Science.gov

Sample records for general safety precautions

  1. Safety Precautions for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folks, John; And Others

    Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…

  2. Safety Precautions in Fiber Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marcia

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the potential hazards of working with fibers, dyes, and wax in textile art projects: bacteria, dust, poisons, allergies, and fumes. Safety precautions for working with dyes are listed. This article is one of seven in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)

  3. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  4. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  5. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who is receiving brachytherapy and cannot be released under... as an individual who is not receiving brachytherapy; (2) Visibly post the patient's or human...

  6. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who is receiving brachytherapy and cannot be released under... as an individual who is not receiving brachytherapy; (2) Visibly post the patient's or human...

  7. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who is receiving brachytherapy and cannot be released under... as an individual who is not receiving brachytherapy; (2) Visibly post the patient's or human...

  8. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who is receiving brachytherapy and cannot be released under... as an individual who is not receiving brachytherapy; (2) Visibly post the patient's or human...

  9. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released under § 35.75, a licensee shall— (1) Quarter the patient or the human research subject either in— (i) A... released under § 35.75; (2) Visibly post the patient's or the human research subject's room with...

  10. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released under § 35.75, a licensee shall— (1) Quarter the patient or the human research subject either in— (i) A... released under § 35.75; (2) Visibly post the patient's or the human research subject's room with...

  11. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released under § 35.75, a licensee shall— (1) Quarter the patient or the human research subject either in— (i) A... released under § 35.75; (2) Visibly post the patient's or the human research subject's room with...

  12. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  13. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  14. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  15. Safety Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for parents and child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on indoor and outdoor safety precautions, emergency preparation and first aid. Contents focus on monitoring arrivals and departures, prevention of suffocation and strangulation, control of pets and other animals, preventing and…

  16. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  17. Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata

    SciTech Connect

    Hudecek, V.

    2008-09-15

    The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

  18. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units... COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.615 Safety precautions for remote afterloader...

  19. 48 CFR 223.370 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives. 223.370 Section 223.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY...

  20. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Ammunition and Explosives, DoD 4145.26-M, hereafter referred to as “the manual,” in effect on the date of the... ammunition and explosives. 252.223-7002 Section 252.223-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7002 Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives....

  1. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Ammunition and Explosives, DoD 4145.26-M, hereafter referred to as “the manual,” in effect on the date of the... ammunition and explosives. 252.223-7002 Section 252.223-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7002 Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives....

  2. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Ammunition and Explosives, DoD 4145.26-M, hereafter referred to as “the manual,” in effect on the date of the... ammunition and explosives. 252.223-7002 Section 252.223-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7002 Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives....

  3. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  4. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  5. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  6. Relationship between patient safety climate and standard precaution adherence: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hessels, A J; Larson, E L

    2016-04-01

    Standard precaution (SP) adherence is universally suboptimal, despite being a core component of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) prevention and healthcare worker (HCW) safety. Emerging evidence suggests that patient safety climate (PSC) factors may improve HCW behaviours. Our aim was to examine the relationship between PSC and SP adherence by HCWs in acute care hospitals. A systematic review was conducted as guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. Three electronic databases were comprehensively searched for literature published or available in English between 2000 and 2014. Seven of 888 articles identified were eligible for final inclusion in the review. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality using a validated quality tool. The seven articles were assigned quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 of 10 possible points. Five measured all aspects of SP and two solely measured needlestick and sharps handling. Three included a secondary outcome of HCW exposure; none included HCAIs. All reported a statistically significant relationship between better PSC and greater SP adherence and used data from self-report surveys including validated PSC measures or measures of management support and leadership. Although limited in number, studies were of high quality and confirmed that PSC and SP adherence were correlated, suggesting that efforts to improve PSC may enhance adherence to a core component of HCAI prevention and HCW safety. More clearly evident is the need for additional high-quality research.

  7. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  8. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePlus

    ... airborne precautions include chickenpox , measles , and tuberculosis (TB) bacteria. People who have these germs should be in ... in the room should wear a gown and gloves. Droplet precautions are used to prevent contact with ...

  9. Interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography: Precautions and contraindications.

    PubMed

    Draghi, F; Robotti, G; Jacob, D; Bianchi, S

    2010-09-01

    In recent years ultrasonography (US) has emerged as the imaging technique of choice for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including those related to the musculoskeletal system. However, the absence of ionizing radiation and the elevated safety of the method must not lead us to forget that there are precautions and contraindications to keep in mind, which are crucial to the protection of both the patient and the physician.Among these precautions it is first of all essential to obtain the patient's accurate clinical history including current medication, particularly if it involves drugs influencing the blood clotting, and information related to possible allergies. The patient should furthermore receive detailed information concerning the procedure (sterile precautions as well as possible side-effects of the drugs which will be injected). In addition to this, there must be a close contact between the radiologist and the patient's general physician (GP) in order to obtain the best possible result of the procedure.

  10. Beyond universal precautions.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W

    1995-01-01

    Universal precautions have gained wide acceptance in the literature and are promoted by major health care regulatory bodies as a measure to prevent nosocomial transmission of bloodborne diseases. Nevertheless, Dr. James G. Wright and associates (see pages 1089 to 1095 of this issue) provide evidence of the infrequent use of universal precautions by surgeons in Toronto. Their findings are consistent with those of similar studies and point to the limitations of any safety approach that relies on the active compliance of individuals rather than on passive, environmental controls. Successful approaches to optimizing workplace safety should first emphasize passive measures for risk abatement, including firm policies, the use of safer equipment and techniques, procedural safeguards and regular monitoring. Routine voluntary screening of patients undergoing procedures that pose a high risk of contamination may improve compliance to safety procedures by health care personnel. Further study is required. PMID:7712416

  11. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) (a) Definition. Ammunition and explosives, as used in this clause— (1) Means liquid and solid... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids; (iv...'s personnel and property; (ii) The Government's personnel and property; or (iii) The general...

  12. 78 FR 28495 - Safety Zone; Safety Precautions to Protect the Public from the Effects of a Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... and port recovery operations in the vicinity of the Marseilles Lock and Dam and the potential for... the area between the locks with the exception of those vessels assisting in the salvage operation or... Lock and Dam (Mile Marker 271.4). In an effort to ensure the safety of all vessels that might be...

  13. Fall Risk Awareness and Safety Precautions Taken by Older Community-Dwelling Women and Men—A Qualitative Study Using Focus Group Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Petra; Sandlund, Marlene; Ahlgren, Christina; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Wikman, Anita Melander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women’s and men’s understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls. Methods A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively. Findings Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one’s fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was “Safety precautions through fall risk awareness”. Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts. Conclusions The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples’ conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes. PMID

  14. Pitfalls and Precautions When Using Predicted Failure Data for Quantitative Analysis of Safety Risk for Human Rated Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Glen S.; Hark, Frank; Stott, James

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicle reliability analysis is largely dependent upon using predicted failure rates from data sources such as MIL-HDBK-217F. Reliability prediction methodologies based on component data do not take into account risks attributable to manufacturing, assembly, and process controls. These sources often dominate component level reliability or risk of failure probability. While consequences of failure is often understood in assessing risk, using predicted values in a risk model to estimate the probability of occurrence will likely underestimate the risk. Managers and decision makers often use the probability of occurrence in determining whether to accept the risk or require a design modification. Due to the absence of system level test and operational data inherent in aerospace applications, the actual risk threshold for acceptance may not be appropriately characterized for decision making purposes. This paper will establish a method and approach to identify the pitfalls and precautions of accepting risk based solely upon predicted failure data. This approach will provide a set of guidelines that may be useful to arrive at a more realistic quantification of risk prior to acceptance by a program.

  15. Pitfalls and Precautions When Using Predicted Failure Data for Quantitative Analysis of Safety Risk for Human Rated Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Glen S.; Hark, Frank; Stott, James

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicle reliability analysis is largely dependent upon using predicted failure rates from data sources such as MIL-HDBK-217F. Reliability prediction methodologies based on component data do not take into account system integration risks such as those attributable to manufacturing and assembly. These sources often dominate component level risk. While consequence of failure is often understood, using predicted values in a risk model to estimate the probability of occurrence may underestimate the actual risk. Managers and decision makers use the probability of occurrence to influence the determination whether to accept the risk or require a design modification. The actual risk threshold for acceptance may not be fully understood due to the absence of system level test data or operational data. This paper will establish a method and approach to identify the pitfalls and precautions of accepting risk based solely upon predicted failure data. This approach will provide a set of guidelines that may be useful to arrive at a more realistic quantification of risk prior to acceptance by a program.

  16. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  17. Structural precaution: the application of premarket approval schemes in EU food legislation.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Bernd M J; Bremmers, Harry J; Wijnands, Jo H M; Poppe, Krijn J

    2012-01-01

    Structural precaution refers to legal requirements by which food products (whether as ingredients, additives, genetically modified or innovative in some other form) are only admitted to the market after authorization by public authorities and till then are presumed unsafe. In the EU such authorization is granted after provision of conclusive scientific evidence of the product's safety by the applicant. The objective of this article is to critically evaluate structural precaution in the EU against the general principles of European and international law. Moreover, it addresses the positive and negative side-effects of structural precaution for food businesses. The methods which are applied are legal-systematic and empirical. Legal-systematic research shows that the European system of structural precaution may come into conflict with the principles of free trade. Empirical research on the effects of structural precaution shows that the barriers to market access impede food innovations, negatively impact competitiveness, and induce opportunistic strategic responses by food businesses. Among the opportunistic strategic responses that were identified are window-dressing, trespassing and circumventing. These may have adverse effects on food safety. This is remarkable since food safety is the key driving force behind the application of structural precaution. The article advocates an overhaul of the present European risk prevention framework. It argues that the newly proposed European legal framework for innovative foods only partly addresses the identified problems with which the food industry is confronted. Supplementary to legal-systematic overhaul, authorities should invest in accessibility and transparency of the legal framework and provide compliance assistance to reduce regulatory burdens.

  18. Precautions for Workers 1

    PubMed Central

    Guest, G. H.

    1948-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are now available from Chalk River for use by Canadian biologists. Experience has shown that the handling of radioactive isotopes may involve health hazards unless adequate precautions are taken. The nature of these hazards and the type of precautions which must be taken when working with radioactive isotopes are considered. Successful work with radioactive isotopes other than in the smallest tracer amounts requires the use of laboratories and equipment especially designed for the purpose and this is dealt with briefly. The operation of a radioactive laboratory requires certain auxiliary equipment and services, such as health instruments, film monitoring, special laboratory clothing, special cleanable surfaces and disposal of radioactive waste materials. These topics are discussed briefly. Handling of radioactive isotopes involves certain special precautions and a few of these, such as protection of hands, cleaning of glassware, handling of solutions, etc. are reviewed. In addition to protecting all personnel in a laboratory from harmful amounts of radiation, it is necessary to keep the laboratory and the building in which it is housed as free as possible from radioactive substances and this important fact has been stressed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 4.Fig. 6. PMID:17648375

  19. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions for hot work. 1915.503 Section 1915.503 Labor... Employment § 1915.503 Precautions for hot work. (a) General requirements—(1) Designated Areas. The employer may designate areas for hot work in sites such as vessels, vessel sections, fabricating shops,...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions for hot work. 1915.503 Section 1915.503 Labor... Employment § 1915.503 Precautions for hot work. (a) General requirements—(1) Designated Areas. The employer may designate areas for hot work in sites such as vessels, vessel sections, fabricating shops,...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions for hot work. 1915.503 Section 1915.503 Labor... Employment § 1915.503 Precautions for hot work. (a) General requirements—(1) Designated Areas. The employer may designate areas for hot work in sites such as vessels, vessel sections, fabricating shops,...

  2. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  3. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  4. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  5. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  6. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  7. Generalized implementation of software safety policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.; Wika, Kevin G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a research program in the engineering of software for safety-critical systems, we are performing two case studies. The first case study, which is well underway, is a safety-critical medical application. The second, which is just starting, is a digital control system for a nuclear research reactor. Our goal is to use these case studies to permit us to obtain a better understanding of the issues facing developers of safety-critical systems, and to provide a vehicle for the assessment of research ideas. The case studies are not based on the analysis of existing software development by others. Instead, we are attempting to create software for new and novel systems in a process that ultimately will involve all phases of the software lifecycle. In this abstract, we summarize our results to date in a small part of this project, namely the determination and classification of policies related to software safety that must be enforced to ensure safe operation. We hypothesize that this classification will permit a general approach to the implementation of a policy enforcement mechanism.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section 1926.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  9. Antibiotic Precautions in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fayock, Kristopher; Voltz, Matthew; Sandella, Bradley; Close, Jeremy; Lunser, Matthew; Okon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections in patients of all ages. Athletes who maximally train are at risk for illness and various infections. Routinely used antibiotics have been linked to tendon injuries, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, photosensitivity, cartilage issues, and decreased performance. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1989 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE and OVID. Also, the Food and Drug Administration website was utilized. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: The team physician should consider alternative medications in place of the “drug of choice” when adverse drug effects are a concern for an athlete’s health or performance. If alternative medications cannot be selected, secondary preventative measures, including sunscreen or probiotics, may be needed. Conclusion: Physicians choose medications based on a variety of factors to help ensure infection resolution while limiting potential side effects. Extra precautions are indicated when treating athletes with certain antibiotics. PMID:24982704

  10. 46 CFR 120.220 - General safety provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General safety provisions. 120.220 Section 120.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... INSTALLATION General Requirements § 120.220 General safety provisions. (a) Electrical equipment...

  11. 46 CFR 183.220 - General safety provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General safety provisions. 183.220 Section 183.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.220 General safety provisions. (a)...

  12. Toys: More Than Trifles for Play. A Review of the Toy Industry, Educational Claims, Safety Standards and Precautions, Toy Selection and Toy Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joyce; Stewart, Patricia

    This document reviews literature that is relevant to the evaluation and selection of educational toys. Information is summarized under the following topics: (1) the value of toys and manufacturers' claims; (2) basics of the toy industry; (3) toy hazards and accidents; (4) guidelines for toy selection; (5) toy safety legislation and protection; and…

  13. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) For each patient or human research subject who is receiving brachytherapy and cannot be released under § 35.75, a licensee shall— (1) Not quarter the patient or the human research subject in the same room as an individual who is not receiving brachytherapy; (2) Visibly post the patient's or human...

  14. Influencing factors on use of standard precautions against occupational exposures to blood and body fluids among nurses in China

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Mingtao; Wang, Xuyao; Wu, Hualian; Yuan, Xiaoli; Lei, Dan; Jiang, Zhixia; Li, Lezhi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how specific factors, including knowledge, attitude, use of protective devices, safety climate, workload, and nurses’ behaviors can influence standard precautions in China through structural equation modeling techniques. Background: Although a number of empirical studies have been conducted, an investigation of how multiple variables influence behaviors of standard precautions among the nurses is still needed. Methods: The study was conducted by selecting registered nurses from 25 public hospitals that operate approximately 500 beds located in different areas of Guizhou Province in China. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 nurses, and 964 (96.4%) completed questionnaires were returned. exploratory factor analysis was employed to examine associations of attitudes, protective devices, safety climate, workload, and nurses’ behaviors with standard precautions. The identified factors were integrated in the proposed structural equation model. Findings: Protective devices had a positive and major influence on nurses’ use of standard precautions. Knowledge had a positive impact on the use of standard precautions through attitude mediation, and the safety climate had a positive impact on the use of standard precautions. In contrast, increasing workload had a negative effect on the use of standard precautions. The factors affecting the use of standard precautions among nurses in order of decreasing effect size were: protective devices, knowledge, attitude, safety climate, and workload. Conclusions: This study offer valuable information for healthcare management regarding the use of standard precautions to reduce occupational exposure among nurses. PMID:26885227

  15. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. Aim To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Design and setting Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. Method A multiprofessional ‘expert’ group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. Results A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Conclusion Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. PMID:25918338

  16. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  1. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Shiwaku, Hironari; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Shimaoka, Hideki; Okada, Hiroki; Nakashima, Ryo; Beppu, Richiko; Kato, Daisuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamaura, Ken; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) under general anesthesia. METHODS: From January 2011 to July 2014, 206 consecutive patients had undergone ESD under general anesthesia for neoplasms of the stomach, esophagus, and colorectum were enrolled in this retrospective study. The efficacy and safety of ESD under general anesthesia were assessed. RESULTS: The en bloc resection rate of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal lesions was 100.0%, 98.3%, and 96.1%, respectively. The complication rate of perforation and bleeding were 0.0% and 0.0% in esophageal ESD, 1.7% and 1.7% in gastric ESD, and 3.9% and 2.0% in colorectal ESD, respectively. No cases of aspiration pneumonia were observed. All complications were managed by conservative treatment, with no surgical intervention required. CONCLUSION: With the cooperation of an anesthesiologist, ESD under general anesthesia appears to be a useful method, decreasing the risk of complications. PMID:27433293

  2. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  3. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  4. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  5. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  6. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  7. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  8. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  9. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  10. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  11. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  12. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  13. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety...-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event, ``General Aviation Safety: Climbing to the Next Level,''...

  14. Association between Contact Precautions and Delirium at a Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Day, Hannah R.; Perencevich, Eli N.; Harris, Anthony D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Himelhoch, Seth S.; Brown, Clayton H.; Dotter, Emily; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between contact precautions and delirium among inpatients, adjusting for other factors. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING A 662-bed tertiary care center. PATIENTS All nonpyschiatric adult patients admitted to a tertiary care center from 2007 through 2009. METHODS Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the association between contact precautions and delirium in a retrospective cohort of 2 years of admissions to a tertiary care center. RESULTS During the 2-year period, 60,151 admissions occurred in 45,266 unique nonpsychiatric patients. After adjusting for comorbid conditions, age, sex, intensive care unit status, and length of hospitalization, contact precautions were significantly associated with delirium (as defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision), medication, or restraint exposure (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.40 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.24–1.51]). The association between contact precautions and delirium was seen only in patients who were newly placed under contact precautions during the course of their stay (adjusted OR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.60–1.92]; P < .01) and was not seen in patients who were already under contact precautions at admission (adjusted OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.86–1.09]; P=.60). CONCLUSIONS Although delirium was more common in patients who were newly placed under contact precautions during the course of their hospital admission, delirium was not associated with contact precautions started at hospital admission. Patients newly placed under contact precautions after admission but during hospitalization appear to be at a higher risk and may benefit from proven delirium-prevention strategies. PMID:22173520

  15. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  16. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  17. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  18. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  19. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  20. Patient Isolation Precautions: Are They Worth It?

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Elliott; Reynolds, Steven; Brindley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Isolation precautions are intended to minimize pathogen transmission and reduce hospital-acquired infections. More recently, the effectiveness of isolation precautions has been questioned because of increasing evidence of risks. These putative downsides are divided into a quantifiable monetary cost (i.e., a literal cost to the system) and clinically important but less easily quantifiable costs (i.e., “costs” to the patient). The authors also briefly review deisolation and alternatives to isolation. The present review is not arguing against appropriate isolation or precautions, simply that the authors consider both risks and benefits and disseminate up-to-date information. Their patient-focused goal is to mitigate risks for those who truly need isolating and to end isolation as soon as it is safe and appropriate to do so. PMID:27445547

  1. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  2. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  3. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  4. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  5. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  6. Validity and reliability of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Marília Duarte; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hayashida, Miyeko; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution for nurses. METHODS : This methodological study was conducted with 121 nurses from health care facilities in Sao Paulo’s countryside, who were represented by two high-complexity and by three average-complexity health care facilities. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha and stability was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient, through test-retest. Convergent, discriminant, and known-groups construct validity techniques were conducted. RESULTS : The questionnaire was found to be reliable (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.80; intraclass correlation coefficient: (0.97) In regards to the convergent and discriminant construct validity, strong correlation was found between compliance to standard precautions, the perception of a safe environment, and the smaller perception of obstacles to follow such precautions (r = 0.614 and r = 0.537, respectively). The nurses who were trained on the standard precautions and worked on the health care facilities of higher complexity were shown to comply more (p = 0.028 and p = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS : The Brazilian version of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution was shown to be valid and reliable. Further investigation must be conducted with nurse samples that are more representative of the Brazilian reality. The use of the questionnaire may support the creation of educational measures considering the possible gaps that can be identified, focusing on the workers’ health and on the patients’ safety. PMID:26759967

  7. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  8. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  9. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  10. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  11. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  12. Safety of robotic general surgery in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Addeo, Pietro; Bianco, Francesco M; Ayloo, Subhashini; Elli, Enrique F; Giulianotti, Pier C

    2010-08-01

    As the life expectancy of people in Western countries continues to rise, so too does the number of elderly patients. In parallel, robotic surgery continues to gain increasing acceptance, allowing for more complex operations to be performed by minimally invasive approach and extending indications for surgery to this population. The aim of this study is to assess the safety of robotic general surgery in patients 70 years and older. From April 2007 to December 2009, patients 70 years and older, who underwent various robotic procedures at our institution, were stratified into three categories of surgical complexity (low, intermediate, and high). There were 73 patients, including 39 women (53.4%) and 34 men (46.6%). The median age was 75 years (range 70-88 years). There were 7, 24, and 42 patients included, respectively, in the low, intermediate, and high surgical complexity categories. Approximately 50% of patients underwent hepatic and pancreatic resections. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of morbidity, mortality, readmission or transfusion. Mean overall operative time was 254 ± 133 min (range 15-560 min). Perioperative mortality and morbidity was 1.4% and 15.1%, respectively. Transfusion rate was 9.6%, and median length of stay was 6 days (range 0-30 days). Robotic surgery can be performed safely in the elderly population with low mortality, acceptable morbidity, and short hospital stay. Age should not be considered as a contraindication to robotic surgery even for advanced procedures. PMID:27628773

  13. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties... been caused by crash damage, the railroad shall conduct a failure and engineering analysis of any weld... defect in a weld due to crash damage (i.e., impact of the safety appliance by an outside force...

  14. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties... been caused by crash damage, the railroad shall conduct a failure and engineering analysis of any weld... defect in a weld due to crash damage (i.e., impact of the safety appliance by an outside force...

  15. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties... been caused by crash damage, the railroad shall conduct a failure and engineering analysis of any weld... defect in a weld due to crash damage (i.e., impact of the safety appliance by an outside force...

  16. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  17. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-09-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice.

  18. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-12-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice.

  19. Driving with diabetes: precaution, not prohibition, is the proper approach.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Daniel B

    2013-03-01

    Safety issues posed by driving with diabetes are primarily related to severe hypoglycemia, yet some public authorities rely on categorical restrictions on drivers with diabetes. This approach is misguided. Regulation of all drivers with diabetes, or all drivers using insulin, ignores the diversity of people with diabetes and fails to focus on the subpopulation posing the greatest risk. Advances in diabetes care technology and understanding of safety consequences of diabetes have expanded techniques available to limit risks of driving with diabetes. New means of insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring offer greater ease of anticipating and preventing hypoglycemia, and thus, limit driving risk for persons with diabetes. So too do less sophisticated steps taken by people with diabetes and the health care professionals they consult. These include adoption and endorsement of safety-sensitive behaviors, such as testing before a drive and periodic testing on longer trips. Overall, and in most individual cases, driving risks for persons with diabetes are less than those routinely tolerated by our society. Examples include freedom to drive in dangerous conditions and lax regulation of drivers in age and medical cohorts with elevated overall rates of driving mishaps. Data linking specific diabetes symptoms or features with driving risk are quite uncertain. Hence, there is much to recommend: a focus on technological advances, human precautions, and identifying individuals with diabetes with a specific history of driving difficulty. By contrast, available evidence does not support unfocused regulation of all or most drivers with diabetes.

  20. Can there be science-based precaution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Charles

    2006-10-01

    'Science-based precaution' is possible in logic if not in politics, and should be a normal part of risk management. It should balance the risks and benefits of innovation, or equivalently, specify the price one is willing to pay to avoid risk. The Precaution Principle states that the absence of scientific proof does not preclude precautionary action—or, in its stronger version, that it requires such action. This principle is a useful counterweight to the insistence on rigorous scientific proof, but focuses on costs and risks to the exclusion of benefits. It expresses 'look before you leap', but not 'nothing ventured, nothing gained'. To facilitate adaptive management, we propose a complementary principle: 'precautionary action should not unreasonably interfere with innovation that promises major benefits, until its dangers and benefits are well understood'. In international trade law, we propose that scientific evidence presented in support of discriminatory measures that would otherwise violate the world trade regime—such as the de facto European Union moratorium on importing genetically modified crops—be required to suffice to support a 'reasonable belief' of danger to human health or the environment.

  1. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  4. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  5. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  6. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching...

  7. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Beaudrie, Christian E H; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

  8. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  18. Genome Sequence Variability Predicts Drug Precautions and Withdrawals from the Market

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Su Youn; Lee, Soo Youn; Park, Chan Hee; Park, Paul J.; Kim, Ju Han

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial premarket efforts, a significant portion of approved drugs has been withdrawn from the market for safety reasons. The deleterious impact of nonsynonymous substitutions predicted by the SIFT algorithm on structure and function of drug-related proteins was evaluated for 2504 personal genomes. Both withdrawn (n = 154) and precautionary (Beers criteria (n = 90), and US FDA pharmacogenomic biomarkers (n = 96)) drugs showed significantly lower genomic deleteriousness scores (P < 0.001) compared to others (n = 752). Furthermore, the rates of drug withdrawals and precautions correlated significantly with the deleteriousness scores of the drugs (P < 0.01); this trend was confirmed for all drugs included in the withdrawal and precaution lists by the United Nations, European Medicines Agency, DrugBank, Beers criteria, and US FDA. Our findings suggest that the person-to-person genome sequence variability is a strong independent predictor of drug withdrawals and precautions. We propose novel measures of drug safety based on personal genome sequence analysis. PMID:27690231

  19. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... while— (i) Operating all ground equipment (mobile or stationary); (ii) Placing all materials; and (iii..., specifically, free from small stones which might damage aircraft propellers or jet aircraft; (5) Operate mobile... (6) Not open a trench unless material is on hand and ready for placing in the trench. As soon...

  20. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... while— (i) Operating all ground equipment (mobile or stationary); (ii) Placing all materials; and (iii..., specifically, free from small stones which might damage aircraft propellers or jet aircraft; (5) Operate mobile... (6) Not open a trench unless material is on hand and ready for placing in the trench. As soon...

  1. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... while— (i) Operating all ground equipment (mobile or stationary); (ii) Placing all materials; and (iii..., specifically, free from small stones which might damage aircraft propellers or jet aircraft; (5) Operate mobile... (6) Not open a trench unless material is on hand and ready for placing in the trench. As soon...

  2. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... while— (i) Operating all ground equipment (mobile or stationary); (ii) Placing all materials; and (iii..., specifically, free from small stones which might damage aircraft propellers or jet aircraft; (5) Operate mobile... (6) Not open a trench unless material is on hand and ready for placing in the trench. As soon...

  3. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... while— (i) Operating all ground equipment (mobile or stationary); (ii) Placing all materials; and (iii..., specifically, free from small stones which might damage aircraft propellers or jet aircraft; (5) Operate mobile... (6) Not open a trench unless material is on hand and ready for placing in the trench. As soon...

  4. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  5. A general stochastic approach to unavailability analysis of standby safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Weide, H.; Pandey, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents a general analytical framework to analyze unavailability caused by latent failures in standby safety systems used in nuclear plants. The proposed approach is general in a sense that it encompasses a variety of inspection and maintenance policies and relaxes restrictive assumptions regarding the distributions of time to failure (or aging) and duration of repair. A key result of the paper is a general integral equation for point unavailability, which can be tailored to any specific maintenance policy. (authors)

  6. Contact precautions and hand hygiene in veterinary clinics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C

    2015-03-01

    Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices.

  7. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  9. Universal Precautions in the Era of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng; Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Cao, Haijun; Lin, Chunqing; Yan, Zhihua; Jia, Manhong; Cui, Haixia

    2009-01-01

    With a rising HIV/AIDS epidemic, it has become especially important for health service providers in China to understand and correctly adhere to universal precautions. Using qualitative interview data, perspectives from both health administrators and service providers working at all levels of China’s health care system were examined. Service providers admitted selective adherence and non-adherence to universal precautions in their daily medical practice, and gave their explanations for such behaviors. Lack of time to put on protective gear, gear’s interference with medical procedures, lack of administrative support, heavy workload in hospitals, inaccurate risk assessment, and beliefs that compliance with universal precautions is unnecessary, time consuming and costly were mentioned as reasons behind noncompliance. Effective universal precaution interventions need to target both administrators and providers, and address both structural barriers and individual attitudinal and behavioral factors. PMID:17641967

  10. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice: a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Verbakel, Natasha J; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo JM; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien LM

    2015-01-01

    Background A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting A three-arm cluster randomised trial was conducted in a mixed method study, studying the effect of administering a patient safety culture questionnaire (intervention I), the questionnaire complemented with a practice-based workshop (intervention II) and no intervention (control) in 30 general practices in the Netherlands. Method The primary outcome, the number of reported incidents, was measured with a questionnaire at baseline and a year after. Analysis was performed using a negative binomial model. Secondary outcomes were quality and safety indicators and safety culture. Mixed effects linear regression was used to analyse the culture questionnaires. Results The number of incidents increased in both intervention groups, to 82 and 224 in intervention I and II respectively. Adjusted for baseline number of incidents, practice size and accreditation status, the study showed that practices that additionally participated in the workshop reported 42 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.81 to 177.50) times more incidents compared to the control group. Practices that only completed the questionnaire reported 5 (95% CI = 1.17 to 25.49) times more incidents. There were no statistically significant differences in staff perception of patient safety culture at follow-up between the three study groups. Conclusion Educating staff and facilitating discussion about patient safety culture in their own practice leads to increased reporting of incidents. It is beneficial to invest in a team-wise effort to improve patient safety. PMID:25918337

  11. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, D.W.; Brenza, P.T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one-dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety, Analysis Report (USAR) are discussed in this document.

  12. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, D. W.; Brenza, P. T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus - Venus - Earth - Jupiter gravity assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study, which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR), are discussed in this document.

  13. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  14. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  15. 49 CFR 240.109 - General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct. 240.109 Section 240.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements...

  16. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  17. An alternative approach to prescribing sternal precautions after median sternotomy, "Keep Your Move in the Tube".

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Lotshaw, Ana; Exum, Emelia; Campbell, Mark; Spranger, Cathy B; Beveridge, Jim; Baker, Shawn; McCray, Stephanie; Bilbrey, Tim; Shock, Tiffany; Lawrence, Anne; Hamman, Baron L; Schussler, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sternal precautions, given to sternotomy patients as part of their discharge education, are intended to help prevent sternal wound complications. They vary widely but generally include arbitrary load and time restrictions (lifting no more than a specified weight for up to 12 weeks) and may prohibit common shoulder joint and shoulder girdle movements. Having observed the negative effects of restrictive sternal precautions for many years, our research team performed a series of studies that measured the forces exerted during various common activities and their relationship to the sternum. The results, though informative, led us to realize that the goal of identifying "the" appropriate load restriction to prescribe for sternotomy patients was futile. The alternative approach that we introduce applies standard kinesiological principles and teaches patients how to perform load-bearing movements in a way that avoids excessive stress to the sternum. PMID:26722187

  18. Perceptions of general education on occupational health and safety among college students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yu-Huei; Lin, Yu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Jia-Ming

    2009-08-01

    Undergraduate students were surveyed to assess their awareness of and interest in health and safety education. Out of 5258 questionnaires distributed among 66 colleges and universities in Taiwan, 4474 questionnaires were returned. The respondents were asked to provide demographic information and to respond to questions about a proposed college course in general occupational health and safety (OHS) and questions about 30 OHS topics. Their awareness and learning interest about each topic were evaluated on a 4-point scale. Statistical analysis of variance and logistic linear regression were performed. Only 13% of respondents had previously taken health and safety courses. More than 39% of respondents indicated that they would take general OHS courses if the courses were offered by their colleges. Student motivation to take OHS courses was apparently related to their experience in OHS coursework, their academic background, and their current learning interest in the 30 OHS topics. Students with natural science or engineering backgrounds tended to express strong interest in OHS topics and courses. In conclusion, implementing general health and safety education in college is recommended. In addition, developing an OHS course module system would meet student expectations, as courses would consider the learning interests and needs of students with different college majors.

  19. GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) uranium oxide encapsulations supporting satellite safety tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R.

    1989-04-24

    General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulant-fueled capsules were assembled, welded, nondestructively examined, and shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for satellite safety tests. Simulant-fueled iridium capsules contain depleted uranium oxide pellets that serve as a stand-in for plutonium-238 oxide pellets. Information on forty seven capsules prepared during 1987 and 1988 is recorded in this memorandum along with a description of the processes used for encapsulation and evaluation. LANL expects to use all capsules for destructive safety tests, which are under way. Test results so far have demonstrated excellent integrity of the Savannah River capsule welds. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Oral Radiology Safety Standards Adopted by the General Dentists Practicing in National Capital Region (NCR)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, K.; Shivalingesh, K.K.; Agarwal, Vartika; Gupta, Bhuvandeep; Anand, Richa; Sharma, Abhinav; Kushwaha, Sumedha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With advancement in diagnostic techniques, the utilization of radiologic examination has risen to many folds in the last two decades. Ionizing radiations from the radiographic examination carry the potential for harm by inducing carcino-genesis in addition to the diagnostic information extracted. Radiation doses utilized in the course of dental treatment might be low for individual examinations but patients are exposed to repeated examinations very often and many people are exposed during the course of dental care. Therefore, principles of radiation protection and safety are necessary for the dentists to follow to ensure minimum and inevitable exposure. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and behaviour of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region (NCR) regarding radiation safety during oral radiographic procedures. Materials and Methods The study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. A total of 500 general dentists were contacted to participate in the study. The target population entailed of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region. Data was computed and tabulated in Microsoft excel sheet and statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS version 21.0. Results The total response rate recovered was 70.6% and the respondents comprised of 59% and 41% males & females respectively. Only 64.8% of the general dentists contemplated thyroid to be the most important organ for radiation protection. Only 28.8% of the general dentists followed the position & distance rule appropriately. Conclusion The results showed that the knowledge and behaviour of the general dentists and the practices adopted by them regarding radiation safety is not satisfactory. To ensure the following of basic and necessary guidelines for radiation safety and protection, strict rules with penalties should be implemented by the state councils and new and interesting methods of education for this spectrum of the

  1. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  2. Clinical safety and efficacy of tianeptine in 1,858 depressed patients treated in general practice.

    PubMed

    Guelfi, J D; Dulcire, C; Le Moine, P; Tafani, A

    1992-01-01

    1,927 outpatients were included by 392 general practitioners in an open study in order to evaluate the safety of tianeptine in the ambulatory treatment of depression. The results of 1,858 depressed patients without melancholia and psychotic features, fulfilling DSM III criteria of Major Depressive Episode or Dysthymic Disorder, could be analysed. 1,458 patients completed the 3-month treatment period. The group treated with 37.5 mg/day of tianeptine showed improvement on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. With regard to the clinical tolerance of tianeptine, somatic complaints were rarely reported and adverse events necessitating premature termination of treatment (4.8% of included patients) were without clinical severity. Cardiovascular, haematologic, hepatic and biochemical safety were verified. No signs of dependence and no specific withdrawal symptoms were found after discontinuation of treatment.

  3. Preventing Infection in the Classroom: The Use of Universal Precautions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Retha M.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the universal precautions for appropriate infection control, including the proper method for putting on gloves and removing gloves, hand washing, and blood/bodily fluid clean up. A sample school board policy and kindergarten health core curriculum is provided, along with a kindergarten classroom illustration. (Contains…

  4. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The licensee may not use a source, source holder, or logging tool that contains licensed material unless...

  5. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The licensee may not use a source, source holder, or logging tool that contains licensed material unless...

  6. HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that…

  7. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions for hot work. 1915.503 Section 1915.503...

  8. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Design Ethnographic case study. Setting Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. Participants 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Main outcome measures Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Methods Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as “exceptions” by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge

  9. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  10. The effects of researcher precautions on perceptions of the ethicality of unobtrusive field experiments.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R A; Baker, G; Goldberg, S J

    1996-05-01

    The effects of stating researchers' precautions on perceptions about the ethicality of questionable studies were examined. The studies used were by West, Gunn, and Chernicky (1975) and by Middlemist, Knowles, and Matter (1976). The first study was generally evaluated more favorably than the second study. Women viewed the West et al. study more negatively than did men, regardless of precautionary information. Most important, precautionary information enhanced men's, but not women's evaluations of the Middlemist et al. study. Implications of these results for ethical decision making, publication policy, and the image of the profession are noted.

  11. General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6

    SciTech Connect

    Pavone, D.; George, T.G.; Frantz, C.E.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonia containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit. 36 figs.

  12. General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavone, D.; George, T. G.; Frantz, C. E.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonium containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit.

  13. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  14. Scoping in environmental impact assessment: Balancing precaution and efficiency?

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Tim . E-mail: t.snell@adamshendry.co.uk; Cowell, Richard . E-mail: cowellrj@cardiff.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    Scoping is a crucial yet under-researched stage of environmental impact assessment, in which practice falls well behind conceptual ideals. We argue that such 'implementation deficits' reflect dilemmas between two key rationales for scoping - environmental precaution and decision-making efficiency - and between technical and participatory conceptions of the decision-making process. We use qualitative research to understand how scoping practice in the UK reconciles these competing imperatives. Our findings suggest that practitioners mainly rationalise their approach in terms of decision-making efficiency, while justifying excluding the public from scoping on grounds of prematurity, delay and risks of causing confusion. The tendency to scope issues in rather than exclude them reflects a pervasive concern for legal challenge, rather than environmental precaution, but this reinforces standard lists of environmental considerations rather than the investigation of novel, cumulative or indirect risks.

  15. Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

  16. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

  17. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.; Pavone, D.

    1985-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of (238)PuO2 (ALPHA)-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15(0) and 30(0).

  18. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1985-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

  19. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of Pu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

  20. General Framework for Animal Food Safety Traceability Using GS1 and RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weizhu; Zheng, Limin; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Ping

    GS1 is global traceability standard, which is composed by the encoding system (EAN/UCC, EPC), the data carriers identified automatically (bar codes, RFID), electronic data interchange standards (EDI, XML). RFID is a non-contact, multi-objective automatic identification technique. Tracing of source food, standardization of RFID tags, sharing of dynamic data are problems to solve urgently for recent traceability systems. The paper designed general framework for animal food safety traceability using GS1 and RFID. This framework uses RFID tags encoding with EPCglobal tag data standards. Each information server has access tier, business tier and resource tier. These servers are heterogeneous and distributed, providing user access interfaces by SOAP or HTTP protocols. For sharing dynamic data, discovery service and object name service are used to locate dynamic distributed information servers.

  1. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity.

  2. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Beyond patchwork precaution in the dual-use governance of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Kelle, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The emergence of synthetic biology holds the potential of a major breakthrough in the life sciences by transforming biology into a predictive science. The dual-use characteristics of similar breakthroughs during the twentieth century have led to the application of benignly intended research in e.g. virology, bacteriology and aerobiology in offensive biological weapons programmes. Against this background the article raises the question whether the precautionary governance of synthetic biology can aid in preventing this techno-science witnessing the same fate? In order to address this question, this paper proceeds in four steps: it firstly introduces the emerging techno-science of synthetic biology and presents some of its potential beneficial applications. It secondly analyses contributions to the bioethical discourse on synthetic biology as well as precautionary reasoning and its application to life science research in general and synthetic biology more specifically. The paper then identifies manifestations of a moderate precautionary principle in the emerging synthetic biology dual-use governance discourse. Using a dual-use governance matrix as heuristic device to analyse some of the proposed measures, it concludes that the identified measures can best be described as "patchwork precaution" and that a more systematic approach to construct a web of dual-use precaution for synthetic biology is needed in order to guard more effectively against the field's future misuse for harmful applications.

  4. An alternative approach to prescribing sternal precautions after median sternotomy, “Keep Your Move in the Tube”

    PubMed Central

    Lotshaw, Ana; Exum, Emelia; Campbell, Mark; Spranger, Cathy B.; Beveridge, Jim; Baker, Shawn; McCray, Stephanie; Bilbrey, Tim; Shock, Tiffany; Lawrence, Anne; Hamman, Baron L.; Schussler, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sternal precautions, given to sternotomy patients as part of their discharge education, are intended to help prevent sternal wound complications. They vary widely but generally include arbitrary load and time restrictions (lifting no more than a specified weight for up to 12 weeks) and may prohibit common shoulder joint and shoulder girdle movements. Having observed the negative effects of restrictive sternal precautions for many years, our research team performed a series of studies that measured the forces exerted during various common activities and their relationship to the sternum. The results, though informative, led us to realize that the goal of identifying “the” appropriate load restriction to prescribe for sternotomy patients was futile. The alternative approach that we introduce applies standard kinesiological principles and teaches patients how to perform load-bearing movements in a way that avoids excessive stress to the sternum. PMID:26722187

  5. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination. PMID:26996102

  6. Patient safety in primary care: incident reporting and significant event reviews in British general practice.

    PubMed

    Rea, David; Griffiths, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, healthcare has adapted to the 'quality revolution' by moving away from direct provision and hierarchical control mechanisms. In their place, new structures based on contractual relationships are being developed coupled with attempts to create an organisational culture that shares learning and that scrutinises existing practice so that it can be improved. The issue here is that contractual arrangements require surveillance, monitoring, regulation and governance systems that can be perceived as antipathetic to the examination of practice and subsequent learning. Historically, reporting levels from general practice have remained low; little information is shared and consequently lessons are not shared across the general practice community. Given large-scale under-engagement of general practitioners (GPs) in incident reporting systems, significant event analysis is advocated to encourage sharing of information about incidents to inform the patient safety agenda at a local and national level. Previous research has concentrated on the secondary care environment and little is known about the situation in primary care, where the majority of patient contacts with healthcare occur. To explore attitudes to incident reporting, the study adopted a qualitative approach to GPs working in a mixture of urban and rural practices reporting to a Welsh Local Health Board. The study found that GPs used significant event analysis methodology to report incidents within their practice, but acknowledged under-reporting. They were less enthusiastic about reporting externally. A number of barriers exist to reporting, including insufficient time to report, lack of feedback, fear of blame, and damage to reputations and patient confidence in a competitive environment. If incident reporting processes are perceived as supportive and formative, and where protected time is allocated to discuss incidents, then GPs are willing to participate. They also need to know how the

  7. Patient safety in primary care: incident reporting and significant event reviews in British general practice.

    PubMed

    Rea, David; Griffiths, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, healthcare has adapted to the 'quality revolution' by moving away from direct provision and hierarchical control mechanisms. In their place, new structures based on contractual relationships are being developed coupled with attempts to create an organisational culture that shares learning and that scrutinises existing practice so that it can be improved. The issue here is that contractual arrangements require surveillance, monitoring, regulation and governance systems that can be perceived as antipathetic to the examination of practice and subsequent learning. Historically, reporting levels from general practice have remained low; little information is shared and consequently lessons are not shared across the general practice community. Given large-scale under-engagement of general practitioners (GPs) in incident reporting systems, significant event analysis is advocated to encourage sharing of information about incidents to inform the patient safety agenda at a local and national level. Previous research has concentrated on the secondary care environment and little is known about the situation in primary care, where the majority of patient contacts with healthcare occur. To explore attitudes to incident reporting, the study adopted a qualitative approach to GPs working in a mixture of urban and rural practices reporting to a Welsh Local Health Board. The study found that GPs used significant event analysis methodology to report incidents within their practice, but acknowledged under-reporting. They were less enthusiastic about reporting externally. A number of barriers exist to reporting, including insufficient time to report, lack of feedback, fear of blame, and damage to reputations and patient confidence in a competitive environment. If incident reporting processes are perceived as supportive and formative, and where protected time is allocated to discuss incidents, then GPs are willing to participate. They also need to know how the

  8. 49 CFR 659.17 - System safety program plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT... oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to develop and implement a written system safety...) The oversight agency shall review and approve the rail transit agency system safety program plan....

  9. 49 CFR 659.17 - System safety program plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT... oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to develop and implement a written system safety...) The oversight agency shall review and approve the rail transit agency system safety program plan....

  10. 49 CFR 659.17 - System safety program plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT... oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to develop and implement a written system safety...) The oversight agency shall review and approve the rail transit agency system safety program plan....

  11. 49 CFR 659.17 - System safety program plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT... oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to develop and implement a written system safety...) The oversight agency shall review and approve the rail transit agency system safety program plan....

  12. 49 CFR 659.17 - System safety program plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT... oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to develop and implement a written system safety...) The oversight agency shall review and approve the rail transit agency system safety program plan....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) adequately addresses the criteria set forth in 10 CFR 830.204(b). DOE will prepare a Safety Evaluation Report.... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830... Techniques for compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports,” Change Notice...

  14. 49 CFR 240.109 - General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... safety conduct. 240.109 Section 240.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... eligibility based on prior safety conduct. (a) Each railroad's program shall include criteria and procedures to implement this section. (b) A railroad shall evaluate the prior safety conduct of any person it...

  15. Demonstration of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Mabachi, Natabhona M.; Cifuentes, Maribel; Barnard, Juliana; Brega, Angela G.; Albright, Karen; Weiss, Barry D.; Brach, Cindy; West, David

    2016-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit was developed to help primary care practices assess and make changes to improve communication with and support for patients. Twelve diverse primary care practices implemented assigned tools over a 6-month period. Qualitative results revealed challenges practices experienced during implementation, including competing demands, bureaucratic hurdles, technological challenges, limited quality improvement experience, and limited leadership support. Practices used the Toolkit flexibly and recognized the efficiencies of implementing tools in tandem and in coordination with other quality improvement initiatives. Practices recommended reducing Toolkit density and making specific refinements. PMID:27232681

  16. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  17. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

  18. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  19. Enhancing patient safety through the management of Clostridium difficile at Toronto East General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tomiczek, Arladeen; Stumpo, C; Downey, James F

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 Toronto East General Hospital experienced a steady increase in the number of C. difficile cases diagnosed within the hospital. This was identified as a patient safety issue, and several areas of the hospital came together to address the problem. Pharmacy immediately started a medication review of past cases. Environmental services took the lead on the environmental cleaning, and a process was put into place with Infection Control so that housekeeping knew of every room that contained a patient with C. difficile and enhanced cleaning could be practised. Staff, including nursing, housekeeping and porters, were educated on C. difficile and the methods of transmission. A business case was developed for a disposable bedpan system, and this was approved by the senior team. A new washable product was tried out with success for the overhead patient light pulls and bathroom call bell systems. Infection rates were shared with staff through a variety of venues. As a result of the initiatives, the hospital has seen a decrease of 50% in the rates of C. difficile. A bonus was that our MRSA rates dropped as well. PMID:17087168

  20. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

  1. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Labor—Title 29 CFR— Part 1501—Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. Part 1502—Safety and... Other Nonmetallic Minerals, Including Silica Sand. (3) U.S. Department of Transportation: 49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103 Hazardous material regulation—Transportation of compressed gases. (4)...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment... directives (48 CFR 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations and DOE Directives), the contractor will have...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment... directives (48 CFR 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations and DOE Directives), the contractor will have...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment... directives (48 CFR 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations and DOE Directives), the contractor will have...

  6. General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

    This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been…

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Labor—Title 29 CFR— Part 1501—Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. Part 1502—Safety and...—Respiratory Protective Apparatus; Tests for Permissibility; Fees. Subchapter C—Explosives and Related Articles... Other Nonmetallic Minerals, Including Silica Sand. (3) U.S. Department of Transportation: 49 CFR...

  8. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180

  9. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

    2012-07-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure. PMID:22747620

  10. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  16. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  18. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  20. 48 CFR 1236.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract Clauses 1236.570 Special precautions for work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.236-70, Special Precautions... work at operating airports. 1236.570 Section 1236.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  1. 36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.43 Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling in “wildcat” territory... precautions for keeping the well under control at all times and shall install and maintain the proper...

  2. How trust in institutions and organizations builds general consumer confidence in the safety of food: a decomposition of effects.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, J; van Trijp, J C M; van der Lans, I A; Renes, R J; Frewer, L J

    2008-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and general confidence is dependent upon a particular food chain actor (for example, food manufacturers) is assessed. In addition, the impact of specific subdimensions of trust, such as openness, on consumer confidence are analyzed, as well as interaction effects of actors and subdimensions of trust. The results confirm previous findings, which indicate that a higher level of trust is associated with a higher level of confidence. However, the results from the current study extend on previous findings by disentangling the effects that determine the strength of this relationship into specific components associated with the different actors, the different trust dimensions, and specific combinations of actors and trust dimensions. The results show that trust in food manufacturers influences general confidence more than trust in other food chain actors, and that care is the most important trust dimension. However, the contribution of a particular trust dimension in enhancing general confidence is actor-specific, suggesting that different actors should focus on different trust dimensions when the purpose is to enhance consumer confidence in food safety. Implications for the development of communication strategies that are designed to regain or maintain consumer confidence in the safety of food are discussed.

  3. General safety basis development guidance for environmental restoration decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, D.R.; Kerr, N.; Bohlander, K.; Hansen, J.; Crowley, W.

    1994-02-01

    Safety analyses have the objective of contributing to two essential ingredients of a successful operation. The first is promoting the safety of the operation through worker involvement in information development (safety basis). The second is obtaining approval to conduct the operation (authorization). Typically these ingredients are assembled under separate programs covered by separate DOE requirements. DOE authorization relies on successful development of a document containing up to 21 topics written in terms and language suited to reviewers and approvers. Safety relies on successful training and procedures that convert the technical documented information into terms and language understandable to the worker. This separation can lead to successful incorporation of one ingredient independent of the other. At best, this separation may result in a safe but unauthorized operation; at worst, the separation may result in an unsafe operation authorized to proceed. This guide is based on experiences gained by contractors who have integrated rather than separated the safety and authorization. The short duration of ER/D&D activities, the uncertainties of hazards, and the publicly expressed desire for demonstrable progress in cleanup activities add emphasis to the need to integrate rather than separate and develop new programs. Experience-based information has been useful to workers, safety analysis practitioners, and reviewers in the following ways: (1) Acquiring or developing the needed information in a useful form; (2) Managing the uncertainties during activity development and operation; (3) Identifying the subset of applicable requirements for an activity; (4) Developing the appropriate level of documentation detail for a specific activity; and (5) Increasing the usefulness and use of safety analysis (ownership).

  4. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) data base were used to determine problems in general aviation single pilot IFR operations. The data examined consisted of incident reports involving flight safety in the National Aviation System. Only those incidents involving general aviation fixed wing aircraft flying under IFR in instrument meteorological conditions were analyzed. The data were cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgement and response problems; (2) pilot judgement and response problems; (3) air traffic control intrafacility and interfacility conflicts; (4) ATC and pilot communications problems; and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. The significance of the related problems, and the various underlying elements associated with each are discussed. Previous ASRS reports covering several areas of analysis are reviewed.

  5. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Sciences-National Research Council. A petition will not be denied, however, by reason of the... of Sciences-National Research Council if, from available evidence, the Commissioner finds that the... data adequate for an evaluation of the safety of the additive....

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... referenced in Table 2 that are not defined in 10 CFR 830.3 Table 3 For purposes of Table 2, * * * means.... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., September 1997) sets forth the methodology for categorizing a DOE nuclear facility (see Table 1). The...

  7. Contact Precautions for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs): Current Recommendations and Actual Practice

    PubMed Central

    Clock, Sarah A.; Cohen, Bevin; Behta, Maryam; Ross, Barbara; Larson, Elaine L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Contact precautions are recommended for interactions with patients colonized/infected with multidrug-resistant organisms; however, rates of contact precautions practice are unknown. Methods Observers recorded the availability of supplies and staff/visitor adherence to contact precautions at rooms of patients indicated for contact precautions. Data were collected at three sites in a New York City hospital network. Results Contact precautions signs were present for 85.4% of indicated patients. The largest proportions were indicated for isolation for vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures. Isolation carts were available outside 93.7-96.7% of rooms displaying signs, and personal protective equipment was available at rates of 49.4-72.1% for gloves (all sizes: small, medium, and large) and 91.7-95.2% for gowns. Overall adherence rates upon room entry and exit, respectively, were 19.4% and 48.4% for hand hygiene, 67.5% and 63.5% for gloves, and 67.9% and 77.1% for gowns. Adherence was significantly better in intensive care units (p<0.05) and by patient-care staff (p<0.05), and patient-care staff compliance with one contact precautions behavior was predictive of adherence to additional behaviors (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings support the recommendation that methods to monitor contact precautions and identify and correct non-adherent practices should be a standard component of infection prevention and control programs. PMID:19913329

  8. The Elementary Science Safety Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.

    Based on the principle that safety education should be a vital component in science instruction, this manual was designed to assist elementary teachers in doing more experiments and activities more confidently by making them aware of dangers and precautions. It also aims to make students aware that safety is a lifetime process and responsibility.…

  9. Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Print A A A Text Size What's ... a few. Plus, someone has to shovel the snow, right? Once outdoors, however, take precautions to keep ...

  10. Developing and testing the health literacy universal precautions toolkit

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Broucksou, Kimberly A.; Hawk, Victoria; Brach, Cindy; Hink, Ashley; Rudd, Rima; Callahan, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    The health literacy demands of the healthcare system often exceed the health literacy skills of Americans. This article reviews the development of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions (HLUP) Toolkit, commissioned by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and designed to help primary care practices structure the delivery of care as if every patient may have limited health literacy. The development of the toolkit spanned 2 years and consisted of 3 major tasks: (1) developing individual tools (modules explaining how to use or implement a strategy to minimize the effects of low health literacy), using existing health literacy resources when possible, (2) testing individual tools in clinical practice and assembling them into a prototype toolkit, and (3) testing the prototype toolkit in clinical practice. Testing revealed that practices will use tools that are concise and actionable and are not perceived as being resource intensive. Conducting practice self-assessments and generating enthusiasm among staff were key elements for successful implementation. Implementing practice changes required more time than anticipated and some knowledge of quality improvement techniques. In sum, the HLUP Toolkit holds promise as a means of improving primary care for people with limited health literacy, but further testing is needed. PMID:21402204

  11. Observed Use of Standard Precautions in Chilean Community Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli, Rosina; Norr, Kathleen F.; Cabieses, Baltica; Araya, Alejandra; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Margarita Bernales, Ps.

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Chile, little information about the use of standard precautions (SP) among health care workers (HCWs) exists. As part of a larger study to tailor and test an HIV prevention intervention for community HCWs, this study describes the observed frequency with which appropriate SP were used by HCWs in low-income community clinics of Santiago. Also, the availability of supplies is described. Sample A total of 52 structured observations with potential contamination with body fluids were done. Results HCWs used SP inconsistently, especially neglecting hand washing, surface cleaning, and cleaning of shared materials. Lack of materials contributed in some instances of failure to use SPs, especially wiping surfaces and safe disposal of sharp instruments, as shown by a positive correlation between use of SP and availability of materials. Essential materials were usually available. Although more education should relate to a better understanding of the importance of SP, no difference was found between professionals and paraprofessionals in the use of SP. Conclusions It is clear that the initial training, continuing education, and ongoing support for practicing SP are not adequate. Training should be offered to HCWs involved in caring for clients at community clinics to stop the spread of HIV or other infectious diseases in health care settings. PMID:19706127

  12. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has been made to determine the problem areas in general aviation single-pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations. The Aviation Safety Reporting System data base is a compilation of voluntary reports of incidents from any person who has observed or been involved in an occurrence which was believed to have posed a threat to flight safety. This paper examines only those reported incidents specifically related to general aviation single-pilot IFR operations. The frequency of occurrence of factors related to the incidents was the criterion used to define significant problem areas and, hence, to suggest where research is needed. The data was cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgment and response problems, (2) pilot judgment and response problems, (3) air traffic control (ATC) intrafacility and interfacility conflicts, (4) ATC and pilot communication problems, and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. In addition, several points common to all or most of the problems were observed and reported. These included human error, communications, procedures and rules, and work load.

  13. A cross-sectional mixed methods study protocol to generate learning from patient safety incidents reported from general practice

    PubMed Central

    Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Hibbert, Peter; Avery, Anthony; Butlin, Amy; Carter, Ben; Cooper, Alison; Evans, Huw Prosser; Gibson, Russell; Luff, Donna; Makeham, Meredith; McEnhill, Paul; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Parry, Gareth; Rees, Philippa; Shiels, Emma; Sheikh, Aziz; Ward, Hope Olivia; Williams, Huw; Wood, Fiona; Donaldson, Liam; Edwards, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incident reports contain descriptions of errors and harms that occurred during clinical care delivery. Few observational studies have characterised incidents from general practice, and none of these have been from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System. This study aims to describe incidents reported from a general practice care setting. Methods and analysis A general practice patient safety incident classification will be developed to characterise patient safety incidents. A weighted-random sample of 12 500 incidents describing no harm, low harm and moderate harm of patients, and all incidents describing severe harm and death of patients will be classified. Insights from exploratory descriptive statistics and thematic analysis will be combined to identify priority areas for future interventions. Ethics and dissemination The need for ethical approval was waivered by the Aneurin Bevan University Health Board research risk review committee given the anonymised nature of data (ABHB R&D Ref number: SA/410/13). The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and undertake national and international oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers. PMID:26628526

  14. Life stages and risk-avoidance: status- and context-sensitivity in precaution systems.

    PubMed

    Lienard, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Human typical life history involves specific tradeoffs, resulting in the selection of specific cognitive adaptations, among which a suite of age- and gender-specific precaution systems sensitive to variations in the physical and social environment. Precaution systems take into account the individual's status and life-stage, information about specific threats, as well as the fact that the organism can or cannot address those threats unassisted. Systematic variation in individual decision-making and behavior in risky situations provide insights into the operation of those precaution systems. The literature survey is completed by data gathered among the pastoral Turkana of Kenya showing how variations in precautions and risk avoidance correlate with age, sex, and social conditions.

  15. Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

    This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying…

  16. Effectiveness and safety of Devil's Claw tablets in patients with general rheumatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Mary; McBean, Douglas; Suter, Andreas; Tan, Jen; Whittaker, Patricia

    2007-12-01

    Arthritis and other rheumatic conditions (AORC) are the leading cause of disability, are associated with poor quality of life and incur considerable direct and indirect costs. It is considered that the instance of AORC will continue to increase. To assess the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of Harpagophytum (Bioforce) in the treatment of AORC, a single group open study of 8 weeks duration (259 patients) was performed in the United Kingdom. Effectiveness was assessed by numeric rating scales, the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index and the Algofunctional Hand Osteoarthritis Index. Tolerance was measured by a numeric rating scale and safety by self-reporting, blood analysis and liver function tests. Quality of life was measured by SF-12 questionnaire. There were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) improvements in patient assessment of global pain, stiffness and function. There were also statistically significant reductions in mean pain scores for hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and back pain. Quality of life measurements (SF-12) were significantly increased from baseline and 60% patients either reduced or stopped concomitant pain medication. Harpagophytum is an effective and well-tolerated serious treatment option for mild to moderate degenerative rheumatic disorders providing improved quality of life measure. PMID:17886223

  17. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  18. The Impact of Discontinuing Contact Precautions for VRE and MRSA on Device-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Michael B; Masroor, Nadia; Stevens, Michael P; Ober, Janis; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    The impact of discontinuing contact precautions for patients with MRSA and VRE colonization/infection on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates at an academic medical center was investigated in this before-and-after study. In the setting of a strong horizontal infection prevention platform, discontinuation of contact precautions had no impact on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates. PMID:25915205

  19. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  20. Investigating Compliance with Standard Precautions During Residency Physicians in Gynecology and Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Milton Jorge; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir; Lam, Simon Ching; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physician compliance with standard precautions is important in the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics because of the high frequency of invasive procedures. The current study investigated compliance with standard precautions among resident physicians working in gynecology and obstetrics. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among resident physicians in gynecology and obstetrics in their first (R1), second (R2) and third (R3) years of residency at a teaching hospital in a city in São Paulo. A structured questionnaire that included demographic and professional aspects and the Standard Precautions Adherence Scale were used to collect data. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM® SPSS version 20. Ethical aspects were considered. RESULTS: Fifty-eight resident physicians participated in the study. Of the enrolled participants, 27 (46.6%) were in R1, 12 (20.7%) were in R2 and 19 (32.8%) were in R3. The standard precautions compliance score was 4.1, which was classified as intermediate. There were no significant differences in the compliance scores of the resident physicians across the three years of residency (H=2.34, p=0.310). CONCLUSION: Compliance with standard precautions among resident physicians was intermediate. Preventive measures in clinical practice are not fully adopted in the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics. More important, many professionals claimed lack of sufficient training in standard precautions in the workplace. Such circumstances should draw the attention of hospital management with regard to occupational health risks. PMID:27464295

  1. Machine and Woodworking Tool Safety. Module SH-24. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on machine and woodworking tool safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses specific practices and precautions concerned with the efficient operation and use of most machine and woodworking tools in use today. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  2. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance.

  3. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance. PMID:26942630

  4. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  5. 78 FR 58470 - General Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... (FR) on October 1, 2001 (66 FR 49867). The last sentence of paragraph (d)(1) is revised by... appendix on March 19, 2002 (67 FR 12715). In Section I titled, ``General,'' paragraph (c)(6), the reference..., which were incorrect in the original publication of the rule (66 FR 43103, August 17, 2001),...

  6. Critical Incidents of Nonadherence with Standard Precautions Guidelines Among Community Hospital-based Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kristi J; Waitzkin, Howard; Beekmann, Susan E; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify, categorize, and assess critical incidents of nonadherence to standard precautions. DESIGN Qualitative and quantitative analysis of a written, mail-out survey. SETTING Community hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Statewide stratified random sample of community hospital-based health care workers at risk for blood exposure. MAIN VARIABLE Responses to the question: “Think of an incident during the past year when you didn't adhere to universal precautions. Please describe the situation and why you didn't adhere.” RESULTS Reasons given for not using precautions included: belief that stopping to use standard precautions would have put the patient at risk (22%); using precautions would have interfered with patient care (20%); precautions were not warranted in a specific situation (14%); did not anticipate the potential for exposure (14%); and high job demands that had caused respondent to be in a hurry (11%). Less often, equipment was not available (7%), respondent forgot (6%), respondent thought that the patient did not pose a risk (4%), or the available equipment was not effective (3%). In terms of overall exposure rates, 34% of those who described an incident had experienced a sharps injury during the previous 3 months and 42% had experienced a mucocutaneous exposure. In terms of overall nonadherence, 44% wore gloves less than 100% of the time, while 61% washed their hands less than 100% of the time. Needlestick injuries were lowest among those who had forgotten to use precautions, while mucocutaneous exposures were highest among those who had not anticipated potential exposure while performing the task. Failure to wear gloves routinely was highest among those who said that following precautions interfered with their ability to provide care and among those who believed a particular patient to be low risk; failure to wash hands routinely was also highest among the latter group and lowest among those who said necessary equipment was not available

  7. Safety analysis of thorium-based fuels in the General Electric Standard BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, M.J.; Townsend, D.B.; Kunz, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    A denatured (U-233/Th)O/sub 2/ fuel assembly has been designed which is energy equivalent to and hardware interchangeable with a modern boiling water reactor (BWR) reference reload assembly. Relative to the reference UO/sub 2/ fuel, the thorium fuel design shows better performance during normal and transient reactor operation for the BWR/6 product line and will meet or exceed current safety and licensing criteria. Power distributions are flattened and thermal operating margins are increased by reduced steam void reactivity coefficients caused by U-233. However, a (U-233/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR will likely have reduced operating flexibility. A (U-235/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR should perform similar to a UO/sub 2/-fueled BWR under all operating conditions. A (Pu/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR may have reduced thermal margins and similar accident response and be less stable than a UO/sub 2/-fueled BWR. The assessment is based on comparisions of point model and infinite lattice predictions of various nuclear reactivity parameters, including void reactivity coefficients, Doppler reactivity coefficients, and control blade worths.

  8. General-purpose heat source development: Safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, design iteration test 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, F. W.

    1984-04-01

    The general purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of (238)PuO decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive reentry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The first DIT used a full GPHS module containing two graphite impact shells (GISs); each GIS contained two iridium (0.3 wt%) capsules filled with (238)PuO. It was impacted at 57 m/s and 930 C. All four fuel capsules survived and none was breached. However, serious cracking of the iridium alloy capsules was found; some cracks extended through approx. 70% of the wall thickness. Postimpact analyses of the unit are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

  9. Poverty, human development, environmental and health risks: the role of precaution and cautionary policies.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    First of all a definition is given of "poverty" and "precaution". A short, by no means comprehensive, presentation of some especially relevant recent publications on both topics is included, with a view to offering also readers who are not familiar with these issues a broad overview of the specialised literature available. This is followed by a description of the solidarity concept, following various philosophical, cultural and religious trends, analysing their relationship with precaution. An attempt is then made to show how solidarity and precaution could help counteract poverty, the risks for the environment and health, with the ensuing social and health damage. Reasons are outlined which support the adoption of the precaution principle in economics, as well as some arguments which could be put forward to oppose these views. The final remarks are a reply to such criticisms with a view to showing how precaution could be an effective economic tool, as well as a way to tackle those health-related and environmental problems that are also associated with poverty.

  10. Are Hip Precautions Necessary Post Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barnsley, Leslie; Page, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common and effective treatment of hip osteoarthritis. Activity restrictions known as hip precautions are widely practiced in rehabilitation post THA, aiming to foster healing and prevent hip dislocation. The focused clinical question was: Does the application of hip precautions in patients post THA versus unrestricted activities significantly decrease the risk of prosthetic dislocation? Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted for randomized controlled trials or cohort studies with a comparative group and minimum 6 months follow-up, with dislocation as an end point. Retrieved titles were assessed independently by 2 reviewers for inclusion and underwent standardized data extraction. Results: Title search produced 80 potentially relevant articles. Five articles were retrieved for data extraction of which 2 met a prior eligibility criteria. No eligible studies were found that concerned posterior approaches to hip arthroplasty, so the results of this review concern only anterolateral approaches. Neither included study showed any benefit of hip precautions in preventing dislocation. Conclusion: The rate of dislocation after anterolateral THA is low and is not improved by hip precautions. Hip precautions are associated with a slower return to activities, significant expense, and decreased patient satisfaction. Existing studies risk being compromised by a type II error, but a definitive study may be prohibitively large and expensive. PMID:26328242

  11. General-Purpose Heat Source development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 2

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be Designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the first Design Iteration Test (DIT-1), a full GPHS module ontaining four iridium-alloy capsules loaded with /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was impacted at 57 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. All four capsules survived and none was breached. The capsules used in DIT-1 were loaded and welded at Los Alamos. The second Design Iteration Test (DIT-2) also used a full GPHS module and was impacted at 58 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The four iridium-alloy capsules used in this test were loaded and welded at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Postimpact examination revealed that two capsules had survived and two capsules had breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 ..mu..g) of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was released from the breached capsules. Internal cracking similar to that observed in the DIT-1 capsules was evident in all four of the DIT-2 capsules. Postimpact analyses of the units are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

  12. General-purpose heat source development: Safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, design iteration test 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.; Schonfeld, F. W.

    1984-12-01

    The general-purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of Pu-238 decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both reentry and Earth impact. The design iteration test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The DIT-5 was designed to compare the impact response of a GPHS fueled clad that was welded with a four-pole arc oscillator with the impact response of a clad welded with a two-pole oscillator. In DIT-5 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads was impacted at 60.5 m/s and 930 C. The fuel capsules were severly deformed by the impact; both clads breached. The capsule welded with a four-pole oscillator failed extensively. Neither failure was related to the welding technique. Postimpact analyses of the test components are described, with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  13. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 4

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-12-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. The fourth test (DIT-4) was designed to evaluate the effect on impact behavior of changing the procedure used at the Mound Facility (MF) to remove surface defects from drawn cups. The change involved switching from a manual abrasion technique to a motorized, rubber-bonded abrasive wheel. In DIT-4 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one cleaned manually, and one cleaned with an abrasive wheel) was impacted at a velocity of 58 m/s and a temperature of 930/sup 0/C. Both capsules were severely deformed by the impact and contained large internal cracks. Although the manually cleaned capsule breached, the breaching crack was only 2 ..mu..m wide and released negligible amounts of fuel. There did not appear to be any correlation between cleaning method and capsule performance. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-4 test components are described with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  14. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 5

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-12-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The fifth test (DIT-5) was designed to compare the impact response of a GPHS fueled clad that had been welded with a four-pole arc oscillator with the impact response of a clad welded with a two-pole oscillator. In DIT-5 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one welded with a four-pole oscillator and one welded with a two-pole oscillator) was impacted at 60.5 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The fuel capsules were severely deformed by the impact; both clads breached. The capsule welded with a four-pole oscillator failed extensively. Neither failure was related to the welding technique. Postimpact analyses of the test components are described, with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  15. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided.

  16. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (a) Definition. Ammunition and explosives, as used in this clause— (1) Means liquid and solid propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  2. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., through the use of appropriate radiation monitors, that radiation levels have returned to ambient levels... room with viewing and intercom systems to permit continuous observation of the patient or the human... are placed within the patient's or human research subject's body, a licensee shall only...

  3. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  4. Debate on MERS-CoV respiratory precautions: surgical mask or N95 respirators?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jasmine Shimin; Ling, Moi Lin; Seto, Wing Hong; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2014-01-01

    Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in mid-2012, there has been controversy over the respiratory precaution recommendations in different guidelines from various international bodies. Our understanding of MERS-CoV is still evolving. Current recommendations on infection control practices are heavily influenced by the lessons learnt from severe acute respiratory syndrome. A debate on respiratory precautions for MERS-CoV was organised by Infection Control Association (Singapore) and the Society of Infectious Disease (Singapore). We herein discuss and present the evidence for surgical masks for the protection of healthcare workers from MERS-CoV. PMID:25017402

  5. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

  6. Safety in School Science: Possible Carcinogenic Hazards in School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of articles concerned with safety in school science. This article presents some facts about eight types of carcinogenic chemicals and suggests precautions in their use in British schools. A safety bibliography is also included. (HM)

  7. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. PMID

  8. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner.

  9. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  10. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... shall be marked by yellow flags during daylight hours and by red lights at other times. The red lights... roads and adjacent parking lots may be either electric or battery type lights. These lights and...

  11. Improving Anesthesia Nurse Compliance with Universal Precautions Using Group Goals and Public Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sara D.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    Universal Precautions (UPs), procedures to reduce the likelihood of accidental exposure to blood-borne pathogens, were observed among seven Certified Nurse Anesthetists and one anesthesia technician during intravenous line procedures. After six weeks of baseline measures, nurses participated in training, goal setting, and feedback targeting hand…

  12. Development of a guide to applying precaution in local public health

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Monica; Cole, Donald; Vanderlinden, Loren; MacFarlane, Ronald; Mee, Carol; Archbold, Josephine; Campbell, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The precautionary principle (PP) urges actions to prevent harm even in the face of scientific uncertainty. Members of Toronto Public Health (TPH) sought guidance on applying precaution. Methods: We searched five bibliographic databases (yield 60 articles from 1996 to 2009 and 8 from 2009 to 2011) and Google (yield 11 gray literature sources) for material relevant to local public health. From these sources, we extracted questions until saturation was reached (n = 55). We applied these questions retrospectively to eight case studies where TPH felt precaution was applied. We ranked questions for their importance in applying precaution. Results: Our final guide included 35 questions in five domains: context, assessment, alternative interventions, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Importance rankings varied across cases, but the role of stakeholders in driving precautionary action was consistent. Monitoring and evaluation components could have been strengthened across cases. Conclusion: The TPH guide can assist municipal environmental health practitioners in applying precaution in a more transparent manner. PMID:24999853

  13. 48 CFR 3036.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.236-70, Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports, in solicitations... work at operating airports. 3036.570 Section 3036.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  14. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be marked by yellow flags during daylight hours and by red lights at other times. The red lights... day and when directed by the Contracting Officer, with red obstruction lights at nights. All equipment...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports...

  15. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be marked by yellow flags during daylight hours and by red lights at other times. The red lights... day and when directed by the Contracting Officer, with red obstruction lights at nights. All equipment...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports...

  16. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What precautions must you take to prevent contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  17. The efficacy and safety of multiple doses of vortioxetine for generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jie; Peng, Lilei; Li, Xiaogang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 2013. This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of different doses of vortioxetine for generalized anxiety disorder of adults. Methods PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Clinical Trials databases were searched from 2000 through 2015. The abstracts of the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association and previous reviews were searched to identify additional studies. The search was limited to individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and there was no language restriction. Four RCTs met the selection criteria. These studies included 1,843 adult patients. Results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The data were pooled with a random-effects or fixed-effects model. Results The results showed that multiple doses (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/d) of vortioxetine did not significantly improve the generalized anxiety disorder symptoms compared to placebo (OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.84–1.60, Z=0.89, P=0.38; OR=1.41, 95% CI=0.82–2.41, Z=1.25, P=0.21; OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.76–1.46, Z=0.32, P=0.75, respectively). We measured the efficacy of 2.5 mg/d vortioxetine compared to 10 mg/d, and no significant differences were observed. The common adverse effects included nausea and headache. With increased dose, nausea was found to be more frequent in the vortioxetine (5 and 10 mg/d) group (OR=2.99, 95% CI=1.31–6.84, Z=2.60, P=0.009; OR=2.80, 95% CI=1.85–4.25, Z=4.85, P<0.00001, respectively), but no significant differences were observed for headache. Conclusion The results showed no significant improvement in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder for vortioxetine compared to placebo, and nausea was more frequent with higher doses. So the current evidences do not support using vortioxetine for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Few RCTs were included in our

  18. Work Practice Simulation of Complex Human-Automation Systems in Safety Critical Situations: The Brahms Generalized berlingen Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The transition from the current air traffic system to the next generation air traffic system will require the introduction of new automated systems, including transferring some functions from air traffic controllers to on­-board automation. This report describes a new design verification and validation (V&V) methodology for assessing aviation safety. The approach involves a detailed computer simulation of work practices that includes people interacting with flight-critical systems. The research is part of an effort to develop new modeling and verification methodologies that can assess the safety of flight-critical systems, system configurations, and operational concepts. The 2002 Ueberlingen mid-air collision was chosen for analysis and modeling because one of the main causes of the accident was one crew's response to a conflict between the instructions of the air traffic controller and the instructions of TCAS, an automated Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System on-board warning system. It thus furnishes an example of the problem of authority versus autonomy. It provides a starting point for exploring authority/autonomy conflict in the larger system of organization, tools, and practices in which the participants' moment-by-moment actions take place. We have developed a general air traffic system model (not a specific simulation of Überlingen events), called the Brahms Generalized Ueberlingen Model (Brahms-GUeM). Brahms is a multi-agent simulation system that models people, tools, facilities/vehicles, and geography to simulate the current air transportation system as a collection of distributed, interactive subsystems (e.g., airports, air-traffic control towers and personnel, aircraft, automated flight systems and air-traffic tools, instruments, crew). Brahms-GUeM can be configured in different ways, called scenarios, such that anomalous events that contributed to the Überlingen accident can be modeled as functioning according to requirements or in an

  19. Precautions in Applying Forensic Experiences to Classroom Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulemans, Thomas

    A high school speech communication instructor who also coaches the debate team has drawn a number of conclusions regarding concurrent teaching and coaching. First, forensic programs generally take too much time and energy from classroom work, and an inordinate amount of relaxation and "recharge" time. Forensic coaches who teach need superhuman…

  20. Update to the safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators for the Galileo and Ulysses missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Bradshaw, C. T.; Englehart, Richard W.; Bartram, Bart W.; Cull, Theresa A.; Zocher, Roy W.; Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera; Brenza, Peter T.; Chan, Chris C.

    1992-01-01

    With the rescheduling of the Galileo and Ulysses launches and the use of new upper stages following the Challenger accident, the aerospace nuclear safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) was extended to accommodate the new mission scenarios. As in the original safety program, the objectives were to determine the response of the GPHS-RTG to the various postulated accident environments and to determine the risk (if any) associated with these postulated accidents. The extended GPHS-RTG safety program was successfully completed in sufficient time to prepare an updated Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) with revisions for the October 1989 launch of the Galileo spacecraft.

  1. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  2. Safety-analysis report for packaging (SARP) general-purpose heat-source module 750-Watt shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, M.A.; Burgan, C.E.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Zocher, R.W.; Bronisz, S.E.

    1981-10-15

    The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Extensive tests and evaluations were performed to show that the container will function effectively with respect to all required standards and when subjected to normal transportation conditions and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion). In addition, a steady state temperature profile and radiation profile were measured using two heat sources that very closely resemble the GPHS. This gave an excellent representation of the GPHS temperature and radiation profile. A nuclear criticality safety analysis determined that all safety requirements are met.

  3. Chemical Safety. Part I: Safety in the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the importance of considering the hazards, precautions, and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory. Discusses safety hazards depending on the chemical's properties including flammability, corrosivity, toxicity, and reactivity; eye protection; and physical hazards.…

  4. What Transmission Precautions Best Control Influenza Spread in a Hospital?

    PubMed

    Blanco, Natalia; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Stillwell, Terri; Foxman, Betsy

    2016-06-01

    Influenza is a significant problem within hospitals, leading to extended hospital stays, excess morbidity and mortality, and economic loss. Prevention and control strategies are generally "bundled"; therefore, the individual effects of particular strategies and the value of combined strategies cannot be determined directly, making it difficult to discern the optimal strategy. To quantify the individual and joint effectiveness of several known influenza infection control measures used in general hospitals, we simulated influenza transmission at a hypothetical hospital in Ann Arbor, Michigan, during a 1-year seasonal epidemic (June 2012-June 2013), using a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) compartmental model. The hospital population comprised patients and health-care workers, interacting with its larger community population. Parameter ranges and values were determined from the literature (both national and local to Ann Arbor) and took into account coverage levels and effects of vaccination. The most effective individual strategies, based on percent reduction of cases, were: hand-washing (11%-27%), health-care worker vaccination (6%-19%), prevaccination of patients (4%-17%), patient isolation (5%-16%), antiviral treatment (4%-14%), and use of face masks (3%-10%). Use of all strategies together with ideal levels of compliance could potentially halve the number of observed hospital cases of influenza; under a more realistic scenario, an almost 40% reduction could be achieved. A multifaceted approach is imperative to control and prevent nosocomial influenza in health-care settings.

  5. What Transmission Precautions Best Control Influenza Spread in a Hospital?

    PubMed

    Blanco, Natalia; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Stillwell, Terri; Foxman, Betsy

    2016-06-01

    Influenza is a significant problem within hospitals, leading to extended hospital stays, excess morbidity and mortality, and economic loss. Prevention and control strategies are generally "bundled"; therefore, the individual effects of particular strategies and the value of combined strategies cannot be determined directly, making it difficult to discern the optimal strategy. To quantify the individual and joint effectiveness of several known influenza infection control measures used in general hospitals, we simulated influenza transmission at a hypothetical hospital in Ann Arbor, Michigan, during a 1-year seasonal epidemic (June 2012-June 2013), using a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) compartmental model. The hospital population comprised patients and health-care workers, interacting with its larger community population. Parameter ranges and values were determined from the literature (both national and local to Ann Arbor) and took into account coverage levels and effects of vaccination. The most effective individual strategies, based on percent reduction of cases, were: hand-washing (11%-27%), health-care worker vaccination (6%-19%), prevaccination of patients (4%-17%), patient isolation (5%-16%), antiviral treatment (4%-14%), and use of face masks (3%-10%). Use of all strategies together with ideal levels of compliance could potentially halve the number of observed hospital cases of influenza; under a more realistic scenario, an almost 40% reduction could be achieved. A multifaceted approach is imperative to control and prevent nosocomial influenza in health-care settings. PMID:27188950

  6. Safety and feasibility of biventricular devices reuse in general and elderly population – a single-center retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Şoşdean, Raluca; Mornoş, Cristian; Enache, Bogdan; Macarie, Răzvan I; Ianoş, Raluca; Ştefea, Ana-Maria; Pescariu, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is known to have very important beneficial effects on heart failure patients. Unfortunately, biventricular implantable cardiac devices (CRT devices), through which this therapy is implemented, are very expensive and sometimes hard to achieve, especially in underdeveloped/developing economies, making this an important problem of public health. As a possible solution, CRT reuse is of great interest nowadays, but unlike simple devices, data in the literature are scarce about biventricular device reuse. Aim To address safety concerns, we aimed to analyze infection burden in the general and elderly population and also early battery depletion and generator malfunction of resterilized biventricular devices compared to new devices. Methods A cohort of 261 CRT patients (286 devices), who underwent implantation between 2000 and 2014, was retrospectively analyzed. The study group included 115 patients and 127 resterilized devices, that was divided into a subgroup of 69 elderly patients (≥60 years) and 74 devices and a subgroup of 47 younger patients (<60 years) and 53 devices, and the control group included 146 patients and 159 new devices. The groups were compared using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results A number of 12 (4.2%) infectious complications were encountered, five (3.9%) in the study group and seven (4.4%) in the control group (odds ratio, 2.83 [0.59–13.44], P=0.189), one (1.3%) in the elderly and four (7.5%) in the younger subgroup (odds ratio, 3.80 [0.36–40.30], P=0.266), with no statistically significant difference between them. There was only one case of early battery depletion, after 17 months, in one study group patient. No generator malfunction was detected. Conclusion Reuse of biventricular cardiac implantable electronics seems feasible and safe in both the general population and the elderly population, and it could be a promising alternative when new devices cannot be obtained in a

  7. A model of the precaution adoption process: evidence from home radon testing

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, N.D.; Sandman, P.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors present the precaution adoption process model--a stage theory consisting of seven distinct states between ignorance and completed preventive action. The stages are unaware of the issue,' aware of the issue but not personally engaged,' engaged and deciding what to do,' planning to act but not yet having acted,' having decided not to act,' acting,' and maintenance.' The theory asserts that these stages represent qualitatively different patterns of behavior, beliefs, and experience and that the factors that produce transitions between stages vary depending on the specific transition being considered. Data from seven studies of home radon testing are examined to test some of the claims made by this model. Stage theories of protective behavior are contrasted with theories that see precaution adoption in terms of movement along a single continuum of action likelihood.32 references.

  8. Evaluation of Conceptual Frameworks Applicable to the Study of Isolation Precautions Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Catherine; Shang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Aims A discussion of conceptual frameworks applicable to the study of isolation precautions effectiveness according to Fawcett and DeSanto-Madeya’s (2013) evaluation technique and their relative merits and drawbacks for this purpose Background Isolation precautions are recommended to control infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, but effectiveness is not established due to numerous methodological challenges. These challenges, such as identifying empirical indicators and refining operational definitions, could be alleviated though use of an appropriate conceptual framework. Design Discussion paper Data Sources In mid-April 2014, the primary author searched five electronic, scientific literature databases for conceptual frameworks applicable to study isolation precautions, without limiting searches by publication date. Implications for Nursing By reviewing promising conceptual frameworks to support isolation precautions effectiveness research, this paper exemplifies the process to choose an appropriate conceptual framework for empirical research. Hence, researchers may build on these analyses to improve study design of empirical research in multiple disciplines, which may lead to improved research and practice. Conclusion Three frameworks were reviewed: the epidemiologic triad of disease, Donabedian’s healthcare quality framework and the Quality Health Outcomes model. Each has been used in nursing research to evaluate health outcomes and contains concepts relevant to nursing domains. Which framework can be most useful likely depends on whether the study question necessitates testing multiple interventions, concerns pathogen-specific characteristics and yields cross-sectional or longitudinal data. The Quality Health Outcomes model may be slightly preferred as it assumes reciprocal relationships, multi-level analysis and is sensitive to cultural inputs. PMID:26179813

  9. An evaluation of precaution-based approaches as EMF policy tools in community environments.

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, J; Dolan, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the use of precaution-based approaches as policy tools when responding to concerns about power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in community environments. The combination of public concern and scientific uncertainty about potential health impacts from exposure to EMF challenges society to adopt EMF policies that balance the benefits of electric power against the possibility that some aspect of the use of electricity may be harmful. Inappropriate policy responses can undermine the economics of society's use of electricity and have other adverse consequences on public health. These adverse consequences result from the inappropriate diversion of scarce public and private resources. Precaution-based approaches are rooted in individual concepts of common sense and can be an effective component of a comprehensive set of EMF policy options. Precaution-based approaches do not replace science-based policy options and should only be used when the available science-based guidelines are not applicable. The application of these approaches should balance the real and expected costs and benefits of taking or not taking action. Given our current scientific knowledge, actions taken to reduce EMF exposure should necessarily be low cost because the expected benefits are uncertain. Society also needs to avoid adopting EMF policies that could incur high costs from distorting resources from other, more important, personal and public health priorities. PMID:8899365

  10. Child Care: State Efforts To Enforce Safety and Health Requirements. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

    Although states must certify that they have requirements to protect the health and safety of children in child care in order to receive Child Care and Development Block Grant funds, neither the scope nor stringency of these requirements has been stipulated. At the request of Congressional members, this report identifies the most critical…

  11. 46 CFR 13.121 - Courses for tankerman endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., reaction, firefighting, and safety precautions for bulk liquid cargoes defined as DL in this part. (ii... of the following: (i) General characteristics, compatibility, reaction, firefighting, and safety..., compatibility, reaction, firefighting procedures, and safety precautions for the cargoes of: Bulk...

  12. 46 CFR 13.121 - Courses for tankerman endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., reaction, firefighting, and safety precautions for bulk liquid cargoes defined as DL in this part. (ii... of the following: (i) General characteristics, compatibility, reaction, firefighting, and safety..., compatibility, reaction, firefighting procedures, and safety precautions for the cargoes of: Bulk...

  13. Chemical Safety. Part II: Tips for Dealing with Laboratory Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of involving students in assessing the risks versus the benefits of specific laboratory activities, completing accident/incident reports, and performing periodic safety inspections. Concludes that involving students enhances their awareness of both hazards and precautions that must be taken. Provides them another avenue…

  14. Safety Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of Turkana District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipngeno, Ronoh Richard; Benjamin, Kyalo Wambua

    2009-01-01

    Safety for students and staff from hazards that can be created by unsafe conditions, behaviour, disasters or emergencies in schools cannot be guaranteed. This is because of inadequate preparedness and awareness programs for safety needs. This study investigated the adequacy of procedures, precautions and infrastructure to respond to fire outbreaks…

  15. Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

  16. Demonstration of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit: Lessons for Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Mabachi, Natabhona M; Cifuentes, Maribel; Barnard, Juliana; Brega, Angela G; Albright, Karen; Weiss, Barry D; Brach, Cindy; West, David

    2016-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit was developed to help primary care practices assess and make changes to improve communication with and support for patients. Twelve diverse primary care practices implemented assigned tools over a 6-month period. Qualitative results revealed challenges practices experienced during implementation, including competing demands, bureaucratic hurdles, technological challenges, limited quality improvement experience, and limited leadership support. Practices used the Toolkit flexibly and recognized the efficiencies of implementing tools in tandem and in coordination with other quality improvement initiatives. Practices recommended reducing Toolkit density and making specific refinements.

  17. Site Safety Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bainer, R.; Duarte, J.

    1993-07-01

    The safety policy of LLNL is to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the environment and the health and safety of employees and the public, and to prevent property damage. With respect to hazardous agents, this protection is provided by limiting human exposures, releases to the environment, and contamination of property to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It is the intent of this Plan to supply the broad outline for completing environmental investigations within ALARA guidelines. It may not be possible to determine actual working conditions in advance of the work; therefore, planning must allow the opportunity to provide a range of protection based upon actual working conditions. Requirements will be the least restrictive possible for a given set of circumstances, such that work can be completed in an efficient and timely fashion. Due to the relatively large size of the LLNL Site and the different types of activities underway, site-specific Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs) will be prepared to supplement activities not covered by this Plan. These site-specific OSPs provide the detailed information for each specific activity and act as an addendum to this Plan, which provides the general plan for LLNL Main Site operation.

  18. Efficacy and safety of duloxetine in the treatment of older adult patients with generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Alaka, Karla J; Noble, William; Montejo, Angel; Dueñas, Héctor; Munshi, Autar; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lenox-Smith, Alan; Ahl, Jonna; Bidzan, Leszek; Dorn, Brita; Ball, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This was a flexible-dosed study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of duloxetine 30–120 mg once daily in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adult patients. Methods Patients with GAD, who were at least 65 years of age, were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with either duloxetine (N = 151) or placebo (N = 140). The primary efficacy measure was the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) total score, and the primary endpoint was at week 10. Global functioning was assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Safety and tolerability was assessed by the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, laboratory analyses, and vital signs. Analyses were conducted on an intent-to-treat basis. Results The overall baseline mean HAM-A total score was 24, and SDS global score was 14. Completion rates were 75% for placebo and 76% for duloxetine. At week 10, duloxetine was superior to placebo on mean changes from baseline in HAM-A total scores (−15.9 vs. −11.7, p < 0.001) and in SDS global scores (−8.6 vs. −5.4, p < 0.001). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in ≥5% of duloxetine-treated patients and twice the rate than with placebo including constipation (9% vs. 4%, p = 0.06), dry mouth (7% vs. 1%, p = 0.02), and somnolence (6% vs. 2%, p = 0.14). Conclusion Duloxetine treatment was efficacious in the improvement of anxiety and functioning in older adult patients with GAD, and the safety profile was consistent with previous GAD studies. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key points Treatment with duloxetine versus placebo can significantly reduce symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and was associated with improved global function and increased enjoyment and satisfaction with life in patients 65 years and older. The safety and tolerability profile for duloxetine in this older adult patient population

  19. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of zonisamide in adult patients with partial, generalized, and combined seizures: an open labeled, noncomparative, observational Indian study

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Amitabh; Ravat, Sangeeta; Srinivasan, Avathvadi Venkatesan; Shetty, Ashutosh; Kumar, Vivek; Achtani, Renu; Mathur, Vivek Narain; Maramattom, Boby Varkey; Bajpai, Veeresh; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Narayana, Randhi Venkata; Mehta, Suyog

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicentric, noncomparative open-label observational study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy zonisamide in Indian adult patients for the treatment of partial, generalized, or combined seizures. A total of 655 adult patients with partial, generalized, or combined seizures from 30 centers across India were recruited after initial screening. Patients received 100 mg zonisamide as initiating dose as monotherapy/adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks, with titration of 100 mg every 2 weeks if required. Adverse events, responder rates, and seizure freedom were observed every 4 weeks. Efficacy and safety were also assessed using Clinicians Global Assessment of Response to Therapy and Patients Global Assessment of Tolerability to Therapy, respectively. Follow-up was conducted for a period of 24 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 655 patients were enrolled and received the treatment and 563 completed the evaluation phase. A total of 20.92% of patients received zonisamide as monotherapy or alternative monotherapy and 59.85% patients received zonisamide as first adjunctive therapy. Compared with baseline, 41.22% of patients achieved seizure freedom and 78.6% as responder rate at the end of 24 week study. Most commonly reported adverse events were loss of appetite, weight loss, sedation, and dizziness, but discontinuation due to adverse events of drug was seen in 0.92% of patients. This open label real-world study suggests that zonisamide is an effective and well-tolerated antiepileptic drug in Indian adults for treatment of partial, generalized as well as combined seizures type. No new safety signals were observed. PMID:27013882

  20. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  1. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; ...

  2. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interactive Laser Disc and Classroom Video Tape for Safety Instruction of General Motors Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, James; Wagner, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Describes evaluation that assessed the effectiveness of the Interactive Laser Disc System (ILDS) Training Program in comparison with classroom instruction with videotape for training of General Motors workers. Topics discussed include achievement test, attitude scales, opinion surveys, user preference questionnaires, interviews, and variables that…

  3. Ethical acceptability, health policy and foods biotechnology based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2001-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. There are two conflicting viewpoints about the possible risks linked to genetically modified organisms: a posteriori protection (based on vigilance once the product is on the market) and an a priori protection (at present usually supported by the precaution principle). We suggest a third way, which ensures consumer safety, but doesn't hinder scientific progress. Just as there are regulations for the protection of human subjects in biomedical research and regulations for the use of drugs after they are marketed, so should such regulations be introduced in the domains of food production that use biotechnologies. We therefore suggest that the scientific community and the food-processing industry develop evaluation protocols for new foods like the ones that exist for drugs. We thus offer thirteen regulations, based on the Helsinki declaration, in order to establish these protocols. These proposals, applied to food-processing research, would enable the industry to return confidence to consumers and thus avoid the random blocking of scientific progress, which is a source of health for the greater population. PMID:11401233

  4. Ethical acceptability, health policy and foods biotechnology based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2001-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. There are two conflicting viewpoints about the possible risks linked to genetically modified organisms: a posteriori protection (based on vigilance once the product is on the market) and an a priori protection (at present usually supported by the precaution principle). We suggest a third way, which ensures consumer safety, but doesn't hinder scientific progress. Just as there are regulations for the protection of human subjects in biomedical research and regulations for the use of drugs after they are marketed, so should such regulations be introduced in the domains of food production that use biotechnologies. We therefore suggest that the scientific community and the food-processing industry develop evaluation protocols for new foods like the ones that exist for drugs. We thus offer thirteen regulations, based on the Helsinki declaration, in order to establish these protocols. These proposals, applied to food-processing research, would enable the industry to return confidence to consumers and thus avoid the random blocking of scientific progress, which is a source of health for the greater population.

  5. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  6. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  7. Coping strategy in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome: application of the construal level theory and the precaution adoption process model.

    PubMed

    Delara, Mahin; Ghofranipour, Fazllollah; Fallah, Parviz Azad; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Montazeri, Ali; Sani, Abolfazl Rahmani; Kooshki, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to apply the construal level theory (CLT) to increase the relaxation adoption as a coping behavior in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The theory offers a framework that assumes decision-making about adoption of any given behavior depends on perceived temporal distance from the desired or recommended behavior and thus individual might perceive any information or intervention, at two levels (low or high). In doing so, a trial was conducted on 1578 high school students suffering from PMS. The precaution adoption process model was applied to categorize students in six stages, based on their intention to adopt a behavior. The focus of this study was on students who were in stage 3 of the model (undecided to adopt a behavior that was relaxation). Overall, 411 students were identified and randomly assigned to the three study groups: group 1 (n = 98) who received a CLT-driven intervention containing detailed information about relaxation (low-level construal, LLC); group 2 (n = 150) who received a CTL-driven intervention containing general information about relaxation (high-level construal, HLC); and group 3 (n = 163) who received nothing (control group). The progression from stage 3 toward stage 6 (action) was considered as the desired outcome and it was hypothesized that LLC intervention would be more effective than HLC intervention. Compared to participants in the control group, participants in the high and low construal groups were significantly more likely to advance to the action stage (P < 0.001). In addition, students in the low construal group had made an apparent higher stage progression as compared to the high construal group, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). The findings suggest that, for people who are undecided to adopt a new health action, LLC intervention might be more effective.

  8. A randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of ramosetron versus ondansetron in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kaja, Sriramamurthy; Giri, Ravindra S.; Tugave, Deepak V.; Iqbal, Mukarram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Post-operative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common and distressing complications after anesthesia and surgery. It may lead to serious post-operative complications. Ramosetron is a newer 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and has more potent and longer duration of antiemetic effects compared to first generation 5HT3 receptor antagonists. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting with that of Ondansetron in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries under general anesthesia. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 60 patients, 18-60 years of both genders falling under ASA I-II category scheduled for abdominal surgery were included. Group I received I.V ramosetron 0.3 mg while group II received I.V Ondansetron 4 mg at the time of extubation. The standard general anesthetic technique was used throughout. Postoperatively the incidences of nausea, vomiting, and safety assessments were performed at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h during the first 24 h after surgery. Results: There were no differences between groups with respect to patient demographics. The percentage of patients who had complete response (no PONV, and no need for another rescue antiemetic) from 0 to 24 h after anesthesia was 56% with ramosetron and 33% with ondansetron. The corresponding rates at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after anesthesia were 76% and 63%, 76% and 50%, 100 and 83%, 100 and 93%, respectively. Safety profiles of the two drugs were comparable, as no clinically serious adverse effects caused by study drugs were observed in either of the groups. Conclusion: Our study concludes that prophylactic therapy with ramosetron is highly efficacious than ondansetron in preventing PONV in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:24665241

  9. Improving the Effectiveness of Medication Review: Guidance from the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Barry D.; Brega, Angela G.; LeBlanc, William G.; Mabachi, Natabhona M.; Barnard, Juliana; Albright, Karen; Cifuentes, Maribel; Brach, Cindy; West, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although routine medication reviews in primary care practice are recommended to identify drug therapy problems, it is often difficult to get patients to bring all their medications to office visits. The objective of this study was to determine whether the medication review tool in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit can help to improve medication reviews in primary care practices. Methods The toolkit's “Brown Bag Medication Review” was implemented in a rural private practice in Missouri and an urban teaching practice in California. Practices recorded outcomes of medication reviews with 45 patients before toolkit implementation and then changed their medication review processes based on guidance in the toolkit. Six months later we conducted interviews with practice staff to identify changes made as a result of implementing the tool, and practices recorded outcomes of medication reviews with 41 additional patients. Data analyses compared differences in whether all medications were brought to visits, the number of medications reviewed, drug therapy problems identified, and changes in medication regimens before and after implementation. Results Interviews revealed that practices made the changes recommended in the toolkit to encourage patients to bring medications to office visits. Evaluation before and after implementation revealed a 3-fold increase in the percentage of patients who brought all their prescription medications and a 6-fold increase in the number of prescription medications brought to office visits. The percentage of reviews in which drug therapy problems were identified doubled, as did the percentage of medication regimens revised. Conclusions Use of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit can help to identify drug therapy problems. PMID:26769873

  10. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  11. Factors influencing nurses' compliance with Standard Precautions in order to avoid occupational exposure to microorganisms: A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nurses may acquire an infection during the provision of nursing care because of occupational exposure to microorganisms. Relevant literature reports that, compliance with Standard Precautions (a set of guidelines that can protect health care professionals from being exposed to microorganisms) is low among nurses. Additionally, high rates of exposure to microorganisms among nurses via several modes (needlesticks, hand contamination with blood, exposure to air-transmitted microorganisms) occur. The aim of the study was to study the factors that influence nurses' compliance with Standard Precaution in order to avoid occupational exposure to pathogens, by employing a qualitative research design. Method A focus group approach was used to explore the issue under study. Four focus groups (N = 30) were organised to elicit nurses' perception of the factors that influence their compliance with Standard Precautions. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as the theoretical framework and the data were analysed according to predetermined criteria. Results Following content analysis, factors that influence nurses' compliance emerged. Most factors could be applied to one of the main domains of the HBM: benefits, barriers, severity, susceptibility, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Conclusions Changing current behavior requires knowledge of the factors that may influence nurses' compliance with Standard Precautions. This knowledge will facilitate in the implementation of programs and preventive actions that contribute in avoiding of occupational exposure. PMID:21255419

  12. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exposure limit, are located in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915, and § 1915.12(c). (c) Toxic, corrosive... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exposure limit, are located in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915, and § 1915.12(c). (c) Toxic, corrosive... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exposure limit, are located in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915, and § 1915.12(c). (c) Toxic, corrosive... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before...

  15. Quality and safety issues highlighted by patients in the handling of laboratory test results by general practices–a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In general practice internationally, many care teams handle large numbers of laboratory test results relating to patients in their care. Related research about safety issues is limited with most of the focus on this workload from secondary care and in North American settings. Little has been published in relation to primary health care in the UK and wider Europe. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients with regards to the handling of test results by general practices. Methods A qualitative research approach was used with patients. The setting was west of Scotland general practices from one National Health Service territorial board area. Patients were purposively sampled from practice held lists of patients who received a number of laboratory tests because of chronic medical problems or surveillance of high risk medicines. Focus groups were held and were audio-recorded. Tapes were transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis. Transcripts were coded and codes merged into themes by two of the researchers. Results 19 participants from four medical practices took part in four focus groups. The main themes identified were: 1. Patients lacked awareness of the results handling process in their practice. 2. Patients usually did not contact their practice for test results, unless they considered themselves to be ill. 3. Patients were concerned about the appropriateness of administrators being involved in results handling. 4. Patients were concerned about breaches of confidentiality when administrators were involved in results handling. 5. Patients valued the use of dedicated results handling staff. 6. Patients welcomed the use of technology to alert them to results being available, and valued the ability to choose how this happened. Conclusions The study confirms the quality and safety of care problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the issues that impact in these areas. Practices need to be

  16. Constrained Mathematics for Calculating Logical Safety and Reliability Probabilities with Uncertain Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.K.; Cooper, J.A.; Ferson, S.

    1999-01-21

    Calculating safety and reliability probabilities with functions of uncertain variables can yield incorrect or misleading results if some precautions are not taken. One important consideration is the application of constrained mathematics for calculating probabilities for functions that contain repeated variables. This paper includes a description of the problem and develops a methodology for obtaining an accurate solution.

  17. An evaluation of hospital emergency department (HED) adherence to universal precautions.

    PubMed

    Rydman, R J; Tannebaum, R D; Zalenski, R J

    1994-08-01

    A longitudinal cross sectional study of Hospital Emergency Department (HED) procedures over a nine month period was conducted. A total of 1,541 procedures were observed on 56 randomly selected 8-h work shifts. Shifts were distributed: 34% day shift; 34% evening shift; and 32% on the night shift. Observations on the evening shift were oversampled to capture an adequate number of trauma patients. Observations were distributed: 33% day shift; 39% evening shift; and 28% on the night shift. Measurements included: type of procedure; adherence to specific barrier technique, i.e., use of gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection; and occurrence of adverse exposure. Ten types of HED procedures were documented and analyzed. Computerized tracking of study observations established periodic rates of HED health care worker (HCW) adherence to universal precautions. These data are important for internal quality control/assurance programs and rate comparisons within and across institutions over time. The longitudinal evaluation of the database revealed that glove compliance increased over the period of the study and adverse exposure decreased. Conducting ongoing or periodic observational studies of this kind are important and necessary in order to gauge HED response to the epidemiologic challenges of urban society. PMID:7829982

  18. [Behavior of the periodontium during leveling of the mandibular incisors: what precautions are needed?].

    PubMed

    Castelli, Alicia; Le Gall, Michel; Monnet-Corti, Virginie

    2016-03-01

    Since the position of the mandibular incisors is one of the keys to successful treatment, most orthodontic treatments focus on control but take no special precautions regarding the periodontal environment. Can we trust the lateral headfilm alone when evaluating such slender quantities of bone surrounding the mandibular incisors? What is the true bone situation prior to treatment and above all, following alignment, leveling and uprighting of the incisors? We performed a prospective 3-year study on 50 patients to assess the periodontal behavior of the mandibular incisors following a leveling phase by means of a clinical approach using periodontal and radiologic probing based on measurements of bone thickness obtained by cone beam. The bone loss observed was not inconsiderable given the thinness of the initial bone. In the face of this clinical situation, we need to adapt our treatment by performing a pre-orthodontic periodontal check-up and by supplementing the diagnosis with 3D examinations for at-risk patients and by checking the incisal axes during the leveling phase. The advent of cone beam has provided us with a valuable tool making it possible to individualize orthodontic treatment and view the posttreatment bone environment and root positions. PMID:27083231

  19. Late Lessons from Early Warnings: Toward Realism and Precaution with Endocrine-Disrupting Substances

    PubMed Central

    Gee, David

    2006-01-01

    The histories of selected public and environmental hazards, from the first scientifically based early warnings about potential harm to the subsequent precautionary and preventive measures, have been reviewed by the European Environment Agency. This article relates the “late lessons” from these early warnings to the current debates on the application of the precautionary principle to the hazards posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDSs). Here, I summarize some of the definitional and interpretative issues that arise. These issues include the contingent nature of knowledge; the definitions of precaution, prevention, risk, uncertainty, and ignorance; the use of differential levels of proof; and the nature and main direction of the methodological and cultural biases within the environmental health sciences. It is argued that scientific methods need to reflect better the realities of multicausality, mixtures, timing of dose, and system dynamics, which characterize the exposures and impacts of EDSs. This improved science could provide a more robust basis for the wider and wise use of the precautionary principle in the assessment and management of the threats posed by EDSs. The evaluation of such scientific evidence requires assessments that also account for multicausal reality. Two of the often used, and sometimes misused, Bradford Hill “criteria,” consistency and temporality, are critically reviewed in light of multicausality, thereby illustrating the need to review all of the criteria in light of 40 years of progress in science and policymaking. PMID:16818262

  20. Using the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit to Improve the Quality of Patient Materials.

    PubMed

    Brega, Angela G; Freedman, Megan A G; LeBlanc, William G; Barnard, Juliana; Mabachi, Natabhona M; Cifuentes, Maribel; Albright, Karen; Weiss, Barry D; Brach, Cindy; West, David R

    2015-01-01

    Patient materials are often written above the reading level of most adults. Tool 11 of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit ("Design Easy-to-Read Material") provides guidance on ensuring that written patient materials are easy to understand. As part of a pragmatic demonstration of the Toolkit, we examined how four primary care practices implemented Tool 11 and whether written materials improved as a result. We conducted interviews to learn about practices' implementation activities and assessed the readability, understandability, and actionability of patient education materials collected during pre- and postimplementation site visits. Interview data indicated that practices followed many action steps recommended in Tool 11, including training staff, assessing readability, and developing or revising materials, typically focusing on brief documents such as patient letters and information sheets. Many of the revised and newly developed documents had reading levels appropriate for most patients and--in the case of revised documents--better readability than the original materials. In contrast, the readability, understandability, and actionability of lengthier patient education materials were poor and did not improve over the 6-month implementation period. Findings guided revisions to Tool 11 and highlighted the importance of engaging multiple stakeholders in improving the quality of patient materials. PMID:26513033

  1. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women’s participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test. PMID:26755465

  2. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  3. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10/sup 22/ atoms/cm/sup 2/) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project.

  4. Improving Precautionary Communication in the EMF Field? Effects of Making Messages Consistent and Explaining the Effectiveness of Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Boehmert, Christoph; Wiedemann, Peter; Croft, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Many radiation health agencies communicate precautionary measures regarding the use of mobile communication devices, e.g. the use of a headset while talking on the phone. These precautionary messages have, however, been shown to unintentionally increase risk perceptions about radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs). The current study tested two potential ways of amending precautionary messages in order to minimise this unintentional effect. Firstly, the messages’ potential to be perceived as inconsistent and thereby raise suspicions was addressed; secondly, the effectiveness of the precautions was explained. An experimental design was applied in which a quota sample of 1717 Australian residents was randomly assigned to one of six message conditions. Three different risk perception measures served as dependent variables, two of them are conditional measures. The original effect of precautionary messages to amplify risk perceptions could not be replicated. Furthermore, amending precautionary messages in favour of more consistency had no effect, while explaining the effectiveness of the precautions increased conditional risk perception under the condition that no precautions are taken. This was contrary to our assumptions. We infer from these results that changing precautionary messages in terms of consistency and effectiveness in order to reduce risk perception is hardly possible. The use of conditional risk perception measures seems fruitful for studies looking at the effects of precautionary or protective messages, given that previous studies have only investigated effects on unconditional risk perception. However, the present results should not be over-interpreted as the measures’ validity in the EMF context still needs further investigation. PMID:27735851

  5. Lowering standards of clinical waste management: do the hazardous waste regulations conflict with the CDC's universal/standard precautions?

    PubMed

    Blenkharn, J I

    2006-04-01

    Clinical waste is a costly and troublesome commodity. Comprising the detritus of medical care, the foremost hazard is the risk of infection from micro-organisms present in these wastes. Infection commonly occurs through penetrating injury, the so-called 'sharps' or 'needlestick' injury, although contamination of non-intact skin or splashes to the eye may transmit infection. Bloodborne viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus) are the most serious threat, although respiratory, soft tissue and enteric infections are not unknown. The European Hazardous Waste Directive, that harmonizes the categorization and control of wastes, permits downregulation of clinical wastes where the risk of infection may be low. Although strengthened by the requirement for risk assessment in waste classification, UK regulatory guidance promoting classification of some clinical wastes as non-hazardous completely ignores the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Universal Precautions for the prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and other bloodborne pathogens in healthcare settings, which seek to prevent bloodborne virus infection in healthcare workers and others, and the more extensive Standard Precautions that extend these principles to the prevention of healthcare-associated infections and the environmental spread of nosocomial pathogens. By creating a potent cost driver encouraging downregulation of some clinical wastes, UK legislation based on the European Hazardous Waste Directive conflicts with the CDC's Universal/Standard Precautions.

  6. School Safety Audit Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMary, Jo Lynne; Owens, Marsha; Ramnarain, A. K. Vijay

    The 1997 Virginia General Assembly passed legislation directing school boards to require all schools to conduct safety audits. This audit is designed to assess the safety conditions in each public school to: (1) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues; and (2) identify and…

  7. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  8. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  9. Caveat surgeon: do orthopaedic surgeons take adequate precautions against blood-borne viral infections, in particular the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?

    PubMed

    Asante, D K; Tait, G R

    1993-09-01

    One year ago the British Orthopaedic Association issued guidelines for the prevention of cross-infection with special reference to HIV and the hepatitis viruses. We were interested to establish whether the guidelines were being widely applied and whether they had changed general orthopaedic practice. We distributed a questionnaire to Scottish Orthopaedic Fellows, Associates of the BOA, and orthopaedic trainees. With a 70 per cent return rate, it would appear that the recommendations are not adhered to in full. Of respondents, 84 per cent were immunized or undergoing immunization against hepatitis B. In all, 30 per cent were operating on high-risk patients on a monthly basis, 60 per cent thought that their current practice was low risk, and only 15 per cent thought that their future practice would be high risk; 81 per cent were concerned and yet only 60 per cent had altered their practice. It is of some concern that orthopaedic surgeons may not take the threat of HIV cross-infection seriously enough and do not consider precautions mandatory. Further pressure and support from the BOA may be necessary to encourage a change in orthopaedic practice as the threat of HIV is increasing.

  10. Healthcare worker safety is a pre-requisite for injection safety in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kermode, Michelle

    2004-11-01

    Unsafe injection practices, including the re-use of unsterile needles and syringes, are commonplace in developing country health settings, and contribute substantially to the global burden of blood-borne viral disease. Unsafe injection practices place at risk not only patients, but also healthcare workers, who practice universal precautions inconsistently and are commonly exposed to blood in the course of their work. Global awareness of the link between unsafe injection practices and the burden of blood-borne viral disease was slow to emerge but has grown in the recent years. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN), which advocates a range of interventions for the promotion of injection safety. As well as exhorting healthcare workers to use a new needle and syringe for every injection, they should also be encouraged and supported to protect themselves from exposure to blood. It is argued here that promoting the occupational safety of healthcare workers in developing countries is an essential and currently under-valued component of the response to the problem of unsafe injection practices. Protecting healthcare workers from occupational infection with blood-borne viruses has a range of potential benefits, including safer injection practices for patients and less discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need for organisational commitment to the occupational safety of healthcare workers in developing countries, along with the provision of training in injection safety and universal precautions, adequate supplies of personal protective equipment, and hepatitis B vaccination.

  11. Policies for Controlling Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in US Healthcare Facilities Reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network, 2014.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Lindsey M; Webb, Amy K; Walters, Maroya S; Dudeck, Margaret A; Kallen, Alexander J

    2016-09-01

    We examined reported policies for the control of common multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in US healthcare facilities using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Facility Survey. Policies for the use of Contact Precautions were commonly reported. Chlorhexidine bathing for preventing MDRO transmission was also common among acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016:1-4. PMID:27350394

  12. A survey of aseptic precautions and needle type for paediatric caudal block in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Fahy, C J; Costi, D A; Cyna, A M

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey was designed to evaluate the current practice of anaesthetists in Australia and New Zealand with regard to aseptic technique and needle type during the performance of single-shot caudal blocks. Professional bodies suggest that full aseptic precautions be taken during the administration of caudal or epidural blocks. It has been suggested that using an intravenous cannula or a styletted needle may obviate the occurrence of epidermoid tumours. A total of 202 members of the Society for Paediatric Anaesthesia in New Zealand and Australia were invited to participate in this internet-based survey. Eighty-four responses were received. Most respondents used some form of antiseptic handwash (81%), wore sterile gloves (85.7%), used antiseptic skin preparation (100%) and draped the site (57.1%). When performing caudal blocks, 43.1% used unstyletted needles, 27.2% used styletted spinal needles and 29.6% used intravenous cannulas. However, 11.9% did not wash hands, 10.7% did not wear gloves and 42.9% did not drape the site. Three respondents reported neither handwashing, wearing gloves or draping, instead only using an alcohol swab for skin preparation. The majority of respondents in our region appear to use some level of aseptic precautions, albeit to a variable degree. Published recommendations may either be perceived as overly cautious or as ambiguous in that they do not specify caudal practice as distinct from other epidural blocks. There is a need for clearer professional guidance to support a minimum level of aseptic precaution for single-shot caudal epidural blocks.

  13. Pro/Con debate: Are barrier precautions cost-effective in improving patient outcomes in the intensive care unit?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    You are responsible for a large medical surgical ICU. Your hospital administration has been very focused on reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections particularly in the wake of increasing public attention. However, it is time for budget preparation and your financial officer is concerned about the escalating costs associated with patient isolation and barrier precautions/personal protective equipment. Having become aware of the high costs associated with these interventions, you start to wonder about the wisdom of spending so much in this area. Your hospital administration wants your direction on next year's expenditures. You are debating whether the expense is worthwhile and advise your hospital administration accordingly. PMID:22264293

  14. Instrument safety in explosive atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Bossert, J A

    1975-01-01

    The current "Energy Crisis" has dramatically increased our potential need for coal, the worlds most abundant fossil fuel. This will probably lead to a greater use of automation and instrumentation in the coal mining industry. The presence of methane in coal mines and in the coal itself plus the presence of coal dust, both of which can form an explosive atmosphere in air, means that the possibility of a gas or coal dust ignition must be considered when designing, purchasing and installing new equipment in this industry. In addition, many metallurgical processes involve the use of potentially explosive substances against which similar safety precautions must be taken. This paper outlines the various methods of protection currently in use and proposed for electrical instruments in explosive atmospheres, with particular emphasis on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission.

  15. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe.

  16. Safety of telemental healthcare delivered to clinically unsupervised settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; Sirotin, Anton P; Mishkind, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The safety of telemental healthcare delivered to clinically unsupervised settings, such as a personal residence, must be established to inform policy and further the dissemination of telemental health programs. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of safety issues associated with telemental healthcare and, through a systematic literature review, evaluate the safety of telemental healthcare delivered to unsupervised settings. The review resulted in a total of nine studies that specifically evaluated the delivery of telemental healthcare to unsupervised settings. Six of the nine studies reviewed explicitly described safety plans or specific precautions that could be used if necessary. Two of the nine studies reported events that required the researchers to use safety procedures to effectively respond to concerns they had regarding participant safety. In both of these studies, the issues were resolved with prescribed safety procedures. Recommendations and future directions for the development and evaluation of safety protocols are discussed.

  17. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety rating and safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... notice of remedial directive will constitute the notice of safety fitness determination. If FMCSA has...

  18. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety rating and safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... notice of remedial directive will constitute the notice of safety fitness determination. If FMCSA has...

  19. Pharmacovigilance as a tool for safety and monitoring: a review of general issues and the specific challenges with end-stage renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Dalia; Marrón, Belén; Ehrlich, Jay; Rutherford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is instrumental in helping to ensure patient safety for both newly released drugs and those that are well established in the market. However, while pharmacovigilance procedures are strictly regulated in the clinical trial setting, post-marketing adverse event reporting is not well implemented or enforced. As such, the underreporting of adverse events, in relation to drugs that are on the market, is estimated to be in the region of 90%. The identification of drug safety issues in patients with complex diseases and extensive comorbidities is therefore particularly challenging. Dialysis patients - those with end-stage renal disease and often other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease - are a population with significant treatment challenges. Patients receive dialysis using complex medical devices (eg, a peritoneal dialysis home cycler) and also receive a range of pharmaceutical agents as part of dialysis itself (eg, peritoneal dialysis solutions). Many of the pharmaceutical agents used to treat these patients have been developed in populations without these complications and, therefore, an extensive knowledge of potential problems and contraindications in the dialysis population is lacking. It is important that the nephrology community understands the concept of pharmacovigilance - the pharmacologic science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long-term and short-term side effects, of medicines. Health care professionals (HCPs) and providers, pharmaceutical companies, global regulatory agencies, and the patients themselves all play unique and critical roles in this process. This review defines the science of pharmacovigilance and the process of adverse event reporting, highlights the new directions that pharmacovigilance has taken, and provides insight for HCPs managing dialysis patients into the important role that they play in helping to shape the

  20. Precaution, governance and the failure of medical implants: the ASR((TM)) hip in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wienroth, Matthias; McCormack, Pauline; Joyce, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Hip implants have provided life-changing treatment, reducing pain and improving the mobility and independence of patients. Success has encouraged manufacturers to innovate and amend designs, engendering patient hopes in these devices. However, failures of medical implants do occur. The failure rate of the Articular Surface Replacement metal-on-metal hip system, implanted almost 100,000 times world-wide, has re-opened debate about appropriate and timely implant governance. As commercial interests, patient hopes, and devices' governance converge in a socio-technical crisis, we analyse the responses of relevant governance stakeholders in the United Kingdom between 2007 and 2014. We argue that there has been a systemic failure of the governance system entrusted with the safety of patients fitted with medical implants. Commercial considerations of medical implants and the status quo of medical implant governance have been given priority over patient safety despite the availability of significant failure data in an example of uncertainty about what constitutes appropriate precautionary action. PMID:26573983

  1. Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, D A

    1990-03-01

    The current conflict between animal psychologists and animal rights activists often is presented as a recent and unique phenomenon. Although its scope may be unprecedented, the fundamental issues are longstanding. Early criticisms of animal psychologists are viewed in the context of the broader Victorian antivivisectionist movement and are seen as similar to those of the present time. Various attitudes toward animals and research were expressed by individuals such as Charles Darwin, George John Romanes, William James, and John Dewey. Media attacks on animal research were directed at psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Ivan P. Pavlov, and Edward L. Thorndike. The American Psychological Association Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation was founded in 1925 at the instigation of Walter B. Cannon, with Robert M. Yerkes as the first chair.

  2. Evolving societal risks and necessary precautions in the age of nuclear power and therapeutic radiation: an American perspective.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Yu, Cheng; Rusch, Mairead; Holloway, Charles; Chang, Eric; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism involving nuclear or radiologic weapons can devastate populations, city infrastructures, and entire sociopolitical systems. In our age of nuclear medicine and therapeutic radiation delivery, the unauthorized and illegal acquisition of radioactive materials needed for such an attack is always a possibility and risk. Physicians handling high-energy isotopes for medical radiotherapy must be aware of the basic security requirements as outlined by the Nuclear Regulation Commission, which include background checks and authorized access, physical protection during radionuclide use, and physical protection during its transit. The Leksell Gamma Knife and its Category 1 cobalt-60 radioactive source are discussed because of their significant potential for deployment in a weaponized device. Although this article presents a perspective relating to American rules and regulations, these precautions are applicable anywhere that similar situations exist. Understanding these materials and the security they require is essential to preventing the disastrous outcomes should these isotopes fall into terrorists' hands.

  3. Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, D A

    1990-03-01

    The current conflict between animal psychologists and animal rights activists often is presented as a recent and unique phenomenon. Although its scope may be unprecedented, the fundamental issues are longstanding. Early criticisms of animal psychologists are viewed in the context of the broader Victorian antivivisectionist movement and are seen as similar to those of the present time. Various attitudes toward animals and research were expressed by individuals such as Charles Darwin, George John Romanes, William James, and John Dewey. Media attacks on animal research were directed at psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Ivan P. Pavlov, and Edward L. Thorndike. The American Psychological Association Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation was founded in 1925 at the instigation of Walter B. Cannon, with Robert M. Yerkes as the first chair. PMID:2178508

  4. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Olson, Christine K; Iwamoto, Martha; Perkins, Kiran M; Polen, Kara N D; Hageman, Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Igbinosa, Irogue I; Khan, Sumaiya; Honein, Margaret A; Bell, Michael; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel. PMID:27010422

  5. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Olson, Christine K; Iwamoto, Martha; Perkins, Kiran M; Polen, Kara N D; Hageman, Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Igbinosa, Irogue I; Khan, Sumaiya; Honein, Margaret A; Bell, Michael; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-25

    Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

  6. Safety Guide for Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The handbook is intended to be utilized by health occupations teachers as supplementary instructional materials for a unit on safety. The document contains general safety rules applicable to hospitals and other health care institutions. Outlined are general rules for fire safety and office and clerical safety and more specific rules for the…

  7. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  8. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  9. Predictors of Intention To Take Precautions against AIDS among Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; Thompson, Vaida D.

    This research explored the effects of a number of factors derived from extant intention-behavior models on a general behavioral intention to engage in protection against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and a specific behavioral intention to use condoms as protection in vaginal sex. Data pertaining to beliefs, knowledge about AIDS, fear…

  10. Awareness of droplet and airborne isolation precautions among dental health professionals during the outbreak of corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shahzeb-Hasan; AlShamrani, Sultan-Saleh; Alakras, Abdul-Rahman; Mahrous, Raif; Alenazi, Abdul-Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of airborne and droplet isolation precautions among Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) (dental students, interns, practitioners and auxiliaries) during the outbreak of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 406 dental health professionals (DHPs) working in selected dental facilities in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of MERS (April-June 2013). A structured, close-ended, self-administered questionnaire explored the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards droplet and isolation precautions. Collected data was subjected to descriptive statistics to express demographic information, mean knowledge score, mean attitude score and practice score of DHPs. Inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.05) were used to examine differences between study variables. Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge-attitude, knowledge-practice, and attitude-practice. Results A response rate of rate of 90.22% (406 out of 452) was obtained. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 10.61 ± 1.19, 50.54 ± 7.53 and 8.50 ± 2.14 respectively. Spearman’s correlation test revealed a significant linear positive correlation between knowledge and attitude (r-0.501, P- 0.01), knowledge and practice (r-0.185, P-0.01) and attitude and practice (r-0.351, P- 0.01) of DHPs about airborne isolation precautions. Conclusions Dental health professionals considered in the present study showed good knowledge, positive attitude and good practice towards droplet and airborne isolation precautions during outbreak of MERS. Key words:Knowledge, attitude, practice, droplet, airborne, precaution, dental professionals. PMID:27703605

  11. Preparing to meet foreign bugs. Travel, immigration, and international adoptions require special precautions.

    PubMed

    Petersen, K

    2001-07-01

    As the world's population becomes increasingly mobile, children are more likely to be exposed to exotic and troublesome pathogens. These exposures raise concerns about protecting not only kids but the general population as well. In this article, Dr Petersen presents ways to avoid illness in children who travel to other parts of the world. She also discusses concerns about communicable disease as it relates to immigration or adoption of foreign-born children, especially those from developing nations.

  12. Science, precaution, and the politics of technological risk: converging implications in evolutionary and social scientific perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Andy

    2008-04-01

    This paper examines apparent tensions between "science-based," "precautionary," and "participatory" approaches to decision making on risk. Partly by reference to insights currently emerging in evolutionary studies, the present paper looks for ways to reconcile some of the contradictions. First, I argue that technological evolution is a much more plural and open-ended process than is conventionally supposed. Risk politics is thus implicitly as much about social choice of technological pathways as narrow issues of safety. Second, it is shown how conventional "science-based" risk assessment techniques address only limited aspects of incomplete knowledge in complex, dynamic, evolutionary processes. Together, these understandings open the door to more sophisticated, comprehensive, rational, and robust decision-making processes. Despite their own limitations, it is found that precautionary and participatory approaches help to address these needs. A concrete framework is outlined through which the synergies can be more effectively harnessed. By this means, we can hope simultaneously to improve scientific rigor and democratic legitimacy in risk governance.

  13. Missouri Secondary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. This manual contains information on standards, legal aspects, and responsibilities for science safety; general laboratory safety for…

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  15. 29 CFR 1926.950 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.950 General requirements. (a) Application. The occupational safety and health standards contained in...

  16. Software Safety Progress in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radley, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    NASA has developed guidelines for development and analysis of safety-critical software. These guidelines have been documented in a Guidebook for Safety Critical Software Development and Analysis. The guidelines represent a practical 'how to' approach, to assist software developers and safety analysts in cost effective methods for software safety. They provide guidance in the implementation of the recent NASA Software Safety Standard NSS-1740.13 which was released as 'Interim' version in June 1994, scheduled for formal adoption late 1995. This paper is a survey of the methods in general use, resulting in the NASA guidelines for safety critical software development and analysis.

  17. Safety of implanted cardiac devices in an MRI environment.

    PubMed

    Ipek, Esra Gucuk; Nazarian, Saman

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into an essential diagnostic modality for the evaluation of various conditions. In line with the increase in MRI applications, the use of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) is growing and many of the CEID recipients of today may require MRI examinations in the future. Traditionally, MRI examination of CIED recipients has been considered a contraindication. However, recent studies have provided strong evidence that MRI can safely be performed in selected patients with specific precautions. This review highlights the interactions of MRI with CIEDs, summarizes the literature, and outlines the Johns Hopkins Safety Protocol. PMID:26026996

  18. Conceptual Design and Resources for a General-Purpose Safety and Performance Verification and Validation Toolkit (V2T) for Life-Critical Wireless Medical Device Networks (WMDN).

    PubMed

    Sloane, Elliot; Schrenker, Rick

    2005-01-01

    Wireless Medical Device Network (WMDN) deployment is occurring to facilitate ambulatory patient care, increase safer and more intelligent diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities, and improve flexible patient bed configuration that matches census requirements. Patient safety risks exist from delayed or lost WMDN alarm and data streams, however, and non-proprietary Verification and Validation (V2) techniques do not exist. Single-vendor and heterogeneous multi-vendor deployment must be considered, as well as safe and reliable coexistence with other IS technologies sharing similar network components. V2 of even a homogeneous single vendor, single device WMDNS is very complex for several reasons including: absence of industry standards or regulations, unconstrained mobility of patients and devices, and rapid changes in the underlying wireless network modalities. This project will evaluate and recommend appropriate best V2 practices from fields like software and systems engineering to improve a hospitals ability to properly implement and manage the emerging WMDN opportunities and to prevent patient injuries or other serious problems. PMID:17282140

  19. Safety relevant knowledge of orally anticoagulated patients without self-monitoring: a baseline survey in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective and safe management of oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) requires a high level of patient knowledge and adherence. The aim of this study was to assess patient knowledge about OAT and factors associated with patient knowledge. Methods This is a baseline survey of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 general practices with an educational intervention for patients or their caregivers. We assessed knowledge about general information on OAT and key facts regarding nutrition, drug-interactions and other safety precautions of 345 patients at baseline. Results Participants rated their knowledge about OAT as excellent to good (56%), moderate (36%) or poor (8%). However, there was a discrepancy between self-rated knowledge and evaluated actual knowledge and we observed serious knowledge gaps. Half of the participants (49%) were unaware of dietary recommendations. The majority (80%) did not know which non-prescription analgesic is the safest and 73% indicated they would not inform pharmacists about OAT. Many participants (35-75%) would not recognize important emergency situations. After adjustment in a multivariate analysis, older age and less than 10 years education remained significantly associated with lower overall score, but not with self-rated knowledge. Conclusions Patients have relevant knowledge gaps, potentially affecting safe and effective OAT. There is a need to assess patient knowledge and for structured education programs. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German Clinical Trials Register): DRKS00000586. Universal Trial Number (UTN U1111-1118-3464). PMID:24885192

  20. Using the Precaution Adoption Process model to describe a disaster preparedness intervention among low-income Latinos.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah C; Eisenman, David P; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

    2014-04-01

    Only 40-50% of households in the United States are currently disaster prepared. In this intervention study, respondent-driven sampling was used to select a sample (n = 187) of low income, Latino residents of Los Angeles County, randomly assigned into two treatment conditions: (i) household preparedness education received through 'promotora' (community health worker) led small group meetings, and (ii) household preparedness education received through print media. Weinstein's Precaution Adoption Process, a stage model appropriate for risk communication guided the intervention. Outcomes are conceptualized as stages of decision making linked to having disaster supplies and creating a family communication plan. Quantitative results showed a significant shift over time from awareness to action and maintenance stages for disaster communication plans and supplies in both study arms; however, the shift in stage for a communication plan for those in the 'platica' study arm was (P < 0.0001) than for those in the media arm. For changes in stage linked to disaster supplies, people in both media and 'platica' study arms improved at the same rate. Simple media-based communications may be sufficient to encourage disadvantaged households to obtain disaster supplies; however, adoption of the more complex disaster family communication requires interpersonal education.

  1. Developing a questionnaire for measuring safety climate in the workplace in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milijic, Nenad; Mihajlovic, Ivan; Strbac, Nada; Zivkovic, Zivan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted because a real method for measuring safety climate had never been developed and assessed in Serbian industry. The aim of this paper was to start the process of developing a safety climate questionnaire that could be used in Serbia. As a starting point a 21-item questionnaire was adopted after an extensive literature review. The questionnaire was distributed at several Serbian factories; 1098 workers responded. After a statistical analysis of the data obtained with the questionnaire and a critical comparison with the available reference results, a final questionnaire with 21 questions, divided into 7 groups, was developed. The 7 groups of questions (factors) were safety awareness and competence, safety communication, organizational environment, management support, risk judgment and management reaction, safety precautions and accident prevention, and safety training. PMID:24321642

  2. Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A.M.; Srivastava, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Where the risk of accidental power-frequency energization is concerned, the safety ground has a short-circuit discharge duty determined by the configuration and parameters of the power system. Safety is thus assured by selecting a safety ground having a short-circuit safety rating which matches the duty imposed by the power system. Up to now, a similar matching for lightning currents has not been possible. This paper addresses this problem by: 1. Determining the lightning current rating of typical safety grounds. 2. Calculating the lightning current discharge duty of safety grounds in terms of the insulatuon level of the line and the distance from the location of the thunderstorm. The analysis shows that special precautions are needed when working on power lines of voltage classes above 360 kV.

  3. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  4. Resource burden associated with contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus: the patient access managers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Erica S; Walensky, Rochelle P; Lee, Hang; Orcutt, Benjamin; Hooper, David C

    2012-08-01

    We surveyed patient access managers on the impact of contact precautions (CP) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) on time to bed assignment, and we investigated the factors influencing infection control policies allowing for discontinuation of CP. The majority of respondents reported an increase in time to bed assignment for patients with a history of MRSA and/or VRE infection or colonization. PMID:22759555

  5. Tracing Glacial-Interglacial Thermohaline Circulation with Nd isotopes: Progress and Precautions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, S. R.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Rutberg, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    The variability of thermohaline circulation through glacial cycles is still an open issue because conventional paleoceanographic proxies disagree. Nd isotopes are potentially an effective tracer of ocean circulation because the end-member water masses are very different, with the Pacific having much higher values than the North Atlantic. Moreover, depth profiles show that Nd isotope ratios follow water masses. Nd is sequestered from deep water by Fe-Mn oxide precipitation, leaving a record that is extractable from deep sea cores. Unlike light stable isotopes or trace element ratios, Nd isotope ratios are not fractionated by biological processes. Over the few last years the Lamont group has focussed on testing the Nd isotope proxy through comparison of surface sediments and deep water, and examining variations through the last glacial period in deep sea cores with known chronologies. Samples that fail to give marine Sr isotope ratios are rejected. Finding samples that pass the Sr test is a challenge in some regions (for example, the Circum-Antarctic and North Atlantic). Experience shows that if a sample fails the Sr isotope test, then the entire core is likely to fail. Successful cores strongly indicate major changes in the export of NADW to the Southern Ocean over since the last interglacial on both long and millennial time-scales. The current data set can be summarized as follows. (1) Holocene coretop samples reflect present-day bottom water. (2) The conveyor was weak during MIS 2 and 4, and stronger during MIS 3. (3) Data from different depths in the Atlantic are not consistent with a shallowing of NADW and a constant flux during the LGM, but rather indicate weakening of the conveyor. (4) During Termination I, NADW export began to strengthen prior to the Bolling warming, and shows a general strengthening through the transition but a significant weakening during the Younger Dryas. (5) Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings during MIS 3 are accompanied by a strengthened

  6. Mercury contamination study for flight system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzynski, C. S., Jr.; Maycock, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    The effects and prevention of possible mercury pollution from the failure of solar electric propulsion spacecraft using mercury propellant were studied from tankage loading of post launch trajector injection. During preflight operations and initial flight mode there is little danger of mercury pollution if proper safety precautions are taken. Any spillage on the loading, mating, transportation, or launch pad areas is obvious and can be removed by vacuum cleaning soil and chemical fixing. Mercury spilled on Cape Kennedy ground soil will be chemically complexed and retained by the sandstone subsoil. A cover layer of sand or gravel on spilled mercury which has settled to the bottom of a water body adjacent to the system operation will control and eliminate the formation of toxic organic mercurials. Mercury released into the earth's atmosphere through leakage of a fireball will be diffused to low concentration levels. However, gas phase reactions of mercury with ozone could cause a local ozone depletion and result in serious ecological hazards.

  7. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  8. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety...

  9. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  10. 46 CFR 52.01-120 - Safety valves and safety relief valves (modifies PG-67 through PG-73).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety valves and safety relief valves (modifies PG-67... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-120 Safety valves and safety relief valves (modifies PG-67 through PG-73). (a)(1) Boiler safety valves and safety relief......

  11. [Construction of a tool for risk assessment of infectious diseases in a workplace--as a primary precaution].

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Mayumi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Suzuka; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo; Ogawa, Midori; Mori, Koji; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2008-12-01

    We describe here a tool for risk assessment and management of infectious diseases in a workplace. This was constructed as a primary precaution for the prevention of infectious diseases in a workplace, not to be used as a countermeasure of diseases in the time of or after an occurrence. The tool grades risk levels of each of the factors influencing infectious diseases in the workplace and an assessment based on the total point are given. Ordinary workplaces should be chosen, such as factories and office buildings, not places where medical experts or hygienists work, such as hospitals, schools and concessionaries, etc. Three risk factors for infection are pathogens, route and human host. The factor of a pathogen is divided into two groups, spreadable (from human to human) and non-spreadable. The risk of spreadable pathogens is assessed by the ages of workers, CO2 concentration and air volume, and the combination of the existence of common places and collaborative work. The risk of non spreadable pathogens is evaluated by the ages of workers, air current and air volume, and existence of equipment generating aerosol. In cases where the total point is over 7, the risk is assessed as high level (group A) and daily measures must be taken, such as ensuring proper operation of the infection control committee, education, management of working conditions and management of working environments. In cases where the score is 5 or 6, the risk is assessed as intermediate level (group B) and daily measures are recommended, such as ensuring proper operation of the infection control committee and education. In the case of a score less than 4, the risk is assessed as low level (group C) and these daily measures are not necessary. Instead, an infection control committee should be organized and concrete measures should be taken upon an outbreak of an infectious disease. PMID:19086704

  12. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  13. Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

    2008-04-01

    A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

  14. Skateboard Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

  15. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  16. The Hermes safety strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, R.

    The Hermes space vehicle currently in project for the European Space Agency will open the road to European autonomous manned space missions at the beginning of the 21st century. The safety objectives are very ambitious and will require the implementation of a comprehensive safety assurance program, aimed at reducing the risks to an acceptable level. The risk acceptance is based on identification, ranking and minimization of Critical Items including all potential departures from the safety requirements. Prime contractors shall prepare a Critical Item List for their elements, and submit it to the Hermes Program Directorate for review; approval of the residual open critical items shall be obtained before launch. An independent committee (HESAC) has been set up by the ESA and the French National Space Center (CNES) Directors General to assess the adequacy of the Safety Control Program.

  17. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2011-01-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  18. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2009-10-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  19. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2009-10-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies.

  20. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  1. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  2. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  3. Atomic Power Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: What is Atomic Power?; What Does Safety Depend On?; Control of Radioactive Material During Operation; Accident Prevention; Containment in the Event of an Accident; Licensing and…

  4. Safety Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, A. T.; Wood, D. O.

    This document discusses the issues that need to be considered by the education and training system as it responds to the changing needs of industry in Great Britain. Following a general introduction, the development of quality management ideas is traced. The underlying principles of safety and risk management are clarified and the implications of…

  5. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  6. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  7. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  8. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  9. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  10. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  11. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  12. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, Blaine C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  15. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern" (personal…

  16. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY…

  17. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  18. Science & Safety: Making the Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Science Supervisors, VA.

    This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a…

  19. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  20. 14 CFR 417.301 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.301 General. (a) Applicability. This subpart applies to any flight safety system that a launch operator uses. The requirements of § 417.107(a) define when a launch operator must use a flight safety system. A launch operator must ensure that its...

  1. 14 CFR 417.301 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.301 General. (a) Applicability. This subpart applies to any flight safety system that a launch operator uses. The requirements of § 417.107(a) define when a launch operator must use a flight safety system. A launch operator must ensure that its...

  2. 14 CFR 417.301 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.301 General. (a) Applicability. This subpart applies to any flight safety system that a launch operator uses. The requirements of § 417.107(a) define when a launch operator must use a flight safety system. A launch operator must ensure that its...

  3. 14 CFR 417.301 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.301 General. (a) Applicability. This subpart applies to any flight safety system that a launch operator uses. The requirements of § 417.107(a) define when a launch operator must use a flight safety system. A launch operator must ensure that its...

  4. 16 CFR 1101.1 - General background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.1 General background. (a) Basic purpose. This rule sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy and procedure...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.416 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 1926.416 Section 1926.416 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices § 1926.416 General requirements....

  6. 23 CFR 645.209 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General requirements. 645.209 Section 645.209 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.209 General requirements. (a) Safety. Highway safety and traffic safety are of paramount, but not of...

  7. 14 CFR 417.403 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 417.403 Section 417.403 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.403 General. (a) Public safety. A launch operator must ensure that each hazard control is in...

  8. 14 CFR 417.403 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General. 417.403 Section 417.403 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.403 General. (a) Public safety. A launch operator must ensure that each hazard control is in...

  9. 14 CFR 417.403 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General. 417.403 Section 417.403 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.403 General. (a) Public safety. A launch operator must ensure that each hazard control is in...

  10. 14 CFR 417.403 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General. 417.403 Section 417.403 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.403 General. (a) Public safety. A launch operator...

  11. 14 CFR 417.403 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General. 417.403 Section 417.403 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.403 General. (a) Public safety. A launch operator must ensure that each hazard control is in...

  12. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  13. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  14. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  15. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  16. Of Acceptable Risk: Science and the Determination of Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    This book looks at the problems of determination of safety and the underlying concept of safety itself. It is believed that if certain pervasive themes are properly appreciated, the whole field of safety will be better understood. The first chapter of the book sketches the general nature of safety decisions, defining safety as a measure of the…

  17. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final safety ratings, remedial directives, and...

  18. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. A motor carrier must meet the safety fitness standard set...

  19. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety rating is based on the degree...

  20. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety rating is based on the degree...

  1. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  2. The procedure safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Maureen E.

    1990-01-01

    Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.

  3. Falls and Fear of Falling among Community-Dwelling Seniors: The Dynamic Tension between Exercising Precaution and Striving for Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Hobson, Sandra; Melles, Pauline; Kloseck, Marita; Vandervoort, Anthony; Crilly, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the everyday experience of community-dwelling elders, with particular attention to seniors' perceptions of safety, fear of falling, independence, and quality of life. We also aimed to identify contextual factors that influence the health of elders who had fallen and/or had a fear of…

  4. Biotechnology-based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Herv, C

    2000-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent.

  5. Seismic Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  6. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  7. 15 CFR 270.100 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.100 General. (a) Based on prior NIST...

  8. 49 CFR 383.110 - General requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.110 General requirement....

  9. 49 CFR 383.110 - General requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.110 General requirement....

  10. 49 CFR 383.110 - General requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.110 General requirement....

  11. 49 CFR 383.110 - General requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.110 General requirement....

  12. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  13. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  14. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  15. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  16. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  17. Teaching Safety in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter

    This teaching manual is divided into four sections: (1) general safety information for teachers, (2) special problems in teaching safety, (3) learning experiences for first through third grades and fourth through sixth grades and (4) selected sources of information and safety teaching aids. Subjects include definition and causes of accidents,…

  18. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  19. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  20. The Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training for Public Safety Personnel. Report of the Committee on Training of the Criminal Justice Services Board to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

    Through discussion and extensive research, the Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training attempted to address concerns regarding education and training of public safety personnel with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The committee's findings were based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration…

  1. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  2. Defibrillation safety in emergency helicopter transport.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, D K; Darga, A; Landis, D; Burney, R E

    1989-01-01

    Rotary aircraft play a growing role in the transport of critically ill patients who may require emergency treatment, including defibrillation, during transport. The close quarters and proximity of vital electronic equipment have generated concern among personnel carrying out defibrillation in the air. We address the chief safety issues in helicopter defibrillation by providing measurements of the transient leakage current resulting from contact with a paddle and tested in-flight electronic interference and survey the defibrillation experience of helicopter programs. Our data show that airborne defibrillation is safe. A maximum of 1.5 mA of transient leakage current was measured from a standard battery-powered defibrillator, well within the accepted safety standard of 50 mA. In flight, there was no interference with the avionics or medical equipment, and adequate clearance was available for personnel. Of the helicopter programs surveyed, 69 (87%) had defibrillated in flight without incident. We conclude that defibrillation can be performed in the helicopter without hesitation whether on the ground or in the air, provided standard defibrillation precautions are observed.

  3. Safety in the presence of lightning.

    PubMed

    Holle, R L; López, R E; Howard, K W; Vavrek, J; Allsopp, J

    1995-12-01

    Not enough emphasis is usually placed on the proactive ability to recognize the lightning hazard. Instead, most literature and training materials treat the reactive mode. The latter approach emphasizes the posture to take when a person is caught by surprise in the open by a thunderstorm when the lightning threat is at its greatest; in other words, it is too late for precautions. The same reactive approach concentrates on what a person is wearing or holding when lightning is overhead instead of how the person came to be in this situation in the first place. Rather than focusing on these last-minute factors, the primary issue must be on the ability of a person, whether in a baseball game, riding a bike, or on a golf course, to recognize in advance the existence of a major lightning threat. This proactive approach emphasizes advance planning and recognition of a potential threat from lightning. A complete plan involves a sequence of decisions on a time scale from days to seconds. Although most of the available information in pamphlets and safety guidelines is correct concerning the reactive phase of lightning safety, the hazard remains important because of the lack of emphasis on planning and awareness.

  4. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  5. 76 FR 73006 - General Motors, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration General Motors, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Vehicle Safety Compliance, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), telephone (202)...

  6. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  7. Effect of implementation of safety measures in tae kwon do competition

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D; Barfoot, K; Bryant, S; Schneider, J; Kim, H; Levin, G

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous reviews of tae kwon do (TKD) tournaments have documented injury rates of 25/1000 to 12.7/100 athlete exposures. Most injuries have been reported to be to the head and the neck and are occasionally very serious. Many of these studies involved high level TKD competitions with minimal safety precautions. Recently, safety measures have been implemented in many TKD competitions. Objective: To evaluate retrospectively the incidence of injuries in TKD competitions involving a wide range of participants and featuring extensive safety precautions. Methods: A total of 2498 participants ranged in age from 18 to 66, included both men and women, and ranged in rank from yellow to black belt. Traumas, defined as any event requiring interaction with medical staff, were documented with respect to mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, and follow up recommendations. An injury was defined as a trauma that prevented a contestant from resuming competition on the day that the trauma occurred, according to National Collegiate Athletic Association criteria. Results: The injury rate was 0.4/1000 athlete exposures. This is lower than reported in previous studies of TKD tournaments and in many other sports. Conclusion: TKD tournaments that emphasise limited contact, protective equipment, and medical supervision are relatively safe and compare favourably with other sports. PMID:14514529

  8. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2011-05-01

    approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

  9. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21655127

  10. The safety of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Snydman, David R

    2008-02-01

    Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used. PMID:18181712

  11. Online Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Describes provisions of Children's Internet Protection Act, which school districts are required to implement on or before October 31, 2001, involving the development and public dissemination of federally mandated Internet-safety policy to prevent minors from accessing inappropriate and harmful material. Provides suggestions to protect children…

  12. Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  13. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…

  14. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  15. 15 CFR 970.800 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety of Life and Property at Sea §...

  16. 15 CFR 970.800 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety of Life and Property at Sea §...

  17. 15 CFR 970.800 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety of Life and Property at Sea §...

  18. 15 CFR 970.800 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety of Life and Property at Sea §...

  19. 15 CFR 970.800 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety of Life and Property at Sea §...

  20. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation safety concerns: a lesson from the Tuberculosis Ultraviolet Shelter Study: Murphy's Law affirmed.

    PubMed

    Brickner, Philip W; Vincent, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) applications on human beings have been an issue at least since the introduction of this technology for practical use in the 1930s. The resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States in the mid-1980s led to a revival of interest in UV technology, a focus that had almost disappeared because alternate means of controlling TB had inaccurately been deemed successful. These failures in TB control led to a revival of UVGI use. And with that revival grew necessary and appropriate concerns about attempts to eliminate human overexposure. For all those working in the field of UVGI, safety issues must be a concern because when UVGI fixtures are placed improperly, or precautions ignored, room occupants are placed at risk of photokeratoconjunctivitis and photodermatitis. If safety is so prominent a concern, why do incidents of UV side effects continue to occur? See Murphy's Law. PMID:23278626

  1. Fire safety applications for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Olson, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Fire safety for spacecraft is reviewed by first describing current practices, many of which are adapted directly from aircraft. Then, current analyses and experimental knowledge in low-gravity combustion, with implications for fire safety are discussed. In orbiting spacecraft, the detection and suppression of flames are strongly affected by the large reduction in buoyant flows under low gravity. Generally, combustion intensity is reduced in low gravity. There are some notable exceptions, however, one example being the strong enhancement of flames by low-velocity ventilation flows in space. Finally, the future requirements in fire safety, particularly the needs of long-duration space stations in fire prevention, detection, extinguishment, and atmospheric control are examined. The goal of spacecraft fire-safety investigations is the establishment of trade-offs that promote maximum safety without hampering the useful human and scientific activities in space.

  2. General Dentist

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is a General Dentist? Article Chapters What Is a General Dentist? General ... Reviewed: January 2012 ?xml:namespace> Related Articles: General Dentists FAGD and MAGD: What Do These Awards Mean? ...

  3. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  4. Safety in the scanning electron microscopy laboratory--1984 update.

    PubMed

    Barber, V C

    1984-01-01

    Recent information on hazards as they relate to safety in the SEM laboratory has been compiled. The paper concentrates on recent information on formaldehyde, embeddants, and a reminder of the possible hazards of photographic chemicals. A review of formaldehyde does not substantiate it as a human carcinogen or mutagen. However, the other hazards associated with it suggest that formaldehyde needs to be handled with care. The recent substantiation of epoxy resins as mutagens suggests that all operations involving embeddants should be undertaken in an effective fume hood. Other precautions are also important. The hazards of photographic chemicals need to be reiterated. It should also be pointed out that adequate ventilation of dark rooms would do a lot to reduce this hazard. PMID:6529456

  5. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  6. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 1.1-1.8 Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…

  7. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Safety. Module SH-40. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on electrical power transmission and distribution safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module focuses on some of the general safety rules, techniques, and procedures that are essential in establishing a safe environment for the electrical power transmission worker. Following the introduction,…

  8. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  9. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  10. Laboratory testing in management of patients with suspected Ebolavirus disease: infection control and safety.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, G L

    2015-08-01

    If routine laboratory safety precautions are followed, the risk of laboratory-acquired infection from handling specimens from patients with Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is very low, especially in the early 'dry' stage of disease. In Australia, border screening to identify travellers returning from EVD-affected west African countries during the 2014-2015 outbreak has made it unlikely that specimens from patients with unrecognised EVD would be sent to a routine diagnostic laboratory. Australian public health and diagnostic laboratories associated with hospitals designated for the care of patients with EVD have developed stringent safety precautions for EVD diagnostic and other tests likely to be required for supportive care of the sickest (and most infectious) patients with EVD, including as wide a range of point-of-care tests as possible. However, it is important that the stringent requirements for packaging, transport and testing of specimens that might contain Ebolavirus--which is a tier 1 security sensitive biology agent--do not delay the diagnosis and appropriate management of other potentially serious but treatable infectious diseases, which are far more likely causes of a febrile illness in people returning from west Africa. If necessary, urgent haematology, biochemistry and microbiological tests can be performed safely, whilst awaiting the results of EVD tests, in a PC-2 laboratory with appropriate precautions including: use of recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) for laboratory staff; handling any unsealed specimens in a class 1 or II biosafety cabinet; using only centrifuges with sealed rotors; and safe disposal or decontamination of all used equipment and laboratory waste.

  11. Laboratory testing in management of patients with suspected Ebolavirus disease: infection control and safety.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, G L

    2015-08-01

    If routine laboratory safety precautions are followed, the risk of laboratory-acquired infection from handling specimens from patients with Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is very low, especially in the early 'dry' stage of disease. In Australia, border screening to identify travellers returning from EVD-affected west African countries during the 2014-2015 outbreak has made it unlikely that specimens from patients with unrecognised EVD would be sent to a routine diagnostic laboratory. Australian public health and diagnostic laboratories associated with hospitals designated for the care of patients with EVD have developed stringent safety precautions for EVD diagnostic and other tests likely to be required for supportive care of the sickest (and most infectious) patients with EVD, including as wide a range of point-of-care tests as possible. However, it is important that the stringent requirements for packaging, transport and testing of specimens that might contain Ebolavirus--which is a tier 1 security sensitive biology agent--do not delay the diagnosis and appropriate management of other potentially serious but treatable infectious diseases, which are far more likely causes of a febrile illness in people returning from west Africa. If necessary, urgent haematology, biochemistry and microbiological tests can be performed safely, whilst awaiting the results of EVD tests, in a PC-2 laboratory with appropriate precautions including: use of recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) for laboratory staff; handling any unsealed specimens in a class 1 or II biosafety cabinet; using only centrifuges with sealed rotors; and safe disposal or decontamination of all used equipment and laboratory waste. PMID:26132899

  12. 29 CFR 1960.36 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Occupational Safety and Health Committees § 1960.36 General provisions. (a) The...

  13. 14 CFR 417.205 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.205 General. (a) Public risk management. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that a launch operator will, for each launch, control the risk to the public from hazards associated with normal and malfunctioning launch vehicle flight. The...

  14. 14 CFR 417.205 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.205 General. (a) Public risk management. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that a launch operator will, for each launch, control the risk to the public from hazards associated with normal and malfunctioning launch vehicle flight. The...

  15. 14 CFR 417.205 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.205 General. (a) Public risk management. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that a launch operator will, for each launch, control the risk to the public from hazards associated with normal and malfunctioning launch vehicle flight. The...

  16. 23 CFR 645.209 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.209 General requirements. (a) Safety. Highway safety and traffic safety are of... highway right-of-way. However, due to the nature and volume of highway traffic, the effect of such...

  17. 23 CFR 645.209 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.209 General requirements. (a) Safety. Highway safety and traffic safety are of... highway right-of-way. However, due to the nature and volume of highway traffic, the effect of such...

  18. 49 CFR 390.209 - Pre-authorization safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-authorization safety audit. 390.209 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL Unified Registration System § 390.209 Pre-authorization...

  19. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An applicant's safety review document must contain the flight safety system test data required by this...

  20. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An applicant's safety review document must contain the flight safety system test data required by this...

  1. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An applicant's safety review document must contain the flight safety system test data required by this...

  2. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An applicant's safety review document must contain the flight safety system test data required by this...

  3. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An applicant's safety review document must contain the flight safety system test data required by this...

  4. Texas Driver and Traffic Safety Education Teacher Preparation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This guide contains detailed descriptions of four university courses designed to give basic driver and traffic safety education preparation to prospective driver education teachers. The basic courses are as follows: Safety Education (general safety education concepts with emphasis on nontraffic areas); Driver and Traffic Safety Education I…

  5. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  6. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final ratings will be made available to other Federal...

  7. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final ratings will be made available to other Federal...

  8. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  9. A Product Safety Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  10. CRITICALITY SAFETY TRAINING AT FLUOR HANFORD (FH)

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2005-05-02

    The Fluor Hanford Criticality Safety engineers are extensively trained. The objectives and requirements for training are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) and American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society Standards (ANSI/ANS), and are captured in the Hanford Criticality Safety Program manual, HNF-7098. Qualification cards have been established for the general Criticality Safety Engineer (CSE) analyst, CSEs who support specific facilities, and for the facility Criticality Safety Representatives (CSRs). Refresher training and continuous education in the discipline are emphasized. Weekly Brown Bag Sessions keep the criticality safety engineers informed of the latest developments and historic perspectives.

  11. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  12. Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, V. H.

    2001-01-01

    Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users with advice on safety, is the 'Guidance on the Safe Use of Lasers in Medical and Dental Practice' issued by the Medical Devices Agency for the Department of Health in the UK. It recommends the appointment of a Laser Protection Adviser (LPA) who is knowledgeable in the evaluation of laser hazards. One of the duties LPA is to ensure that Local Rules are drawn up for each specific application of a laser. A Laser Protection Supervisor (LPS) should also be appointed with responsibility to ensure that the Local Rules are observed. It is a sensible precaution that laser users should be those approved by the Laser Protection Supervisor in consultation with the Laser Protection Advisor. All laser users should sign a statement that they have read and understood the Local Rules.

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: technique, safety, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutis, Gintaras; Bubnys, A.; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija

    1994-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a minimally invasive method of removing the diseased gallbladder. It was introduced into Lithuania in December 1992 and has gained wide acceptance. While LC offers many advantages over the conventional laparotomy procedure one of its drawbacks is delayed biliary complications. Those complications may be avoided with appropriate precautions. The aim of this research is to maximize the safety of LC. The potential way to solve this problem is to minimize the possible heat damage and electrical injury remote from the site of surgery during dissection of the cystic duct, cystic artery, and the gallbladder. Neodymium:YAG laser applications with endoscopic fiber have been investigated. The possibilities to use it as a scalpel and as coagulator to release the gallbladder from all its peritoneal attachments during LC have been investigated. The controversy over optimal sources for thermal dissection of the gallbladder has been performed. The potential benefits of Nd:YAG laser in surgery -- precise cutting, limited collateral tissue damage, and improved capillary and arteriole hemostasis -- have been found.

  14. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    SciTech Connect

    Kehler, Kurt

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  15. Safety study - oversight of rail rapid-transit safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-23

    Annually, about 1.8 billion passengers ride on the rail rapid transit systems operating in the United States. Although this form of transportation is generally safe, the potential exists for a substantial loss of life in the event of a collision, derailment, fire, or other emergency. The safety study examines the adequacy of current oversight of rail rapid transit safety. The safety issues discussed are the effectiveness of current oversight activities exercised by the States in which rail rapid transit systems are operating; the preciseness of rail rapid transit accident/injury data; and the Federal Government's role in the oversight of rail rapid transit safety. Recommendations concerning these issues were made to the Department of Transportation, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, the District of Columbia, and States in which rail rapid transit systems are currently operating.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be...

  1. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brakes: General. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: General. The carrier shall know before each trip that the locomotive brakes and devices...

  2. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brakes: general. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: general. (a) Before each trip, the railroad shall know the following: (1) The locomotive...

  3. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brakes: general. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: general. (a) Before each trip, the railroad shall know the following: (1) The locomotive...

  4. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brakes: General. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: General. The carrier shall know before each trip that the locomotive brakes and devices...

  5. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brakes: general. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: general. (a) Before each trip, the railroad shall know the following: (1) The locomotive...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.22 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements. 1910.22 Section 1910.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.22 General requirements. This section applies to all permanent places...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.22 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements. 1910.22 Section 1910.22 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.22 General requirements. This section applies to all permanent places...

  8. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  9. The Psychology of Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brenda Lindley

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of mishaps show that human error is a factor in a significant majority of accidents. Trying to decide how to change human behavior to be safer is generally the biggest challenge of any safety program. However, understanding the human psyche is the first step to changing behavior. Many studies focus on the before and after of an accident, but what about the thoughts of a person in the commission of an unsafe act? This is a less understood area. Examining it reveals why it is not well comprehended. This paper attempts to examine a part of the thought process, with an eye to helping influence people to less hurtful actions.

  10. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  11. 76 FR 40820 - Pipeline Safety; Enforcement Proceedings Involving an Informal Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 190 Pipeline Safety; Enforcement Proceedings Involving an Informal Hearing AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: General policy statement; informal hearing process. SUMMARY: PHMSA is issuing...

  12. Overview of safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Goineau, Sonia; Lemaire, Martine; Froget, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology entails the assessment of the potential risks of novel pharmaceuticals for human use. As detailed in the ICH S7A guidelines, safety pharmacology for drug discovery involves a core battery of studies on three vital systems: central nervous (CNS), cardiovascular (CV), and respiratory. Primary CNS studies are aimed at defining compound effects on general behavior, locomotion, neuromuscular coordination, seizure threshold, and vigilance. The primary CV test battery includes an evaluation of proarrhythmic risk using in vitro tests (hERG channel and Purkinje fiber assays) and in vivo measurements in conscious animals via telemetry. Comprehensive cardiac risk assessment also includes full hemodynamic evaluation in a large, anesthetized animal. Basic respiratory function can be examined in conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. This allows for an assessment of whether the sensitivity to respiratory-depressant effects can be enhanced by exposure to increased CO2 . Other safety pharmacology topics detailed in this unit are the timing of such studies, ethical and animal welfare issues, and statistical evaluation. PMID:24510755

  13. Weather Safety: Making Emergency Preparations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobe, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Precautions to take before, what to do if outdoors or indoors during, and inspecting for damage after thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods. Sidebars discuss emergency supplies to keep on hand, calculating distance from thunderstorms, and the Fujita tornado rating scale. (TD)

  14. 33 CFR 150.607 - What are the general safe working requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health General... machinery, cranes, derricks, portable power tools, and, most importantly, safety gear must be used in a...

  15. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  16. Safety and Special Radio Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Numerous radio stations across the nation perform nonbroadcast services in areas ranging from aviation, forestry protection, and telephone maintenance to amateur and citizen radio. These services can be grouped in four general categories: (1) safety, (2) industry, (3) land transportation, and (4) miscellaneous purposes. This bulletin briefly…

  17. General aviation technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The existing problem areas in general aviation were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.

  18. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  20. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be