observe. PMID:20435914

  19. Exposure of the general population to gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Akland, G G

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the currently available information on gasoline exposure to the general population. In general, the largest contribution to the time weighted exposures results from exposures while indoors, which are influenced by the outside air, indoor sources, and attached garages. Personal activities, including refueling and commuting, contribute significantly higher exposures but last for only a small portion of the 24-hr time weighted average. The highest exposed group includes those individuals living near large service stations and those with contaminated water supplies. PMID:8020446

  20. Digital superresolution and the generalized sampling theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Sudhakar

    2007-02-01

    The technique of reconstructing a higher-resolution (HR) image of size ML×ML by digitally processing L×L subpixel-shifted lower-resolution (LR) copies of it, each of size M×M, has now become well established. This particular digital superresolution problem is analyzed from the standpoint of the generalized sampling theorem. It is shown both theoretically and by computer simulation that the choice of regularly spaced subpixel shifts for the LR images tends to maximize the robustness and minimize the error of reconstruction of the HR image. In practice, since subpixel-level control of LR image shifts may be nearly impossible to achieve, however, a more likely scenario, which is also discussed, is one involving random subpixel shifts. It is shown that without reasonably tight bounds on the range of random shifts, the reconstruction is likely to fail in the presence of even small amounts of noise unless either reliable prior information or additional data are available.

  1. Disentangling seasonal bacterioplankton population dynamics by high-frequency sampling.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Markus V; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Andersson, Anders F; Baltar, Federico; Hugerth, Luisa W; Lundin, Daniel; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-07-01

    Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1) . Populations that were persistently dominant, transiently abundant or generally rare were found in several major bacterial groups, implying evolution has favoured a similar variety of life strategies within these groups. These findings suggest that high temporal resolution sampling allows constraining the timescales and frequencies at which distinct populations transition between being abundant or rare, thus potentially providing clues about physical, chemical or biological forcing on bacterioplankton community structure. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Monitoring larval populations of the douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: Sampling methods and statistical properties of data. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Paul, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    Procedures for monitoring Larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience of sample these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a geographical monitoring unit. The most practical method is to estimate densities of both insect species simultaneously on a plot by the nondestructive sampling of foliage on lower crown branches of host trees. For best results, sampling methods need to be consistent with monitoring done annually to accumulate continuous databases that reflect the behavior of defoliator populations over a long period of time.

  3. The use of sampling in conjunction with population censuses.

    PubMed

    Verma, V

    1989-06-01

    In Asia and the Pacific, the practice of governments is increasingly to collect information on their populations' size, age and sex composition, geographic distribution, and certain other basic demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the basis of a complete (100%) enumeration, and to supplement this basic information by collecting information on a larger range of variables on a sample basis. The additional information, which is gathered as part of the census operation, may be related to such population characteristics as migration, employment, fertility, and health. A complete census is generally indispensable for obtaining information about small domains, and also for obtaining politically important data, which must be seen to be free from sampling variability. A complete census is typically confined to obtaining a detailed picture of the number and basic structural characteristics of the entire population, with as much detail as possible about local areas. Sample surveys can quickly obtain a wider variety of more complex data. Sampling applications for the census include 1) using sampling in the design and control of census operations, such as in planning, testing, controlling, and evaluating the census; 2) using sample enumeration to supplement items covered in the complete census; 3) sampling the census results for processing to make the results available more quickly and at lower cost; and 4) extracting samples of microlevel files of detailed census data so as to facilitate dissemination of primary data.

  4. [Road-rage in the general population].

    PubMed

    Fierro, Inmaculada; Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Alvarez, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of road rage in the general population and the sociodemographic factors associated with this phenomenon. A total of 2,500 interviews were carried out in the population of Castile and Leon aged 14-70 years. Road rage was evaluated in the year prior to the survey using a test with eight questions. One-third (31.1%) of the interviewees reported they had experienced a situation involving road rage during the previous 12 months (26.8% on more than one occasion). Among these episodes, 2.6% involved "serious" aggressors. In drivers, the probability of experiencing road rage increased in line with the number of kilometers driven per week (odds ratio [OR]=1.52), decreased as the age of the driver increased (OR=0.975), and was highest in men (OR=1.287), university graduates (OR=1.408), and persons living in towns with over 10,000 inhabitants (OR=1.25). The results of this study show that road rage affects almost a third of the general population of Castile and Leon, which would amply justify the adoption of prevention and/or reduction measures. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of DSM-5 Classifications of Alcohol Use Disorders With Those of DSM-IV, DSM-III-R, and ICD-10 in a General Population Sample in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Andreas; Hallgren, Mats; Forsman, Mikael; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to employ the criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), in a general population sample and to compare the diagnostic classifications and prevalence with those of DSM-IV, DSM-III-R, and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10). We used a stratified random sample of 1,091 participants (ages 18-64) in Stockholm County, who were interviewed between 1998 and 2002. A semistructured interview was conducted using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Diagnoses were made according to DSM-5, DSM-IV, DSM-III-R, and ICD-10. Agreement was studied using Cohen's κ. The prevalence of DSM-5 AUD was 11.0%, with corresponding dependence or abuse/harm diagnosis being 8.7% for DSM-IV, 8.5% for DSM-III-R, and 4.9% for ICD-10. With the shift from DSM-IV to DSM-5, 3.2% of those with no disorder were reclassified as mild AUD, whereas 28.9% of those with DSM-IV abuse were reclassified as having no disorder. The majority of the "new cases" had two DSM-IV dependence criteria, and few endorsed the new DSM-5 craving criteria. Cohen's κ between DSM-5 AUD and dependence or abuse/harm was as follows: DSM-IV, .84, DSM-III-R, .83, and ICD-10, .62. These findings were lower than the κ between the older systems: between DSM-IV and DSM-III-R, .98, between DSM-IV and ICD-10, .70, and between DSM-III-R and ICD- 10, .72. In the present study population, there were more undiagnosed DSM-IV cases being diagnosed as AUD using DSM-5 than vice versa, but in total the number of cases increased moderately when going from DSM-IV to DSM-5. Concerning reliability, there are substantial to almost perfect agreements between DSM-5 classifications of AUDs and those of DSM-IV, DSM-III-R, and ICD-10.

  6. A Morphometric Study of Antral G-Cell Density in a Sample of Adult General Population: Comparison of Three Different Methods and Correlation with Patient Demography, Helicobacter pylori Infection, Histomorphology and Circulating Gastrin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Fredrik; Borch, Kurt; Rehfeld, Jens F; Franzén, Lennart E

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to hypergastrinemia and either decreased or normal G-cell content in the antral mucosa. To clarify this controversial issue, we quantitatively determined antral G-cell content on the same biopsy specimens with three different methods and examined whether these methods are intercorrelated and the relation of these methods to plasma gastrin concentrations, demography, the occurrence of H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis. Gastric antral mucosal biopsy sections from 273 adults (188 with and 85 without H pylori infection) from a general population sample were examined immunohistochemically for G-cells using cell counting, stereology (point counting) and computerized image analysis. Gastritis was scored according to the updated Sydney system. Basal plasma gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The three methods for G-cell quantification were poorly correlated and the results showed no correlation with basal plasma gastrin concentrations. The antral G-cell density and scores for H. pylori colonization were positively related to age. Neither the scores for chronic inflammation, nor the scores for inflammatory activity, atrophy or intestinal metaplasia were consistently related to the antral G-cell content. In conclusion, the results of three techniques for G-cell quantification in the gastric antral mucosa were poorly intercorrelated and none of the methods correlated with plasma gastrin concentrations. Age and scores for H pylori colonization seem to be determinants of the G-cell density. That common morphometric techniques correlate poorly is of utmost importance to bear in mind when quantitative morphological studies are planned, compared or interpreted. PMID:19079618

  7. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  8. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time to...

  9. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time to...

  10. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time to...

  11. 30 CFR 71.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.201 Section... MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  12. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time to...

  13. 30 CFR 71.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.201 Section... MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  14. 30 CFR 71.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.201 Section... MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  15. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  16. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  17. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  18. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  19. 30 CFR 71.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.201 Section... MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall take... required by this part with a sampling device approved by the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and...

  20. Stratified sampling using cluster analysis: a sample selection strategy for improved generalizations from experiments.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    An important question in the design of experiments is how to ensure that the findings from the experiment are generalizable to a larger population. This concern with generalizability is particularly important when treatment effects are heterogeneous and when selecting units into the experiment using random sampling is not possible-two conditions commonly met in large-scale educational experiments. This article introduces a model-based balanced-sampling framework for improving generalizations, with a focus on developing methods that are robust to model misspecification. Additionally, the article provides a new method for sample selection within this framework: First units in an inference population are divided into relatively homogenous strata using cluster analysis, and then the sample is selected using distance rankings. In order to demonstrate and evaluate the method, a reanalysis of a completed experiment is conducted. This example compares samples selected using the new method with the actual sample used in the experiment. Results indicate that even under high nonresponse, balance is better on most covariates and that fewer coverage errors result. The article concludes with a discussion of additional benefits and limitations of the method.

  1. g in Middle Childhood: Moderate Genetic and Shared Environmental Influence Using Diverse Measures of General Cognitive Ability at 7, 9 and 10 Years in a Large Population Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Oliver S. P.; Arden, Rosalind; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A 2003 paper in this journal reported results from a large sample of twins assessed at 2, 3 and 4 years of age on parent-administered tests and reports of their verbal and nonverbal ability. We found clear evidence for phenotypic general cognitive ability (g) that accounted for about 50% of the variance, for modest genetic influence on g (about…

  2. Singing proficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Giguère, Jean-François; Peretz, Isabelle

    2007-02-01

    Most believe that the ability to carry a tune is unevenly distributed in the general population. To test this claim, we asked occasional singers (n=62) to sing a well-known song in both the laboratory and in a natural setting (experiment 1). Sung performances were judged by peers for proficiency, analyzed for pitch and time accuracy with an acoustic-based method, and compared to professional singing. The peer ratings for the proficiency of occasional singers were normally distributed. Only a minority of the occasional singers made numerous pitch errors. The variance in singing proficiency was largely due to tempo differences. Occasional singers tended to sing at a faster tempo and with more pitch and time errors relative to professional singers. In experiment 2 15 nonmusicians from experiment 1 sang the same song at a slow tempo. In this condition, most of the occasional singers sang as accurately as the professional singers. Thus, singing appears to be a universal human trait. However, two of the occasional singers maintained a high rate of pitch errors at the slower tempo. This poor performance was not due to impaired pitch perception, thus suggesting the existence of a purely vocal form of tone deafness.

  3. Estimating population size with correlated sampling unit estimates

    Treesearch

    David C. Bowden; Gary C. White; Alan B. Franklin; Joseph L. Ganey

    2003-01-01

    Finite population sampling theory is useful in estimating total population size (abundance) from abundance estimates of each sampled unit (quadrat). We develop estimators that allow correlated quadrat abundance estimates, even for quadrats in different sampling strata. Correlated quadrat abundance estimates based on mark–recapture or distance sampling methods occur...

  4. 7 CFR 91.19 - General requirements of suitable samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.19 General requirements of suitable... type (specific description); (2) Lot number or production date; (3) Analyses desired; (4) Date/time...

  5. New methods for sampling sparse populations

    Treesearch

    Anna Ringvall

    2007-01-01

    To improve surveys of sparse objects, methods that use auxiliary information have been suggested. Guided transect sampling uses prior information, e.g., from aerial photographs, for the layout of survey strips. Instead of being laid out straight, the strips will wind between potentially more interesting areas. 3P sampling (probability proportional to prediction) uses...

  6. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device approved...

  7. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device approved...

  8. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device approved...

  9. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device approved...

  10. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201 Sampling... respirable dust in the active workings of the mine as required by this part with a sampling device approved...

  11. General Constraints on Sampling Wildlife on FIA Plots

    Treesearch

    Larissa L. Bailey; John R. Sauer; James D. Nichols; Paul H. Geissler

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the constraints to sampling wildlife populations at FIA points. Wildlife sampling programs must have well-defined goals and provide information adequate to meet those goals. Investigators should choose a State variable based on information needs and the spatial sampling scale. We discuss estimation-based methods for three State variables: species...

  12. Validation of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) is an eight-item instrument to assess how patients perceive their dental and facial esthetics. In this cross-sectional study we investigated dimensionality, reliability, and validity of OES scores in the adult general population in Sweden. Methods In a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 39%, N=1159 subjects, 58% female, mean age (standard deviation): 49.2 (17.4) years), dimensionality of OES was investigated using factor analytic methods to determine how many scores are needed to characterize the construct. Reliability of scores was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. Score validity was determined by correlating the OES summary score with a global indicator of orofacial esthetics (OE). Results Factor analyses provided support that a single score can sufficiently characterize OE. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93 indicated excellent reliability. A validity coefficient of r=0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.90) indicated that OES summary scores correlated highly with a global OE assessment. Conclusions The OES is a promising instrument to measure the construct OE. Factor analyses supported that this construct can be assessed with one score, offering a feasible and acceptable standardized assessment of OE. The present study extends the OES use to the general population, an important target population for assessment of orofacial esthetics. PMID:23158767

  13. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  14. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire among General Population

    PubMed Central

    Petkovska, Miodraga Stefanovska; Bojadziev, Marjan I.; Stefanovska, Vesna Velikj

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to analyze the internal consistency; validity and factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire for the Macedonian general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data came from nationally representative sample of 1603 randomly selected Macedonians all aged 18 years or older. RESULTS: The mean GHQ score in the general sample was found to be 7.9 (SD = 4.3). The results revealed a higher GHQ score among women (M = 8.91, SD = 4.5) compared to men (M = 6.89; SD = 4.2). The participants from the rural areas obtained a lower GHQ score (M = 7.55, SD = 3.8) compared to participants coming from the urban areas (M = 9.37, SD = 4.1). The principal component analysis with oblique rotation (direct oblimin) with maximum likelihood procedure solution was performed and the results yielded a three factor solution which jointly accounted for 57.17% of the total variance: Factor I named social management (items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8); Factor II stress (items 2, 5 and 9) and Factor III named self-confidence (items 10, 11 and 12). Its factor structure is in line with representative research from other population groups. CONCLUSION: The GHQ-12 can be used effectively for assessment of the overall psychological well-being and detection of non-psychotic psychiatric problems among the Macedonian population. PMID:27275274

  15. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operator shall conduct any additional air sampling tests and analyses as the Secretary may from time to... exist, or are likely to exist, the operator shall promptly conduct appropriate air sampling tests to... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 71.701 Section...

  16. General and minority stress in an LGB population in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vinke, John

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on the influence of determinants of mental health on a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in Flanders. Our sample is drawn from the Zzzip survey, and contains 2,280 LGBs, of whom 1,565 are men and 715 are women. The traditional social stress model outlines the influence of general stressors on stress (Pearlin, 1989). Meyer (1995) has expanded Pearlin's model to include the concept of minority stress. This study focuses on aspects of personal characteristics and social structural arrangements. Our study confirms the importance of age and education as relevant determinants for mental health. Additionally, although most research establishes sex differences in depression, this study does not find significant differences in depression between men and women. In women, sexual identity is a significant determinant of depressive score, but we do not find the same in men. Finally, both general and minority stressors, especially the internal stressors, are found to have an important effect on depressive outcomes.

  17. Health seeking behaviour in general population with psychological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2014-06-01

    Health seeking behaviour is a complex construct in patients with psychological symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine a one-month prevalence of psychological symptoms in Slovenian general population and to identify correlates of health seeking behaviour. This study was conducted in a representative sample of 1,002 randomly selected Slovenian citizens, stratified according to sex and age. We used a method of computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The questionnaire consisted of demographic questions, questions about the prevalence and duration of preselected symptoms in the past month (irritability, nervousness), questions about the presence of chronic diseases, EQ-5D questionnaire and the questions on health seeking behaviour (self-treatment, lay advice seeking and medical advice seeking). The self-reported prevalence of psychological symptoms in the past month was 38.0% (381/1,002). Multivariate analysis for the presence of self-reported psychological symptoms revealed that female sex, higher age, the presence of chronic disease, primary education, lay-advice seeking, pain and the presence of anxiety/depression on EQ-5D questionnaire were independently associated with psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms are a major public health problem in Slovenian general adult population and the self-reported utilization of professional health care services by Slovenian population is high. Other patterns such as lay referral system might have a crucial influence on the final decision to seek medical help.

  18. A general consumer-resource population model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  19. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  20. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  1. The epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a survey on the prevalence and the associated factors in a random sample of the general population in the Northern part of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Atshani, Seyed Mehrbod; Chagharvand, Sepideh; Souti, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Many people with gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms do not consult a physician; therefore studies on gastro-esophageal reflux in general practice or in hospitals may not accurately describe the burden of gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and its association with some life-style parameters in Rasht-Iran. A telephone survey was performed. Phone numbers was randomly collected from the telecommunication service center of Rasht. 1473 people (Mean age: 38.31 ± 13.09) were included in the study. People who didn’t answer the phone after three times or didn’t have consent to enter the study were excluded. Data were collected by an examiner using a GerdQ questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was tested by translation and retranslation and a pilot study was performed to assess its appropriateness. The prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux was achieved 2.4% daily, 9.1% weekly and 11.3% monthly. Among the patients with gastro-esophageal reflux, 69.5% were female. There was a significant positive association between gastro-esophageal reflux prevalence and body mass index, smoking habits, eating salted or smoked foods, lying down immediately after the meal, taking certain drugs as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/Amino salicylic acid and the age group of 30-45 year old. Overall, the prevalence of the weekly gastro-esophageal reflux in the present survey was 9.1% which was less than other similar studies in Iran and some other countries. PMID:24046810

  2. Sampling considerations for disease surveillance in wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nusser, S.M.; Clark, W.R.; Otis, D.L.; Huang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Disease surveillance in wildlife populations involves detecting the presence of a disease, characterizing its prevalence and spread, and subsequent monitoring. A probability sample of animals selected from the population and corresponding estimators of disease prevalence and detection provide estimates with quantifiable statistical properties, but this approach is rarely used. Although wildlife scientists often assume probability sampling and random disease distributions to calculate sample sizes, convenience samples (i.e., samples of readily available animals) are typically used, and disease distributions are rarely random. We demonstrate how landscape-based simulation can be used to explore properties of estimators from convenience samples in relation to probability samples. We used simulation methods to model what is known about the habitat preferences of the wildlife population, the disease distribution, and the potential biases of the convenience-sample approach. Using chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a simple illustration, we show that using probability sample designs with appropriate estimators provides unbiased surveillance parameter estimates but that the selection bias and coverage errors associated with convenience samples can lead to biased and misleading results. We also suggest practical alternatives to convenience samples that mix probability and convenience sampling. For example, a sample of land areas can be selected using a probability design that oversamples areas with larger animal populations, followed by harvesting of individual animals within sampled areas using a convenience sampling method.

  3. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    PubMed

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  4. Long-term effects on adult attachment in German occupation children born after World War II in comparison with a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German general population.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-10-28

    Children born of war are a phenomenon of every conflict. At the end of World War II and thereafter, approximately 400,000 children were fathered by foreign soldiers and born to local women in Germany. Quantitative research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as German occupation child (GOC) has been missing so far. This study examines adult attachment and its association with current depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Adult Attachment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire. Data were compared to a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German population (BCMS; N = 786). GOC differ in both attachment dimensions (less comfortable with closeness/intimacy, lowered ability to depend on others) and adult attachment (more dismissive and fearful) compared to BCMS. Insecure adult attachment is associated with current depression. GOC grew up under difficult circumstances (e.g. poverty, adverse events, and stigmatization). Even decades later they display more insecure attachment in current relationships. Findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their developmental conditions on attachment and current mental health.

  5. Generalized Ensemble Sampling of Enzyme Reaction Free Energy Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongsheng; Fajer, Mikolai I.; Cao, Liaoran; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Free energy path sampling plays an essential role in computational understanding of chemical reactions, particularly those occurring in enzymatic environments. Among a variety of molecular dynamics simulation approaches, the generalized ensemble sampling strategy is uniquely attractive for the fact that it not only can enhance the sampling of rare chemical events but also can naturally ensure consistent exploration of environmental degrees of freedom. In this review, we plan to provide a tutorial-like tour on an emerging topic: generalized ensemble sampling of enzyme reaction free energy path. The discussion is largely focused on our own studies, particularly ones based on the metadynamics free energy sampling method and the on-the-path random walk path sampling method. We hope that this mini presentation will provide interested practitioners some meaningful guidance for future algorithm formulation and application study. PMID:27498634

  6. Generalized Ensemble Sampling of Enzyme Reaction Free Energy Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Fajer, M I; Cao, L; Cheng, X; Yang, W

    2016-01-01

    Free energy path sampling plays an essential role in computational understanding of chemical reactions, particularly those occurring in enzymatic environments. Among a variety of molecular dynamics simulation approaches, the generalized ensemble sampling strategy is uniquely attractive for the fact that it not only can enhance the sampling of rare chemical events but also can naturally ensure consistent exploration of environmental degrees of freedom. In this review, we plan to provide a tutorial-like tour on an emerging topic: generalized ensemble sampling of enzyme reaction free energy path. The discussion is largely focused on our own studies, particularly ones based on the metadynamics free energy sampling method and the on-the-path random walk path sampling method. We hope that this minipresentation will provide interested practitioners some meaningful guidance for future algorithm formulation and application study.

  7. [Cystatin C and cardiovascular risk in the general population].

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier; Tranche-Iparraguirre, Salvador; Marín-Iranzo, Rafael; Fernández-Rodríguez, Eloy; Riesgo-García, Alba; García-Casas, Juan; Hevia-Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    Cystatin C has been proposed as a novel marker of renal function and as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of an elevated cystatin C level in the general population and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. This descriptive epidemiologic cross-sectional study involved a simple randomized sample of individuals aged >49 years from the general population, and was based on personal health records. From the final selection of 415 individuals, 359 underwent cystatin C measurement using a immunonephelometric assay. The cut-point used was that recommended for the method in adults. Of the 359 individuals (mean+/-standard deviation age, 64+/-10 years, 63.5% female) studied, 17.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.4%-21.2%) had an elevated cystatin C level. The mean level was 0.81+/-0.21 mg/L, and increased with age. Elevation of the cystatin C level was associated with: older age (P< .0001); high measures of systolic blood pressure (P< .0001), hemoglobin A1c (P=.031), triglycerides (P=.019), homocysteine (P< .0001), C-reactive protein (P=.015), fibrinogen (P=.006) and microalbuminuria (P=.001); and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P=.021) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (P< .0001). Associated cardiovascular diseases included coronary heart disease (P=.013) and heart failure (P=.038). The main factors independently associated with an elevated cystatin C level were diabetes (odds ratio [OR]=5.37), male sex (OR=4.91) and decreased glomerular filtration (OR=0.83). The prevalence of an elevated cystatin C level in the general population was found to be high and was associated with the presence of classical cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and chronic renal disease, along with higher levels of C-reactive protein, homocysteine and fibrinogen.

  8. A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1979-01-01

    The Hayne model for line transect sampling is generalized by using an elliptical (rather than circular) flushing model for animal detection. By assuming the ration of major and minor axes lengths is constant for all animals, a model results which allows estimation of population density based directly upon sighting distances and sighting angles. The derived estimator of animal density is a generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling.

  9. Characteristics of the General Physics student population.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    2006-12-01

    Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.

  10. Classifying sensory profiles of children in the general population.

    PubMed

    Little, L M; Dean, E; Tomchek, S D; Dunn, W

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to subtype groups of children in a community sample with and without developmental conditions, based on sensory processing patterns. We used latent profile analysis to determine the number of sensory subtypes in a sample of n = 1132 children aged 3-14 years with typical development and developmental conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities. A five-subtype solution was found to best characterize the sample, which differed on overall degree and differential presentation of sensory processing patterns. Children with and without developmental conditions presented across subtypes, and one subtype was significantly younger in age than others (P < 0.05). Our results show that sensory subtypes include both children with typical development and those with developmental conditions. Sensory subtypes have previously been investigated in ASD only, and our results suggest that similar sensory subtypes are present in a sample reflective of the general population of children including those largely with typical development. Elevated scores on sensory processing patterns are not unique to ASD but rather are reflections of children's abilities to respond to environmental demands. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Are target-shooters more aggressive than the general population?

    PubMed

    Erle, Thorsten M; Barth, Niklas; Kälke, Friederike; Duttler, Gabriel; Lange, Harald; Petko, Andreas; Topolinski, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological research shows that guns are aggressive cues, proponents of liberal gun control argue that people rather than guns are to blame for gun-related violence. For instance, athletic target-shooters might classify guns as athletic rather than aggressive stimuli and thus should not be more aggressive than the general population. The present work investigated aggression and emotion-regulation in target-shooters. A longitudinal study found that initial self-reported aggression in target-shooters was higher than in the general population and further increased over 1 year. Additionally, the sample exhibited deficient emotion-regulation strategies, and this was related to self-reported aggression. In contrast, their implicit self-construct became more peaceful over time but was unrelated to all other measures. Two further cross-sectional experiments explored the causal impact of athletic target-shooting and other athletic activities (shooting a basketball) on aggression. Target-shooters and basketball players were tested before and after their regular team practice and aggressive thoughts and feelings were measured. Target-shooting but not basketball practice activated aggressive and anxiety-related thought more strongly than positive thought. Future research avenues, implications for the indirect measurement of aggression, and possible interventions to decrease aggression in target-shooters are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:3-13, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sampling strategies for estimating brook trout effective population size

    Treesearch

    Andrew R. Whiteley; Jason A. Coombs; Mark Hudy; Zachary Robinson; Keith H. Nislow; Benjamin H. Letcher

    2012-01-01

    The influence of sampling strategy on estimates of effective population size (Ne) from single-sample genetic methods has not been rigorously examined, though these methods are increasingly used. For headwater salmonids, spatially close kin association among age-0 individuals suggests that sampling strategy (number of individuals and location from...

  13. 52 additional reference population samples for the 55 AISNP panel.

    PubMed

    Pakstis, Andrew J; Haigh, Eva; Cherni, Lotfi; ElGaaied, Amel Ben Ammar; Barton, Alison; Evsanaa, Baigalmaa; Togtokh, Ariunaa; Brissenden, Jane; Roscoe, Janet; Bulbul, Ozlem; Filoglu, Gonul; Gurkan, Cemal; Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Robertson, James M; Li, Cai-Xia; Wei, Yi-Liang; Li, Hui; Soundararajan, Usha; Rajeevan, Haseena; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2015-11-01

    Ancestry inference for a person using a panel of SNPs depends on the variation of frequencies of those SNPs around the world and the amount of reference data available for calculation/comparison. The Kidd Lab panel of 55 AISNPs has been incorporated in commercial kits by both Life Technologies and Illumina for massively parallel sequencing. Therefore, a larger set of reference populations will be useful for researchers using those kits. We have added reference population allele frequencies for 52 population samples to the 73 previously entered so that there are now allele frequencies publicly available in ALFRED and FROG-kb for a total of 125 population samples.

  14. Transvestic fetishism in the general population: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2005-01-01

    We used a random sample of 2,450 18-60 year-olds in the general population of Sweden to study the prevalence as well as the social, sexual, and health correlates of transvestic fetishism (sexual arousal from cross-dressing). Almost three percent (2.8%) of men and 0.4% of women reported at least one episode of transvestic fetishism. Separation from parents, same-sex sexual experiences, being easily sexually aroused, pornography use, and higher masturbation frequency were significantly associated with transvestic fetishism. A positive attitude to this sexual practice and paraphilia indicators--sexual arousal from using pain, exposing genitals to a stranger, and spying on others having sex--were particularly strong correlates to the dependent variable.

  15. Mutational pattern of a sample from a critical branching population.

    PubMed

    Delaporte, Cécile; Achaz, Guillaume; Lambert, Amaury

    2016-09-01

    We study a universal object for the genealogy of a sample in populations with mutations: the critical birth-death process with Poissonian mutations, conditioned on its population size at a fixed time horizon. We show how this process arises as the law of the genealogy of a sample in a large class of nearly critical branching populations with rare mutations at birth, namely populations converging, in a large population asymptotic, towards the continuum random tree. We extend this model to populations with random foundation times, with (potentially improper) prior distributions [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], including the so-called uniform ([Formula: see text]) and log-uniform ([Formula: see text]) priors. We first investigate the mutational patterns arising from these models, by studying the site frequency spectrum of a sample with fixed size, i.e. the number of mutations carried by k individuals in the sample. Explicit formulae for the expected frequency spectrum of a sample are provided, in the cases of a fixed foundation time, and of a uniform and log-uniform prior on the foundation time. Second, we establish the convergence in distribution, for large sample sizes, of the (suitably renormalized) tree spanned by the sample with prior [Formula: see text] on the time of origin. We finally prove that the limiting genealogies with different priors can all be embedded in the same realization of a given Poisson point measure.

  16. Risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population.

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, D L; Vierkant, R A; DeStefano, F; Layde, P M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the individual, physical, and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population. METHODS: Population based case-control study in Marshfield epidemiological study area in Wisconsin, USA. Cases were men and women aged 18-69 with newly diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 206 (83.1%) of 248 eligible). Controls were a random sample of residents of the study area who had no history of diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 211 (81.5%) of 259 eligible). Cases and controls were matched by age. Telephone interviews and reviews of medical records obtained height and weight, medical history, average daily hours of exposure to selected physical and organisational work factors, and self ratings on psychosocial work scales. RESULTS: In the final logistic regression model, five work and three non-work variables were associated with risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, after adjusting for age. For each one unit of increase in body mass index (kg/m2), risk increased 8% (odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03 to 1.14). Having a previous musculoskeletal condition was positively associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.03 to 6.23). People reporting the least influence at work had 2.86 times the risk (95% CI, 1.10 to 7.14) than those with the most influence at work. CONCLUSIONS: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a work related disease, although some important measures of occupational exposure, including keyboard use, were not risk factors in this general population study. The mechanism whereby a weight gain of about six pounds increases the risk of disease 8% requires explanation. PMID:9404321

  17. CosmoPMC: Cosmology sampling with Population Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbinger, Martin; Benabed, Karim; Cappé, Olivier; Coupon, Jean; Cardoso, Jean-François; Fort, Gersende; McCracken, Henry Joy; Prunet, Simon; Robert, Christian P.; Wraith, Darren

    2012-12-01

    CosmoPMC is a Monte-Carlo sampling method to explore the likelihood of various cosmological probes. The sampling engine is implemented with the package pmclib. It is called Population MonteCarlo (PMC), which is a novel technique to sample from the posterior. PMC is an adaptive importance sampling method which iteratively improves the proposal to approximate the posterior. This code has been introduced, tested and applied to various cosmology data sets.

  18. Study population, questionnaire, data management and sample description.

    PubMed

    de Waure, Chiara; Poscia, Andrea; Virdis, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes methodological issues of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk"), a multicenter study aimed at assessing the health status and attitudes and behaviours of university students in Italy. The questionnaire used to carry out the study was adapted from the Italian health behaviours in school-aged children (HBSC) project and consisted of 93 items addressing: demographics; nutritional habits and status; physical activity; lifestyles; reproductive and preconception health; health and satisfaction of life; attitudes and behaviours toward academic study and new technologies. The questionnaire was administered to a pool of 12 000 students from 18 to 30 years of age who voluntary decided to participate during classes held at different Italian faculties or at the three "Sportello Salute Giovani" centers which were established in the three sites of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome). The final study sample was composed by 8516 university students. The mean age of responders was 22.2 (Standard Deviation 2.0) and 5702 (67.0%) were females. According to the distribution in age classes, 3601 (43.3%) belonged to the 18-21 one, 3796 (44.5%) to the 22-24 class and 1019 (12.2%) to the 25-30 class. With respect to socio-economic status, data were available for 8410 responders and showed that 50.3% of students belonged to the middle class. The project took into consideration a large number of individuals from different regions of the country and therefore may be considered representative of the general population of Italian university students. Furthermore, it is the first to address, at the same time, several issues, in particular attitudes and behaviours toward health, in Italian university students. The analysis of data from such a large sample of university students sets the basis for identifying the most appropriate interventions in order to address the specific needs of

  19. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public.

  20. Population Education in Social Studies: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in social studies. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  1. Population Education in Social Studies: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in social studies. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  2. Population Education in Home Economics: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Seven sample lessons on population and the family appear in this home economics teacher's manual. These activities have been adapted from materials produced in several countries in Asia and Oceania. A scope and sequence chart illustrates how teachers can integrate population-related issues into the home economics curriculum. Among the topics…

  3. Estimating hidden population size using Respondent-Driven Sampling data

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Mark S.; Gile, Krista J.; Mar, Corinne M.

    2015-01-01

    Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) is n approach to sampling design and inference in hard-to-reach human populations. It is often used in situations where the target population is rare and/or stigmatized in the larger population, so that it is prohibitively expensive to contact them through the available frames. Common examples include injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, and female sex workers. Most analysis of RDS data has focused on estimating aggregate characteristics, such as disease prevalence. However, RDS is often conducted in settings where the population size is unknown and of great independent interest. This paper presents an approach to estimating the size of a target population based on data collected through RDS. The proposed approach uses a successive sampling approximation to RDS to leverage information in the ordered sequence of observed personal network sizes. The inference uses the Bayesian framework, allowing for the incorporation of prior knowledge. A flexible class of priors for the population size is used that aids elicitation. An extensive simulation study provides insight into the performance of the method for estimating population size under a broad range of conditions. A further study shows the approach also improves estimation of aggregate characteristics. Finally, the method demonstrates sensible results when used to estimate the size of known networked populations from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and when used to estimate the size of a hard-to-reach population at high risk for HIV. PMID:26180577

  4. A venue-based method for sampling hard-to-reach populations.

    PubMed Central

    Muhib, F. B.; Lin, L. S.; Stueve, A.; Miller, R. L.; Ford, W. L.; Johnson, W. D.; Smith, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Constructing scientifically sound samples of hard-to-reach populations, also known as hidden populations, is a challenge for many research projects. Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases. The authors describe a venue-based application of time-space sampling (TSS) that addresses the challenges of accessing hard-to-reach populations. The method entails identifying days and times when the target population gathers at specific venues, constructing a sampling frame of venue, day-time units (VDTs), randomly selecting and visiting VDTs (the primary sampling units), and systematically intercepting and collecting information from consenting members of the target population. This allows researchers to construct a sample with known properties, make statistical inference to the larger population of venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of biases that may limit generalization of results to the target population. The authors describe their use of TSS in the ongoing Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY) project to generate a systematic sample of young men who have sex with men. The project is an ongoing community level HIV prevention intervention trial funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The TSS method is reproducible and can be adapted to hard-to-reach populations in other situations, environments, and cultures. PMID:11889287

  5. [Respondent-Driven Sampling: a new sampling method to study visible and hidden populations].

    PubMed

    Mantecón, Alejandro; Juan, Montse; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Román, Encarna

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a variant of chain-referral sampling: respondent-driven sampling (RDS). This sampling method shows that methods based on network analysis can be combined with the statistical validity of standard probability sampling methods. In this sense, RDS appears to be a mathematical improvement of snowball sampling oriented to the study of hidden populations. However, we try to prove its validity with populations that are not within a sampling frame but can nonetheless be contacted without difficulty. The basics of RDS are explained through our research on young people (aged 14 to 25) who go clubbing, consume alcohol and other drugs, and have sex. Fieldwork was carried out between May and July 2007 in three Spanish regions: Baleares, Galicia and Comunidad Valenciana. The presentation of the study shows the utility of this type of sampling when the population is accessible but there is a difficulty deriving from the lack of a sampling frame. However, the sample obtained is not a random representative one in statistical terms of the target population. It must be acknowledged that the final sample is representative of a 'pseudo-population' that approximates to the target population but is not identical to it.

  6. Investigation of burnout in a sample of British general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Kirwan, M; Armstrong, D

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Recent changes in the general practitioner contract have produced increased workload and stress, poorer mental health and reduced job satisfaction. These factors might combine to increase the level of 'burnout' among general practitioners. AIM. This study set out to examine the extent of burnout among general practitioners. METHOD. A questionnaire was sent to all 295 Northamptonshire general practitioners seeking demographic details and including the Maslach burnout inventory. The results for the inventory were compared with the results from a sample of physicians and nurses in North America. RESULTS. There was a significantly higher level of burnout among the Northamptonshire doctors compared with the North American sample. There was virtually no association between age and the level of burnout, although a small negative correlation was found between age and the depersonalization of others subscale. Part-time general practitioners showed lower levels of burnout than full-time general practitioners. CONCLUSION. This study highlights the need to look both at the extent of burnout in young doctors during their training and at those characteristics of part-time general practitioners which might prevent burnout. PMID:7619573

  7. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli). Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years). However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years), followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years) that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears to be a typical

  8. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well.

  9. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    PubMed

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  10. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples

    PubMed Central

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham RD; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals. PMID:25678726

  11. Recombinative Generalization of Subword Units Using Matching to Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Catherine; Lyddy, Fiona; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a computerized matching-to-sample (MTS) protocol to facilitate recombinative generalization of subword units (onsets and rimes) and recognition of novel onset-rime and onset-rime-rime words. In addition, we sought to isolate the key training components necessary for recombinative…

  12. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  13. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  14. Generalized analog thresholding for spike acquisition at ultralow sampling rates

    PubMed Central

    He, Bryan D.; Wein, Alex; Varshney, Lav R.; Kusuma, Julius; Richardson, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient spike acquisition techniques are needed to bridge the divide from creating large multielectrode arrays (MEA) to achieving whole-cortex electrophysiology. In this paper, we introduce generalized analog thresholding (gAT), which achieves millisecond temporal resolution with sampling rates as low as 10 Hz. Consider the torrent of data from a single 1,000-channel MEA, which would generate more than 3 GB/min using standard 30-kHz Nyquist sampling. Recent neural signal processing methods based on compressive sensing still require Nyquist sampling as a first step and use iterative methods to reconstruct spikes. Analog thresholding (AT) remains the best existing alternative, where spike waveforms are passed through an analog comparator and sampled at 1 kHz, with instant spike reconstruction. By generalizing AT, the new method reduces sampling rates another order of magnitude, detects more than one spike per interval, and reconstructs spike width. Unlike compressive sensing, the new method reveals a simple closed-form solution to achieve instant (noniterative) spike reconstruction. The base method is already robust to hardware nonidealities, including realistic quantization error and integration noise. Because it achieves these considerable specifications using hardware-friendly components like integrators and comparators, generalized AT could translate large-scale MEAs into implantable devices for scientific investigation and medical technology. PMID:25904712

  15. Generalized analog thresholding for spike acquisition at ultralow sampling rates.

    PubMed

    He, Bryan D; Wein, Alex; Varshney, Lav R; Kusuma, Julius; Richardson, Andrew G; Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan

    2015-07-01

    Efficient spike acquisition techniques are needed to bridge the divide from creating large multielectrode arrays (MEA) to achieving whole-cortex electrophysiology. In this paper, we introduce generalized analog thresholding (gAT), which achieves millisecond temporal resolution with sampling rates as low as 10 Hz. Consider the torrent of data from a single 1,000-channel MEA, which would generate more than 3 GB/min using standard 30-kHz Nyquist sampling. Recent neural signal processing methods based on compressive sensing still require Nyquist sampling as a first step and use iterative methods to reconstruct spikes. Analog thresholding (AT) remains the best existing alternative, where spike waveforms are passed through an analog comparator and sampled at 1 kHz, with instant spike reconstruction. By generalizing AT, the new method reduces sampling rates another order of magnitude, detects more than one spike per interval, and reconstructs spike width. Unlike compressive sensing, the new method reveals a simple closed-form solution to achieve instant (noniterative) spike reconstruction. The base method is already robust to hardware nonidealities, including realistic quantization error and integration noise. Because it achieves these considerable specifications using hardware-friendly components like integrators and comparators, generalized AT could translate large-scale MEAs into implantable devices for scientific investigation and medical technology. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Doğan, Orhan

    2007-01-15

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population, as assessed in a representative sample of a city in central Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Borderline Personality Disorder section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), and the PTSD-Module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The mean age of participants was 34.8 (S.D.=11.5, range: 18-65); 18.3% of participants (n=115) had a lifetime diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) was the most prevalent diagnosis (8.3%); 1.1% of the population was diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder (DID). Participants with a dissociative disorder had borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, major depression, PTSD, and history of suicide attempt more frequently than did participants without a dissociative disorder. Childhood sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were significant predictors of a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Only 28.7% of the dissociative participants had received psychiatric treatment previously. Because dissociative disorders are trauma-related, significant part of the adult clinical consequences of childhood trauma remains obscure in the minds of mental health professionals and of the overall community. Revisions in diagnostic criteria of dissociative disorders in the DSM-IV are recommended.

  17. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  18. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  19. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Marc; Camilleri, Géraldine M.; Etilé, Fabrice; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Reach, Gérard; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85). This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity. PMID:28257032

  20. Sign language users' education and employment levels: keeping pace with changes in the general Australian population?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population comparability and sampling errors that may affect survey-based research. The analysis shows that sign language users are approaching parity with the general population on some measures of educational attainment, but there remains a gap in employment levels and particularly income. Sign language users aged 25-44 years show higher attainment than those in the 45-64 age group, suggesting that educational reforms in the last 30 years are having a positive impact on both education and employment levels. However, younger sign language users are still struggling to keep pace with improvements in certain employment outcomes that are seen in the general population.

  1. An open-population hierarchical distance sampling model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sollmann, Rachel; Beth Gardner,; Richard B Chandler,; Royle, J. Andrew; T Scott Sillett,

    2015-01-01

    Modeling population dynamics while accounting for imperfect detection is essential to monitoring programs. Distance sampling allows estimating population size while accounting for imperfect detection, but existing methods do not allow for direct estimation of demographic parameters. We develop a model that uses temporal correlation in abundance arising from underlying population dynamics to estimate demographic parameters from repeated distance sampling surveys. Using a simulation study motivated by designing a monitoring program for island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), we investigated the power of this model to detect population trends. We generated temporally autocorrelated abundance and distance sampling data over six surveys, using population rates of change of 0.95 and 0.90. We fit the data generating Markovian model and a mis-specified model with a log-linear time effect on abundance, and derived post hoc trend estimates from a model estimating abundance for each survey separately. We performed these analyses for varying number of survey points. Power to detect population changes was consistently greater under the Markov model than under the alternatives, particularly for reduced numbers of survey points. The model can readily be extended to more complex demographic processes than considered in our simulations. This novel framework can be widely adopted for wildlife population monitoring.

  2. Accelerated failure time model under general biased sampling scheme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane Paik; Sit, Tony; Ying, Zhiliang

    2016-07-01

    Right-censored time-to-event data are sometimes observed from a (sub)cohort of patients whose survival times can be subject to outcome-dependent sampling schemes. In this paper, we propose a unified estimation method for semiparametric accelerated failure time models under general biased estimating schemes. The proposed estimator of the regression covariates is developed upon a bias-offsetting weighting scheme and is proved to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. Large sample properties for the estimator are also derived. Using rank-based monotone estimating functions for the regression parameters, we find that the estimating equations can be easily solved via convex optimization. The methods are confirmed through simulations and illustrated by application to real datasets on various sampling schemes including length-bias sampling, the case-cohort design and its variants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  4. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R; Barcellos, Nemora T; Alencastro, Paulo R; Wolff, Fernando H; Moreira, Leila B; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B M; Fuchs, Flavio D; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6-13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9-3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population.

  5. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  6. Pesticide exposures and respiratory health in general populations.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2017-01-01

    Human exposures to pesticides can occur in the workplace, in the household and through the ambient environment. While several articles have reviewed the impact of pesticide exposures on human respiratory health in occupational settings, to the best of our knowledge, this article is the first one to review published studies on the association between pesticide exposures and human respiratory health in the general populations. In this article, we critically reviewed evidences up to date studying the associations between non-occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health in general populations. This article also highlighted questions arising from these studies, including our recent analyses using the data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), for future research. We found few studies have addressed the impact of environmental pesticide exposures on respiratory health, especially on lung function, in general populations. In the studies using the data from CHMS Cycle 1, exposures to OP insecticides, pyrethroid insecticides, and the organochlorine pesticide DDT were associated with impaired lung function in the Canadian general population, but no significant associations were observed for the herbicide 2,4-D. Future research should focus on the potential age-specific and pesticide-specific effect on respiratory health in the general population, and repeated longitudinal study design is critical for assessing the temporal variations in pesticide exposures. Research findings from current studies of non-occupational pesticide exposures and their health impact in general population will help to improve the role of regulatory policies in mitigating pesticide-related public health problems, and thereafter providing greater benefit to the general population.

  7. Capture-recapture and removal methods for sampling closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Otis, David L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating animal abundance is common in wildlife management and environmental impact asessment. Capture-recapture and removal methods are often used to estimate population size. Statistical Inference From Capture Data On Closed Animal Populations, a monograph by Otis et al. (1978), provides a comprehensive synthesis of much of the wildlife and statistical literature on the methods, as well as some extensions of the general theory. In our primer, we focus on capture-recapture and removal methods for trapping studies in which a population is assumed to be closed and do not treat open-population models, such as the Jolly-Seber model, or catch-effort methods in any detail. The primer, written for students interested in population estimation, is intended for use with the more theoretical monograph.

  8. Probability sampling of stony coral populations in the Florida Keys.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven G; Swanson, Dione W; Chiappone, Mark; Miller, Steven L; Ault, Jerald S

    2011-12-01

    Principles of probability survey design were applied to guide large-scale sampling of populations of stony corals and associated benthic taxa in the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem. The survey employed a two-stage stratified random sampling design that partitioned the 251-km(2) domain by reef habitat types, geographic regions, and management zones. Estimates of the coefficient of variation (ratio of standard error to the mean) for stony coral population density and abundance ranged from 7% to 12% for four of six principal species. These levels of survey precision are among the highest reported for comparable surveys of marine species. Relatively precise estimates were also obtained for octocoral density, sponge frequency of occurrence, and benthic cover of algae and invertebrates. Probabilistic survey design techniques provided a robust framework for estimating population-level metrics and optimizing sampling efficiency.

  9. The generalized radon transform: Sampling, accuracy and memoryconsiderations

    SciTech Connect

    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; van Ginkel, Michael; Verbeek, Piet W.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2004-09-23

    The generalized Radon (or Hough) transform is a well-known tool for detecting parameterized shapes in an image. The Radon transform is a mapping between the image space and a parameter space. The coordinates of a point in the latter correspond to the parameters of a shape in the image. The amplitude at that point corresponds to the amount of evidence for that shape. In this paper we discuss three important aspects of the Radon transform. The first aspect is discretization. Using concepts from sampling theory we derive a set of sampling criteria for the generalized Radon transform. The second aspect is accuracy. For the specific case of the Radon transform for spheres, we examine how well the location of the maxima matches the true parameters. We derive a correction term to reduce the bias in the estimated radii. The third aspect concerns a projection-based algorithm to reduce memory requirements.

  10. Drinking patterns and problems among primary care patients: a comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J

    1991-01-01

    While problem drinking is believed to be over-represented in primary care practice, additional research in this area is needed. A probability sample of 394 patients attending all county-operated primary care clinics in Contra Costa County, California, were breathalyzed and interviewed regarding drinking patterns and alcohol problems. These data are compared with those obtained from a representative general population sample of over 3000 respondents living in the same county. While the clinic population reported higher rates of abstinence compared with the general population (38 versus 17%), among drinkers the clinic sample reported higher rates of heavy drinking. In the clinic sample 14% reported a physical health problem related to drinking and 22% reported three or more symptoms of alcohol dependence during the last year, compared with 3 and 10%, respectively, in the general population. The clinic sample was demographically different from those in the general population which could account, in part, for differences in heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems between the two populations. The prevalence of heavy and problem drinking in this primary care practice suggests the potential of primary care settings for early identification and treatment of alcohol-misusing patients.

  11. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; de Luca, María M; Córdoba, María A; Apezteguía, María C; Basualdo, Juan A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses. METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families. RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309) of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140) among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169) among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter) and housing (satisfactory) among others. CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural, and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite

  12. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; de Luca, Maria M; Cordoba, Maria A; Apezteguia, Maria C; Basualdo, Juan A

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the relationships between the personal, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses. E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families. The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309) of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140) among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169) among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter) and housing (satisfactory) among others. The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural, and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite. An association with the category of

  13. Vibronic Boson Sampling: Generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling for Molecular Vibronic Spectra at Finite Temperature.

    PubMed

    Huh, Joonsuk; Yung, Man-Hong

    2017-08-07

    Molecular vibroic spectroscopy, where the transitions involve non-trivial Bosonic correlation due to the Duschinsky Rotation, is strongly believed to be in a similar complexity class as Boson Sampling. At finite temperature, the problem is represented as a Boson Sampling experiment with correlated Gaussian input states. This molecular problem with temperature effect is intimately related to the various versions of Boson Sampling sharing the similar computational complexity. Here we provide a full description to this relation in the context of Gaussian Boson Sampling. We find a hierarchical structure, which illustrates the relationship among various Boson Sampling schemes. Specifically, we show that every instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling with an initial correlation can be simulated by an instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling without initial correlation, with only a polynomial overhead. Since every Gaussian state is associated with a thermal state, our result implies that every sampling problem in molecular vibronic transitions, at any temperature, can be simulated by Gaussian Boson Sampling associated with a product of vacuum modes. We refer such a generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling motivated by the molecular sampling problem as Vibronic Boson Sampling.

  14. Population data for 15 Y-chromosome STRs in a population sample from Quito (Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Baeza, Carlos; Guzmán, Rodrigo; Tirado, Miriam; López-Parra, Ana María; Rodríguez, Tatiana; Mesa, María Soledad; Fernández, Eva; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo

    2007-12-20

    Population frequencies for the 9 Y-STR loci included in the "minimal haplotype" from Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD), plus other 6 Y-STRs (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, GATA A7.2, GATA H4 and GATA A10) were obtained for a sample of 120 males from Quito (Ecuador). One hundred and sixteen unique haplotypes were identified within the sample. Haplotype diversity (0.9994) was among the highest in comparison to other populations from Iberia and South-America. Genetic distances were calculated and our sample presented significative differences with all other samples, the lowest values being with a Guinean sample.

  15. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  16. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  17. Improved insect emergence trap for stream community population sampling

    Treesearch

    Eric. H. LaGasa; Stamford D. Smith

    1978-01-01

    A sealed-edge pyramidal trap to sample total insectemergence from a segment of a small stream has been designed and tested in northeastern Oregon. The trap is approximately 10 by 10 feet at the base, and is constructed of wood, clear plastic, and galvanized screening. It is efficient and readily used, and can yield significant data on seasonal population changes and on...

  18. Diaper dermatitis: frequency and severity among a general infant population.

    PubMed

    Jordan, W E; Lawson, K D; Berg, R W; Franxman, J J; Marrer, A M

    1986-06-01

    The frequency and severity of diaper dermatitis was measured among a midwestern suburban population of 1089 infants ranging in age from 1 to 20 months. No diagnosis of specific etiology was made. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed for Candida albicans, and information on family characteristics, infant diet, general health, history of rash, and diapering habits and practices was collected by questionnaire. The distribution of the severity of observed diaper rash can be described as a logarithmic-normal function, implying several multiplicative causative factors. Within the total severity range, there appear to be three subcategories of diaper rash, differing in some manner, perhaps reflecting different etiologies. The frequency of observed diaper rash was a function of the maturity of the infant, reaching a maximum around 9 to 12 months of age. The prevalence of severe rash correlated with the presence and level of fecal C. albicans. Infants diapered exclusively in disposable diapers showed less rash (P less than 0.001) than those diapered exclusively or sometimes in cloth diapers.

  19. Would you dope? A general population test of the Goldman dilemma.

    PubMed

    Connor, J M; Mazanov, J

    2009-10-01

    To test Goldman's dilemma on a general population sample by asking whether they would take the Faustian bargain of a drug that guaranteed sporting success but would result in their death in 5 years' time. Between 1982 and 1995 a bi-annual survey using this dilemma suggested half of all elite athletes would take the drug. A random telephone survey of 250 members of the Australian general public, with counterbalanced presentation of success and death. Respondents gave age, gender, sports engagement and response to the dilemma (yes/no). Only two of a sample of 250 reported they would take the bargain offered by the dilemma. Athletes differ markedly from the general population in response to the dilemma. This raises significant practical and ethical dilemmas for athlete support personnel. The psychometry of the dilemma needs to be established more comprehensively for general and athlete populations.

  20. Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Brodaty, Henry; Mothakunnel, Annu; de Vel-Palumbo, Melissa; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Savage, Greg; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether differences in findings of studies examining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were associated with recruitment methods by comparing sample characteristics in two contemporaneous Australian studies, using population-based and convenience sampling. The Sydney Memory and Aging Study invited participants randomly from the electoral roll in defined geographic areas in Sydney. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing recruited cognitively normal (CN) individuals via media appeals and MCI participants via referrals from clinicians in Melbourne and Perth. Demographic and cognitive variables were harmonized, and similar diagnostic criteria were applied to both samples retrospectively. CN participants recruited via convenience sampling were younger, better educated, more likely to be married and have a family history of dementia, and performed better cognitively than those recruited via population-based sampling. MCI participants recruited via population-based sampling had better memory performance and were less likely to carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele than clinically referred participants but did not differ on other demographic variables. A convenience sample of normal controls is likely to be younger and better functioning and that of an MCI group likely to perform worse than a purportedly random sample. Sampling bias should be considered when interpreting findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Procedures for formation of composite samples from segmented populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Frank, Anthony M.; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We used a simulation approach to investigate the implication of two methods of forming composite samples to characterize segmented populations. We illustrate the case where the weight of individual segments varies randomly, a situation common with fish samples. Composite samples from segments such as whole fish or muscle tissue should be formed by homogenizing each segment separately and combining equal-sized portions randomly drawn from each homogenate. This approach permits unbiased estimation of the mean concentration per fish. Estimates of mean contaminant concentration varied little with variation in the number of composite samples analyzed or with composite size (number of segments in a composite sample). However, for a fixed number of composite samples, the precision of the variance estimate increases as composite size increased. In addition, for a fixed number of composites, the estimate of the variance stabilized as more segments were included in the composite samples. Estimates of the variance among fish or other population segments can be recovered using appropriate compositing procedures and specially-designed studies.

  2. Autosomic STR population data in two Caribbean samples from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Beatriz; Caraballo, Luis; Gusmão, Leonor; Amorim, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel

    2005-08-11

    In this work, a sample of 124 unrelated individuals from San Andres Island and Santa Marta City (Colombia) was studied for the nine STRs included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D13S317, FGA, TH01, TPOX and vWA). Although these two populations are geographically apart, San Andres is an Island in the middle of Caribbean Sea (about 480 miles northwest the Colombian mainland) and Santa Marta City located in the coast, exact test showed no differentiation between both population samples (P=0.39445+/-0.0805). Therefore, allele frequencies and parameters of forensic interest were estimated for the global sample.

  3. A general method for modeling population dynamics and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K

    2013-12-01

    Studying populations, be it a microbe colony or mankind, is important for understanding how complex systems evolve and exist. Such knowledge also often provides insights into evolution, history and different aspects of human life. By and large, populations' prosperity and decline is about transformation of certain resources into quantity and other characteristics of populations through growth, replication, expansion and acquisition of resources. We introduce a general model of population change, applicable to different types of populations, which interconnects numerous factors influencing population dynamics, such as nutrient influx and nutrient consumption, reproduction period, reproduction rate, etc. It is also possible to take into account specific growth features of individual organisms. We considered two recently discovered distinct growth scenarios: first, when organisms do not change their grown mass regardless of nutrients availability, and the second when organisms can reduce their grown mass by several times in a nutritionally poor environment. We found that nutrient supply and reproduction period are two major factors influencing the shape of population growth curves. There is also a difference in population dynamics between these two groups. Organisms belonging to the second group are significantly more adaptive to reduction of nutrients and far more resistant to extinction. Also, such organisms have substantially more frequent and lesser in amplitude fluctuations of population quantity for the same periodic nutrient supply (compared to the first group). Proposed model allows adequately describing virtually any possible growth scenario, including complex ones with periodic and irregular nutrient supply and other changing parameters, which present approaches cannot do.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions.

  5. Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in the Japanese general adult population.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-08-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been extensively used in a variety of settings across countries. The main aim of the present study was to assess the factor structure of the GHQ-12 for the Japanese general adult population. Data came from a sample of 1808 Japanese aged 20 years or older who were randomly selected based on the 1995 census (897 men and 911 women). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for men and 0.85 for women. Overall, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients were >0.20 for both genders. The GHQ-12 yielded a two-factor solution of psychological distress (items 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11) and social dysfunction (items 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8), which jointly accounted for 49.1% of the total variance, for women. Item 12 on happiness was not discernable. For men, item 12 was separated from a social dysfunction factor and yielded the third factor with item 3 on social role, and the three factors jointly accounted for 57.6%. The results of the present study suggest that the GHQ-12 can be used as an internally reliable and homogeneous scale that produces mainly the factors of psychological distress and social dysfunction. Item 12 may be structurally different in the case of Japanese adults.

  6. Spinopelvic parameters evaluation in a Brazilian population sample.

    PubMed

    Jacob, C J; Cardoso, I M; Batista, J L J; Maia, T C; Roncaglio, B

    2015-07-01

    The morphology of the spine is variable within a population, and its maintenance in appropriate values implies a decrease in the energy expended. We need to know their normal values in population. This study aims to carry out a literature review and evaluate published papers on spinopelvic parameters in a Brazilian population sample. Eleven potentially eligible papers were initially identified for inclusion in this review: three papers from PubMed and eight from Medicine. Out of these, only five papers contained methodology and relevant significance level, and therefore, they were included in the final analytical run. According to a Brazilian study, Pratali mentions no significant difference in the average values of spinopelvic balance in the Brazilian population and those found in the literature; there was also no significant difference comparing Brazilian and Korean population; however, a difference was found in comparison with European population regarding PI parameters and SS, but the latter with higher values. According to Kulcheski (Column/Columna 12:224-227, 2013), the values of pelvic tilt in the Brazilian population evaluated in his research were 19° (10°-35°) and the sacral inclination was 38° (30°-55°), presenting similar values concerning the European population. In another Brazilian paper, Oliveira (Rev Bras Ort 49:189-193, 2014) reports that the research population had PI average of 45° (41.9°-48.1°). The values obtained are relatively minor when compared to the European population. However, all of these are within the normal margin considered in the worldwide literature.

  7. Depression in Atrial Fibrillation in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Sandra; Wiltink, Jörg; Wild, Philipp S.; Sinning, Christoph R.; Lubos, Edith; Ojeda, Francisco M.; Zeller, Tanja; Munzel, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Beutel, Manfred E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial evidence suggests that depressive symptoms are more frequent in patients with atrial fibrillation. Data from the general population are limited. Methods and Results In 10,000 individuals (mean age 56±11 years, 49.4% women) of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study we assessed depression by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and a history of depression in relation to manifest atrial fibrillation (n = 309 cases). The median (25th/75th percentile) PHQ-9 score of depressive symptoms was 4 (2/6) in atrial fibrillation individuals versus 3 (2/6) individuals without atrial fibrillation, . Multivariable regression analyses of the severity of depressive symptoms in relation to atrial fibrillation in cardiovascular risk factor adjusted models revealed a relation of PHQ-9 values and atrial fibrillation (odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.08; P = 0.023). The association was stronger for the somatic symptom dimension of depression (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.15; P = 0.0085) than for cognitive symptoms (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.98–1.11; P = 0.15). Results did not change markedly after additional adjustment for heart failure, partnership status or the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein. Both, self-reported physical health status, very good/good versus fair/bad, (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41–0.70; P<0.001) and mental health status (OR 0.61 (0.46–0.82); P = 0.0012) were associated with atrial fibrillation in multivariable-adjusted models. Conclusions In a population-based sample we observed a higher burden of depressive symptoms driven by somatic symptom dimensions in individuals with atrial fibrillation. Depression was associated with a worse perception of physical or mental health status. Whether screening and treatment of depressive symptoms modulates disease progression and outcome needs to be shown. PMID:24324579

  8. Generalizing in Interaction: Middle School Mathematics Students Making Mathematical Generalizations in a Population-Modeling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2004-01-01

    Generalizing or making claims that extend beyond particular situations is a central mathematical practice and a focus of classroom mathematics instruction. This study examines how aspects of generality are produced through the situated activities of a group of middle school mathematics students working on an 8-week population-modeling project. The…

  9. Generalizing in Interaction: Middle School Mathematics Students Making Mathematical Generalizations in a Population-Modeling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2004-01-01

    Generalizing or making claims that extend beyond particular situations is a central mathematical practice and a focus of classroom mathematics instruction. This study examines how aspects of generality are produced through the situated activities of a group of middle school mathematics students working on an 8-week population-modeling project. The…

  10. Assessing tiger population dynamics using photographic capture-recapture sampling.

    PubMed

    Karanth, K Ullas; Nichols, James D; Kumar, N Samba; Hines, James E

    2006-11-01

    Although wide-ranging, elusive, large carnivore species, such as the tiger, are of scientific and conservation interest, rigorous inferences about their population dynamics are scarce because of methodological problems of sampling populations at the required spatial and temporal scales. We report the application of a rigorous, noninvasive method for assessing tiger population dynamics to test model-based predictions about population viability. We obtained photographic capture histories for 74 individual tigers during a nine-year study involving 5725 trap-nights of effort. These data were modeled under a likelihood-based, "robust design" capture-recapture analytic framework. We explicitly modeled and estimated ecological parameters such as time-specific abundance, density, survival, recruitment, temporary emigration, and transience, using models that incorporated effects of factors such as individual heterogeneity, trap-response, and time on probabilities of photo-capturing tigers. The model estimated a random temporary emigration parameter of gamma" = gamma' = 0.10 +/- 0.069 (values are estimated mean +/- SE). When scaled to an annual basis, tiger survival rates were estimated at S = 0.77 +/- 0.051, and the estimated probability that a newly caught animal was a transient was tau = 0.18 +/- 0.11. During the period when the sampled area was of constant size, the estimated population size N(t) varied from 17 +/- 1.7 to 31 +/- 2.1 tigers, with a geometric mean rate of annual population change estimated as lambda = 1.03 +/- 0.020, representing a 3% annual increase. The estimated recruitment of new animals, B(t), varied from 0 +/- 3.0 to 14 +/- 2.9 tigers. Population density estimates, D, ranged from 7.33 +/- 0.8 tigers/100 km2 to 21.73 +/- 1.7 tigers/100 km2 during the study. Thus, despite substantial annual losses and temporal variation in recruitment, the tiger density remained at relatively high levels in Nagarahole. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis

  11. Assessing tiger population dynamics using photographic capture-recapture sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Hines, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Although wide-ranging, elusive, large carnivore species, such as the tiger, are of scientific and conservation interest, rigorous inferences about their population dynamics are scarce because of methodological problems of sampling populations at the required spatial and temporal scales. We report the application of a rigorous, noninvasive method for assessing tiger population dynamics to test model-based predictions about population viability. We obtained photographic capture histories for 74 individual tigers during a nine-year study involving 5725 trap-nights of effort. These data were modeled under a likelihood-based, ?robust design? capture?recapture analytic framework. We explicitly modeled and estimated ecological parameters such as time-specific abundance, density, survival, recruitment, temporary emigration, and transience, using models that incorporated effects of factors such as individual heterogeneity, trap-response, and time on probabilities of photo-capturing tigers. The model estimated a random temporary emigration parameter of =K' =Y' 0.10 ? 0.069 (values are estimated mean ? SE). When scaled to an annual basis, tiger survival rates were estimated at S = 0.77 ? 0.051, and the estimated probability that a newly caught animal was a transient was = 0.18 ? 0.11. During the period when the sampled area was of constant size, the estimated population size Nt varied from 17 ? 1.7 to 31 ? 2.1 tigers, with a geometric mean rate of annual population change estimated as = 1.03 ? 0.020, representing a 3% annual increase. The estimated recruitment of new animals, Bt, varied from 0 ? 3.0 to 14 ? 2.9 tigers. Population density estimates, D, ranged from 7.33 ? 0.8 tigers/100 km2 to 21.73 ? 1.7 tigers/100 km2 during the study. Thus, despite substantial annual losses and temporal variation in recruitment, the tiger density remained at relatively high levels in Nagarahole. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that protected wild tiger populations can remain

  12. Prevalence of Voice Disorders in Teachers and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Thibeault, Susan; Parsa, Rahul A.; Gray, Steven D.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    information is also provided regarding additional factors that might contribute to the development of voice disorders.Over 3 million teachers in the United States use their voice as a primary tool of trade and are thought to be at higher risk for occupation-related voice disorders than the general population. However, estimates regarding the…

  13. Noise sensitivity and road traffic annoyance in a population sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Y.; Rylander, R.

    1991-12-01

    Noise sensitivity was studied in a random sample of the population of Gothenburg, Sweden. The selected population of 805 persons received a mailed questionnaire comprising questions on self-reported noise sensitivity, attitudes to noise, annoyance due to environmental noises and the effect of noise on daily activities. The response rate was 56%. Noise sensitivity was most common in older age groups. Noise-sensitive individuals were more annoyed by road traffic noise, and also reported interference with daily activities to a higher extent than non-sensitive persons. Listening to music while working or reading was also less common in the noise-sensitive group.

  14. What is "normal" disability? An investigation of disability in the general population.

    PubMed

    Mewes, Ricarda; Rief, Winfried; Stenzel, Nikola; Glaesmer, Heide; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-03-01

    Many studies have investigated the highly relevant association between pain and disability in clinical groups using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). To interpret these results, knowledge of disability in the general population is crucial. Moreover, to investigate criterion validity of the PDI, the influence on health care utilisation (HCU) is of special interest. In the present study, a broadened version of the PDI was psychometrically evaluated with a large representative sample of the general population. The independent impact of disability on HCU was also investigated. A representative sample of the German general population (N=2510) was screened for disability, somatic complaints, mental health (PHQ) and HCU. Following a psychometric evaluation of the PDI, data are provided about the distribution of disability in the general population. For the prediction of HCU, stepwise linear regression analysis was calculated. The psychometric evaluation of the PDI revealed a one-factor solution, high reliability, and satisfactory construct validity. Percentage scores for the distribution of disability are provided for those people reporting at least one pain/somatic symptom. These data allow a better description of disability in clinical samples. Somatic complaints, disability, unemployment or retirement, depression and anxiety explained 26% of the variance for HCU. The PDI is an economical, reliable and valid self-rating instrument for assessing disability caused by physical symptoms. HCU in the general population is determined by the number and severity of somatic complaints and also by disability. Symptoms and disability play a crucial but somewhat independent role.

  15. ADHD Medication Use in a Population-Based Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Wendy; Huang, Hongyan; Todd, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine treatment patterns for youth attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a general population sample of 1,610 twins. Method: Twin pairs ages 7 to 17 years and parents ascertained from birth records in the state of Missouri were interviewed using the Missouri Assessment of Genetics Interview for Children…

  16. Sampling populations of humans across the world: ELSI issues.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Kirby, Emily S

    2012-01-01

    There are an increasing number of population studies collecting data and samples to illuminate gene-environment contributions to disease risk and health. The rising affordability of innovative technologies capable of generating large amounts of data helps achieve statistical power and has paved the way for new international research collaborations. Most data and sample collections can be grouped into longitudinal, disease-specific, or residual tissue biobanks, with accompanying ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI). Issues pertaining to consent, confidentiality, and oversight cannot be examined using a one-size-fits-all approach-the particularities of each biobank must be taken into account. It remains to be seen whether current governance approaches will be adequate to handle the impact of next-generation sequencing technologies on communication with participants in population biobanking studies.

  17. The positive effects of population-based preferential sampling in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Joseph; Cefalu, Matthew; Bornn, Luke

    2016-10-01

    SummaryIn environmental epidemiology, exposures are not always available at subject locations and must be predicted using monitoring data. The monitor locations are often outside the control of researchers, and previous studies have shown that "preferential sampling" of monitoring locations can adversely affect exposure prediction and subsequent health effect estimation. We adopt a slightly different definition of preferential sampling than is typically seen in the literature, which we call population-based preferential sampling. Population-based preferential sampling occurs when the location of the monitors is dependent on the subject locations. We show the impact that population-based preferential sampling has on exposure prediction and health effect estimation using analytic results and a simulation study. A simple, one-parameter model is proposed to measure the degree to which monitors are preferentially sampled with respect to population density. We then discuss these concepts in the context of PM2.5 and the EPA Air Quality System monitoring sites, which are generally placed in areas of higher population density to capture the population's exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Psychotropic medication consumption in the Buenos Aires general population].

    PubMed

    Leiderman, Eduardo A; Mugnolo, Juan Francisco; Bruscoli, Noelia; Massi, Julieta

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drug consumption among the general population of the city of Buenos Aires. A survey was conducted among 1,777 respondents in different neighborhoods of the city. At the time of the survey 15,5% of the general population was using some kind of psychotropic medication, and life-time prevalence of use was 29,4%. Utilization was higher in woman and the elderly. There were significant consumption differences by level of educational attainment but no by social class. More than 12% of the population was using benzodiazepines and 3% antidepressants. Almost 25% of the consumers was using the medication without medical advice. Twenty five percent of the users recognized themselves as very dependent on these medications. Psychotropic drug use is very extended among the general population of the city of Buenos Aires. Measures to restrict the irrational use of these medications and to control them adequately should be implemented.

  19. [Organochlorine pesticides in the general adult population of Biscay (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Zubero, Miren Begoña; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús M; Goñi, Fernando; López, Raúl; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Rodríguez, Carlos; Sáenz, José Ramón

    2010-01-01

    To identify and analyze levels of seven organochlorine pesticides [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), heptachlor epoxide, beta-endosulfan, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT)] in the serum of adults of four areas of Biscay (Spain) not exposed to known sources of pesticides. We analyzed 283 individual samples from volunteers recruited from the census. The volunteers were interviewed using a questionnaire with items on demographic variables and consumption. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for discrete variables and analysis of variance and multiple linear regression models for continuous variables. We detected p,p'-DDE in 100% of the volunteers (mean: 191.43ng/g lipid), while 31% had detectable levels of p,p'-DDT (mean: 18.9ng/g lipid). Detectable levels of HCB were found in 96.5% of the volunteers (mean: 78.56ng/g lipid), β-HCH in 90.4% (mean: 42.78ng/g lipid) and γ-HCH in 3.5%. Heptachlor epoxide and beta-endosulfan were not detected. In the regression model higher levels of all pesticides were found with increasing age (p<0.05). There were no significant differences by area of residence, except for HCB and p,p'-DDE. Women had significantly higher levels of HCB and β-HCH (p<0.001). Body mass index showed a significant positive gradient in HCB and β-HCH (p<0.05). There was no association between pesticides and other variables, breast feeding, occupation or social class. These results indicate that the general adult population of Biscay has been and is exposed to organochlorine pesticides. However, their levels are within the range observed by other authors. Copyright © 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus from the German general population is highly diverse.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder; Fegeler, Christian; Friedrich, Alexander W; Köck, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors. 40.9% of all participants carried S. aureus at least once while 0.7% of the participants carried MRSA (mainly spa t011). MSSA isolates (n=1359) were associated with 331 different spa types; t084 (7.7%), t091 (6.1%) and t012 (71, 5.2%) were predominant. Of 206 participants carrying S. aureus at all three sampling time points, 14.1% carried the same spa type continuously; 5.3% carried different spa types with similar repeat patterns, but 80.6% carried S. aureus with unrelated spa types. MSSA isolates frequently harboured genes encoding enterotoxins (sec: 16.6%, seg: 63.1%, sei: 64.5%) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst: 17.5%), but rarely Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV/lukF-PV: 0.2%). MSSA colonizing human nares in the community are clonally highly diverse. Among those constantly carrying S. aureus, clonal lineages changed over time. The proportion of persistent S. aureus carriers was lower than reported elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population].

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, p<0.001) with a relative risk of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2) and was twice more frequent for subjects 65 years of age or older compared to subjects younger than 45 years. Approximately 30% of subjects reporting insomnia had difficulties initiating sleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least

  2. Universal Asymptotic Clone Size Distribution for General Population Growth.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Michael D; Antal, Tibor

    2016-11-01

    Deterministically growing (wild-type) populations which seed stochastically developing mutant clones have found an expanding number of applications from microbial populations to cancer. The special case of exponential wild-type population growth, usually termed the Luria-Delbrück or Lea-Coulson model, is often assumed but seldom realistic. In this article, we generalise this model to different types of wild-type population growth, with mutants evolving as a birth-death branching process. Our focus is on the size distribution of clones-that is the number of progeny of a founder mutant-which can be mapped to the total number of mutants. Exact expressions are derived for exponential, power-law and logistic population growth. Additionally, for a large class of population growth, we prove that the long-time limit of the clone size distribution has a general two-parameter form, whose tail decays as a power-law. Considering metastases in cancer as the mutant clones, upon analysing a data-set of their size distribution, we indeed find that a power-law tail is more likely than an exponential one.

  3. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  4. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  5. Optimal sampling design for estimating spatial distribution and abundance of a freshwater mussel population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pooler, P.S.; Smith, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We compared the ability of simple random sampling (SRS) and a variety of systematic sampling (SYS) designs to estimate abundance, quantify spatial clustering, and predict spatial distribution of freshwater mussels. Sampling simulations were conducted using data obtained from a census of freshwater mussels in a 40 X 33 m section of the Cacapon River near Capon Bridge, West Virginia, and from a simulated spatially random population generated to have the same abundance as the real population. Sampling units that were 0.25 m 2 gave more accurate and precise abundance estimates and generally better spatial predictions than 1-m2 sampling units. Systematic sampling with ???2 random starts was more efficient than SRS. Estimates of abundance based on SYS were more accurate when the distance between sampling units across the stream was less than or equal to the distance between sampling units along the stream. Three measures for quantifying spatial clustering were examined: Hopkins Statistic, the Clumping Index, and Morisita's Index. Morisita's Index was the most reliable, and the Hopkins Statistic was prone to false rejection of complete spatial randomness. SYS designs with units spaced equally across and up stream provided the most accurate predictions when estimating the spatial distribution by kriging. Our research indicates that SYS designs with sampling units equally spaced both across and along the stream would be appropriate for sampling freshwater mussels even if no information about the true underlying spatial distribution of the population were available to guide the design choice. ?? 2005 by The North American Benthological Society.

  6. DSCA: General Population Evacuation of Texas and Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    USNORTHCOM produced a planning guide titled, “General Population Evacuation by Air.” Rear Admiral 8 Lilli , who served as the director of the...standalone entity is not possible when military assets are employed in any other worldwide operation. However, in times of peace it may be possible to...and recent history, periods of “ peace ” will not exist for quite some time. For the purposes of this study it is assumed that the 26 military

  7. Predictors for mortality from respiratory failure in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Shibata, Yoko; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Nemoto, Takako; Abe, Yuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Michiko; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kimura, Tomomi; Daimon, Makoto; Makino, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for death from respiratory failure in the general population are not established. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who die of respiratory failure in a Japanese general population. In total, 3253 adults aged 40 years or older participated in annual health check in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan from 2004 to 2006. Subject deaths through the end of 2010 were reviewed; 27 subjects died of respiratory failure (pneumonia, n = 22; COPD, n = 1; pulmonary fibrosis, n = 3; and bronchial asthma, n = 1). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that male sex; higher age, high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen; lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol; and history of stroke and gastric ulcer were independent risk factors for respiratory death. On analysis with C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement, addition of the disease history and laboratory data significantly improved the model prediction for respiratory death using age and BMI. In conclusion, we identified risk factors for mortality from respiratory failure in a prospective cohort of a Japanese general population. Men who were older, underweight, hypocholesterolemic, hypercoagulo-fibrinolytic, and had a history of stroke or gastric ulcer had a higher risk of mortality due to respiratory failure. PMID:27180927

  8. Social integration of juvenile amputees: comparison with a general population.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Revilla, C; Su, I-Ting; García, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective was to assess the social integration of juvenile amputees according to marital status, schooling and occupation, and to compare it with the population of Asturias, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out of the juvenile amputees registered from 1976 to 1999 at the Prosthetics Unit of the Asturias Central Hospital (n=281 amputees). The proportion of single women amongst the amputees was greater than in the population of Asturias (p<0.05). Amongst the male amputees, relative to the general population, there was a larger proportion of the group with primary studies (p<0.001) and a smaller proportion with secondary studies (p<0.001). At the higher level (university) there were no differences, either in men or in women. As regards occupation, amongst the amputees a larger number was found who were retired or unemployed (p<0.05 and p<0.001). In conclusion, juvenile amputees do not show differences compared to the general population with regard to their attendance at a higher or university level of education. However, if their social integration is considered through occupation, male amputees show a greater proportion of unemployment, which is a clear reflection of their handicap.

  9. Genetic Determinants of Pubertal Timing in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Zofia K.Z.; Henderson, Katherine D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is an important developmental stage during which reproductive capacity is attained. The timing of puberty varies greatly among healthy individuals in the general population and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic variation is known to influence the normal spectrum of pubertal timing, the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. Genetic analyses have identified a number of genes responsible for rare disorders of pubertal timing such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome. Recently, the first loci with common variation reproducibly associated with population variation in the timing of puberty were identified at 6q21 in or near LIN28B and at 9q31.2. However, these two loci explain only a small fraction of the genetic contribution to population variation in pubertal timing, suggesting the need to continue to consider other loci and other types of variants. Here we provide an update of the genes implicated in disorders of puberty, discuss genes and pathways that may be involved in the timing of normal puberty, and suggest additional avenues of investigation to identify genetic regulators of puberty in the general population. PMID:20144687

  10. Using known populations of pronghorn to evaluate sampling plans and estimators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraft, K.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Samuelson, J.M.; Allen, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although sampling plans and estimators of abundance have good theoretical properties, their performance in real situations is rarely assessed because true population sizes are unknown. We evaluated widely used sampling plans and estimators of population size on 3 known clustered distributions of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Our criteria were accuracy of the estimate, coverage of 95% confidence intervals, and cost. Sampling plans were combinations of sampling intensities (16, 33, and 50%), sample selection (simple random sampling without replacement, systematic sampling, and probability proportional to size sampling with replacement), and stratification. We paired sampling plans with suitable estimators (simple, ratio, and probability proportional to size). We used area of the sampling unit as the auxiliary variable for the ratio and probability proportional to size estimators. All estimators were nearly unbiased, but precision was generally low (overall mean coefficient of variation [CV] = 29). Coverage of 95% confidence intervals was only 89% because of the highly skewed distribution of the pronghorn counts and small sample sizes, especially with stratification. Stratification combined with accurate estimates of optimal stratum sample sizes increased precision, reducing the mean CV from 33 without stratification to 25 with stratification; costs increased 23%. Precise results (mean CV = 13) but poor confidence interval coverage (83%) were obtained with simple and ratio estimators when the allocation scheme included all sampling units in the stratum containing most pronghorn. Although areas of the sampling units varied, ratio estimators and probability proportional to size sampling did not increase precision, possibly because of the clumped distribution of pronghorn. Managers should be cautious in using sampling plans and estimators to estimate abundance of aggregated populations.

  11. Do Student Samples Provide an Accurate Estimate of the General Public?

    PubMed Central

    Hanel, Paul H. P.; Vione, Katia C.

    2016-01-01

    Most psychological studies rely on student samples. Students are usually considered as more homogenous than representative samples both within and across countries. However, little is known about the nature of the differences between student and representative samples. This is an important gap, also because knowledge about the degree of difference between student and representative samples may allow to infer from the former to the latter group. Across 59 countries and 12 personality (Big-5) and attitudinal variables we found that differences between students and general public were partly substantial, incoherent, and contradicted previous findings. Two often used cultural variables, embeddedness and intellectual autonomy, failed to explain the differences between both groups across countries. We further found that students vary as much as the general population both between and within countries. In summary, our results indicate that generalizing from students to the general public can be problematic when personal and attitudinal variables are used, as students vary mostly randomly from the general public. Findings are also discussed in terms of the replication crisis within psychology. PMID:28002494

  12. Do Student Samples Provide an Accurate Estimate of the General Public?

    PubMed

    Hanel, Paul H P; Vione, Katia C

    2016-01-01

    Most psychological studies rely on student samples. Students are usually considered as more homogenous than representative samples both within and across countries. However, little is known about the nature of the differences between student and representative samples. This is an important gap, also because knowledge about the degree of difference between student and representative samples may allow to infer from the former to the latter group. Across 59 countries and 12 personality (Big-5) and attitudinal variables we found that differences between students and general public were partly substantial, incoherent, and contradicted previous findings. Two often used cultural variables, embeddedness and intellectual autonomy, failed to explain the differences between both groups across countries. We further found that students vary as much as the general population both between and within countries. In summary, our results indicate that generalizing from students to the general public can be problematic when personal and attitudinal variables are used, as students vary mostly randomly from the general public. Findings are also discussed in terms of the replication crisis within psychology.

  13. A generalized discriminant rule when training population and test population differ on their descriptive parameters.

    PubMed

    Biernacki, Christophe; Beninel, Farid; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2002-06-01

    Standard discriminant analysis methods make the assumption that both the labeled sample used to estimate the discriminant rule and the nonlabeled sample on which this rule is applied arise from the same population. In this work, we consider the case where the two populations are slightly different. In the multinormal context, we establish that both populations are linked through linear mapping. Estimation of the nonlabeled sample discriminant rule is then obtained by estimating parameters of this linear relationship. Several models describing this relationship are proposed and associated estimated parameters are given. An experimental illustration is also provided in which sex of birds that differ morphometrically over their geographical range is to be deterrmined and a comparison with the standard allocation rule is performed. Extension to a partially labeled sample is also discussed.

  14. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; Morales, Josefina A; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 150 unrelated male individuals from El Salvador, Central America. A total of 131 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 118 were unique. The haplotype diversity (99.08%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.33%) were estimated. R(ST) genetic distances were calculated between El Salvador and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The highest R(ST) genetic distances were found when comparing El Salvador with African populations (0.334 population groups. The Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot analysis, based on pairwise R(ST) values, showed that the general population of El Salvador is closer to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Southern/Central American cluster of Native and Mestizo populations.

  15. Postoperative vomiting (POV) in the paediatric outpatient general surgical population.

    PubMed

    Goh, J C; Ng, A S; Sim, K M

    1999-03-01

    To determine the incidence of postoperative vomiting (POV) in the paediatric outpatient general surgical population, the factors affecting POV and the incidence of unplanned admissions contributed by POV. One hundred and ninety-nine children below 13 yeas of age undergoing elective outpatient general surgical procedures were enrolled into this prospective study. Anaesthesia was induced either intravenously or via the inhalational route. It was then maintained with nitrous oxide, oxygen and isoflurane or halothane. The age, sex, body weight, duration of fasting, administration of trimeprazine, type of general surgical procedure, maintenance technique for general anaesthesia, duration of general anaesthesia, the administration of opiods or local anaesthetics and the incidence of POV were noted. The results were analysed initially with chi-squared test and subsequently subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis and stepwise variable selection method. The incidence of POV was 8.5%. Duration of general anaesthesia greater than one hour was associated with a significantly higher incidence of POV. Postoperative emesis did not contribute to unplanned admissions in these day surgical patients.

  16. Integrating population health into a general surgical residency curriculum.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Marie L

    2011-10-01

    The once disparate fields of public health and medicine are slowly converging and reintegrating. Public health principles of community interventions and partnerships to effect better population health are included in the curricula of more medical schools. For graduate medical education, the specialties of internal medicine, family medicine, and preventive medicine are intuitively obvious population health partners, whereas surgeons have been relatively silent in this area. Despite the fact that many common surgical diseases are directly attributable to preventable causes, including cancer, trauma, and obesity, surgical residents receive little formal population health education. However, surgeons have always been and are increasingly active within the public health sphere. Examples of surgical population health initiatives include trauma systems development and improvement, research on disparities, and global health initiatives, including disaster relief. This article describes a single institution experience utilizing modest curriculum changes, increased global health opportunities, and direct service learning to help integrate population health principles into a general surgical residency program. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV AND POPULATION DYNAMICS: A GENERAL MODEL AND MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD STANDARDS FOR EAST AFRICA*

    PubMed Central

    HEUVELINE, PATRICK

    2014-01-01

    In high-prevalence populations, the HIV epidemic undermines the validity of past empirical models and related demographic techniques. A parsimonious model of HIV and population dynamics is presented here and fit to 46,000 observations, gathered from 11 East African populations. The fitted model simulates HIV and population dynamics with standard demographic inputs and only two additional parameters for the onset and scale of the epidemic. The underestimation of the general prevalence of HIV in samples of pregnant women and the fertility impact of HIV are examples of the dynamic interactions that demographic models must reproduce and are shown here to increase over time even with constant prevalence levels. As a result, the impact of HIV on population growth appears to have been underestimated by current population projections that ignore this dynamic. PMID:12846130

  18. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lot; and protected from manipulation, substitution, and improper or careless handling. (2) Official... samples, and submitted samples from manipulation, substitution, or improper and careless handling...

  19. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lot; and protected from manipulation, substitution, and improper or careless handling. (2) Official... samples, and submitted samples from manipulation, substitution, or improper and careless handling...

  20. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lot; and protected from manipulation, substitution, and improper or careless handling. (2) Official... samples, and submitted samples from manipulation, substitution, or improper and careless handling...

  1. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population

    PubMed Central

    Stel, Vianda S.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K.; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.

    2016-01-01

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1–5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria >30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3–5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1–5 and CKD stages 3–5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1–5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3–5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PMID:26701975

  2. Toward high-resolution population genomics using archaeological samples

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Irina; Flegontov, Pavel; Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Bruskin, Sergey; Asgharian, Hosseinali; Ponomarenko, Petr; Klyuchnikov, Vladimir; ArunKumar, GaneshPrasad; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Gankin, Yuriy; Rogaev, Evgeny; Nikolsky, Yuri; Baranova, Ancha; Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘ancient DNA’ (aDNA) is coming of age, with over 1,200 hits in the PubMed database, beginning in the early 1980s with the studies of ‘molecular paleontology’. Rooted in cloning and limited sequencing of DNA from ancient remains during the pre-PCR era, the field has made incredible progress since the introduction of PCR and next-generation sequencing. Over the last decade, aDNA analysis ushered in a new era in genomics and became the method of choice for reconstructing the history of organisms, their biogeography, and migration routes, with applications in evolutionary biology, population genetics, archaeogenetics, paleo-epidemiology, and many other areas. This change was brought by development of new strategies for coping with the challenges in studying aDNA due to damage and fragmentation, scarce samples, significant historical gaps, and limited applicability of population genetics methods. In this review, we describe the state-of-the-art achievements in aDNA studies, with particular focus on human evolution and demographic history. We present the current experimental and theoretical procedures for handling and analysing highly degraded aDNA. We also review the challenges in the rapidly growing field of ancient epigenomics. Advancement of aDNA tools and methods signifies a new era in population genetics and evolutionary medicine research. PMID:27436340

  3. Toward high-resolution population genomics using archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Irina; Flegontov, Pavel; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Bruskin, Sergey; Asgharian, Hosseinali; Ponomarenko, Petr; Klyuchnikov, Vladimir; ArunKumar, GaneshPrasad; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Gankin, Yuriy; Rogaev, Evgeny; Nikolsky, Yuri; Baranova, Ancha; Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2016-08-01

    The term 'ancient DNA' (aDNA) is coming of age, with over 1,200 hits in the PubMed database, beginning in the early 1980s with the studies of 'molecular paleontology'. Rooted in cloning and limited sequencing of DNA from ancient remains during the pre-PCR era, the field has made incredible progress since the introduction of PCR and next-generation sequencing. Over the last decade, aDNA analysis ushered in a new era in genomics and became the method of choice for reconstructing the history of organisms, their biogeography, and migration routes, with applications in evolutionary biology, population genetics, archaeogenetics, paleo-epidemiology, and many other areas. This change was brought by development of new strategies for coping with the challenges in studying aDNA due to damage and fragmentation, scarce samples, significant historical gaps, and limited applicability of population genetics methods. In this review, we describe the state-of-the-art achievements in aDNA studies, with particular focus on human evolution and demographic history. We present the current experimental and theoretical procedures for handling and analysing highly degraded aDNA. We also review the challenges in the rapidly growing field of ancient epigenomics. Advancement of aDNA tools and methods signifies a new era in population genetics and evolutionary medicine research.

  4. Virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Bebbington, Paul; Gittins, Matthew; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Fowler, David; Garety, Philippa

    2008-04-01

    Judging whether we can trust other people is central to social interaction, despite being error-prone. A fear of others can be instilled by the contemporary political and social climate. Unfounded mistrust is called paranoia, and in severe forms is a central symptom of schizophrenia. To demonstrate that individuals without severe mental illness in the general population experience unfounded paranoid thoughts, and to determine factors predictive of paranoia using the first laboratory method of capturing the experience. Two hundred members of the general public were comprehensively assessed, and then entered a virtual reality train ride populated by neutral characters. Ordinal logistic regressions (controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, intellectual functioning, socio-economic status, train use, playing of computer games) were used to determine predictors of paranoia. The majority agreed that the characters were neutral, or even thought they were friendly. However, a substantial minority reported paranoid concerns. Paranoia was strongly predicted by anxiety, worry, perceptual anomalies and cognitive inflexibility. This is the most unambiguous demonstration of paranoid ideation in the general public so far. Paranoia can be understood in terms of cognitive factors. The use of virtual reality should lead to rapid advances in the understanding of paranoia.

  5. Airway responsiveness to sulfur dioxide in an adult population sample.

    PubMed

    Nowak, D; Jörres, R; Berger, J; Claussen, M; Magnussen, H

    1997-10-01

    We determined the prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness to sulfur dioxide (SO2) in an adult population sample of 790 subjects 20 to 44 yr of age. Subjects were drawn randomly from the population of Hamburg, Northern Germany, within the framework of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between SO2 responsiveness and a number of risk factors, such as a history of respiratory symptoms, methacholine responsiveness, and atopy derived from skin-prick test results. SO2 inhalation challenges were performed during isocapnic hyperventilation at constant rate (40 L x min(-1), for 3 min) with doubling concentrations of SO2 up to a maximum concentration of 2.0 ppm. If subjects achieved a 20% decrease in FEV1 from baseline during the challenge, they were considered to be hyperresponsive to SO2. The raw prevalence of SO2 hyperresponsiveness within the population sample studied was 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3 to 5.0%). Adjustment for nonparticipation led to an estimated prevalence of SO2 hyperresponsiveness of 5.4%. Among subjects with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.1 to 25.3) demonstrated hyperresponsiveness to SO2. There was no significant correlation between the degrees of hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and SO2. Predictors of a positive SO2 response were hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (p < 0.0001), a positive history of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.05), and a positive skin-prick test to at least one common allergen (p < 0.05). We conclude from these data that airway hyperresponsiveness to SO2 can be found in about 20 to 25% of subjects within the 20- to 44-yr age range who are hyperresponsive to methacholine.

  6. Sampling-variance effects on detecting density dependence from temporal trends in natural populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenk, T.M.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate robustness of four tests to detect density dependence, from series of population abundances, to the addition of sampling variance. Population abundances were generated from random walk, stochastic exponential growth, and density-dependent population models. Population abundance estimates were generated with sampling variances distributed as lognormal and constant coefficients of variation (cv) from 0.00 to 1.00. In general, when data were generated under a random walk, Type I error rates increased rapidly for Bulmer's R, Pollard et al.'s, and Dennis and Taper's tests with increasing magnitude of sampling variance for n > 5 yr and all values of process variation. Bulmer's R* test maintained a constant 5% Type I error rate for n > 5 yr and all magnitudes of sampling variance in the population abundance estimates. When abundances were generated from two stochastic exponential growth models (R = 0.05 and R = 0.10), Type I errors again increased with increasing sampling variance; magnitude of Type I error rates were higher for the slower growing population. Therefore, sampling error inflated Type I error rates, invalidating the tests, for all except Bulmer's R* test. Comparable simulations for abundance estimates generated from a density-dependent growth rate model were conducted to estimate power of the tests. Type II error rates were influenced by the relationship of initial population size to carrying capacity (K), length of time series, as well as sampling error. Given the inflated Type I error rates for all but Bulmer, s R*, power was overestimated for the remaining tests, resulting in density: dependence being detected more often than it existed. Population abundances of natural populations are almost exclusively estimated rather than censused, assuring sampling error. Therefore, because these tests have been shown to be either invalid when only sampling variance occurs in the population abundances (Bulmer's R

  7. Characterization of Microbial Population Shifts during Sample Storage.

    PubMed

    Mills, Heath J; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Peter, Cruz St

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine shifts in the microbial community structure and potential function based on standard Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) storage procedures for sediment cores. Standard long-term storage protocols maintain sediment temperature at 4°C for mineralogy, geochemical, and/or geotechnical analysis whereas standard microbiological sampling immediately preserves sediments at -80°C. Storage at 4°C does not take into account populations may remain active over geologic time scales at temperatures similar to storage conditions. Identification of active populations within the stored core would suggest geochemical and geophysical conditions within the core change over time. To test this potential, the metabolically active fraction of the total microbial community was characterized from IODP Expedition 325 Great Barrier Reef sediment cores prior to and following a 3-month storage period. Total RNA was extracted from complementary 2, 20, and 40 m below sea floor sediment samples, reverse transcribed to complementary DNA and then sequenced using 454 FLX sequencing technology, yielding over 14,800 sequences from the six samples. Interestingly, 97.3% of the sequences detected were associated with lineages that changed in detection frequency during the storage period including key biogeochemically relevant lineages associated with nitrogen, iron, and sulfur cycling. These lineages have the potential to permanently alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediment promoting misleading conclusions about the in situ biogeochemical environment. In addition, the detection of new lineages after storage increases the potential for a wider range of viable lineages within the subsurface that may be underestimated during standard community characterizations.

  8. Characterization of Microbial Population Shifts during Sample Storage

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Heath J.; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Peter, Cruz St.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine shifts in the microbial community structure and potential function based on standard Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) storage procedures for sediment cores. Standard long-term storage protocols maintain sediment temperature at 4°C for mineralogy, geochemical, and/or geotechnical analysis whereas standard microbiological sampling immediately preserves sediments at −80°C. Storage at 4°C does not take into account populations may remain active over geologic time scales at temperatures similar to storage conditions. Identification of active populations within the stored core would suggest geochemical and geophysical conditions within the core change over time. To test this potential, the metabolically active fraction of the total microbial community was characterized from IODP Expedition 325 Great Barrier Reef sediment cores prior to and following a 3-month storage period. Total RNA was extracted from complementary 2, 20, and 40 m below sea floor sediment samples, reverse transcribed to complementary DNA and then sequenced using 454 FLX sequencing technology, yielding over 14,800 sequences from the six samples. Interestingly, 97.3% of the sequences detected were associated with lineages that changed in detection frequency during the storage period including key biogeochemically relevant lineages associated with nitrogen, iron, and sulfur cycling. These lineages have the potential to permanently alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediment promoting misleading conclusions about the in situ biogeochemical environment. In addition, the detection of new lineages after storage increases the potential for a wider range of viable lineages within the subsurface that may be underestimated during standard community characterizations. PMID:22363327

  9. Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify the incidence rate of spontaneous dyskinesia (SD) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in a general population and to examine the association between dykinesia and potential risk factors (exposure to metoclopramide [MCP], antipsychotic drugs, and history of diabetes and psychoses). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001 through 2010, based on medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA). Results Thirty-four cases of TD and 229 cases of SD were identified. The incidence rate of TD among persons previously prescribed an antipsychotic or metoclopramide (MCP) (per 1,000) was 4.6 (1.6-7.7) for those with antipsychotic drug use only, 8.5 (4.8-12.2) for those with MCP use only, and 15.0 (2.0-28.1) for those with both antipsychotic and MCP use. In the general population, the incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of TD was 4.3 and of probable SD was 28.7. The incidence rates of TD and SD increased with age and were greater for females. Those with diabetes or psychoses had almost a 3-fold greater risk of TD than those without either of these diseases. Persons with schizophrenia had 31.2 times increased risk of TD than those without the disease. Positive associations also existed between the selected diseases and the incidence rate of probable SD, with persons with schizophrenia having 4.4 times greater risk of SD than those without the disease. Conclusions SD and TD are rare in this general population. Diabetes, psychoses, and especially schizophrenia are positively associated with SD and TD. A higher proportion of those with SD present with spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm) compared more with the TD cases who present more with orofacial muscular problems. PMID:23714238

  10. Double sampling to estimate density and population trends in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Earnst, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for estimating density of nesting birds based on double sampling. The approach involves surveying a large sample of plots using a rapid method such as uncorrected point counts, variable circular plot counts, or the recently suggested double-observer method. A subsample of those plots is also surveyed using intensive methods to determine actual density. The ratio of the mean count on those plots (using the rapid method) to the mean actual density (as determined by the intensive searches) is used to adjust results from the rapid method. The approach works well when results from the rapid method are highly correlated with actual density. We illustrate the method with three years of shorebird surveys from the tundra in northern Alaska. In the rapid method, surveyors covered ~10 ha h-1 and surveyed each plot a single time. The intensive surveys involved three thorough searches, required ~3 h ha-1, and took 20% of the study effort. Surveyors using the rapid method detected an average of 79% of birds present. That detection ratio was used to convert the index obtained in the rapid method into an essentially unbiased estimate of density. Trends estimated from several years of data would also be essentially unbiased. Other advantages of double sampling are that (1) the rapid method can be changed as new methods become available, (2) domains can be compared even if detection rates differ, (3) total population size can be estimated, and (4) valuable ancillary information (e.g. nest success) can be obtained on intensive plots with little additional effort. We suggest that double sampling be used to test the assumption that rapid methods, such as variable circular plot and double-observer methods, yield density estimates that are essentially unbiased. The feasibility of implementing double sampling in a range of habitats needs to be evaluated.

  11. Health and wellbeing of Victorian adults with intellectual disability compared to the general Victorian population.

    PubMed

    Haider, Syed Imran; Ansari, Zahid; Vaughan, Loretta; Matters, Helen; Emerson, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Multiple measures of health and wellbeing of people with intellectual disability (ID) and the general Victorian population were compared using representative population level data. The sample consisted of adults with ID (N=897) and the general Victorian population (N=34,168) living in the state of Victoria in Australia. Proxy respondents were interviewed on behalf of people with ID, while respondents from the general Victorian population were interviewed directly. The data were weighted to reflect the age/sex/geographic distribution of the population. Results revealed that adults with ID reported higher prevalence of poor social determinants of health, behavioural risk factors, depression, diabetes, poor or fair health. A higher proportion of people with ID reported blood pressure and blood glucose checks, while a lower proportion reported cervical and breast cancer screening, compared with the general Victorian population. The survey identified areas where targeted approaches may be undertaken to improve the health outcomes of people with ID and provide an important understanding of the health and wellbeing of these Victorians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population.

    PubMed

    Löwe, Bernd; Decker, Oliver; Müller, Stefanie; Brähler, Elmar; Schellberg, Dieter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-03-01

    The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a practical self-report anxiety questionnaire that proved valid in primary care. However, the GAD-7 was not yet validated in the general population and thus far, normative data are not available. To investigate reliability, construct validity, and factorial validity of the GAD-7 in the general population and to generate normative data. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted in Germany between May 5 and June 8, 2006. Five thousand thirty subjects (53.6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years. The survey questionnaire included the GAD-7, the 2-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and demographic characteristics. Confirmatory factor analyses substantiated the 1-dimensional structure of the GAD-7 and its factorial invariance for gender and age. Internal consistency was identical across all subgroups (alpha = 0.89). Intercorrelations with the PHQ-2 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were r = 0.64 (P < 0.001) and r = -0.43 (P < 0.001), respectively. As expected, women had significantly higher mean (SD) GAD-7 anxiety scores compared with men [3.2 (3.5) vs. 2.7 (3.2); P < 0.001]. Normative data for the GAD-7 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Approximately 5% of subjects had GAD-7 scores of 10 or greater, and 1% had GAD-7 scores of 15 or greater. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the GAD-7 as a measure of anxiety in the general population. The normative data provided in this study can be used to compare a subject's GAD-7 score with those determined from a general population reference group.

  13. Determination of the optimal sample size for a clinical trial accounting for the population size.

    PubMed

    Stallard, Nigel; Miller, Frank; Day, Simon; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Zohar, Sarah; Posch, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The problem of choosing a sample size for a clinical trial is a very common one. In some settings, such as rare diseases or other small populations, the large sample sizes usually associated with the standard frequentist approach may be infeasible, suggesting that the sample size chosen should reflect the size of the population under consideration. Incorporation of the population size is possible in a decision-theoretic approach either explicitly by assuming that the population size is fixed and known, or implicitly through geometric discounting of the gain from future patients reflecting the expected population size. This paper develops such approaches. Building on previous work, an asymptotic expression is derived for the sample size for single and two-arm clinical trials in the general case of a clinical trial with a primary endpoint with a distribution of one parameter exponential family form that optimizes a utility function that quantifies the cost and gain per patient as a continuous function of this parameter. It is shown that as the size of the population, N, or expected size, N∗ in the case of geometric discounting, becomes large, the optimal trial size is O(N1/2) or O(N∗1/2). The sample size obtained from the asymptotic expression is also compared with the exact optimal sample size in examples with responses with Bernoulli and Poisson distributions, showing that the asymptotic approximations can also be reasonable in relatively small sample sizes. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection services...

  15. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection services...

  16. Prayer Attendance and General Health in the Iranian Adult Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Sotodehasl, Nemat; Ghorbani, Raheb; Mahdavi-Nejad, Gholamhosein; Haji-Aghajani, Saeed; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between prayer attendance and general health among adult urban population in Iran. A total of 470 males older than 17 years, chosen by multistage sampling, were investigated. The results showed that people who did not perform prayers compared to those who said prayers on time and performed Nafilahs (supererogatory prayers) were 2.87 (OR 2.87, 95 % CI 1.23-6.70, p = 0.015) times at risk of general health problems. In conclusion, the findings show that increasing the degree of people's belief in prayer can lead to improve general health.

  17. Automated system for sampling, counting, and biological analysis of rotifer populations.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton organisms with short generation times, such as rotifers, are ideal models to study general ecological and evolutionary questions on the population level, because meaningful experiments can often be completed within a couple of weeks. Yet biological analysis of such populations is often extremely time consuming, owing to abundance estimation by counting, measuring body size, or determining the investment into sexual versus asexual reproduction. An automated system for sampling and analyzing experimental rotifer populations is described. It relies on image analysis of digital photographs taken from subsamples of the culture. The system works completely autonomously for up to several weeks and can sample up to 12 cultures at time intervals down to a few hours. It allows quantitative analysis of female population density at a precision equivalent to that of conventional methods (i.e., manual counts of samples fixed in Lugol solution), and it can also recognize males, which allows detecting temporal variation of sexual reproduction in such cultures. Another parameter that can be automatically measured with the image analysis system is female body size. This feature may be useful for studies of population productivity and/or in competition experiments with clones of different body size. In this article, I describe the basic setup of the system and tests on the efficiency of data collection, and show some example data sets on the population dynamics of different strains of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

  18. Automated system for sampling, counting, and biological analysis of rotifer populations

    PubMed Central

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton organisms with short generation times, such as rotifers, are ideal models to study general ecological and evolutionary questions on the population level, because meaningful experiments can often be completed within a couple of weeks. Yet biological analysis of such populations is often extremely time consuming, owing to abundance estimation by counting, measuring body size, or determining the investment into sexual versus asexual reproduction. An automated system for sampling and analyzing experimental rotifer populations is described. It relies on image analysis of digital photographs taken from subsamples of the culture. The system works completely autonomously for up to several weeks and can sample up to 12 cultures at time intervals down to a few hours. It allows quantitative analysis of female population density at a precision equivalent to that of conventional methods (i.e., manual counts of samples fixed in Lugol solution), and it can also recognize males, which allows detecting temporal variation of sexual reproduction in such cultures. Another parameter that can be automatically measured with the image analysis system is female body size. This feature may be useful for studies of population productivity and/or in competition experiments with clones of different body size. In this article, I describe the basic setup of the system and tests on the efficiency of data collection, and show some example data sets on the population dynamics of different strains of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. PMID:21151824

  19. Consistent estimation of complete neuronal connectivity in large neuronal populations using sparse "shotgun" neuronal activity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of recently proposed "shotgun" sampling approach for the common inputs problem in the functional estimation of neuronal connectivity. We study the asymptotic correctness, the speed of convergence, and the data size requirements of such an approach. We show that the shotgun approach can be expected to allow the inference of complete connectivity matrix in large neuronal populations under some rather general conditions. However, we find that the posterior error of the shotgun connectivity estimator grows quickly with the size of unobserved neuronal populations, the square of average connectivity strength, and the square of observation sparseness. This implies that the shotgun connectivity estimation will require significantly larger amounts of neuronal activity data whenever the number of neurons in observed neuronal populations remains small. We present a numerical approach for solving the shotgun estimation problem in general settings and use it to demonstrate the shotgun connectivity inference in the examples of simulated synfire and weakly coupled cortical neuronal networks.

  20. Family History of Insomnia in a Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Mérette, Chantal; Dauvilliers, Yves; Morin, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the rates of family history of insomnia in a population-based sample composed of self-defined good sleepers and individuals with insomnia and compare individuals with and without family history of insomnia on several characteristics presumably associated with insomnia. Design: Cross-sectional comparisons of self-defined good sleepers and individuals with insomnia selected from a larger epidemiologic study using a randomly selected sample of 2001 adults of the province of Québec in Canada. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-three adults (60.3% women; mean age = 43.9 years) completed several postal questionnaires, including a survey of past and current history of insomnia/sleep disorders for self and first-degree relatives. Participants were classified as good sleepers, individuals with insomnia symptoms, or individuals with an insomnia syndrome. Interventions: N/A. Results: Of the total sample, 34.9% reported at least 1 first-degree relative with past or current insomnia. The mother was the most frequently afflicted first-degree relative with insomnia (19.7%). Family history rates of insomnia were not significantly different when individuals with current insomnia symptoms or syndrome were compared with self-defined good sleepers. However, significant group differences emerged when good sleepers were subdivided according to the presence or absence of past personal history of insomnia. Individuals with past or current insomnia were significantly more likely to report a family history of insomnia than were good sleepers who had never experienced insomnia in the past (39.1% vs 29.0%). Participants with a family history of insomnia endorsed higher scores on measures of insomnia severity, anxiety symptomatology, and arousal predisposition. Conclusions: These findings provide additional evidence about the potential role of both family and personal history of insomnia as predisposing factors to insomnia. Longitudinal family studies are needed to

  1. Retrospective study of maxilla growth in a Spanish population sample.

    PubMed

    Alió-Sanz, Juan; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Pernía, José-Lorenzo; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2011-03-01

    This study has been designed to evaluate the vertical and sagittal changes in the maxilla due to growth. A sample group was chosen of 38 individuals with normal occlusion, composed of 16 females and 22 males between the ages of 8 and 18. The total sample was divided into three groups: prepubescent (8-11 years), pubescent (12-14 years) and post-pubescent (15-18 years). A series of cephalometric angle parameters (SNA, maxillary height, slope of the palatal plane and maxillary depth) and lineal parameters (effective maxillary length, palatal plane length, middle third of the face height and convexity) were traced. Superimpositions of the initial and final cephalometries in the Ba-N plane and in the Nasion fixed point were carried out to measure growth. An analytic statistical analysis was applied using a Student t test for independent samples in order to evaluate the differences found according to sex. An analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range test was done to study the evolution of each variable throughout the duration of the experiment. In light of the results obtained, we have come to the following conclusions: sagittal growth of the maxilla is constant from the age of 8 to 18 years with an average increase of 0.2 mm/year. Vertical growth, as well as general maxillary growth, is greater in the prepubescent group.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among Individuals With Psoriasis in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-07-01

    Psoriasis confers risk for cardiometabolic disorders. Cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with risk of cardiometabolic disorders in other populations, but limited data have been published assessing cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with psoriasis. This investigation aimed to: 1) assess cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with psoriasis in the general population; and 2) compare levels to individuals without psoriasis. A secondary data analysis from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey was performed. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a treadmill test, while measures of psoriasis severity included rating of psoriasis as a life problem and body surface area involvement. Twenty-six of 1093 participants reported a psoriasis diagnosis (population weighted prevalence 2.9%). Individuals with psoriasis had lower cardiorespiratory fitness compared with individuals without psoriasis (36.2 vs. 39.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = .009). No differences in self-reported or accelerometer physical activity were found by psoriasis diagnosis. Cardiorespiratory fitness was not significantly lower in those reporting high life impairment or body surface area involvement. Cardiorespiratory fitness may be lower in individuals with psoriasis and these differences may not be explained by self-reported disease severity measures or physical activity. Future studies should examine whether validated measures of psoriasis severity predict lower cardiorespiratory fitness.

  3. Fatal drug poisonings in a Swedish general population

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Anna K; Spigset, Olav; Tjäderborn, Micaela; Druid, Henrik; Hägg, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical drug poisonings have previously been reported using single sources of information, either hospital data or forensic data, which might not reveal the true incidence. We therefore aimed to estimate the incidence of suspected fatal drug poisonings, defined as poisonings by pharmaceutical agents, by using all relevant case records from various sources in a Swedish population. Methods Every seventh randomly selected deceased in three counties in southeastern Sweden during a one-year period was identified in the Cause of Death Register. Relevant case records (death certificates, files from hospitals and/or primary care centres and medico-legal files) were reviewed for all study subjects. Results Of 1574 deceased study subjects, 12 cases were classified as pharmaceutical drug poisonings according to the death certificates and 10 according to the medico-legal files. When reviewing all available data sources, 9 subjects (0.57%; 95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.94%) were classified as drug poisonings, corresponding to an incidence of 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.3–10.7) per 100 000 person-years in the general population. The drug groups most often implicated were benzodiazepines (33%), antihistamines (33%) and analgesics (22%). Conclusion Fatal drug poisonings is a relatively common cause of death in Sweden. By using multiple sources of information when investigating the proportion of fatal poisonings in a population, more accurate estimates may be obtained. PMID:19397805

  4. High prevalence of COPD symptoms in the general population contrasting with low awareness of the disease.

    PubMed

    Roche, N; Perez, T; Neukirch, F; Carré, P; Terrioux, P; Pouchain, D; Ostinelli, J; Suret, C; Meleze, S; Huchon, G

    2011-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is underdiagnosed because of limited disease awareness with trivialization of the symptoms in the general population. A survey was conducted in a representative sample (n=2758) of individuals older than 40 years of age in the general population of France. Respiratory symptoms and knowledge about COPD were assessed in individuals with or at risk for COPD (n=860, 31% of the sample). In the overall sample, 40% of individuals had a Medical Research Council dyspnea grade of 1 or more but only 9% spontaneously reported shortness of breath. Of these 9%, 72% reported limitations to their daily activities but only 14% believed they had severe lung disease. In the overall sample, only 220 (8%) individuals knew the term COPD and only 66% associated the term COPD with respiratory disease. Despite a large proportion of individuals at risk for COPD or having COPD and a high prevalence of breathlessness, awareness of respiratory symptoms and knowledge of COPD were limited. These findings indicate a need for educating the general population about COPD. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. 7 CFR 868.33 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Representative of the commodity in the lot; (iii) Protected by official personnel from manipulation, substitution... protect samples from manipulation, substitution, and improper and careless handling which would deprive...

  6. 7 CFR 868.33 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Representative of the commodity in the lot; (iii) Protected by official personnel from manipulation, substitution... protect samples from manipulation, substitution, and improper and careless handling which would deprive...

  7. 7 CFR 868.33 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Representative of the commodity in the lot; (iii) Protected by official personnel from manipulation, substitution... protect samples from manipulation, substitution, and improper and careless handling which would...

  8. 7 CFR 868.33 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Representative of the commodity in the lot; (iii) Protected by official personnel from manipulation, substitution... protect samples from manipulation, substitution, and improper and careless handling which would...

  9. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  10. Sexual offender recidivism among a population-based prison sample.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated.

  11. Repeated Sampling to Determine the Precision of Estimating Nematode Population Densities

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, D. P.; Barker, K. R.; Noe, J. P.; Koenning, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The first phase of this study involved repeated samplings of five fields using composite samples of 10, 20, 40, and 80 soil cores, to determine the precision of nematode assays. The second phase focused on randomly selecting two and four 2-ha subunits (data on Meloidogyne spp.) of 24 fields ranging from 6 to 40 ha and computing the precision of estimated means for these numbers ofsubunits versus the general field mean (based on all 2-ha subunits). Average numbers of nematodes from most samples containing Meloidogyne spp., Heterodera glycines, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Scutellonema brachyurum, and (or) Hoplolaimus galeatus were within 50% of the overall means. Coefficient of variation (CV) values were generally lower for 40 cores than for 10, 20, and 80 cores per sample. When data for all nematodes and fields were combined, this value was lowest for 40 and 80 cores. The CV values were higher for Meloidogyne spp. than for H. glycines. Means of two samplings increased the probability of obtaining numbers nearer the mean for that field than numbers from a single composite sample. For the second phase, population estimates of Meloidogyne spp. based on four 2-ha subunits generally were closer to field means than were those for two subunits. Sampling precision with these subunits diminished greatly in large fields with variable soils and (or) mixed cropping histories. Either two or four subunits gave population estimates within 3-20% of the field mean in most instances. The mean man hours required for sampling ca. 2-ha parcels of 4-20-ha fields was 0.54 hours. PMID:19287757

  12. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more than...

  13. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more than...

  14. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more than...

  15. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more than...

  16. [Validation of the Eating Attitudes Test as a screening instrument for eating disorders in general population].

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro Manuel; Labrador, Francisco Javier; Raich, Rosa María

    2014-02-20

    To validate the best cut-off point of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Spanish version, for the screening of eating disorders (ED) in the general population. This was a transversal cross-sectional study. The EAT-40 Spanish version was administered to a representative sample of 1.543 students, age range 12 to 21 years, in the Region of Madrid. Six hundred and two participants (probable cases and a random sample of controls) were interviewed. The best diagnostic prediction was obtained with a cut-off point of 21, with sensitivity: 88.2%; specificity: 62.1%; positive predictive value: 17.7%; negative predictive value: 62.1%. Use of a cut-off point of 21 is recommended in epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the Spanish general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactive attachment disorder in the general population: a hidden ESSENCE disorder.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Rachel; Pritchett, Jennifer; Marshall, Emma; Davidson, Claire; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications.

  18. Reactive Attachment Disorder in the General Population: A Hidden ESSENCE Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Jennifer; Davidson, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications. PMID:23710150

  19. Recommended vitamin D levels in the general population.

    PubMed

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Symptoms of sleep apnea syndrome in the general population].

    PubMed

    Zamarrón, C; Gude, F; Otero, Y; Alvarez Dobaño, J M; Golpe, A; Rodríguez Suárez, J R

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features of patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the general population. One hundred ten individuals were selected randomly from the census and given hospital appointments. Case histories were taken and complete physical examinations were made. Nighttime respiratory polysomnograms were performed. Twenty-two (20%) of the 110 subjects presented SAS. In the SAS group, 59.1% were habitual snorers and 22.7% reported daytime hypersomnolence. The SAS patients has a mean age of 59.6 +/- 8.8 years and 45.4% showed alterations of the pharynx. No differences in spirometric variables were observed. Only age and daytime hypersomnolence predicted SAS in the multivariate analysis. We conclude that the prevalence of snoring, daytime hypersomnolence, pharyngeal alterations are higher in patients with SAS. The patients are also older. Only age and daytime hypersomnolence predicted of SAS.

  1. [Coping with nightmares in the General population: an online study].

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Göritz, Anja S

    2014-05-01

    The present study elicited a variety of coping strategies for nightmares in the general population and asked whether these coping strategies were helpful. A large-scale online survey (N=2 872, mean age: 43 years) was carried out. About 11.5% of the participants reported nightmares once a week or more often. The results indicate that sharing of nightmares was the most prevalent coping strategy, followed by re-writing the nightmare and reading about nightmares. Seeking professional help was rarely listed, even by persons with frequent nightmares and for the majority without benefit. The findings clearly show that there is a lot of work ahead providing adequate help for persons suffering from nightmares.

  2. Prevalence of Titin Truncating Variants in General Population

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinade, Oyediran; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Truncating titin (TTN) mutations, especially in A-band region, represent the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Clinical interpretation of these variants can be challenging, as these variants are also present in reference populations. We carried out systematic analyses of TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) in publicly available reference populations, including, for the first time, data from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The goal was to establish more accurate estimate of prevalence of different TTNtv to allow better clinical interpretation of these findings. Methods and Results Using data from 1000 Genomes Project, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and ExAC, we estimated the prevalence of TTNtv in the population. In the three population datasets, 52–54% of TTNtv were not affecting all TTN transcripts. The frequency of truncations affecting all transcripts in ExAC was 0.36% (0.32% - 0.41%, 95% CI) and 0.19% (0.16% - 0.23%, 95% CI) for those affecting the A-band. In the A-band region, the prevalences of frameshift, nonsense and essential splice site variants were 0.057%, 0.090%, and 0.047% respectively. Cga/Tga (arginine/nonsense–R/*) transitional change at CpG mutation hotspots was the most frequent type of TTN nonsense mutation accounting for 91.3% (21/23) of arginine residue nonsense mutation (R/*) at TTN A-band region. Non-essential splice-site variants had significantly lower proportion of private variants and higher proportion of low-frequency variants compared to essential splice-site variants (P = 0.01; P = 5.1 X 10−4, respectively). Conclusion A-band TTNtv are more rare in the general population than previously reported. Based on this analysis, one in 500 carries a truncation in TTN A-band suggesting the penetrance of these potentially harmful variants is still poorly understood, and some of these variants do not manifest as autosomal dominant DCM. This calls for caution when interpreting TTNtv in individuals and families

  3. The alcohol purchase task in young men from the general population.

    PubMed

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Murphy, James G; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard; Gaume, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol purchase task (APT), which presents a scenario and asks participants how many drinks they would purchase and consume at different prices, has been used among students and small clinical samples to obtain measures of alcohol demand but not in large, general population samples. We administered the APT to a large sample of young men from the general population (Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors). Participants who reported drinking in the past year (n=4790), reported on past 12 months alcohol use, on DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria and on alcohol related consequences were included. Among the APT's demand parameters, intensity was 8.7 (SD=6.5) indicating that, when drinks are free, participants report a planned consumption of almost 9 drinks. The maximum alcohol expenditure (Omax) was over 35CHF (1CHF=1.1USD) and the demand became elastic (Pmax) at 8.4CHF (SD=5.6). The mean price at which the consumption was suppressed was 15.6CHF (SD=5.4). Exponential equation provided a satisfactory fit to individual responses (mean R(2): 0.8, median: 0.8). Demand intensity was correlated with alcohol use, number of AUD criteria and number of consequences (all r≥0.3, p<0.0001). Omax was correlated with alcohol use (p<0.0001). The elasticity parameter was weakly correlated with alcohol use in the expected direction. The APT measures are useful in characterizing demand for alcohol in young men in the general population. Demand may provide a clinically useful index of strength of motivation for alcohol use in general population samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Latex allergy: a relevant issue in the general pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Kim, K T

    1998-01-01

    Although latex allergy is a widely recognized problem of the pediatric myelomeningocele population and of frequent users of latex products, it is often overlooked in the general pediatric population. The prevalence of latex in common household items and in medical environments increases one's exposure and thus one's possibility of sensitization to latex. Latex allergy may range from mild local reactions such as erythema to more severe systemic reactions such as asthma or anaphylaxis. The immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism of these reactions has been confirmed serologically by the presence of latex-specific immunoglobulin E with radioallergosorbent testing. Because avoidance of latex is currently the only way to prevent reactions, the identification of household items that contain latex is extremely important. However, because inadvertent exposure to latex is not uncommon, Medic-Alert bracelets and an Epi-Pen should be provided for children allergic to latex. Pediatric nurses should consider latex allergy as a possible diagnosis in situations of unexplained allergic or anaphylactic reactions and should be aware of optimal therapeutic interventions.

  5. Evaluation of diabetes awareness among general population of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Masood, Imran; Saleem, Ahsan; Hassan, Asma; Umm-E-Kalsoom; Zia, Amna; Khan, Aisha Tahir

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate diabetes awareness among general population of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. A questionnaire based descriptive cross sectional study was performed during 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Total 383 respondents participated in this study giving a response rate of about 88%. Mean age of the participants was 33±13.3 years and the majority of the participants were females (50.4%). Mean scores of the participants were 20.77±6.65 out of 34 and only one participant scored 34/34 marks. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test revealed that females scored significantly higher diabetes awareness score than males (p<0.05). Moreover, urban residential status, better education and higher socioeconomic status were significantly associated with higher diabetes awareness. Majority of our study population had adequate awareness regarding diabetes. However, lack of awareness was observed among illiterate, poor and rural participants that indicated the immediate need of diabetes awareness programs for these participants. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alexithymia, hypertension, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the general population.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Hans Joergen; Schwahn, Christian; Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J; Schminke, Ulf; Felix, Stephan; Völzke, Henry

    2010-02-01

    As a personality trait, alexithymia is assumed to present a longstanding risk factor for emotional dysregulation that also affects the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesize that alexithymia is associated with hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis in the general population. A total of 1168 subjects (age <65 years) from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were eligible for complete case analyses. Alexithymia was assessed with the 20-item Toronto-Alexithymia-Scale (TAS-20). An extensive interview and physical examination were performed. Extracranial carotid arteries were examined bilaterally with B-mode ultrasonography. Regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and classical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and mental distress. In the adjusted logistic regression models, alexithymia was significantly associated with hypertension (OR=1.60; 95% CI=1.14-2.25) and with atherosclerotic plaques (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.14-2.54). Hypertension changed the effect of alexithymia on atherosclerosis only marginally (OR=1.76 to 1.70). Alexithymia may represent a relevant and independent risk factor for hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis at the population level. None of the putative confounders mediated a relevant proportion of the risk. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this association. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator <ϕ* (x) ϕ (y) >, but also more general correlators such as < | ϕ (x) | | ϕ (y) | > or < arg ⁡ (ϕ (x)) arg ⁡ (ϕ (y)) >, as well as condensates like < | ϕ | >, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  8. Accessory Navicular Syndrome in Athlete vs General Population.

    PubMed

    Jegal, Hyuk; Park, Young Uk; Kim, Jin Su; Choo, Ho Sik; Seo, Young Uk; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2016-08-01

    Symptomatic accessory navicular syndrome (ANS) typically develops in young athletes. The symptoms are exacerbated during exercise or while walking, affecting the sports performance of athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiologic findings and clinical course in athletes with accessory navicular syndrome (ANS) in comparison with a nonathletic population. Seventy-nine patients with ANS between August 2012 and August 2013 were included. Overall, 29 were athletes and 50 were not athletes, and 19 (2 athletes and 17 nonathletes) of them improved after at least 6 months of conservative treatment. The records of 60 patients (64 consecutive feet) of ANS treated by modified Kidner operation were evaluated retrospectively. The study population included 27 athletes (31 feet) and 33 nonathletes (33 feet). Clinical features and radiologic findings were compared between them. Overall, 34% of the nonathletes improved after conservative treatment, but only 6.9% of athletes improved (P < .001). Mean age at surgery in the athlete group was 16.1 years (range, 12-26), and 24.3 years (range, 12-52) in the nonathlete group (P < .001). There was a history of trauma in 23 feet (74%) of the athlete group and in 13 feet (39%) of the nonathlete group (P = .006). Eighteen feet (58%) in the athlete group and 11 feet (32%) in the nonathlete group showed movement between the 2 bones (P = .047). Bone marrow edema was observed in both navicular and accessory navicular in all of the athletes (27/27, 100%). But it was only present in 80% (16/20) for nonathletes (P = .012). The radiologic findings and clinical course of athletes were different from that of the general population. Their symptoms were more refractory to conservative treatment than the nonathletes group. Therefore, early operative treatment could be considered in cases of symptomatic ANS especially for athletes. Level III, retrospective comparative case series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in general population of Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Skobić, Helena; Sinanović, Osman; Skobić Bovan, Nada; Ivanković, Ante; Pejanović Skobić, Natasa

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the general population of Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study was conducted on a stratified sample of 704 participants. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was determined using standardized questionnaire on alcohol consumption--Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Prevalence of alcohol abuse with high risk for alcoholism was 9.9% and prevalence of alcohol addiction was 2.1%. In student population, there were 3.9% of alcohol addicts and 11.1% of persons with high risk of alcoholism. In high school population, there were 1.7% of alcohol addicts and 14.4% of persons with high risk of alcoholism. In Mostar region there was a high prevalence of alcoholism and problematic drinking, especially in high school and student population. There is a need for extensive preventive measures that have to include education, early diagnosis and intervention.

  10. A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-11-28

    ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.

  11. Urinary concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites in the convenience sample of an urban population of Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wielgomas, Bartosz; Nahorski, Wacław; Czarnowski, Wojciech

    2013-06-01

    Urinary concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites were measured in the first void urine samples collected from 132 healthy people living in the Gdańsk region of Northern Poland in 2010 and 2011. Four metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids: cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (cis-, trans-Cl2CA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (Br2CA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) were simultaneously liquid-liquid extracted, derivatized with hexafluoroisopropanol and analyzed by a gas chromatography ion-trap mass spectrometry. All the analytes were detected and quantified in the samples with various frequency, 3-phenoxybenzoic being the most often (80%) and the others less frequently (7-11%). Distribution of 3-PBA concentrations followed log-normal model, the mean concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid: 0.393 μg/L (0.327 μg/g creatinine) is similar to those of the other general populations in various regions of the world. Neither sex nor age were predictors of urinary 3-PBA. Our findings suggest wide exposure to pyrethroid insecticides in the Polish general population. There is a continuous need to further study the exposure to synthetic pyrethroids among the general population since there is a strong, increasing trend in their usage.

  12. Study of kissing molars in Turkish population sample.

    PubMed

    Yanik, S; Ayranci, F; İşman, Ö; Büyükçikrikci, Ş; Aras, M H

    2017-06-01

    "Kissing" or "rosetting" of molars are extremely rare phenomenon with limited cases in the dental literature. It was first described in 1973, refers to contacting occlusal surfaces of the impacted mandibular second and third molars. The aim of the present study was to report the incidence of kissing molars (KMs), classification, incorporated pathologies, and its management in a group of Turkish population. The panoramic radiographs of the patients who referred to Gaziantep University Faculty of Dentistry between January 2012 and November 2014 for surgical treatment retrospectively were evaluated. The cases of KM were determined and evaluated with respect to its type, combined pathology, and treatment. Of the 6570 radiographs included in the study, 4 were seen to present as KM illustrating 0.060% of the sample. Three cases were Class II (0.045%), and only one case was encountered as Class III (0.015%). The mean age at the time that the KM teeth were identified was 34 years with a range from 29 to 40 years. Three of the patients were male, one of the patients was female, and all cases were seen unilaterally. One of the KMs was associated with dentigerous cyst formation. KM is a very rare clinical condition and few treatment options described. Early detection is essential to preclude complications and to provide more successful treatment. In this study, we evaluated the cases of KM and review of the literature also presented.

  13. Genetic testing of the general population: ethical and informatic concerns.

    PubMed

    Smith, K

    2000-01-01

    Whether we like it or not, genetic testing will almost certainly become routine medical practice within the next 25 years. Integrated circuit chips already exist that can perform 400 genetic tests simultaneously, thus greatly reducing the costs. At least one company is already working on a prototype for a handheld genetic tester that would allow primary care physicians to perform hundreds or thousands of genetic tests on a simple blood smear in just a few minutes. "Genetic report cards" for children are not very far off at all. The use of such widespread testing poses a variety of ethical dilemmas. One problem that has not been appreciated sufficiently, however, is the question of how to interpret the test results. Because of the ways the genes implicated in diseases are discovered and marketed, quantitative analysis of the tests can be extremely misleading. The difficulty is that we simply do not have sufficient information about variance in genetic and other factors in the general population to make accurate projections of a patient's risk, given the presence of a gene. This uncertainty is obscured, however, when we provide the patient with a numerical analysis of risk because it is well established that people tend to overestimate the information content of numerical projections. This situation is made far worse by the fact that we do not have enough adequately trained genetic counselors to handle the load that will soon be placed on them (and studies have shown that physicians are generally very poorly prepared to act as accurate sources of information on complex genetic issues). For these reasons, I argue that access to genetic testing should be treated the same way as access to new medical procedures and medications--namely, withheld from the general public until proven safe and effective in large-scale trials. This is certain to be an unpopular policy, but it seems the only way to prevent a great deal of abuse of genetic tests.

  14. Assessing respiratory pathogen communities in bighorn sheep populations: Sampling realities, challenges, and improvements

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, William H.; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E.; Killion, Halcyon J.; Wood, Mary E.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Paterson, J. Terrill; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Almberg, Emily S.; White, P. J.; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory disease has been a persistent problem for the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), but has uncertain etiology. The disease has been attributed to several bacterial pathogens including Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae pathogens belonging to the Mannheimia, Bibersteinia, and Pasteurella genera. We estimated detection probability for these pathogens using protocols with diagnostic tests offered by a fee-for-service laboratory and not offered by a fee-for-service laboratory. We conducted 2861 diagnostic tests on swab samples collected from 476 bighorn sheep captured across Montana and Wyoming to gain inferences regarding detection probability, pathogen prevalence, and the power of different sampling methodologies to detect pathogens in bighorn sheep populations. Estimated detection probability using fee-for-service protocols was less than 0.50 for all Pasteurellaceae and 0.73 for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. Non-fee-for-service Pasteurellaceae protocols had higher detection probabilities, but no single protocol increased detection probability of all Pasteurellaceae pathogens to greater than 0.50. At least one protocol resulted in an estimated detection probability of 0.80 for each pathogen except Mannheimia haemolytica, for which the highest detection probability was 0.45. In general, the power to detect Pasteurellaceae pathogens at low prevalence in populations was low unless many animals were sampled or replicate samples were collected per animal. Imperfect detection also resulted in low precision when estimating prevalence for any pathogen. Low and variable detection probabilities for respiratory pathogens using live-sampling protocols may lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding pathogen community dynamics and causes of bighorn sheep respiratory disease epizootics. We recommend that agencies collect multiples samples per animal for Pasteurellaceae detection, and one sample for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae detection from at least 30

  15. Assessing respiratory pathogen communities in bighorn sheep populations: Sampling realities, challenges, and improvements.

    PubMed

    Butler, Carson J; Edwards, William H; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E; Killion, Halcyon J; Wood, Mary E; McWhirter, Douglas E; Paterson, J Terrill; Proffitt, Kelly M; Almberg, Emily S; White, P J; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory disease has been a persistent problem for the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), but has uncertain etiology. The disease has been attributed to several bacterial pathogens including Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurellaceae pathogens belonging to the Mannheimia, Bibersteinia, and Pasteurella genera. We estimated detection probability for these pathogens using protocols with diagnostic tests offered by a fee-for-service laboratory and not offered by a fee-for-service laboratory. We conducted 2861 diagnostic tests on swab samples collected from 476 bighorn sheep captured across Montana and Wyoming to gain inferences regarding detection probability, pathogen prevalence, and the power of different sampling methodologies to detect pathogens in bighorn sheep populations. Estimated detection probability using fee-for-service protocols was less than 0.50 for all Pasteurellaceae and 0.73 for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae. Non-fee-for-service Pasteurellaceae protocols had higher detection probabilities, but no single protocol increased detection probability of all Pasteurellaceae pathogens to greater than 0.50. At least one protocol resulted in an estimated detection probability of 0.80 for each pathogen except Mannheimia haemolytica, for which the highest detection probability was 0.45. In general, the power to detect Pasteurellaceae pathogens at low prevalence in populations was low unless many animals were sampled or replicate samples were collected per animal. Imperfect detection also resulted in low precision when estimating prevalence for any pathogen. Low and variable detection probabilities for respiratory pathogens using live-sampling protocols may lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding pathogen community dynamics and causes of bighorn sheep respiratory disease epizootics. We recommend that agencies collect multiples samples per animal for Pasteurellaceae detection, and one sample for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae detection from at least 30

  16. A Principled Approach to Deriving Approximate Conditional Sampling Distributions in Population Genetics Models with Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Joshua S.; Song, Yun S.

    2010-01-01

    The multilocus conditional sampling distribution (CSD) describes the probability that an additionally sampled DNA sequence is of a certain type, given that a collection of sequences has already been observed. The CSD has a wide range of applications in both computational biology and population genomics analysis, including phasing genotype data into haplotype data, imputing missing data, estimating recombination rates, inferring local ancestry in admixed populations, and importance sampling of coalescent genealogies. Unfortunately, the true CSD under the coalescent with recombination is not known, so approximations, formulated as hidden Markov models, have been proposed in the past. These approximations have led to a number of useful statistical tools, but it is important to recognize that they were not derived from, though were certainly motivated by, principles underlying the coalescent process. The goal of this article is to develop a principled approach to derive improved CSDs directly from the underlying population genetics model. Our approach is based on the diffusion process approximation and the resulting mathematical expressions admit intuitive genealogical interpretations, which we utilize to introduce further approximations and make our method scalable in the number of loci. The general algorithm presented here applies to an arbitrary number of loci and an arbitrary finite-alleles recurrent mutation model. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate that our new CSDs are in general substantially more accurate than previously proposed approximations. PMID:20592264

  17. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  18. Generalized and synthetic regression estimators for randomized branch sampling

    Treesearch

    David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2015-01-01

    In felled-tree studies, ratio and regression estimators are commonly used to convert more readily measured branch characteristics to dry crown mass estimates. In some cases, data from multiple trees are pooled to form these estimates. This research evaluates the utility of both tactics in the estimation of crown biomass following randomized branch sampling (...

  19. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  20. Reliability Generalization of the Psychopathy Checklist Applied in Youthful Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Justin S.; Pulos, Steven; Hogan, Mike; Murry, Francie

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the average reliability of Hare Psychopathy Checklists (PCLs) adapted for use in samples of youthful offenders (aged 12 to 21 years). Two forms of reliability are examined: 18 alpha estimates of internal consistency and 18 intraclass correlation (two or more raters) estimates of interrater reliability. The results, an average…

  1. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B and C viruses in the general population of burkina faso.

    PubMed

    Tao, Issoufou; Compaoré, Tegwindé R; Diarra, Birama; Djigma, Florencia; Zohoncon, Theodora M; Assih, Maléki; Ouermi, Djeneba; Pietra, Virginio; Karou, Simplice D; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In Burkina Faso, few studies reported the prevalence of HBV and HCV in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses in the general population and to determine the most affected groups in relation to the risk factors associated with the infection. Method. A voluntary testing opened to anyone interested was held at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou. Rapid tests were carried out on 995 persons who voluntarily answered a range of questions before the venous blood sampling. Results. The results revealed that the antigen HBs carriers in the general population represented 14.47% (144/995) and the prevalence of HCV was 1.00% (10/995). The difference between HBV's prevalence in men (18.58%) and that in women (11.60%) was statistically significant (P = 0.002). The most affected groups were undergraduated students (19.57%) and persons working in the informal sector (15.98%). The least affected group was high level students (8.82%). Conclusion. Burkina Faso is a country with a high prevalence of HBV, while the incidence of HCV is still low in the general population. Therefore, more campaigns on the transmission routes of HBV and HCV are needed to reduce the spread of these viruses in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Extending the alias Monte Carlo sampling method to general distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.L.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Smidt, R.K. )

    1991-01-07

    The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p < .0005; SPS(11): β = .27, p < .0005; BFNE-II: β = .11, p = .007) independent of demographics and the scores on the individual Type D components. This interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated

  4. Mandatory immunization: the point of view of the French general population and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, N; Lévy-Bruhl, D; Gautier, A; Jestin, Christine; Jauffret-Roustide, M

    2008-10-09

    This survey studies the opinion of the French general population, general practitioners and pediatricians regarding mandatory immunization. Data were collected through standardized telephone questionnaires administered to representative samples of the French population (n=4112) and of French general practitioners and pediatricians (1285 general practitioners (GPs) and 742 pediatricians). 56.5% of the general population is in favor of mandatory vaccination. Being in favor of hepatitis B vaccination, agreeing that "it would be important to continue immunizing against diphtheria in case immunization was made optional" or saying that "if immunization against diphtheria was discontinued, the disease would spread again", are some of the main determinants of a favorable opinion regarding mandatory immunization. The percentage of GPs and pediatricians in favor of mandatory immunization is 42%. Female pediatricians and those who would "insist on families in the importance of continuing immunizing all children against diphtheria in case this vaccination was only recommended" more often declare themselves in favor of mandatory immunization. The adoption of the principle of mandatory immunization seems to stem from the adoption of immunization as an individual and collective prevention tool.

  5. Risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma among aircrews and a random sample of the population

    PubMed Central

    Rafnsson, V; Hrafnkelsson, J; Tulinius, H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Hjaltalin, O

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate whether a difference in the prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma in a random sample of the population and among pilots and cabin attendants could explain the increased incidence of malignant melanoma which had been found in previous studies of aircrews. Methods: A questionnaire was used to collect information on hair colour, eye colour, freckles, number of naevi, family history of skin cancer and naevi, skin type, history of sunburn, sunbed, all sunscreen use, and number of sunny vacations. Results: The 239 pilots were all males and there were 856 female cabin attendants, which were compared with 454 males and 1464 females of the same age drawn randomly from the general population. The difference in constitutional and behavioural risk factors for malignant melanoma between the aircrews and the population sample was not substantial. The aircrews had more often used sunscreen and had taken more sunny vacations than the other men and women. The predictive values for use of sunscreen were 0.88 for pilots and 0.85 for cabin attendants and the predictive values for sunny vacation were 1.36 and 1.34 respectively. Conclusion: There was no substantial difference between the aircrew and the random sample of the population with respect to prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma. Thus it is unlikely that the increased incidence of malignant melanoma found in previous studies of pilots and cabin attendants can be solely explained by excessive sun exposure. PMID:14573711

  6. Risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma among aircrews and a random sample of the population.

    PubMed

    Rafnsson, V; Hrafnkelsson, J; Tulinius, H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Olafsson, J Hjaltalin

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate whether a difference in the prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma in a random sample of the population and among pilots and cabin attendants could explain the increased incidence of malignant melanoma which had been found in previous studies of aircrews. A questionnaire was used to collect information on hair colour, eye colour, freckles, number of naevi, family history of skin cancer and naevi, skin type, history of sunburn, sunbed, all sunscreen use, and number of sunny vacations. The 239 pilots were all males and there were 856 female cabin attendants, which were compared with 454 males and 1464 females of the same age drawn randomly from the general population. The difference in constitutional and behavioural risk factors for malignant melanoma between the aircrews and the population sample was not substantial. The aircrews had more often used sunscreen and had taken more sunny vacations than the other men and women. The predictive values for use of sunscreen were 0.88 for pilots and 0.85 for cabin attendants and the predictive values for sunny vacation were 1.36 and 1.34 respectively. There was no substantial difference between the aircrew and the random sample of the population with respect to prevalence of risk factors for malignant melanoma. Thus it is unlikely that the increased incidence of malignant melanoma found in previous studies of pilots and cabin attendants can be solely explained by excessive sun exposure.

  7. Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among tea garden and general population in Dibrugarh, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Tulika G; Joshi, Rajnish; Mahanta, Bhupendra N; Xavier, Denis

    2013-09-01

    Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are multifactorial. Previous research has reported a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in tea-garden workers. This study was conducted to assess prevalence and level of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among tea-garden and general population in Dibrugarh, Assam. A community-based cross-sectional study using the World Health Organization's (WHO) Stepwise methodology was conducted in Dibrugarh District of Assam. A multistep random sampling was done to include adults aged 35 years and above, with an intended equal sampling from tea-garden and general population. INTERHEART modifiable non-laboratory based risk score was estimated. Salt consumption was estimated using questionnaire-based methods in both subgroups. A total of 2826 individuals participated in the study (1231 [43.6%] tea-garden workers; 1595 [56.4%] general population). Tobacco consumption was higher in tea-garden workers as compared with general population (85.2% vs. 41.7% (p < 0.0001). Mean daily per-capita salt consumption was also significantly higher among tea-garden workers (29.60 vs. 22.89 g, p = 0.0001). Overall prevalence of hypertension was similar (44.4% vs. 45.2%), but among those who had hypertension, prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was higher in tea-garden workers (82.8% vs. 74.4%, p < 0.0001). Tea-garden workers had lower BMI, were more physically active, and had a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Their INTERHEART modifiable risk score was also lower (1.44 [2.5] vs. 1.79 [2.8], p = 0.001). High prevalence of modifiable risk factors like tobacco consumption, high salt intake and high prevalence of hypertension indicates the need for early implementation of preventive actions in this population. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in sex workers and women from the general population in Spain.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Marshall, Vickie; Solà, Judit; Palacio, Virgilio; Almirall, Rosa; Goedert, James J; Bosch, F Xavier; Whitby, Denise

    2002-03-01

    Transmission routes of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the general population are poorly understood. Whereas sexual transmission appears to be common in homosexual men, the evidence for heterosexual transmission is less convincing. In our study, prevalence of KSHV infection was examined among women in the Spanish general population and among sex workers. Subjects consisted of 100 prostitutes and 100 women randomly sampled from the general population and age-matched to the prostitutes. Women had a personal interview and gynecologic examinations in which a blood sample, cervical cells and oral cells were obtained. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), oral and cervical samples were tested for KSHV DNA by quantitative real-time PCR. Sera were tested for antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ELISA and against KSHV by latent IFA and K8.1 ELISA. Women who were positive in either serologic assay or PCR were considered infected by KSHV. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical scrapes were evaluated using the Hybrid Capture System. The study population had an average age of 30 years and were HIV-negative. Women from the general population were largely of Spanish nationality, and 61% reported lifetime monogamy. The majority of the prostitutes (76%) were immigrants, primarily from South America. Sex workers were twice as likely to be infected with KSHV than women in the general population (16% vs. 8%, prevalence odds ratio [OR] = 2.2). KSHV was more prevalent among HPV DNA-positive women (OR = 2.5) and among women with an early age at first sexual intercourse (OR = 2.7, p < 0.05). KSHV DNA was detected by PCR in 3% of the oral cavity samples, in 2% of the cervical samples of the prostitutes and in 1% of the cervical samples of women in the general population. All PBMC samples were negative. These results suggest that in low-risk countries for KSHV, oral shedding and heterosexual contacts are potential pathways for KSHV transmission.

  9. Generalizing Swendsen-Wang to sampling arbitrary posterior probabilities.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Adrian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2005-08-01

    Many vision tasks can be formulated as graph partition problems that minimize energy functions. For such problems, the Gibbs sampler provides a general solution but is very slow, while other methods, such as Ncut and graph cuts are computationally effective but only work for specific energy forms and are not generally applicable. In this paper, we present a new inference algorithm that generalizes the Swendsen-Wang method to arbitrary probabilities defined on graph partitions. We begin by computing graph edge weights, based on local image features. Then, the algorithm iterates two steps. 1) Graph clustering: It forms connected components by cutting the edges probabilistically based on their weights. 2) Graph relabeling: It selects one connected component and flips probabilistically, the coloring of all vertices in the component simultaneously. Thus, it realizes the split, merge, and regrouping of a "chunk" of the graph, in contrast to Gibbs sampler that flips a single vertex. We prove that this algorithm simulates ergodic and reversible Markov chain jumps in the space of graph partitions and is applicable to arbitrary posterior probabilities or energy functions defined on graphs. We demonstrate the algorithm on two typical problems in computer vision--image segmentation and stereo vision. Experimentally, we show that it is 100-400 times faster in CPU time than the classical Gibbs sampler and 20-40 times faster then the DDMCMC segmentation algorithm. For stereo, we compare performance with graph cuts and belief propagation. We also show that our algorithm can automatically infer generative models and obtain satisfactory results (better than the graphic cuts or belief propagation) in the same amount of time.

  10. Differences between blood donors and a population sample: implications for case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Miller, Laura L; Davey Smith, George; Pembrey, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Background Selecting appropriate controls for studies of genetic variation in case series is important. The two major candidates involve the use of blood donors or a random sample of the population. Methods We compare and contrast the two different populations of controls for studies of genetic variation using data from parents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In addition we compute different biases using a series of hypothetical assumptions. Results The study subjects who had been blood donors differed markedly from the general population in social, health-related, anthropometric, and personality-related variables. Using theoretical examples, we show that blood donors are a poor control group for non-genetic studies of diseases related to environmentally, behaviourally, or socially patterned exposures. However, we show that if blood donors are used as controls in genetic studies, these factors are unlikely to make a major difference in detecting true associations with relatively rare disorders (cumulative incidence through life of <10%). Nevertheless, for more common disorders, the reduction in accuracy resulting from the inclusion in any control population of individuals who have or will develop the disease in question can create a greater bias than can socially patterned factors. Conclusions Information about the medical history of a control and the parents of the control (as a proxy for whether the control will develop the disease) is more important with regard to the choice of controls than whether the controls are a random population sample or blood donors. PMID:23825379

  11. [The population of Luxembourg: a comparative analysis of the data from STATEC and from the General Population Register].

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Differences between the population statistics generated by STATEC and those from the General Population Register set up in 1984 are outlined. The data concern population by nationality, sex, and age; and the resident population by commune. Reasons for the differences noted are considered

  12. A general unified framework to assess the sampling variance of heritability estimates using pedigree or marker-based relationships.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Peter M; Goddard, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Heritability is a population parameter of importance in evolution, plant and animal breeding, and human medical genetics. It can be estimated using pedigree designs and, more recently, using relationships estimated from markers. We derive the sampling variance of the estimate of heritability for a wide range of experimental designs, assuming that estimation is by maximum likelihood and that the resemblance between relatives is solely due to additive genetic variation. We show that well-known results for balanced designs are special cases of a more general unified framework. For pedigree designs, the sampling variance is inversely proportional to the variance of relationship in the pedigree and it is proportional to 1/N, whereas for population samples it is approximately proportional to 1/N(2), where N is the sample size. Variation in relatedness is a key parameter in the quantification of the sampling variance of heritability. Consequently, the sampling variance is high for populations with large recent effective population size (e.g., humans) because this causes low variation in relationship. However, even using human population samples, low sampling variance is possible with high N.

  13. A General Unified Framework to Assess the Sampling Variance of Heritability Estimates Using Pedigree or Marker-Based Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Peter M.; Goddard, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Heritability is a population parameter of importance in evolution, plant and animal breeding, and human medical genetics. It can be estimated using pedigree designs and, more recently, using relationships estimated from markers. We derive the sampling variance of the estimate of heritability for a wide range of experimental designs, assuming that estimation is by maximum likelihood and that the resemblance between relatives is solely due to additive genetic variation. We show that well-known results for balanced designs are special cases of a more general unified framework. For pedigree designs, the sampling variance is inversely proportional to the variance of relationship in the pedigree and it is proportional to 1/N, whereas for population samples it is approximately proportional to 1/N2, where N is the sample size. Variation in relatedness is a key parameter in the quantification of the sampling variance of heritability. Consequently, the sampling variance is high for populations with large recent effective population size (e.g., humans) because this causes low variation in relationship. However, even using human population samples, low sampling variance is possible with high N. PMID:25361897

  14. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of influenza, is essential. AIM: To assess the organizational factors in Dutch general practice, which were associated with the influenza vaccination rate in 1994. METHOD: A retrospective questionnaire study was undertaken in 1586 of the 4758 Dutch general practices, which were randomly selected. A total of 1251 (79%) practices returned a questionnaire. The items verified were practice profile, urbanization, delegation index, use of computer-based patient records, influenza vaccination characteristics and influenza vaccination rate. RESULTS: No differences were found with regard to the percentage of single-handed practices (65%), practices situated in urban area (38%), practices with a pharmacy (12%), patients insured by the National Health Service (59%) and use of computer-based patient records (57%) when compared with national statistics. The mean overall influenza vaccination rate was 9.0% (SD 4.0%). Using a logistic regression analysis, a high vaccination rate (> or = 9%) was associated with the use of personal reminders (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 1.3-2.2), monitoring patient compliance (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.4), marking risk patients in computer-based patient records (OR 1.3, 1.0-1.6), a small number of patients per full-time practice assistant (OR 1.5, 1.1-1.9), urban areas (OR 1.6, 1.3-2.1) and single-handed practices (OR 1.5, 1.1-1.9). CONCLUSION: Improvement of vaccination rates in high-risk patients may be achievable by promoting the use of personal reminders and computer-based patient records, as well as monitoring patient compliance. In addition, the role of practice assistants with regard to preventive activities should be developed further. Practices situated in rural areas and

  15. Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate the contemporary incidence of gout, examine potential risk factors, and evaluate specific gout treatment patterns in the general population. Methods Using the health improvement network (THIN) UK primary care database, we estimated the incidence of gout based on 24,768 newly diagnosed gout patients among a cohort of 1,775,505 individuals aged 20 to 89 years between 2000 and 2007. We evaluated potential risk factors for incident gout in a nested case-control study with 50,000 controls frequency-matched by age, sex and calendar time. We calculated odds ratios (OR) by means of unconditional logistic regression adjusting for demographic variables, lifestyle variables, relevant medical conditions and drug exposures. Results The incidence of gout per 1,000 person-years was 2.68 (4.42 in men and 1.32 in women) and increased with age. Conventional risk factors were significantly and strongly associated with the risk of gout, with multivariate ORs of 3.00 (95% confidence interval (CI)) for excessive alcohol intake (that is, more than 42 units per week), 2.34 (95% CI 2.22 to 2.47) for obesity (body mass index > = 30 kg/m2), 2.48 (95% CI 2.19 to 2.81) for chronic renal impairment, and 3.00 (95% CI 2.85 to 3.15) for current diuretic use. For other medical conditions the multivariate OR were 1.84 (95% CI 1.70 to 2.00) for heart failure, 1.45 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.79) for hypertriglyceridemia and 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.22) for psoriasis. Use of cyclosporine was associated with an OR of 3.72 (95% CI, 2.17 to 6.40). Among gout-specific therapies, allopurinol was the most frequently used with a one-year cumulative incidence of 28% in a cohort of incident gout diagnosed from 2000 to 2001. Use of gout-specific treatment has not changed over recent years except for an increase of colchicine. Conclusions The contemporary incidence of gout in UK remains substantial. In this general population cohort, associations with previously

  16. Sleep Apnea and Cancer: Analysis of a Nationwide Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Gozal, David; Ham, Sandra A.; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Epidemiological evidence from relatively small cohorts suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with higher cancer incidence and mortality. Here we aimed to determine whether cancer incidence for major cancer types and risk of metastases or mortality from cancer are increased in the presence of OSA. Methods: All OSA diagnoses included in an employee-sponsored health insurance database spanning the years 2003–2012 were identified and 1:1 matched demographically based on age, gender, and state of residence, or alternatively matched by comorbidities. The incidence of 12 types of cancer was assessed. In addition, another cohort of patients with a primary diagnosis of cancer was retrieved, and the risk of metastatic disease or cancer mortality was determined as a function of the presence or absence of OSA. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to assess the independent associations between OSA and outcomes of interest. Results: Based on a cohort of ∼5.6 million individuals, the incidence of all cancer diagnoses combined was similar in OSA and retrospectively matched cases. However, the adjusted risk of pancreatic and kidney cancer and melanoma were significantly higher in patients with OSA, while the risk of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers appeared to be lower. Among individuals with a diagnosis of cancer, the presence of OSA was not associated with an increased risk for metastasis or death. Conclusions: In a large nationally representative health insurance database, OSA appears to increase the risk for only a very selective number of cancer types, and does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of metastatic cancer or cancer-related deaths. Citation: Gozal D, Ham SA, Mokhlesi B. Sleep apnea and cancer: analysis of a nationwide population sample. SLEEP 2016;39(8):1493–1500. PMID:27166241

  17. Distribution Characteristics and Combined Effect of Polymorphisms Affecting Alcohol Consumption Behaviour in the Hungarian General and Roma Populations.

    PubMed

    Diószegi, Judit; Fiatal, Szilvia; Tóth, Réka; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Kósa, Zsigmond; Sándor, János; McKee, Martin; Ádány, Róza

    2017-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking habits, even among Roma children and adolescents, are more common than in the majority population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic susceptibility of Roma to hazardous alcohol consumption compared to the Hungarian general population. A total of 1273 samples from the population of segregated Hungarian Roma colonies and 2967 samples from the Hungarian general population were genotyped for 25 polymorphisms. Differences in genotype and allele distributions were investigated. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were generated to estimate the joint effect of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After unweighted and weighted GRS were calculated the distribution of scores in study populations was compared. The allele frequencies differed significantly between the study populations for 17 SNPs (P < 0.002), but the genetic alterations that predispose to or protect against harmful alcohol consumption were not overrepresented in the Roma population. The distribution of unweighted GRS in Roma population was left shifted compared to general population (P = 0.0013). The median weighted genetic risk score was lower among the subjects of Roma population compared to the subjects of general population (0.53 vs 0.65, P = 3.33 × 10(-27)) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Differences in alcohol consumption habits between the Hungarian Roma and Hungarian general populations do not appear to be linked to genetic constitution, this behaviour may occur as a result of different cultural values and environmental exposures. Population-based measures to tackle the fundamental drivers of consumption, which take account of cultural acceptability, are needed to reduce harmful alcohol consumption in the Roma population. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. GridSample: an R package to generate household survey primary sampling units (PSUs) from gridded population data.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Dana R; Stevens, Forrest R; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Tatem, Andrew J; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-07-19

    Household survey data are collected by governments, international organizations, and companies to prioritize policies and allocate billions of dollars. Surveys are typically selected from recent census data; however, census data are often outdated or inaccurate. This paper describes how gridded population data might instead be used as a sample frame, and introduces the R GridSample algorithm for selecting primary sampling units (PSU) for complex household surveys with gridded population data. With a gridded population dataset and geographic boundary of the study area, GridSample allows a two-step process to sample "seed" cells with probability proportionate to estimated population size, then "grows" PSUs until a minimum population is achieved in each PSU. The algorithm permits stratification and oversampling of urban or rural areas. The approximately uniform size and shape of grid cells allows for spatial oversampling, not possible in typical surveys, possibly improving small area estimates with survey results. We replicated the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in GridSample by sampling the WorldPop 2010 UN-adjusted 100 m × 100 m gridded population dataset, stratifying by Rwanda's 30 districts, and oversampling in urban areas. The 2010 Rwanda DHS had 79 urban PSUs, 413 rural PSUs, with an average PSU population of 610 people. An equivalent sample in GridSample had 75 urban PSUs, 405 rural PSUs, and a median PSU population of 612 people. The number of PSUs differed because DHS added urban PSUs from specific districts while GridSample reallocated rural-to-urban PSUs across all districts. Gridded population sampling is a promising alternative to typical census-based sampling when census data are moderately outdated or inaccurate. Four approaches to implementation have been tried: (1) using gridded PSU boundaries produced by GridSample, (2) manually segmenting gridded PSU using satellite imagery, (3) non-probability sampling (e.g. random-walk, "spin

  19. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from Honduras.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Mireya; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2009-09-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 128 unrelated male individuals from Honduras, Central America. A total of 112 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 98 were unique. The haplotype diversity (98.99%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.50%) were estimated. Genetic distances were calculated between Honduras and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The analysis of a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, based on pairwise R(ST) genetic distances, allowed to conclude that Honduras is highly differentiated from the African samples (0.343< or =R(ST)< or =0.620; P=0.000) and from a Native American sample from Argentina, Tobas (R(ST)=0.210, P=0.000). Honduras showed a lower genetic distance to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Central American cluster (Mexico and El Salvador).

  20. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  1. Generalized species sampling priors with latent Beta reinforcements

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Costa, Thiago; Bassetti, Federico; Leisen, Fabrizio; Guindani, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Many popular Bayesian nonparametric priors can be characterized in terms of exchangeable species sampling sequences. However, in some applications, exchangeability may not be appropriate. We introduce a novel and probabilistically coherent family of non-exchangeable species sampling sequences characterized by a tractable predictive probability function with weights driven by a sequence of independent Beta random variables. We compare their theoretical clustering properties with those of the Dirichlet Process and the two parameters Poisson-Dirichlet process. The proposed construction provides a complete characterization of the joint process, differently from existing work. We then propose the use of such process as prior distribution in a hierarchical Bayes modeling framework, and we describe a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler for posterior inference. We evaluate the performance of the prior and the robustness of the resulting inference in a simulation study, providing a comparison with popular Dirichlet Processes mixtures and Hidden Markov Models. Finally, we develop an application to the detection of chromosomal aberrations in breast cancer by leveraging array CGH data. PMID:25870462

  2. [Chronic back pain in the general population in Germany 2002/2003: prevalence and highly affected population groups].

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, H; Ellert, U; Ziese, T

    2005-10-01

    Back pain is one of the most common complaints in the general population and chronic back pain is a major Public Health burden. However, the prevalence of chronic back pain in Germany is not known. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of chronic back pain in the general adult population in Germany and to identify highly affected population groups. A nation-wide computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey was conducted with 8,318 men and women aged 18 years and older residing in German households. Participants were selected using the Gabler-Häder telephone sampling method and the next-birthday method. The one-year prevalence of chronic back pain defined as daily or almost daily back pain over a period of three months was 16 % in men and 22 % in women, the lifetime prevalence 24 % in men and 30 % in women. The 12-months prevalence of any back pain was 66 % in women and 58 % in men. Back pain on the day preceding the interview was reported by 18 % of men and 27 % of women and had a median intensity on a 1 - 10 point scale of 5 in women and 4 in men. Factors independently associated with chronic back pain in the past 12 months were age, female sex, a history of arthritis, self-reported depression, lower educational level, current unemployment, overweight or obesity, no sports, smoking and living with a partner. In conclusion, chronic back pain is a highly prevalent complaint in the general population in Germany. The association not only with bone and joint diseases but also with depression, a lower level of education and with certain lifestyle behaviours emphasises that back pain should not be viewed only in the context of the spine.

  3. Attitudes towards the people with mental illness: comparison between Czech medical doctors and general population.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Petr; Mladá, Karolína; Janoušková, Miroslava; Weissová, Aneta; Tušková, Eva; Csémy, Ladislav; Evans-Lacko, Sara

    2016-09-01

    Stigma among health care professionals is detrimental to the life of those with mental health problems. In the region of post-communist Europe, the level of stigma among health care providers remains understudied. We aimed to compare attitudes towards people with mental illness between Czech medical doctors and the general population. The Community Attitudes towards Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale was used to measure stigmatizing attitudes among a nationally representative sample of (1) adults residing in the Czech Republic (n = 1810) and (2) Czech medical doctors (n = 1200). Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression were used to assess differences between both samples. Compared to the general adult population in the Czech Republic, Czech medical doctors demonstrated less stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness in 26 of the 27 CAMI items as well as in the total CAMI score. Medical doctors, however, were more likely to consider mental hospitals as an up-to-date method of treating people with mental illness. Our findings demonstrate more favourable attitudes towards people with mental illness among Czech medical doctors when compared to the Czech general population. Stigma, however, is high among both these groups.

  4. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population.

    PubMed

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.

  5. The frequency of different CGG-repeat alleles in the FMR-1 gene in the general population and special populations

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A. |; Chalifoux, M.; Wing, M.

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X (FRAXA) syndrome is the most common inherited form of developmental disability and was the first genetic disorder in which the mechanism of mutation is triplet repeat expansion. The normal fragile X mental retardation-1 gene has 6-52 copies of the CGG-repeat; affected males have extensive amplification, coupled with methylation and gene inactivation; and carriers have between about 55 and 200 copies. There is some overlap in the 45-55 repeat range, with some alleles showing stable and othres unstable transmission. There have been several estimates of the incidence of the FRAXA syndrome, based on testing of special populations using chromosome analysis and the range is 1/750-1/2000. Because of the high burden associated with this syndrome, and in the face of discussions about population screening, it is important to know the actual incidence of mutations in this gene, as well as the distribution of unstable repeats above 45 copes. We have initiated a general population screening to examine 50,000 newborn samples using PCR, and have developed a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method for amplifying the CGG-repeat from Guthrie spots. In the first 1600 samples examined, we found 15 alleles with greater than 45 CGG-repeats, with the highest being 61 repeats.

  6. [Representations of insanity, mental illness and depression in general population in France].

    PubMed

    Roelandt, J-L; Caria, A; Defromont, L; Vandeborre, A; Daumerie, N

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the representations of insane, mentally ill and depressive persons, in a representative sample from the French General Population. Data were derived from the multicentric survey "Mental Health in the General Population: images and realities", carried out in 47 French public sites between 1999 and 2003. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to interview a representative sample of French metropolitan subjects, aged 18 and over, non-institutionalized and homeless. These subjects were recruited using quota sampling for age, sex, socioprofessional and education levels, according to data from the 1999 national French population census. Representations of insane, mentally ill and depressive persons were explored by a specific questionnaire with open and semi-open questions. Psychiatric diagnoses were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A national database was then constituted by pooling data from all sites, weighted for age, sex, level of education, socioprofessional level and work status to be representative of the French general population. Of the 36,000 individuals included in this study, over 75% associated the words "insane" and "mentally ill" with violent and dangerous behaviours and the term "depressive" with sadness, isolation and suicide. Young people, those with higher education and higher income level more frequently associated dangerous behaviours with mental illness rather than with insanity. The study shows that the general population draws a clear line between the representation of insane and mentally ill on one hand, and depressive on the other hand. Insane and mentally people are described as abnormal, irresponsible, unconscious, socially excluded, far from being curable, and to be cured against their will by psychotropic drugs and psychiatric hospitalisation. Whereas the depressive is perceived as a more familiar character, suffering, curable, who can be cured with psychotropic

  7. A Survey of Female Sexual Functioning in the General Dutch Population.

    PubMed

    Lammerink, Ellen A G; de Bock, Geertruida H; Pascal, Astrid; van Beek, Andre P; van den Bergh, Alfons C M; Sattler, Margriet G A; Mourits, Marian J E

    2017-07-01

    After the diagnosis and treatment of disease, a major barrier to research on psychosexual functioning is the lack of a consistent estimate for the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in the general population. To clarify the prevalence of age-related female sexual functioning in the general population. A sample was compiled by random selection of women from the general population in the northern part of the Netherlands and was categorized by age. Women completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), personal medical items and daily activities, the Body Image Scale, the SF-36 Health Survey, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Participants' representativeness was assessed by comparing their characteristics with data from the Dutch Central Agency for Statistics and the Dutch Health Monitor. General health, fatigue, and well-being were compared with national or international data. Age-related total and domain scores of the FSFI. We evaluated female sexual functioning of 521 sexually active women. For women 20 to 80 years old, sexual functioning showed wide variance and was poor in 28% of all sexually active women, with FSFI scores being below the defined clinical cutoff (FSFI score < 26.55). Although sexual activity and functioning significantly decreased with increasing age, sexual satisfaction decreased only non-significantly. This study provides valuable age-specific ranges for female sexual functioning in the general population and can inform upcoming clinical studies. This is the largest study on female sexual function in a representative Dutch population using internationally validated tools and described by age categories, providing valuable information that can help in the understanding of how female sexual function changes with age. The FSFI has been criticized for not assessing personal distress related to sexual problems, so the lack of the Female Sexual Distress Scale in our study is an unfortunate

  8. Urinary 2,5-hexanedione excretion in cryptogenic polyneuropathy compared to the general Swedish population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) is the main neurotoxic metabolite of methyl-n-butyl ketone (MBK) and n-hexane, and known to cause polyneuropathy. The aim of our study was to compare the urinary levels of 2,5-HD between cases with cryptogenic polyneuropathy and the general Swedish population, and to elucidate the role of certain external factors. Methods Morning urine samples were collected from 114 cases with cryptogenic polyneuropathy (77 men and 37 women) and 227 referents (110 men and 117 women) randomly selected from the population registry. None had any current occupational exposure to n-hexane or MBK. The urine samples were analysed by a gas chromatographic method based on acidic hydrolysis. Results Cases had statistically higher urinary levels of 2,5-HD (0.48 mg/L) than the general population (0.41 mg/L) and men higher excretion than women (0.48 mg/L and 0.38 mg/L, respectively). There was no difference in 2,5-HD levels between current smokers and non-smokers. Occupational exposure to xylene, alcohol consumption and ever exposed to general anaesthesia were associated with lower excretion in men while for occupational exposure to nitrous oxide in women higher excretion was seen. Higher excretion of 2,5 HD was inversely related to increasing age. Conclusions Significantly higher levels of urinary 2,5-HD were seen in men and cryptogenic polyneuropathy cases seemingly unexposed to n-hexane. Hypothetically, this might be due to either differences in metabolic patterns or some concealed exposure. The difference in means between cases and the general population is small and can therefore not allow any firm conclusions of the causality, however. PMID:23898939

  9. Assessing Awareness Level about Warning Signs of Cancer and its Determinants in an Iranian General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parsa-yekta, Zohreh; Jamali, Jamshid

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. Most effective predictors for awareness were educational attainment, sex, and marital status. The findings suggest that the overall level of knowledge about warning signs of cancer among the public is low, particularly about some specific signs. Accordingly, educational and intervention programmes, with special attention placed on particular at-risk populations, to increase awareness about the disease leading to its early diagnosis are needed. PMID:22283041

  10. Psychological distress and sick leave in Swedish survivors of the 2004 tsunami: a comparison with a population sample.

    PubMed

    Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus

    2009-12-01

    Disaster studies of the effects of trauma exposure on subsequent psychological health have seldom used population comparisons. A total of 1463 tsunami survivors from Stockholm were categorized according to type of exposure, and compared on measures of General Health Questionnaire and sick leave, with a matched population-based sample of 12,045 individuals from the same region. Data from the survivor group were obtained through a postal questionnaire 14 months postdisaster. Data from the population sample were collected in the same year. In comparison to the population sample, levels of sick leave ranged from higher in multiply exposed groups to lower in the least exposed group. For psychological distress, levels in multiply and moderately exposed groups were higher, and in lower exposed groups comparable. The use of a population comparison resulted in a support of recent research showing a relative resiliency of survivors exposed during disaster to potential trauma of lesser severity.

  11. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population.

    PubMed

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Schnohr, Peter; Jensen, Gorm B; Benn, Marianne

    2011-04-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population. A total of 7,579 women and 6,372 men from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with measurements of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol at baseline in 1976-1978 were followed for up to 33 years; of these, 837 women and 837 men developed ischemic stroke during follow-up, which was 100% complete. The fluctuation of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol over 15 years was similar. In both women and men, stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Compared to women with triglycerides <1 mmol/liter, multivariate adjusted hazard ratios ranged from 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.7) for triglyceride levels of 1.00-1.99 mmol/liter to 3.9 (95%CI, 1.3-11.1) for triglyceride levels ≥ 5 mmol/liter (trend: p < 0.001); corresponding hazard ratios in men ranged from 1.2 (95%CI, 0.8-1.7) to 2.3 (95%CI, 1.2-4.3) (p = 0.001). Increasing cholesterol levels were not associated with risk of ischemic stroke except in men with cholesterol levels ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter vs < 5.00 mmol/liter, with a hazard ratio of 4.4 (95%CI, 1.9-10.6). In women, stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with increasing risk of ischemic stroke while increasing cholesterol levels were not. In men, these results were similar except that cholesterol ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  12. Antibiotics for the common cold: expectations of Germany's general population.

    PubMed

    Faber, M S; Heckenbach, K; Velasco, E; Eckmanns, T

    2010-09-02

    Physicians mention patients' expectations as a reason for prescribing antibiotics for common (viral) upper respiratory tract infections despite clinical evidence against their use and the physicians' better judgement. We aimed to assess the prevalence of such expectations and factors of influence (knowledge and attitudes) in Germany's general population. In November 2008, 1,778 persons registered with a large market research company were invited to complete an online questionnaire on expectations concerning prescription of antibiotics and on knowledge and attitudes regarding the effectiveness and use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. A total of 1,076 persons aged 15-78 years participated (response: 61%), of whom 91.8% reported using antibiotics 'only if absolutely necessary'. Prescription of antibiotics was expected by 113 (10.5%) of the 1,076 respondents for the common cold and by 997 (92.7%) for pneumonia. In a logistic regression analysis, predictors for expecting a prescription for antibiotics for the common cold included the following opinions: 'common cold or flu can effectively be treated with antibiotics' (prevalence: 37.6%; odds ratio (OR): 9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8 to 24.3) and 'antibiotics should be taken when having a sore throat to prevent more serious illness' (prevalence 8.6%; OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 3.9 to 14.5). Among those expecting a prescription (n=113), 80 (71%) reported that they would trust their physician when he or she deems a prescription unnecessary; a further eight (7%) would be unsatisfied, but would accept the decision. Our results suggest that only a minority expects antibiotics for the treatment of cold symptoms. Physicians should be educated that their decisions not to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold, even when against patients' expectations, are apparently accepted by the majority.

  13. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid exposures of the Italian general population.

    PubMed

    Ingelido, Anna Maria; Marra, Valentina; Abballe, Annalisa; Valentini, Silvia; Iacovella, Nicola; Barbieri, Pietro; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Domenico, Alessandro di; De Felip, Elena

    2010-08-01

    The serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were determined in 230 subjects of the Italian general population. Participants were enrolled in 2008 in two Italian towns (Brescia, Northern Italy, and Rome, Central Italy) and belonged to the three age ranges: 20-35 years, 36-50 years, and 51-65 years. PFOS and PFOA were quantified by HPLC interfaced to a mass spectrometer operating in the electrospray negative mode. Data were acquired using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The isotope dilution technique was applied throughout. The median serum concentrations of all participants were 6.31 ng g(-1) and 3.59 ng g(-1) for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the pertinent 90th percentiles were 12.38 and 6.92. Men had higher concentrations of PFOS and PFOA than women, regardless of age. The differences were statistically significant in the 20-35 and 36-50 years groups, but not in the 51-65 group. An increase of PFOS and PFOA serum concentrations with age was observed. The Median test showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between the three age groups for both PFOS and PFOA when applied to the entire dataset (males and females). When the test was applied to the groups of males and females separately, a significant difference was observed for females (p<0.005) but not for males (p>0.1). The observed strong correlation between PFOS and PFOA concentrations suggests same or similar exposure routes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. APPROXIMATE SAMPLING FORMULAS FOR GENERAL FINITE-ALLELES MODELS OF MUTATION

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Anand; Kamm, John A.; Song, Yun S.

    2012-01-01

    Many applications in genetic analyses utilize sampling distributions, which describe the probability of observing a sample of DNA sequences randomly drawn from a population. In the one-locus case with special models of mutation such as the infinite-alleles model or the finite-alleles parent-independent mutation model, closed-form sampling distributions under the coalescent have been known for many decades. However, no exact formula is currently known for more general models of mutation that are of biological interest. In this paper, models with finitely-many alleles are considered, and an urn construction related to the coalescent is used to derive approximate closed-form sampling formulas for an arbitrary irreducible recurrent mutation model or for a reversible recurrent mutation model, depending on whether the number of distinct observed allele types is at most three or four, respectively. It is demonstrated empirically that the formulas derived here are highly accurate when the per-base mutation rate is low, which holds for many biological organisms. PMID:24634516

  15. ["Mental Health in the General Population: images and realities (MHGP)": methodology of the study].

    PubMed

    Caria, A; Roelandt, J-L; Bellamy, V; Vandeborre, A

    2010-01-01

    Mental Health is a Public Health issue, however, access to relevant treatment often does not meet the population needs. Patients, their relatives, as well as Mental Health professionals are still victims of a high stigmatization process. Whatever the countries and the cultural settings, public beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness (insanity) and mentally ills (insane people) play a major role in the ranking of priorities given to Mental Health national prevention and care policies. This paper presents the methodology of the research-action entitled "Mental Health in General Population: images and realities (MHGP)" carried out by the World Health Organisation Collaborative Centre (Lille, France) and the Direction of research, studies, assessment and statistics (Drees) of the French Ministry of Health, in a sample of 36 000 French subjects over 18 years old, between 1999 and 2003. The MHGP Survey is an international multisite study aimed at: Describing, in the general population, the representations attached to insanity, mental illness and depression, and the related care; Assessing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in the general population; Rising awareness about Mental Health issues among various social groups: social workers, local elected, care professionals, by including them in the research-action procedure; Promoting the development of Community Psychiatry, following WHO main Guidelines. About 900 individuals were recruited in 47 centres in metropolitan France between 1999 and 2003 according to the following criteria: i) informed consent to take part in the study, ii) age over 18 yrs, iii) not residing in a care institution and not homeless. Subjects were selected by quota sampling stratified by age, gender, educational and occupational level with the general population of the general population of the centre as sampling frame. The quotas were defined on the basis of the 1999 national population census. The data was collected by 1700

  16. The Population Reference Sample, POPRES: A Resource for Population, Disease, and Pharmacological Genetics Research

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Matthew R.; Bryc, Katarzyna; King, Karen S.; Indap, Amit; Boyko, Adam R.; Novembre, John; Briley, Linda P.; Maruyama, Yuka; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Stirnadel, Heide A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Chambers, John C.; Jones, Brendan; Mooser, Vincent; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Roses, Allen D.; Burns, Daniel K.; Ehm, Margaret G.; Lai, Eric H.

    2008-01-01

    Technological and scientific advances, stemming in large part from the Human Genome and HapMap projects, have made large-scale, genome-wide investigations feasible and cost effective. These advances have the potential to dramatically impact drug discovery and development by identifying genetic factors that contribute to variation in disease risk as well as drug pharmacokinetics, treatment efficacy, and adverse drug reactions. In spite of the technological advancements, successful application in biomedical research would be limited without access to suitable sample collections. To facilitate exploratory genetics research, we have assembled a DNA resource from a large number of subjects participating in multiple studies throughout the world. This growing resource was initially genotyped with a commercially available genome-wide 500,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism panel. This project includes nearly 6,000 subjects of African-American, East Asian, South Asian, Mexican, and European origin. Seven informative axes of variation identified via principal-component analysis (PCA) of these data confirm the overall integrity of the data and highlight important features of the genetic structure of diverse populations. The potential value of such extensively genotyped collections is illustrated by selection of genetically matched population controls in a genome-wide analysis of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction. We find that matching based on country of origin, identity-by-state distance, and multidimensional PCA do similarly well to control the type I error rate. The genotype and demographic data from this reference sample are freely available through the NCBI database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). PMID:18760391

  17. CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Shea, B; Niezgoda, S; Chakraborty, R

    2001-05-01

    Allele distributions for 12 or 13 CODIS core tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci CSFIPO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, TH01, TPOX, and vWA were determined in 41 population data sets. The major population groups comprise African Americans, U.S. Caucasians, Hispanics, Far East Asians, and Native Americans. There was little evidence for departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) in any of the populations. The FST estimates over all thirteen STR loci are 0.0006 for African Americans, -0.0005 for Caucasians, 0.0021 for Hispanics, 0.0039 for Asians, and 0.0282 for Native Americans.

  18. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  19. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  20. Quality of life valuations of HPV-associated cancer health states by the general population.

    PubMed

    Conway, E Lynne; Farmer, K Chip; Lynch, William J; Rees, Guy L; Wain, Gerard; Adams, Jane

    2012-11-01

    To obtain health-related quality of life valuations (ie, utilities) for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer health states of vulval, vaginal, penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers for use in modelling cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination. Written case descriptions of each HPV-associated cancer describing the 'average' patient surviving after the initial cancer diagnosis and treatment were developed in consultation with oncology clinicians. A general overview, standard gamble questionnaire for each health state and a quiz was conducted in 120 participants recruited from the general population. In the included population sample (n=99), the average age was 43 years (range = 18-70 years) with 54% men, 44% never married/43% married, 76% education beyond year 12 and 39% employed full-time. The utility values for the five health states were 0.57 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.62) for anal cancer, 0.58 (0.53 to 0.63) for oropharyngeal cancer, 0.59 (0.54 to 0.64) for vaginal cancer, 0.65 (0.60 to 0.70) for vulval cancer and 0.79 (0.74 to 0.84) for penile cancer. Participants demonstrated a very good understanding of the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of these cancers with a mean score of 9 (SD=1.1) on a 10-item quiz. This study provides utility estimates for the specific HPV-related cancers of vulval, vaginal, penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers valued by a general population sample using standard gamble. The results demonstrate considerable quality of life impact associated with surviving these cancers that will be important to incorporate into modelling cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination in different populations.

  1. Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder contributes to neurodevelopmental traits in the general population.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2014-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥ 1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥ 1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, were compared to 8173 adolescents aged 13–19 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Young-HUNT 3, Norway. All adolescents completed a questionnaire, including questions about physical activity and participation in team and individual sports. Results Approximately 50% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders and 25% of the population sample reported low levels of physical activity. Within the clinical sample, those with mood disorders (62%) and autism spectrum disorders (56%) were the most inactive and those with eating disorders (36%) the most active. This pattern was the same in individual and team sports. After multivariable adjustment, adolescents with a psychiatric disorder had a three-fold increased risk of lower levels of physical activity, and a corresponding risk of not participating in team and individual sports compared with adolescents in the general population. Conclusions Levels of physical activity were low in adolescent psychiatric patients compared with the general population, yet activity levels differed considerably between various disorders. The findings underscore the importance of assessing physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and providing early intervention to promote mental as well as physical health in this early stage of life. PMID:24450542

  3. Artificial Outdoor Nighttime Lights Associate with Altered Sleep Behavior in the American General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Milesi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our study aims to explore the associations between outdoor nighttime lights (ONL) and sleep patterns in the human population. Methods: Cross-sectional telephone study of a representative sample of the general US population age 18 y or older. 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals (participation rate: 83.2%) were interviewed by telephone. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; sleep, mental and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition; International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition). Individuals were geolocated by longitude and latitude. Outdoor nighttime light measurements were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), with nighttime passes taking place between 19:30 and 22:30 local time. Light data were correlated precisely to the geolocation of each participant of the general population sample. Results: Living in areas with greater ONL was associated with delayed bedtime (P < 0.0001) and wake up time (P < 0.0001), shorter sleep duration (P < 0.01), and increased daytime sleepiness (P < 0.0001). Living in areas with greater ONL also increased the dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and quality (P < 0.0001) and the likelihood of having a diagnostic profile congruent with a circadian rhythm disorder (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although they improve the overall safety of people and traffic, nighttime lights in our streets and cities are clearly linked with modifications in human sleep behaviors and also impinge on the daytime functioning of individuals living in areas with greater ONL. Citation: Ohayon MM, Milesi C. Artificial outdoor nighttime lights associate with altered sleep behavior in the american general population. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1311–1320. PMID:27091523

  4. Papoulis-like generalized sampling expansions in fractional Fourier domains and their application to superresolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kamalesh Kumar; Joshi, Shiv Dutt

    2007-10-01

    We present a generalized convolution theorem in the fractional Fourier domains that preserves the convolution theorem of the conventional Fourier transform. The Papoulis-like generalized sampling expansions in the fractional Fourier domains using this generalized convolution theorem are also derived and it is shown that the classical generalized Papoulis sampling expansion is a special case of it. Its application in the context of the image superresolution is also discussed.

  5. JOB CORPS TRAINEES AS A SAMPLE OF THE POPULATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDGERTON, HAROLD A.; SYLVESTER, ROBERT W.

    THE SIMILARITY OF JOB CORPS TRAINEES TO THE POPULATION OF THE SAME AGE FROM WHICH THEY WERE DRAWN AND PROPORTION OF TRAINEES COMING FROM EACH STATE WERE DETERMINED. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM PREENROLLMENT APPLICATIONS, CENSUS REPORTS, AND PUBLICATIONS. FINDINGS INCLUDED -- (1) THE NUMBER OF 16- TO 17-YEAR-OLD MALE TRAINEES WAS DISPROPORTIONATELY…

  6. Obstructive sleep apnoea in the general population: highly prevalent but minimal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Arnardottir, Erna S; Bjornsdottir, Erla; Olafsdottir, Kristin A; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as defined by an apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 in the middle-aged general population, and the interrelationship between OSA, sleep-related symptoms, sleepiness and vigilance.A general population sample of 40-65-year-old Icelanders was invited to participate in a study protocol that included a type 3 sleep study, questionnaire and a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT).Among the 415 subjects included in the study, 56.9% had no OSA (AHI <5), 24.1% had mild OSA (AHI 5-14.9), 12.5% had moderate OSA (AHI 15-29.9), 2.9% had severe OSA (AHI ≥30) and 3.6% were already diagnosed and receiving OSA treatment. However, no significant relationship was found between AHI and subjective sleepiness or clinical symptoms. A relationship with objective vigilance assessed by PVT was only found for those with AHI ≥30. Subjects already on OSA treatment and those accepting OSA treatment after participating in the study were more symptomatic and sleepier than others with similar OSA severity, as assessed by the AHI.In a middle-aged general population, approximately one in five subjects had moderate-to-severe OSA, but the majority of them were neither symptomatic nor sleepy and did not have impaired vigilance.

  7. Awareness to sun exposure and use of sunscreen by the general population

    PubMed Central

    Al Robaee, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    Sun exposure has a pathogenic effect on the development of skin cancer, whose prevalence increases worldwide. Educational programs are carried out to change high risk sun exposure behaviours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Saudi population regarding sun exposure and the risk of skin cancers, as well as to study their sun-protective attitudes and practices. A cross-sectional population-based survey using specially devised questionnaire on a stratified random sample of general population in Qassim Province between January and March 2010. One thousand three hundred and seventy six persons participated in the study. A high sun exposure of more than 10 hours per week was reported by 661 persons (48%). Fifty six percent of respondents were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer but the rate of sun screen use was only 8.3%. Socio-demographic factors more likely to be associated with sunscreen use were: females, higher social class, higher levels of education, type 4 skin and married individuals. This study has indicated a low rate of sunscreen use by our population despite reasonably good knowledge about the hazards of sun exposure. This necessitates the need for health education program. We hope that the results of our study will be used for setting up a sun policy for Saudi general public. PMID:21108614

  8. Prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia - The RISE study.

    PubMed

    Tan, J; Schöfer, H; Araviiskaia, E; Audibert, F; Kerrouche, N; Berg, M

    2016-03-01

    There is an unmet need for general population-based epidemiological data on rosacea based on contemporary diagnostic criteria and validated population survey methodology. To evaluate the prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia. General population screening was conducted in 9-10 cities per country to ensure adequate geographic representation. In Part I of this two-phase study, screening of a representative sample of the general population (every fifth person or every fifth door using a fixed-step procedure on a random route sample) was expedited with use of a questionnaire and algorithm based on current diagnostic criteria for rosacea. Of the subjects that screened positive in the initial phase, a randomly selected sample (every third subject) t`hen underwent diagnostic confirmation by a dermatologist in Part II. A total of 3052 and 3013 subjects (aged 18-65 years) were screened in Germany and Russia respectively. Rosacea prevalence was 12.3% [95%CI, 10.2-14.4] in Germany and 5.0% [95%CI, 2.8-7.2] in Russia. The profile of subjects with rosacea (75% women; mean age of 40 years; mainly skin phototype II or III, majority of subjects with sensitive facial skin) and subtype distribution were similar. Overall, 18% of subjects diagnosed with rosacea were aged 18-30 years. Over 80% were not previously diagnosed. Within the previous year, 47.5% of subjects had received no rosacea care and 23.7% had received topical and/or systemic drugs. Over one-third (35% Germany, 43% Russia) of rosacea subjects reported a moderate to severe adverse impact on quality of life. Rosacea is highly prevalent in Germany (12.3%) and Russia (5.0%). The demographic profile of rosacea subjects was similar between countries and the majority were previously undiagnosed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Generalization of Carey's equality and a theorem on stationary population.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Carey, James R

    2015-09-01

    Carey's Equality pertaining to stationary models is well known. In this paper, we have stated and proved a fundamental theorem related to the formation of this Equality. This theorem will provide an in-depth understanding of the role of each captive subject, and their corresponding follow-up duration in a stationary population. We have demonstrated a numerical example of a captive cohort and the survival pattern of medfly populations. These results can be adopted to understand age-structure and aging process in stationary and non-stationary population models.

  11. Psychopathology of the General Population Referred by Primary Care Physicians for Urgent Assessment in Psychiatric Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McLenan, Judith; Lazzari, Carlo; McMillan, Gail; Mackie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years) referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs) to an Urgent Referral Team (URT) based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays) for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors. Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits. Results: We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges. Conclusion: The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals. PMID:28050179

  12. Schizophrenia risk factors constitute general risk factors for psychiatric symptoms in the population.

    PubMed

    Breetvelt, Elemi J; Boks, Marco P M; Numans, Mattijs E; Selten, Jean-Paul; Sommer, Iris E C; Grobbee, Diederick E; Kahn, René S; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2010-07-01

    The presence of a psychosis continuum is suggested by studies showing that schizophrenia and non-clinical psychotic symptoms in the general population share the same risk factors. However, to our knowledge no large-scale studies have been conducted which examine the specificity of these risk factors in the general population. To investigate whether socio-demographic characteristics associated with non-clinical psychotic symptoms are also associated with other psychiatric symptoms. And secondly, to examine to what extent concomitant psychiatric symptoms explain the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and non-clinical psychotic symptoms. In a general population sample of 4894 subjects (mean age 39 years, 45% men) from the Utrecht Health Project we investigated the associations of socio-demographical characteristics with non-clinical psychotic symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms by using the SCL-90. We examined these associations using multivariable logistic regression analyses with and without controlling for the presence of other psychiatric symptoms. Participants with non-clinical psychotic symptoms had an 89% probability of concomitant depressive, anxiety or phobic anxiety symptoms, compared to 11% in participants without psychotic symptoms. The risk profiles for non-clinical psychotic symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms were largely similar. Non-Dutch ethnicity was most strongly associated with non-clinical psychotic symptoms. Adjusting for other psychiatric symptoms did not increase the specificity of the risk factors. Socio-demographic risk factors for non-clinical psychotic symptoms in the general population are also risk factors for other psychiatric symptoms. The relationship between these risk factors and psychotic symptoms are for a substantial part explained by an increase in other psychiatric symptoms. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale in an acute psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Kertz, Sarah; Bigda-Peyton, Joe; Bjorgvinsson, Throstur

    2013-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric presentations; however, GAD has the lowest diagnostic reliability of the anxiety disorders and is poorly recognized in clinical practice. A more reliable assessment of GAD could lead to earlier detection and treatment of the disorder, which has an otherwise debilitating course and significant associated impairment. The 7-item GAD Scale (GAD-7) has shown promise as a measure with good clinical utility and strong psychometric properties in primary care and community settings but has yet to be assessed in acute psychiatric populations. This study examined the validity of the GAD-7 in a sample of 232 patients enrolled in a partial hospital programme. Patients completed a diagnostic interview and a battery of self-report measures before and after treatment. Findings suggest that the GAD-7 has good internal consistency and good convergent validity with worry, anxiety, depression and stress, and the measure was sensitive to change over the course of a short intensive cognitive-behavioural therapy partial hospital programme. However, the confirmatory analysis failed to support the hypothesized unidimensional factor structure; and although the GAD-7 demonstrated good sensitivity (.83), specificity was poor (.46) in identifying patients with GAD. Overall, the GAD-7 appears to be a valid measure of generalized anxiety symptoms in this sample, on the basis of good internal consistency, convergent validity and sensitivity to change, but does not perform well as a screener for GAD. The GAD-7 Scale is an easy-to-score, self-report measure of core generalized anxiety disorder symptoms. The GAD-7 Scale has good internal consistency and convergent validity with depression, anxiety, stress and worry, and is sensitive to change. The GAD-7 Scale appears to be a good measure of generalized anxiety symptoms in an acute psychiatric sample. The GAD-7 Scale does not perform well as a screener for GAD and should not

  14. Information Processing Profiles of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnekreef, J. Agnes; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Althaus, Monika; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the relationships between several information processing capacities and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a general population sample of 10- to 12-year olds (N = 2,037 51% girls). Methods: Parent-reported behavior problems as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist were used to form four…

  15. Information Processing Profiles of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnekreef, J. Agnes; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Althaus, Monika; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the relationships between several information processing capacities and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a general population sample of 10- to 12-year olds (N = 2,037 51% girls). Methods: Parent-reported behavior problems as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist were used to form four…

  16. IDENTIFYING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental studies examining reproductive endpoints such as spontaneous abortion or fertility often rely on very select study groups (i.e., convenience samples, highly exposed, etc.) that cannot be easily generalized to the overall population. For exposures limited to a parti...

  17. IDENTIFYING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental studies examining reproductive endpoints such as spontaneous abortion or fertility often rely on very select study groups (i.e., convenience samples, highly exposed, etc.) that cannot be easily generalized to the overall population. For exposures limited to a parti...

  18. [The HLA system in the Moroccan population: General review].

    PubMed

    Brick, C; Atouf, O; Essakalli, M

    2015-01-01

    The Moroccan population is an interesting study model of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism given its ethnic and genetic diversity. Through an analysis of the literature, this work proposes to establish a balance of knowledge for this population in the field of histocompatibility: HLA diversity, anthropology, transplantation and HLA associations and diseases. This analysis shows that the HLA system has not been fully explored within the Moroccan population. However, the results obtained allowed us to initiate a database reflecting the specific healthy Moroccan population HLA polymorphism to identify immigration flows and relationships with different people of the world and to reveal the association of certain HLA alleles with frequent pathologies. We also propose to analyze the reasons hindering the development of this activity in Morocco and we will try to identify some perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Sample-size requirements for evaluating population size structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, J.C.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    A method with an accompanying computer program is described to estimate the number of individuals needed to construct a sample length-frequency with a given accuracy and precision. First, a reference length-frequency assumed to be accurate for a particular sampling gear and collection strategy was constructed. Bootstrap procedures created length-frequencies with increasing sample size that were randomly chosen from the reference data and then were compared with the reference length-frequency by calculating the mean squared difference. Outputs from two species collected with different gears and an artificial even length-frequency are used to describe the characteristics of the method. The relations between the number of individuals used to construct a length-frequency and the similarity to the reference length-frequency followed a negative exponential distribution and showed the importance of using 300-400 individuals whenever possible.

  20. Two-Stage Sampling Procedures for Comparing Means When Population Distributions Are Non-Normal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen

    Two-stage sampling procedures for comparing two population means when variances are heterogeneous have been developed by D. G. Chapman (1950) and B. K. Ghosh (1975). Both procedures assume sampling from populations that are normally distributed. The present study reports on the effect that sampling from non-normal distributions has on Type I error…

  1. Y-chromosome STRs in an Antioquian (Colombia) population sample.

    PubMed

    Builes, Juan José; Bravo, M Luisa; Gómez, Claudia; Espinal, Claudia; Aguirre, Diana; Gómez, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Jorge; Castañeda, Patricia; Montoya, Alba; Moreno, Manuel; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor

    2006-12-01

    Haplotype data were obtained from a sample of 777 unrelated male individuals from Antioquia Department (Colombia), for eight Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393). A total of 442 different haplotypes were identified of which 334 were represented only once in the database and the most frequent haplotype was found in 32 individuals. A high haplotype diversity was found (99.45%). Genetic distances were calculated using previously published haplotype data and the lowest values were found for the comparisons with samples of lberian origin.

  2. Two Test Items to Explore High School Students' Beliefs of Sample Size When Sampling from Large Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Anthony; Henderson, Sally; Penman, John

    2010-01-01

    Two test items that examined high school students' beliefs of sample size for large populations using the context of opinion polls conducted prior to national and state elections were developed. A trial of the two items with 21 male and 33 female Year 9 students examined their naive understanding of sample size: over half of students chose a…

  3. NINE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF SPECIFIC PHOBIA IN A POPULATION SAMPLE OF OLDER PEOPLE.

    PubMed

    Sigström, Robert; Skoog, Ingmar; Karlsson, Björn; Nilsson, Johan; Östling, Svante

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the long-term course of specific phobia (SP) in the general population. We examined the prevalence and course of SP and subthreshold fears in an older population followed over 9 years. A psychiatric examination was performed in a population-based sample of 558 70-year-olds, among whom 303 dementia-free survivors were followed up at both ages 75 and 79. Fears were rated with respect to level of anxiety and social or other consequences. DSM-IV SP was diagnosed when fears were associated with prominent anxiety and had social or other consequences. All other fears were labeled subthreshold fears. The prevalence of SP declined from 9.9% at age 70 to 4.0% at age 79. The reason was that the prevalence of fears associated with prominent anxiety (mandatory in the diagnosis) decreased whereas the prevalence of fears that gave social or other consequences remained stable. A total of 14.5% of the population had SP at least once during the study. Among these, 11.4% had SP and 65.9% had specific fear at all three examinations. The prevalence of fears associated with prominent anxiety decreased with age, resulting in an overall decline in the prevalence of SP. SP seems to be a fluctuating disorder, and in most cases an exacerbation of chronic subthreshold fears. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, Mj; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-12-03

    Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene-environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene-environmental interactions in the aetiology of common mental disorders in representative

  5. Estimating the abundance of clustered animal population by using adaptive cluster sampling and negative binomial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Yizhou; Shifa, Naima

    2013-09-01

    An estimator for finding the abundance of a rare, clustered and mobile population has been introduced. This model is based on adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) to identify the location of the population and negative binomial distribution to estimate the total in each site. To identify the location of the population we consider both sampling with replacement (WR) and sampling without replacement (WOR). Some mathematical properties of the model are also developed.

  6. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  7. A general approach for population games with application to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Alison P.

    2011-01-01

    Reconciling the interests of individuals with the interests of communities is a major challenges in designing and implementing health policies. In this paper, we present a technique based on a combination of mechanistic population-scale models from Markov decision process theory and game theory that facilitates the evaluation of game theoretic decisions at both individual and community scales. We demonstrate how nonlinear population models can be combined with game theory to inform the management of infectious diseases. To illustrate our technique, we provide solutions to several variants of the simple vaccination game including imperfect vaccine efficacy and differential waning of natural and vaccine immunity. In addition, we show how path-integral approaches can be applied to the study of models in which strategies are fixed waiting times rather than exponential random variables. These methods can be applied to a wide variety of decision problems with population-dynamic feedbacks. PMID:21277314

  8. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  9. Multiple Stellar Populations in Galactic Globular Clusters: General Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotto, Giampaolo

    2015-08-01

    Globular clusters are the most ancient stellar systems for which we can have a reliable age estimate, and therefore bring information on star formation processes in the early Universe. The discovery that these objects host different, distinct populations of stars drastically changed our view on their origin and evolution. Some of the most plausible scenarios able to account for the photometric and chemical properties of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters necessarily imply that these objects must have been much more massive in the past. Whether globular clusters should be considered either as remnants of massive star clusters or nuclei of former dwarf galaxies (or both of them) is an open issue. Surely, we need to better know the chemical and kinematical properties of the different populations hosted by single clusters, and their relation with the cluster parameters, in order to shed light on this problem. Determination of the basic properties of stars hosted by (young ) massive clusters, nuclear clusters, and dwarf galaxies and a comparison with the parameters characterizing multiple stellar populations in globular cluster is a complementary approach that shall be pursued.For the first time, in my talk, I will discuss the results of a large, legacy multi-wavelength, astrometric and photometric survey based on ACS and WFC3/HST observations which include UV data. A census of the presence and frequency of multiple populations in almost half of the globular clusters of our Galaxy, their chemical tagging, radial distribution and kinematics will be presented. The relation between multiple population properties and cluster parameters will be illustrated. Consequences of these observational facts on different scenarios proposed for the formation and evolution of globular cluster stars will be critically discussed. Future perspectives towards our understanding if this complex phenomenon will be highlighted.

  10. Model for estimating of population abundance using line transect sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulraqeb Abdullah Saeed, Gamil; Muhammad, Noryanti; Zun Liang, Chuan; Yusoff, Wan Nur Syahidah Wan; Zuki Salleh, Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Today, many studies use the nonparametric methods for estimating objects abundance, for the simplicity, the parametric methods are widely used by biometricians. This paper is designed to present the proposed model for estimating of population abundance using line transect technique. The proposed model is appealing because it is strictly monotonically decreasing with perpendicular distance and it satisfies the shoulder conditions. The statistical properties and inference of the proposed model are discussed. In the presented detection function, theoretically, the proposed model is satisfied the line transect assumption, that leads us to study the performance of this model. We use this model as a reference for the future research of density estimation. In this paper we also study the assumption of the detection function and introduce the corresponding model in order to apply the simulation in future work.

  11. Aggression levels in treatment seeking inpatients with alcohol-related problems compared to levels in the general population in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József; Bácskai, Erika; Czobor, Pál

    2007-08-01

    Association between aggression and heavy alcohol use is documented in the literature in various disparate samples and settings. Comparison of trait aggression levels using a uniform methodology across different samples is almost entirely lacking. This study compared trait aggression levels of treated inpatients with severe alcohol-related problems with those of a nationally representative sample of the general adult population using the same methodology. Results indicated that in the patient population the trait aggression levels were substantially higher than in the general population. Because several studies have demonstrated that aggressive personality traits are closely linked with violence after drinking alcohol, our results further highlight the importance of treatment programs in this at-risk population. From a methodological perspective, the higher trait aggression level of inpatients with alcohol-related problems compared with the general population supports the assumption that the underrepresentation of alcoholics in the population surveys may restrict the range in the severity of alcohol use and dependence, and may therefore produce severely biased results in such studies.

  12. Ambulatory cancer and US general population reference values and cutoff scores for the functional assessment of cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Pearman, Timothy; Yanez, Betina; Peipert, John; Wortman, Katy; Beaumont, Jennifer; Cella, David

    2014-09-15

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures are commonly used in oncology research. Interest in their use for monitoring or screening is increasing. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) is one of the most widely used HRQOL instruments. Consequently, oncology researchers and practitioners have an increasing need for reference values for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and its 7-item rapid version, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General 7 (FACT-G7), to compare FACT scores across specific subgroups of patients in research trials and practice. The objectives of this study are to provide 1) reference values from a sample of the general US adult population and a sample of adults diagnosed with cancer and 2) cutoff scores for quality of life. A sample of the general US population (N = 1075) and a sample of patients with cancer from 12 studies (N = 5065) were analyzed. Cutoff scores were established using distribution- and anchor-based methods. Mean values for the cancer sample were analyzed by performance status, cancer type, and disease status. Also, t tests and established criteria for meaningful differences were used to compare values. FACT-G and FACT-G7 scores in the general US population sample and cancer sample were generally comparable. Among the sample of patients with cancer, FACT-G and FACT-G7 scores worsened with declining performance status and increasing disease status. These data will aid interpretation of the magnitude and meaning of FACT scores, and allow for comparisons of scores across studies. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  13. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  14. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  15. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  16. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  17. Illicit drug use in patients with psychotic disorders compared with that in the general population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ringen, P A; Melle, I; Birkenaes, A B; Engh, J A; Faerden, A; Jónsdóttir, H; Nesvåg, R; Vaskinn, A; Friis, S; Larsen, F; Opjordsmoen, S; Sundet, K; Andreassen, O A

    2008-02-01

    Prevalence estimates of illicit drug use in psychotic disorders vary between studies, and only a few studies compared prevalence estimates with those in the general population. Cross-sectional study comparing 148 stable-phase patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with 329 representative general citizens of Oslo. A total of 849 patients from the same hospital department in the same time period constituted a patient reference group. Lifetime illicit drug use was 44% higher (P < 0.001) in study patients than in the general population sample; while lifetime use of amphetamine/cocaine was 160% higher (P < 0.001). No differences were found between user groups for sociodemographic characteristics. Patients with psychotic disorders in stable phase had a markedly higher lifetime use of any illicit substance, especially amphetamine/cocaine, than the general population. They also seemed to use drugs more periodically. The same sociodemographic characteristics were associated with increased illicit drug use in both groups.

  18. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  19. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  20. Clinical and Polysomnographic Predictors of the Natural History of Poor Sleep in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L.; Calhoun, Susan L.; Karataraki, Maria; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Liao, Duanping

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Approximately 8-10% of the general population suffers from chronic insomnia, whereas another 20-30% of the population has insomnia symptoms at any given time (i.e., poor sleep). However, few longitudinal studies have examined risk factors of the natural history of poor sleep, and none have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Design: Representative longitudinal study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: From a random, general population sample of 1,741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1,395 were followed up after 7.5 yr. Measurements: Full medical evaluation and 1-night PSG at baseline and telephone interview at follow-up. Results: The rate of incident poor sleep was 18.4%. Physical (e.g., obesity, sleep apnea, and ulcer) and mental (e.g., depression) health conditions and behavioral factors (e.g., smoking and alcohol consumption) increased the odds of incident poor sleep as compared to normal sleep. The rates of persistent, remitted, and poor sleepers who developed chronic insomnia were 39%, 44%, and 17%, respectively. Risk factors for persistent poor sleep were physical health conditions combined with psychologic distress. Shorter objective sleep duration and a family history of sleep problems were risk factors for poor sleep evolving into chronic insomnia. Conclusions: Poor sleep appears to be primarily a symptom of physical and mental health conditions, whereas the persistence of poor sleep is associated with psychologic distress. Importantly, sleep apnea appears to be associated with incident poor sleep but not with chronic insomnia. Finally, this study suggests that objective short sleep duration in poor sleepers is a biologic marker of genetic predisposition to chronic insomnia. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Singareddy R; Shaffer ML; Calhoun SL; Karataraki M; Vela-Bueno A; Liao D. Clinical and polysomnographic predictors of the natural history of poor sleep in the general population

  1. Food Addiction: Its Prevalence and Significant Association with Obesity in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Food addiction’ shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, ‘food addiction’ contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. Objectives to assess 1) the prevalence of ‘food addiction’ in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of ‘food addiction’ were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with ‘food addiction’. Design A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. ‘Food addiction’ was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. Results The prevalence of ‘food addiction’ was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of ‘food addiction’ were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001). Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that ‘food addiction’ contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men. PMID:24023964

  2. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001). Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  3. Association of excessive daytime sleepiness with migraine and headache frequency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Stavem, Knut; Kristiansen, Håvard Anton; Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Kværner, Kari Jorunn; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2017-12-01

    Some previous studies have postulated an association between migraine and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). This study evaluated the association of EDS with migraine and headache frequency in a general population, after adjusting for potential confounding variables. The study was a postal survey of a random age and gender-stratified sample of 40,000 persons aged 20 to 80 years old drawn by the National Population Register in Norway. The questionnaire included questions about migraine, headache, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and various comorbidities. EDS was defined as ESS > 10. The association of EDS and migraine/headache were analysed by bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 21,177 persons responded to the ESS and were included in the analyses. The odds ratio (OR) for EDS was increased for migraineurs (1.42 (95% CI 1.31─1.54), p < 0.001) compared to non-migraineurs; however, this finding was not significant after adjustment for a number of possible confounders. EDS increased with increasing headache frequency, with an OR of 2.74 (95% CI 2.05─3.65), p < 0.001) for those with headache on >179 days per year compared to those without headache in multivariable analysis. In a general population, the odds for EDS increased significantly with the headache frequency, irrespective of migraine status. EDS was not associated with reported migraine in multivariable analysis.

  4. Interarm blood pressure difference and target organ damage in the general population.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jouni K; Puukka, Pauli J; Jula, Antti M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate interarm differences of blood pressure (BP) and its determinants, and to clarify whether both arms are equally good in assessing BP and target organ damage in the general population. We studied a representative sample of Finnish adult population with 484 study participants, ages 25-74 years. BP was measured twice by an oscillometric monitor simultaneously on both arms. Study participants underwent a clinical examination including measurements of serum lipids, glucose and indicators of target organ damage. BP was 2.3/0.2 mmHg higher on right than on left arm (P < 0.001/P = 0.15 for SBP/DBP differences). SBP and DBP measured on right and left arms correlated equally with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), posterior wall thickness (PWT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and albuminuria. Higher SBP level was an independent determinant of both greater systolic and diastolic interarm BP difference. Exaggerated absolute diastolic interarm BP difference (>5 mmHg) was associated with higher BMI, arm circumference, LVMI, IVST and PWT, whereas exaggerated absolute systolic interarm BP difference (>10 mmHg) was not associated with any clinical variables. There was only a small difference in BP between arms in a healthy general population. Both arms are equally good determinants of target organ damage. BP should be measured at least once on both arms and prefer the arm with higher BP readings in the future BP measurements.

  5. The structure of psychological life satisfaction: insights from farmers and a general community sample in Australia.

    PubMed

    Obrien, Léan V; Berry, Helen L; Hogan, Anthony

    2012-11-14

    Psychological life satisfaction is a robust predictor of wellbeing. Public health measures to improve wellbeing would benefit from an understanding of how overall life satisfaction varies as a function of satisfaction with multiple life domains, an area that has been little explored. We examine a sample of drought-affected Australian farmers and a general community sample of Australians to investigate how domain satisfaction combines to form psychological satisfaction. In particular, we introduce a way of statistically testing for the presence of "supra-domains" of satisfaction to propose a novel way of examining the composition of psychological life satisfaction to gain insights for health promotion and policy. Covariance between different perceptions of life domain satisfaction was identified by conducting correlation, regression, and exploratory factor analyses on responses to the Personal Wellbeing Index. Structural equations modelling was then used to (a) validate satisfaction supra-domain constructs emerging from different perceptions of life domain satisfaction, and (b) model relationships between supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction. Perceived satisfaction with eight different life domains loaded onto a single unitary satisfaction construct adequately in each sample. However, in both samples, different domains better loaded onto two separate but correlated constructs ('supra-domains'): "satisfaction with connectedness" and "satisfaction with efficacy". Modelling reciprocal pathways between these supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction revealed that efficacy mediated the link between connectedness and psychological satisfaction. If satisfaction with connectedness underlies satisfaction with efficacy (and thus psychological satisfaction), a novel insight for health policy emerges: psychological life satisfaction, a vital part of wellbeing, can potentially be enhanced by strengthening

  6. The structure of psychological life satisfaction: insights from farmers and a general community sample in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological life satisfaction is a robust predictor of wellbeing. Public health measures to improve wellbeing would benefit from an understanding of how overall life satisfaction varies as a function of satisfaction with multiple life domains, an area that has been little explored. We examine a sample of drought-affected Australian farmers and a general community sample of Australians to investigate how domain satisfaction combines to form psychological satisfaction. In particular, we introduce a way of statistically testing for the presence of “supra-domains” of satisfaction to propose a novel way of examining the composition of psychological life satisfaction to gain insights for health promotion and policy. Methods Covariance between different perceptions of life domain satisfaction was identified by conducting correlation, regression, and exploratory factor analyses on responses to the Personal Wellbeing Index. Structural equations modelling was then used to (a) validate satisfaction supra-domain constructs emerging from different perceptions of life domain satisfaction, and (b) model relationships between supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction. Results Perceived satisfaction with eight different life domains loaded onto a single unitary satisfaction construct adequately in each sample. However, in both samples, different domains better loaded onto two separate but correlated constructs (‘supra-domains’): “satisfaction with connectedness” and “satisfaction with efficacy”. Modelling reciprocal pathways between these supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction revealed that efficacy mediated the link between connectedness and psychological satisfaction. Conclusions If satisfaction with connectedness underlies satisfaction with efficacy (and thus psychological satisfaction), a novel insight for health policy emerges: psychological life satisfaction, a vital part of

  7. [Prevalence of pathological gambling in the general population around Paris: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Legauffre, C; Genolini, C; Lucas, C; Morvannou, A; Lerfel, Y; Adès, J

    2011-09-01

    Pathological gambling is characterized in the DSM IV-TR as one of the disorders of impulse control. Problem gambling is also part of what is considered as behavioural addictions, the criteria of which have been defined by Goodman, with intrusive thoughts about the game, spending more and more to play, unable to control, reduce or stop gambling despite negative consequences, etc. There is no epidemiological study in France on the prevalence of pathological gambling. We wanted to study the prevalence of pathological gambling in a sample of 529 persons: 368 gamblers of Pari Mutuel Urbain and La Française des Jeux, and 161 persons in the general population. The study took place between January 2008 and June 2009. As instruments, we used: the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS) for screening of pathological gambling and the BIS-10 for impulsiveness' evaluation, the HAD scale to assess anxiety and depression and the ASRS for the evaluation of attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The rate of pathological gambling in the general population is 1.24% (this result is similar to those found in other places, such as in Quebec). In the general population, the rate of play at risk is of 5.59%. Among the population of gamblers, the rate for pathological gambling (JP) amounted to 9.23% and risk gambling to 10.86%. Men are overrepresented in the group of pathological gamblers (88.9%), also with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Suicide attempts are more important than in the general population, but the difference was statistically significant. Depression and anxiety are particularly high, 40% of gamblers with an anxiety score significantly higher. The results indicate rates close to those of other countries, such as Canada. It would be necessary to establish follow-up studies of populations and patients, as well as specific studies on people who frequent casinos, racetracks and internet gambling. The importance of the phenomenon is obvious, because almost 20% of

  8. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  9. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  10. Ecstasy use and depression: a 4-year longitudinal study among an Australian general community sample.

    PubMed

    George, Amanda M; Olesen, Sarah; Tait, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal, population-based studies can better assess the relationship of ecstasy use with depression. We examined whether change in ecstasy use was associated with change in depressive symptoms/probable depression over a 4-year period, among a large Australian sample. The Personality and Total Health project is a longitudinal general community study of Australians from Canberra and Queanbeyan. Data from the youngest cohort when aged 24-30 (N = 2, 128) and 4 years later (N = 1, 977) was included. The Goldberg depression scale and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms and probable depression, respectively. Multilevel growth models also considered demographics, psychosocial characteristics, and other drug use. Ecstasy use was not associated with long-term depressive symptoms or greater odds of depression in multivariate analyses. Users had more self-reported depressive symptoms when using ecstasy compared to not using. However, differences between people who had and had not ever used ecstasy largely accounted for this. Other factors were more important in the prediction of depression. It would be premature to conclude that ecstasy use is not related to the development of long-term depressive symptoms, given the relatively low level of ecstasy and other drug use in this community sample. Results showed that other factors need to be considered when investigating ecstasy use and depression.

  11. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

  12. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

  13. HapMap tagSNP transferability in multiple populations: general guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jinchuan; Witherspoon, David J.; Watkins, W. Scott; Zhang, Yuhua; Tolpinrud, Whitney; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2008-01-01

    This PDF receipt will only be used as the basis for generating PubMed Central (PMC) documents. PMC documents will be made available for review after conversion (approx. 2–3 weeks time). Any corrections that need to be made will be done at that time. No materials will be released to PMC without the approval of an author. Only the PMC documents will appear on PubMed Central -- this PDF Receipt will not appear on PubMed Central. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) has received much recent attention because of its value in localizing disease-causing genes. Due to the extensive LD between neighboring loci in the human genome, it is believed that a subset of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in a region (tagSNPs) can be selected to capture most of the remaining SNP variants. In this study, we examined LD patterns and HapMap tagSNP transferability in more than 300 individuals. A South Indian and an African Mbuti Pygmy population sample were included to evaluate the performance of HapMap tagSNPs in geographically distinct and genetically isolated populations. Our results show that HapMap tagSNPs selected with r2 >= 0.8 can capture more than 85% of the SNPs in populations that are from the same continental group. Combined tagSNPs from HapMap CEU and CHB+JPT serve as the best reference for the Indian sample. The HapMap YRI are a sufficient reference for tagSNP selection in the Pygmy sample. In addition to our findings, we reviewed over 25 recent studies of tagSNP transferability and propose a general guideline for selecting tagSNPs from HapMap populations. PMID:18482828

  14. [Factorial Structure of the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS) in a Colombian Population Sample].

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Agudelo, William; Jaén-Moreno, María José; Luque-Luque, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    The continuum hypothesis of psychosis assumes that hallucinations are not exclusive of psychotic disorders. A number of psychometric tests have been developed to assess psychosis using a dimensional model. To determine the factorial structure of the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS) for the Colombian population, and to contrast the fit of two factor models previously reported in the literature by conducting a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). This was a cross-sectional study in which 207 subjects from the general population were assessed using the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale. A two-factor structure with acceptable ordinal alpha coefficients (α=.88 and α=.87) was found. One factor gathered items related to multimodal perceptual alterations, and a second factor grouped items related with experiences linked to the temporal lobe. The analysis of the first factor indicated that it was dependent on cultural issues for the interpretation of sensations. The second factor appeared almost unchanged on diverse populations, suggesting its transcultural character. When comparing the models proposed by Bell et al. and Jaen-Moreno et al. using the data obtained from the sample, the confirmatory factor analysis conducted indicated inadequate goodness-of-fit indexes (χ(2)). However, some incremental goodness-of-fit indexes (normalized χ(2) [RMSEA]) were acceptable. The Jaén-Moreno et al. model showed the best fit to the data collected from the Colombian sample. The factorial structure of CAPS for the Colombian population appears to be sensitive to cultural issues, especially when describing anomalous sensorial experiences. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  16. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  17. The PACE study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in Parma's adult general population.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2017-02-17

    Headache is a widespread disorder and therefore it has a strong impact on quality of life. In the present work we focused on lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in general and by gender, in a population-based sample in Parma. A total of 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face-to-face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the crude past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Both lifetime and past-year prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than in males (odds ratio, respectively, 2.0 and 2.4). In our study, past-year prevalence decreased after age 50 in both genders. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. In over 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and therefore people were not very likely to develop headache after 50 years. The past-year and lifetime prevalence rate of headache in general that we found in our study falls within the lower range of values for headache prevalence in European countries. Further researches need to be set in the Italian epidemiological background.

  18. The magnetosheath electron population at lunar distance - General features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Reasoner, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the electron population in the earth's magnetosheath at lunar distance. The data used were collected by the Apollo 14 charged particle lunar environment experiment (CPLEE) during four inbound (dusk) and three outbound (dawn) passages of the moon through the magnetosheath. The magnetotail has a diameter of 52 earth radii, while the bow-shock cross section is about 91 earth radii. The average boundary locations computed from the complete data set are consistent with the prediction of fluid dynamics. The electron characteristics for the two least-disturbed passages are presented in detail. An examination of the energy spectra shows that a high-energy (200-2000 eV) tail is superimposed on the expected low-energy (40-200 eV) magnetosheath distribution. It is argued that the high-energy magnetosheath electron population originates at the bow shock, rather than from the plasma sheet.

  19. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey.

  20. Biomonitoring of 33 Elements in Blood and Urine Samples from Coastal Populations in Sanmen County of Zhejiang Province.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-jing; Luo, Ru-xin; Ma, Dong; Zhuo, Xian-yi

    2016-04-01

    To determine the normal reference values of 33 elements, Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Zn and Zr, in the blood and urine samples from the general population in Sanmen County of Zhejiang province, a typical coastal area of eastern China. The 33 elements in 272 blood and 300 urine samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The normality test of data was conducted using SPSS 17.0 Statistics. The data was compared with other reports. The normal reference values of the 33 elements in the blood and urine samples from the general population in Sanmen County were obtained, which of some elements were found to be similar with other reports, such as Co, Cu, Mn and Sr, while As, Cd, Hg and Pb were generally found to be higher than those previously reported. There was a wide variation between the reports from different countries in blood Ba. The normal reference values of the 33 elements in the blood and urine samples from the general population in Sanmen County are established, and successfully applied to two poisoning cases.

  1. Excavating past population structures by surname-based sampling: the genetic legacy of the Vikings in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Georgina R; Balaresque, Patricia; King, Turi E; Hansen, Ziff; Lee, Andrew C; Pergl-Wilson, Giles; Hurley, Emma; Roberts, Stephen J; Waite, Patrick; Jesch, Judith; Jones, Abigail L; Thomas, Mark G; Harding, Stephen E; Jobling, Mark A

    2008-02-01

    The genetic structures of past human populations are obscured by recent migrations and expansions and have been observed only indirectly by inference from modern samples. However, the unique link between a heritable cultural marker, the patrilineal surname, and a genetic marker, the Y chromosome, provides a means to target sets of modern individuals that might resemble populations at the time of surname establishment. As a test case, we studied samples from the Wirral Peninsula and West Lancashire, in northwest England. Place-names and archaeology show clear evidence of a past Viking presence, but heavy immigration and population growth since the industrial revolution are likely to have weakened the genetic signal of a 1,000-year-old Scandinavian contribution. Samples ascertained on the basis of 2 generations of residence were compared with independent samples based on known ancestry in the region plus the possession of a surname known from historical records to have been present there in medieval times. The Y-chromosomal haplotypes of these 2 sets of samples are significantly different, and in admixture analyses, the surname-ascertained samples show markedly greater Scandinavian ancestry proportions, supporting the idea that northwest England was once heavily populated by Scandinavian settlers. The method of historical surname-based ascertainment promises to allow investigation of the influence of migration and drift over the last few centuries in changing the population structure of Britain and will have general utility in other regions where surnames are patrilineal and suitable historical records survive.

  2. Excavating past population structures by surname-based sampling: the genetic legacy of the Vikings in northwest England

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Georgina R.; Balaresque, Patricia; King, Turi E.; Hansen, Ziff; Lee, Andrew C.; Pergl-Wilson, Giles; Hurley, Emma; Roberts, Stephen J.; Waite, Patrick; Jesch, Judith; Jones, Abigail L.; Thomas, Mark G.; Harding, Stephen E.; Jobling, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic structures of past human populations are obscured by recent migrations and expansions, and can been observed only indirectly by inference from modern samples. However, the unique link between a heritable cultural marker, the patrilineal surname, and a genetic marker, the Y chromosome, provides a means to target sets of modern individuals that might resemble populations at the time of surname establishment. As a test case, we studied samples from the Wirral peninsula and West Lancashire, in northwest England. Place names and archaeology show clear evidence of a past Viking presence, but heavy immigration and population growth since the Industrial Revolution are likely to have weakened the genetic signal of a thousand-year-old Scandinavian contribution. Samples ascertained on the basis of two generations of residence were compared with independent samples based on known ancestry in the region, plus the possession of a surname known from historical records to have been present there in medieval times. The Y-chromosomal haplotypes of these two sets of samples are significantly different, and in admixture analyses the surname-ascertained samples show markedly greater Scandinavian ancestry proportions, supporting the idea that northwest England was once heavily populated by Scandinavian settlers. The method of historical surname-based ascertainment promises to allow investigation of the influence of migration and drift over the last few centuries in changing the population structure of Britain, and will have general utility in other regions where surnames are patrilineal and suitable historical records survive. PMID:18032405

  3. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of HIV-1 isolates in the general population of Djibouti (Horn of Africa).

    PubMed

    Maslin, Jérôme; Rogier, Christophe; Berger, Franck; Khamil, Mohamed Ali; Mattera, Didier; Grandadam, Marc; Caron, Mélanie; Nicand, Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    During a national survey in 2002 in Djibouti, serum samples were collected using a valid sampling scheme from 2423 Djiboutians representing the general population of urban and rural districts. The HIV-1 seroprevalence was 2%. The HIV-1 polymerase gene from 53 untreated patients was amplified. Phylogenetic analysis of 34 isolates revealed a majority of subtype C (73%) as well as other subtypes, including CRF02_AG recombinants (18%), subtype D (6%), and subtype A (3%).

  4. [A general review of the discussion at the Beijing International Symposium on Population and Development].

    PubMed

    Ren, Y

    1985-03-29

    A general review of papers and discussions at the Beijing International Symposium on Population and Development held December 10-14, 1984 is presented. Discussions on population and development included China's population change 1949-1982, impacts of economic change on Tianjin's population, the population factor in economic development policy-making, Japanese population and development, recent population development in Hungary, population and economy, comprehensive long-term population development in Russia, fertility rate change factors in China, Shanghai's population change, and population and economic development in Mian County, Shaanxi Province. Fertility rate changes were discussed, including multinational borderline value assumptions, recent trends in life span fertility rate in China, fertility rate in Jiangsu Province, fertility rate change in Zhejiang Province, and sterilization in Yangjiaping, Thailand. Population and employment discussions included the economic impact of world population change, the 1984 International Population Conference, changes in economically productive population and employment strategy, employed/unemployed populations in Guangdong Province, and the economic composition of China's population. Urbanization discussions covered population and development methodological problems, population growth and economic development in the Pacific region, surplus rural population transfer and economic development in China, urbanization analysis, trends and urban population distribution problems, and Laioning Province population development. Issues in migration, population distribution, and regional population included migration and development of the Great Northwest, internal migration to Beijing, Chinese population growth and economic development by major region, and current population changes of Chinese Tibetans. Under social problems of population, discussions included women's status, development and population change, Shanghai's aging trend

  5. Explaining the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general working population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Löve, Jesper; Hensing, Gunnel; Holmgren, Kristina; Torén, Kjell

    2013-06-05

    Some previous studies have proposed potential explanatory factors for the social gradient in sickness absence. Yet, this research area is still in its infancy and in order to comprise the full range of socioeconomic positions there is a need for studies conducted on random population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if somatic and mental symptoms, mental wellbeing, job strain, and physical work environment could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees. This study was conducted on one random working population sample (n = 2763) and one sample of newly sick-listed cases of employees (n = 3044), drawn from the same random general population in western Sweden. Explanatory factors were self-rated 'Somatic and mental symptoms', 'Mental well-being', 'job strain', and 'physical work conditions' (i.e. heavy lifting and awkward work postures). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Somatic and mental symptoms, mental well-being, and job strain, could not explain the association between socioeconomic position and sickness absence in both women and men. However, physical work conditions explained the total association in women and much of this association in men. In men the gradient between Non-skilled manual OR 1.76 (1.24;2.48) and Skilled manual OR 1.59 (1.10;2.20), both in relation to Higher non-manual, remained unexplained. The present study strengthens the scientific evidence that social differences in physical work conditions seem to comprise a key element of the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Future studies should try to identify further predictors for this gradient in men.

  6. Understanding the Sampling Distribution: Why We Divide by n-1 To Estimate the Population Variance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Kimberly M.

    This paper explains the underlying assumptions of the sampling distribution and its role in significance testing. To compute statistical significance, estimates of population parameters must be obtained so that only one sampling distribution is defined. A sampling distribution is the underlying distribution of a statistic. Sampling distributions…

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared to the Norwegian general population.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, Signe Berit; Rustøen, Tone; Miaskowski, Christine

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to a sample from the Norwegian general population. This cross-sectional study evaluated 100 COPD patients with and without pain and 333 individuals from the Norwegian population with pain. After controlling for age and sex, a significantly higher percentage of patients with COPD (45%) reported pain than the general population (34%; P = .02). No differences were found in pain intensity scores, pain interference score, or number of pain locations between COPD patients and the general population. COPD patients reported moderate-to-severe pain located primarily in the chest, shoulders, neck, and thorax. For both groups, the most common pain treatment was analgesic use. Acupuncture/transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was used more frequently by COPD patients (P < .001) while physiotherapy was used more frequently by the general population (P = .007) to treat their pain. Pain is a significant problem for COPD patients. Additional research is warranted to replicate these findings and to provide a more detailed characterization of how pain changes over time and influences COPD patients' ability to function and their quality of life. Compared to the general population, pain is more common in patients with COPD and ranges from moderate to severe in its intensity. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Mistreatment: detection of mistreatment in a sample feminine population].

    PubMed

    Icart, M Teresa; Pulpon, Anna M; Icart, Carmen; Rigol, Assumpta; Martín Cardizales, Ruth; García Andrade, Rosa

    2007-02-01

    The authors identify possible psychological mistreatment and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of women who were attended to in the "Sant Josep" Primary Health Care Center in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat in Barcelona Province between February and June 2005 by means of an observational, descriptive and transversal study with a consecutive study of women older than 18 who were attended to by nurses for whatever health problem they had or who filed administrative paperwork. Data was obtained through the use of a self-administering questionnaire on which these items were recorded: social-health variables, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and questions elaborated ad hoc in order to identify mistreatment. More than half of the study participants complied with the criteria used to indicate symptoms of anxiety and depression, which recommended a follow-up session. The authors observed an association between depression and mistreatment. Part of the results of this study were presented in The 1st World Congress on Gender-Specific Medicine in February 2006 in Berlin. Financial Sources: The School of Nursing at the University of Barcelona (PREU12004/10) and the Catalan Institute for Women (U-39/05).

  9. Cranium asymmetry in a modern Greek population sample of known age and sex.

    PubMed

    Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Bertsatos, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and quantify cranium asymmetry, sexual differences in the set of individual asymmetry scores, and the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and age, in a modern Greek population sample. In addition, we test for the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis by assessing the correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and cause of death. The study sample consisted of 173 crania of known sex and adult age (92 males, 81 females) belonging to individuals who lived in Greece during the twentieth century. The three-dimensional coordinates of 77 ectocranial landmarks were digitized using a Microscribe 3DX contact digitizer and landmark configurations were analyzed using the generalized least-squares Procrustes method. Regarding directional asymmetry, the results show that the human skull has a tendency for a left-side excess for the Greek population. No significant directional asymmetry differences between the sexes are found. The highest levels of fluctuating asymmetry for both sexes are located on the skull base. The levels of fluctuating asymmetry in all cranial regions appear higher for males than females. Nevertheless, these differences do not present any statistical significance between sexes. Additionally, there is no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry scores and age for both males and females. Finally, the results of this study could not confirm that early development has a significant impact on adult health outcomes.

  10. Associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and semen quality parameters in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M.S.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Chen, Z.; Ye, A.; Kannan, K.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are urinary phthalate concentrations associated with altered semen quality parameters among males recruited from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER Urinary levels of metabolites of phthalate diesters are associated with lower total sperm counts, larger sperm head sizes, and higher percentages of morphologically abnormal sperm. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY High dose experiments in rats implicate phthalates as anti-androgens. Studies involving infertile men seeking care suggest that phthalates influence measures of semen quality raising concern about the implications for men in the general population. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This prospective cohort study comprised 501 male partners in couples discontinuing contraception to become pregnant, who were recruited from 16 US counties using population-based sampling frameworks from 2005 to 2009. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Urine and semen samples were obtained at baseline from 473 (94%) men, of whom 378 (80%) men provided a second sample the following month. Urine was analyzed for 14 monoester metabolites of phthalate diesters by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Semen samples were analyzed for 34 quality parameters categorized as general, motility, morphology, sperm head and sperm chromatin structure. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Urinary mono-[2-(carboxymethyl) hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isononyl phthalate (MNP) were significantly associated with lower total sperm counts and concentrations, larger sperm head sizes, higher proportions of megalo head sperm morphology, and/or other morphological changes. Urinary mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCPP) were significantly associated with lower sperm motility, and urine mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was significantly associated with higher sperm motility. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR

  11. Bootstrapping to Test for Nonzero Population Correlation Coefficients Using Univariate Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, William Howard; DeShea, Lise; Toothaker, Larry E.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Bard, David E.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes 2 new approaches to test a nonzero population correlation ([rho]): the hypothesis-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (HI) and the observed-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (OI). The authors simulated correlated populations with various combinations of normal and skewed variates. With [alpha[subscript "set"

  12. Haemangiomas and Associated Congenital Malformations in a Large Population-Based Sample of Infants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Naval Health Research Center Haemangiomas and Associated Congenital Malformations in A Large Population-based Sample of Infants A. T...unlimited. Naval Health Research Center 140 Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106 Haemangiomas and associated congenital malformations in a...Alcaraz JE, Smith TC. Haemangio- mas and associated congenital malformations in a large population-based sample of infants. Paediatric and Perinatal

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies in the general population and in selected groups of patients in Limoges, France.

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, S; Martin, P; Roussanne, M C; Denis, F

    1993-01-01

    In this study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence in France, the prevalence of antibodies to HCV (as tested by second generation ELISA, with RIBA-2 confirmation in ELISA 2 positive samples) was found to be low (0.3%) in the healthy general population. HCV infection prevalence increased in the general population in association with African or Asian origin and risk factors such as bisexuality, previous history of transfusion, and intravenous drug abuse. The prevalence of anti-HCV infection was also higher in specific patient groups infected with HIV or a history of transfusion or haemodialysis. PMID:7686115

  14. Assessing the Representativeness of Population-Sampled Health Surveys Through Linkage to Administrative Data on Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Emma; Leyland, Alastair H.; McCartney, Gerry; White, Ian R.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Rutherford, Lisa; Graham, Lesley; Gray, Linsay

    2014-01-01

    Health surveys are an important resource for monitoring population health, but selective nonresponse may impede valid inference. This study aimed to assess nonresponse bias in a population-sampled health survey in Scotland, with a focus on alcohol-related outcomes. Nonresponse bias was assessed by examining whether rates of alcohol-related harm (i.e., hospitalization or death) and all-cause mortality among respondents to the Scottish Health Surveys (from 1995 to 2010) were equivalent to those in the general population, and whether the extent of any bias varied according to sociodemographic attributes or over time. Data from consenting respondents (aged 20–64 years) to 6 Scottish Health Surveys were confidentially linked to death and hospitalization records and compared with general population counterparts. Directly age-standardized incidence rates of alcohol-related harm and all-cause mortality were lower among Scottish Health Survey respondents compared with the general population. For all years combined, the survey-to-population rate ratios were 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.76) for the incidence of alcohol-related harm and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.96) for all-cause mortality. Bias was more pronounced among persons residing in more deprived areas; limited evidence was found for regional or temporal variation. This suggests that corresponding underestimation of population rates of alcohol consumption is likely to be socially patterned. PMID:25227767

  15. Artificial Outdoor Nighttime Lights Associate with Altered Sleep Behavior in the American General Population.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Milesi, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Our study aims to explore the associations between outdoor nighttime lights (ONL) and sleep patterns in the human population. Cross-sectional telephone study of a representative sample of the general US population age 18 y or older. 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals (participation rate: 83.2%) were interviewed by telephone. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; sleep, mental and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition; International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) Edition). Individuals were geolocated by longitude and latitude. Outdoor nighttime light measurements were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), with nighttime passes taking place between 19:30 and 22:30 local time. Light data were correlated precisely to the geolocation of each participant of the general population sample. Living in areas with greater ONL was associated with delayed bedtime (P < 0.0001) and wake up time (P < 0.0001), shorter sleep duration (P < 0.01), and increased daytime sleepiness (P < 0.0001). Living in areas with greater ONL also increased the dissatisfaction with sleep quantity and quality (P < 0.0001) and the likelihood of having a diagnostic profile congruent with a circadian rhythm disorder (P < 0.0001). Although they improve the overall safety of people and traffic, nighttime lights in our streets and cities are clearly linked with modifications in human sleep behaviors and also impinge on the daytime functioning of individuals living in areas with greater ONL. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  17. The association between toxoplasma and the psychosis continuum in a general population setting.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Maija; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Härkänen, Tommi; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-07-12

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with increased risk for psychosis. However, the possible association between T. gondii and psychotic-like symptoms in the general adult population is unknown. We investigated whether T. gondii is associated with psychotic-like symptoms and psychosis diagnoses using data from Health 2000, a large cross-sectional health survey of the Finnish general population aged 30 and above. Seropositivity to toxoplasma was defined as a cutoff of 50IU/ml of IgG antibodies. Lifetime psychotic-like symptoms were identified with section G of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Munich version (M-CIDI). Symptoms were considered clinically relevant if they caused distress or help-seeking or there were at least three of them. Lifetime psychotic disorders were screened from the sample and were diagnosed with DSM-IV using SCID-I interview and information from medical records. All data were available for 5906 participants. We adjusted for variables related to T. gondii seropositivity (age, gender, education, region of residence, cat ownership, and C-reactive protein measuring inflammation) in regression models. We found that T. gondii seropositivity was significantly associated with clinically relevant psychotic-like symptoms (OR 1.77, p=0.001) and with the number of psychotic-like symptoms (IRR=1.55, p=0.001). The association between toxoplasma and diagnosed psychotic disorders did not reach statistical significance (OR 1.45 for schizophrenia). In a large sample representing the whole Finnish adult population, we found that serological evidence of toxoplasma infection predicted psychotic-like symptoms, independent of demographic factors and levels of C-reactive protein. Toxoplasma infection may be a risk factor for manifestation of psychotic-like symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlates of weight instability across the lifespan in a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Kasey L; Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Mitchell, Karen S; Aggen, Steven H; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-09-01

    Research from overweight/obese clinical samples links weight instability to poor health. This study investigated whether negative health outcomes were associated with weight instability in a population-based sample. One thousand five hundred ten women and 1,111 men from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry completed questionnaires assessing demographics, body size in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, health satisfaction, and disordered eating. Noneating disorder psychiatric diagnoses were assessed via clinical interviews. Weight instability was related to lower health satisfaction and self-esteem, and higher body dissatisfaction, dieting, and binge eating for both sexes. Weight unstable women were more likely to meet criteria for lifetime major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and eating disorders. Weight stable women were more likely to abuse alcohol; however, two of these associations [e.g. weight instability and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and weight stability and alcohol abuse] became nonsignificant once lifetime binge eating was accounted for, indicating that these forms of psychopathology are more strongly related to binge eating than weight instability itself. No associations between weight stability and psychiatric diagnoses were found in men. Weight instability is related to mental and physical health concerns for both sexes. It was also specifically associated with depression and eating pathology in women. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income.

  20. Correlates of Weight Instability across the Lifespan in a Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Serdar, Kasey L.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research from overweight/obese clinical samples links weight instability to poor health. This study investigated whether negative health outcomes were associated with weight instability in a population-based sample. Method One thousand five hundred ten women and 1,111 men from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry completed questionnaires assessing demographics, body size in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, health satisfaction, and disordered eating. Noneating disorder psychiatric diagnoses were assessed via clinical interviews. Results Weight instability was related to lower health satisfaction and self-esteem, and higher body dissatisfaction, dieting, and binge eating for both sexes. Weight unstable women were more likely to meet criteria for lifetime major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and eating disorders. Weight stable women were more likely to abuse alcohol; however, two of these associations [e.g. weight instability and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and weight stability and alcohol abuse] became non-significant once lifetime binge eating was accounted for, indicating that these forms of psychopathology are more strongly related to binge eating than weight instability itself. No associations between weight stability and psychiatric diagnoses were found in men. Discussion Weight instability is related to mental and physical health concerns for both sexes. It was also specifically associated with depression and eating pathology in women. PMID:20957706

  1. The relationship of green space, depressive symptoms and perceived general health in urban population.

    PubMed

    Reklaitiene, Regina; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Dedele, Audrius; Virviciute, Dalia; Vensloviene, Jone; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Baceviciene, Migle; Luksiene, Dalia; Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Laura; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bobak, Martin; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    To assess the relationship between green space proximity, use of green space and depressive symptoms and perceived general health among a random sample men and women. Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 6,944 45-72 year old Kaunas city residents. Self-reported questionnaires provided information on sociodemographic variables, health behaviours, depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living less than 300 m, within interval of 300-999 m, and equal or more than 1 km from a park. The use of the park was divided into two categories: no park use or use <4hrs/week and use of the park ≥4 h/week. The study received approval from the Kaunas Regional Research Ethics Committee. Multiple logistic regression assessed the associations controlling for confounding variables. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and poor and or very poor perceived general health was higher in women than in men. The association between the use of the park and residential proximity to the park revealed that women living >300 m from a green space and who used the space ≥4 h/week showed higher odds 1.92 (1.11-3.3) and 1.68 (0.81-3.48) of depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health as compared to those who used the park <4 hrs/week and residential proximity was >300 m. The results of our study confirmed an association between use of the green space, residential proximity, and depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health among women only. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Chemical abundances in LMC stellar populations. II. The bar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Swaelmen, M.; Hill, V.; Primas, F.; Cole, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    favour of an episode of enhanced star formation a few Gyr ago, occurring in the central parts of the LMC and leading to the formation of the bar. This is in agreement with recently derived star formation histories. Proposals 072.B-0293(B) and 078.B-0323(A), P.I. Vanessa Hill.Full Tables 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and abundances tables for the LMC bar and disc samples are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A44Table 11 is also available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Standardization of the NEO-PI-3 in the Greek general population.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Moysidou, Stefania; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, Xenia; Mobayed, Nisreen; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop; Costa, Paul; McCrae, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) includes 240 items corresponding to the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and subordinate dimensions (facets). It is suitable for use with adolescents and adults (12 years or older). The aim of the current study was to validate the Greek translation of the NEO-PI-3 in the general Greek population. The study sample included 734 subjects from the general Greek population of whom 59.4% were females and 40.6% males aged 40.80 ± 11.48. The NEO-PI-3 was translated into Greek and back-translated into English, and the accuracy of the translation was confirmed and established. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, and the calculation of Pearson product-moment correlations. Sociodemographics groups were compared by ANOVA. Most facets had Cronbach's alpha above 0.60. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable loading of the facets on their own hypothesized factors and very good estimations of Cronbach's alphas for the hypothesized factors, so it was partially supportive of the five-factor structure of the NEO-PI-3.The factors extracted with Procrustes rotation analysis can be considered reasonably homologous to the factors of the American normative sample. Correlations between dimensions were as expected and similar to those reported in the literature. The literature suggests that overall, the psychometric properties of NEO-PI-3 scales have been found to generalize across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement. In accord with this, the results of the current study confirm the reliability of the Greek translation and adaptation of the NEO-PI-3. The inventory has comparable psychometric properties in its Greek version in comparison to the original and other national translations, and it is suitable for clinical as well as research use.

  4. The Value Systems of Incarcerated Embezzlers Compared to Other Inmates and the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Assessed value system of 31 embezzlers and 31 matched controls at minimum security federal correctional institution, 461 state institution inmates, and 1,409 general population subjects. Embezzlers and controls resembled general population more than state inmates, although they appeared more self-centered. Results suggest minimum security inmates…

  5. The Relationship between General Population Suicide Rates and the Internet: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Internet Web sites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. There is a paucity of studies examining the role of the Internet in general population suicide rates. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the prevalence of Internet users was…

  6. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  7. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  8. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  9. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  10. Basic symptoms in the general population and in psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meng, Heiner; Schimmelmann, Benno Graf; Koch, Eginhard; Bailey, Barbara; Parzer, Peter; Günter, Michael; Mohler, Beat; Kunz, Natalia; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Felder, Wilhelm; Zollinger, Rudolf; Bürgin, Dieter; Resch, Franz

    2009-06-01

    Cognitive-perceptive 'basic symptoms' are used complementary to ultra-high-risk criteria in order to predict onset of psychosis in the pre-psychotic phase. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of a broad selection of 'basic symptoms' in a representative general adolescent population sample (GPS; N=96) and to compare it with adolescents first admitted for early onset psychosis (EOP; N=87) or non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (NP; N=137). Subjects were assessed with the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS). Prevalence of at least one 'basic symptom' and mean numbers were compared across the three groups. Logistic regression was used to predict group membership by BSABS subscales; risk ratios were calculated to identify 'basic symptoms' which best discriminated between groups. The prevalence of at least any one 'basic symptom' was 30.2% in GPS compared to 81% in NP and 96.5% in EOP. Correct classification of EOP when compared to GPS was high (94.0%) and lower when compared to NP (78.6%). Cognitive symptoms discriminated best between EOP and NP. Alike other prodromal- and psychotic-like experiences, 'basic symptoms' are prevalent in the general adolescent population, yet at a lower rate compared to EOP and NP. The usage of 'at least one basic symptom' as a screening criterion for youth at risk of developing a psychotic disorder is not recommended in the general population or in unselected psychiatrically ill adolescents. However, particularly cognitive 'basic symptoms' may be a valuable criteria to be included in future 'at risk' studies in adolescents.

  11. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, P<.001) and anxiety (r(s)=.69, P<.001), and somewhat with self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=.30, P<.001) and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=.24, P<.001). Extraversion correlated negatively with symptoms of depression (r(s)=-.47, P<.001), anxiety (r(s)=-.36, P<.001), self-reported lifetime mental disorder (r(s)=-.17, P<.001), and health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months (r(s)=-.14, P=.004). In multiple regression models, even after adjusting for gender, age, and education, BDI scores were significantly associated with neuroticism, extraversion, and age, whereas BAI scores were associated only with neuroticism. Neuroticism is strongly associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, and intraversion is moderately associated with depressive symptoms in the urban general population. The relationship of these personality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  12. Self-reported suicidal and help seeking behaviours in the general population in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Rancāns, Elmārs; Lapiņs, Jānis; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Jacobsson, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of suicidal behaviours in the general population in Latvia, to identify risk groups for suicidal behaviour, to examine a possible continuous sequence of suicidal behaviours with underlying gradient of severity, to assess patterns of help seeking behaviours and preferences of different types of services for suicidal persons. A postal survey of a stratified proportional sample of the general population aged 18 and older was carried out. The last year and lifetime prevalence of any type of suicidal behaviours was 52.6 and 60.2 %. The incidence of self-reported suicide attempts was 1.8 and 5.1 %, respectively. Females reported significantly less serious types (includes ideation, plans and/or attempts) of suicidal behaviours (OR 0.04, p = 0.001) during last year than males. Younger age, lower level of education, urban residency and Latvian ethnicity were identified as risk factors for serious types of suicidal behaviours in both genders. Non-cohabitation status (OR 5.3, p = 0.01) and lower level of education for males, but higher levels of education for females were identified as significant risk factors for mild types (solely life-weariness and/or death wishes) of suicidal behaviours. The results indicated no simple cumulative relationship between the suicidal behaviours. Age, gender, previous help seeking experience and severity of self-reported suicidal behaviours influenced help seeking behaviours. The overall acceptance of professional services was high, but people who reported suicidal behaviours ranked them lower. A postal survey can provide a reasonable coverage of suicidal behaviours and description of risk groups in the general population. Higher prevalence of suicidal behaviours among males might indicate that nowadays males are under certain stress in Latvia.

  13. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation in a general Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guozhe; Ma, Mingfeng; Ye, Ning; Wang, Jun; Chen, Yintao; Dai, Dongxue; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-09-01

    To explore the association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus in a general Chinese population, and the influence of hypertension. From January 2013 to August 2013, we carried out a cross-sectional study involving 11,956 permanent residents aged ≥35 years from the general population in the Liaoning province of China (response rate 85.3%). Each participant completed a questionnaire, had a physical examination, and underwent an electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. AF was diagnosed on the basis of the electrocardiogram findings. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to estimate the associations between diabetes mellitus and AF. The associations were also analyzed in hypertensive and normotensive subgroups. There was a higher prevalence of AF in participants with diabetes mellitus than those without diabetes mellitus (1.2 vs 0.5%; P = 0.004). In the hypertensive subgroup, the prevalence of AF in participants with diabetes mellitus was significantly higher than in participants without diabetes mellitus (1.5 vs 0.6%; P = 0.008); however, the prevalences were similar in the normotensive subgroup (0.3 vs 0.4%; P = 1.000). Similar trends were present in both men and women. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, the independent association between diabetes mellitus and AF remained in the total sample (odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.20-4.54) and hypertensive subgroup (odds ratio 3.15, 95% confidence interval 1.52-6.56), but not in the normotensive subgroup (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.08-5.31). Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for AF in the general population in China, this association was present in total and hypertensive participants, but not in normotensive participants. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Correlates of Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Content in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Knez, Judita; Winckelmans, Ellen; Plusquin, Michelle; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Gu, Yumei; Staessen, Jan A.; Nawrot, Tim S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leads to alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis and function that might produce a decrease in mtDNA content within cells. This implies that mtDNA content might be a potential biomarker associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. However, data on correlates of mtDNA content in a general population are sparse. Our goal in the present study was to describe in a randomly recruited population sample the distribution and determinants of peripheral blood mtDNA content. From 2009 to 2013, we examined 689 persons (50.4% women; mean age = 54.4 years) randomly selected from a Flemish population (Flemish Study on Environment, Genes, and Health Outcomes). Relative mtDNA copy number as compared with nuclear DNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood. There was a curvilinear relationship between relative mtDNA copy number and age. mtDNA content slightly increased until the fifth decade of life and declined in older subjects (Page2 = 0.0002). mtDNA content was significantly higher in women (P = 0.007) and increased with platelet count (P < 0.0001), whereas it was inversely associated with white blood cell count (P < 0.0001). We also observed lower mtDNA content in women using estroprogestogens (P = 0.044). This study demonstrated in a general population that peripheral blood mtDNA content is significantly associated with sex and age. Blood mtDNA content is also influenced by platelet and white blood cell counts and estroprogestogen intake. Further studies are required to clarify the impact of chronic inflammation and hormone therapy on mitochondrial function. PMID:26702630

  15. Screen detected high blood pressure under 40: a general practice population followed up for 21 years.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, J T; Edwards, C; Hart, M; Jones, J; Jones, M; Haines, A; Watt, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess hypertension detected under 40 in a general practice population. DESIGN--Prospective case-control study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--Former coal mining community in south Wales. Systematic case finding for hypertension and associated risk factors applied to a mean total population of 1945 from age 20 on a five year cycle through 21 years. Mean population aged 20-39, 227 men and 213 women. Case criteria: age < 40 and mean systolic pressure > or = 160 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > or = 100 mm Hg. Age and sex matched controls randomly sampled from the same population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mean initial pressures and pressures at follow up in 1989 or preceding death, and all cardiovascular events. RESULTS--25 men and 16 women met criteria. Estimated five yearly inceptions were 26/1000 for men and 18/1000 for women. Male group mean initial blood pressure was 164/110 mm Hg for cases, falling to 148/89 mm Hg at follow up. Five male cases died at mean age 47.8, compared with two controls at 49.5. Female group mean initial pressure was 172/107 mm Hg for cases, falling to 145/86 mm Hg at follow up. One female case died aged 50, no controls. 10 male cases had non-fatal cardiovascular events at mean age 40.2, compared with two controls at mean age 50.5. Four female cases had non-fatal events at mean age 47.2, compared with one control aged 58. Male differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS--Hypertension under 40 is dangerous, commoner in men than women, rarely secondary to classic causes, and may be controlled in general practice on a whole community basis. PMID:8461729

  16. Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M.; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level. Citation: Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050. PMID:23814341

  17. A model-based 'varimax' sampling strategy for a heterogeneous population.

    PubMed

    Akram, Nuzhat A; Farooqi, Shakeel R

    2014-01-01

    Sampling strategies are planned to enhance the homogeneity of a sample, hence to minimize confounding errors. A sampling strategy was developed to minimize the variation within population groups. Karachi, the largest urban agglomeration in Pakistan, was used as a model population. Blood groups ABO and Rh factor were determined for 3000 unrelated individuals selected through simple random sampling. Among them five population groups, namely Balochi, Muhajir, Pathan, Punjabi and Sindhi, based on paternal ethnicity were identified. An index was designed to measure the proportion of admixture at parental and grandparental levels. Population models based on index score were proposed. For validation, 175 individuals selected through stratified random sampling were genotyped for the three STR loci CSF1PO, TPOX and TH01. ANOVA showed significant differences across the population groups for blood groups and STR loci distribution. Gene diversity was higher across the sub-population model than in the agglomerated population. At parental level gene diversities are significantly higher across No admixture models than Admixture models. At grandparental level the difference was not significant. A sub-population model with no admixture at parental level was justified for sampling the heterogeneous population of Karachi.

  18. Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Magiria, Matina; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop

    2014-04-01

    The current study evaluates the reliability and factor-structure replicability of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in its Greek Version. The TEMPS-A was administered to a convenient sample of 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4% and 298 males; 40.6%). Their mean age was 40.80±11.48 years (range 25-67 years). The analysis included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, the calculation of the threshold to define dominant temperaments (+2 standard deviations or 95th percentile), confirmatory factor analysis and the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients between the temperament scales scores. Analysis of Covariance with age as covariate and post-hoc t-test was used to search for differences in temperament scores between males and females. Also a table of percentile values corresponding to a raw score was created. Internal consistency was excellent for the various temperaments (0.72-0.88). The factor analysis confirmed the five factor solution as the best factor solution. All TEMPS items were included in the final version of the scale in the Greek language. The study sample included subjects from the general population, but it is a convenient and not representative sample. Although the authors tried to select them on the basis of being mentally healthy and without a psychiatric history, there is always a degree of uncertainty. There is also always the possibility some of them to manifest a mental disorder in the future, thus being currently in a premorbid state. The Greek version of the TEMPS-A, has good internal consistency and factor structure similar to what was found in other translations. Overall our results are in accord with the literature and in line with theoretical considerations as well as with empirical evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of insomnia and sleep characteristics in the general population of Spain.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Sagales, Teresa

    2010-12-01

    The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of insomnia symptomatology and diagnoses in the Spanish general population and to determine if certain sleep parameters were related to specific insomnia symptoms. This is a cross-sectional telephone survey performed in the general population of Spain using a representative sample of 4065 individuals aged 15years or older. The participation rate was 87.5%. Interviews were conducted using the Sleep-EVAL system. The questions were related to sociodemographic characteristics, sleep-wake schedule, events occurring during sleep, insomnia symptoms, daytime consequences and DSM-IV diagnoses of sleep disorders. Overall, 20.8% (95% C.I. 19.6-22.1%) of the sample reported at least one insomnia symptom occurring at least three nights/week. The prevalence was higher in women than in men (23.9% vs. 17.6%) and increased with age. Difficulty maintaining sleep at least three nights/week was the most prevalent symptom. DSM-IV insomnia disorder diagnoses were found in 6.4% (95% C.I. 5.6-7.1%) of the sample. Delayed bedtime and wake-up time, irregular bedtime hours and hypnagogic hallucinations were the most frequent in participants who had difficulty initiating sleep. Perception of light and "too short" sleep were the most frequent in participants who had early morning awakenings. Participants who had a non-restorative sleep were more likely to extend sleep on days off than other insomnia participants. Medical consultations in the previous year were more frequent in insomnia participants compared to participants without insomnia. One-fifth of insomnia participants were using sleep-promoting medication. Insomnia is frequent in Spain, affecting up to one in five individuals. Results show that insomnia is multidimensional and needs to be assessed as such. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.