Science.gov

Sample records for general screening method

  1. General method for cloning amplified DNA by differential screening with genomic probes.

    PubMed Central

    Brison, O; Ardeshir, F; Stark, G R

    1982-01-01

    Mutant Syrian hamster cell lines resistant to N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate, a potent and specific inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase, have amplified the gene coding for the multifunctional protein (CAD) that includes this activity. The average amount of DNA amplified is approximately 500 kilobases per gene copy, about 20 times the length of the CAD gene itself. A differential screening method which uses genomic DNAs as probes was developed to isolate recombinant phage containing fragments of amplified DNA. One probe was prepared by reassociating fragments of total genomic DNA from 165-28, a mutant cell line with 190 times the wild-type complement of CAD genes, until all of the sequences repeated about 200 times were annealed and then isolating the double-stranded DNA with hydroxyapatite.This DNA was highly enriched in sequences from the entire amplified region, whereas the same sequences were very rare in DNA prepared similarly from wild-type cells. After both DNAs were labeled by nick translation, highly repeated sequences were removed by hybridization to immobilized total genomic DNA from wild-type cells. A library of cloned DNA fragments from mutant 165-28 was screened with both probes, and nine independent fragments containing about 165 kilobases of amplified DNA, including the CAD gene, have been isolated so far. These cloned DNAs can be used to study the structure of the amplified region, to evaluate the nature of the amplification event, and to investigate gene expression from the amplified DNA. For example, one amplified fragment included a gene coding for a 3.8-kilobase, cytoplasmic, polyadenylated RNA which was overproduced greatly in cells resistant to N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate. The method for cloning amplified DNA is general and can be used to evaluate the possible involvement of gene amplification in phenomena such as drug resistance, transformation, or differentiation. DNA fragments corresponding to any region amplified about 10-fold or

  2. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  3. Improving Patient-Centered Care for Young People in General Practice With a Codesigned Screening App: Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Webb, Marianne Julie; Wadley, Greg; Sanci, Lena Amanda

    2017-08-11

    Despite experiencing a high prevalence and co-occurrence of mental health disorders and health-compromising behaviors, young people tend not to seek professional help for these concerns. However, they do regularly attend primary care, making primary care providers ideally situated to identify and discuss mental health and lifestyle issues as part of young people's routine health care. The aim was to investigate whether using a codesigned health and lifestyle-screening app, Check Up GP, in general practice influenced young people's assessment of the quality of their care (measures of patient-centered care and youth friendliness), and their disclosure of sensitive issues. In addition, this study aimed to explore young people's acceptance and experience of using a screening app during regular health care. This was a mixed methods implementation study of Check Up GP with young people aged 14 to 25 years attending a general practice clinic in urban Melbourne, Australia. A 1-month treatment-as-usual group was compared to a 2-month intervention group in which young people and their general practitioners (GPs) used Check Up GP. Young people in both groups completed an exit survey immediately after their consultation about disclosure, patient-centered and youth-friendly care, and judgment. In addition, participants in the intervention group were surveyed about app acceptability and usability and their willingness to use it again. Semistructured interviews with participants in the intervention group expanded on themes covered in the survey. The exit survey was completed by 30 young people in the treatment-as-usual group and 85 young people in the intervention group. Young people using Check Up GP reported greater disclosure of health issues (P<.001), and rated their GP higher in patient-centered care: communication and partnership (P=.01), personal relationship (P=.01), health promotion (P=.03), and interest in effect on life (P<.001). No differences were found on core

  4. Feasibility of implementing routine nutritional screening for older adults in Australian general practices: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Hamirudin, Aliza Haslinda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; Bonney, Andrew; Potter, Jan; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Hodgkins, Adam; Albert, George; Ghosh, Abhijeet; Dalley, Andrew

    2014-11-25

    Nutrition screening in older adults is not routinely performed in Australian primary care settings. Low awareness of the extent of malnutrition in this patient group, lack of training and time constraints are major barriers that practice staff face. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of including a validated nutrition screening tool and accompanying nutrition resource kit for use with older patients attending general practice. Secondary aims were to assess nutrition-related knowledge of staff and to identify the extent of malnutrition in this patient group. Nine general practitioners, two general practice registrars and 11 practice nurses from three participating general practices in a rural, regional and metropolitan area within a local health district of New South Wales, Australia were recruited by convenience sampling. Four key themes were determined regarding the feasibility of performing MNA -SF: ease of use; incorporation into existing practice; benefit to patients' health; and patients' perception of MNA-SF. Two key themes related to the nutrition resource kit: applicability and improvement. These findings were supported by open ended questionnaire responses. Knowledge scores of staff significantly improved from baseline (52% to 66%; P < 0.05). Of the 143 patients that had been screened, 4.2% (n = 6) were classified as malnourished, 26.6% (n = 38) 'at risk' of malnutrition and 69.2% (n = 99) as well-nourished. It is feasible to include the MNA-SF and a nutrition resource kit within routine general practice, but further refinement of patients' electronic clinical records in general practice software would streamline this process.

  5. [Helicobacter pylori screening in a general practice].

    PubMed

    Hollenz, M; Stolte, M; Labenz, J

    1999-02-19

    The significance of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in asymptomatic persons is largely unknown. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic and, if appropriate, therapeutic relevance of a noninvasive screening for Hp. In addition, the practicality and validity of a simple serological test on whole blood was elucidated. 100 consecutive patients (29 males, 71 females, median age 46 [18-79] years) of a general medical practice, seen in November of 1997, were included. Three patients had to be subsequently excluded, because they had been treated for Hp infection. All patients were given a standard interview after which a serological whole-blood test (BM-Test Helicobacter pylori; Boehringer Mannheim) and a 13C-urea breath test were performed as noninvasive reference. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract was offered if the serology and/or the breath test were gative. The Hp prevalence was 40%, rising significantly with age. The rapid serology test, when related to the breath test, had a negative and positive predictive value of < 80%. 44 of the 47 patients with a positive serological or breath test agreed to endoscopy. Eleven of them had a clinically significant abnormality macroscopically or histologically: four of them were found to have an Hp infection. Asymptomatic Hp-positive persons frequently have clinically abnormal findings in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These data point to the need for a large multi-centre study with cost-effect analysis to evaluate a noninvasive Hp screening test in nonsymptomatic persons as a public health measure. The 13C-urea breath test would be suitable as such a screening method.

  6. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis. These data and findings were presented at a 2012 international symposium in Prague organized by the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute’s Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. PMID:24739743

  7. Preclinical screening methods in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sachin; Bajaj, Sakshi; Bodla, Ramesh Babu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer, a group of diseases of unregulated cell proliferation, is a leading cause of death worldwide. More than 80% of compounds which have shown promising effects in preclinical studies could not get through Phase II of clinical trials. Such high attrition rate is due to improper or selective use of preclinical modalities in anticancer drug screening. The various preclinical screening methods available such as in vitro human cancer cell lines, in vivo tumor xenograft model, or genetically engineered mouse model have their respective pros and cons. Scrupulous use of these preclinical screening methods vis-à-vis efficacy of potential anticancer compound with diverse mechanism of action can help in bringing down the rate of failure of anticancer compound at clinical phase. This article provides an insight into the various preclinical methods used in anticancer studies along with their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27721530

  8. Fast 3-D seismic modeling and prestack depth migration using generalized screen methods. Final report for period January 1, 1998 - December 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoz, M. Nafi

    2001-03-31

    Completed a theoretical analysis of phase screen propagators to answer several critical questions: the existence of a singularity in the Green's function for the case of a zero vertical wavenumber, the stability and accuracy of such propagators, and the effects of backscattering for large contrast heterogeneous media. The theory is based on separating the wavefield into forescattering and backscattering parts. The approach is robust and appropriate for earth structures with high velocity contrast. This theory also resolves the apparent singularity problem that has persisted in generalized screen propagator formulations. With this formulation we studied the effects of the commonly used approximations as a function of the degree of velocity contrast in the media.

  9. Display screen and method of manufacture therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A screen assembly that combines an angle re-distributing prescreen with a conventional diffusion screen. The prescreen minimizes or eliminates the sensitivity of the screen assembly to projector location. The diffusion screen provides other desirable screen characteristics. Compatible screen structures, along with methods for fabricating high resolution prescreens and methods and devices for maintaining the desired relationship between the prescreen and the diffusion screen are contemplated.

  10. Prestack elastic generalized-screen migration for multicomponent data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byoung Yeop; Seol, Soon Jee; Lee, Ho-Young; Byun, Joongmoo

    2016-03-01

    An efficient prestack depth migration method based on the elastic one-way wave equation was developed using an improved elastic generalized-screen propagator, which effectively describes the behavior of elastic waves with mode conversion at the interfaces and efficiently computes wave propagation in media with lateral velocity variations. The elastic propagator presented in this study was improved from the elastic generalized-screen propagator. Several terms of the vertical slowness right symbol with orders are corrected from the original formulation, and the vertical slowness operator in the propagator was expanded up to the 2nd order which yields a more accurate approximation. In each screen propagation step, the multicomponent wavefields are automatically separated into the P and S wavefields by the P-S decomposition operator included in the elastic generalized-screen propagator. This process facilitates the imaging of the P and S waves separately without any additional P and S separation process after the wavefield extrapolation. Impulse response tests of the improved elastic generalized-screen propagator in a uniform-property medium proved that propagation accuracy increases with order, even when large medium perturbations are assigned. Migration tests using the developed algorithm on a simple layered model and two complex models (the SEG/EAGE salt and elastic Marmousi-2 model) demonstrated the functional advantages and capabilities of the algorithm compared with elastic migration using the scalar wave equation.

  11. General relativistic screening in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Oliver; Paranjape, Aseem

    2016-10-01

    We revisit the issue of interpreting the results of large volume cosmological simulations in the context of large-scale general relativistic effects. We look for simple modifications to the nonlinear evolution of the gravitational potential ψ that lead on large scales to the correct, fully relativistic description of density perturbations in the Newtonian gauge. We note that the relativistic constraint equation for ψ can be cast as a diffusion equation, with a diffusion length scale determined by the expansion of the Universe. Exploiting the weak time evolution of ψ in all regimes of interest, this equation can be further accurately approximated as a Helmholtz equation, with an effective relativistic "screening" scale ℓ related to the Hubble radius. We demonstrate that it is thus possible to carry out N-body simulations in the Newtonian gauge by replacing Poisson's equation with this Helmholtz equation, involving a trivial change in the Green's function kernel. Our results also motivate a simple, approximate (but very accurate) gauge transformation—δN(k )≈δsim(k )×(k2+ℓ-2)/k2 —to convert the density field δsim of standard collisionless N -body simulations (initialized in the comoving synchronous gauge) into the Newtonian gauge density δN at arbitrary times. A similar conversion can also be written in terms of particle positions. Our results can be interpreted in terms of a Jeans stability criterion induced by the expansion of the Universe. The appearance of the screening scale ℓ in the evolution of ψ , in particular, leads to a natural resolution of the "Jeans swindle" in the presence of superhorizon modes.

  12. Methods and Standards for Screening Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Elizabeth M.

    1979-01-01

    The article considers methods and standards for screening infants and young children for visual handicaps. Eye screening at three basic age levels is examined: newborn, six months, and three to five years. (DLS)

  13. Generalized subspace correction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  14. Generalized fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Létourneau, Pierre-David; Cecka, Cristopher; Darve, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) is a technique allowing the fast calculation of long-range interactions between N points in O(N) or O(N ln N) steps with some prescribed error tolerance. The FMM has found many applications in the field of integral equations and boundary element methods, in particular by accelerating the solution of dense linear systems arising from such formulations. Original FMMs required analytical expansions of the kernel, for example using spherical harmonics or Taylor expansions. In recent years, the range of applicability and the ease of use of FMMs has been extended by the introduction of black box [1] or kernel independent techniques [2]. In these approaches, the user only provides a subroutine to numerically calculate the interaction kernel. This allows changing the definition of the kernel with minimal change to the computer program. In this talk we will present a novel kernel independent FMM, which leads to diagonal multipole-to-local operators. This results in a significant reduction in the computational cost [1], in particular when high accuracy is needed. The approach is based on Cauchy's integral formula and the Laplace transform. We will present a numerical analysis of the convergence, methods to choose the parameters in the FMM given some tolerance, and the steps required to build a multilevel scheme from the single level formulation. Numerical results are given for benchmark calculations to demonstrate the accuracy as a function of the number of multipole coefficients, and the computational cost of the different steps in the method.

  15. General practitioners' preferences with regard to colorectal cancer screening organisation Colon cancer screening medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Papin-Lefebvre, Frédérique; Guillaume, Elodie; Moutel, Grégoire; Launoy, Guy; Berchi, Célia

    2017-09-06

    French health authorities put general practitioners at the heart of the colorectal cancer screening. This position raises organisational issues and poses medico-legal problems for the professionals and institutions involved in these campaigns, related to the key concepts of medical decisions and suitability of standards. The objective of our study is to reveal the preferences of general practitioners related to colorectal cancer screening organisation with regard to the medico-legal risk METHODS: A discrete choice questionnaire presenting hypothetical screening scenarios was mailed to 2114 physicians from 20 French different areas. The preferences of 358 general practitioners were analysed using logistic regression models. The factors that have significant impact on the preferences of general practitioners are the capacity of the primary care professional in the procedure, the manner in which pre-screening information is given to patients, the manner in which screening results are given to patients, the number of reminders sent to patients who test positive and who do not undergo a colonoscopy and the remuneration of the attending physician. Our results reveals that current colorectal cancer screening organisation is not adapted to general practitioners preferences. This work offers the public authorities avenues for reflection on possible developments in order to optimize the involvement of general practitioners in the promotion of cancer screening programme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal thyroid screening: methods-efficiency-failures.

    PubMed

    Yordam, N; Ozon, A

    2003-12-01

    Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the major achievements of preventive medicine, as the condition occurs frequently (1/4000 newborns) and results in brain damage if not detected and treated in the first few days of life. Measurement of T4 and/or TSH in dried blood spots collected on the second through fifth days of life are the most widely used methods in screening programs for CH currently. Some children with the disease may be missd in any screening program, however, owing to factors related to the disease itself and the methods employed in its detection, as well as factors ascribed to the element of human error, ie screening errors. The methods employed in newborn screening programs for CH, their efficiency in disease detecetion, and biological factors as well as screening errors leading to missed cases are discussed.

  17. Cardiovascular screening in general practice in a low SES area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower social economic status (SES) is related to an elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk. A pro-active primary prevention CV screening approach in general practice (GP) might be effective in a region with a low mean SES. This approach, supported by a regional GP laboratory, was investigated on feasibility, attendance rate and proportion of persons identified with an elevated risk. Methods In a region with a low mean SES, men and women aged ≥50/55 years, respectively, were invited for cardiovascular risk profiling, based on SCORE 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease and additional risk factors (family history, weight and end organ damage). Screening was performed by laboratory personnel, at the GP practice. Treatment advice was based on Dutch GP guidelines for cardiovascular risk management. Response rates were compared to those in five other practices, using the same screening method. Results 521 persons received invitations, 354 (68%) were interested, 33 did not attend and 43 were not further analysed because of already known diabetes/cardiovascular disease. Eventually 278 risk profiles were analysed, of which 60% had a low cardiovascular risk (SCORE-risk <5%). From the 40% participants with a SCORE-risk ≥5%, 60% did not receive medication yet for hypertension/hypercholesterolemia. In the other five GPs response rates were comparable to the currently described GP. Conclusion Screening in GP in a low SES area, performed by a laboratory service, was feasible, resulted in high attendance, and identification and treatment advice of many new persons at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:23228012

  18. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  19. Prenatal Screening Methods for Aneuploidies

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Madhusudan; Sharma, Sumedha; Aggarwal, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation PMID:23626953

  20. Rapid field-screening method for PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Watts, Wendi; Miller, Gordon H.; Pal, A.; Eastwood, DeLyle; Lidberg, Russell L.

    1993-03-01

    The analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) generally requires selectivity and sensitivity. Even after cleanup, PCBs are usually at ultratrace levels in field samples, mixed in with other halocarbons, hydrocarbons, lipids, etc. The levels of PCBs typically found in water, soil, tissue, food, biota, and other matrices of interest are in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Most current measurement techniques for PCBs require chromatographic separations and are not practical for routine analysis. There is a strong need to have rapid and simple techniques to screen for PCBs under field conditions. The use of field screening analysis allows rapid decisions in remedial actions and reduces the need for sample preparations and time- consuming laboratory analyses. Field screening techniques also reduce the cost of clean-up operations. This paper describes a simple screening technique based on room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and provides an overview of both this analytical procedure to detect trace levels of PCBs in environmental samples.

  1. DHAD variants and methods of screening

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Kristen J.; Ye, Rick W.

    2017-02-28

    Methods of screening for dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD) variants that display increased DHAD activity are disclosed, along with DHAD variants identified by these methods. Such enzymes can result in increased production of compounds from DHAD requiring biosynthetic pathways. Also disclosed are isolated nucleic acids encoding the DHAD variants, recombinant host cells comprising the isolated nucleic acid molecules, and methods of producing butanol.

  2. Generalized James' effective Hamiltonian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wenjun; Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, Xun-Li

    2017-03-01

    James' effective Hamiltonian method has been extensively adopted to investigate largely detuned interacting quantum systems. This method only corresponds to the second-order perturbation theory and cannot be exploited to treat problems which should be solved by using the third- or higher-order perturbation theory. In this paper, we generalize James' effective Hamiltonian method to the higher-order case. Using the method developed here, we reexamine two recently published examples [L. Garziano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601; Ken K. W. Ma and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 92, 023842 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023842]; our results turn out to be the same as the original ones derived from the third-order perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination method, respectively. For some specific problems, this method can simplify the calculating procedure and the resultant effective Hamiltonian is more general.

  3. Randomised trial of two approaches to screening for atrial fibrillation in UK general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Stephen; Mant, David

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is a common and treatable cause of stroke that often remains unrecognised. Screening has been suggested but there is very little evidence concerning the uptake of screening in the elderly population at risk, nor of the optimal method of screening in a general practice setting AIM: To compare the uptake and effectiveness of two methods of screening for atrial fibrillation in general practice--systematic nurse-led screening and prompted opportunistic case finding. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Patients aged 65 to 100 years (n = 3,001) from four general practices within the MRC general practice framework. METHOD: Each of the four study practices were selected from one quartile, after ranking all framework practices according to the small area standardised mortality ratio of the geographical area served. Patients were randomised either to nurse-led screening or to prompted opportunistic casefinding. The proportion of patients assessed and the proportion found to have atrial fibrillation were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical assessment of pulse are also reported. RESULTS: Substantially more patients had their pulse assessed through systematic screening by invitation (1,099/1,499 [73%]) than through opportunistic case finding (439/1,502 [29%], difference = 44%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 41% to 47%). Atrial fibrillation was detected in 67 (4.5%) and 19 (1.3%) patients respectively (difference = 3.2%, 95% CI= 2.0 to 4.4). Invitation to nurse-led screening achieved significantly higher assessment rates than case finding in all practices; however, the proportion of patients assessed in the case-finding arm varied markedly between practices (range = 8% to 52%). The number needed to screen to identify one additional patient with atrial fibrillation was 31 (95% CI = 23 to 50). The proportion of screened patients with atrial fibrillation receiving anticoagulation treatment was 25%, although in the

  4. Development and application of a general plasmid reference material for GMO screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Wang, Yulei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yunjing; Zhu, Li; Li, Jun; Wu, Gang

    The use of analytical controls is essential when performing GMO detection through screening tests. Additionally, the presence of taxon-specific sequences is analyzed mostly for quality control during GMO detection. In this study, 11 commonly used genetic elements involving three promoters (P-35S, P-FMV35S and P-NOS), four marker genes (Bar, NPTII, HPT and Pmi), and four terminators (T-NOS, T-35S, T-g7 and T-e9), together with the reference gene fragments from six major crops of maize, soybean, rapeseed, rice, cotton and wheat, were co-integrated into the same single plasmid to construct a general reference plasmid pBI121-Screening. The suitability test of pBI121-Screening plasmid as reference material indicated that the non-target sequence on the pBI121-Screening plasmid did not affect the PCR amplification efficiencies of screening methods and taxon-specific methods. The sensitivity of screening and taxon-specific assays ranged from 5 to 10 copies of pBI121-Screening plasmid, meeting the sensitivity requirement of GMO detection. The construction of pBI121-Screening solves the lack of a general positive control for screening tests, thereby reducing the workload and cost of preparing a plurality of the positive control.

  5. Thermography is not a feasible method for breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Brkljacić, Boris; Miletić, Damir; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy causing high mortality in women especially in developed countries. Due to the contribution of mammographic screening and improvements in therapy, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased considerably. An imaging-based early detection of breast cancer improves the treatment outcome. Mammography is generally established not only as diagnostic but also as screening tool, while breast ultrasound plays a major role in the diagnostic setting in distinguishing solid lesions from cysts and in guiding tissue sampling. Several indications are established for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Thermography was not validated as a screening tool and the only study performed long ago for evaluating this technology in the screening setting demonstrated very poor results. The conclusion that thermography might be feasible for screening cannot be derived from studies with small sample size, unclear selection of patients, and in which mammography and thermography were not blindly compared as screening modalities. Thermography can not be used to aspirate, biopsy or localize lesions preoperatively since no method so far was described to accurately transpose the thermographic location of the lesion to the mammogram or ultrasound and to surgical specimen. Thermography cannot be proclaimed as a screening method, without any evidence whatsoever.

  6. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Cullati, Stéphane; Charvet-Bérard, Agathe I; Perneger, Thomas V

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin) in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670). More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p < 0.001). A majority of women had had a cervical smear (76.6%) and a mammography (age 30–49: 35.0%; age 50 and older: 90.3%); and 55.1% of men 50–60 years old had been screened for prostate cancer. Other factors associated with screening included older age, higher income, a doctor visit in the past 6 months, reporting a greater number of preventive behaviours and a positive attitude toward screening. Factors linked with positive attitudes included female gender, higher level of education, gainful employment, higher income, a doctor visit in the past 6 months and a personal history of cancer. Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex) that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias. PMID:19402895

  7. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}∝r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar

  8. [Prematurity and methods of its screening].

    PubMed

    Hurk, K; Pruner, R

    2006-01-01

    Premature delivery is an essential problem in the modern obstetrics. Revealing and marking the high-risk group of pregnant women in time could be used as one of the methods of its prevention. Retrospective epidemiological study of the aggregated data of pregnant patients. OBGYN Clinic of the 1st and 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Prague, FNB, FNKV. A routine database of pregnant patients was generated. In our study was included the group of 2368 patients who underwent the screening and fulfilled the condition of completion the data in the period from the 15th to the 20th week of pregnancy, during and after the birth. Database is a component of a lager database generated in the last 15 years. The group of premature delivery patients was marked as those who delivered before the beginning of the 10th month of pregnancy. MS-AFP (maternal serum AFP) screening values of pregnants were measured and transformed to the multiples of medians (MOM), corresponding to the particular week of pregnancy for enabling the comparison during the whole period of screening. Statistical investigation was performed using data analysis advanced methods. A significant statistical correlation between higher values of MS-AFP, during the period from the 15th to the 20th week of pregnancy, and premature deliveries were found. The cut-off value of 1.8 MOM MS-AFP was included to determine the higher risk group of patients. Women with equal or higher values of AFP were 3.8 times more likely to have premature delivery than those with lower AFP values (95% CI: 2.2;6.3). Sensitivity of 25% and specificity of 92% were proven. According to our opinion, MS-AFP could not only be used for the hereditary diseases screening, but as well for performing the premature delivery screening at the beginning of the 2nd trimester. Cut-off value of 1.8 MOM for marking the higher risk group was used for marking the high-risk group. Thus the extension of the classical screening technique of hereditary diseases could yield

  9. Cervical cytology screening: experience of a general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, E. J.; Qizilbash, A. H.; Johnson, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    At Henderson General Hospital, Hamilton, a program was introduced whereby cervical smears were taken routinely for cytologic study from all women admitted aged 17 years or older. The procedure was performed by a specially trained nurse. In a 5-year period 53% of eligible patients were screened. Of these, 32% had not had a cervical smear taken before. In 7681 smears nine instances of invasive disease were discovered: three of the cervix, three of the endometrium and three metastatic. There were 20 cases of carcinoma in situ and 2 of severe dysplasia. Evidence of infection was present in a high percentage of the smears. Hospital admission affords an excellent opportunity of applying this valuable screening procedure. PMID:912627

  10. Method of making a holographic screen using a retroreflex plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jung-Young; Komar, Victor G.; Chun, You S.; Lee, Seong-Keun; Lee, Hyuk-Soo

    1997-04-01

    A new method of making a reflection type holographic screen with use of a retroflex plate is presented. This method allows to use very simple optics compared with the mirror method. Some of optical parameters of the screen are derived by paraxial ray approach. A holographic screen made by a retroflex plate from 3M company, USA, demonstrates its potentiality as an image projection screen. The optical characteristics of the screen can be determined by the recording set-up parameters.

  11. Impact of general practice endorsement on the social gradient in uptake in bowel cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Rosalind; Duffy, Stephen W; Wardle, Jane; Solmi, Francesca; Morris, Stephen; Howe, Rosemary; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Snowball, Julia; Counsell, Nicholas; Moss, Sue; Hackshaw, Allan; von Wagner, Christian; Vart, Gemma; McGregor, Lesley M; Smith, Samuel G; Halloran, Stephen; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Thomas, Mary C; Atkin, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a socioeconomic gradient in the uptake of screening in the English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP), potentially leading to inequalities in outcomes. We tested whether endorsement of bowel cancer screening by an individual's general practice (GP endorsement; GPE) reduced this gradient. Methods: A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Over 20 days, individuals eligible for screening in England from 6480 participating general practices were randomly allocated to receive a GP-endorsed or the standard invitation letter. The primary outcome was the proportion of people adequately screened and its variation by quintile of Index of Multiple Deprivation. Results: We enrolled 265 434 individuals. Uptake was 58.2% in the intervention arm and 57.5% in the control arm. After adjusting for age, sex, hub and screening episode, GPE increased the overall odds of uptake (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.10), but did not affect its socioeconomic gradient. We estimated that implementing GPE could result in up to 165 more people with high or intermediate risk colorectal adenomas and 61 cancers detected, and a small one-off cost to modify the standard invitation (£78 000). Conclusions: Although GPE did not improve its socioeconomic gradient, it offers a low-cost approach to enhancing overall screening uptake within the NHS BCSP. PMID:26742011

  12. A general topology, Godunov method

    SciTech Connect

    Addessio, F.; Cline, M.; Dukowicz, J.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical technique that utilizes a general topology mesh is described. The method employs the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian procedure and explicit, finite-volume, Godunov numerics. Material interfaces are resolved to eliminate fictitious mixing and nonphysical shear impedance. Cell-centered variables, including velocity, are used to provide consistent control volumes for the advection of mass, momentum, and energy, and to allow arbitrary slip between material regions. The computational mesh is composed of arbitrary polygonal cells. The constraint of a fixed logical connectivity for the mesh is removed. Consequently, geometrical mesh limitations, which are responsible for inaccuracies and code failure during the evolution of region boundaries, are absent. Arbitrary boundaries can be resolved, and the mesh is capable of changing smoothly and rapidly from regions of high to low resolution. Lack of a coherent mesh orientation minimizes numerical anisotropy. A mesh rezoning approach, based on a dual triangulation and coupled with a global remapping algorithm, allows the mesh to evolve dynamically. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  13. General health screening as part of a periodontal examination.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sarah L

    2010-12-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are common systemic illnesses with reliable, predictive risk factors. CVD is the number one killer worldwide accounting for nearly 30% of deaths and type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in many western industrialized countries. Both of these illnesses can go undiagnosed in an alarming number of people for significant periods of time. The relationship between oral health and systemic health has become the focus of much discussion and research in recent times. It is now widely accepted that periodontal disease is associated with systemic illnesses such as CVD and type 2 diabetes. Cigarette smoking and obesity are major risk factors accounting for a large portion of the global disease burden. Many periodontal patients may be at risk of systemic conditions but be asymptomatic and undiagnosed. With an aging population who are mostly retaining their natural dentition, the need for periodontal management will continue to rise in the future. Dental professionals are well placed to perform general health screening for their patients. Therefore, risk assessment during the periodontal examination may facilitate the early identification of the large proportion of people who are unaware of their risk status. As identification and intervention of patients with increased risk factors is key to lowering the systemic disease burden, general health screening during periodontal examinations may present an important opportunity for many patients.

  14. General health screening as part of a periodontal examination

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are common systemic illnesses with reliable, predictive risk factors. CVD is the number one killer worldwide accounting for nearly 30% of deaths and type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in many western industrialized countries. Both of these illnesses can go undiagnosed in an alarming number of people for significant periods of time. The relationship between oral health and systemic health has become the focus of much discussion and research in recent times. It is now widely accepted that periodontal disease is associated with systemic illnesses such as CVD and type 2 diabetes. Cigarette smoking and obesity are major risk factors accounting for a large portion of the global disease burden. Many periodontal patients may be at risk of systemic conditions but be asymptomatic and undiagnosed. With an aging population who are mostly retaining their natural dentition, the need for periodontal management will continue to rise in the future. Dental professionals are well placed to perform general health screening for their patients. Therefore, risk assessment during the periodontal examination may facilitate the early identification of the large proportion of people who are unaware of their risk status. As identification and intervention of patients with increased risk factors is key to lowering the systemic disease burden, general health screening during periodontal examinations may present an important opportunity for many patients. PMID:21523218

  15. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  16. A Comparison of Language Screening Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Gordon R.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred eighty-six preschool children were screened with the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and the Preschool Language Scale (PLS). Children who failed the screening were referred for a formal language assessment. Results indicated that the DDST is slightly more effective than the PLS in identifying preschool children who need…

  17. Screening system and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Jones, David A; Gresham, Christopher A; Basiliere, Marc L; Spates, James J; Rodacy, Philip J

    2014-04-15

    An integrated apparatus and method for screening an object for a target material is provided. The integrated apparatus comprises a housing and an integrated screener. The housing is positionable adjacent the object, and has a channel therethrough. The integrated screener is positionable in the housing, and comprises a fan, at least one filter, a heater and an analyzer. The fan is for drawing air carrying particles and vapor through the channel of the housing. The filter(s) is/are positionable in the channel of the housing for passage of the air therethrough. The filter(s) comprise(s) at least one metal foam having a plurality of pores therein for collecting and adsorbing a sample from the particles and vapor passing therethrough. The heater is for applying heat to the at least one metal foam whereby the collected sample is desorbed from the metal foam. The analyzer detects the target material from the desorbed sample.

  18. An evaluation of educational outreach to general practitioners as part of a statewide cervical screening program.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, S A; Cockburn, J; Hirst, S; Jolley, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability, effectiveness, and cost of a face-to-face educational outreach intervention in the context of a program aimed at increasing cervical screening in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: All identified general practitioners in a specified intervention area were offered a visit by a general practitioner educator. Practitioners completed a questionnaire evaluating the acceptability of the visit. Odds ratios for a woman being screened in the 3 months following the visits were determined. RESULTS: Fifty-nine general practitioners (69.4%) accepted the offer of a visit. Most found both the process and the content of the intervention to be acceptable. The intervention and nonintervention regions did not differ either before or after the intervention. In both regions, there was a statistically significant increase in number of Pap tests performed. There was no difference in the change in screening between the two regions. Costs were estimated at Au$34 per general practitioner visited. CONCLUSIONS: This strategy cannot be recommended for widespread use in a cervical screening program. PMID:9240109

  19. Display screen and method of manufacture therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A screen assembly that combines an angle re-distributing prescreen with a conventional diffusion screen is disclosed. The prescreen minimizes or eliminates the sensitivity of the screen assembly to projector location. The diffusion screen provides other desirable screen characteristics. The prescreen is preferably formed by a collection of light transmitting and refracting elements, preferably spheres 80, partially embedded in a light blocking layer. Toward the back of the spheres 80 are effective apertures 82 where the light blocking layer 81 is absent or at least thinner than in other regions toward the side of the spheres. The projected image enters spheres 80 through the effective apertures 82, and exits the spheres 80 centered orientationally about the normal to the lens axis. The re-oriented light rays then enter the diffusion screen for viewing.

  20. General screening and optimization strategy for fast chiral separations in modern supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Lucie; Douša, Michal

    2017-01-15

    High throughput general chiral screening method using supercritical fluid chromatography was developed. This method takes an advantage of very fast gradient screening (3 min + 1 min isocratic hold) and generic enantioselectivity of the combined additive formed by 0.1% trifluoroacetic (TFA) acid and 0.1% diethylamine (DEA). The TFA/DEA combined additive was systematically added to organic modifiers methanol and isopropanol. Among five tested polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases, amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) and cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) provided the best enantioseparation success rate. Therefore, the proposed initial first-line screening includes four experiments using these two stationary phases and the above mentioned two combinations: CO2/methanol and CO2/isopropanol + the combined additive. If these stationary phases fail in the screening step, cellulose tris(3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) and cellulose tris(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate) can be proposed for the screening in the second line. For further optimization in case of insufficient resolution obtained in the screening phase fine tuning of temperature, BPR pressure and gradient slope was tested with unsuccessful results. An improvement of enantioselectivity was obtained only when gradient elution was replaced by isocratic elution with substantially lower amount of organic modifier, when changing the concentration of the additive or when using combined organic modifier, such as methanol/acetonitrile (1:1). Finally, to enable the MS compatibility, also volatile additives including ammonium formate and ammonium acetate were tested. The results were more encouraging than expected. Volatile buffers thus make an interesting option in chiral SFC screening methods, however, at the cost of somewhat lower enantioselectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Generalizing Screen Inferiority--Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidi, Yael; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2016-01-01

    Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper.…

  2. Generalizing Screen Inferiority--Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidi, Yael; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2016-01-01

    Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper.…

  3. Screening for sepsis in general hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alberto, L; Marshall, A P; Walker, R; Aitken, L M

    2017-08-01

    Sepsis is a condition widely observed outside critical care areas. To examine the application of sepsis screening tools for early recognition of sepsis in general hospitalized patients to: (i) identify the accuracy of these tools; (ii) determine the outcomes associated with their implementation; and (iii) describe the implementation process. A systematic review method was used. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases were systematically searched for primary articles, published from January 1990 to June 2016, that investigated screening tools or alert mechanisms for early identification of sepsis in adult general hospitalized patients. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016042261). More than 8000 citations were screened for eligibility after duplicates had been removed. Six articles met the inclusion criteria testing two types of sepsis screening tools. Electronic tools can capture, recognize abnormal variables, and activate an alert in real time. However, accuracy of these tools was inconsistent across studies with only one demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. Paper-based, nurse-led screening tools appear to be more sensitive in the identification of septic patients but were only studied in small samples and particular populations. The process of care measures appears to be enhanced; however, demonstrating improved outcomes is more challenging. Implementation details are rarely reported. Heterogeneity of studies prevented meta-analysis. Clinicians, researchers and health decision-makers should consider these findings and limitations when implementing screening tools, research or policy on sepsis recognition in general hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Epidemiological methods for evaluating screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jørn

    2014-06-09

    The effect of screening programmes must be estimated before the programmes are implemented. Usually, the evaluation includes randomized trials if possible but even a large randomized trial will have limitations and need not estimate effects properly under routine conditions.

  5. Blended General Linear Methods based on Generalized BDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnano, Luigi; Magherini, Cecilia

    2008-09-01

    General Linear Methods were introduced in order to encompass a large family of numerical methods for the solution of ODE-IVPs, ranging from LMF to RK formulae. In so doing, it is possible to obtain methods able to overcome typical drawbacks of the previous classes of methods. For example, stability limitations of LMF and order reduction for RK methods. Nevertheless, these goals are usually achieved at the price of a higher computational cost. Consequently, many efforts have been done in order to derive GLMs with particular features, to be exploited for their efficient implementation. In recent years, the derivation of GLMs from particular Boundary Value Methods (BVMs), namely the family of Generalized BDF (GBDF), has been proposed for the numerical solution of stiff ODE-IVPs. Here, this approach is further developed in order to derive GLMs combining good stability and accuracy properties with the possibility of efficiently solving the generated discrete problems via the blended implementation of the methods.

  6. General Internists' Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceived Barriers to Routine HIV Screening in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Korthuis, P. Todd; Berkenblit, Gail V.; Sullivan, Lynn E.; Cofrancesco, Joseph; Cook, Robert L.; Bass, Michael; Bashook, Philip G.; Edison, Marcia; Asch, Steve M.; Sosman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV screening in primary care but little is known about general internists' views of this practice. We conducted a national, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of 446 general internists in 2009 regarding their HIV screening behaviors, beliefs, and perceived barriers to routine HIV screening in outpatient internal medicine practices. Internists' awareness of revised CDC guidelines was high (88%), but only 52% had increased HIV testing, 61% offered HIV screening regardless of risk, and a median 2% (range 0-67%) of their patients were tested in the past month. Internists practicing in perceived higher risk communities reported greater HIV screening. Consent requirements were a barrier to screening, particularly for VA providers and those practicing in states with HIV consent statutes inconsistent with CDC guidelines. Interventions that promote HIV screening regardless of risk and streamlined consent requirements will likely increase adoption of routine HIV screening in general medicine practices. PMID:21689038

  7. SAR Ice Classification Using Fuzzy Screening Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, R. S.

    2003-04-01

    A semi-automatic SAR sea ice classification algorithm is described. It is based on combining the information in the original SAR data with those in the three 'image' products derived from it, namely Power-to-Mean Ratio (PMR), the Gamma distribution and the second order texture parameter entropy, respectively. The latter products contain information which is often useful during the manual interpretation of the images. The technique used to fuse the information in these products is based on a method c lled Multi Experts Multi Criteria Decision Making fuzzy a screening. The Multiple Experts in this case are the above four 'image' products. The two criteria used currently for making decisions are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution matching and the statistical mean of different surface classes. The algorithm classifies an image into any number of predefined classes of sea ice and open water. The representative classes of these surface types are manually identified by the user. Further, as SAR signals from sea ice covered regions and open water are ambiguous, it was found that a minimum of 4 pre-identified surface classes (calm and turbulent water and sea ice with low and high backscatter values) are required to accurately classify an image. Best results are obtained when a total of 8 surface classes (2 each of sea ice and open water in the near range and a similar number in the far range of the SAR image) are used. The main advantage of using this image classification scheme is that, like neural networks, no prior knowledge is required of the statistical distribution of the different surface types. Furthermore, unlike the methods based on neural networks, no prior data sets are required to train the algorithm. All the information needed for image classification by the method is contained in the individual SAR images and associated products. Initial results illustrating the potential of this ice classification algorithm using the RADARSAT ScanSAR Wide data are presented

  8. Use of Pap smear in general practice by case finding or screening programme.

    PubMed

    Olesen, F

    1986-02-01

    Two different organizational methods of Pap smear examination in prevention of cancer colli uteri are compared in two Danish counties. In one county the method was planned as a pure case finding model; in the other county a modified screening approach was used. Resources were measured as the number of Pap smear examinations per 1 000 women of risk age (25-54 years). They were nearly identical in the two counties. The number of sufficiently investigated women, defined as examined by a Pap smear at least once within a 3-year period, was much larger in the county using the screening model than in the other county. Furthermore the proportion of women sufficiently investigated varied greatly in the county using the case finding model. Even the most active one-fourth of the doctors in this county did not obtain the same percentage of examined women as the average in percentage of examined women in the county with a regular screening programme, even though this active group of doctors had a resource consumption about twice the average for this county. It is concluded that the Pap smear method when aiming at a maximum interval between smears in individual women of 3 years, can be conveniently carried out in general practice by using a case finding model in combination with a screening programme together with a systematized, centrally computer-surveyed procedure, in order to avoid overlapping and exclude women not examined as well as possible.

  9. High-throughput screening method for lipases/esterases.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Díaz, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Jorge Alberto; de Los Ángeles Camacho-Ruiz, María; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) methods for lipases and esterases are generally performed by using synthetic chromogenic substrates (e.g., p-nitrophenyl, resorufin, and umbelliferyl esters) which may be misleading since they are not their natural substrates (e.g., partially or insoluble triglycerides). In previous works, we have shown that soluble nonchromogenic substrates and p-nitrophenol (as a pH indicator) can be used to quantify the hydrolysis and estimate the substrate selectivity of lipases and esterases from several sources. However, in order to implement a spectrophotometric HTS method using partially or insoluble triglycerides, it is necessary to find particular conditions which allow a quantitative detection of the enzymatic activity. In this work, we used Triton X-100, CHAPS, and N-lauroyl sarcosine as emulsifiers, β-cyclodextrin as a fatty acid captor, and two substrate concentrations, 1 mM of tributyrin (TC4) and 5 mM of trioctanoin (TC8), to improve the test conditions. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we screened 12 enzymes (commercial preparations and culture broth extracts) for the hydrolysis of TC4 and TC8, which are both classical substrates for lipases and esterases (for esterases, only TC4 may be hydrolyzed). Subsequent pH-stat experiments were performed to confirm the preference of substrate hydrolysis with the hydrolases tested. We have shown that this method is very useful for screening a high number of lipases (hydrolysis of TC4 and TC8) or esterases (only hydrolysis of TC4) from wild isolates or variants generated by directed evolution using nonchromogenic triglycerides directly in the test.

  10. [Cancer screening in the elderly: Explorative mixed methods study].

    PubMed

    Dolezil, Doris; Haase, Annekathrin; Jahnke, Kristine; Thonack, Jens; Löffler, Christin; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Chenot, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of cancer screening in the elderly are uncertain. While the risk of cancer increases with age the participation in cancer screening decreases. The study investigated the attitudes of older adults towards cancer screening as well as their motives for or against participation. This population-based explorative mixed methods study was based on a survey of residents aged 69-89 years from the district of Western Pomerania-Greifswald (northeast Germany). Criteria for exclusion were cognitive deficits and/or cancer. Attitudes towards different statements regarding cancer screening were assessed by a questionnaire using 5-point Likert scales. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the motivations. Out of 630 contacted residents, 120 (19%) with an average age of 77 years (SD ± 6 years) participated in the face-to-face survey. The majority were in favor of lifelong cancer screening, 14% stated other health problems to be more important than cancer screening and 7% assumed that they would not live long enough to benefit from screening. Motives for participation in cancer screening were habit, regularity, sense of obligation, fear and belief in benefits. Motives for discontinuing screening included a lack of interest, no assumed necessity and fear. Disadvantages were not feared. Elderly people show great trust in cancer screening. They overestimated the benefits of cancer screening and their risk to die of cancer. The elderly should be better informed about the benefits and risks of cancer screening. Shared decision-making should be based on life expectancy and personal preferences.

  11. Wafer screening device and methods for wafer screening

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rupnowski, Przemyslaw

    2014-07-15

    Wafer breakage is a serious problem in the photovoltaic industry because a large fraction of wafers (between 5 and 10%) break during solar cell/module fabrication. The major cause of this excessive wafer breakage is that these wafers have residual microcracks--microcracks that were not completely etched. Additional propensity for breakage is caused by texture etching and incomplete edge grinding. To eliminate the cost of processing the wafers that break, it is best to remove them prior to cell fabrication. Some attempts have been made to develop optical techniques to detect microcracks. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to detect microcracks that are embedded within the roughness/texture of the wafers. Furthermore, even if such detection is successful, it is not straightforward to relate them to wafer breakage. We believe that the best way to isolate the wafers with fatal microcracks is to apply a stress to wafers--a stress that mimics the highest stress during cell/module processing. If a wafer survives this stress, it has a high probability of surviving without breakage during cell/module fabrication. Based on this, we have developed a high throughput, noncontact method for applying a predetermined stress to a wafer. The wafers are carried on a belt through a chamber that illuminates the wafer with an intense light of a predetermined intensity distribution that can be varied by changing the power to the light source. As the wafers move under the light source, each wafer undergoes a dynamic temperature profile that produces a preset elastic stress. If this stress exceeds the wafer strength, the wafer will break. The broken wafers are separated early, eliminating cost of processing into cell/module. We will describe details of the system and show comparison of breakage statistics with the breakage on a production line.

  12. Current screening instruments related to alcohol consumption in pregnancy and a proposed alternative method.

    PubMed

    Savage, Christine; Wray, Janet; Ritchey, P Neal; Sommers, Marilyn; Dyehouse, Janice; Fulmer, Meg

    2003-01-01

    Because alcohol is a known teratogenic substance that negatively affects the fetus, screening for alcohol use is included in maternal child texts for nurses. They present no standard screening approach, however. In the general literature, a multitude of screening instruments exist for the purpose of detecting maternal alcohol dependence but few allow the nurse to detect fetal alcohol exposure in the absence of maternal alcohol dependence. After a comparative analysis of existing screening instruments, we concluded that the Timeline Followback method has the most utility as a screening instrument to detect fetal exposure to alcohol. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of current screening instruments related to alcohol consumption in pregnant women and to propose the use of the Timeline Followback method as the preferred approach.

  13. Depression screening disparities among veterans with diabetes compared with the general veteran population.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laura E; Doebbeling, Caroline Carney

    2007-09-01

    We sought to describe the proportion of veterans with diabetes screened for depression compared with the general population of veterans. Electronic medical records (fiscal years 2001-2004) from a Midwestern Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility and VHA External Peer Review Program (EPRP) data were used for the study. Facility-level data included inpatient and outpatient encounters, which included depression screen results. EPRP data were facility-level summary data, which detailed the proportion of general population veterans nationwide and patients at the Midwestern facility who were screened for depression. Logistic regression tested for associations between depression screen receipt and screening positive and demographic/clinical characteristics among patients with diabetes. Depression screening among those with diabetes improved from 62% in fiscal year 2001 to 83% in 2004. Screening was 9-23% lower and 11-22% lower in patients with diabetes compared with the general population of veterans nationwide and patients at the Midwestern facility, respectively. Seventeen percent of subjects with diabetes screened positive, which is two times higher than in the general population. Women (odds ratio 0.45 [95% CI 0.35-0.60]) and subjects with unknown A1C (0.40 [0.34-0.46]) were less likely to be screened for depression. A >or=50% service-connected disability rating was inversely associated with screening (0.84 [0.72-0.99]) but positively associated with screening positive for depression (1.56 [1.33-1.82]). Screening for depression among veterans with diabetes improved 21% but is considerably lower than the proportion of general population veterans screened nationally and at the facility of interest. Targeted interventions to improve screening in patients with diabetes are required based on evidence that screening translates into increased provider recognition and treatment of depression.

  14. A New Method to Address Verification Bias in Studies of Clinical Screening Tests: Cervical Cancer Screening Assays as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiaonan; Kim, Mimi Y; Castle, Philip E; Strickler, Howard D

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies to evaluate clinical screening tests often face the problem that the “gold standard” diagnostic approach is costly and/or invasive. It is therefore common to verify only a subset of negative screening tests using the gold standard method. However, under-sampling the screen-negatives can lead to substantial overestimation of the sensitivity and underestimation of the specificity of the diagnostic test. Our objective was to develop a simple and accurate statistical method to address this “verification bias”. Study Design and Setting We developed a weighted generalized estimating equation approach to estimate, in a single model, the accuracy (e.g., sensitivity/specificity) of multiple assays as well as simultaneously compare results between assays while addressing verification bias. This approach can be implemented using standard statistical software. Simulations were conducted to assess the proposed method. An example is provided using a cervical cancer screening trial that compared the accuracy of human papillomavirus and Pap tests, with histological data as the gold standard. Results The proposed approach performed well in estimating and comparing the accuracy of multiple assays in the presence of verification bias. Conclusion The proposed approach is an easy to apply and accurate method for addressing verification bias in studies of multiple screening methods. PMID:24332397

  15. Prevalence of intimate partner violence disclosed during routine screening in a large general practice.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Debs; Manhire, Kathy; Marshall, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Domestic violence in its myriad shapes and forms is a crime affecting every level of society. Gaining a true understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimology allows for the meaningful provision of intervention services. To explore the prevalence of IPV disclosure during routine screening in a large general practice in provincial New Zealand. Data were collected from 13 October 2008 to 30 June 2014 from 6827 individuals screened for IPV on 10 062 occasions and were analysed relative to age, ethnicity, gender, screening outcome, screener and health centre enrolled status. Analysis indicated an overall ever-positive disclosure rate of IPV of 11.1%, lower than New Zealand studies that place ever-positive prevalence as high as 78%. Maori women disclosed an ever-positive rate of 21.6%, Pacific women 13.2%, compared to 8.9% for NZ European/Other women. Casual patients positively disclosed in 13.7% of instances as opposed to enrolled patients in 10.5%. Disclosure of past abuse was made 1.3 times more often than that of a current abusive situation. Those aged between 16 and 65 years disclosed an ever-positive rate ≥10%. While nurses screened 5.5 times more patients than doctors, the doctors facilitated a higher percentage of positive disclosures than the nurses. Disclosure rates from a general practice setting do not mirror those of population studies or administrative datasets due to differences in samples and data collection methods. Routine annual screening is effective, with both doctors and nurses providing support for approximately equal numbers of patients in immediate danger.

  16. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  17. Some general methods of preparing affinity columns

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, P.V.

    1974-01-01

    Some general methods of covalent coupling of nucleotides, especially derivatized nucleotides, polynucleotides and cofactors to insoluble polymers are described in this paper. Wherever necessary individual methods also carry some information on the binding of enzymes to the same polymers to serve as a guide to the efficiency of the coupling methods. PMID:10793714

  18. Generalization of the ERIT principle and method.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.G.

    2007-11-04

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  19. Generalization of the ERIT Principle and Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.

    2008-02-01

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  20. Improvement of screening methods for silicon planar semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the program for the development of a more sensitive method for selecting silicon planar semiconductor devices for long life applications are reported. The manufacturing technologies (MOS and Bipolar) are discussed along with the screening procedures developed as a result of the tests and evaluations, and the effectiveness of the MOS and Bilayer screening procedures are evaluated.

  1. 42 CFR 455.452 - Other State screening methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other State screening methods. 455.452 Section 455.452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Provider Screening and Enrollment §...

  2. Risk Stratification in Cervical Cancer Screening by Complete Screening History- Applying Bioinformatics to a General Screening Population.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, Nicholas; Sundström, Karin; Nygård, Jan F; Dillner, Joakim; Komorowski, Jan

    2017-04-06

    Women screened for cervical cancer in Sweden are currently treated under a one-size-fits-all programme, which has been successful in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer but does not use all of the participants' available medical information. This study aimed to use women's complete cervical screening histories to identify diagnostic patterns that may indicate an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. A nationwide case-control study was performed where cervical cancer screening data from 125,476 women with a maximum follow-up of 10 years were evaluated for patterns of SNOMED diagnoses. The cancer development risk was estimated for a number of different screening history patterns and expressed as Odds Ratios (OR), with a history of 4 benign cervical tests as reference, using logistic regression. The overall performance of the model was moderate (64% accuracy, 71% Area Under Curve (AUC)) with 61-62% of the study population showing no specific patterns associated with risk. However, predictions for high-risk groups as defined by screening history patterns were highly discriminatory with ORs ranging from 8 to 36. The model for computing risk performed consistently across different screening history lengths, and several patterns predicted cancer outcomes. The results show the presence of risk-increasing and risk-decreasing factors in the screening history. Thus it is feasible to identify subgroups based on their complete screening histories. Several high-risk subgroups identified might benefit from an increased screening density. Some low-risk subgroups identified could likely have a moderately reduced screening density without additional risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Current and potential providers of blood pressure self-screening: a mixed methods study in Oxfordshire

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, A C; Heneghan, C J; Greenfield, S M; Hobbs, F D R; Ward, A M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To (1) establish the extent of opportunities for members of the public to check their own blood pressure (BP) outside of healthcare consultations (BP self-screening), (2) investigate the reasons for and against hosting such a service and (3) ascertain how BP self-screening data are used in primary care. Design A mixed methods, cross-sectional study. Setting Primary care and community locations in Oxfordshire, UK. Participants 325 sites were surveyed to identify where and in what form BP self-screening services were available. 23 semistructured interviews were then completed with current and potential hosts of BP self-screening services. Results 18/82 (22%) general practices offered BP self-screening and 68/110 (62%) pharmacies offered professional-led BP screening. There was no evidence of permanent BP self-screening activities in other community settings. Healthcare professionals, managers, community workers and leaders were interviewed. Those in primary care generally felt that practice-based BP self-screening was a beneficial activity that increased the attainment of performance targets although there was variation in its perceived usefulness for patient care. The pharmacists interviewed provided BP checking as a service to the community but were unable to develop self-screening services without a clear business plan. Among potential hosts, barriers to providing a BP self-screening service included a perceived lack of healthcare commissioner and public demand, and a weak—if any—link to their core objectives as an organisation. Conclusions BP self-screening currently occurs in a minority of general practices. Any future development of community BP self-screening programmes will require (1) public promotion and (2) careful consideration of how best to support—and reward—the community hosts who currently perceive little if any benefit. PMID:28336742

  4. A novel screening method of cellulase-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Wang, P; Hu, R

    2011-01-01

    Cellulase is the key to utilize the renewable and abundant cellulose resource, cellulase-producing microorganism is an important source of cellulase. The traditional screening method of cellulase-producing microorganism is low efficacy and not macroscopic. The screening method in this study was based on the interactive culture character between cellulase-producing bacteria and Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae on plates, the results indicated that the inhibition zone and cellulase activity of bacterial strains are conformity on the whole, so the screening method is very quickly and apparent.

  5. Heavy quarkonia description from a generalized screened potential model

    SciTech Connect

    González, P.

    2016-01-22

    The spectral effect of open flavor meson-meson thresholds in heavy quarkonia is analyzed by using a Non Relativistic Quark Model. The proposed form of the effective quark-antiquark potential, based on lattice indications, incorporates implicitly screening effects from meson-meson configurations. The application of the model to heavy quarkonia provides a resonable description of unconventional J{sup ++} charmonium states and a definite prediction for unconventional J{sup ++} states in bottomonium.

  6. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  7. High-throughput bubble screening method for combinatorial discovery of electrocatalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Chengxiang; Suram, Santosh K; Haber, Joel A; Guevarra, Dan W; Soedarmadji, Ed; Jin, Jian; Gregoire, John M

    2014-02-10

    Combinatorial synthesis and screening for discovery of electrocatalysts has received increasing attention, particularly for energy-related technologies. High-throughput discovery strategies typically employ a fast, reliable initial screening technique that is able to identify active catalyst composition regions. Traditional electrochemical characterization via current-voltage measurements is inherently throughput-limited, as such measurements are most readily performed by serial screening. Parallel screening methods can yield much higher throughput and generally require the use of an indirect measurement of catalytic activity. In a water-splitting reaction, the change of local pH or the presence of oxygen and hydrogen in the solution can be utilized for parallel screening of active electrocatalysts. Previously reported techniques for measuring these signals typically function in a narrow pH range and are not suitable for both strong acidic and basic environments. A simple approach to screen the electrocatalytic activities by imaging the oxygen and hydrogen bubbles produced by the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is reported here. A custom built electrochemical cell was employed to record the bubble evolution during the screening, where the testing materials were subject to desired electrochemical potentials. The transient of the bubble intensity obtained from the screening was quantitatively analyzed to yield a bubble figure of merit (FOM) that represents the reaction rate. Active catalysts in a pseudoternary material library, (Ni-Fe-Co)Ox, which contains 231 unique compositions, were identified in less than one minute using the bubble screening method. An independent, serial screening method on the same material library exhibited excellent agreement with the parallel bubble screening. This general approach is highly parallel and is independent of solution pH.

  8. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  9. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  10. Spectral Methods in General Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, David

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I discuss the use of spectral methods in improving the accuracy of a General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) computer code. I introduce SpecCosmo, a GRMHD code developed as a Cactus arrangement at UHCL, and show simulation results using both Fourier spectral methods and finite differencing. This work demonstrates the use of spectral methods with the FFTW 3.3 Fast Fourier Transform package integrated with the Cactus Framework to perform spectral differencing using MPI.

  11. A Triangulation Method for Identifying Hydrostratigraphic Locations of Well Screens

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, T. S.

    2015-01-31

    A method to identify the hydrostratigraphic location of well screens was developed using triangulation with known locations. This method was applied to all of the monitor wells being used to develop the new GSA groundwater model. Results from this method are closely aligned with those from an alternate method which uses a mesh surface.

  12. Outcomes of hepatitis C screening programs targeted at risk groups hidden in the general population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective screening programs are urgently needed to provide undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals with therapy. This systematic review of characteristics and outcomes of screening programs for HCV focuses on strategies to identify HCV risk groups hidden in the general population. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles published between 1991–2010, including studies that screened the general population using either a newly developed (nonintegrated) screening program or one integrated in existing health care facilities. Look-back studies, prevalence studies, and programs targeting high-risk groups in care (e.g., current drug users) were excluded. Results After reviewing 7052 studies, we identified 67 screening programs: 24 nonintegrated; 41 programs integrated in a variety of health care facilities (e.g., general practitioner); and 2 programs with both integrated and nonintegrated strategies. Together, these programs identified approximately 25,700 HCV-infected individuals. In general, higher HCV prevalence was found in programs in countries with intermediate to high HCV prevalence, in psychiatric clinics, and in programs that used a prescreening selection based on HCV risk factors. Only 6 programs used a comparison group for evaluation purposes, and 1 program used theory about effective promotion for screening. Comparison of the programs and their effectiveness was hampered by lack of reported data on program characteristics, clinical follow-up, and type of diagnostic test. Conclusions A prescreening selection based on risk factors can increase the efficiency of screening in low-prevalence populations, and we need programs with comparison groups to evaluate effectiveness. Also, program characteristics such as type of diagnostic test, screening uptake, and clinical outcomes should be reported systematically. PMID:24450797

  13. Increasing opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations: findings from focus groups with general dentists in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Psoter, Walter J.; Morse, Douglas E.; Sánchez-Ayendez, Melba; Vega, Carmen M Vélez; Aguilar, Maria L.; Buxó-Martinez, Carmen J; Psoter, Jodi A.; Kerr, Alexander R.; Lane, Christina M.; Scaringi, Vincent J; Elias, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify educational and training modalities that dentists in Puerto Rico (PR) believe will increase the quality and quantity of opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations (OCS) in dental offices on the island. Methods The study was conducted in three phases: a systematic search of relevant literature, an expert review and consensus panel, and focus groups (FG) involving PR general dentists. Results To increase OCS by dentists in PR, the FG participants proposed small group, hands-on OCS training, an integrated oral cancer course, and readily-available videos, photographs, and computer simulations to further demonstrate OCS performance and facilitate differential diagnosis. OCS training requirements for licensure and relicensure, improving OCS dentist-patient communication skills, and establishment of an oral lesion referral center were also viewed favorably. Conclusions General dentists in our FGs believed the quality and quantity of OCS in Puerto Rico can be increased through the application of specific continuing education and training modalities. PMID:24894606

  14. A composite screening tool for medication reviews of outpatients: general issues with specific examples.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Peter A G M; Denneboom, Wilma; Kramers, Cees; Grol, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Regular performance of medication reviews is prominent among methods that have been advocated to reduce the extent and seriousness of drug-related problems, such as adverse drug reactions, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions, drug ineffectiveness and cost ineffectiveness. Several screening tools have been developed to guide practising healthcare professionals and researchers in reviewing the medication patterns of elderly patients; however, each of these tools has its own limitations. This review discusses a wide range of general prescription-, treatment- and patient-related issues that should be taken into account when reviewing medication patterns by implicit screening. These include generic and therapeutic substitution; potentially superfluous or inappropriate medications; potentially inappropriate dosages or duration of treatment; drug-disease and drug-drug interactions; under-treatment; making use of laboratory test results; patient adherence, experiences and habits; appropriate dosage forms and packaging. A broad selection of specific examples and references that can be used as a basis for explicit screening of medication patterns in outpatients is also offered.

  15. Generalized model screening potentials for Fermi-Dirac plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, some properties of relativistically degenerate quantum plasmas, such as static ion screening, structure factor, and Thomson scattering cross-section, are studied in the framework of linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory with the newly proposed kinetic γ-correction to Bohm term in low frequency limit. It is found that the correction has a significant effect on the properties of quantum plasmas in all density regimes, ranging from solid-density up to that of white dwarf stars. It is also found that Shukla-Eliasson attractive force exists up to a few times the density of metals, and the ionic correlations are seemingly apparent in the radial distribution function signature. Simplified statically screened attractive and repulsive potentials are presented for zero-temperature Fermi-Dirac plasmas, valid for a wide range of quantum plasma number-density and atomic number values. Moreover, it is observed that crystallization of white dwarfs beyond a critical core number-density persists with this new kinetic correction, but it is shifted to a much higher number-density value of n0 ≃ 1.94 × 1037 cm-3 (1.77 × 1010 gr cm-3), which is nearly four orders of magnitude less than the nuclear density. It is found that the maximal Thomson scattering with the γ-corrected structure factor is a remarkable property of white dwarf stars. However, with the new γ-correction, the maximal scattering shifts to the spectrum region between hard X-ray and low-energy gamma-rays. White dwarfs composed of higher atomic-number ions are observed to maximally Thomson-scatter at slightly higher wavelengths, i.e., they maximally scatter slightly low-energy photons in the presence of correction.

  16. Generalized model screening potentials for Fermi-Dirac plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, some properties of relativistically degenerate quantum plasmas, such as static ion screening, structure factor, and Thomson scattering cross-section, are studied in the framework of linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory with the newly proposed kinetic γ-correction to Bohm term in low frequency limit. It is found that the correction has a significant effect on the properties of quantum plasmas in all density regimes, ranging from solid-density up to that of white dwarf stars. It is also found that Shukla-Eliasson attractive force exists up to a few times the density of metals, and the ionic correlations are seemingly apparent in the radial distribution function signature. Simplified statically screened attractive and repulsive potentials are presented for zero-temperature Fermi-Dirac plasmas, valid for a wide range of quantum plasma number-density and atomic number values. Moreover, it is observed that crystallization of white dwarfs beyond a critical core number-density persists with this new kinetic correction, but it is shifted to a much higher number-density value of n{sub 0} ≃ 1.94 × 10{sup 37} cm{sup −3} (1.77 × 10{sup 10} gr cm{sup −3}), which is nearly four orders of magnitude less than the nuclear density. It is found that the maximal Thomson scattering with the γ-corrected structure factor is a remarkable property of white dwarf stars. However, with the new γ-correction, the maximal scattering shifts to the spectrum region between hard X-ray and low-energy gamma-rays. White dwarfs composed of higher atomic-number ions are observed to maximally Thomson-scatter at slightly higher wavelengths, i.e., they maximally scatter slightly low-energy photons in the presence of correction.

  17. Method For Screening Microcrystallizations For Crystal Formation

    DOEpatents

    Santarsiero, Bernard D. , Stevens, Raymond C. , Schultz, Peter G. , Jaklevic, Joseph M. , Yegian, Derek T. , Cornell, Earl W. , Nordmeyer, Robert A.

    2003-10-07

    A method is provided for performing array microcrystallizations to determine suitable crystallization conditions for a molecule, the method comprising: forming an array of microcrystallizations, each microcrystallization comprising a drop comprising a mother liquor solution whose composition varies within the array and a molecule to be crystallized, the drop having a volume of less than 1 microliter; storing the array of microcrystallizations under conditions suitable for molecule crystals to form in the drops in the array; and detecting molecule crystal formation in the drops by taking images of the drops.

  18. Testing and screening for chlamydia in general practice: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Allison; Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim; Tapley, Amanda; Spike, Neil; Scott, John; van Driel, Mieke; Magin, Parker

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydia screening is widely advocated. General practice registrars are an important stage of clinical behaviour development. This study aimed to determine rates of, and factors associated with, registrars' chlamydia testing including asymptomatic screening. A cross-sectional analysis of data from Registrars Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT), a cohort study of registrars' consultations. Registrars record details of 60 consecutive consultations in each GP-term of training. Outcome factors were chlamydia testing, asymptomatic screening and doctor-initiated screening. Testing occurred in 2.5% of 29,112 consultations (398 registrars) and in 5.8% of patients aged 15-25. Asymptomatic screening comprised 47.5% of chlamydia tests, and 55.6% of screening tests were doctor-initiated. Chlamydia testing was associated with female gender of doctor and patient, younger patient age, and patients new to doctor or practice. Asymptomatic screening was associated with practices where patients incur no fees, and in patients new to doctor or practice. Screening of female patients was more often doctor-initiated. GP registrars screen for chlamydia disproportionately in younger females and new patients. Our findings highlight potential opportunities to improve uptake of screening for chlamydia, including targeted education and training for registrars, campaigns targeting male patients, and addressing financial barriers to accessing screening services. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. NEW METHODS TO SCREEN FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of alternative methods for toxicity testing is driven by the need for scientifically valid data (i.e. predictive of a toxic effect) that can be obtained in a rapid and cost-efficient manner. These predictions will enable decisions to be made as to whether further ...

  20. NEW METHODS TO SCREEN FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of alternative methods for toxicity testing is driven by the need for scientifically valid data (i.e. predictive of a toxic effect) that can be obtained in a rapid and cost-efficient manner. These predictions will enable decisions to be made as to whether further ...

  1. Indicators of depression in elderly and different screening methods.

    PubMed

    Matias, Amanda Gilvani Cordeiro; Fonsêca, Marília de Andrade; Gomes, Maria de Lourdes de Freitas; Matos, Marcos Antonio Almeida

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly and correlate the agreement between the screening methods used. A cross-section study of 137 elderly attending the Programa Vivendo a Terceira Idade [Living for the Elderly Program]. Depressive symptoms were screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, by Yesavage. Cohen´s kappa analyzed the degree of agreement of these scales. The prevalence of depressive symptoms screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was 62.8% and, by the Geriatric Depression Scale, 52.6%. The Spearman correlation between the results of scales obtained rho=0.387, p<0.000. The Kappa reliability coefficient was 0.41 and significance level of p<0.001. The screening methods showed sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 44%. Both scales showed moderate agreement and were useful for detecting a relevant prevalence of the target outcome of depression among the elderly.

  2. Is there evidence that we should screen the general population for Lynch syndrome with genetic testing? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Anya E R; Cadigan, R Jean; Henderson, Gail E; Evans, James P; Adams, Michael; Coker-Schwimmer, Emmanuel; Penn, Dolly C; Van Riper, Marcia; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Jonas, Daniel E

    2017-01-01

    Background The emerging dual imperatives of personalized medicine and technologic advances make population screening for preventable conditions resulting from genetic alterations a realistic possibility. Lynch syndrome is a potential screening target due to its prevalence, penetrance, and the availability of well-established, preventive interventions. However, while population screening may lower incidence of preventable conditions, implementation without evidence may lead to unintentional harms. We examined the literature to determine whether evidence exists that screening for Lynch-associated mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations leads to improved overall survival, cancer-specific survival, or quality of life. Documenting evidence and gaps is critical to implementing genomic approaches in public health and guiding future research. Materials and methods Our 2014–2015 systematic review identified studies comparing screening with no screening in the general population, and controlled studies assessing analytic validity of targeted next-generation sequencing, and benefits or harms of interventions or screening. We conducted meta-analyses for the association between early or more frequent colonoscopies and health outcomes. Results Twelve studies met our eligibility criteria. No adequate evidence directly addressed the main question or the harms of screening in the general population. Meta-analyses found relative reductions of 68% for colorectal cancer incidence (relative risk: 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.23–0.43, three cohort studies, 590 participants) and 78% for all-cause mortality (relative risk: 0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.09–0.56, three cohort studies, 590 participants) for early or more frequent colonoscopies among family members of people with cancer who also had an associated MMR gene mutation. Conclusion Inadequate evidence exists examining harms and benefits of population-based screening for Lynch syndrome. Lack of evidence highlights the need

  3. Bayesian methods in virtual screening and chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The Naïve Bayesian Classifier, as well as related classification and regression approaches based on Bayes' theorem, has experienced increased attention in the cheminformatics world in recent years. In this contribution, we first review the mathematical framework on which Bayes' methods are built, and then continue to discuss implications of this framework as well as practical experience under which conditions Bayes' methods give the best performance in virtual screening settings. Finally, we present an overview of applications of Bayes' methods to both virtual screening and the chemical biology arena, where applications range from bridging phenotypic and mechanistic space of drug action to the prediction of ligand-target interactions.

  4. Multislope MUSCL method for general unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Touze, C.; Murrone, A.; Guillard, H.

    2015-03-01

    The multislope concept has been recently introduced in the literature to deal with MUSCL reconstructions on triangular and tetrahedral unstructured meshes in the finite volume cell-centered context. Dedicated scalar slopes are used to compute the interpolations on each face of a given element, in opposition to the monoslope methods in which a unique limited gradient is used. The multislope approach reveals less expensive and potentially more accurate than the classical gradient techniques. Besides, it may also help the robustness when dealing with hyperbolic systems involving complex solutions, with large discontinuities and high density ratios. However some important limitations on the mesh topology still have to be overcome with the initial multislope formalism. In this paper, a generalized multislope MUSCL method is introduced for cell-centered finite volume discretizations. The method is freed from constraints on the mesh topology, thereby operating on completely general unstructured meshes. Moreover optimal second-order accuracy is reached at the faces centroids. The scheme can be written with nonnegative coefficients, which makes it L∞-stable. Special attention has also been paid to equip the reconstruction procedure with well-adapted dedicated limiters, potentially CFL-dependent. Numerical tests are provided to prove the ability of the method to deal with completely general meshes, while exhibiting second-order accuracy.

  5. The Implementation of an Integrated Information System for Substance Use Screening in General Medical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen-Alawad, A.; Carney, B.L.; Persand, I.; Cruz, A.; Botticelli, M.; Pressman, K.; Adams, W.G.; Brolin, M.; Alford, D.P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Massachusetts Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (MASBIRT) Program, a substance use screening program in general medical settings, created a web-based, point-of-care (POC), application – the MASBIRT Portal (the “Portal”) to meet program goals. Objectives We report on development and implementation of the Portal. Methods Five year program process outcomes recorded by an independent evaluator and an anonymous survey of Health Educator’s (HEs) adoption, perceptions and Portal use with a modified version of the Technology Readiness Index are described. [8] Specific management team members, selected based on their roles in program leadership, development and implementation of the Portal and supervision of HEs, participated in semi-structured, qualitative interviews. Results At the conclusion of the program 73% (24/33) of the HEs completed a survey on their experience using the Portal. HEs reported that the Portal made recording screening information easy (96%); improved planning their workday (83%); facilitated POC data collection (84%); decreased time dedicated to data entry (100%); and improved job satisfaction (59%). The top two barriers to use were “no or limited wireless connectivity” (46%) and “the tablet was too heavy/bulky to carry” (29%). Qualitative management team interviews identified strategies for successful HIT implementation: importance of engaging HEs in outlining specifications and workflow needs, collaborative testing prior to implementation and clear agreement on data collection purpose, quality requirements and staff roles. Discussion Overall, HEs perceived the Portal favorably with regard to time saving ability and improved workflow. Lessons learned included identifying core requirements early during system development and need for managers to institute and enforce consistent behavioral work norms. Conclusion Barriers and HEs’ views of technology impacted the utilization of the MASBIRT Portal

  6. Domain-specific versus generalized cognitive screening in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Demeyere, Nele; Riddoch, M J; Slavkova, E D; Jones, K; Reckless, I; Mathieson, P; Humphreys, G W

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive assessments after stroke are typically short form tests developed for dementia that generates pass/fail classifications (e.g. the MoCA). The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) provides a domain-specific cognitive profile designed for stroke survivors. This study compared the use of the MoCA and the OCS in acute stroke with respect to symptom specificity and aspects of clinical utility. A cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 200 stroke patients within 3 weeks of stroke completing MoCA and OCS. Demographic data, lesion side and Barthel scores were recorded. Inclusivity was assessed in terms of completion rates and reasons for non-completion were evaluated. The incidence of cognitive impairments on both the MoCA and OCS sub-domains was calculated and differences in stroke specificity, cognitive profiles and independence of the measures were addressed. The incidence of acute cognitive impairment was high: 76% of patients were impaired on MoCA, and 86% demonstrated at least one impairment on the cognitive domains assessed in the OCS. OCS was more sensitive than MoCA overall (87 vs 78% sensitivity) and OCS alone provided domain-specific information on prevalent post-stroke cognitive impairments (neglect, apraxia and reading/writing ability). Unlike the MOCA, the OCS was not dominated by left hemisphere impairments but gave differentiated profiles across the contrasting domains. The OCS detects important cognitive deficits after stroke not assessed in the MoCA, it is inclusive for patients with aphasia and neglect and it is less confounded by co-occurring difficulties in these domains.

  7. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  8. A spectrophotometric screening method for avermectin oxidizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Shan; Hu, Qi-Wei; Zheng, Xing-Chang; Zhang, Jian-Fen; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    A spectrophotometric screening method for avermectin oxidizing microbes by determination of 4″-oxo-avermectin was established based on the reaction between 4″-oxo-avermectin and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Combined with a gradient HPLC assay, microorganisms capable of regioselectively oxidizing avermectin to 4″-oxo-avermectin were successfully obtained by this method.

  9. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  10. Screening-Level Ecological Risk Assessment Methods, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mirenda, Richard J.

    2012-08-16

    This document provides guidance for screening-level assessments of potential adverse impacts to ecological resources from release of environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The methods presented are based on two objectives, namely: to provide a basis for reaching consensus with regulators, managers, and other interested parties on how to conduct screening-level ecological risk investigations at the Laboratory; and to provide guidance for ecological risk assessors under the Environmental Programs (EP) Directorate. This guidance promotes consistency, rigor, and defensibility in ecological screening investigations and in reporting those investigation results. The purpose of the screening assessment is to provide information to the risk managers so informed riskmanagement decisions can be made. This document provides examples of recommendations and possible risk-management strategies.

  11. Adherence to guidelines on cervical cancer screening in general practice: programme elements of successful implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is still only limited understanding of whether and why interventions to facilitate the implementation of guidelines for improving primary care are successful. It is therefore important to look inside the 'black box' of the intervention, to ascertain which elements work well or less well. AIM: To assess the associations of key elements of a nationwide multifaceted prevention programme with the successful implementation of cervical screening guidelines in general practice. DESIGN OF STUDY: A nationwide prospective cohort study. SETTING: A random sample of one-third of all 4,758 general practices in The Netherlands (n = 1,586). METHOD: General practitioners (GPs) in The Netherlands were exposed to a two-and-a-half-year nationwide multifaceted prevention programme to improve the adherence to national guidelines for cervical cancer screening. Adherence to guidelines at baseline and after the intervention and actual exposure to programme elements were assessed in the sample using self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Both baseline and post-measurement questionnaires were returned by 988 practices (response rate = 62%). No major differences in baseline practice characteristics between study population, non-responders, and all Netherlands practices were observed. After the intervention all practices improved markedly (P<0.001) in their incorporation of nine out of 10 guideline indicators for effective cervical screening into practice. The most important elements for successful implementation were: specific software modules (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervalsfor all nine indicators ranged from OR = 1.85 [95% CI = 1.24-2.77] to OR = 10.2 [95% CI = 7.58-14.1]); two or more 'practice visits' by outreach visitors (ORs and 95% CIs for six indicators ranged from OR = 1.46 [95% CI= 1.01-2.12] to OR = 2.35 [95% CI = 1.63-3.38]); and an educational programme for practice assistants (ORs and 95% CIs for four indicators ranged from OR = 1.57 [95% CI = 1

  12. A straightforward ninhydrin-based method for collagenase activity and inhibitor screening of collagenase using spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Kang, Lixia; Li, Changzheng

    2013-06-01

    Currently protease assay kits, requiring substrate that is either radiolabeled or fluorescence labeled and specialized instruments, are all expensive. A simple, reliable assay of protease activity and its inhibitor screening for general laboratory is rare. Here we demonstrated a straightforward ninhydrin-based method for assay of collagenase activity and its inhibitor screening using spectrophotometry. In the method, without multistep sample treatments and substrate labeling, the hydrolytic products were directly traced by ninhydrin. The method is expected to be suitable for not only the assay of collagenase activity but also the others matrix metalloproteinases activities, and can be used for kinetic study.

  13. The slide centrifuge gram stain as a urine screening method.

    PubMed

    Olson, M L; Shanholtzer, C J; Willard, K E; Peterson, L R

    1991-10-01

    A slide centrifuge Gram stain procedure was performed to screen for bacteriuria 4161 urine specimens submitted in urine preservative tubes for routine culture. For slide centrifuge Gram staining, each urine sample was mixed well. Thereafter, 0.2 mL of each sample was placed, using a pipette, into a slide centrifuge chamber and centrifuged at 2,000 rpm for 5 minutes. The slides were heat fixed, Gram stained, and read by laboratory personnel who scanned 12 consecutive oil-immersion fields using a set pattern. The presence of the same organism in six or more fields was defined as a positive urine screen. Urine samples were cultured using a 0.001-mL loop and a comparison of culture growth with slide centrifuge screening was made. When growth of 100,000 or more colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) was the reference for comparison, the screen had a sensitivity rate of 98%, a specificity rate of 90%, a negative predictive value of 99%, and a positive predictive value of 65%. When a lower colony count of 10,000 or more CFU/mL was the reference for comparison, the screen had a sensitivity rate of 88%, a specificity rate of 95%, a negative predictive value of 96%, and a positive predictive value of 84%. The slide centrifuge Gram stain is a very sensitive screening method to detect bacteriuria in an adult male population.

  14. General relativistic neutrino transport using spectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Bruno; Penner, Andrew Jason; Novak, Jérôme; Bonazzola, Silvano

    2014-02-01

    We present a new code, Lorene's Ghost (for Lorene's gravitational handling of spectral transport) developed to treat the problem of neutrino transport in supernovae with the use of spectral methods. First, we derive the expression for the nonrelativistic Liouville operator in doubly spherical coordinates (r, θ, ϕ, ɛ, Θ, Φ), and further its general relativistic counterpart. We use the 3 + 1 formalism with the conformally flat approximation for the spatial metric, to express the Liouville operator in the Eulerian frame. Our formulation does not use any approximations when dealing with the angular arguments (θ, ϕ, Θ, Φ), and is fully energy-dependent. This approach is implemented in a spherical shell, using either Chebyshev polynomials or Fourier series as decomposition bases. It is here restricted to simplified collision terms (isoenergetic scattering) and to the case of a static fluid. We finish this paper by presenting test results using basic configurations, including general relativistic ones in the Schwarzschild metric, in order to demonstrate the convergence properties, the conservation of particle number and correct treatment of some general relativistic effects of our code. The use of spectral methods enables to run our test cases in a six-dimensional setting on a single processor.

  15. A Generalized Slave-Particle Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru Bogdan; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    Two slave-particle methods, namely the slave-rotor and the slave-spin approaches, have been of recent interest in the computational correlated electron community. Both methods solve Hubbard-type models and go beyond the single-particle approximations by describing aspects of correlated electron behavior in a computationally efficient manner. We present a generalized slave-particle formalism that connects the the two while reproducing the results of each method in the appropriate limit. The framework automatically corrects the problematic small U behavior of the slave-rotor approach while reproducing its behavior in situations where it has been found physically relevant (e.g., for nickelate heterostructures). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant MRSEC NSF DMR-1119826.

  16. [The impact of screening sickle-cell carriers in the general population. A retrospective study in the Paris screening center].

    PubMed

    Lainé, A; Bardakdjian, J; Prunelle, F; Maroja, F E; Quélet, S; Girot, R; Niakaté, A

    2015-04-01

    Since 2006 the CIDD, the Paris information and screening center for sickle-cell disease, provides free assistance for adults who may be at risk of having children with sickle-cell disease. Recently, an increasing number of parents of a silent-carrier newborn detected by systematic neonatal screening are attending the center. We present a retrospective study of the impact of such information and screening on people. The study involved 81 silent-carrier men and women aged 18 to 45 years, interviewed using a telephone questionnaire (n=70) or during consultation (n=11) one to three years after screening. The study group represented 12% of individuals attending the center with the same characteristics. In general, the information delivered concerning sickle-cell disease and silent-carriers was well understood although concerns about personal and family history and the correctness of prior knowledge revealed a lack of information input from the environment (media, schools, health professionals). Poorly assimilated information involved three subjects: the difference between trait and disease; the difference between type of hemoglobin and blood group; and Mendelian transmission. The screening result was not a cause of separation among couples and was often passed on to family or friends. Disparities in adherence to prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy were mainly related to different representations of disease severity. Joint screening of newborns and their parents is a good measure for adults, who are satisfied with being informed despite the psychological difficulties involved. However the implication for children detected remains a relevant issue because of the persistent perception of the trait as a pseudo-disease and the risk of reification of a biological difference between relatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonlocal exchange correlation in screened-exchange densityfunctional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang; Spataru, Catalin D.; Louie,Steven G.

    2007-04-22

    We present a systematic study on the exchange-correlationeffects in screened-exchange local density functional method. Toinvestigate the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the bandgap correction, we have compared the exchange-correlation potential termin the sX-LDA formalism with the self-energy term in the GWapproximation. It is found that the band gap correction of the sX-LDAmethod primarily comes from the downshift of valence band states,resulting from the enhancement of bonding and the increase of ionizationenergy. The band gap correction in the GW method, on the contrary, comesin large part from the increase of theconduction band energies. We alsostudied the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the totalenergy by investigating the exchange-correlation hole in comparison withquantum Monte Carlo calculations. When the Thomas-Fermi screening isused, the sX-LDA method overestimates (underestimates) theexchange-correlation hole in short (long) range. From theexchange-correlation energy analysis we found that the LDA method yieldsbetter absolute total energy than sX-LDA method.

  18. Integrating Oral and General Health Screening at Senior Centers for Minority Elders

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bin; Northridge, Mary E.; Kunzel, Carol; Huang, Catherine; Lamster, Ira B.

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities regarding untreated oral disease exist for older adults, and poor oral health diminishes quality of life. The ElderSmile program integrated screening for diabetes and hypertension into its community-based oral health activities at senior centers in northern Manhattan. The program found a willingness among minority seniors (aged ≥ 50 years) to be screened for primary care sensitive conditions by dental professionals and a high level of unrecognized disease (7.8% and 24.6% of ElderSmile participants had positive screening results for previously undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension, respectively). Dental professionals may screen for primary care–sensitive conditions and refer patients to health care providers for definitive diagnosis and treatment. The ElderSmile program is a replicable model for community-based oral and general health screening. PMID:23597378

  19. Integrating oral and general health screening at senior centers for minority elders.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen E; Cheng, Bin; Northridge, Mary E; Kunzel, Carol; Huang, Catherine; Lamster, Ira B

    2013-06-01

    Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities regarding untreated oral disease exist for older adults, and poor oral health diminishes quality of life. The ElderSmile program integrated screening for diabetes and hypertension into its community-based oral health activities at senior centers in northern Manhattan. The program found a willingness among minority seniors (aged ≥ 50 years) to be screened for primary care sensitive conditions by dental professionals and a high level of unrecognized disease (7.8% and 24.6% of ElderSmile participants had positive screening results for previously undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension, respectively). Dental professionals may screen for primary care-sensitive conditions and refer patients to health care providers for definitive diagnosis and treatment. The ElderSmile program is a replicable model for community-based oral and general health screening.

  20. General practitioners' perceptions of private health screening: too much paper, anxiety, and reassurance.

    PubMed Central

    Paynton, D; Dunleavey, J; Smith, H

    1998-01-01

    There is no evidence to support the practice of screening consultations that include general physical examinations and batteries of tests; however, many patients may choose, or be sent by their employers, to have private full health screening (FHS). General practitioners (GPs) are routinely sent the results of these screening examinations and are expected to deal with any subsequent care required. GPs recognize some positive aspects of FHS, but in our survey there was a groundswell of dislike for these examinations because of uncertainty about patient benefit (raised anxiety or false assurance) and a potential to irritate the GP. The implications for workload were minimal but resented. GPs would welcome a precise summary of significant findings and for the screening doctor to take greater responsibility for follow-up. PMID:9747551

  1. Patient use of blood pressure self-screening facilities in general practice waiting rooms: a qualitative study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice C; Grant, Sabrina; Greenfield, Sheila M; McManus, Richard J; Fleming, Susannah; Heneghan, Carl J; Hobbs, FD Richard; Ward, Alison M

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) self-screening, whereby members of the public have access to BP monitoring equipment outside of healthcare consultations, may increase the detection and treatment of hypertension. Currently in the UK such opportunities are largely confined to GP waiting rooms. Aim To investigate the reasons why people do or do not use BP self-screening facilities. Design and setting A cross-sectional, qualitative study in Oxfordshire, UK. Method Semi-structured interviews with members of the general public recruited using posters in GP surgeries and community locations were recorded, transcribed, and coded thematically. Results Of the 30 interviewees, 20% were hypertensive and almost half had self-screened. Those with no history of elevated readings had limited concern over their BP: self-screening filled the time waiting for their appointment or was done to help their doctor. Patients with hypertension self-screened to avoid the feelings they associated with ‘white coat syndrome’ and to introduce more control into the measurement process. Barriers to self-screening included a lack of awareness, uncertainty about technique, and worries over measuring BP in a public place. An unanticipated finding was that several interviewees preferred monitoring their BP in the waiting room than at home. Conclusion BP self-screening appeared acceptable to service users. Further promotion and education could increase awareness among non-users of the need for BP screening, the existence of self-screening facilities, and its ease of use. Waiting room monitors could provide an alternative for patients with hypertension who are unwilling or unable to monitor at home. PMID:28483823

  2. Rapid Dye Decolorization Method for Screening Potential Wood Preservatives

    PubMed Central

    Borokhov, Olga; Rothenburger, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    We developed a new screening method for potential wood preservatives based on decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R by extracellular oxidative agents produced by wood decay fungi. Oxidative biodegradation of lignin yielded decolorized zones around and under fungal cultures on a dyed agar medium. Inhibitory effects were detected by direct observation and measurement of the decolorized zones. PMID:11097927

  3. Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles is achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). This method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in eac...

  4. Screening Methods for Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening-level analysis of water for metal-containing nanoparticles is achieved with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS). This method measures both the concentration of nanoparticles containing an analyte metal and the mass of the metal in eac...

  5. Using the Screened Coulomb Potential to Illustrate the Variational Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The screened Coulomb potential, or Yukawa potential, is used to illustrate the application of the single and linear variational methods. The trial variational functions are expressed in terms of Slater-type functions, for which the integrals needed to carry out the variational calculations are easily evaluated in closed form. The variational…

  6. Using the Screened Coulomb Potential to Illustrate the Variational Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The screened Coulomb potential, or Yukawa potential, is used to illustrate the application of the single and linear variational methods. The trial variational functions are expressed in terms of Slater-type functions, for which the integrals needed to carry out the variational calculations are easily evaluated in closed form. The variational…

  7. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  8. A general method to determine twinning elements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Li, Zongbin; Esling, Claude; Muller, Jacques; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theory of crystal twinning has been long established, leading to a significant advance in understanding the nature of this physical phenomenon. However, there remains a substantial gap between the elaborate theory and the practical determination of twinning elements. This paper proposes a direct and simple method – valid for any crystal structure and based on the minimum shear criterion – to calculate various twinning elements from the experimentally determined twinning plane for Type I twins or the twinning direction for Type II twins. Without additional efforts, it is generally applicable to identify and predict possible twinning modes occurring in a variety of crystalline solids. Therefore, the present method is a promising tool to characterize twinning elements, especially for those materials with complex crystal structure. PMID:22477779

  9. Attitudes of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based haemoglobinopathy-carrier screening

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Suze MPJ; de Jonge, Ank; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C; Lagro-Janssen, Antoinette LM

    2012-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies (HbP) are severe autosomal recessive disorders with high prevalence among certain ethnic groups. World Health Organisation (WHO) advises implementing screening programmes for risk groups. Research in the Netherlands has shown that general practitioners and midwives do not perceive ethnicity as a risk factor for HbP. Moreover, registration of ethnicity is a controversial societal issue, which may complicate the introduction of a national preconception or antenatal carrier screening programme. This study investigates attitudes, intention and behaviour of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening in general. A structured questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour was sent by mail to a random selection of 2100 general practitioners and 1800 primary care midwives. Response was 35% (midwives 44.2% GPs 27.6%). Although 45% of respondents thought that offering a carrier test on the basis of ethnicity alone should become national policy, it is currently not carried out. The main factor explaining lack of intention towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening was subjective norm, the perception that their peers do not think they should offer screening (52.2% variance explained). If ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening would become national policy, most professionals report that they would carry this out. Most respondents favoured ethnicity registration for health purposes. As most practitioners look for role models among peers, debate among general practitioners and midwives should be encouraged when new policy is to be developed, articulating the voices of colleagues who already actively offer HbP-carrier screening. Moreover, primary care professionals and professional organisations need support of policy at national level. PMID:22549405

  10. Hilbert's axiomatic method and Carnap's general axiomatics.

    PubMed

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper compares the axiomatic method of David Hilbert and his school with Rudolf Carnap's general axiomatics that was developed in the late 1920s, and that influenced his understanding of logic of science throughout the 1930s, when his logical pluralism developed. The distinct perspectives become visible most clearly in how Richard Baldus, along the lines of Hilbert, and Carnap and Friedrich Bachmann analyzed the axiom system of Hilbert's Foundations of Geometry—the paradigmatic example for the axiomatization of science. Whereas Hilbert's axiomatic method started from a local analysis of individual axiom systems in which the foundations of mathematics as a whole entered only when establishing the system's consistency, Carnap and his Vienna Circle colleague Hans Hahn instead advocated a global analysis of axiom systems in general. A primary goal was to evade, or formalize ex post, mathematicians' 'material' talk about axiom systems for such talk was held to be error-prone and susceptible to metaphysics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emerging Methods for Ensemble-Based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Rommie E.; Li, Wilfred W.

    2011-01-01

    Ensemble based virtual screening refers to the use of conformational ensembles from crystal structures, NMR studies or molecular dynamics simulations. It has gained greater acceptance as advances in the theoretical framework, computational algorithms, and software packages enable simulations at longer time scales. Here we focus on the use of computationally generated conformational ensembles and emerging methods that use these ensembles for discovery, such as the Relaxed Complex Scheme or Dynamic Pharmacophore Model. We also discuss the more rigorous physics-based computational techniques such as accelerated molecular dynamics and thermodynamic integration and their applications in improving conformational sampling or the ranking of virtual screening hits. Finally, technological advances that will help make virtual screening tools more accessible to a wider audience in computer aided drug design are discussed. PMID:19929833

  12. [Methods to increase participation in cancer screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Camilloni, Laura; Cogo, Carla; Federici, Antonio; Ferroni, Eliana; Furnari, Giacomo; Giordano, Livia; Grazzini, Grazia; Iossa, Anna; Jimenez, Beatriz; Palazzi, Mauro; Palazzo, Fabio; Spadea, Teresa; Senore, Carlo; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    to synthesize scientific evidences about methods to increase cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening participation. a multidisciplinary working group has been set up to define the scope of the report and to conduct the evaluation. The scope and the final evaluation have been submitted to a stakeholder committee, including the Ministry of Health, the National Screening Observatory, regional screening program coordinators, scientific societies, and Lega Italiana Lotta ai Tumori, for comments and integrations. A systematic review of the principal biomedical and social literature databases was conducted to identify experimental and observational studies, updating the existing review by Jepson and coll. (Health Technol Assess. 2000;4(14):i-vii, 1-133). 5900 have been identified, 900 relevant for the topic.Among those, 148 reported quantitative information on intervention efficacy, other 90 came from the previous review. Organised screening programmes, based on invitation letter or on GP involvement,were consistently effective in increasing participation compared to spontaneous screening. Interventions are classified according to their target: individual, community, test simplification, health operators, health service organization. The report presents meta-analyses on efficacy, analyses of cost-effectiveness, impact on organisation and social inequality, and ethical and legal issues, of all the intervention reported in the literature. there are several interventions consistently effective in any context, some of them have minimal impact on costs and health service resources.

  13. Indicators of depression in elderly and different screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Amanda Gilvani Cordeiro; Fonsêca, Marília de Andrade; Gomes, Maria de Lourdes de Freitas; Matos, Marcos Antonio Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among elderly and correlate the agreement between the screening methods used. Methods A cross-section study of 137 elderly attending the Programa Vivendo a Terceira Idade [Living for the Elderly Program]. Depressive symptoms were screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, by Yesavage. Cohen´s kappa analyzed the degree of agreement of these scales. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was 62.8% and, by the Geriatric Depression Scale, 52.6%. The Spearman correlation between the results of scales obtained rho=0.387, p<0.000. The Kappa reliability coefficient was 0.41 and significance level of p<0.001. The screening methods showed sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 44%. Conclusion Both scales showed moderate agreement and were useful for detecting a relevant prevalence of the target outcome of depression among the elderly. PMID:27074227

  14. The FEAR: a rapid screening instrument for generalized anxiety in elderly primary care attenders.

    PubMed

    Krasucki, C; Ryan, P; Ertan, T; Howard, R; Lindesay, J; Mann, A

    1999-01-01

    To develop a shorter version of the Anxiety Disorder Scale (ADS) for use as a rapid screening instrument in primary care. Two-stage screening design. Primary care attenders aged 65 and over were screened for generalized anxiety in the surgery with the 11-item generalized anxiety subscale of the ADS (ADS GA), a selected subsample then proceeding to a clinical validation interview. None. Scores on the ADS GA, non-hierarchical ICD-10 caseness for generalized anxiety established by brief clinical interview by an old age psychiatrist. The prevalence rate of generalized anxiety was 16% using the established cutpoint and showed an age-related decline. A cutpoint of 2-3/11 appeared to give optimal performance in this small sample (sensitivity 85%, specificity 77%, positive predictive value 52%), suggesting that 36% of elderly general practice attenders might be diagnosed as having generalized anxiety. A reduced four-item version gave a predicted sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 83% and a positive predictive value of 63% (cutpoint 1-2/4). A four-item version of the ADS GA, the FEAR (frequency of anxiety; enduring nature of anxiety; alcohol or sedative use; restlessness or fidgeting), has potential as a rapid screening instrument for use in primary care.

  15. The roles of general and technology-related parenting in managing youth screen time.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Wesley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the associations of 2 types of parenting practices-general adaptive parenting and technology-related strategies-with youth screen time. We hypothesized that technology-related parenting focused on behavioral control would relate directly to screen time and serve to link general parenting to screen time. Participants were 615 parents drawn from 3 community samples of families with children across 3 development stages: young childhood (3-7 years; n = 210), middle childhood (8-12 years; n = 200), and adolescents (13-17 years; n = 205). Using structural equation modeling, we found that general adaptive parenting was not related to child screen time but was positively related to technology-related parenting strategies for all 3 samples. For the young and, to some extent, middle childhood samples, but not for the adolescent sample, general adaptive parenting was positively linked to youth screen time through technology-related parenting strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sensitivity of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer by the incidence method.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Okamoto, Mikizo; Shabana, Michiko; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2013-08-01

    Although radiographic screening for gastric cancer has been conducted in Japan, it is anticipated that endoscopy will become a new screening method because of its high detection rate. The sensitivities of endoscopic and radiographic screening were calculated by the detection method and the incidence method based on the results of community-based screening in Japan. There were 56,676 screenings for gastric cancer using endoscopy and radiography from April 2002 to March 2007 in Yonago, Japan. The target age group was from 40 to 79 years. Screen-detected and interval cancers were investigated based on a screening database linked to the Tottori Cancer Registry. All gastric cancers diagnosed within 1 year after a negative screen were considered interval cancers. Based on the screening history, these were divided into prevalence screening and incidence screening. Prevalence screenings included 7,388 for endoscopic screening and 5,410 for radiographic screening, whereas incidence screenings included 18,021 for endoscopic screening and 11,417 for radiographic screening. The sensitivity of prevalence screening calculated by the incidence method was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.698-0.976) for endoscopic screening and 0.831 (95% CI = 0.586-0.964) for radiographic screening; however, the difference was not significant (p = 0.626). The sensitivity of incidence screening calculated by the incidence method was 0.954 (95% CI = 0.842-0.994) for endoscopic screening and 0.855 (95% CI = 0.637-0.970) for radiographic screening (p = 0.177). Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer had a higher sensitivity than radiographic screening by the incidence method in both screening rounds. However, further study is needed to evaluate mortality reduction and to estimate overdiagnosis with endoscopic screening for gastric cancer.

  17. Generalized HPC method for the Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardazzi, A.; Lugni, C.; Antuono, M.; Graziani, G.; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and innovative numerical algorithm based on the use of Harmonic Polynomials on each Cell of the computational domain (HPC method) has been recently proposed by Shao and Faltinsen (2014) [1], to solve Boundary Value Problem governed by the Laplace equation. Here, we extend the HPC method for the solution of non-homogeneous elliptic boundary value problems. The homogeneous solution, i.e. the Laplace equation, is represented through a polynomial function with harmonic polynomials while the particular solution of the Poisson equation is provided by a bi-quadratic function. This scheme has been called generalized HPC method. The present algorithm, accurate up to the 4th order, proved to be efficient, i.e. easy to be implemented and with a low computational effort, for the solution of two-dimensional elliptic boundary value problems. Furthermore, it provides an analytical representation of the solution within each computational stencil, which allows its coupling with existing numerical algorithms within an efficient domain-decomposition strategy or within an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm.

  18. Review of the Generalized Least Squares Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, William

    2014-09-01

    The generalized least squares (GLS) method uses both data and prior information to solve for a best-fitting set of model parameters. We review the method and present simplified derivations of its essential formulas. Concepts of resolution and covariance—essential in all of inverse theory—are applicable to GLS, but their meaning, and especially that of resolution, must be carefully interpreted. We introduce derivations that show that the quantity being resolved is the deviation of the solution from the prior model and that the covariance of the model depends on both the uncertainty in the data and the uncertainty in the prior information. On face value, the GLS formulas for resolution and covariance seem to require matrix inverses that may be difficult to calculate for the very large (but often sparse) linear systems encountered in practical inverse problems. We demonstrate how to organize the computations in an efficient manner and present MATLAB code that implements them. Finally, we formulate the well-understood problem of interpolating data with minimum curvature splines as an inverse problem and use it to illustrate the GLS method.

  19. Review of the Generalized Least Squares Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, William

    2015-01-01

    The generalized least squares (GLS) method uses both data and prior information to solve for a best-fitting set of model parameters. We review the method and present simplified derivations of its essential formulas. Concepts of resolution and covariance—essential in all of inverse theory—are applicable to GLS, but their meaning, and especially that of resolution, must be carefully interpreted. We introduce derivations that show that the quantity being resolved is the deviation of the solution from the prior model and that the covariance of the model depends on both the uncertainty in the data and the uncertainty in the prior information. On face value, the GLS formulas for resolution and covariance seem to require matrix inverses that may be difficult to calculate for the very large (but often sparse) linear systems encountered in practical inverse problems. We demonstrate how to organize the computations in an efficient manner and present MATLAB code that implements them. Finally, we formulate the well-understood problem of interpolating data with minimum curvature splines as an inverse problem and use it to illustrate the GLS method.

  20. Barriers to screening and diagnosis of peripheral artery disease by general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Kate Jamilla; Bingley, John; Golledge, Jonathan; Walker, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality yet it is under-recognised and undertreated. General practitioners (GPs) are best positioned to detect patients with PAD. This article investigates awareness of PAD by GPs; the prevalence of screening for PAD and tools used for screening and diagnosis, in particular the ankle-brachial index (ABI); and the barriers to PAD screening and measurement of the ABI in the general practice setting. A cross-sectional survey of primary care practitioners was conducted between September 2011 and March 2012. A mail-out survey was distributed to 1120 GPs practising in Queensland, Australia: 287 (26%) responded; 61% of GPs reported screening for PAD; 58% of GPs reported 'never' measuring the ABI; and 70% reported using arterial duplex ultrasound as their first-line diagnostic tool. Equipment availability, time constraints and lack of training and skills were identified as the most significant barriers to screening and ABI testing. In conclusion, there are deficits in the utilisation of guideline recommendations relating to PAD screening and diagnosis by Australian GPs. Our data suggest that earlier detection of PAD may be achieved through GP education combined with increased access to ABI equipment or the availability of a more time-efficient test.

  1. Impact of general practitioners' sex and age on systematic recommendation for cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, François; Pivot, Xavier; Coscas, Yvan; Viguier, Jérôme; Calazel-Benque, Anne; Blay, Jean-Yves; Roussel, Claire; Morère, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of primary-care providers have been associated with their patients' participation in breast cancer screening. A nationwide observational survey, 'EDIFICE', was conducted by telephone from December 2007 to January 2008 on a representative sample of 600 general practitioners (GPs) working in France, to investigate how a GP's characteristics may influence patient participation in screening for breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. For breast cancer screening, systematic recommendation was associated with female physicians [odds ratio (OR) =1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.1]. This systematic recommendation was also correlated with systematic referral for colorectal cancer (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.0-2.5) and prostate cancer screening (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.8-4.1). For colorectal cancer screening, the sex of the GP had no significant impact. However, systematic recommendation for both breast and prostate cancer screening was shown to be associated with systematic recommendation for colorectal cancer screening (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.6-4.7 and OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.1-3.0, respectively). For prostate cancer screening, there was no significant sex specificity. However, systematic recommendation for both breast and colorectal cancer screening was associated with an advice on prostate cancer screening (OR=2.9; 95% CI=2.0-4.4 and OR=2.0; 95% CI=1.3-3.2, respectively). The age of the GP was not associated with a higher rate of systematic recommendation for screening for the three types of cancer. Male GPs were more likely than female GPs to perform digital rectal examinations on male patients (69 vs. 54%; OR=1.86; 95% CI=1.31-2.63). There is a global pattern of physicians being screening-prone (as suggested by the cross impact of recommendations from one cancer type to another). Although the frequency of systematic recommendation for breast cancer screening is higher with female GPs, systematic recommendation for prostate cancer is not higher among male GPs. The factors

  2. Treecode-based generalized Born method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenli; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Haizhao

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge-charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.

  3. The Promise and Peril of Genomic Screening in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael C.; Evans, James P.; Henderson, Gail E.; Berg, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Utilization of sequencing to screen the general population for preventable monogenic conditions is receiving substantial attention due to its potential to decrease morbidity and mortality. However, the selection of which variants to return is a serious implementation challenge. Procedures must be investigated to ensure optimal test characteristics and avoidance of harm from false positive test results. Methods We scanned exome sequences from 478 well-phenotyped individuals for potentially pathogenic variants in 17 genes representing 11 conditions that are among the most medically actionable Mendelian disorders in adults. We developed 5 variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity and measured their specificity in these 17 genes. Results Variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity exhibited decreased specificity, and performance was highly dependent on the genes analyzed. The most sensitive algorithm ranged from 88.8% to 99.6% specificity among the 17 genes. Conclusion For very low prevalence conditions, small reductions in specificity greatly increase false positives. This inescapable test characteristic governs the predictive value of genomic sequencing in the general population. To address this issue, test performance must be evaluated systematically for each condition so that the false negatives and false positives can be tailored for optimal outcomes, depending on the downstream clinical consequences. PMID:26540154

  4. New high throughput screening method for drug release measurements.

    PubMed

    Pelczarska, Aleksandra; Delie, Florence; Domańska, Urszula; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Martel, Sophie

    2013-09-01

    In the field of drug delivery systems, microparticles made of polymeric matrix appear as an attractive approach. The in vitro release kinetic profile is crucial information when developing new particulate formulations. These data are essential for batch to batch comparison, quality control as well as for anticipation of in vivo behavior to select the best formulation to go further in preclinical investigations. The methods available present common drawbacks such as the time- and compound-consumption that does not fit with formulation screening requirements in early development stages. In this study, a new microscale high throughput screening (HTS) method has been developed to investigate drug release kinetic from piroxicam-loaded polylactic acid (PLA) and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles. The method is a sample- and separation-based method where separation is performed by filtration using 96-well micro filter plates. 96 experiments can therefore be performed on one plate in one time in a fully automated way and with a very low sample and particle consumption. The influence of different parameters controlling release profiles was also investigated using this technique. The HTS method gave the same release profile than the standard dialysis method. Shaking, particle concentration, and the nature of the release medium were found to be of influence. The HTS method appears as a reliable method to evaluate drug release from particles with smaller standard deviation and less consumption of material.

  5. The Relationship between the WRAML Memory Screening and General Memory Indices in a Clinical Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmette, Thomas J.; Kennedy, Mary Lynne

    1997-01-01

    The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) (D. Sheslow and W. Adams, 1990) was given to 51 children. The General Memory Index (GMI) of the WRAML was compared with a short form of the WRAML, the Memory Screening Index (MSI). The MSI was higher than the GMI in 41 of 51 cases. (SLD)

  6. Screening methods for post-stroke visual impairment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Kerry Louise; Hepworth, Lauren Rachel; Rowe, Fiona

    2017-12-01

    assess all potential post-stroke visual impairments. The current tools screen for only a number of potential stroke-related impairments, which means many visual defects may be missed. The sensitivity of those which screen for all impairments is significantly lowered when patients are unable to report their visual symptoms. Future research is required to develop a tool capable of assessing stroke patients which encompasses all potential visual deficits and can also be easily performed by both the patients and administered by health care professionals in order to ensure all stroke survivors with visual impairment are accurately identified and managed. Implications for Rehabilitation Over 65% of stroke survivors will suffer from a visual impairment, whereas 45% of stroke units do not assess vision. Visual impairment significantly reduces the quality of life, such as being unable to return to work, driving and depression. This review outlines the available screening methods to accurately identify stroke survivors with visual impairments. Identifying visual impairment after stroke can aid general rehabilitation and thus, improve the quality of life for these patients.

  7. Synthesizing High-Frequency (1-25 HZ) Regional Phases at Large Distances (>1000 KM) Using Generalized Screen Propagators (GSP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    seismology and earthquake seismology . The generalized screen propagator (GSP) is based on the one-way wave equation and the one-return approximation. The...High-Frequency (1-25 HZ) Regional Phases at Large Distances O (>1000 KM) Using Generalized Screen Propagators (GSP) SApproved for public release...DTRA 01-97-1-0004 Synthesizing High-Freguency (1-25 HZ) Regional Phases at Large Distances (1 > 1000 KM) Using Generalized Screen Propagators (GSP) 5b

  8. [Screening of patient manual handling risk using the MAPO method].

    PubMed

    Battevi, N; Menoni, Olga; Alvarez-Casado, E

    2012-01-01

    International standards draw attention to the steps that risk assessment should follow to first identify hazards, then proceed to risk evaluation and lastly, if necessary, risk assessment. The same logic also applies to risk assessment of manual patient handling. To check appropriateness of approach to "risk evaluation" of manual patient handling using MAPO, a cross sectional study was carried out aimed at checking the relationship between this new risk assessment model (MAPO screening) and occurrence of acute low back pain. After proper training the MAPO screening method was used to assess risk of manual handling of patients in 31 wards, covering 411 exposed subjects employed in geriatric hospitals belonging to the UNEBA (National Union Institutions and Social Welfare Initiatives) of the Veneto Region. At the same time health data were collected on the occurrence of low back pain episodes during the last year both in the group of exposed subjects and in an external reference group (237 subjects). Risk and clinical assessment data were verified and checked by the EPM research unit. Logistic analysis was used as a method to evaluate the relationship between MAPO screening risk index and acute low back pain. Investigating the relationship between acute low back pain episodes and levels of MAPO screening index, carried out only on exposed subjects who reported working for at least 30 hours per week (N=178), showed definitely positive trends: for MAPO screening index of exposure levels between 1.51 and 5, OR were double (OR=2.22; IC 95% 0.88-5.63) whereas for index levels exceeding 5, OR were about 4 (OR=3.77; IC 95% 1.33-10.74). These results did not show significant differences when correcting the analysis for confounding factors such as gender and age classes. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method, "MAPO screening", can be a useful tool to estimate risk due to manual handling of patients and can also be used to test the efficacy of preventive

  9. Cognitive screening for children and adolescents: general limits or ceiling effects?

    PubMed

    Bornholt, Laurel J; Ajersch, Susan; Fisher, Ian H; Markham, Roslyn H; Ouvrier, Robert A

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive screening tools designed for children can also be used with adolescents. However, early studies suggest that scores can approach a maximum at about age 10 or 11 years. The initial hypothesis was this apparent ''ceiling effect'' is due to limits in the materials, where items can be insufficiently challenging for some adolescents. The alternative hypothesis is that general cognitive screening has a true limit by early adolescence. Participants (N = 85) were 10 to 15-year-old girls and boys, with a database (N = 1249) of 4 to 12-year-old children. The School-Years Screening Test for the Evaluation of Mental Status (SYSTEMS) cognitive screening was extended by more difficult items. Results show that scores increase rapidly for young children and tend toward a maximum in early adolescence. This characteristic asymptotic curve explained a substantial proportion of the variance. We can conclude that, although specific functions continue to develop, there is an upper limit in early adolescence for such general cognitive functioning. The findings support cognitive screening across a broad age range and suggest worthwhile research and clinical applications.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Models in Breast Cancer Screening in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schiller-Frühwirth, Irmgard C; Jahn, Beate; Arvandi, Marjan; Siebert, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    Many Western countries have long-established population-based mammography screening programs. Prior to implementing these programs, decision-analytic modeling was widely used to inform decisions. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of cost-effectiveness models in breast cancer screening in the general population to analyze their structural and methodological approaches. A systematic literature search for health economic models was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CRD Databases, Cochrane Library, and EconLit in August 2011 with updates in June 2013, April 2015, and November 2016. To assess studies systematically, a standardized form was applied to extract relevant information that was then summarized in evidence tables. Thirty-five studies were included; 27 state-transition models were analyzed using cohort (n = 12) and individual-level simulation (n = 15). Twenty-one studies modeled the natural history of breast cancer and predicted mortality as a function of the early detection modality. The models employed different assumptions regarding ductal carcinoma in situ. Thirteen studies performed cost-utility analyses with different sources for utility values, but assumptions were often made about utility weights. Twenty-two models did not report any validation. State-transition modeling was the most frequently applied analytic approach. Different methods in modeling the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive cancer were identified because there is currently no agreement on the biological behavior of noninvasive breast cancer. Main weaknesses were the lack of precise utility estimates and insufficient reporting of validation. Sensitivity analyses of assumptions regarding ductal carcinoma in situ and in particular adequate validation are critical to minimize the risk of biased model outcomes.

  11. Screening of risk from patient manual handling with MAPO method.

    PubMed

    Battevi, Natale; Menoni, Olga

    2012-01-01

    International standards highlight the steps required by risk assessment and involving first hazard identification, then risk evaluation and finally, if necessary, risk assessment. To check approach appropriateness to "risk evaluation" from manual patient handling through MAPO, a cross study was carried out in view of checking relationship between this new risk assessment model and occurrence of acute low back pain. After proper training the MAPO screening method was assessed in 31 wards, 411 exposed subjects of geriatric hospitals. At the same time health data were collected on occurrence of low back pain episodes during the last year both in the exposed subjects' group and the external reference group (n�237). Risk and clinical assessment data were tutored and checked by EPM research unit. The logistic analysis was used as a method to evaluate the relationship between risk index and acute low back pain. Investigating relationship between acute low back pain episodes and levels of MAPO screening index, carried out only with the people exposed who claimed to work for at least 30 hours per week (n = 178), showed definitely positive trends. The study results indicate that MAPO screening may represent a useful tool to estimate the risk from manual handling patients.

  12. Screening method for assessing verbal learning efficiency using the Cognistat.

    PubMed

    Fouty, H Edward; Smith, Cassandra R; Briceno, Karen Y; Brown, Katelyn D; Guzman, Daniel; Ailes, Erica L; DeVries, Christopher T; Diluccia, Christina M; McLarnan, Kristy M; Betancourt, Stephanie C; Catoe, Whitney L

    2017-04-07

    The Cognistat is a widely used neurobehavioral screening instrument that addresses functioning across multiple domains. Unlike many popular neuropsychological tests, the Cognistat does not currently assess learning efficiency for verbal material. The purpose of this study was to develop a screening method for assessing verbal learning efficiency with the Cognistat, investigate the effects of two demographic variables (age and gender) on performance, and to establish cutoff scores for impairment. Participants were 253 volunteers between the ages of 18 and 96 years. Participants were classified into two age groups: 18-64 years and 65 + years. The data revealed a significant age and gender performance difference. Implications for the present findings and for future research are presented.

  13. Patient-reported barriers to colorectal cancer screening: a mixed-methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Resa M; Devers, Kelly J; Kuzel, Anton J; Woolf, Steven H

    2010-05-01

    Barriers experienced by patients influence the uptake of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Prior research has quantified how often patients encounter these challenges but has generally not revealed their complex perspective and experience with barriers. This mixed-methods study was conducted to understand current perspectives on CRC screening. A two-part, mixed-methods study was conducted of primary care patients recruited from Virginia Ambulatory Care Outcomes Research Network practices. First, in June-July 2005 a survey was mailed to 660 patients aged 50-75 years posing an open-ended question about "the most important barrier" to CRC screening. Second, beginning in October 2005, seven gender- and largely race-specific focus groups involving 40 patients aged 45-75 years were conducted. Beginning in October 2005, survey verbatim responses were coded and quantitatively analyzed and focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed. Responses to the open-ended survey question, answered by 74% of respondents, identified fear and the bowel preparation as the most important barriers to screening. Only 1.6% of responses cited the absence of physician advice. Focus group participants cited similar issues and other previously reported barriers, but their remarks exposed the intricacies of complex barriers, such as fear, lack of information, time, the role of physicians, and access to care. Participants also cited barriers that have little documentation in the literature, such as low self-worth, "para-sexual" sensitivities, fatalism, negative past experiences with testing, and skepticism about the financial motivation behind screening recommendations. Mixed-methods analysis helps to disaggregate the complex nuances that influence patient behavior. In the present study, patients explained the web of influences on knowledge, motivation, and ability to undergo CRC screening, which clinicians and policymakers should consider in designing interventions to increase the level

  14. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part preempt...

  15. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part preempt...

  16. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part preempt...

  17. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part preempt...

  18. 7 CFR 361.2 - Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. 361.2 Section 361.2 Agriculture Regulations of the... IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.2 Preemption of State and local laws; general restrictions on the importation of seed and screenings. (a) The regulations in this part preempt...

  19. Rapid and alternative screening methods for microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, H; Huis in't Veld, J H

    1997-01-01

    Automated analytical instruments for enumerating indicator organisms and diagnostic test kits for pathogens can be used in food microbiology to screen samples and to replace conventional cultural and confirmation steps. Such methods are now available for rapid detection or estimation of groups of (indicator) organisms, pathogenic micro-organisms, bacterial toxins and mycotoxins, and molds. These alternative methods can be classified by the principles on which they are based: modified conventional methods, instrumental measurement of bacterial metabolism, bioluminescence, immunological techniques, DNA techniques, and combinations of these techniques. To meet user expectations, test kits must be accurate, sensitive, specific, rapid (24 h or less), easy to use, and labor-saving. They must also offer the possibility of computerization, a low detection limit, and low investment and running costs. The paper compares the ability of alternative methods to meet these criteria. Variations were found, depending on the techniques used and the target organism of the analysis. Economic reasons can determine whether alternative methods can be used routinely. Adoption of these screening systems also can be hampered by lack of internationally coordinated and accepted validation protocols.

  20. A general strategy for antibody library screening via conversion of transient target binding into permanent reporter deposition.

    PubMed

    Maaß, Alexander; Heiseler, Tim; Maaß, Franziska; Fritz, Janine; Hofmeyer, Thomas; Glotzbach, Bernhard; Becker, Stefan; Kolmar, Harald

    2014-02-01

    We report here a generally applicable method for the selective covalent attachment of a reporter molecule to a replicating entity that allows one to obtain specific binders from a single round of library screening. We show that selective biotinylation of phage particles displaying a binder to any given target can be achieved by application of a coupled enzyme reaction on the surface of the target-binding phage particles that includes a peroxidase, an oxidase and a catalase. Due to the covalent linkage of biotin together with the tight and stable interaction of biotin with streptavidin, very stringent wash conditions for removal of nonspecific binders can be applied. The method termed (3)CARD (triple catalytic reporter deposition) was successfully applied to single-round screening of a phage display library of camelid single-domain antibodies against three different target proteins.

  1. Screening methods for assessment of biodegradability of chemicals in seawater--results from a ring test.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, N; Kristensen, P

    1992-04-01

    An international ring test involving 14 laboratories was organized on behalf of the Commission of the European Economic Communities (EEC) with the purpose of evaluating two proposed screening methods for assessment of biodegradability in seawater: (a) a shake flask die-away test based primarily on analysis of dissolved organic carbon and (b) a closed bottle test based on determination of dissolved oxygen. Both tests are performed with nutrient-enriched natural seawater as the test medium and with no inoculum added other than the natural seawater microflora. The test methods are seawater versions of the modified OECD screening test and the closed bottle test, respectively, adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and by the EEC as tests for "ready biodegradability." The following five chemicals were examined: sodium benzoate, aniline, diethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, and 4-nitrophenol. Sodium benzoate and aniline, which are known to be generally readily biodegradable consistently degraded in practically all tests, thus demonstrating the technical feasibility of the methods. Like in previous ring tests with freshwater screening methods variable results were obtained with the other three compounds, which is believed primarily to be due to site-specific differences between the microflora of the different seawater samples used and to some extent also to differences in the applied concentrations of test material. A positive result with the screening methods indicates that the test substance will most likely degrade relatively rapidly in seawater from the site of collection, while a negative test result does not preclude biodegradability under environmental conditions where the concentrations of chemicals are much lower than the concentrations applied for analytical reasons in screening tests. Nevertheless, the screening tests are considered useful and cost-effective tools for an initial assessment of biodegradability in marine

  2. Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies with cell-free DNA in the general pregnancy population: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Genevieve; Burigo, John; Sharon, Thomas; Song, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fetal aneuploidy screening in the general pregnancy population using non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as compared to first trimester combined screening (FTS) with serum markers and NT ultrasound. Methods: Using a decision-analytic model, we estimated the number of fetal T21, T18, and T13 cases identified prenatally, the number of invasive procedures performed, corresponding normal fetus losses, and costs of screening using FTS or NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Modeling was based on a 4 million pregnant women cohort, which represents annual births in the U.S. Results: For the general pregnancy population, NIPT identified 15% more trisomy cases, reduced invasive procedures by 88%, and reduced iatrogenic fetal loss by 94% as compared to FTS. The cost per trisomy case identified with FTS was $497 909. At a NIPT unit, cost of $453 and below, there were cost savings as compared to FTS. Accounting for additional trisomy cases identified by NIPT, a NIPT unit cost of $665 provided the same per trisomy cost as that of FTS. Conclusions: NIPT in the general pregnancy population leads to more prenatal identification of fetal trisomy cases as compared to FTS and is more economical at a NIPT unit cost of $453. PMID:26000626

  3. Two-Electron System in the Field of Generalized Screened Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Arijit; Ho, Y. K.

    Ground states of a two-electron system in generalized screened potential (GSP) with screening parameter λ: $$ V(r)=\\frac{1}{r}e^{-\\lambda r}\\cos(\\epsilon \\lambda r)\\,\\, {\\rm (in\\, a.u.)}, $$ where ɛ is a constant, have been investigated. Employing highly correlated and extensive wave functions in Ritz's variational principle, we have been able to determine accurate ground state energies and wave functions of a two-electron system for different values of the screening parameter λ and the constant ɛ. Convergence of the ground state energies with the increase of the number of terms in the wave function are shown. We also report various geometrical expectation values associated with the system, ground state energies of the corresponding one-electron system and the ionization potentials of the system. Such a calculation for the ground state of a two-electron system in GSP is carried out for first time in the literature.

  4. [Simultaneous screening method for Bordetella species by conventional PCR assay].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yumi; Saito, Etsuko; Enomoto, Miki; Tsuji, Hidetaka; Chikahira, Masatsugu; Yoshida, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    A simultaneous screening method using conventional PCR was developed for the detection and discrimination of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella holmesii. A formulated multiprex method employing 4 kinds of paired primers on amplification of 4 corresponding different insertion sequences (IS481, IS1001, IS1002 and hIS1001) enabled rapid screening and identification. The detection limits of each DNA extracted from 3 kinds of Bordetella species were 5fg/microL for each. Obscure existences of B. pertussis and B. holmesii at low levels were confirmed with the LAMP method. This multiplex assay was applied to the clinical specimens obtained from patients with pertussis-like symptoms at sentinel clinics under the epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases of Hyogo prefecture in FY2012. Among 42 nasopharyngeal swabs, B. pertussis was detected from 12 samples including 8 samples collected at outbreak in nursery school. The use of this method for the surveillance of infectious agents enabled us to search for 3 kinds of Bordetella species at once with low costs.

  5. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  6. A Quantum-Based Similarity Method in Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Himmat, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal

    2015-10-02

    One of the most widely-used techniques for ligand-based virtual screening is similarity searching. This study adopted the concepts of quantum mechanics to present as state-of-the-art similarity method of molecules inspired from quantum theory. The representation of molecular compounds in mathematical quantum space plays a vital role in the development of quantum-based similarity approach. One of the key concepts of quantum theory is the use of complex numbers. Hence, this study proposed three various techniques to embed and to re-represent the molecular compounds to correspond with complex numbers format. The quantum-based similarity method that developed in this study depending on complex pure Hilbert space of molecules called Standard Quantum-Based (SQB). The recall of retrieved active molecules were at top 1% and top 5%, and significant test is used to evaluate our proposed methods. The MDL drug data report (MDDR), maximum unbiased validation (MUV) and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiment show that the effectiveness of SQB method was significantly increased due to the role of representational power of molecular compounds in complex numbers forms compared to Tanimoto benchmark similarity measure.

  7. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    HAN, SHUWEN; YANG, XI; QI, QUAN; PAN, YUEFEN; CHEN, YONGCHAO; SHEN, JUNJUN; LIAO, HAIHONG; JI, ZHAONING

    2016-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer. PMID:27035407

  8. Novel systematic detergent screening method for membrane proteins solubilization.

    PubMed

    Desuzinges Mandon, Elodie; Agez, Morgane; Pellegrin, Rebecca; Igonet, Sébastien; Jawhari, Anass

    2017-01-15

    Membrane proteins play crucial role in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, signal transduction and transport. To better understand the molecular basis of such central biological machines and in order to specifically study their biological and medical role, it is necessary to extract them from their membrane environment. To do so, it is challenging to find the best solubilization condition. Here we describe, a systematic screening method called BMSS (Biotinylated Membranes Solubilization & Separation) that allow screening 96 conditions at once. Streptavidine magnetic beads are used to separate solubilized proteins from remaining biotinylated membranes after solubilization. Relative quantification of dot blots help to select the best conditions to be confirmed by classical ultra-centrifugation and western blot. Classical detergents with different physical-chemical characteristics, novel calixarene based detergents and combination of both, were used for solubilization trials to obtain broad spectrum of conditions. Here, we show the application of BMSS to discover solubilization conditions of a GPCR target (MP-A) and a transporter (MP-B). The selected conditions allowed the solubilization and purification of non-aggregated and homogenous native membrane proteins A and B. Taken together, BMSS represent a rapid, reproducible and high throughput assessment of solubilization toward biochemical/functional characterization, biophysical screening and structural investigations of membrane proteins of high biological and medical relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New screening methods for donor eye-bank eyes.

    PubMed

    Terry, M A; Ousley, P J

    1999-07-01

    Current methods of screening donor eyes for corneal transplantation are not always effective in excluding corneas with abnormal topography. We used the Orbscan to determine whether corneal-thickness maps could be used as a technique for donor tissue screening. Forty eye-bank eyes were measured with the Orbscan, and a corneal-thickness map was generated. Average central pachymetry measurements from each map were compared with the thinnest midperipheral thickness reading. Two eyes from a donor who had photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and two eyes from a donor with keratoconus were then compared with the normal donor eye results. The average difference between the thinnest midperipheral pachymetry and the central pachymetry in the control group was 0.040 +/- 0.026 mm. The eyes from the donor with PRK showed larger disparities between the central and midperipheral thicknesses because of the thinned central cornea, with differences of 0.154 mm in the right eye and 0.106 mm in the left eye. The eyes from the donor with keratoconus had midperipheral corneas that were thinner than the center, indicating eccentric, ectatic cones. The differences in thickness between the center and midperiphery in the eyes from the donor with PRK and the donor with keratoconus differed from the control group by >2 SD. Diseases or surgery that affect the relationship between the central and midperipheral corneal thickness may be screened through Orbscan pachymetry mapping with comparison with a normal range.

  10. Wide-angle elastic wave one-way propagation in heterogeneous media and an elastic wave complex-screen method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ru-Shan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a system of equations for wide-angle one-way elastic wave propagation in arbitrarily heterogeneous media is formulated in both the space and wavenumber domains using elastic Rayleigh integrals and local elastic Born scattering theory. The wavenumber domain formulation leads to compact solutions to one-way propagation and scattering problems. It is shown that wide-angle scattering in heterogeneous elastic media cannot be formulated as passage through regular phase-screens, since the interaction between the incident wavefield and the heterogeneities is not local in both the space domain and the wavenumber domain. Our more generally valid formulation is called the 'thin-slap; formulation. After applying the small-angle approximation, the thin slab effect degenerates to that of an elastic complex-screen (or generalized phase-screen). For the complex-screen method the cross-coupling term is neglected because it is higher order small quantity for small-angle scattering. Relative to prior derivations of vector phase-screen method, our method can correctly treat the conversion between P and S waves and the cross-coupling between differently polarized S waves. A comparison with solutions from three-dimensional finite difference and exact solutions using eigenfunctions expansion is made for two special cases. One is for a solid sphere with only P velocity pertubation; the other is with only S velocity perturbation. The Elastic complex-screen method generally agrees well with the three-dimensional finite difference method and the exact solutions. In the limiting case of scalar waves, the derivation in this paper leads to a move generally valid new method, namely, a scaler thin-slab method. When making the small-angle approximation to the interaction term while keeping the propagation term unchanged, the thin-slab method approaches the currently available scalar wide-angle phase screen method.

  11. Screening for celiac disease in the general population and in high-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    Card, Timothy R; Kaukinen, Katri; Bai, Julio; Zingone, Fabiana; Sanders, David S; Murray, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) occurs in approximately 1% of the Western population. It is a lifelong disorder that is associated with impaired quality of life (QOL) and an excessive risk of comorbidity and death. Objectives To review the literature on screening for CD in relation to the current World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for mass screening. Methods We performed a PubMed search to identify indexed papers on CD screening with a publication date from 1900 until 1 June 2014. When we deemed an abstract relevant, we read the corresponding paper in detail. Results CD fulfills several WHO criteria for mass screening (high prevalence, available treatment and difficult clinical detection), but it has not yet been established that treatment of asymptomatic CD may reduce the excessive risk of severe complications, leading to higher QOL nor that it is cost-effective. Conclusions Current evidence is not sufficient to support mass screening for CD, but active case-finding may be appropriate, as we recognize that most patients with CD will still be missed by this strategy. Although proof of benefit is still lacking, screening for CD may be appropriate in high-risk groups. PMID:25922671

  12. General method for plasmid construction using homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Raymond, C K; Pownder, T A; Sexson, S L

    1999-01-01

    We describe a general method for plasmid assembly that uses yeast and extends beyond yeast-specific research applications. This technology exploits the homologous recombination, double-stranded break repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to join DNA fragments. Synthetic, double-stranded "recombination linkers" were used to "subclone" a DNA fragment into a plasmid with > 80% efficiency. Quantitative data on the influence of DNA concentration and overlap length on the efficiency of recombination are presented. Using a simple procedure, plasmids were shuttled from yeast into E. coli for subsequent screening and large-scale plasmid preps. This simple method for plasmid construction has several advantages. (i) It bypasses the need for extensive PCR amplification and for purification, modification and/or ligation techniques routinely used for plasmid constructions. (ii) The method does not rely on available restriction sites, thus fragment and vector DNA can be joined within any DNA sequence. This enables the use of multifunctional cloning vectors for protein expression in mammalian cells, other yeast species, E. coli and other expression systems as discussed. (iii) Finally, the technology exploits yeast strains, plasmids and microbial techniques that are inexpensive and readily available.

  13. Screening for domestic violence in a general pediatric clinic: be prepared!

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Teresa G; Fischer, Howard; Gray, Shirley M; Barry, Kathlyn; Bryant, Tina; Du, Wei

    2004-11-01

    Exposure to violence, particularly domestic violence (DV), negatively affects children's physical, emotional, and cognitive well-being. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends routine DV screening of female caretakers of pediatric patients. Few reports of screening in pediatric practices exist, and none have reported outcomes from a resident-run urban academic center. We set out to determine whether the use of the Partner Violence Screen (PVS) increases detection of DV and to test the mechanics of implementing large-scale DV screening in a busy, pediatric residency training clinic. Using the PVS, we screened a sample of consecutive female caretakers/guardians of children seen for pediatric care in the general pediatric clinic of Children's Hospital of Michigan from March 1, 2002, through February 28, 2003. Positive screens obtained during the study period were compared with the number of DV referrals received by the clinic social workers from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2001, before PVS screening began. To test the mechanics of screening, we also analyzed the number of forms returned blank or marked "no opportunity to screen" in the last 8 months of the study period. In the 12 months before use of the PVS, our social work department received 9 referrals because of DV from the general pediatric clinic, among a total of 5446 caretakers/guardians bringing 6380 children for a total of 13,576 patient care visits. In contrast, the social work department received 164 referrals because of positive screening results among 5445 caretakers/guardians bringing 7429 children for 17,346 patient care visits in the 12-month study period after introduction of the PVS. Fourteen of 164 positive PVSs were found to involve nondomestic violence perpetrated by nonpartners or violence with the patient as the victim, not the mother or female caretaker. A total of 150 PVSs involved true DV. The difference in identification of DV with the PVS, compared with the rate before its

  14. Effect of general health screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of diabetes in general population: Inter99 randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cathrine J; Pisinger, Charlotta; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Linneberg, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of a large population-based multifactorial screening and lifestyle intervention programme on 10-year incidence of diabetes. In a randomised trial of the general Danish population initiated in 1999-2001 59,616 men and women aged 30-60years were assigned to a five year screening and lifestyle counselling programme (n=11,629) or control group (n=47,987) and followed for ten years in nationwide registers. Intention to treat was applied and risk of diabetes was modeled by Cox regression and expressed as hazard ratios (HRs). We found that 1692 individuals had diabetes at baseline. Among 57,924 individuals without diabetes at baseline, 1267 emigrated, 2593 died and 3369 (Intervention group=684, Control group=2685) developed diabetes. We saw no significant difference in diabetes incidence between the groups after 10-year follow-up (Grey's test: p=0.22). In the first year of follow-up, incidence of diabetes was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group (HR=1.68, 95%CI 1.29 to 2.29). We observed no difference in incidence of diabetes between the groups in the follow-up intervals from 1 to 6years or after 6-10years (HR=0.94, 0.83 to 1.06; HR=1.03, 0.91 to 1.17). Inviting the general population to participate in a repeated screening and lifestyle counselling programme over five years did not result in lower incidence of diabetes after 10years of follow-up. As expected, significantly more individuals were diagnosed with diabetes in the intervention group during the first year, but this was not followed by a decrease in the following years. Clinical trials NCT00289237. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Method for rapid screening of pesticide mineralization in soil.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Pia Haugaard; Holm, Peter E; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2004-05-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis of (14)CO(2) evolution from the mineralization of (14)C-labelled organic compounds in soil samples. The new method is less space demanding and substantially cuts down laborious manual work compared to the traditional incubation bottle method used. Furthermore, the use of scintillation cocktail is largely reduced with the new method. In the new method, (14)CO(2) is trapped in filter paper held in the lid of a 20 ml glass vial by surface tension. The trapping solution used is Ca(OH)(2), which fixates CO(2) in the filter paper and the analysis of trapped (14)CO(2) is done using the Cyclone trade mark Storage Phosphor system. The lids are placed in a 32 well holder and exposed to a phosphor screen prior to scanning in a Cyclone trade mark scanner. The new filter method has been tested and compared to results obtained using the traditional method. The results show good agreement but due to a smaller capacity for CO(2) with the filter method compared to the traditional method, the interval between sampling has to be shorter using the filter method when the CO(2) development is high. The detection limits for the filter method is higher compared to the traditional method. With the filter method, the level of radioactivity has to exceed 300 dpm before detection is possible, while the same limit for the traditional method is around 30 dpm. On the other hand, the gas trapping faster and the efficiency is higher with the filter method.

  16. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC`s PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described.

  17. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H. )

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC's PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described.

  18. Screening of mental health and substance users in frequent users of a general Swiss emergency department.

    PubMed

    Vu, Francis; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Hugli, Olivier; Iglesias, Katia; Stucki, Stephanie; Paroz, Sophie; Canepa Allen, Marina; Bodenmann, Patrick

    2015-10-09

    The objectives of this study were to determine the proportions of psychiatric and substance use disorders suffered by emergency departments' (EDs') frequent users compared to the mainstream ED population, to evaluate how effectively these disorders were diagnosed in both groups of patients by ED physicians, and to determine if these disorders were predictive of a frequent use of ED services. This study is a cross-sectional study with concurrent and retrospective data collection. Between November 2009 and June 2010, patients' mental health and substance use disorders were identified prospectively in face-to-face research interviews using a screening questionnaire (i.e. researcher screening). These data were compared to the data obtained from a retrospective medical chart review performed in August 2011, searching for mental health and substance use disorders diagnosed by ED physicians and recorded in the patients' ED medical files (i.e. ED physician diagnosis). The sample consisted of 399 eligible adult patients (≥18 years old) admitted to the urban, general ED of a University Hospital. Among them, 389 patients completed the researcher screening. Two hundred and twenty frequent users defined by >4 ED visits in the previous twelve months were included and compared to 169 patients with ≤4 ED visits in the same period (control group). Researcher screening showed that ED frequent users were more likely than members of the control group to have an anxiety, depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or suffer from alcohol, illicit drug abuse/addiction. Reviewing the ED physician diagnosis, we found that the proportions of mental health and substance use disorders diagnosed by ED physicians were low both among ED frequent users and in the control group. Using multiple logistic regression analyses to predict frequent ED use, we found that ED patients who screened positive for psychiatric disorders only and those who screened positive for both

  19. The effectiveness of scoliosis screening programs: methods for systematic review and expert panel recommendations formulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature on scoliosis screening is vast, however because of the observational nature of available data and methodological flaws, data interpretation is often complex, leading to incomplete and sometimes, somewhat misleading conclusions. The need to propose a set of methods for critical appraisal of the literature about scoliosis screening, a comprehensive summary and rating of the available evidence appeared essential. Methods To address these gaps, the study aims were: i) To propose a framework for the assessment of published studies on scoliosis screening effectiveness; ii) To suggest specific questions to be answered on screening effectiveness instead of trying to reach a global position for or against the programs; iii) To contextualize the knowledge through expert panel consultation and meaningful recommendations. The general methodological approach proceeds through the following steps: Elaboration of the conceptual framework; Formulation of the review questions; Identification of the criteria for the review; Selection of the studies; Critical assessment of the studies; Results synthesis; Formulation and grading of recommendations in response to the questions. This plan follows at best GRADE Group (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) requirements for systematic reviews, assessing quality of evidence and grading the strength of recommendations. Conclusions In this article, the methods developed in support of this work are presented since they may be of some interest for similar reviews in scoliosis and orthopaedic fields. PMID:23883346

  20. Method for in vitro screening of aquatic fungicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods were developed for in vitro screening of candidate aquatic fungicides for efficacy against Achlya fiagellata, A. racemosa, Saprolegnia hypogyna and S. megasperma. Agar plugs containing fungal hyphae, removed from the edge of actively growing colonies, were placed in the depressions of spot plates containing 1a??0, 10a??0 and 100 mg/I of the candidate compounds for 15 or 60 min. After exposure, the plugs were transferred on to filter papers (0a??45-A?m pore) in a holder, rinsed, and then placed on cornmeal agar medium in tri-petri dishes. The plates were checked for mycelial growth after 48, 96 and 168 h of incubation in a lighted (400-800 A?m) environmental control chamber at 20A?2A?C. Criteria for the acceptance or rejection of candidate aquatic fungicides for further study were based on the antifungal spectrum index (ASI) comparisons between respective compounds and malachite green after 48 h and the concentration level producing complete growth inhibition. Candidate compounds whose ASI was less than 50% that of malachite green after 48 h or did not inhibit growth at levels less than 100 mg/l were rejected. This method provides a base from which in vivo and definitive test regimens can be developed. Preliminary in vitro screening of candidate fungicides reduces the need for costly in vivo tests on compounds that have low antifungal activity.

  1. Autoradiographic method to screen for soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Zamani, B.; Knezek, B.D.; Flegler, S.L.; Beneke, E.S.; Dazzo, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic method was developed to screen for and isolate soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc (ZN). Diluted soil samples (pH 5.9) were plated on soil extract-glucose agar containing radioactive /sup 65/Zn. After 7 days of incubation, individual colonies which accumulated sufficient /sup 65/Zn could be detected by autoradiography. These colonies were isolated and confirmed as Zn accumulators in pure culture by using the autoradiographic plate technique. Most Zn accumulators were filamentous fungi, identified as Penicillium janthinellum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Paecilomyces sp. Isolates of Penicillium janthinellum were the most common Zn accumulators. The most abundant Zn-accumulating bacteria were Bacillus spp. The validity of the autoradiographic plate technique to differentiate soil microbes which accumulate Zn was examined independently by energy dispersive X-ray analysis in a scanning electron microscope. This method confirmed that fungal isolates which gave positive autoradiographic responses in the plate assay bioaccumulated more Zn in their biomass than fungal isolates from the same soil sample which gave negative autoradiographic responses. Thus, this technique can be applied to specifically screen for and isolate microbes from the environment which bioaccumulate Zn.

  2. Screening for inhibitors of histone deacetylase by incorporating a spraying method to micro-arrayed compound screening.

    PubMed

    Sabet, R S; Marcotte, P; Glaser, K; Burns, D J; Warrior, U; Groebe, D R

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a method of spraying assay reagents onto a target gel in the Micro-Arrayed Compound Screening ( micro ARCS) format. After application of target gels to compound sheets, subsequent reagents can be applied by spraying onto the target gel. The spraying method conserves on assay reagents by up to 10-fold, eliminates the need for casting additional agarose gels, and increases the throughput of a screen by 3-fold. To demonstrate the efficacy of applying the spraying method to micro ARCS, we screened over 600,000 compounds for inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Commercially available HDAC substrate and reaction developer were sprayed directly onto the gel to initiate the reaction and to amplify the signal, respectively. Picks in the primary screen were retested at a density of 384 compounds per sheet in the micro ARCS format. IC(50) values for active compounds were confirmed in a 96-well plate assay. The screen identified several small molecule inhibitors of the enzyme, including members of several classes of known HDAC inhibitors. The combination of the high-density format of micro ARCS, the efficiency of the spraying method, and a timed sequence of adding assay reagents permitted a screening throughput of 200,000 tests an hour. We present the details of the screening format and the analysis of the hits from the screen.

  3. Surgeon-initiated screening colonoscopy program based on SAGES and ASCRS recommendations in a general surgery practice.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, E A; Khaitan, L; Huang, I-P; Smith, C D; Lin, E

    2006-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the utility of a screening colonoscopy program initiated by general surgeons in an academic center. New patients presenting to three general surgeons who met screening colonoscopy indications were asked whether they had undergone colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The patients who had not undergone CRC screening were offered screening colonoscopies or referred to their gastroenterologists. In the first 9-month period of the program, 200 patients who met the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons/American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons indications for CRC screening were asked whether they had undergone screenings. Only 46% (n = 92) reported any prior appropriate screenings. Of the patients who elected CRC screening by the surgeons, 55 underwent full colonoscopies (2 concurrently with hemorrhoidectomies), and 2 had flexible sigmoidoscopies. As a result of screening, 10 patients (18%) required treatment: 7 had polypectomies, 2 had partial colectomies, and 1 with an indication for surgery deferred treatment. Most of the patients presenting to the general surgeon likely have not had CRC screening, and diligence in making appropriate recommendations should be routine. Colonoscopic findings requiring intervention are not insignificant.

  4. [Screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by electronic mini-spirometry in general practice].

    PubMed

    Vorilhon, P; Deat, J; Gérard, A; Laine, E; Laporte, C; Ruivard, M; Vaillant Roussel, H

    2014-05-01

    Screening for COPD is currently considered to be insufficient. Electronic mini-spirometers allow screening for COPD in general practice. To assess the prevalence of COPD in a population of at-risk patients in general practice (GP) and to identify the high-risk factors for the disease. A cross-sectional study was performed in a GP setting. Patients aged between 40 and 75years with a history of smoking, occupational exposure to toxic substances or chronic respiratory symptoms were offered airflow assessments by electronic mini-spirometry. For any value of FEV1/FEV6 less than 70 %, screening for COPD was considered as positive. Of the 778 patients seen during routine consultations, 273 (35.1 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test was positive in 128 of the eligible patients (46.9 %). The prevalence of proven COPD (ratio<70 %) was 13.9 % (38 patients). The high-risk factors were age over 60years (P=0.03), body mass index over 28 (P=0.04), smoking history of more than 30pack-years (P<0.0001), presence of clinical signs (P<0.0001) and industrial exposure to toxic substances (P=0.03). Targeted screening of patients with risk factors for COPD can be performed in a GP setting. An electronic mini-spirometer is a reliable and inexpensive screening tool. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Attitudes to chlamydia screening in general practice among Australian university students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zakher, Bernadette; Kang, Melissa

    2008-12-01

    Chlamydia screening of sexually active young people in general practice is key to the Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy 2005-2008. Overseas research indicates that young people have positive attitudes towards opportunistic screening by a general practitioner (GP). This pilot study aims to investigate the attitudes of Australian university students towards chlamydia screening in primary care. Students (16-25 years) attending a class in one of three faculties at the University of Sydney participated by completing a questionnaire, which collected information about demographics, sexual history, chlamydia knowledge, attitudes towards and preferences for chlamydia screening. One hundred and eighty-five students (78% female) returned questionnaires (participation rate 92%). Arts students were younger, more likely to be sexually active and to report having little or no knowledge of chlamydia. Males in the study were less likely to have had sex as a group compared to the group of females in the sample. Science students were also less likely to have had sex compared to their counterparts in other faculties. Seventy-six percent of students were comfortable with opportunistic testing for chlamydia by their GP. Reasons for not being comfortable included 'don't think I'm at risk' (65%) and 'not comfortable discussing sexual matters with my GP' (38%). Although comfortable with GP-based testing, the likelihood of being tested in the upcoming year for most students was low, as was personal concern about chlamydia infection. Findings suggest that the most at risk group for chlamydia infection is not well educated about their risk of infection. The limited numbers of tests among sexually active individuals in this sample indicate that health practitioners are not screening this high-risk group for chlamydia infection.

  6. Screening in brief intervention trials targeting excessive drinkers in general practice: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beich, Anders; Thorsen, Thorkil; Rollnick, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of programmes of screening in general practice for excessive alcohol use and providing brief interventions. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that used screening as a precursor to brief intervention. Setting General practice. Main outcome measures Number needed to treat, proportion of patients positive on screening, proportion given brief interventions, and effect of screening. Results The eight studies included for meta-analysis all used health questionnaires for screening, and the brief interventions included feedback, information, and advice. The studies contained several sources of bias that might lead to overestimates of the effects of intervention. External validity was compromised because typically three out of four people identified by screening as excessive users of alcohol did not qualify for the intervention after a secondary assessment. Overall, in 1000 screened patients, 90 screened positive and required further assessment, after which 25 qualified for brief intervention; after one year 2.6 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.4) reported they drank less than the maximum recommended level. Conclusions Although even brief advice can reduce excessive drinking, screening in general practice does not seem to be an effective precursor to brief interventions targeting excessive alcohol use. This meta-analysis raises questions about the feasibility of screening in general practice for excessive use of alcohol. PMID:12958114

  7. Generalized integral-screening for efficient calculations of nonlinear optical properties of large molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Jonsson, Dan; Norman, Patrick; A˚Gren, Hans; Saue, Trond; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.; Dahle, Pa˚L.; Helgaker, Trygve

    1998-05-01

    We describe the implementation of integral screening in the integral-direct SCF calculation of cubic response functions. The screening is applied to all computational steps that involve the construction of Fock matrices or one-index transformed Fock matrices. We apply this implementation to study the length dependence of the polarizability and second hyperpolarizability of diphenylpolyenes. It is demonstrated that calculations of the second hyperpolarizability of molecules containing more than 140 atoms are now accessible by ab initio methods on a time scale that makes it of interest in real applications.

  8. First general methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates.

    PubMed

    Barthes, Nicolas; Grison, Claude

    2012-02-01

    We herein report two innovative methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates and the first saccharidic aldehyde enolphosphates. Aldehyde enolphosphate function is worthwhile to be considered as a good phosphoenolpyruvate analogue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer -- a global and regional generalized cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary Michael; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Lauer, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Cecilia

    2009-10-09

    The paper calculates regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of screening, prevention, treatment and combined interventions for cervical cancer. Using standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology, a cervical cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening, vaccination and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod) that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. In regions characterized by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of any screening programme to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective. However, based on projections of the future price per dose (representing the economic costs of the vaccination excluding monopolistic rents and vaccine development cost) vaccination is the most cost-effective intervention. In regions characterized by low income, low mortality and existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without combining it with screening appears to be cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening in a no-treatment scenario would not be cost-effective. Vaccination is usually the most cost-effective intervention. Penta or tri-annual PAP smears appear to be cost-effective, though when combined with HPV-DNA testing they are not cost-effective. In regions characterized by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, expanding treatment with or without adding screening would be very cost-effective. A one off vaccination plus expanding treatment was usually very cost-effective. One-off PAP or VIA screening at age 40 are more cost-effective than other interventions though less effective overall. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, consideration should be given to implementing

  10. Exploring attitudes and preferences for dementia screening in Britain: contributions from carers and the general public.

    PubMed

    Martin, Steven; Fleming, Jane; Cullum, Sarah; Dening, Tom; Rait, Greta; Fox, Chris; Katona, Cornelius; Brayne, Carol; Lafortune, Louise

    2015-09-09

    Dementia is becoming one of the most important emerging public health concerns in a generation. In societal approaches to the mitigation of major disease 'burden', population screening can sometimes provide an effective approach to improving detection of disease and outcomes. However the acceptability of a systematic population screening programme for dementia, to the British public, is not known. A Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) event was organised to give members of the public from the East of England an opportunity to offer their perspectives and to comment on the findings of a systematic literature review looking at attitudes and preferences towards screening for dementia. The event was attended by 36 members of the public and eight national Alzheimer's Society Research Network volunteers. The morning discussion contained a presentation, which defined population screening for attendees but contained no reference to the findings of the review. In the afternoon, findings of the review were presented and a discussion on the results was facilitated. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. The NVivo qualitative data software was used to facilitate this process. A total of 23 key themes emerged in relation to the carer and general population. The most frequent themes which emerged were the low levels of understanding and awareness around the dementia syndrome; the acceptability and validity of any tests; costs to the National Health Service (NHS); an individual's existing health status existing health status; financial/profit motive for screening; the inability to change prognosis; and the importance and availability of support. Factors such as personal beliefs, experiences and attitudes to health impact on decisions to be screened for dementia. A number of additional concerns were raised which were not previously identified in the systematic literature review. These were around the economic incentives for screening

  11. The effectiveness of scoliosis screening programs: methods for systematic review and expert panel recommendations formulation.

    PubMed

    Beauséjour, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Parent, Stefan; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Turgeon, Isabelle; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Sosa, Jose Felix; Labelle, Hubert

    2013-07-24

    Literature on scoliosis screening is vast, however because of the observational nature of available data and methodological flaws, data interpretation is often complex, leading to incomplete and sometimes, somewhat misleading conclusions. The need to propose a set of methods for critical appraisal of the literature about scoliosis screening, a comprehensive summary and rating of the available evidence appeared essential. To address these gaps, the study aims were: i) To propose a framework for the assessment of published studies on scoliosis screening effectiveness; ii) To suggest specific questions to be answered on screening effectiveness instead of trying to reach a global position for or against the programs; iii) To contextualize the knowledge through expert panel consultation and meaningful recommendations. The general methodological approach proceeds through the following steps: Elaboration of the conceptual framework; Formulation of the review questions; Identification of the criteria for the review; Selection of the studies; Critical assessment of the studies; Results synthesis; Formulation and grading of recommendations in response to the questions. This plan follows at best GRADE Group (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) requirements for systematic reviews, assessing quality of evidence and grading the strength of recommendations. In this article, the methods developed in support of this work are presented since they may be of some interest for similar reviews in scoliosis and orthopaedic fields.

  12. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Simple method for screening of alpha-thalassaemia 1 carriers.

    PubMed

    Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Kuntaruk, Surakit; Tatu, Thanusak; Chiampanichayakul, Sawitree; Munkongdee, Thongperm; Winichagoon, Pranee; Fuchareon, Suthat; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2009-06-01

    Alpha-thalassaemia 1 genetic disorder occurs when there is a deletion of two linked alpha-globin genes. The interaction between these abnormal genes leads to the most severe type of thalassaemia disease, haemoglobin (Hb) Bart's hydrops fetalis. The identification of alpha-thalassaemia 1 carriers and genetic counselling are essential for the prevention and control of severe thalassaemia diseases. In this study, we have developed a rapid screening method for identifying alpha-thalassaemia 1. A sandwich-type immunochromatographic (IC) strip test was developed, using the generated monoclonal anti-Hb Bart's antibody, to trace the Hb Bart's in haemolysates. When assayed by our IC strip test, all alpha-thalassaemia 1, HbH disease, HbH-Constant Spring (H-CS) disease, HbH-CS and heterozygous HbE (CSEA) Bart's disease, and homozygous alpha-thalassaemia 2 showed positive results. No false negative results were observed in these blood samples. In alpha-thalassaemia 2 heterozygotes, 83% of them showed positive reactivity. Among HbE (both homozygotes and heterozygotes), beta-thalassaemia (heterozygotes, homozygotes and beta-thalassaemia/HbE) and normal subjects, the IC strip test revealed negative reactivity of 100, 85 and 97%, respectively. These results indicate that this novel immunodiagnostic kit, in combination with red blood cell indices, is suitable for screening and ruling out mass populations for the presence of alpha-thalassaemia 1.

  14. Cervical screening and general physical examination behaviors of women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Camp, Elizabeth A; Coker, Ann L; Troisi, Rebecca; Robboy, Stanley J; Noller, Kenneth L; Goodman, Karen J; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda T; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Herbst, Arthur L; Kaufman, Raymond H; Adam, Ervin

    2008-04-01

    To estimate whether women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) report receiving more cervical and general physical examinations compared to unexposed women. 1994 Diethylstilbestrol Adenosis cohort data are used to assess the degree of recommended compliance of cervical screenings found in 3,140 DES-exposed and 826 unexposed women. Participants were enrolled at 4 sites: Houston, Boston, Rochester, and Los Angeles. Logistic regression modeling was used to analyze mailed questionnaire data, which included reported frequency over the preceding 5 years (1990-1994) of Papanicolaou smears and general physical examinations. Diethylstilbestrol-exposed women exceeded the recommended frequency of Papanicolaou smear screenings [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.15, 95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.60-2.88] compared to the unexposed. This association held among those without a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (aOR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.35-2.62). Diethylstilbestrol-exposed women exceeded annual recommendations for physical examinations (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.16-4.43) among women without a history of chronic disease when compared to unexposed women. Most DES-exposed women are receiving cervical cancer screening at least at recommended intervals, but one third of the women are not receiving annual Papanicolaou smear examinations.

  15. [General concepts and study methods in pharmacogenetics].

    PubMed

    Lubomirov, Rubin; Telenti, Amalio; Rotger, Margalida

    2008-05-01

    Pharmacogenetics, the study of how individual genetic profiles influence the response to drugs, is an important topic. Results from pharmacogenetics studies in various clinical settings may lead to personalized medicine. Herein, we present the most important concepts of this discipline, as well as currently-used study methods.

  16. Superconvergence in the Generalized Finite Element Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Galerkin method for elliptic equations based on tensor products of piecewise polynomials. RAIRO Anal. Numer., 8:61– 66, 1974. [19] M. Kř́ıžek...London, 1986. [22] P. Lesaint and M. Zlámal. Superconvergence of the gradient of finite ele- ment solutions. RAIRO Anal. Numer., 13:139–166, 1979. [23] Q

  17. Generalized summability methods of functions using ideals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaş, Ekrem

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we shall make a new approach to two well known summability methods by using ideals and introduce new notions, namely, ℐ-statistical convergence and ℐ-lacunary statistical convergence by taking a nonnegative real-valued Lebesque measurable function in the interval (1, ∞) and mainly investigate their relationship and also make some observations about these classes.

  18. Performance evaluation of 2D fingerprint and 3D shape similarity methods in virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoping; Kuang, Guanglin; Xiao, Wen; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Tang, Yun

    2012-05-25

    Virtual screening (VS) can be accomplished in either ligand- or structure-based methods. In recent times, an increasing number of 2D fingerprint and 3D shape similarity methods have been used in ligand-based VS. To evaluate the performance of these ligand-based methods, retrospective VS was performed on a tailored directory of useful decoys (DUD). The VS performances of 14 2D fingerprints and four 3D shape similarity methods were compared. The results revealed that 2D fingerprints ECFP_2 and FCFP_4 yielded better performance than the 3D Phase Shape methods. These ligand-based methods were also compared with structure-based methods, such as Glide docking and Prime molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area rescoring, which demonstrated that both 2D fingerprint and 3D shape similarity methods could yield higher enrichment during early retrieval of active compounds. The results demonstrated the superiority of ligand-based methods over the docking-based screening in terms of both speed and hit enrichment. Therefore, considering ligand-based methods first in any VS workflow would be a wise option.

  19. Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Billy Vaughn

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)

  20. A RCT of three training and support strategies to encourage implementation of screening and brief alcohol intervention by general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, E F; Lock, C A; McAvoy, B R; Heather, N; Gilvarry, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing doctors with new research findings or clinical guidelines is rarely sufficient to promote changes in clinical practice. An implementation strategy is required to provide clinicians with the skills and encouragement needed to alter established routines. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different training and support strategies in promoting implementation of screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) by general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: Subjects were 128 GPs, one per practice, from the former Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority, who agreed to use the 'Drink-Less' SBI programme in an earlier dissemination trial. GPs were stratified by previous marketing conditions and randomly allocated to three intensities of training and support: controls (n = 43) received the programme with written guidelines only, trained GPs (n = 43) received the programme plus practice-based training in programme usage, trained and supported GPs (n = 42) received the programme plus practice-based training and a support telephone call every two weeks. GPs were requested to use the programme for three months. Outcome measures included proportions of GPs implementing the programme and numbers of patients screened and intervened with. RESULTS: Seventy-three (57%) GPs implemented the programme and screened 11,007 patients for risk drinking. Trained and supported GPs were significantly more likely to implement the programme (71%) than controls (44%) or trained GPs (56%); they also screened, and intervened with, significantly more patients. Costs per patient screened were: trained and supported GPs, 1.05 Pounds; trained GPs, 1.08 Pounds; and controls, 1.47 Pounds. Costs per patient intervened with were: trained and supported GPs, 5.43 Pounds; trained GPs, 6.02 Pounds; and controls, 8.19 Pounds. CONCLUSION: Practice-based training plus support telephone calls was the most effective and cost-effective strategy to encourage

  1. Screening portal, system and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hunter, John A.; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2013-04-30

    A portal, system and method for screening an object for a target substance is provided. The portal includes an inflatable bladder expandable to form a test space for receiving the object and a plurality of nozzles positioned about the inflatable bladder. The nozzles are in fluid communication with a fluid source for directing air over the object whereby samples are removed from the object for examination. A collector is operatively connected to the inflatable bladder for collecting the samples removed from the object. A detector is operatively connected to the collector for examining the removed samples for the presence of the target substance. At least one preconcentrator may be operatively connected to the collector for concentrating the samples collected thereby.

  2. Non-Debye screening in ionic solutions: Generalization of the modified mean spherical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, L. M.; Ruso, J. M.; Garcia, M.; Mosquera, V.

    2000-12-01

    In this paper screening phenomena in general binary ionic solutions are analyzed from an Ornstein-Zernike point of view. The modified mean spherical approximation (MMSA) closure relation for the direct correlation function [Varela et al., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1930 (1998)] is generalized in order to allow the presence of several species in solution. This generalized approximation (GMMSA) explicitly accounts for specific interactions between ionic species and is seen to allow the prediction of the hypernetted chain calculated decay length of 1:z(z=1,…,4) electrolyte solutions, in terms of a mean interaction parameter. Particularly, for 1:1 electrolyte solutions the results of the GMMSA for the effective decay length are seen to recover the original MMSA ones, and they are compared to all the theoretical results which exist in literature.

  3. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  4. Validation of a two-plate microbiological method for screening antibiotic residues in shrimp tissue.

    PubMed

    Dang, Pham Kim; Degand, Guy; Danyi, Sophie; Pierret, Gilles; Delahaut, Philippe; Ton, Vu Dinh; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2010-07-05

    Microbiological inhibition screening tests could play an important role to detect residues of antibiotics in the different animal food products, but very few are available for the aquaculture products in general, and for shrimps in particular. A two-plate microbiological method to screen shrimp for residues of the most commonly used antibiotics has been developed and validated according to criteria derived from the European Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Bacillus subtilis was used as a sensitive strain to target antibiotics. Culture conditions on Petri plates (pH of medium) were selected to enhance the capacity of antibiotic detection. Antibiotic residues were extracted from shrimps using acetonitrile/acetone (70/30, v/v) before application on Petri plates seeded with B. subtilis. The method was validated using spiked blank tissues as well as antibiotic treated shrimps with enrofloxacin and tetracycline, two antibiotics often found to be used in shrimp production. For tetracyclines and (fluoro)quinolones, the detection capability was below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while it was around the MRL for sulfonamides. The specificity of the microbiological screening was 100% in all cases while the sensitivity and accuracy was 100% in almost all cases. The capacity of the method to detect contaminated samples was confirmed on antibiotic treated shrimps, analyzed in parallel with a confirmatory method (Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS)).

  5. Generalized direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of stability and attraction in general time systems

    SciTech Connect

    Druzhinina, O V; Shestakov, A A

    2002-10-31

    A generalized direct Lyapunov method is put forward for the study of stability and attraction in general time systems of the following types: the classical dynamical system in the sense of Birkhoff, the general system in the sense of Zubov, the general system in the sense of Seibert, the general system with delay, and the general 'input-output' system. For such systems, with the help of generalized Lyapunov functions with respect to two filters, two quasifilters, or two filter bases, necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and attraction are obtained under minimal assumptions about the mathematical structure of the general system.

  6. STD and HIV screening in general practice: a survey related to termination of pregnancy in south Thames.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, R L; Maguire, H C; Kurtz, Z

    1998-01-01

    It has been recommended that screening for sexually transmitted disease (STDs) be carried out at the time of termination of pregnancy to allow prevention of post-abortion infection. Screening offers the opportunity to treat an infected woman and prevent serious complications following the termination procedure. Our findings indicate that general practitioners (GPs) in South Thames did not routinely carry out screening and few realized it took place at referral centres. PMID:9624755

  7. Screening methods to identify TALEN-mediated knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Kimi; Takeda, Naoki; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Sakuma, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided nucleases, such as the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system, is becoming the new standard for targeted genome modification in various organisms. Application of these techniques to the manufacture of knockout mice would be greatly aided by simple and easy methods for genotyping of mutant and wild-type pups among litters. However, there are no detailed or comparative reports concerning the identification of mutant mice generated using genome editing technologies. Here, we genotyped TALEN-derived enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) knockout mice using a combination of approaches, including fluorescence observation, heteroduplex mobility assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. The detection sensitivities for TALEN-induced mutations differed among these methods, and we therefore concluded that combinatorial testing is necessary for the screening and determination of mutant genotypes. Since the analytical methods tested can be carried out without specialized equipment, costly reagents and/or sophisticated protocols, our report should be of interest to a broad range of researchers who are considering the application of genome editing technologies in various organisms.

  8. Screening for Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Children Aged 14-15 Months. II: Population Screening with the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Design and General Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Claudine; Swinkels, Sophie; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage protocol for screening for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in a random population of 31,724 children aged 14-15 months. Children were first pre-screened by physicians at well-baby clinics using a 4-item screening instrument. Infants that screened positive were then evaluated during a 1.5-h home visit by a trained…

  9. A Method for Universal Screening of Elementary School Students: Development of the Social Challenges Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Pollard, Elena; Stein, Alexander J.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda; Matthews, Nicole L.; Openden, Daniel; Melmed, Raun D.

    2015-01-01

    Schools regularly screen students for hearing and vision impairments because they present impediments to academic progress. For the same reason, schools should consider adding a universal screening for social challenges, which may also impede the learning process. This study reports on the development of the Social Challenges Screening…

  10. Opportunistic prostate-specific antigen screening in Italy: 6 years of monitoring from the Italian general practice database.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Gaetano Giorgio; Campo, Salvatore; Cancian, Maurizio; Pecchioli, Serena; Mazzaglia, Giampiero

    2010-11-01

    The practice of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has been increasing in Italy despite uncertain scientific evidence and contrary recommendations from most scientific societies. In 2002, a survey of PSA screening diffusion among general practices was performed, looking for screening frequency and age pattern of screened individuals. The objective of this study was to assess whether the features of PSA screening did change after 6 years in the same considered setting. Using the data obtained from 500 Italian general practitioners providing information to the Health Search/CSD Patient database, we selected, for the study purpose 351,091 male individuals. We assumed PSA prescriptions performed during 2005-2008 in individuals without prostate cancer, or benign prostate disease, or urological symptoms history to have a screening purpose. Screening frequency was analyzed in the overall series, by year and by patient's age. Exposure to PSA screening (at least on PSA test in the considered period) of males aged over 50 years raised from 31.4% (confidence interval 95% 31.08-31.70%) during 2002 to 46.4% (confidence interval 95% 46.19-46.68%) during 2008. The highest yearly exposure to PSA screening (55%) and the highest frequency of repeat testing was observed in the 70-79 age range. PSA screening practice has continued to increase in Italy and is often performed in elderly people without any scientific rationale.

  11. A Desktop Screen Sharing System based on Various Connection Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Nobuo

    Recently it became very common to use information devices such as PCs during presentations and discussions. In these situations, a need arises for techniques that allow a smooth switch of presenters without changing cables, or an easy screen sharing in case of remote videoconferences. In this paper, we propose a desktop screen sharing system that can be used for such purposes and situations. For that, we designed an automatic control of connections in the VNC system that can be operated remotely over the network. We also suggested an interface that assigns a role such as “Screen sender" or “Screen receiver" to each terminal. In the proposed system, while sharing a screen between multiple terminals, one can easily display and browse the screen without having to understand how the others are connected. We also implemented a “role card" using contactless IC card, where roles are assigned only by placing the card in the IC reader.

  12. The Usefulness of the Denver Developmental Screening Test to Predict Kindergarten Problems in a General Community Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadman, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) was administered to 2569 children prior to starting kindergarten. At the end of the school year, teachers rated each child. Results suggest that because of its low sensitivity and modest predictive value, the DDST is relatively inefficient for a school entry screening program in a general population.…

  13. A Polytomous Extension of the Generalized Distance Discriminating Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jianan; Xin, Tao; Zhang, Shumei; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a generalized distance discriminating method for test with polytomous response (GDD-P). The new method is the polytomous extension of an item response theory (IRT)-based cognitive diagnostic method, which can identify examinees' ideal response patterns (IRPs) based on a generalized distance index. The similarities between…

  14. Pharmacy diabetes care program: analysis of two screening methods for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Krass, I; Mitchell, B; Clarke, P; Brillant, M; Dienaar, R; Hughes, J; Lau, P; Peterson, G; Stewart, K; Taylor, S; Wilkinson, J; Armour, C

    2007-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two methods of screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy. A random sample of 30 pharmacies were allocated into two groups: (i) tick test only (TTO); or (ii) sequential screening (SS) method. Both methods used the same initial risk assessment for type 2 diabetes. Subjects with one or more risk factors in the TTO group were offered a referral to their general practitioner (GP). Under the SS method, patients with risk factors were offered a capillary blood glucose test and those identified as being at risk referred to a GP. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these approaches was assessed. A total of 1286 people were screened over a period of 3 months. The rate of diagnosis of diabetes was significantly higher for SS compared with the TTO method (1.7% versus 0.2%; p=0.008). The SS method resulted in fewer referrals to the GP and a higher uptake of referrals than the TTO method and so was the more cost-effective screening method. SS is the superior method from a cost and efficacy perspective. It should be considered as the preferred option for screening by community based pharmacists in Australia.

  15. Alcohol screening in general practices using the AUDIT: how many response categories are necessary?

    PubMed

    Bischof, G; Grothues, J; Reinhardt, S; John, U; Meyer, C; Ulbricht, S; Rumpf, H-J

    2007-01-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a common screening instrument. This study analyses if response categories of the AUDIT might be dichotomized without affecting the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Participants between 18 and 65 years were recruited from general practices in two northern German cities. In total, 10,803 screenings were conducted (refusal rate: 5.9%). For those who were screened positive, the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used for identification of 12-month Alcohol Use Disorders and at-risk consumption (exceeding 20/30 g per day). Abstinent subjects and screening positives without diagnostic interview were excluded from the analysis, leaving a sample of 7,112 subjects. ROC-Curves were calculated separately for each item in order to identify an optimal cut-off value. Finally, a version of the AUDIT based on dichotomized items was compared to the original version and its short-form, the AUDIT version based on three questions dealing with consumption AUDIT-C. As an optimal cut-off value for items on consumption, drinking at least once a week, having more than 1-2 drinks per occasion, and drinking 6 or more drinks in one sitting at least once a month were identified. For all questions on alcohol-related problems or dependence symptoms, having 'ever occurred' differed best between subjects with and without Alcohol Use Disorders or at-risk consumption. Sensitivity and specificity of the dichotomized version of the AUDIT did not differ from the original version, and both full versions performed superior compared to the AUDIT-C. Data indicate that the AUDIT response categories may be dichotomized without affecting its validity.

  16. [Validation of the Eating Attitudes Test as a screening instrument for eating disorders in general population].

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro Manuel; Labrador, Francisco Javier; Raich, Rosa María

    2014-02-20

    To validate the best cut-off point of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Spanish version, for the screening of eating disorders (ED) in the general population. This was a transversal cross-sectional study. The EAT-40 Spanish version was administered to a representative sample of 1.543 students, age range 12 to 21 years, in the Region of Madrid. Six hundred and two participants (probable cases and a random sample of controls) were interviewed. The best diagnostic prediction was obtained with a cut-off point of 21, with sensitivity: 88.2%; specificity: 62.1%; positive predictive value: 17.7%; negative predictive value: 62.1%. Use of a cut-off point of 21 is recommended in epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the Spanish general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations: findings from focus groups with general dentists in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Psoter, Walter J; Morse, Douglas E; Sánchez-Ayendez, Melba; Vega, Carmen M Vélez; Aguilar, Maria L; Buxó-Martinez, Carmen J; Psoter, Jodi A; Kerr, Alexander R; Lane, Christina M; Scaringi, Vincent J; Elias, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identify educational and training modalities that dentists in Puerto Rico (PR) believe will increase the quality and quantity of opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations (OCS) in dental offices on the island. The study was conducted in three phases: a systematic search of relevant literature, an expert review and consensus panel, and focus groups (FG) involving PR general dentists. To increase OCS by dentists in PR, the FG participants proposed a small group, hands-on OCS training, an integrated oral cancer course, and readily available videos, photographs, and computer simulations to further demonstrate OCS performance and facilitate differential diagnosis. OCS training requirements for licensure and re-licensure, improving OCS dentist-patient communication skills, and establishment of an oral lesion referral center were also viewed favorably. In conclusion, general dentists in our FGs believed the quality and quantity of OCS in Puerto Rico can be increased through the application of specific continuing education and training modalities.

  18. Band structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures via dielectric screening: the GΔW method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Kirsten T.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2017-06-01

    The idea of combining different two-dimensional (2D) crystals in van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) has led to a new paradigm for band structure engineering with atomic precision. Due to the weak interlayer couplings, the band structures of the individual 2D crystals are largely preserved upon formation of the heterostructure. However, regardless of the details of the interlayer hybridisation, the size of the 2D crystal band gaps are always reduced due to the enhanced dielectric screening provided by the surrounding layers. The effect can be significant (on the order of electron volts) but its precise magnitude is non-trivial to predict because of the non-local nature of the screening in quasi-2D crystals. Moreover, the effect is not captured by effective single-particle methods such as density functional theory. Here we present an efficient and general method for calculating the band gap renormalization of a 2D material embedded in an arbitrary vdWH. The method evaluates the change in the GW self-energy of the 2D material from the change in the screened Coulomb interaction. The latter is obtained using the quantum-electrostatic heterostructure (QEH) model. We benchmark the GΔW method against full first-principles GW calculations and use it to unravel the importance of screening-induced band structure renormalisation in various vdWHs. A main result is the observation that the size of the band gap reduction of a given 2D material when inserted into a heterostructure scales inversely with the polarisability of the 2D material. Our work demonstrates that dielectric engineering via van der Waals heterostructuring represents a promising strategy for tailoring the band structure of 2D materials.

  19. Training General Practitioners to Detect Probable Mental Disorders in Young People During Health Risk Screening.

    PubMed

    Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle; Otjes, Christiaan P; Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Thuraisingam, Sharmala; English, Dallas R; Haller, Dagmar M; Sanci, Lena A

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether a training intervention increases general practitioners' (GPs) detection sensitivity for probable mental disorders in young people. Forty general practices were randomized to an intervention (29 GPs) or comparison arm (49 GPs). Intervention GPs participated in 9 hours of interactive training on youth-friendly care, psychosocial health risk screening, and responding to risk-taking behavior with motivational interviewing approaches, followed by practice visits assisting with integration of screening processes and tools. Youth aged 14-24 years attending GPs underwent a computer-assisted telephone interview about their consultation and psychosocial health risks. Having a "probable mental disorder" was defined as either scoring high on Kessler's scale of psychological distress (K10) or self-perceived mental illness. Other definitions tested were high K10; self-perceived mental illness; and high K10 and self-perceived mental illness. Psychosocial health risk screening rates, detection sensitivity, and other accuracy parameters (specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) were estimated. GPs' detection sensitivity improved after the intervention if having probable mental disorder was defined as high K10 score and self-perceived mental illness (odds ratio: 2.81; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-6.42). There was no significant difference in sensitivity of GPs' detection for our preferred definition, high K10 or self-perceived mental illness (.37 in both; odds ratio: .93; 95% confidence interval: .47-1.83), and detection accuracy was comparable (specificity: .84 vs. .87, positive predictive values: .54 vs. .60, and negative predictive values: .72 vs. .72). Improving recognition of mental disorder among young people attending primary care is likely to require a multifaceted approach targeting young people and GPs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. The implementation of an integrated information system for substance use screening in general medical settings.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, C W; Sorensen-Alawad, A; Carney, B L; Persand, I; Cruz, A; Botticelli, M; Pressman, K; Adams, W G; Brolin, M; Alford, D P

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (MASBIRT) Program, a substance use screening program in general medical settings, created a web-based, point-of-care (POC), application--the MASBIRT Portal (the "Portal") to meet program goals. We report on development and implementation of the Portal. Five year program process outcomes recorded by an independent evaluator and an anonymous survey of Health Educator's (HEs) adoption, perceptions and Portal use with a modified version of the Technology Readiness Index are described. [8] Specific management team members, selected based on their roles in program leadership, development and implementation of the Portal and supervision of HEs, participated in semi-structured, qualitative interviews. At the conclusion of the program 73% (24/33) of the HEs completed a survey on their experience using the Portal. HEs reported that the Portal made recording screening information easy (96%); improved planning their workday (83%); facilitated POC data collection (84%); decreased time dedicated to data entry (100%); and improved job satisfaction (59%). The top two barriers to use were "no or limited wireless connectivity" (46%) and "the tablet was too heavy/bulky to carry" (29%). Qualitative management team interviews identified strategies for successful HIT implementation: importance of engaging HEs in outlining specifications and workflow needs, collaborative testing prior to implementation and clear agreement on data collection purpose, quality requirements and staff roles. Overall, HEs perceived the Portal favorably with regard to time saving ability and improved workflow. Lessons learned included identifying core requirements early during system development and need for managers to institute and enforce consistent behavioral work norms. Barriers and HEs' views of technology impacted the utilization of the MASBIRT Portal. Further research is needed to determine best approaches for HIT system

  1. Thermography--a feasible method for screening breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Kolarić, Darko; Herceg, Zeljko; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Ramljak, Vesna; Kulis, Tomislav; Holjevac, Jadranka Katancić; Deutsch, Judith A; Antonini, Svetlana

    2013-06-01

    Potential use of thermography for more effective detection of breast carcinoma was evaluated on 26 patients scheduled for breast carcinoma surgery. Ultrasonographic scan, mammography and thermography were performed at the University Hospital for Tumors. Thermographic imaging was performed using a new generation of digital thermal cameras with high sensitivity and resolution (ThermoTracer TH7102WL, NEC). Five images for each patient were recorded: front, right semi-oblique, right oblique, left- semi oblique and left oblique. While mammography detected 31 changes in 26 patients, thermography was more sensitive and detected 6 more changes in the same patients. All 37 changes were subjected to the cytological analysis and it was found that 16 of samples were malignant, 8 were suspected malignant and 11 were benign with atypia or proliferation while only 2 samples had benign findings. The pathohistological method (PHD) recorded 75.75% malignant changes within the total number of samples. Statistical analysis of the data has shown a probability of a correct mammographic finding in 85% of the cases (sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 84%) and a probability of a correct thermographic finding in 92% of the cases (sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 79%). As breast cancer remains the most prevalent cancer in women and thermography exhibited superior sensitivity, we believe that thermography should immediately find its place in the screening programs for early detection of breast carcinoma, in order to reduce the sufferings from this devastating disease.

  2. Use of unbalanced laminates as a screening method for microcracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    State-of-the-art, high temperature polyimide matrix composites, reinforced with continuous graphite fibers are known to be susceptible to intraply cracking when thermally cycled over their useful service temperature range. It is believed that the transply cracking, in part, results from residual stresses caused by differences in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the polymer matrix and the reinforcement. Thermal cycling tests to investigate this phenomenon involve expensive time and energy consuming programs which are not economically feasible for use as a part of a materials screening process. As an alternative to thermal cycling studies, a study of unbalanced crossply graphite fiber reinforcement composites was conducted to assess the effect of the composite ply layup and surface condition on the residual stresses that remain after the processing of these materials. The residual stresses were assessed by measuring the radii of curvature of the types of laminates that were studied. The temperature at which stress-free conditions existed were determined and a dye penetrant method was used to observe surface damage resulting from excessive residual stress buildup. These results are compared with some published results of thermal cycling tests that were previously conducted on balanced polyimide composites.

  3. Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Athas, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period.

  4. A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method

    DOE PAGES

    Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu

    2016-03-31

    In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.

  5. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  6. Discovery of a Novel General Anesthetic Chemotype Using High-throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry-Wu, Andrew R.; Bu, Weiming; Rai, Ganesha; Lea, Wendy A.; Weiser, Brian P.; Liang, David F.; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Maloney, David J.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of novel anesthetics has historically been a process of combined serendipity and empiricism, with most recent new anesthetics developed via modification of existing anesthetic structures. Methods Using a novel high-throughput screen employing the fluorescent anesthetic 1-aminoanthracene (1-AMA) and apoferritin as a surrogate for on-pathway anesthetic protein target(s), we screened a 350,000 compound library for competition with 1-AMA-apoferritin binding. Hit compounds meeting structural criteria had their binding affinities for apoferritin quantified with isothermal titration calorimetry and were tested for γ-aminobutyric acid type A-receptor binding using a flunitrazepam binding assay. Chemotypes with a strong presence in the top 700 and exhibiting activity via isothermal titration calorimetry were selected for medicinal chemistry optimization including testing for anesthetic potency and toxicity in an in vivo Xenopus laevis tadpole assay. Compounds with low toxicity and high potency were tested for anesthetic potency in mice. Results From an initial chemical library of over 350,000 compounds, we identified 2,600 compounds that potently inhibited 1-AMA binding to apoferritin. A subset of compounds chosen by structural criteria (700) was successfully reconfirmed using the initial assay. Based upon a strong presence in both the initial and secondary screens the 6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-one chemotype was assessed for anesthetic activity in tadpoles. Medicinal chemistry efforts identified four compounds with high potency and low toxicity in tadpoles, two were found to be effective novel anesthetics in mice. Conclusions We demonstrate the first use of a high-throughput screen to successfully identify a novel anesthetic chemotype and show mammalian anesthetic activity for members of that chemotype. PMID:25603205

  7. Virtual screening methods as tools for drug lead discovery from large chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Ma, X H; Zhu, F; Liu, X; Shi, Z; Zhang, J X; Yang, S Y; Wei, Y Q; Chen, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    Virtual screening methods have been developed and explored as useful tools for searching drug lead compounds from chemical libraries, including large libraries that have become publically available. In this review, we discussed the new developments in exploring virtual screening methods for enhanced performance in searching large chemical libraries, their applications in screening libraries of ~ 1 million or more compounds in the last five years, the difficulties in their applications, and the strategies for further improving these methods.

  8. A novel screening method for influenza patients using a newly developed non-contact screening system.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takemi; Hakozaki, Yukiya; Suzuki, Satoshi; Usui, Takahiro; Kato, Takehito; Hasegawa, Kousuke; Sugiyama, Youhei; Sugamata, Masami; Abe, Shigeto

    2010-04-01

    In places of mass gathering, rapid infection screening prior to definite diagnosis is vital during the epidemic season of a novel influenza. In order to assess the possibility of clinical application of a newly developed non-contact infection screening system, we conducted screening for influenza patients. The system is operated by a screening program via a linear discriminant analysis using non-contact derived variables, i.e., palmar pulse derived from a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz microwave radar, and average facial temperature measured by thermography. The system was tested on 57 seasonal influenza (2008-2009) patients (35.7 degrees C < or = body temperature < or = 38.3 degrees C, 19-40 years) and 35 normal control subjects (35.5 degrees C < or = body temperature < or = 36.9 degrees C, 21-35 years) at the Japan Self-defense Forces Central Hospital. A significant linear discriminant function (p < 0.001) was determined to distinguish the influenza group from the control group (Mahalanobis D-square = 6.5, classification error rate > 10%). The system had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 93%, which is higher than the PPV value (PPV < or = 65.4%) reported in the recent summary of studies using only thermography performed mainly in hospitals. The proposed system appears promising for application in accurate screening for influenza patients at places of mass gathering. Copyright 2010 The British Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple method for evaluating image quality of screen-film system using a high-performance digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Naotoshi; Yamazaki, Asumi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Kodera, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    Screen-film systems are used in mammography even now. Therefore, it is important to measure their physical properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF) or noise power spectrum (NPS). The MTF and NPS of screen-film systems are mostly measured by using a microdensitometer. However, since microdensitometers are not commonly used in general hospitals, it is difficult to carry out these measurements regularly. In the past, Ichikawa et al. have measured and evaluated the physical properties of medical liquid crystal displays by using a high-performance digital camera. By this method, the physical properties of screen-film systems can be measured easily without using a microdensitometer. Therefore, we have proposed a simple method for measuring the MTF and NPS of screen-film systems by using a high-performance digital camera. The proposed method is based on the edge method (for evaluating MTF) and the one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) method (for evaluating NPS), respectively. As a result, the MTF and NPS evaluated by using the high-performance digital camera approximately corresponded with those evaluated by using a microdensitometer. It is possible to substitute the calculation of MTF and NPS by using a high-performance digital camera for that by using a microdensitometer. Further, this method also simplifies the evaluation of the physical properties of screen-film systems.

  10. Screening of GABRB3 in French-Canadian families with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lachance-Touchette, Pamela; Martin, Caroline; Poulin, Chantal; Gravel, Micheline; Carmant, Lionel; Cossette, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Mutations in the GABRB3 have been recently associated with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) in families from Honduras and Mexico. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of mutation in this gene in our cohort of families with CAE and other related idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) syndromes. We screened the open reading frame of GABRB3 in 183 French-Canadian individuals with IGE, including 88 with CAE. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified,five of which are novel. The previously described P11S missense mutation was found in three affected and one unaffected individuals from a French-Canadian family. However, the P11S variant was also found in one of our 190 control individuals of French-Canadian origin, suggesting that this variant is rather a rare polymorphism in this population. Further screening of other IGE cohorts from various ethnic origins would help to confirm the association between this rare functional variant and epilepsy.

  11. Screening of cider yeasts for sparkling cider production (Champenoise method).

    PubMed

    Suárez Valles, Belén; Pando Bedriñana, Rosa; Lastra Queipo, Ana; Mangas Alonso, Juan José

    2008-08-01

    A total of 350 colonies isolated from a cider cellar in Asturias (Spain) were identified by rDNA ITS-RFLP restriction analysis. Saccharomyces spp. strains were characterized by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis. Fifty-four different Saccharomyces spp. strains were identified and tested to ascertain their capacity to carry out secondary fermentation of sparkling ciders. The screening of yeasts to determine their principal enological characteristics (tolerance to ethanol, production of volatile acidity and hydrogen sulphide) was accomplished by means of rapid, non-expensive assays (plate agar). As a result, 13 (24%) of the 54 initial Saccharomyces spp. yeast strains were eliminated. The technological properties assessed were flocculation capacity, ethanol and sulphite tolerance, and production of major volatiles. Ten Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were characterized as true flocculants; all of these strains were able to grow in ethanolic medium and in the presence of 200mg/l of sulphite. Applying cluster analysis to the production of amyl alcohols, isobutanol, propanol and 2-phenylethanol, the strains were classified in two natural groups. Two flocculent yeast strains referred to as 3' and 50', representative of the each statistical group, were selected together with two reference strains (Saccharomyces bayanus C6 and S. cerevisiae Levuline CHP) to elaborate four sparkling ciders by the Champenoise method. The analysis of variance (p<0.01) among ciders revealed that glycerol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, propanol, i-butanol and 2-phenylethanol were significantly influenced by the secondary yeast strain. The results of sensory analysis indicated that all the sparkling ciders were scored as good. No significant differences among sparkling ciders were found for odour attributes and taste intensity.

  12. A luciferase-based screening method for inhibitors of alphavirus replication applied to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Pohjala, Leena; Barai, Vladimir; Azhayev, Alex; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Ahola, Tero

    2008-06-01

    Several members of the widespread alphavirus group are pathogenic, but no therapy is available to treat these RNA virus infections. We report here a quantitative assay to screen for inhibitors of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replication, and demonstrate the effects of 29 nucleosides on SFV and Sindbis virus replication. The anti-SFV assay developed is based on a SFV strain containing Renilla luciferase inserted after the nsP3 coding region, yielding a marker virus in which the luciferase is cleaved out during polyprotein processing. The reporter-gene assay was miniaturized, automated and validated, resulting in a Z' value of 0.52. [3H]uridine labeling for 1 h at the maximal viral RNA synthesis time point was used as a comparative method. Anti-SFV screening and counter-screening for cell viability led to the discovery of several new SFV inhibitors. 3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosine was the most potent inhibitor in this set, with an IC50 value of 18 microM in the reporter-gene assay and 2 microM in RNA synthesis rate detection. Besides the 3'-substituted analogues, certain N6-substituted nucleosides had similar IC50 values for both SFV and Sindbis replication, suggesting the applicability of this methodology to alphaviruses in general.

  13. Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.; Dresel, P EVAN.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2006-08-07

    A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final. The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers). COC with similar properties were grouped for the screening evaluation. The screening evaluation was conducted in two primary steps. The initial screening step evaluated potential remediation methods based on whether they can be effectively applied within the environmental setting of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit for the specified contaminants. In the second step, potential remediation methods were screened using scoping calculations to estimate the scale of infrastructure, overall quantities of reagents, and conceptual approach for applying the method for each defined grouping of COC. Based on these estimates, each method was screened with respect to effectiveness, implementability, and relative cost categories of the CERCLA feasibility study screening process defined in EPA guidance.

  14. Noninvasive methods for haemoglobin screening in prospective blood donors.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, A; Benni, M; Tazzari, P L; Pagliaro, P

    2013-08-01

    The haemoglobin level of prospective blood donors is usually performed on blood obtained by from the finger pulp by fingerstick with a lancet and filling a capillary tube with a sample. New noninvasive methods are now available for rapid, noninvasive predonation haemoglobin screening. Prospective blood donors at our blood centre were tested, in two different trials, as follows: by the NBM 200 (OrSense) test (n = 445 donors) and by the Pronto-7 (Masimo) test (n = 463 donors). The haemoglobin values of each trial and the haemoglobin of finger pulp blood obtained by fingerstick with a lancet (HemoCue) were compared with the haemoglobin values obtained from a venous sample on a Cell Counter (Beckman Coulter). Comparison of Beckman Coulter Cell Counter and OrSense and results showed a bias of 0.29 g/dl, the standard deviation of the differences (SDD) of 0.98 and 95% limits of agreement from -1.64 to 2.21, using Bland and Altman statistical methodology. Comparison of Masimo and Beckman Coulter Cell Counter results showed a bias of -0.53 g/dl, SDD of 1.04 and 95% limits of agreement from -2.57 to 1.51. Cumulative analysis of all 908 donors, as tested by the usual fingerstick test showed a bias of 0.83 g/dl, SDD of 0.70 and 95% limits of agreement from -0.54 to 2.20 compared with the Coulter Cell Counter. Compared with the Coulter Counter, the specificity of the methods was 99.5% for fingerstick, 97% for OrSense and 83% for Massimo, and the sensitivity was 99, 98 and 93%, respectively. Analysis of finger pulp blood by either direct sampling by fingerstick and Hemocue, or by noninvasive haemoglobin tests does not replicate the results of cell counter analysis of venous samples. Compared with fingerstick, noninvasive haemoglobin tests eliminate pain and reduce stress, but have a lower level of specificity and sensitivity. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. System and method for obtaining wide screen Schlieren photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for use in Schlieren photography includes (1) a viewing screen adjacently related to a large grating; (2) a small grating disposed in spaced relation with the large grating; (3) a transparent retainer for confining a transparent medium between the gratings; and (4) optics for imaging the small grating on the large grating. A light source and optically aligned lens are used to project a beam of light along axes extending through the small grating and strike the large grating, subsequent to passing through the medium. A Schlieren image of striations resulting from distortions of light rays proposed by the medium are formed on the screen. A camera is used to photograph the Schlieren image projected on the large screen.

  16. Methods of screening for and diagnosing of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Coustan, D R

    1993-09-01

    Screening for gestational diabetes should be performed using a 50-g 1-hour glucose challenge. The threshold for further testing may be chosen based on the goal of the screening program, either to maximize sensitivity at the expense of more diagnostic testing by using a 130 mg/dL cutoff or to increase specificity at the sacrifice of some sensitivity by using a 140 mg/dL cutoff. The choice of universal screening or an age cutoff, such as 25 years, with testing reserved in younger women for those with risk factors, is dependent on the characteristics of a given patient population or practice. The diagnostic test for gestational diabetes is the 100-g 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test on venous plasma or serum specimens. Whole blood values may be used, but the use of capillary blood measurements by test strips and reflectance meters is not recommended.

  17. [Rational screen of high kelimycin-producing strain by combined conventional mutagenesis and high-throughput screen method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinxing; Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Siliang

    2013-07-04

    Kelimycin, is a new macrolide antibiotic drug obtained through genetic engineering approaches. With 4"-O-isovalerylspiramycins as the major components, was produced by genetically engineered Streptomyces spiramyceticus transformed with 4"-O-acyltransferase gene from S. mycarofaciens. Improve the efficiency of strain fermentation, to meet the needs of industrial production. The enhanced kelimycin-producing strain was obtained by applying various conventional mutagenesis approaches, and high-throughput screen methods, including protoplast mutagenesis by ultraviolet, mutagenesis by diethyl sulfate and UV-reactivation, valine content resistance screen and enrichment of improved strains. A strategy for positive mutant enrichment was developed after mutagenesis and before high-throughput screen. Finally, the high-producing strain WSJ-1-7-49-133-82-18-43 was obtained and its potency in shake flask increased by 56% compared to the original strain. The potency in 500 L pilot fermenter increased by 61%. This study shows that the screening industrial production strains can be enhanced effectively by combining multiple conventional mutagenesis and high-throughput screen methods.

  18. Single radial immunodiffusion method for screening Staphylococcal isolates for enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R F; Palmieri, M J

    1980-01-01

    A direct system for screening large numbers of staphylococcal isolates for enterotoxin production has been developed. The system employs polyvalent (serotypes A, B, C, D, and E) immunodiffusion assay slides in conjunction with a multiple-culturing system for toxin production. With the combined system, as many as 50 cultures can be screened simultaneously on a single assay slide having a sensitivity of about 0.3 microgram/ml. The system should be useful for detecting potential enterotoxin in foods containing a predominance of non-enterotoxigenic strains. Images PMID:6779703

  19. Nutrition screening of older people in a community general practice, using the MNA-SF.

    PubMed

    Winter, J; Flanagan, D; McNaughton, S A; Nowson, C

    2013-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition risk in a population of older people (aged 75 years and over) attending a community general practice and identify characteristics of those classified as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Cross-sectional study of nutritional risk screen conducted over a six month period. Patients attending a general practice clinic in Victoria, Australia, who attended for the "75 plus" health assessment check. The Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA®-SF) was included as part of the health assessment. Information was collected on living situation, co-morbidities, independence with meal preparation and eating, number of medications. Height and weight was measured and MNA®-SF score recorded. Two hundred and twenty five patients attending a general practice for a health assessment with a mean age of 81.3(4.3)(SD) years, 52% female and 34% living alone. Only one patient was categorised by the MNA®-SF as malnourished, with an additional 16% classified as at risk of malnutrition. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of the at-risk group was significantly lower than the well-nourished group (23.6 ± 0.8 (SEM) vs 27.4 ± 0.3; p=0.0001). However, 34% of the at-risk group had a BMI of 25 or more with only 13% in the underweight category. In this population of older adults attending their general practitioner for an annual health assessment, one in six were identified as being at nutritional risk which is an additional risk factor for a severe health issue. Importantly, one third of the at-risk group had a BMI in the overweight or obese category, highlighting that older people can be at nutritional risk although they may be overweight or obese.

  20. A comparison of two psychological screening methods currently used for inpatients in a UK burns service.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Laura; Tew, Victoria; Rai, Lovedeep

    2017-08-01

    Various types of psychological screening are currently used in the UK to identify burn patients who are experiencing psychological distress and may need additional support and intervention during their hospital admission. This audit compared two types of psychological screening in 40 burn inpatients. One screening method was an unpublished questionnaire designed to explore multiple areas of potential distress for those who have experienced burns. The other method was an indirect psychological screen via discussions within multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings where a Clinical Psychologist was present to guide and prompt psychological discussions. Data was collected between November 2012 and September 2016. Results suggested that both screening methods were similar in identifying patients who benefit from more formal psychological assessment. Indeed, statistical analysis reported no difference between the two screening methods (N=40, p=.424, two-tailed). In conclusion, measuring distress in burns inpatients using a burns-specific questionnaire and psychological discussions within MDT meetings are similar in their ability to identify patients in need of more thorough psychological assessment. However, both screening methods identified patients who were in need of psychological input when the other did not. This suggests that psychological screening of burns inpatients, and the psychological difficulties that they can present with, is complex. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods of screening are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-01-01

    Four different methods of teaching--cooperative learning, class discussions, concept maps, and lectures--were integrated into a freshman-level general chemistry course to compare students' levels of participation. Findings support the idea that multiple modes of learning foster the metacognitive skills necessary for mastering general chemistry.…

  2. Detection of memory impairment in the general population: screening by questionnaire and telephone compared to subsequent face-to-face assessment.

    PubMed

    van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Chin A Paw, Marijke J M; Klein, Martin; van Mechelen, Willem; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    2007-03-01

    Development of efficient methods for identifying subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from the general population is warranted, because these subjects represent an important group for (epidemiological) research purposes. (1) To describe a two-step population screening for identifying adults with MCI from the general population for research purposes, by questionnaire and telephone; (2) to compare screening by telephone (method 1) to a subsequent face-to-face assessment (method 2). In method 1, subjects with memory complaints were identified from the general population (n = 5491) by a postal questionnaire. Subsequently, cognitive status and memory were assessed in a telephone interview using the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status and the Ten Word Learning Test. Next, subjects with MCI according to method 1 were subjected to a face-to-face assessment for method 2, in which cognitive status and memory were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Two hundred and twenty-seven subjects completed both the telephone interview and the face-to-face assessment. Ninety-three subjects (41%) had MCI according to both methods. Seven subjects (3%) failed to meet MCI criteria according to method two because of an MMSE score <24; 127 subjects (56%) failed because of normal AVLT scores. (1) The two-step population screening was able to detect a considerable number of MCI-subjects in the general population; (2) agreement between both methods was moderate. Therefore, the method of recruiting subjects for (epidemiological) studies has to be taken into consideration when interpreting results of these studies. (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cross-screening: a new method to assemble clones rapidly and unambiguously into contigs.

    PubMed

    Locke, J; Rairdan, G; McDermid, H; Nash, D; Pilgrim, D; Bell, J; Roy, K; Hodgetts, R

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a new procedure that relies on an array of cross-hybridization tests to order a set of random clones into a contig. The method, called cross-screening, uses each clone as a target and its end sequences as probes, in a matrix of reciprocal cross-hybridization tests performed on a single blot. The relationships among the clones are determined rapidly from the pairwise tests, allowing clone order to be determined directly. We have applied this technique to DNAs from a set of overlapping lambda clones from Drosophila chromosome 4. The location and orientation of each clone derived from the cross-screening data was that expected from the map assembled from overlapping restriction sites and chromosomal walking. The procedure provided additional information on a previously unknown, internally repeated DNA sequence. To demonstrate the general utility of the procedure, we have applied it to a previously described clone set within a contig in region 22q12 of human chromosome 22. The correct relative position and orientation of these clones were derived from the cross-screening data without knowledge of, or reference to, any nucleotide sequence or restriction site analysis of the DNA concerned. The cross-screening procedure is fast, economical, and robust and allows clone overlaps to be determined efficiently, with minimal interference from repeated DNA sequences. This new procedure is specifically designed for small groups of overlapping clones (tens to hundreds) and should facilitate the ordering of subclone libraries derived from small chromosomes or the large cloned inserts carried in YAC, BAC, and P1 vectors.

  4. Mounting method improves electrical and vibrational characteristics of screen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of the mesh or screen electrodes used in electron tubes are improved by decreasing the shunt capacitance of the tube while retaining the close spacing needed for the required resolution. Vibrational characteristics are enhanced by raising the natural resonant frequency.

  5. Methods and Procedures in Screening Gifted Mayan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Pedro Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Instruments, procedures, and criteria for the screening of Mayan students in Yucatan, Mexico are depicted and evaluated by analyzing the results of their use on 242 students in five different regions of Yucatan. These 242, 8th grade students were selected from a pool of 1,530 potentially gifted students. Participants responded to a variety of…

  6. [Awareness of breast cancer screening among general practitioners in Mohammedia (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Zine, Karima; Nani, Samira; Lahmadi, Imad Ait; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem in Morocco. It is the most common cancer in women. Our study aims to evaluate the extent of breast cancer awareness among general practitioners (GP) in the prefecture of Mohammedia, Morocco. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, exhaustive study including 97 GP working in primary health care facilities (public and private sector) of the province of Mohammedia. Participation rate was 87%. The average age of GP was 49.6 ± 8.1. Eighty percent (n = 55) of the GP misstated the incidence of breast cancer, 77.6% (n = 85) recognized the existence of a national plan to prevent and control cancer (NPPCC) in Morocco and 67.1% of GP reported the existence of a cancer registry in Morocco. General practice sector was significantly related to the awareness of NPPCC among GP and to the existence of guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001 respectively). A significant relationship was found between seniority and the existence of guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer and a breast cancer registry (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002 respectively). In light of these results GP awareness and practices should be enhanced by promoting initial and continuing training on breast cancer screening.

  7. MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD ECBC-TR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Method as a Rapid Screening Tool for Bacterial Contamination of Food 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...2 2.1 Preparation of Bacterial Stocks

  8. An improved method for rapid generation and screening of Bacillus thuringiensis phage-resistant mutants.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    A simple method to isolate, screen and select phage-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis was developed. The traditional double-layer agar method was improved by a combination of the spotting assay using a lytic phage, to generate the bacterial-resistant mutants, with an inverted spotting assay (ISA), to rapidly screen the candidate-resistant mutants.

  9. A virtual screening method for prediction of the HERG potassium channel liability of compound libraries.

    PubMed

    Roche, Olivier; Trube, Gerhard; Zuegge, Jochen; Pflimlin, Pascal; Alanine, Alexander; Schneider, Gisbert

    2002-05-03

    A computer-based method has been developed for prediction of the hERG (human ether-à-go-go related gene) K(+)-channel affinity of low molecular weight compounds. hERG channel blockage is a major concern in drug design, as such blocking agents can cause sudden cardiac death. Various techniques were applied to finding appropriate molecular descriptors for modeling structure-activity relationships: substructure analysis, self-organizing maps (SOM), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares fitting (PLS), and supervised neural networks. The most accurate prediction system was based on an artificial neural network. In a validation study, 93 % of the nonblocking agents and 71 % of the hERG channel blockers were correctly classified. This virtual screening method can be used for general compound-library shaping and combinatorial library design.

  10. Use of a Hospital-Wide Screening Program for Early Detection of Sepsis in General Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Ian T; Dawes, Aaron J; Hadnott, Tracy; Strength, Kristen; Moran, Gregory J; Holschneider, Christine; Russell, Marcia M; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda

    2015-10-01

    Sepsis remains a significant source of mortality among hospitalized patients. This study examines the usage of a vital sign-based screening protocol in identifying postoperative patients at risk for sepsis at an academic-affiliated medical center. We identified all general surgery inpatients undergoing abdominopelvic surgery from January to June 2014, and compared those with positive screening tests to a sample of screen-negative controls. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of positive screening tests and progression to severe sepsis. In total, 478 patients underwent abdominopelvic operations, 59 had positive screening tests, 33 qualified for sepsis, and six progressed to severe sepsis. Predictors of a positive screening test were presence of cancer [odds ratio (OR) 30.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-420], emergency operation (OR 6.5, 95% CI 1.7-24), longer operative time (OR 2.2/h, 95% CI 1.2-4.1), and presence of postoperative infection (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.5-27). The screening protocol had sensitivity 100 per cent and specificity 88 per cent for severe sepsis. We identified no predictors of severe sepsis. In conclusion, vital sign-based screening provides value by drawing early attention to patients with potential to develop sepsis, but escalation of care for these patients should be based on clinical judgment.

  11. Optimal explicit strong-stability-preserving general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E.; Sandu, A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper constructs strong-stability-preserving general linear time-stepping methods that are well suited for hyperbolic PDEs discretized by the method of lines. These methods generalize both Runge-Kutta (RK) and linear multistep schemes. They have high stage orders and hence are less susceptible than RK methods to order reduction from source terms or nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. A global optimization strategy is used to find the most efficient schemes that have low storage requirements. Numerical results illustrate the theoretical findings.

  12. Species tree inference by the STAR method and its generalizations.

    PubMed

    Allman, Elizabeth S; Degnan, James H; Rhodes, John A

    2013-01-01

    The multispecies coalescent model describes the generation of gene trees from a rooted metric species tree and thus provides a framework for the inference of species trees from sampled gene trees. We prove that the STAR method of Liu et al. (2009) and generalizations of it, are statistically consistent methods of topological species tree inference under this model. We discuss the impact of gene tree sampling schemes for species tree inference using generalized STAR methods and reinterpret the original STAR as a consensus method based on clades.

  13. Screening of Nutritional Risk and Nutritional Support in General Surgery Patients: A Survey from Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhen-Yi; Yang, Jun; Tong, Da-Nian; Peng, Jia-Yuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Liu, Wei-Jie; Xia, Yang; Qin, Huan-long

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of nutritional risk in surgical departments and to evaluate the impact of nutritional support on clinical outcomes. The nutritional risk in different surgical diseases and the different way of nutritional support on clinical outcomes in patients at nutritional risk remain unclear. Hospitalized patients from general surgical departments were screened using the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 questionnaire on admission. Data were collected on nutritional risk, complications, and length of stay (LOS). Overall, 5034 patients were recruited; the overall prevalence of nutritional risk on admission were 19.2%. The highest prevalence was found among patients with gastric cancer. At-risk patients had more complications and longer LOS than nonrisk patients. Of the at-risk patients, the complication rate was significantly lower and LOS was significantly shorter in the nutritional-support group than in the no-support group (20.9 versus 30.0%, P < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed reduced complication rates and LOS only in patients with gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) cancer. Significantly lower complication rates relative to nonsupported patients were found among patients who received enteral nutrition or who received support for 5 to 7 days, or daily support entailing 16 to 25 kcal/kg of nonprotein energy. Different surgical diseases have different levels of nutritional risk. The provision of nutritional support was associated with a lower complication rate and a shorter LOS for gastric, colorectal, and HPB cancer patients at nutritional risk. The improper use of nutritional support may not improve outcomes for at-risk patients. PMID:26011204

  14. Pi sampling: a methodical and flexible approach to initial macromolecular crystallization screening.

    PubMed

    Gorrec, Fabrice; Palmer, Colin M; Lebon, Guillaume; Warne, Tony

    2011-05-01

    The Pi sampling method is derived from the incomplete factorial approach to macromolecular crystallization screen design. The resulting `Pi screens' have a modular distribution of a given set of up to 36 stock solutions. Maximally diverse conditions can be produced by taking into account the properties of the chemicals used in the formulation and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions. The Pi sampling method has been implemented in a web-based application that generates screen formulations and recipes. It is particularly adapted to screens consisting of 96 different conditions. The flexibility and efficiency of Pi sampling is demonstrated by the crystallization of soluble proteins and of an integral membrane-protein sample.

  15. Knowledge-Based Methods To Train and Optimize Virtual Screening Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble docking can be a successful virtual screening technique that addresses the innate conformational heterogeneity of macromolecular drug targets. Yet, lacking a method to identify a subset of conformational states that effectively segregates active and inactive small molecules, ensemble docking may result in the recommendation of a large number of false positives. Here, three knowledge-based methods that construct structural ensembles for virtual screening are presented. Each method selects ensembles by optimizing an objective function calculated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: either the area under the ROC curve (AUC) or a ROC enrichment factor (EF). As the number of receptor conformations, N, becomes large, the methods differ in their asymptotic scaling. Given a set of small molecules with known activities and a collection of target conformations, the most resource intense method is guaranteed to find the optimal ensemble but scales as O(2N). A recursive approximation to the optimal solution scales as O(N2), and a more severe approximation leads to a faster method that scales linearly, O(N). The techniques are generally applicable to any system, and we demonstrate their effectiveness on the androgen nuclear hormone receptor (AR), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPAR-δ) drug targets. Conformations that consisted of a crystal structure and molecular dynamics simulation cluster centroids were used to form AR and CDK2 ensembles. Multiple available crystal structures were used to form PPAR-δ ensembles. For each target, we show that the three methods perform similarly to one another on both the training and test sets. PMID:27097522

  16. General image method in a plane-layered elastostatic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, N.; Li, V. C.

    1988-01-01

    The general-image method presently used to obtain the elastostatic fields in plane-layered media relies on the use of potentials in order to represent elastic fields. For the case of a single interface, this method yields the displacement field in closed form, and is applicable to antiplane, plane, and three-dimensional problems. In the case of multiplane interfaces, the image method generates the displacement fields in terms of infinite series whose convergences can be accelerated to improve method efficiency.

  17. A highly cost effective method of mass screening for thalassaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I

    1983-01-01

    A simple, fast, and reliable two step procedure for the detection of non-alpha-thalassaemias in mass screening programmes is presented. Step 1 consists of a study of red cell morphology and a one tube red cell osmotic fragility tests. This step eliminates the non-thalassaemic samples; the rest are processed through step 2, consisting of determination of red cell indices and haemoglobin studies. Over the past seven years this procedure has been used at this centre in mass screening secondary school students in Latium. Blood samples from 289 763 students were examined, and 6838 cases of thalassaemia detected. It is estimated that 0.35 +/- 0.25% of subjects with thalassaemia escaped detection by this procedure. PMID:6403170

  18. Screening for diabetic microalbuminuria in routine clinical care: which method?

    PubMed Central

    Shield, J P; Hunt, L P; Baum, J D; Pennock, C A

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of albumin/creatinine ratios and simple albumin concentrations in early morning urine specimens were evaluated to establish which was the best screening test for those likely to have microalbuminuria by the reference standard analysis of timed overnight urine specimens. The measurement of an albumin/creatinine ratio with a cut off of > or = 2.0 mg/mmol was found to be suitable with a specificity of 93% and sensitivity of 97%. PMID:7618940

  19. Evaluation of Quantitative Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) Methods. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    muu4 The objective of this study was to evaluate Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) techniques contained in DOD-HDBK-344,’ by applying the methodology...to several electronic products during actual factor production. Validation of the techniques , the develop- ment of improved, qi•p’lified,_ad...automated procedures and subsequent revisions to the Handbook were the objectives, qf the evaluation. The Rome Laboratory has developed techniques which

  20. A choice-based screening method for compulsive drug users in rats.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Magalie; Augier, Eric; Vouillac, Caroline; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-07-01

    We describe a protocol for screening compulsive drug users among cocaine self-administering rats, the most frequently used animal model in addiction research. Rats are first trained on several alternating days to self-administer either cocaine (i.v.) or saccharin-sweetened water (by mouth)--a potent, albeit nonessential, nondrug reward. Then rats are allowed to choose between the two rewards over several days until the preference stabilizes. Most rats choose to stop using cocaine and pursue the alternative reward. Only a minority of Wistar strain rats (generally 15%) persist in taking the drug, regardless of the severity of past cocaine use and even when made hungry and offered the possibility to relieve their physiological need. Persistence of cocaine use in the face of a high-stakes choice is a core defining feature of compulsion. This choice-based screening method for compulsive drug users is easy to implement, has several important applications, and compares well with other methods in the field.

  1. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  2. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  3. General method for calculating derivatives of the lattice electrostatic energy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, D. E.; Eftis, J.; Arkilic, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    A method for calculating the derivatives of lattice electrostatic strain energy is proposed. It offers a computation procedure that is more general, concise, and systematic than any of the procedures previously used by Fuchs (1936), Cousins (1967), and Suzuki et al. (1968). The method can also easily be extended to fourth- and higher-order derivatives without undue difficulty.

  4. A General Method for Modeling Macromolecular Shape in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    A general method for modeling macromolecular shape in solution is described involving measurements of viscosity, radius of gyration, and the second thermodynamic virial coefficient. The method, which should be relatively straightforward to apply, does not suffer from uniqueness problems, involves shape functions that are independent of hydration, and models the gross conformation of the macromolecule in solution as a general triaxial ellipsoid. The method is illustrated by application to myosin, and the relevance and applicability of ellipsoid modeling to biological structures is discussed. PMID:19431695

  5. Multi wave method for the generalized form of BBM equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildik, Necdet; Tandogan, Yusuf Ali

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we apply the multi-wave method to find new multi wave solutions for an important nonlinear physical model. This model is well known as generalized form of Benjamin Bona Mahony (BBM) equation. Using the mathematics software Mathematica, we compute the traveling wave solutions. Then, the multi wave solutions including periodic wave solutions, bright soliton solutions and rational function solutions are obtained by the multi wave method. It is seen that this method is very useful mathematical approach for generalized form of BBM equation.

  6. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Kim, Rosalind [Moraga, CA; Jancarik, Jamila [Walnut Creek, CA

    2012-01-31

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  7. An Open Source Based High Content Screening Method for Cell Biology Laboratories Investigating Cell Spreading and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pietro, Maurianne A.; Schwab, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adhesion dependent mechanisms are increasingly recognized to be important for a wide range of biological processes, diseases and therapeutics. This has led to a rising demand of pharmaceutical modulators. However, most currently available adhesion assays are time consuming and/or lack sensitivity and reproducibility or depend on specialized and expensive equipment often only available at screening facilities. Thus, rapid and economical high-content screening approaches are urgently needed. Results We established a fully open source high-content screening method for identifying modulators of adhesion. We successfully used this method to detect small molecules that are able to influence cell adhesion and cell spreading of Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts in general and/or specifically counteract Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion and cell spreading. The tricyclic anti-depressant clomipramine hydrochloride was shown to not only inhibit Nogo-A-Δ20-induced cell spreading inhibition in 3T3 fibroblasts but also to promote growth and counteract neurite outgrowth inhibition in highly purified primary neurons isolated from rat cerebellum. Conclusions We have developed and validated a high content screening approach that can be used in any ordinarily equipped cell biology laboratory employing exclusively freely available open-source software in order to find novel modulators of adhesion and cell spreading. The versatility and adjustability of the whole screening method will enable not only centers specialized in high-throughput screens but most importantly also labs not routinely employing screens in their daily work routine to investigate the effects of a wide range of different compounds or siRNAs on adhesion and adhesion-modulating molecules. PMID:24205161

  8. Test-retest reliability and practice effects for the ANAM General Neuropsychological Screening battery.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Andrea S; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Fuenzalida, Eugenia; Gilliland, Kirby

    2017-08-23

    As the use of computer-based neurocognitive assessment is rapidly expanding, the need to systematically study and document key psychometric properties of these measures has become increasingly more salient. To meet this aim, this study examined test-retest reliability and practice effects for the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics General Neuropsychological Screening battery (ANAM GNS) in a sample of 94 community dwelling adults. ANAM GNS was administered and then repeated (alternate form) after 30 days. Test-retest reliability, practice effects, and the standard error of measurement were calculated. Using these estimates, reliable change indices were calculated to determine degree of performance change needed to exceed chance and measurement error (with 90% confidence interval). The test-retest reliability for the ANAM composite score was .91. Performance significantly improved upon retest, but the effect size was small consistent with minimal practice effects. The threshold indicating change beyond chance or measurement error with 90% certainty was .9 (z-score). Findings suggest that the ANAM GNS has excellent test-retest reliability upon retest at 30 days. Small practice effects can be expected. Change greater than .9 standard deviations in the ANAM composite score is likely to represent meaningful clinical change. This paper presents initial psychometric data from the ANAM GNS and supports its use as a reliable measure of cognition.

  9. Developing the clinical components of a complex intervention for a glaucoma screening trial: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a leading cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. Open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma. No randomised controlled trials have been conducted evaluating the effectiveness of glaucoma screening for reducing sight loss. It is unclear what the most appropriate intervention to be evaluated in any glaucoma screening trial would be. The purpose of this study was to develop the clinical components of an intervention for evaluation in a glaucoma (open angle) screening trial that would be feasible and acceptable in a UK eye-care service. Methods A mixed-methods study, based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex interventions, integrating qualitative (semi-structured interviews with 46 UK eye-care providers, policy makers and health service commissioners), and quantitative (economic modelling) methods. Interview data were synthesised and used to revise the screening interventions compared within an existing economic model. Results The qualitative data indicated broad based support for a glaucoma screening trial to take place in primary care, using ophthalmic trained technical assistants supported by optometry input. The precise location should be tailored to local circumstances. There was variability in opinion around the choice of screening test and target population. Integrating the interview findings with cost-effectiveness criteria reduced 189 potential components to a two test intervention including either optic nerve photography or screening mode perimetry (a measure of visual field sensitivity) with or without tonometry (a measure of intraocular pressure). It would be more cost-effective, and thus acceptable in a policy context, to target screening for open angle glaucoma to those at highest risk but for both practicality and equity arguments the optimal strategy was screening a general population cohort beginning at age forty. Conclusions Interventions for screening for open angle glaucoma that would be

  10. Clinical value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in health screening of general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Richter, Antje; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor; Pickuth, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and angiography (WB-MRA) has become increasingly popular in population-based research. We evaluated retrospectively the frequency of potentially relevant incidental findings throughout the body. Materials and methods 22 highly health-conscious managers (18 men, mean age 47±9 years) underwent WB-MRI and WB-MRA between March 2012 and September 2013 on a Discovery MR750w wide bore 3 Tesla device (GE Healthcare) using T1 weighted, short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) acquisitions according to a standardized protocol. Results A suspicious (pararectal) malignancy was detected in one patient which was confirmed by an endorectal sonography. Incidental findings were described in 20 subjects, including hydrocele (11 patients), benign bony lesion (7 patients) and non-specific lymph nodes (5 patients). Further investigations were recommended in 68% (ultrasound: 36%, computed tomography: 28%, mammography: 9%, additional MRI: 9%). WB-MRA were negative in 16 subjects. Vascular normal variations were reported in 23%, and a 40% left proximal common carotid artery stenosis were described in one subject. Conclusions WB-MRI and MRA lead to the detection of clinically relevant diseases and unexpected findings in a cohort of healthy adults that require further imaging or surveillance in 68%. WB-MR imaging may play a paramount role in health screening, especially in the future generation of (epi)genetic based screening of malignant and atherosclerotic disorders. Our study is the first which involved a highly selected patient group using a high field 3-T wide bore magnet system with T1, STIR, MRA and whole-body DWI acquisitions as well. PMID:25810696

  11. A fast method for a generalized nonlocal elastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ning; Wang, Hong; Wang, Che

    2015-09-01

    We develop a numerical method for a generalized nonlocal elastic model, which is expressed as a composition of a Riesz potential operator with a fractional differential operator, by composing a collocation method with a finite difference discretization. By carefully exploring the structure of the coefficient matrix of the numerical method, we develop a preconditioned fast Krylov subspace method, which reduces the computations to (Nlog ⁡ N) per iteration and the memory to O (N). The use of the preconditioner significantly reduces the number of iterations, and the preconditioner can be inverted in O (Nlog ⁡ N) computations. Numerical results show the utility of the method.

  12. Comparative evaluation of 3D virtual ligand screening methods: impact of the molecular alignment on enrichment.

    PubMed

    Giganti, David; Guillemain, Hélène; Spadoni, Jean-Louis; Nilges, Michael; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2010-06-28

    In the early stage of drug discovery programs, when the structure of a complex involving a target and a small molecule is available, structure-based virtual ligand screening methods are generally preferred. However, ligand-based strategies like shape-similarity search methods can also be applied. Shape-similarity search methods consist in exploring a pseudo-binding-site derived from the known small molecule used as a reference. Several of these methods use conformational sampling algorithms which are also shared by corresponding docking methods: for example Surflex-dock/Surflex-sim, FlexX/FlexS, ICM, and OMEGA-FRED/OMEGA-ROCS. Using 11 systems issued from the challenging "own" subsets of the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD-own), we evaluated and compared the performance of the above-cited programs in terms of molecular alignment accuracy, enrichment in active compounds, and enrichment in different chemotypes (scaffold-hopping). Since molecular alignment is a crucial aspect of performance for the different methods, we have assessed its impact on enrichment. We have also illustrated the paradox of retrieving active compounds with good scores even if they are inaccurately positioned. Finally, we have highlighted possible positive aspects of using shape-based approaches in drug-discovery protocols when the structure of the target in complex with a small molecule is known.

  13. Comparative analysis of machine learning methods in ligand-based virtual screening of large compound libraries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao H; Jia, Jia; Zhu, Feng; Xue, Ying; Li, Ze R; Chen, Yu Z

    2009-05-01

    Machine learning methods have been explored as ligand-based virtual screening tools for facilitating drug lead discovery. These methods predict compounds of specific pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic or toxicological properties based on their structure-derived structural and physicochemical properties. Increasing attention has been directed at these methods because of their capability in predicting compounds of diverse structures and complex structure-activity relationships without requiring the knowledge of target 3D structure. This article reviews current progresses in using machine learning methods for virtual screening of pharmacodynamically active compounds from large compound libraries, and analyzes and compares the reported performances of machine learning tools with those of structure-based and other ligand-based (such as pharmacophore and clustering) virtual screening methods. The feasibility to improve the performance of machine learning methods in screening large libraries is discussed.

  14. Terbium-sensitized luminescence screening method for fluoroquinolones in beef serum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enrofloxacin is one of only two fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the U.S. Microbial screening methods commonly used for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay was developed...

  15. Time-resolved luminescence screening method for enrofloxacin in beef serum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enrofloxacin is one of only two fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the U.S. Microbial screening methods currently used in the U.S. for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay ...

  16. Effect of reminders mailed to general practitioners on colorectal cancer screening adherence: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Julien; Ferrat, Émilie; Attali, Claude; Bercier, Sandrine; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Brixi, Zahida; Veerabudun, Kalaivani; Renard, Vincent; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    Reminders have been used in various settings, but failed to produce convincing evidence of benefits on patient adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sending general practitioners (GPs) printed reminders about CRC screening. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 144 GPs in the Val-de-Marne district (France), who provided care for any reason to 20 778 patients eligible for CRC screening between June 2010 and November 2011. Data were collected from the main statutory health-insurance programme and local cancer screening agency. GPs were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 proportion to the intervention or the control group. Every 4 months, intervention-group GPs received a computer-generated printed list of patients who had not performed scheduled faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. The primary outcome was patient adherence to FOBT screening or exclusion from CRC screening for medical reasons. The screening adherence rate was 31.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.3-32.1] in the control group and 32.9% (95% CI 32.0-33.8) in the intervention group [crude relative risk, 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.09), P<0.01]. This rate was not significantly different between groups by multilevel modelling accounting for clustering and confounding variables [adjusted relative risk, 1.07 (95% CI 0.95-1.20), P=0.27]. Computer-generated printed reminders sent to GPs did not significantly improve patient adherence to organized CRC screening by the FOBT.

  17. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  18. Tangential and sagittal curvature from the normals computed by the null screen method in corneal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-08-01

    A new method for computing the tangential and sagittal curvatures from the normals to a cornea is proposed. The normals are obtained through a Null Screen method from the coordinates of the drops shaped spots at the null screen, the coordinates on a reference approximating surface and the centroids on the image plane. This method assumes that the cornea has rotational symmetry and our derivations will be carried out in the meridional plane that contains the symmetry axis. Experimental results are shown for a calibration spherical surface, using cylindrical null screens with radial point arrays.

  19. Screening and Correlates of Neurotic Disorders Among General Medical Outpatients in Xi’an China

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Chunping; Ma, Lihua; Wang, Bo; Hua, Yan; Hua, Qianzhen; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Gao, Bo; Yan, Yongping; Huang, Yueqin

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Little is known about the distribution and correlates of neurotic disorders among general medical outpatients. The aim was to identify the population distribution and associated factors of neurotic disorders among general medical outpatients. DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional design was used. Computer-assisted interviews of 372 general outpatients aged 16 years or older in Xi’an China were conducted using a Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI-3.0). FINDINGS The estimated lifetime prevalence of any ICD-10 neurotic disorder among general medical outpatients was 10.8%. The most prevalent subtype of neurotic disorders was specific phobias (5.7%) followed by obsessive-compulsive disorders (3.8%) and social phobias (1.3%). General outpatients who visited the department of internal medicine (OR = 6.55, 95% CI 1.51–28.38), who were under 40 years old (OR =4.44,95%CI 2.05–9.62),had less than high school education (OR = 4.19, 95% CI 1.79–9.79), and were female (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.14–4.47) were most likely to report neurotic disorders. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Effective identification of neurotic disorders is crucial for its early detection and targeted intervention among general medical outpatients. Those outpatients who had younger age and lower education level, and were female and had visited internal medicine departments require additional attention. PMID:24957637

  20. Tools to overcome potential barriers to chlamydia screening in general practice: Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of a complex intervention.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Ellie J; Francischetto, Elaine O'Connell; Wallace, Louise M; Hogan, Angela; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2016-03-22

    Chlamydia trachomatis remains a significant public health problem. We used a complex intervention, with general practice staff, consisting of practice based workshops, posters, computer prompts and testing feedback and feedback to increase routine chlamydia screening tests in under 25 year olds in South West England. We aimed to evaluate how intervention components were received by staff and to understand what determined their implementation into ongoing practice. We used face-to-face and telephone individual interviews with 29 general practice staff analysed thematically within a Normalisation Process Theory Framework which explores: 1. Coherence (if participants understand the purpose of the intervention); 2. Cognitive participation (engagement with and implementation of the intervention); 3. Collective action (work actually undertaken that drives the intervention forwards); 4. Reflexive monitoring (assessment of the impact of the intervention). Our results showed coherence as all staff including receptionists understood the purpose of the training was to make them aware of the value of chlamydia screening tests and how to increase this in their general practice. The training was described by nearly all staff as being of high quality and responsible for creating a shared understanding between staff of how to undertake routine chlamydia screening. Cognitive participation in many general practice staff teams was demonstrated through their engagement by meeting after the training to discuss implementation, which confirmed the role of each staff member and the use of materials. However several participants still felt unable to discuss chlamydia in many consultations or described sexual health as low priority among colleagues. National targets were considered so high for some general practice staff that they didn't engage with the screening intervention. Collective action work undertaken to drive the intervention included use of computer prompts which helped staff

  1. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Shevtsova, J.; Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Gladkowa, N. D.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Sterry, W.; Blume-Peytavi, U.

    2008-12-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients.

  2. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    PubMed

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  3. [Barrett's esophagus: new screening methods and new endoscopic therapy].

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Tang, Thai; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-07

    New endoscopic techniques allow, for the diagnosis, to better identify dysplastic lesions using "virtual" chromoendoscopy (without replacing systematic biopsies), and for the treatment, to resect large superficial lesions or ablate the entire Barrett's mucosa (the latter technique uses radiofrequency and does not provide any specimen). Endoscopic resection allows (1) to more accurately stage the lesion than biopsies, (2) to be curative in case of high grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma. Radiofrequency ablation of the entire metaplastic mucosa is recommended after resection of neoplastic lesions with a curative intent (to avoid recurrences) or as first line treatment in case of dysplasia without visible lesion. In practical, if neoplasia is detected during screening endoscopy, a careful (chromoendoscopy) examination is required to orient patient's management (resection and/or radiofrequency ablation).

  4. Method for screening inhibitors of the toxicity of Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Cirino, Nick M.; Jackson, Paul J.; Lehnert, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    The protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is integral to the mechanism of anthrax poisoning. The cloning, expression and purification of a 32 kDa B. anthracis PA fragment (PA32) is described. This fragment has also been expressed as a fusion construct to stabilized green fluorescent protein (EGFP-PA32). Both proteins were capable of binding to specific cell surface receptors as determined by fluorescent microscopy and a flow cytometric assay. To confirm binding specificity in the flow cytometric assay, non-fluorescent PA83 or PA32 was used to competitively inhibit fluorescent EGFP-PA32 binding to cell receptors. This assay can be employed as a rapid screen for compounds which disrupts binding of PA to cells. Additionally, the high intracellular expression levels and ease of purification make this recombinant protein an attractive vaccine candidate or therapeutic treatment for anthrax poisoning.

  5. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Das, Soumen; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cytosensors over a frequency range offers instantaneous and quantitative means to monitor cellular events and is an upcoming technique in real time to classify cells as normal and abnormal ones. This technology is exploited for label-free detection of diseases by identifying and measuring nonbiological parameters of the cell which may carry the disease signature. PMID:27006939

  6. Performance Comparison of Student-Athletes and General College Students on the Functional Movement Screen and the Y Balance Test.

    PubMed

    Engquist, Katherine D; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2015-08-01

    Although various studies have assessed performance of athletes on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y Balance Test (YBT), no study to date has directly evaluated a comparison of performance between athletes and members of the general population. Thus, to better understand the application of the FMS and the YBT to general college students, this study examined whether or not general college students performed similarly to student-athletes on the FMS (composite and movement pattern scores) and the YBT (composite and reach directions). This study evaluated 167 Division I student-athletes and 103 general college students from the same university on the FMS and the YBT. No difference was found in FMS composite scores between student-athletes and general college students. For FMS movement patterns, female student-athletes scored higher than general college students in the deep squat. No difference was found for men in any FMS movement pattern. Female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in YBT composite scores; no difference was found for men in YBT composite scores. In analysis of YBT reach directions, female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in all reach directions, whereas no difference was found in men. Existing research on the FMS composite score in athletic populations may apply to a general college population for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc. Existing research on the YBT in male athletic populations is expected to apply equally to general college males for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc.

  7. Contacts to general practice and antidepressant treatment initiation after screening for anxiety and depression in patients with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Schougaard, Liv Marit Valen; Larsen, Louise Pape; Jessen, Anne; May, Ole; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety and depression are found in 20-30% of all persons with heart disease, and depression is known to impact mortality. This paper aimed to describe the effect of systematic screening of this population in terms of use of general practice, psychological therapy and antidepressant treatment. A population-based cohort study was conducted in 2011-2013 comprising 1,658 people with heart disease treated at a Danish regional hospital. Collected data were based on Danish national registers and patient questionnaires. Patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive symptoms had more general practitioner (GP) contact rates than patients without anxiety or depressive symptoms both before and after the screening. Furthermore, patients with depressive symptoms increased their GP contact rate significantly in the first month after the screening, while this was not the case for patients with anxiety symptoms. Finally, patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive symptoms more frequently initiated treatment with antidepressants than patients with heart disease without anxiety or depressive symptoms, whereas therapy sessions with a psychologist were rarely used. Heart patients with depressive symptoms may benefit from screening for depression, information about the screening result and a subsequent recommendation to consult their GP in case of signs of depression. -However, the observed effect seems to be modest. The study was supported by an unrestricted grant from the Lundbeck Foundation (grant number: R155-2012-11280). none.

  8. Plant cell wall glycosyltransferases: High-throughput recombinant expression screening and general requirements for these challenging enzymes.

    PubMed

    Welner, Ditte Hededam; Shin, David; Tomaleri, Giovani P; DeGiovanni, Andy M; Tsai, Alex Yi-Lin; Tran, Huu M; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Green, Derek T; Scheller, Henrik V; Adams, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Molecular characterization of plant cell wall glycosyltransferases is a critical step towards understanding the biosynthesis of the complex plant cell wall, and ultimately for efficient engineering of biofuel and agricultural crops. The majority of these enzymes have proven very difficult to obtain in the needed amount and purity for such molecular studies, and recombinant cell wall glycosyltransferase production efforts have largely failed. A daunting number of strategies can be employed to overcome this challenge, including optimization of DNA and protein sequences, choice of expression organism, expression conditions, co-expression partners, purification methods, and optimization of protein solubility and stability. Hence researchers are presented with thousands of potential conditions to test. Ultimately, the subset of conditions that will be sampled depends on practical considerations and prior knowledge of the enzyme(s) being studied. We have developed a rational approach to this process. We devise a pipeline comprising in silico selection of targets and construct design, and high-throughput expression screening, target enrichment, and hit identification. We have applied this pipeline to a test set of Arabidopsis thaliana cell wall glycosyltransferases known to be challenging to obtain in soluble form, as well as to a library of cell wall glycosyltransferases from other plants including agricultural and biofuel crops. The screening results suggest that recombinant cell wall glycosyltransferases in general have a very low soluble:insoluble ratio in lysates from heterologous expression cultures, and that co-expression of chaperones as well as lysis buffer optimization can increase this ratio. We have applied the identified preferred conditions to Reversibly Glycosylated Polypeptide 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, and processed this enzyme to near-purity in unprecedented milligram amounts. The obtained preparation of Reversibly Glycosylated Polypeptide 1 has the

  9. Suggested instruments for General Practitioners in countries with low schooling to screen for cognitive impairment in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Porto, Claudia Sellitto; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Citero, Vanessa de Albuquerque; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) from underdeveloped countries apply cognitive impairment (CI) assessment tools translated and adapted to cultural setting from other idioms, mainly English. As schooling in elderly from underdeveloped countries tends to be relatively heterogeneous, it is necessary to establish normative and cut-off scores for these CI instruments that are based on studies conducted locally. Some CI screening instruments frequently used by Brazilian specialists in dementia were analyzed to determine which could be most useful to GPs in their working sets. Two hundred forty-eight patients aged 65 years or older that had been assisted by GPs in a tertiary hospital in Brazil were evaluated. Based on the MMSE and/or Short-IQCODE scores, 52 probable cases were identified on the basis of clinical data, performances on the neuropsychological tests and questionnaires (Functional Assessment Questionnaire/FAQ, Category Verbal Fluency/CVF, Clock Drawing Test/CDT) and blood tests and brain CT. The combination of a functional questionnaire with a cognitive instrument had higher sensitivity and specificity than using the instruments alone. A FAQ cut-off of 3 in conjunction with a CDT cut-off of 6 proved optimal (93% sensitivity and 92.5% specificity). A higher specificity (93.5%) was attained using a combination of the FAQ (cut-off of 3) with the CVF (cut-off of 10). For low schooling elderly, the combination of the FAQ and CVF represented a very simple method of increasing the chances of correct screening. For those with higher schooling, the combination of the FAQ and CDT was more suitable.

  10. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GEOPHYSICAL METHODS APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geophysics is the application of physical quantity measurement techniques to provide information on conditions or features beneath the earth’s surface. With the exception of borehole geophysical methods and soil probes like a cone penetrometer, these techniques are generally noninvasive with physica...

  11. General Anisotropy Identification of Paperboard with Virtual Fields Method

    Treesearch

    J.M. Considine; F. Pierron; K.T. Turner; D.W. Vahey

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous efforts in plate bending of Virtual Fields Method (VFM) parameter identification to include a general 2-D anisotropicmaterial. Such an extension was needed for instances in which material principal directions are unknown or when specimen orientation is not aligned with material principal directions. A new fixture with a multiaxial force...

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new technologies to assess their effectiveness. This bulletin summarizes results from the 1993 SITE demonstration of the Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Method to determine P...

  13. EVALUATION OF A FLUOROMETRIC SCREENING METHOD FOR PREDICTING TOTAL PAH CONCENTRATIONS IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flurorometric screening method was used to estimate total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments collected from the St. Louis River Area of Concern in northeastern Minnesota. Sediments were collected as part of a Regional Environmental Monitoring and Asses...

  14. 77 FR 4544 - CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ...(a)(2)) defines a ``children's product'' as a consumer product designed or intended primarily for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods AGENCY: Consumer Product...

  15. EVALUATION OF A FLUOROMETRIC SCREENING METHOD FOR PREDICTING TOTAL PAH CONCENTRATIONS IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flurorometric screening method was used to estimate total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments collected from the St. Louis River Area of Concern in northeastern Minnesota. Sediments were collected as part of a Regional Environmental Monitoring and Asses...

  16. Using pre-screening methods for an effective and reliable site characterization at megasites.

    PubMed

    Algreen, Mette; Kalisz, Mariusz; Stalder, Marcel; Martac, Eugeniu; Krupanek, Janusz; Trapp, Stefan; Bartke, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    This paper illustrates the usefulness of pre-screening methods for an effective characterization of polluted sites. We applied a sequence of site characterization methods to a former Soviet military airbase with likely fuel and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) contamination in shallow groundwater and subsoil. The methods were (i) phytoscreening with tree cores; (ii) soil gas measurements for CH4, O2, and photoionization detector (PID); (iii) direct-push with membrane interface probe (MIP) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) sensors; (iv) direct-push sampling; and (v) sampling from soil and from groundwater monitoring wells. Phytoscreening and soil gas measurements are rapid and inexpensive pre-screening methods. Both indicated subsurface pollution and hot spots successfully. The direct-push sensors yielded 3D information about the extension and the volume of the subsurface plume. This study also expanded the applicability of tree coring to BTEX compounds and tested the use of high-resolution direct-push sensors for light hydrocarbons. Comparison of screening results to results from conventional soil and groundwater sampling yielded in most cases high rank correlation and confirmed the findings. The large-scale application of non- or low-invasive pre-screening can be of help in directing and focusing the subsequent, more expensive investigation methods. The rapid pre-screening methods also yielded useful information about potential remediation methods. Overall, we see several benefits of a stepwise screening and site characterization scheme, which we propose in conclusion.

  17. Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; Havrilla, George J [Los Alamos, NM; Miller, Thomasin C [Bartlesville, OK; Lewis, Cris [Los Alamos, NM; Mahan, Cynthia A [Los Alamos, NM; Wells, Cyndi A [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-04-26

    Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

  18. Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; Havrilla, George J [Los Alamos, NM; Miller, Thomasin C [Bartlesville, OK; Lewis, Cris [Los Alamos, NM; Mahan, Cynthia A [Los Alamos, NM; Wells, Cyndi A [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-04-14

    Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow-separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals from the components, and determining from the signals whether or not a binding event between a chemical and target binder has occurred.

  19. General Method for Describing Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Viacheslav; Forbes, Terry; Priest, Eric; Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon

    2009-11-01

    A general method for describing magnetic reconnection in arbitrary three-dimensional magnetic configurations is proposed. The method is based on the field-line mapping technique previously used only for the analysis of magnetic structure at a given time. This technique is extended here so as to analyze the evolution of magnetic structure. Such a generalization is made with the help of new dimensionless quantities called ``slip-squashing factors''. Their large values define the surfaces that border the reconnected or to-be-reconnected magnetic flux tubes for a given period of time during the magnetic evolution. The proposed method is universal, since it assumes only that the time sequence of evolving magnetic field and the tangential boundary flows are known. We illustrate our method for several examples and compare it with the general magnetic reconnection theory, proposed previously by Hesse and coworkers. The new method admits a straightforward numerical implementation and provides a powerful tool for the diagnostics of numerical data obtained in theoretical or experimental studies of magnetic reconnection in space and laboratory plasmas.

  20. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value <.001) of receiving a cervical screening test; an OR of 2.05 (CI 1.88 – 2.22; X2: 24.236; p.value <.001) of being ceased from screening; and an OR of 0.14 (CI 0.001 – 0.28; X2: 286.341; p.value <0.001 of being a non-responder compared to age and practice-matched women without learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

  1. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  2. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-14

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change.

  3. [Micro-Mental Test - a short method of dementia screening].

    PubMed

    Rapp, M A; Rieckmann, N; Gutzmann, H; Folstein, M F

    2002-09-01

    Especially in outpatient settings, dementia is still an underdiagnosed syndrome. The Micro-Mental Test has been developed as a short version of the Mini-Mental-Status Examination (MMSE). We examined the reliability and diagnostic validity of a German version (Mikro-Mental Test). We administered the MMSE and the German version of the Micro-Mental Test to 20 inpatients of a geriatric psychiatry hospital (mean age 74.8+/-8.1 years), 55 patients from a cognitive clinic (mean age 71.9+/-9.1 years), and 27 healthy older adults (mean age 68.5+/-4.1 years). Diagnoses made by an experienced psychiatrist according to ICD-10 criteria served as external criteria. The mean duration for testing with the Micro-Mental Test was 8 min, and with the MMSE 15 min. Test-retest analyses showed satisfactory reliability. With regard to sensitivity and specificity, we found comparable diagnostic validity for the MMSE and the Micro-Mental Test. We suggest that, due to its brevity and diagnostic validity, the Micro-Mental Test is a useful tool for dementia screening in an outpatient setting.

  4. Dynamically screened local correlation method using enveloping localized orbitals.

    PubMed

    Auer, Alexander A; Nooijen, Marcel

    2006-07-14

    In this paper we present a local coupled cluster approach based on a dynamical screening scheme, in which amplitudes are either calculated at the coupled cluster level (in this case CCSD) or at the level of perturbation theory, employing a threshold driven procedure based on MP2 energy increments. This way, controllable accuracy and smooth convergence towards the exact result are obtained in the framework of an a posteriori approximation scheme. For the representation of the occupied space a new set of local orbitals is presented with the size of a minimal basis set. This set is atom centered, is nonorthogonal, and has shapes which are fairly independent of the details of the molecular system of interest. Two slightly different versions of combined local coupled cluster and perturbation theory equations are considered. In the limit both converge to the untruncated CCSD result. Benchmark calculations for four systems (heptane, serine, water hexamer, and oxadiazole-2-oxide) are carried out, and decay of the amplitudes, truncation error, and convergence towards the exact CCSD result are analyzed.

  5. Dynamically screened local correlation method using enveloping localized orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Alexander A.; Nooijen, Marcel

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we present a local coupled cluster approach based on a dynamical screening scheme, in which amplitudes are either calculated at the coupled cluster level (in this case CCSD) or at the level of perturbation theory, employing a threshold driven procedure based on MP2 energy increments. This way, controllable accuracy and smooth convergence towards the exact result are obtained in the framework of an a posteriori approximation scheme. For the representation of the occupied space a new set of local orbitals is presented with the size of a minimal basis set. This set is atom centered, is nonorthogonal, and has shapes which are fairly independent of the details of the molecular system of interest. Two slightly different versions of combined local coupled cluster and perturbation theory equations are considered. In the limit both converge to the untruncated CCSD result. Benchmark calculations for four systems (heptane, serine, water hexamer, and oxadiazole-2-oxide) are carried out, and decay of the amplitudes, truncation error, and convergence towards the exact CCSD result are analyzed.

  6. A parallel Lanczos method for symmetric generalized eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.; Simon, H.D.

    1997-12-01

    Lanczos algorithm is a very effective method for finding extreme eigenvalues of symmetric matrices. It requires less arithmetic operations than similar algorithms, such as, the Arnoldi method. In this paper, the authors present their parallel version of the Lanczos method for symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem, PLANSO. PLANSO is based on a sequential package called LANSO which implements the Lanczos algorithm with partial re-orthogonalization. It is portable to all parallel machines that support MPI and easy to interface with most parallel computing packages. Through numerical experiments, they demonstrate that it achieves similar parallel efficiency as PARPACK, but uses considerably less time.

  7. Accelerated Discovery in Photocatalysis using a Mechanism-Based Screening Method.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Matthew N; Gómez-Suárez, Adrián; Teders, Michael; Sahoo, Basudev; Glorius, Frank

    2016-03-18

    Herein, we report a conceptually novel mechanism-based screening approach to accelerate discovery in photocatalysis. In contrast to most screening methods, which consider reactions as discrete entities, this approach instead focuses on a single constituent mechanistic step of a catalytic reaction. Using luminescence spectroscopy to investigate the key quenching step in photocatalytic reactions, an initial screen of 100 compounds led to the discovery of two promising substrate classes. Moreover, a second, more focused screen provided mechanistic insights useful in developing proof-of-concept reactions. Overall, this fast and straightforward approach both facilitated the discovery and aided the development of new light-promoted reactions and suggests that mechanism-based screening strategies could become useful tools in the hunt for new reactivity.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Nursing User Interface Screens Using Multiple Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Sookyung; Johnson, Stephen B.; Stetson, Peter D.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Building upon the foundation of the Structured Narrative electronic health record (EHR) model, we applied theory-based (combined Technology Acceptance Model and Task-Technology Fit Model) and user-centered methods to explore nurses’ perceptions of functional requirements for an electronic nursing documentation system, design user interface screens reflective of the nurses’ perspectives, and assess nurses’ perceptions of the usability of the prototype user interface screens. The methods resulted in user interface screens that were perceived to be easy to use, potentially useful, and well-matched to nursing documentation tasks associated with Nursing Admission Assessment, Blood Administration, and Nursing Discharge Summary. The methods applied in this research may serve as a guide for others wishing to implement user-centered processes to develop or extend EHR systems. In addition, some of the insights obtained in this study may be informative to the development of safe and efficient user interface screens for nursing document templates in EHRs. PMID:19460464

  9. General Characterization Methods for Photoelectrochemical Cells for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinjian; Cai, Lili; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Xiaolin; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-10-12

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a very promising technology that converts water into clean hydrogen fuel and oxygen by using solar light. However, the characterization methods for PEC cells are diverse and a systematic introduction to characterization methods for PEC cells has rarely been attempted. Unlike most other review articles that focus mainly on the material used for the working electrodes of PEC cells, this review introduces general characterization methods for PEC cells, including their basic configurations and methods for characterizing their performance under various conditions, regardless of the materials used. Detailed experimental operation procedures with theoretical information are provided for each characterization method. The PEC research area is rapidly expanding and more researchers are beginning to devote themselves to related work. Therefore, the content of this Minireview can provide entry-level knowledge to beginners in the area of PEC, which might accelerate progress in this area. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sensitivity analysis and approximation methods for general eigenvalue problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, D. V.; Haftka, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Optimization of dynamic systems involving complex non-hermitian matrices is often computationally expensive. Major contributors to the computational expense are the sensitivity analysis and reanalysis of a modified design. The present work seeks to alleviate this computational burden by identifying efficient sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis methods. For the algebraic eigenvalue problem involving non-hermitian matrices, algorithms for sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis are classified, compared and evaluated for efficiency and accuracy. Proper eigenvector normalization is discussed. An improved method for calculating derivatives of eigenvectors is proposed based on a more rational normalization condition and taking advantage of matrix sparsity. Important numerical aspects of this method are also discussed. To alleviate the problem of reanalysis, various approximation methods for eigenvalues are proposed and evaluated. Linear and quadratic approximations are based directly on the Taylor series. Several approximation methods are developed based on the generalized Rayleigh quotient for the eigenvalue problem. Approximation methods based on trace theorem give high accuracy without needing any derivatives. Operation counts for the computation of the approximations are given. General recommendations are made for the selection of appropriate approximation technique as a function of the matrix size, number of design variables, number of eigenvalues of interest and the number of design points at which approximation is sought.

  11. Chemical Safety Alert: Identifying Chemical Reactivity Hazards Preliminary Screening Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduces small-to-medium-sized facilities to a method developed by Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), based on a series of twelve yes-or-no questions to help determine hazards in warehousing, repackaging, blending, mixing, and processing.

  12. Nurse practitioner screening for childhood adversity among adult primary care patients: A mixed-method study.

    PubMed

    Kalmakis, Karen A; Chandler, Genevieve E; Roberts, Susan Jo; Leung, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated an association between experiencing childhood abuse and multiple chronic health conditions in adulthood, yet this evidence has not been routinely translated to practice. The purpose of this research study was to examine nurse practitioner (NP) practices, skills, attitudes, and perceived barriers associated with screening adult patients for childhood abuse to determine the extent to which evidence of the association between childhood abuse and negative health outcomes has been translated to NP practice. A mixed-method approach with web-based questionnaires and online focus groups was used to examine NP screening for histories of childhood abuse. A total of 188 complete NP surveys were analyzed along with data from focus groups with 12 NPs. One third of the NPs regularly screened for childhood abuse and believed screening was their responsibility. Six barriers, including insufficient time and lack of confidence when inquiring about abuse, were significantly associated with NP screening practices. The focus group participants discussed how and when one should ask about childhood abuse, and the need for education about screening. Time constraints and NPs' lack of confidence in their ability to screen for histories of childhood abuse must be addressed to encourage routine screening in primary care practice. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Assessment of screening methods for the identification of genetically modified potatoes in raw materials and finished products.

    PubMed

    Jaccaud, Etienne; Höhne, Michaela; Meyer, Rolf

    2003-01-29

    Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of genetically modified potatoes have been investigated that can be used for screening purposes and identification of insect-resistant and virus-resistant potatoes in food. The presence of the nos terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene nptII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II) was demonstrated in three commercialized Bt-potato lines (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and one noncommercial GM-potato product (high amylopectin starch, AVEBE, Veendam, The Netherlands) and allows for general screening in foods. For further identification, specific primers for the FMV promoter derived from the figwort mosaic virus, the CryIIIA gene (delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis), potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and the potato virus Y coat protein gene, were designed. The methods described were successfully applied to processed potato raw materials (dehydrated potato powders and flakes), starch samples, and finished products.

  14. [Nutritional screening in heart failure patients: 5 methods review].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Rincón, Carmen; Fresno-Flores, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion: La malnutrición aumenta la mortalidad y la estancia hospitalaria. Cada vez más instituciones sanitarias adoptan medidas de cribado nutricional con el fin de detectar precozmente la malnutrición o el riesgo de desarrollarla. No existe un método universalmente aceptado para la valoración nutricional. Objetivo: Determinar un método rápido y fiable, que no precise de entrenamiento previo, para el cribado nutricional de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca. Métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal, en el que se evaluaron mediante la valoración subjetiva global (VSG), el Mini nutritional assesment (MNA) tanto en su versión abreviada o de cribado (MNA-SF) como en su versión extendida o de valoración (MNA-LF), el nutritional Risk Screnning (NRS 2002), el Conocimiento nutricional o método Ulibarri (CONUT), el método Cardona y el Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), el estado nutricional de 242 pacientes ingresados en un hospital terciario de alta complejidad con diagnósticos compatibles con descompensación de insuficiencia cardiaca crónica. Se analizaron la sensibilidad, especificidad, los valores predictivos, las razones de verosimilitud, la odds ratio diagnostica y el índice de correlación kappa, de los distintos métodos comparados con la valoración subjetiva global, que fue considerada como prueba cierta. Resultados: La edad media fue de 75±9. El 50,8% (n=123) fueron hombres. El índice de correlación kappa de los distintos métodos de cribado con respecto a la valoración subjetiva global fueron MNA valoración =0,637; MNA cribado =0,556; NRS =0,483; MUST =0,197; Cardona =0,188; CONUT =0,076. Discusión: El Mini Nutritional Assesment fue el método que mejor relación ofreció, tanto en su etapa de cribado como en la de valoración con la Valoración subjetiva global.

  15. Estimating functions and the generalized method of moments

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Joao; Chandler, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating functions provide a very general framework for statistical inference, and are particularly useful when one is either unable or unwilling to specify a likelihood function. This paper aims to provide an accessible review of estimating function theory that has potential for application to the analysis and modelling of a wide range of complex systems. Assumptions are given in terms that can be checked relatively easily in practice, and some of the more technical derivations are relegated to an online supplement for clarity of exposition. The special case of the generalized method of moments is considered in some detail. The main points are illustrated by considering the problem of inference for a class of stochastic rainfall models based on point processes, with simulations used to demonstrate the performance of the methods. PMID:23226587

  16. QUEST+: A general multidimensional Bayesian adaptive psychometric method.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew B

    2017-03-01

    QUEST+ is a Bayesian adaptive psychometric testing method that allows an arbitrary number of stimulus dimensions, psychometric function parameters, and trial outcomes. It is a generalization and extension of the original QUEST procedure and incorporates many subsequent developments in the area of parametric adaptive testing. With a single procedure, it is possible to implement a wide variety of experimental designs, including conventional threshold measurement; measurement of psychometric function parameters, such as slope and lapse; estimation of the contrast sensitivity function; measurement of increment threshold functions; measurement of noise-masking functions; Thurstone scale estimation using pair comparisons; and categorical ratings on linear and circular stimulus dimensions. QUEST+ provides a general method to accelerate data collection in many areas of cognitive and perceptual science.

  17. Automated general temperature correction method for dielectric soil moisture sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilaratne, R. G. C. Jeewantinie; Lu, Minjiao

    2017-08-01

    An effective temperature correction method for dielectric sensors is important to ensure the accuracy of soil water content (SWC) measurements of local to regional-scale soil moisture monitoring networks. These networks are extensively using highly temperature sensitive dielectric sensors due to their low cost, ease of use and less power consumption. Yet there is no general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors, instead sensor or site dependent correction algorithms are employed. Such methods become ineffective at soil moisture monitoring networks with different sensor setups and those that cover diverse climatic conditions and soil types. This study attempted to develop a general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors which can be commonly used regardless of the differences in sensor type, climatic conditions and soil type without rainfall data. In this work an automated general temperature correction method was developed by adopting previously developed temperature correction algorithms using time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements to ThetaProbe ML2X, Stevens Hydra probe II and Decagon Devices EC-TM sensor measurements. The rainy day effects removal procedure from SWC data was automated by incorporating a statistical inference technique with temperature correction algorithms. The temperature correction method was evaluated using 34 stations from the International Soil Moisture Monitoring Network and another nine stations from a local soil moisture monitoring network in Mongolia. Soil moisture monitoring networks used in this study cover four major climates and six major soil types. Results indicated that the automated temperature correction algorithms developed in this study can eliminate temperature effects from dielectric sensor measurements successfully even without on-site rainfall data. Furthermore, it has been found that actual daily average of SWC has been changed due to temperature effects of dielectric sensors with a

  18. A general method to diverse cinnolines and cinnolinium salts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongbing; Wu, Qian; Huang, Xiaolei; Song, Feijie; Lv, Taiyong; You, Jingsong

    2013-05-10

    Rhodium catalysis: A highly efficient and general method has been established to prepare cinnolines, cinnolinium salts, and polycyclic cinnolinium salts through the rhodium(III)-catalyzed oxidative C-H activation/cyclization of azo compounds with alkynes (see scheme). Key features of this methodology include the unprecedented capacity to create both cinnoline and cinnolinium frameworks. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Assessment of chemical screening outcomes based on different partitioning property estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Heimstad, Eldbjørg S; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2010-08-01

    Screening is widely used to prioritize chemicals according to their potential environmental hazard, as expressed in the attributes of persistence, bioaccumulation (B), toxicity and long range transport potential (LRTP). Many screening approaches for B and LRTP rely on the categorization of chemicals based on a comparison of their equilibrium partition coefficients between octanol and water (K(OW)), air and water (K(AW)) and octanol and air (K(OA)) with a threshold value. As experimental values of the properties are mostly unavailable for the large number of chemicals being screened, the use of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) and other computational chemistry methods becomes indispensable. Predictions by different methods often deviate considerably, and flawed predictions may lead to false positive/negative categorizations. We predicted the partitioning properties of 529 chemicals, culled from previous prioritization efforts, using the four prediction methods EPI Suite, SPARC, COSMOtherm, and ABSOLV. The four sets of predictions were used to screen the chemicals against various LRTP and B criteria. Screening results based on the four methods were consistent for only approximately 70% of the chemicals. To further assess whether the means of estimating environmental phase partitioning has an impact, a subset of 110 chemicals was screened for elevated arctic contamination potential based on single-parameter and poly-parameter linear free energy relationships respectively. Different categorizations were observed for 5 out of 110 chemicals. Screening and categorization methods that rely on a decision whether a chemical's predicted property falls on either side of a threshold are likely to lead to a significant number of false positive/negative outcomes. We therefore suggest that screening should rather be based on numerical hazard or risk estimates that acknowledge and explicitly take into account the uncertainties of predicted properties. Copyright

  20. Concurrent validation of Hutt's Bender Gestalt screening method for schizophrenia, depression, and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Lownsdale, W S; Rogers, B J; McCall, J N

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of Hutt's Bender Gestalt scoring system in screening for schizophrenia, depression, and brain damage was investigated in a sample of mixed, psychiatric inpatients. Fifteen patients represented each diagnostic category. After an examination of each patient's Bender Gestalt protocol according to Hutt's criteria, it was found that the true positive and true negative success rates of the screening procedures for depression and brain damage were significantly higher than corresponding base rates. The Lacks Bender Gestalt screening method for brain damage was no more successful than the Hutt method in identifying true positives and true negatives. With the brain-damaged patients excluded, Hutt's screening procedures for both depression and schizophrenia resulted in significantly high rates of successful identification of true positives and true negatives. Moreover, these rates did not significantly differ from those determined by patients' Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) T scores on corresponding scales.

  1. "Vacuum-assisted staining": a simple and efficient method for screening in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Berns, Nicola; Woichansky, Innokenty; Kraft, Nadine; Hüsken, Ulrike; Carl, Matthias; Riechmann, Veit

    2012-04-01

    The constantly growing number of genetic tools rapidly increases possibilities for various screens in different model organisms and calls for new methods facilitating screen performance. In particular, screening procedures involving fixation and staining of samples are difficult to perform at a genome-wide scale. The time-consuming task to generate these samples makes such screens less attractive. Here, we describe the use of multi-well filter plates for high throughput labellings of different Drosophila organs and zebrafish embryos. Our inexpensive vacuum-assisted staining protocol minimises the risk of sample loss, reduces the amount of staining reagents and drastically decreases labour and repetitive work. The simple handling of the system and the commercial availability of its components makes this method easily applicable to every laboratory.

  2. Validation of a screening method for rapid control of macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins in maize flour samples.

    PubMed

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Téllez, Helena; Sánchez, Alberto; Chicharro, Manuel; Ríos, Angel

    2008-05-01

    A procedure for the analytical validation of a rapid supercritical fluid extraction amperometric screening method for controlling macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins in maize flour samples has been developed. The limit established by European legislation (0.2 mg kg(-1)), in reference to zearalenone (ZON) mycotoxin, was taken as the reference threshold to validate the proposed method. Natural ZON metabolites were also included in this study to characterize the final screening method. The objective was the reliable classification of samples as positive or negative samples. The cut-off level was fixed at a global concentration of mycotoxins of 0.17 mg kg(-1). An expanded unreliability zone between 0.16 and 0.23 mg kg(-1) characterized the screening method for classifying the samples. A set of 30 samples was used for the final demonstration of the reliability and usefulness of the method.

  3. Computational method for general multicenter electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Batcho, P F

    2000-06-01

    Here a three-dimensional fully numerical (i.e., chemical basis-set free) method [P. F. Batcho, Phys. Rev. A 57, 6 (1998)], is formulated and applied to the calculation of the electronic structure of general multicenter Hamiltonian systems. The numerical method is presented and applied to the solution of Schrödinger-type operators, where a given number of nuclei point singularities is present in the potential field. The numerical method combines the rapid "exponential" convergence rates of modern spectral methods with the multiresolution flexibility of finite element methods, and can be viewed as an extension of the spectral element method. The approximation of cusps in the wave function and the formulation of multicenter nuclei singularities are efficiently dealt with by the combination of a coordinate transformation and a piecewise variational spectral approximation. The complete system can be efficiently inverted by established iterative methods for elliptical partial differential equations; an application of the method is presented for atomic, diatomic, and triatomic systems, and comparisons are made to the literature when possible. In particular, local density approximations are studied within the context of Kohn-Sham density functional theory, and are presented for selected subsets of atomic and diatomic molecules as well as the ozone molecule.

  4. A General Method to Discover Epitopes from Sera

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Kurt; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Sykes, Kathryn; Shen, Luhui

    2016-01-01

    Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been explored since deciphering these interactions can greatly facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In silico B cell epitope mapping approaches have been widely pursued, though success has not been consistent. Antibody mixtures in immune sera have been used as handles for biologically relevant antigens, but these and other experimental approaches have proven resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods are often tailored to individual diseases or a specific proteome, rather than providing a universal platform. Most of these methods are not able to identify the specific antibody’s epitopes from unknown antigens, such as un-annotated neo antigens in cancer. Alternatively, a peptide library comprised of sequences unrestricted by naturally-found protein space provides for a universal search for mimotopes of an antibody’s epitope. Here we present the utility of such a non-natural random sequence library of 10,000 peptides physically addressed on a microarray for mimotope discovery without sequence information of the specific antigen. The peptide arrays were probed with serum from an antigen-immunized rabbit, or alternatively probed with serum pre-absorbed with the same immunizing antigen. With this positive and negative screening scheme, we identified the library-peptides as the mimotopes of the antigen. The unique library peptides were successfully used to isolate antigen-specific antibodies from complete immune serum. Sequence analysis of these peptides revealed the epitopes in the immunized antigen. We present this method as an inexpensive, efficient method for identifying mimotopes of any antibody’s targets. These mimotopes should be useful in defining both components of the antigen

  5. A Comparison of Protein Kinases Inhibitor Screening Methods Using Both Enzymatic Activity and Binding Affinity Determination

    PubMed Central

    Rudolf, Amalie Frederikke; Skovgaard, Tine; Knapp, Stefan; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Berthelsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Binding assays are increasingly used as a screening method for protein kinase inhibitors; however, as yet only a weak correlation with enzymatic activity-based assays has been demonstrated. We show that the correlation between the two types of assays can be improved using more precise screening conditions. Furthermore a marked improvement in the correlation was found by using kinase constructs containing the catalytic domain in presence of additional domains or subunits. PMID:24915177

  6. PATHOS: a quick screening method for assessing sexual addiction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pennie; Cashwell, Craig S; Cress, Jim; Barber, Tim; Dunn, Mary Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Pastors may understand that sex addiction exists and are frequently faced with people who need non-clinical and clinical services for the addiction. However, the pastoral counselors have no quick reliable method of assessing them. The purpose of this article is to define sexual addiction and provide information about a tool called PATHOS that can be used in clinical and non-clinical settings to identify potential sex addicts.

  7. Methods for Factor Screening in Computer Simulation Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    of the dat-a In a-space, impacto the variable selection problem s ign if Lrast ly. S-arch-type variable selection methods include the all-po"sible...i.iv 41.1 ti * n wt- -iu’pt-v c C it st’vt’re mu It ico11 inear it v is pro-crtnt Lind. , ii;.qt4pai tlv * Iti’lt- c- j c. tic j icivnt, art, verv

  8. Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies with cell-free DNA in the general pregnancy population: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Genevieve; Burigo, John; Sharon, Thomas; Song, Ken

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fetal aneuploidy screening in the general pregnancy population using non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as compared to first trimester combined screening (FTS) with serum markers and NT ultrasound. Using a decision-analytic model, we estimated the number of fetal T21, T18, and T13 cases identified prenatally, the number of invasive procedures performed, corresponding normal fetus losses, and costs of screening using FTS or NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Modeling was based on a 4 million pregnant women cohort, which represents annual births in the U.S. For the general pregnancy population, NIPT identified 15% more trisomy cases, reduced invasive procedures by 88%, and reduced iatrogenic fetal loss by 94% as compared to FTS. The cost per trisomy case identified with FTS was $497,909. At a NIPT unit, cost of $453 and below, there were cost savings as compared to FTS. Accounting for additional trisomy cases identified by NIPT, a NIPT unit cost of $665 provided the same per trisomy cost as that of FTS. NIPT in the general pregnancy population leads to more prenatal identification of fetal trisomy cases as compared to FTS and is more economical at a NIPT unit cost of $453.

  9. A new mass screening method for methylmercury poisoning using mercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Naruse, I; Takizawa, Y

    1999-09-01

    A simplified mass screening method for methylmercury exposure was developed using methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay. Some bacteria can transform methylmercury into mercury vapor. Most mercury in the hair is methylmercury, which is readily extracted with HCl solution. Black spots are formed on X-ray film due to the reduction of Ag(+) emulsion with mercury vapor produced by methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria. By exploiting these characteristics, a screening method was developed, whereby the fur of rats injected with methylmercury chloride formed clear black spots on X-ray film, whereas the fur of rats injected with saline did not. Subsequently, 50 human hair samples were examined using this mass screening method. The method identified people who had high mercury concentration, over 20 microg/g. A few thousand hair samples may be screened in a day using this method because it is rapid, simple, and economical. This method, therefore, enables screening of persons with methylmercury poisoning in mercury-polluted areas.

  10. Health Benefits and Cost-Effectiveness of Primary Genetic Screening for Lynch Syndrome in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Tuan A.; Rosner, Benjamin I.; Atwood, James C.; Boland, C. Richard; Syngal, Sapna; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Burt, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    In current clinical practice, genetic testing to detect Lynch syndrome mutations ideally begins with diagnostic testing of an individual affected with cancer before offering predictive testing to at-risk relatives. An alternative strategy that warrants exploration involves screening unaffected individuals via demographic and family histories, and offering genetic testing to those individuals whose risks for carrying a mutation exceed a selected threshold. Whether this approach would improve health outcomes in a manner that is cost-effective relative to current standards of care has yet to be demonstrated. To do so, we developed a simulation framework that integrated models of colorectal and endometrial cancers with a 5-generation family history model to predict health and economic outcomes of 20 primary screening strategies (at a wide range of compliance levels) aimed at detecting individuals with mismatch repair gene mutations and their at-risk relatives. These strategies were characterized by (i) different screening ages for starting risk assessment and (ii) different risk thresholds above which to implement genetic testing. For each strategy, 100,000 simulated individuals, representative of the U.S. population, were followed from the age of 20, and the outcomes were compared with current practice. Findings indicated that risk assessment starting at ages 25, 30, or 35, followed by genetic testing of those with mutation risks exceeding 5%, reduced colorectal and endometrial cancer incidence in mutation carriers by approximately 12.4% and 8.8%, respectively. For a population of 100,000 individuals containing 392 mutation carriers, this strategy increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) by approximately 135 with an average cost-effectiveness ratio of $26,000 per QALY. The cost-effectiveness of screening for mismatch repair gene mutations is comparable to that of accepted cancer screening activities in the general population such as colorectal cancer screening

  11. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot.

    PubMed

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin-Gonzalez, Javier; Avram, Alexandra; Munk, Stephanie; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J

    2017-01-19

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific genomic locus, but limits the detection of its correct genomic integration by standard PCR methods. Genomic Long Range PCR (LR-PCR), using primers adjacent to the homology arms, has been used as an alternative to radioactive-based Southern blot screenings. However, LR-PCRs are often difficult and render many false positive and false negative results. Here, we propose an alternative screening method based on the detection of a genetic modification at the mRNA level, which we successfully optimized in two mouse models. This screening method consists of a reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using primers that match exons flanking the targeting construct. The detection of the expected modification in this PCR product confirms the integration at the correct genomic location and shows that the mutant mRNA is expressed. This is a simple and sensitive strategy to screen locus-specific recombination of targeting constructs which can also be useful to screen KO and KI mutant mice or cell lines including those generated by CRISPR/Cas9.

  12. [Research on the Screening Method of Soil Remediation Technology at Contaminated Sites and Its Application].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-ping; Luo, Yun; Liu, Li; Zhou, You-ya; Yan, Zeng-guang; Li, Fa-sheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil remediation technology screening is an important procedure in the supervision of contaminated sites. The efficiency and costs of contaminated site remediation will be directly affected by the applicability of soil remediation technology. The influencing factors include characteristics of contaminants, site conditions, remediation time and costs should be considered to determine the most applicable remediation technology. The remediation technology screening was commonly evaluated by the experienced expert in China, which limited the promotion and application of the decision making method. Based on the supervision requirements of contaminated sites and the research status at home and abroad, the screening method includes preliminary screening and explicit evaluation was suggested in this paper. The screening index system was constructed, and the extension theory was used to divide the technology grade. The extension theory could solve the problem of human interference in the evaluation process and index value assignment. A chromium residue contaminated site in China was selected as the study area, and the applicable remediation technologies were suggested by the screening method. The research results could provide a scientific and technological support for the supervision and management of contaminated sites in China.

  13. Immunological screening method to detect specific translation products.

    PubMed Central

    Broome, S; Gilbert, W

    1978-01-01

    We describe a very sensitive method to detect as antigens the presence of specific proteins within phage plaques or bacterial colonies. We coat plastic sheets with antibody molecules, expose the sheet to lysed bacteria so that a released antigen can bind, and then label the immobilized antigen with radioiodinated antibodies. Thus, the antigen is sandwiched between the antibodies attached to the plastic sheet and those carrying the radioactive label. Autoradiography then shows the positions of antigen-containing colonies or phage plaques. A few molecules of antigen released from each bacterial cell generatean adequate signal. Images PMID:96441

  14. [A Decrease in Lung Cancer Mortality Following the Implementation of CT Screening for General Population].

    PubMed

    Nawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In Hitachi Medical Area, a large-scale lung cancer screening program using low-dose CT has been underway in two medical facilities since its introduction in 1998 and 2001. A total of 61,914 tests were performed among 25,385 participants until 2006. Two hundred and ten lung cancer patients had been identified on CT screening. The estimated 5-year survival rate for all patients was 90%. Among residents in Hitachi City, nearly 40% of inhabitants aged 50-69 years were estimated to have participated in the screening from 1998 through 2009. Cancer mortality data were obtained from a regional cancer registry and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of lung cancer was calculated for each 5-year period during 1995-2009. For residents aged 50-79 years, SMR was nearly unity between 1995 and 2004; however, there was a significant decrease during 2005-2009, with SMR (95% confidence interval) being 0.76 (0.67-0.86). These results suggest that the wide implementation of CT screening may reduce lung cancer mortality in the community, 4-8 years after introduction. It is desirable to continue to focus on future developments, including original research in Japan.

  15. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions

  16. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na(+)-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  17. A vortex-lattice method for general, unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstadinopoulos, P.; Thrasher, D. F.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L.

    1985-01-01

    A general method of calculating unsteady, incompressible, inviscid, three-dimensional flows around arbitrary planforms has been developed. The method is an extension of the vortex-lattice technique. It is not limited by aspect ratio, camber, or angle of attack, as long as vortex breakdown does not occur above the surface of the wing and separation occurs only along sharp edges. As the wing performs arbitrary maneuvers, the position of the wake and the distribution of circulation on the wing and in the wake are obtained as functions of time. One desirable feature of the present method is its ability to treat steady lifting flows very efficiently. Several examples of steady and unsteady flows are presented. These include rectangular wings, with and without flaps, delta, and cropped delta wings.

  18. A generalized solid-state nudged elastic band method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Daniel; Xiao, Penghao; Chemelewski, William; Johnson, Duane D.; Henkelman, Graeme

    2012-02-01

    A generalized solid-state nudged elastic band (G-SSNEB) method is presented for determining reaction pathways of solid-solid transformations involving both atomic and unit-cell degrees of freedom. We combine atomic and cell degrees of freedom into a unified description of the crystal structure so that calculated reaction paths are insensitive to the choice of periodic cell. For the rock-salt to wurtzite transition in CdSe, we demonstrate that the method is robust for mechanisms dominated either by atomic motion or by unit-cell deformation; notably, the lowest-energy transition mechanism found by our G-SSNEB changes with cell size from a concerted transformation of the cell coordinates in small cells to a nucleation event in large cells. The method is efficient and can be applied to systems in which the force and stress tensor are calculated using density functional theory.

  19. Generalized slave-particle method for extended Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a set of generalized slave-particle models for extended Hubbard models that treat localized electronic correlations using slave-boson decompositions. Our models automatically include two slave-particle methods of recent interest, the slave-rotor and slave-spin methods, as well as a ladder of new intermediate models where one can choose which of the electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., spin or orbital labels) are treated as correlated degrees of freedom by the slave bosons. In addition, our method removes the aberrant behavior of the slave-rotor model, where it systematically overestimates the importance of electronic correlation effects for weak interaction strength, by removing the contribution of unphysical states from the bosonic Hilbert space. The flexibility of our formalism permits one to separate and isolate the effect of correlations on the key degrees of freedom.

  20. A vortex-lattice method for general, unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstadinopoulos, P.; Thrasher, D. F.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L.

    1985-01-01

    A general method of calculating unsteady, incompressible, inviscid, three-dimensional flows around arbitrary planforms has been developed. The method is an extension of the vortex-lattice technique. It is not limited by aspect ratio, camber, or angle of attack, as long as vortex breakdown does not occur above the surface of the wing and separation occurs only along sharp edges. As the wing performs arbitrary maneuvers, the position of the wake and the distribution of circulation on the wing and in the wake are obtained as functions of time. One desirable feature of the present method is its ability to treat steady lifting flows very efficiently. Several examples of steady and unsteady flows are presented. These include rectangular wings, with and without flaps, delta, and cropped delta wings.

  1. Primary Care Screening Methods and Outcomes for Asylum Seekers in New York City.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Nathan S; Selden, Elizabeth; Krass, Polina; Keatley, Eva S; Keller, Allen

    2016-10-04

    Effective screening in primary care among asylum-seekers in the US is critical as this population grows. This study aimed to evaluate disease prevalence and screening methods in this high-risk group. Two hundred ten new clients from 51 countries, plus Tibet, who were accepted into a program for asylum seekers from 2012 to 2014 were included. Screening rates and outcomes for infectious, non-communicable, and mental illnesses were evaluated. Screening rates were highest for PTSD, depression, hepatitis B, and latent tuberculosis. Seventy-one percent of clients screened positive for depression and 55 % for PTSD, followed by latent tuberculosis (41 %), hypertension (10 %), hepatitis B (9.4 %), and HIV (0.8 %). Overall screening rates were high. Point of care testing was more effective than testing that required a repeat visit. A large psychiatric and infectious disease burden was identified. These findings can inform future primary care screening efforts for asylum seekers in the US.

  2. An Australian mixed methods pilot study exploring students performing patient risk screening.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Simone J; Golder, Janet; Cant, Robyn P; Davidson, Zoe E

    2016-06-01

    Clinical placement shortages and rising costs have created demand to provide low-resource, high value student learning opportunities. Malnutrition screening provides a vehicle for achieving this. A mixed methods explanatory sequential intervention study investigated time costs, and students' perceptions of preparedness after performing routine patient screening tasks, as well as students' overall views on their feelings of confidence and preparedness when commencing their first clinical placements. Pre-clinical student dietitians commencing initial placements participated (n=58), with 16 of these forming a subgroup who performed malnutrition screening tasks while the others attended usual placement orientation. The time saved when students undertook screening tasks usually assigned to nurses was substantial. Questionnaires revealed that student perceived confidence increased in the screening group when compared with controls. Focus group themes included "anxiety and confidence," "learning in the clinical learning environment," "communication skill development," and "the pre-placement screening experience." Students performing routine patient-screening tasks prior to initial clinical placement has potential cost savings for healthcare organizations and was perceived to be valuable for learning. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Novel method for screening of enteric film coatings properties with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dorożyński, Przemysław; Jamróz, Witold; Niwiński, Krzysztof; Kurek, Mateusz; Węglarz, Władysław P; Jachowicz, Renata; Kulinowski, Piotr

    2013-11-18

    The aim of the study is to present the concept of novel method for fast screening of enteric coating compositions properties without the need of preparation of tablets batches for fluid bed coating. Proposed method involves evaluation of enteric coated model tablets in specially designed testing cell with application of MRI technique. The results obtained in the testing cell were compared with results of dissolution studies of mini-tablets coated in fluid bed apparatus. The method could be useful in early stage of formulation development for screening of film coating properties that will shorten and simplify the development works.

  4. A virtual screening method for inhibitory peptides of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongxi; Liu, Yalan; Guo, Mingrong; Xie, Jingli; Jiang, XiaMin

    2014-09-01

    Natural small peptides from foods have been proven to be efficient inhibitors of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) for the regulation of blood pressure. The traditional ACE inhibitory peptides screening method is both time consuming and money costing, to the contrary, virtual screening method by computation can break these limitations. We establish a virtual screening method to obtain ACE inhibitory peptides with the help of Libdock module of Discovery Studio 3.5 software. A significant relationship between Libdock score and experimental IC(50) was found, Libdock score = 10.063 log(1/IC(50)) + 68.08 (R(2) = 0.62). The credibility of the relationship was confirmed by testing the coincidence of the estimated log(1/IC(50)) and measured log(1/IC(50)) (IC(50) is 50% inhibitory concentration toward ACE, in μmol/L) of 5 synthetic ACE inhibitory peptides, which was virtual hydrolyzed and screened from a kind of seafood, Phascolosoma esculenta. Accordingly, Libdock method is a valid IC(50) estimation tool and virtual screening method for small ACE inhibitory peptides. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. A method for screening of plant species for space use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goeschl, J. D.; Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    A cost-effective methodology which monitors numerous dynamic aspects of carbon assimilation and allocation kinetics in live, intact plants is discussed. Analogous methods can apply to nitrogen uptake and allocation. This methodology capitalizes on the special properties of the short-lived, positron-gamma emitting isotope C-11 especially when applied as CO2-11 in a special extended square wave (ESW) pattern. The 20.4 minute half-life allows for repeated or continuous experiments on the same plant over periods of minutes, hours, days, or weeks. The steady-state isotope equilibrium approached during the ESW experiments, and the parameters which can be analyzed by this technique are also direct results of that short half-life. Additionally, the paired .511 MeV gamma rays penetrate any amount of tissue and their 180 deg opposite orientation provides good collimation and allows coincidence counting which nearly eliminates background.

  6. Cystic fibrosis: need for mass deployable screening methods.

    PubMed

    Sengar, Aditya Singh; Agarwal, Anirudh; Singh, Manish K

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette superfamily of proteins and it functions as a chloride channel. CFTR largely controls the working of epithelial cells of the airways, the gastrointestinal tract, exocrine glands, and genitourinary system. Cystic fibrosis is responsible for severe chronic pulmonary disorders in children. Other maladies in the spectrum of this life-limiting disorder include nasal polyposis, pansinusitis, rectal prolapse, pancreatitis, cholelithiasis, insulin-dependent hyperglycemia, and cirrhosis. This review summarizes the recent state of art in the field of cystic fibrosis diagnostic methods with the help of CF literature published so far and proposes new research domains in the field of cystic fibrosis diagnosis.

  7. The 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test as a bedside screening for dementia in general hospital patients: results of the General Hospital Study (GHoSt).

    PubMed

    Hessler, Johannes Baltasar; Schäufele, Martina; Hendlmeier, Ingrid; Nora Junge, Magdalena; Leonhardt, Sarah; Weber, Joshua; Bickel, Horst

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT) as a bedside screening for the detection of dementia in general hospital patients. Participants (N = 1,440) were inpatients aged ≥65 of 33 randomly selected general hospitals in Southern Germany. The 6CIT was conducted at bedside, and dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Nursing staff was asked to rate the patients' cognitive status, and previous diagnoses of dementia were extracted from medical records. Completion rates and validity statistics were calculated. Two-hundred seventy patients had dementia. Cases with delirium but no dementia were excluded. Feasibility was 97.9% and 83.3% for patients without and with dementia, respectively, and decreased from moderate (93.8%) to severe dementia (53%). The area under the curve of the 6CIT was 0.98. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for the cutoffs 7/8 (0.96, 0.82, 0.85, 0.52, 0.99) and 10/11 (0.88, 0.95, 0.94, 0.76, 0.98). The nurse ratings and medical records information had lower validity statistics. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the 6CIT statistically significantly provided information above nurse ratings and medical records. Twenty-five and 37 additional patients were correctly classified by the 7/8 and 10/11 cutoffs, respectively. The 6CIT is a feasible and valid screening tool for the detection of dementia in older general hospital patients. The 6CIT outperformed the nurse ratings of cognitive status and dementia diagnoses from medical records, suggesting that standardized screening may have benefits with regard to case finding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Overview of a workshop on screening methods for detecting potential (anti-) estrogenic/androgenic chemicals in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Mihaich, Ellen; Stahl, Ralph G.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Colborn, Theo; McMaster, Suzzanne; Miller, Ron; Bantle, John; Campbell, Pamela; Denslow, Nancy; Dickerson, Richard L.; Folmar, Leroy C.; Fry, Michael; Giesy, John P.; Gray, L. Earl; Guiney, Patrick; Hutchinson, Thomas; Kennedy, Sean W.; Kramer, Vincent; LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Mayes, Monte; Nimrod, Alison; Patino, Reynaldo; Peterson, Richard; Purdy, Richard; Ringer, Robert; Thomas, Peter C.; Touart, Les; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Zacharewski, Tim

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has passed legislation requiring the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to develop, validate, and implement screening tests for identifying potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals within 3 years. To aid in the identification of methods suitable for this purpose, the U.S. EPA, the Chemical Manufacturers Association, and the World Wildlife Fund sponsored several workshops, including the present one, which dealt with wildlife species. This workshop was convened with 30 international scientists representing multiple disciplines in March 1997 in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. Participants at the meeting identified methods in terms of their ability to indicate (anti-) estrogenic/androgenic effects, particularly in the context of developmental and reproductive processes. Data derived from structure-activity relationship models and in vitro test systems, although useful in certain contexts, cannot at present replace in vivo tests as the sole basis for screening. A consensus was reached that existing mammalian test methods (e.g., with rats or mice) generally are suitable as screens for assessing potential (anti-) estrogenic/ androgenic effects in mammalian wildlife. However, due to factors such as among-class variation in receptor structure and endocrine function, it is uncertain if these mammalian assays would be of broad utility as screens for other classes of vertebrate wildlife. Existing full and partial life-cycle tests with some avian and fish species could successfully identify chemicals causing endocrine disruption; however, these long-term tests are not suitable for routine screening. However, a number of short-term tests with species from these two classes exist that could serve as effective screening tools for chemicals inducing (anti-) estrogenic/androgenic effects. Existing methods suitable for identifying chemicals with these mechanisms of action in reptiles and amphibians are limited, but in the future, tests with species from

  9. Fingerprints: A simple method for Screening Hemophilic Patients.

    PubMed

    Jamalian, M; Mesri, M; Vishteh, H R K; Solhi, H; Salehpour, R

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims to compare hemophilic patients' fingerprint types with the normal people to help diagnose the disease, particularly new occurrences of the disease. This case-control study was conducted in 2012. Sixty two patients with hemophilia type A and 62 normal healthy people were selected. The type of fingerprint was determined by a forensic specialist who was kept unaware of the participants' group. Using advanced Henry method, the main types of fingerprints were classified as arch, loop, whorl, as well as other types. In the control group, loop type (65%) and in the case group the whorl type (34%) were the most frequent fingerprint type (p < 0.001) and there was a significant difference of fingerprint in each finger between two groups. In addition, the average number of whorl type in the patients with mild disease was significantly higher and the average number of arch and other types of fingerprints was significantly lower than patients with moderate or severe disease. The findings of the present study indicated that not only are the fingerprints of normal and hemophilic people different, but also a difference was observed between hemophilic patients with the mild factor level and patients with moderate or severe one.

  10. A small-bolt method for screening tree protectants against bark beetles (coleoptera: curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    B.L. Strom; L.M. Roton

    2009-01-01

    A simple, small-bolt method was developed and refi ned for evaluating and screening treatments being considered as prophylactics against bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Using this method, 4 insecticide products (3 active ingredients) were evaluated against the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, intermittently during a period...

  11. Microbial screening and analytical methods for the production of polyol oils from soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to develop a new useful method including microbial screening and product identification for a bioprocess to produce polyol oils from soybean oil. Methods for separating of product polyol oils from soybean oil substrate and free fatty acid byproducts using HPLC and TLC...

  12. Development of a rapid method to isolate polyhydroxyalkanoates from bacteria for screening studies.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino-Caston, Isaac; Kelly, Catherine A; Fitzgerald, Annabel V L; Leeke, Gary A; Jenkins, Mike; Overton, Tim W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel method of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for use in screening studies. Compared to conventional chloroform extraction, the DMSO method was shown to release comparable quantities of PHA from Cupriavidus necator cells, with comparable properties as determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.

  13. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  14. [Screening for risk of child abuse and neglect. A practicable method?].

    PubMed

    Kindler, H

    2010-10-01

    Selective primary prevention programs for child abuse and neglect depend on risk screening instruments that have the goal of systematically identifying families who can profit most from early help. Based on a systematic review of longitudinal studies, a set of established risk factors for early child abuse and neglect is presented. Nearly half of the items included in screening instruments can be seen as validated. Available studies indicate a high sensitivity of risk screening instruments. Positive predictive values, however, are low. Overall, the use of risk screening instruments in the area of primary prevention for families at risk represents a feasible method, as long as stigmatizing effects can be avoided and participating families also benefit beyond preventing endangerment.

  15. Local Velocity Postprocessing for Multipoint Flux Methods on General Hexahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M. F.; Xue, G.; Yotov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The authors formulated in a multipoint flux mixed finite element method that reduces to a cell-centered pressure system on general quadrilaterals and hexahedra for elliptic equations arising in subsurface flow problems. In addition they showed that a special quadrature rule yields O(h) convergence for face fluxes on distorted hexahedra. Here a first order local velocity postprocessing procedure using these face fluxes is developed and analyzed. The algorithm involves solving a 3 × 3 system on each element and utilizes an enhanced mixed finite element space introduced by Falk, Gatto, and Monk. Computational results verifying the theory are demonstrated.

  16. Nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, G.; Detroux, T.; Viguié, R.; Kerschen, G.

    2015-02-01

    This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA), is introduced in this paper. An unconventional aspect of the NLTVA is that the mathematical form of its restoring force is tailored according to the nonlinear restoring force of the primary system. The NLTVA parameters are then determined using a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method. The mitigation of the resonant vibrations of a Duffing oscillator is considered to illustrate the proposed developments.

  17. A general method for unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Platzer, Max F.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a general method for calculating unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades is described. It is based on the numerical solution of the boundary-layer equations for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows. A novel procedure has been developed to account for the movement of the stagnation point caused by blade-passing wakes and has been applied to the stagnation region of three model flows with results which confirm its validity for laminar flows. It has also been applied to an experimental arrangement in which the average Nusselt number has been reported for turbulent flows and the results show considerable promise.

  18. Surface electromyography as a screening method for evaluation of dysphagia and odynophagia.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2009-02-20

    Patients suspected of having swallowing disorders, could highly benefit from simple diagnostic screening before being referred to specialist evaluations. The article analyzes various instrumental methods of dysphagia assessment, introduces surface electromyography (sEMG) to carry out rapid assessment of such patients, and debates proposed suggestions for sEMG screening protocol in order to identify abnormal deglutition. Subject related books and articles from 1813 to 2007 were obtained through library search, MEDLINE (1949-2007) and EMBASE (1975-2007). Specifics steps for establishing the protocol for applying the technique for screening purposes (e.g., evaluation of specific muscles), the requirements for diagnostic sEMG equipment, the sEMG technique itself, and defining the tests suitable for assessing deglutition (e.g., saliva, normal, and excessive swallows and uninterrupted drinking of water) are presented in detail. SEMG is compared with other techniques in terms of cost, timing, involvement of radiation, etc. According to the published data, SEMG of swallowing is a simple and reliable method for screening and preliminary differentiation among dysphagia and odynophagia of various origins. This noninvasive radiation-free examination has a low level of discomfort, and is simple, time-saving and inexpensive to perform. The major weakness of the method seems to be inability for precise diagnostic of neurologically induced dysphagia. With standardization of the technique and an established normative database, sEMG might serve as a reliable screening method for optimal patient management but cannot serve for proper investigation of neurogenic dysphagia.

  19. A general method for the quantitative assessment of mineral pigments.

    PubMed

    Ares, M C Zurita; Fernández, J M

    2016-01-01

    A general method for the estimation of mineral pigment contents in different bases has been proposed using a sole set of calibration curves, (one for each pigment), calculated for a white standard base, thus elaborating patterns for each utilized base is not necessary. The method can be used in different bases and its validity had ev en been proved in strongly tinted bases. The method consists of a novel procedure that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, second derivatives and the Kubelka-Munk function. This technique has proved to be at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than X-Ray diffraction for colored compounds, since it allowed the determination of the pigment amount in colored samples containing 0.5 wt% of pigment that was not detected by X-Ray Diffraction. The method can be used to estimate the concentration of mineral pigments in a wide variety of either natural or artificial materials, since it does not requiere the calculation of each pigment pattern in every base. This fact could have important industrial consequences, as the proposed method would be more convenient, faster and cheaper.

  20. Targeted Screening of Hip Dysplasia in Newborns: Experience at a District General Hospital in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Zgoda, Marcin R.; Short, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    National Health Service Quality Improvement Scotland (NHS QIS) published a health technology scoping report in 2006 acknowledging that there are serious concerns within Scotland in relation to Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) as there is no formal screening program in place and there are significant variations between NHS boards leading to confusion for staff and parents. NHS QIS identified need for audit work to improve hip screening in Scotland. The aim of this study is review of current practice of selective screening for DDH. All newborns who had their first hip scan during one year period (2014) were included in this retrospective study and followed up until June 2015 to include any surgical intervention for dysplastic hip. Out of 428 babies (856 hip scans), abnormality was seen in 119 babies/147 hips (134 Graf 2a/2b, 10 hips were 2c and 3 hips were Graf grade 3). Average age when first scan was performed was 5 weeks (range 3 weeks to 22 weeks). Analysis of risk factors in 119 babies with abnormal scan was consistent with literature (83 breech, 12 family history, 12 HBW, 10 instability and 2 twins of breech). Twelve babies (16 hips) required treatment and were successfully treated in Pavlik harness. There was one case of missed/late dislocation, which lived in outside catchment area for 3 years since birth. During this study period there was no case of avascular necrosis or femoral nerve palsy as a result of treatment. In our experience, selective hip screening by ultrasound scan is useful in avoiding overtreatment and minimizing late presentations. PMID:27761220

  1. Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Dresel, P. EVAN; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2006-09-21

    A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final (EPA 1988). The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers) identified in the groundwater sampling and analysis plan for the operable unit (DOE/RL-2001-49, Rev. 1) with additions.

  2. Evaluation of machine-learning methods for ligand-based virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Beining; Harrison, Robert F.; Papadatos, George; Willett, Peter; Wood, David J.; Lewell, Xiao Qing; Greenidge, Paulette; Stiefl, Nikolaus

    2007-01-01

    Machine-learning methods can be used for virtual screening by analysing the structural characteristics of molecules of known (in)activity, and we here discuss the use of kernel discrimination and naive Bayesian classifier (NBC) methods for this purpose. We report a kernel method that allows the processing of molecules represented by binary, integer and real-valued descriptors, and show that it is little different in screening performance from a previously described kernel that had been developed specifically for the analysis of binary fingerprint representations of molecular structure. We then evaluate the performance of an NBC when the training-set contains only a very few active molecules. In such cases, a simpler approach based on group fusion would appear to provide superior screening performance, especially when structurally heterogeneous datasets are to be processed.

  3. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Parental concerns based general developmental screening tool and autism risk: the Taiwan National Birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Early detection of developmental delay and childhood disorders are important for early intervention. This study aimed to describe the distribution of responses in a large population-based survey, identify cutoff points for the parent concern checklist (PCC) suitable for the Chinese language and culture, and explore how many children were identified as having evidence of problems at age 18 mo different from those at age 6 mo. Using a national randomly selected sample, the overall development of 21,248 children was investigated using the Taiwan Birth Cohort study instrument, and the PCC, a problem-oriented screening instrument. The Newton-Raphson iteration showed that the PCC should be separated into three groups, those scoring 1-2 in the first group, 3- 6 in the second group, and 7- 8 in the third group.Structural equation models showed that 6-mo development was predictive of 18-mo development; additionally, 18-mo development and the PCC showed good concurrent validity. This study identified three groups with distinct developmental trajectories and two cutoff points of 2/3 and 6/7. Thus, the PCC can be used as a first-stage screening instrument in a two-stage window screening procedure. Further studies are needed to investigate the factors, which contribute to the differences among these groups;follow-up on the typical and atypical development of these children is necessary.

  5. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population with the K6 screening scale: results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Bromet, Evelyn; Cuitan, Marius; Furukawa, Toshi A; Gureje, Oye; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chi-Yi; Lara, Carmen; Lee, Sing; Mneimneh, Zeina; Myer, Landon; Oakley-Browne, Mark; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2010-06-01

    Data are reported on the background and performance of the K6 screening scale for serious mental illness (SMI) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. The K6 is a six-item scale developed to provide a brief valid screen for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV) SMI based on the criteria in the US ADAMHA Reorganization Act. Although methodological studies have documented good K6 validity in a number of countries, optimal scoring rules have never been proposed. Such rules are presented here based on analysis of K6 data in nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys in 14 countries (combined N = 41,770 respondents). Twelve-month prevalence of DSM-IV SMI was assessed with the fully-structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nested logistic regression analysis was used to generate estimates of the predicted probability of SMI for each respondent from K6 scores, taking into consideration the possibility of variable concordance as a function of respondent age, gender, education, and country. Concordance, assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was generally substantial (median 0.83; range 0.76-0.89; inter-quartile range 0.81-0.85). Based on this result, optimal scaling rules are presented for use by investigators working with the K6 scale in the countries studied.

  6. Screening for Serious Mental Illness in the General Population with the K6 screening scale: Results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Bromet, Evelyn; Cuitan, Marius; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Gureje, Oye; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chi-yi; Lara, Carmen; Lee, Sing; Mneimneh, Zeina; Myer, Landon; Oakley-Browne, Mark; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Data are reported on the background and performance of the K6 screening scale for serious mental illness (SMI) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. The K6 is a 6-item scale developed to provide a brief valid screen for DSM-IV SMI based on the criteria in the US ADAMHA Reorganization Act. Although methodological studies have documented good K6 validity in a number of countries, optimal scoring rules have never been proposed. Such rules are presented here based on analysis of K6 data in nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys in 14 countries (combined n = 41,770 respondents). Twelve-month prevalence of DSM-IV SMI was assessed with the fully-structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nested logistic regression analysis was used to generate estimates of the predicted probability of SMI for each respondent from K6 scores taking into consideration the possibility of variable concordance as a function of respondent age, gender, education, and country. Concordance, assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), was generally substantial (Median .83; Range .76-.89; Inter-quartile range .81-.85). Based on this result, optimal scaling rules are presented for use by investigators working with the K6 scale in the countries studied. PMID:20527002

  7. Combining the complex Langevin method and the generalized Lefschetz-thimble method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    The complex Langevin method and the generalized Lefschetz-thimble method are two closely related approaches to the sign problem, which are both based on complexification of the original dynamical variables. The former can be viewed as a generalization of the stochastic quantization using the Langevin equation, whereas the latter is a deformation of the integration contour using the so-called holomorphic gradient flow. In order to clarify their relationship, we propose a formulation which combines the two methods by applying the former method to the real variables that parametrize the deformed integration contour in the latter method. Three versions, which differ in the treatment of the residual sign problem in the latter method, are considered. By applying them to a single-variable model, we find, in particular, that one of the versions interpolates the complex Langevin method and the original Lefschetz-thimble method.

  8. Generalized grain cluster method for multiscale response of multiphase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegari, Sourena; Turteltaub, Sergio; Suiker, Akke S. J.

    2015-08-01

    A multiscale approach termed the generalized grain cluster method (GGCM) is presented, which can be applied for the prediction of the macroscopic behavior of an aggregate of single crystal grains composing a multiphase material. The GGCM is based on the minimization of a functional that depends on the microscopic deformation gradients in the grains through the equilibrium requirements of the grains as well as kinematic compatibility between grains. By means of the specification of weighting factors it is possible to mimic responses falling between the Taylor and Sachs bounds. The numerical solution is computed with an incremental-iterative algorithm based on a constrained gradient descent method. For a multiscale analysis, the GCCM can be included at integration points of a standard finite element code to simulate macroscopic problems. A comparison with FEM direct numerical simulations illustrates that the computational time of the GGCM may be up to about an order of magnitude lower.

  9. Generalized method for retrieving effective parameters of anisotropic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Castanié, A; Mercier, J-F; Félix, S; Maurel, A

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic or acoustic metamaterials can be described in terms of equivalent effective, in general anisotropic, media and several techniques exist to determine the effective permeability and permittivity (or effective mass density and bulk modulus in the context of acoustics). Among these techniques, retrieval methods use the measured reflection and transmission coefficients (or scattering coefficients) for waves incident on a metamaterial slab containing few unit cells. Until now, anisotropic effective slabs have been considered in the literature but they are limited to the case where one of the axes of anisotropy is aligned with the slab interface. We propose an extension to arbitrary orientations of the principal axes of anisotropy and oblique incidence. The retrieval method is illustrated in the electromagnetic case for layered media, and in the acoustic case for array of tilted elliptical particles.

  10. Intermediate electrostatic field for the generalized elongation method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Korchowiec, Jacek; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-05-18

    An intermediate electrostatic field is introduced to improve the accuracy of fragment-based quantum-chemical computational methods by including long-range polarizations of biomolecules. The point charge distribution of the intermediate field is generated by a charge sensitivity analysis that is parameterized for five different population analyses, namely, atoms-in-molecules, Hirshfeld, Mulliken, natural orbital, and Voronoi population analysis. Two model systems are chosen to demonstrate the performance of the generalized elongation method (ELG) combined with the intermediate electrostatic field. The calculations are performed for the STO-3G, 6-31G, and 6-31G(d) basis sets and compared with reference Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that the error in the total energy is reduced by one order of magnitude, independently of the population analyses used. This demonstrates the importance of long-range polarization in electronic-structure calculations by fragmentation techniques.

  11. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  12. Assessing the feasibility of screening and providing brief advice for alcohol misuse in general dental practice: a clustered randomised control trial protocol for the DART study

    PubMed Central

    Ntouva, Antiopi; Porter, Jessie; Crawford, Mike J; Britton, Annie; Gratus, Christine; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Heilmann, Anja; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol misuse is a significant public health problem with major health, social and economic consequences. Systematic reviews have reported that brief advice interventions delivered in various health service settings can reduce harmful drinking. Although the links between alcohol and oral health are well established and dentists come into contact with large numbers of otherwise healthy patients regularly, no studies have been conducted in the UK to test the feasibility of delivering brief advice about alcohol in general dental settings. Methods and analysis The Dental Alcohol Reduction Trial (DART) aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening for alcohol misuse and delivering brief advice in patients attending National Health Service (NHS) general dental practices in North London. DART is a cluster randomised control feasibility trial and uses a mixed methods approach throughout the development, design, delivery and evaluation of the intervention. It will be conducted in 12 NHS general dental practices across North London and will include dental patients who drink above the recommended guidance, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) screening tool. The intervention involves 5 min of tailored brief advice delivered by dental practitioners during the patient's appointment. Feasibility and acceptability measures as well as suitability of proposed primary outcomes of alcohol consumption will be assessed. Initial economic evaluation will be undertaken. Recruitment and retention rates as well as acceptability of the study procedures from screening to follow-up will be measured. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Camden and Islington Research Ethics Committee. Study outputs will be disseminated via scientific publications, newsletters, reports and conference presentations to a range of professional and patient groups and stakeholders. Based on the results of the trial

  13. First Principles Structure Calculations Using the General Potential Lapw Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Su-Huai

    We have developed a completely general first principles self-consistent full-potential linearized-augmented-plane -wave (LAPW) method program within the density functional formalism to calculate electronic band structure, total energy, pressure and other quantities. No symmetry assumptions are used for the crystal structure. Shape unrestricted charge densities and potentials are calculated inside muffin -tin (MT) spheres as well as in the interstitial regions. All contributions to the Hamiltonian matrix elements are completely taken into account. The core states are treated fully relativistically using the spherical part of the potential only. Scalar relativistic effects are included for the band-states, and spin-orbit coupling is included using a second variation procedure. Both core states and valence states are treated self-consistently, the frozen core approximation is not required. The fast Fourier transformation method is used wherever it is applicable, and this greatly improves the efficiency. This state-of-the-art program has been tested extensively to check the accuracy and convergence properties by comparing calculated electronic band structures, ground state properties, equations of state and cohesive energies for bulk W and GaAs with other theoretical calculations and experimental results. It has been successfully applied to calculate and predict structural and metal-insulator phase transitions for close-packed crystal BaSe and BaTe and the geometric structure of the d-band metal W(001) surface. The results are in generally good agreement with experiment.

  14. Current utility of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in general practice: implications for its use in cardiovascular disease screening.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jane H; Kenkre, Joyce; Williams, E Mark

    2014-04-17

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a marker of systemic atherosclerosis and associated with a three to six fold increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. Furthermore, it is typically asymptomatic and under-diagnosed; this has resulted in escalating calls for the instigation of Primary Care PAD screening via Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) measurement. However, there is limited evidence regarding the feasibility of this and if the requisite core skills and knowledge for such a task already exist within primary care. This study aimed to determine the current utility of ABI measurement in general practices across Wales, with consideration of the implications for its use as a cardiovascular risk screening tool. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all 478 General Practices within Wales, sent via their responsible Health Boards. The survey response rate was 20%. ABI measurement is primarily performed by nurses (93%) for the purpose of wound management (90%). It is infrequently (73% < 4 times per month) and often incorrectly used (42% out of compliance with current ABI guidance). Only 52% of general practitioners and 16% of nurses reported that patients with an ABI of ≤ 0.9 require aggressive cardiovascular disease risk factor modification (as recommended by current national and international guidelines). ABI measurement is an under-utilised and often incorrectly performed procedure in the surveyed general practices. Prior to its potential adoption as a formalised screening tool for cardiovascular disease, there is a need for a robust training programme with standardised methodology in order to optimise accuracy and consistency of results. The significance of a diagnosis of PAD, in terms of associated increased cardiovascular risk and the necessary risk factor modification, needs to be highlighted.

  15. General Methods for Evolutionary Quantitative Genetic Inference from Generalized Mixed Models.

    PubMed

    de Villemereuil, Pierre; Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Morrissey, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Methods for inference and interpretation of evolutionary quantitative genetic parameters, and for prediction of the response to selection, are best developed for traits with normal distributions. Many traits of evolutionary interest, including many life history and behavioral traits, have inherently nonnormal distributions. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework has become a widely used tool for estimating quantitative genetic parameters for nonnormal traits. However, whereas GLMMs provide inference on a statistically convenient latent scale, it is often desirable to express quantitative genetic parameters on the scale upon which traits are measured. The parameters of fitted GLMMs, despite being on a latent scale, fully determine all quantities of potential interest on the scale on which traits are expressed. We provide expressions for deriving each of such quantities, including population means, phenotypic (co)variances, variance components including additive genetic (co)variances, and parameters such as heritability. We demonstrate that fixed effects have a strong impact on those parameters and show how to deal with this by averaging or integrating over fixed effects. The expressions require integration of quantities determined by the link function, over distributions of latent values. In general cases, the required integrals must be solved numerically, but efficient methods are available and we provide an implementation in an R package, QGglmm. We show that known formulas for quantities such as heritability of traits with binomial and Poisson distributions are special cases of our expressions. Additionally, we show how fitted GLMM can be incorporated into existing methods for predicting evolutionary trajectories. We demonstrate the accuracy of the resulting method for evolutionary prediction by simulation and apply our approach to data from a wild pedigreed vertebrate population.

  16. General Methods for Evolutionary Quantitative Genetic Inference from Generalized Mixed Models

    PubMed Central

    de Villemereuil, Pierre; Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Morrissey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Methods for inference and interpretation of evolutionary quantitative genetic parameters, and for prediction of the response to selection, are best developed for traits with normal distributions. Many traits of evolutionary interest, including many life history and behavioral traits, have inherently nonnormal distributions. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework has become a widely used tool for estimating quantitative genetic parameters for nonnormal traits. However, whereas GLMMs provide inference on a statistically convenient latent scale, it is often desirable to express quantitative genetic parameters on the scale upon which traits are measured. The parameters of fitted GLMMs, despite being on a latent scale, fully determine all quantities of potential interest on the scale on which traits are expressed. We provide expressions for deriving each of such quantities, including population means, phenotypic (co)variances, variance components including additive genetic (co)variances, and parameters such as heritability. We demonstrate that fixed effects have a strong impact on those parameters and show how to deal with this by averaging or integrating over fixed effects. The expressions require integration of quantities determined by the link function, over distributions of latent values. In general cases, the required integrals must be solved numerically, but efficient methods are available and we provide an implementation in an R package, QGglmm. We show that known formulas for quantities such as heritability of traits with binomial and Poisson distributions are special cases of our expressions. Additionally, we show how fitted GLMM can be incorporated into existing methods for predicting evolutionary trajectories. We demonstrate the accuracy of the resulting method for evolutionary prediction by simulation and apply our approach to data from a wild pedigreed vertebrate population. PMID:27591750

  17. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  18. A randomized trial of three marketing strategies to disseminate a screening and brief alcohol intervention programme to general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, C A; Kaner, E F; Heather, N; McAvoy, B R; Gilvarry, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. A dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different marketing strategies for the dissemination of a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: Seven hundred and twenty-nine GPs, one per practice, from the former Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority were randomly assigned to one of three marketing strategies: postal marketing (mailing a promotional brochure to GPs), telemarketing (following a script to market the programme over the telephone), and personal marketing (following the same script during face-to-face marketing at GPs' practices). GPs who took up the programme were asked if they would agree to use it. Outcome measures included the proportions of GPs who took up the programme and agreement to use it. RESULTS: Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, 321 (52%) took the programme. There was a significant difference in the proportions of GPs from the three marketing strategies who took the programme (82% telemarketing, 68% personal marketing, and 22% postal marketing). Of the 315 GPs who took the programme and were eligible to use it, 128 (41%) agreed to use the programme for three months. GPs in the postal marketing group were more likely to agree to use the programme (55% postal marketing, 44% personal marketing, and 34% telemarketing). Personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination strategy; however, economic analysis revealed that telemarketing was the most cost-effective strategy. Costs for dissemination per GP were: 13 Pounds telemarketing, 15 Pounds postal marketing, and 88 Pounds personal marketing. CONCLUSION: Telemarketing appeared to be the most cost-effective strategy

  19. Toward fully automated high performance computing drug discovery: a massively parallel virtual screening pipeline for docking and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area rescoring to improve enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-01-27

    In this work we announce and evaluate a high throughput virtual screening pipeline for in-silico screening of virtual compound databases using high performance computing (HPC). Notable features of this pipeline are an automated receptor preparation scheme with unsupervised binding site identification. The pipeline includes receptor/target preparation, ligand preparation, VinaLC docking calculation, and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) rescoring using the GB model by Onufriev and co-workers [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 156-169]. Furthermore, we leverage HPC resources to perform an unprecedented, comprehensive evaluation of MM/GBSA rescoring when applied to the DUD-E data set (Directory of Useful Decoys: Enhanced), in which we selected 38 protein targets and a total of ∼0.7 million actives and decoys. The computer wall time for virtual screening has been reduced drastically on HPC machines, which increases the feasibility of extremely large ligand database screening with more accurate methods. HPC resources allowed us to rescore 20 poses per compound and evaluate the optimal number of poses to rescore. We find that keeping 5-10 poses is a good compromise between accuracy and computational expense. Overall the results demonstrate that MM/GBSA rescoring has higher average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) values and consistently better early recovery of actives than Vina docking alone. Specifically, the enrichment performance is target-dependent. MM/GBSA rescoring significantly out performs Vina docking for the folate enzymes, kinases, and several other enzymes. The more accurate energy function and solvation terms of the MM/GBSA method allow MM/GBSA to achieve better enrichment, but the rescoring is still limited by the docking method to generate the poses with the correct binding modes.

  20. Efficiency and cost-effectiveness of dyslipidemia screening methods among workers in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Sanguantrakul, Unchalee; Jiamjarasrangsi, Wiroj; Vimolket, Thosporn

    2010-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is now a worldwide health problem. Secondary prevention in the form of early detection of dyslipidemia and risk modification via drug and non-drug procedures, particularly among the high-risk group, is thus imperative. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity, cost, and cost-effectiveness of dyslipidemia screening methods which were proposed by the Royal Thai Medical Association (RTMA), the United States National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA), and our modified screening instrument (MSI). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 2,000 workers aged > or = 35 years taking annual health examination from a university hospital during July-September, 2008. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening methods were analyzed using the universal serum lipid testing as the gold standard. Their total and unit costs, and cost-effectiveness were then calculated. Overall, the sensitivities for detecting any type of serum lipid abnormalities ranged between 29.9-99.4 %, while the specificities ranged between 0.5-74.1%. The total costs per 1,000 people screened ranged between THB 88,742 - 184,750. No screening method was obviously more cost-effective when using the cost per case detected of the universal blood test as the reference.

  1. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: A general method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ9-40, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  2. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: a general method.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Li, Mai Suan; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-03-07

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ9-40, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  3. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: A general method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan

    2014-03-07

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ{sub 9−40}, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  4. Generalized Weighted Residual Method; Advancements and Current Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffel, Jan; Lindvall, Kristoffer

    2016-10-01

    The Generalized Weighted Residual Method (GWRM) is a time-spectral method for solving initial value partial differential equations. The GWRM treats the temporal, spatial, and parameter domains by projecting the residual to a Chebyshev polynomial space, with the variational principle being that the residual is zero. This treatment provides a global semi-analytical solution. However, straightforward global solution is not economical. One remedy is the inclusion of spatial and temporal sub-domains with coupled internal boundary conditions, which decreases memory requirements and introduces sparse matrices. Only the equations pertaining to the boundary conditions need be solved globally, making the method parallelizable in time. Efficient solution of the linearized ideal MHD stability equations of screw-pinch equilibria are proved possible. The GWRM has also been used to solve strongly nonlinear ODEs such as the Lorenz equations (1984), and is capable of competing with finite time difference schemes in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. GWRM solutions of linear and nonlinear model problems of interest for stability and turbulence modelling will be presented, including detailed comparisons with time stepping methods.

  5. Generalized Bootstrap Method for Assessment of Uncertainty in Semivariogram Inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.

    2011-01-01

    The semivariogram and its related function, the covariance, play a central role in classical geostatistics for modeling the average continuity of spatially correlated attributes. Whereas all methods are formulated in terms of the true semivariogram, in practice what can be used are estimated semivariograms and models based on samples. A generalized form of the bootstrap method to properly model spatially correlated data is used to advance knowledge about the reliability of empirical semivariograms and semivariogram models based on a single sample. Among several methods available to generate spatially correlated resamples, we selected a method based on the LU decomposition and used several examples to illustrate the approach. The first one is a synthetic, isotropic, exhaustive sample following a normal distribution, the second example is also a synthetic but following a non-Gaussian random field, and a third empirical sample consists of actual raingauge measurements. Results show wider confidence intervals than those found previously by others with inadequate application of the bootstrap. Also, even for the Gaussian example, distributions for estimated semivariogram values and model parameters are positively skewed. In this sense, bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which are not centered around the empirical semivariogram and do not require distributional assumptions for its construction, provide an achieved coverage similar to the nominal coverage. The latter cannot be achieved by symmetrical confidence intervals based on the standard error, regardless if the standard error is estimated from a parametric equation or from bootstrap. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.

  6. High-Order Integral Equation Methods for Diffraction Problems Involving Screens and Apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintner, Stephane K.

    This thesis presents a novel approach for the numerical solution of problems of diffraction by infinitely thin screens and apertures. The new methodology relies on combination of weighted versions of the classical operators associated with the Dirichlet and Neumann open-surface problems. In the two-dimensional case, a rigorous proof is presented, establishing that the new weighted formulations give rise to second-kind Fredholm integral equations, thus providing a generalization to open surfaces of the classical closed-surface Calderon formulae. High-order quadrature rules are introduced for the new weighted operators, both in the two-dimensional case as well as the scalar three-dimensional case. Used in conjunction with Krylov subspace iterative methods, these rules give rise to efficient and accurate numerical solvers which produce highly accurate solutions in small numbers of iterations, and whose performance is comparable to that arising from efficient high-order integral solvers recently introduced for closed-surface problems. Numerical results are presented for a wide range of frequencies and a variety of geometries in two- and three-dimensional space, including complex resonating structures as well as, for the first time, accurate numerical solutions of classical diffraction problems considered by the 19th-century pioneers: diffraction of high-frequency waves by the infinitely thin disc, the circular aperture, and the two-hole geometry inherent in Young's experiment.

  7. Comparative assessment of scoring functions on an updated benchmark: 2. Evaluation methods and general results.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Han, Li; Liu, Zhihai; Wang, Renxiao

    2014-06-23

    Our comparative assessment of scoring functions (CASF) benchmark is created to provide an objective evaluation of current scoring functions. The key idea of CASF is to compare the general performance of scoring functions on a diverse set of protein-ligand complexes. In order to avoid testing scoring functions in the context of molecular docking, the scoring process is separated from the docking (or sampling) process by using ensembles of ligand binding poses that are generated in prior. Here, we describe the technical methods and evaluation results of the latest CASF-2013 study. The PDBbind core set (version 2013) was employed as the primary test set in this study, which consists of 195 protein-ligand complexes with high-quality three-dimensional structures and reliable binding constants. A panel of 20 scoring functions, most of which are implemented in main-stream commercial software, were evaluated in terms of "scoring power" (binding affinity prediction), "ranking power" (relative ranking prediction), "docking power" (binding pose prediction), and "screening power" (discrimination of true binders from random molecules). Our results reveal that the performance of these scoring functions is generally more promising in the docking/screening power tests than in the scoring/ranking power tests. Top-ranked scoring functions in the scoring power test, such as X-Score(HM), ChemScore@SYBYL, ChemPLP@GOLD, and PLP@DS, are also top-ranked in the ranking power test. Top-ranked scoring functions in the docking power test, such as ChemPLP@GOLD, Chemscore@GOLD, GlidScore-SP, LigScore@DS, and PLP@DS, are also top-ranked in the screening power test. Our results obtained on the entire test set and its subsets suggest that the real challenge in protein-ligand binding affinity prediction lies in polar interactions and associated desolvation effect. Nonadditive features observed among high-affinity protein-ligand complexes also need attention.

  8. Colorectal cancer screening in a low-incidence area: general invitation versus family risk targeting: a comparative study from Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Panic, Nikola; Rösch, Thomas; Smolovic, Brigita; Radunovic, Miodrag; Bulajic, Mirko; Pavlovic-Markovic, Aleksandra; Krivokapic, Zoran; Djuranovic, Srdjan; Ille, Tatjana; Bulajic, Milutin

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of two different screening approaches in a small country (Montenegro, 650,000 inhabitants) with a CRC incidence lower than the European average. Two structured invitation programs were compared with respect to compliance and neoplasia yield: (i) program A focused on first-degree relatives of CRC patients diagnosed in two hospitals (n=206), inviting them for colonoscopy; (ii) program B was an invitation program for fecal occult blood testing, followed by colonoscopy if positive, conducted in University Hospital, Podgorica, Montenegro, on 2760 randomly selected average-risk persons, age 50-74 years, living in a single municipality. Of 710 first-degree relatives of 206 CRC patients approached, 540 presented for colonoscopy (76.05% uptake). Overall, 31 were diagnosed with a cancer, 58 with advanced adenoma, and 151 with adenoma in general. In the general screening program, of 2760 individuals invited, 920 underwent fecal immunochemical test (33.3% uptake) and colonoscopy was performed in all 95 positive cases (10.3%); six cancers was found in five patients (one patient had two cancers), 19 patients were diagnosed with advanced adenoma, and 26 with any adenomas. The risk-targeted screening program had a significantly higher yield for cancers in both per invited (31/710 vs. 5/2760, P<0.001) and per eligible person analysis (31/540 vs. 5/920, P<0.001). In a low-incidence country with limited resources, it may be advisable to start with CRC screening targeted to risk groups.

  9. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kiet A. E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Pachter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Day, Paul N.

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  10. Flutter and Divergence Analysis using the Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    The Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method (GAAM) is applied to the analysis of three well-studied checkcases: restrained and unrestrained airfoil models, and a wing model. An eigenvalue iteration procedure is used for converging upon roots of the complex stability matrix. For the airfoil models, exact root loci are given which clearly illustrate the nature of the flutter and divergence instabilities. The singularities involved are enumerated, including an additional pole at the origin for the unrestrained airfoil case and the emergence of an additional pole on the positive real axis at the divergence speed for the restrained airfoil case. Inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new, exact results are discussed and resolved. The generalization of a Doublet Lattice Method computer code is described and the code is applied to the calculation of root loci for the wing model for incompressible and for subsonic flow conditions. The error introduced in the reduction of the singular integral equation underlying the unsteady lifting surface theory to a linear algebraic equation is discussed. Acknowledging this inherent error, the solutions of the algebraic equation by GAAM are termed 'exact.' The singularities of the problem are discussed and exponential series approximations used in the evaluation of the kernel function shown to introduce a dense collection of poles and zeroes on the negative real axis. Again, inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new 'exact' results are discussed and resolved. In all cases, aeroelastic flutter and divergence speeds and frequencies are in good agreement with published results. The GAAM solution procedure allows complete control over Mach number, velocity, density, and complex frequency. Thus all points on the computed root loci can be matched-point, consistent solutions without recourse to complex mode tracking logic or dataset interpolation, as in the k and p

  11. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. [in celestial mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A. H.; Tapley, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence Duffing's equation, the van der Pol equation and the oscillator with quadratic damping problem are solved using each method.

  12. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A.; Tapley, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence both Duffing's equation and the van der Pol equation are solved using each method.

  13. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. [in celestial mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A. H.; Tapley, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence Duffing's equation, the van der Pol equation and the oscillator with quadratic damping problem are solved using each method.

  14. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A.; Tapley, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence both Duffing's equation and the van der Pol equation are solved using each method.

  15. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Sidell, F.R.; Leffingwell, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  16. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B. ); Sidell, F.R. ); Leffingwell, S.S. . Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control)

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  17. Proposal of Screening Method of Sleep Disordered Breathing Using Fiber Grating Vision Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hirooki; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Masato

    Every conventional respiration monitoring technique requires at least one sensor to be attached to the body of the subject during measurement, thereby imposing a sense of restraint that results in aversion against measurements that would last over consecutive days. To solve this problem, we developed a respiration monitoring system for sleepers, and it uses a fiber-grating vision sensor, which is a type of active image sensor to achieve non-contact respiration monitoring. In this paper, we verified the effectiveness of the system, and proposed screening method of the sleep disordered breathing. It was shown that our system could equivalently measure the respiration with thermistor and accelerograph. And, the respiratory condition of sleepers can be grasped by our screening method in one look, and it seems to be useful for the support of the screening of sleep disordered breathing.

  18. Pi sampling: a methodical and flexible approach to initial macromolecular crystallization screening

    PubMed Central

    Gorrec, Fabrice; Palmer, Colin M.; Lebon, Guillaume; Warne, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The Pi sampling method is derived from the incomplete factorial approach to macromolecular crystallization screen design. The resulting ‘Pi screens’ have a modular distribution of a given set of up to 36 stock solutions. Maximally diverse conditions can be produced by taking into account the properties of the chemicals used in the formulation and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions. The Pi sampling method has been implemented in a web-based application that generates screen formulations and recipes. It is particularly adapted to screens consisting of 96 different conditions. The flexibility and efficiency of Pi sampling is demonstrated by the crystallization of soluble proteins and of an integral membrane-protein sample. PMID:21543849

  19. Assessment of drugs against Cryptosporidium parvum using a simple in vitro screening method.

    PubMed

    Armson, A; Meloni, B P; Reynoldson, J A; Thompson, R C

    1999-09-15

    A rapid semi-quantitative screening method was devised for assessing the anticryptosporidial and cytotoxic effects of putative chemotherapeutic compounds. The method is suitable as an initial rapid screening procedure from which compounds demonstrating anticryptosporidial activity can be identified for further analysis. It has the advantages of speed, low cost and concurrent assessment of anticryptosporidial and cytotoxic effects and allows accurate determination of minimum lethal concentrations. Of the 71 compounds screened, six completely inhibited cryptosporidial growth at 1 microM (monensin, salinomycin, alborixin, lasalocid, trifluralin and nicarbazin) and a further eight showed significant anticryptosporidial activity at 1 or 20 microM (halquinol, bleomycin, suramin, mitomycin, doxycycline hydrochloride, toltrazuril, chloroquine phosphate and teniposide). Twelve compounds were found to have some degree of cytotoxicity at 1 microM and a further 12 at 20 microM.

  20. A comparative rapid and sensitive method to screen l-asparaginase producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Dhale, Mohan A; Mohan-Kumari, H Puttananjaiah

    2014-07-01

    Fungi are well known to produce various industrial enzymes and secondary metabolites with different colours. Fungi producing l-asparaginase enzyme are conventionally screened on medium containing phenol red (PR). The contrast between enzyme-hydrolysed zone and unhydrolysed l-asparagine is not very evident and distinct in medium containing PR and bromothymol blue (BB) due to coloured secondary metabolite production. Thus, PR and BB limit and affect the detection and screening method. In the present investigation, an improved method for screening is reported by comparing with PR and BB, wherein methyl red (MR) is incorporated as pH indicator. The enzyme activity was distinctly observed (red and light-yellow) in MR incorporated medium compared to PR and BB.

  1. [Development of a rapid screening method for discovering neuroprotective components from traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Ping

    2013-05-01

    This study developed a method for rapid screening neuroprotective compounds with FDA (fluorescein diacetate) labeled SH-SYSY cells, which was injuried by Glu (L-glutamic acid). The cell viability was determined by fluorescence automatic mi-croscopy screening system. Then, neuroprotective components from Gegen Qinlian decoction were screened by the proposed method. The results demonstrated that 4 chemical components, C15, D06, D07 and E05 from Gegen Qinlian decoction, showed significantly neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, 8 compounds (i. e. daidzin, 3'-methoxydaidzin, liquiritin apioside, 6-C-L-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl chrysin, isoliquiritin apioside, baicalin, oroxylin-A-7-O-fP-D-glucuronide and wogonoside) were identified from these active components by LC-Q/TOF-MS technology (liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry). These 8 compounds may be the potential neuroprotective substances in Gegen Qinlian decoction.

  2. A fast and easy screening method for voice disorders among teacher students.

    PubMed

    Simberg, S; Sala, E; Laine, A; Rönnemaa, A M

    2001-01-01

    A recent study concerning voice disorders among future teachers showed that about 20% of the students had a voice disorder. Most of the disorders were organic. In the current study, we describe a voice-screening method that can be administered by the health care personnel in order to select students for further examination by the speech language therapist and/or phoniatrician. The screening method consists of a perceptual assessment of voice quality and a questionnaire concerning vocal symptoms. As criterion for further medical investigation and voice therapy, we selected a score of 35 mm or above on a visual analogue scale assessing Grade, i.e. overall grade of hoarseness and/or two or more weekly or more often occurring vocal symptoms. The results showed that health care personnel with some training in assessing voices using the questionnaire are competent to perform a rough voice screening on students.

  3. Improvement of the method of optical testing of fast aspherical surfaces with null-screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Aguirre Aguirre, Daniel; Armengol-Cruz, Victor de Emanuel

    2017-06-01

    We extend the principles of the null-screen method for testing fast aspheric surfaces with polynomial expansion. We present the formulae to design the null-screen in such a way that the image on the CCD is a perfect array circular points; the departures of the surface from a perfect shape are observed as deformations of the array in the image. For the testing of fast aspherics with polynomial expansion, we propose some geometrical configurations. In addition, we perform an analysis of the deformations of the image of the null-screen reflected by the testing surface due to the slop defects of the surface. Experimental results for the testing fast aspherics are shown. The main advantages and the limitations of the method will be discussed.

  4. A Multivariate Computational Method to Analyze High-Content RNAi Screening Data.

    PubMed

    Rameseder, Jonathan; Krismer, Konstantin; Dayma, Yogesh; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Hwang, Mun Kyung; Airoldi, Edoardo M; Floyd, Scott R; Yaffe, Michael B

    2015-09-01

    High-content screening (HCS) using RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with automated microscopy is a powerful investigative tool to explore complex biological processes. However, despite the plethora of data generated from these screens, little progress has been made in analyzing HC data using multivariate methods that exploit the full richness of multidimensional data. We developed a novel multivariate method for HCS, multivariate robust analysis method (M-RAM), integrating image feature selection with ranking of perturbations for hit identification, and applied this method to an HC RNAi screen to discover novel components of the DNA damage response in an osteosarcoma cell line. M-RAM automatically selects the most informative phenotypic readouts and time points to facilitate the more efficient design of follow-up experiments and enhance biological understanding. Our method outperforms univariate hit identification and identifies relevant genes that these approaches would have missed. We found that statistical cell-to-cell variation in phenotypic responses is an important predictor of hits in RNAi-directed image-based screens. Genes that we identified as modulators of DNA damage signaling in U2OS cells include B-Raf, a cancer driver gene in multiple tumor types, whose role in DNA damage signaling we confirm experimentally, and multiple subunits of protein kinase A.

  5. A multivariate computational method to analyze high-content RNAi screening data

    PubMed Central

    Rameseder, Jonathan; Krismer, Konstantin; Dayma, Yogesh; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Hwang, Mun Kyung; Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Floyd, Scott R.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    High-content screening (HCS) using RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with automated microscopy is a powerful investigative tool to explore complex biological processes. However, despite the plethora of data generated from these screens, little progress has been made in analyzing HC data using multivariate methods that exploit the full richness of multidimensional data. We developed a novel multivariate method for HCS, Multivariate Robust Analysis Method (M-RAM), integrating image feature selection with ranking of perturbations for hit identification, and applied this method to a HC RNAi screen to discover novel components of the DNA damage response in an osteosarcoma cell line. M-RAM automatically selects the most informative phenotypic readouts and time points to facilitate the more efficient design of follow-up experiments and enhance biological understanding. Our method outperforms univariate hit identification and identifies relevant genes that these approaches would have missed. We found that statistical cell-to-cell variation in phenotypic responses is an important predictor of ‘hits’ in RNAi-directed image-based screens. Genes that we identified as modulators of DNA damage signaling in U2OS cells include B-Raf, a cancer driver gene in multiple tumor types, whose role in DNA damage signaling we confirm experimentally, and multiple subunits of protein kinase A. PMID:25918037

  6. [The Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Plastic Surgery - A Systematic Review of Screening Methods].

    PubMed

    Houschyar, K S; Philipps, H M; Duscher, D; Rein, S; Weissenberg, K; Nietzschmann, I; Maan, Z N; Pyles, M N; Siemers, F

    2017-08-01

    Background The body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is considered to be a sub-form of somatoform disorders. BDD can express itself in a delirious experience, an excessive evaluation and employment of the external appearance, in particular the face. Preliminary results suggest that individuals with BDD do not benefit from plastic surgery, so that aesthetic surgery often results in aggravation of their symptoms. Thus, the identification of signs for a BDD is crucial, whether a patient should be operated plastically-aesthetically. This overview explains the often difficult diagnostics of the BDD by summarizing the current literature on its screening. Study design Systematic overview Methods An electronic search was conducted in the German and English-language literature in order to identify all screening instruments for the BDD. The specific development and validation processes are assessed whether the screening instruments have a positive predictive value for the BDD. Results Six different screening instruments were identified for the BDD. Only two of these were evaluated in a cosmetic setting: the "Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire Dermatology Version" (BDDQ-DV) and the "Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire" (DCQ). The influence on the subjective results after a plastic-aesthetic procedure was measured only for the DCQ. Conclusion The limited availability of validated screening instruments for BDD in plastic surgery is markedly in contrast to the supposedly high prevalence of the disease of 2.4 %. Among the currently used screening tools, the BDDQ-DV and the DCQ appear to be most suitable. Further research efforts are needed to establish better screening methods for the BDD in the plastic surgical patient population and to examine the effects of BDD on treatment results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. THE EXOPLANET CENSUS: A GENERAL METHOD APPLIED TO KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Youdin, Andrew N.

    2011-11-20

    We develop a general method to fit the underlying planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of planet or target star properties. We apply the method to announced Kepler planet candidates that transit solar-type stars. The Kepler team's estimates of the detection efficiency are used and are shown to agree with theoretical predictions for an ideal transit survey. The PLDF is fit to a joint power law in planet radius, down to 0.5 R{sub Circled-Plus }, and orbital period, up to 50 days. The estimated number of planets per star in this sample is {approx}0.7-1.4, where the range covers systematic uncertainties in the detection efficiency. To analyze trends in the PLDF we consider four planet samples, divided between shorter and longer periods at 7 days and between large and small radii at 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }. The size distribution changes appreciably between these four samples, revealing a relative deficit of {approx}3 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets at the shortest periods. This deficit is suggestive of preferential evaporation and sublimation of Neptune- and Saturn-like planets. If the trend and explanation hold, it would be spectacular observational support of the core accretion and migration hypotheses, and would allow refinement of these theories.

  8. Adaptive Elastic Net for Generalized Methods of Moments.

    PubMed

    Caner, Mehmet; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2014-01-30

    Model selection and estimation are crucial parts of econometrics. This paper introduces a new technique that can simultaneously estimate and select the model in generalized method of moments (GMM) context. The GMM is particularly powerful for analyzing complex data sets such as longitudinal and panel data, and it has wide applications in econometrics. This paper extends the least squares based adaptive elastic net estimator of Zou and Zhang (2009) to nonlinear equation systems with endogenous variables. The extension is not trivial and involves a new proof technique due to estimators lack of closed form solutions. Compared to Bridge-GMM of Caner (2009), we allow for the number of parameters to diverge to infinity as well as collinearity among a large number of variables, also the redundant parameters set to zero via a data dependent technique. This method has the oracle property, meaning that we can estimate nonzero parameters with their standard limit and the redundant parameters are dropped from the equations simultaneously. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the performance of the new method.

  9. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein’s ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter’s mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na+-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21016.001 PMID:28121290

  10. One Question, Multiple Answers: Biochemical and Biophysical Screening Methods Retrieve Deviating Fragment Hit Lists.

    PubMed

    Schiebel, Johannes; Radeva, Nedyalka; Köster, Helene; Metz, Alexander; Krotzky, Timo; Kuhnert, Maren; Diederich, Wibke E; Heine, Andreas; Neumann, Lars; Atmanene, Cedric; Roecklin, Dominique; Vivat-Hannah, Valérie; Renaud, Jean-Paul; Meinecke, Robert; Schlinck, Nina; Sitte, Astrid; Popp, Franziska; Zeeb, Markus; Klebe, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Fragment-based lead discovery is gaining momentum in drug development. Typically, a hierarchical cascade of several screening techniques is consulted to identify fragment hits which are then analyzed by crystallography. Because crystal structures with bound fragments are essential for the subsequent hit-to-lead-to-drug optimization, the screening process should distinguish reliably between binders and non-binders. We therefore investigated whether different screening methods would reveal similar collections of putative binders. First we used a biochemical assay to identify fragments that bind to endothiapepsin, a surrogate for disease-relevant aspartic proteases. In a comprehensive screening approach, we then evaluated our 361-entry library by using a reporter-displacement assay, saturation-transfer difference NMR, native mass spectrometry, thermophoresis, and a thermal shift assay. While the combined results of these screening methods retrieve 10 of the 11 crystal structures originally predicted by the biochemical assay, the mutual overlap of individual hit lists is surprisingly low, highlighting that each technique operates on different biophysical principles and conditions.

  11. An efficient iterative method for the generalized Stokes problem

    SciTech Connect

    Sameh, A.; Sarin, V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an efficient iterative scheme for the generalized Stokes problem, which arises frequently in the simulation of time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow. The general form of the linear system is where A = {alpha}M + vT is an n x n symmetric positive definite matrix, in which M is the mass matrix, T is the discrete Laplace operator, {alpha} and {nu} are positive constants proportional to the inverses of the time-step {Delta}t and the Reynolds number Re respectively, and B is the discrete gradient operator of size n x k (k < n). Even though the matrix A is symmetric and positive definite, the system is indefinite due to the incompressibility constraint (B{sup T}u = 0). This causes difficulties both for iterative methods and commonly used preconditioners. Moreover, depending on the ratio {alpha}/{nu}, A behaves like the mass matrix M at one extreme and the Laplace operator T at the other, thus complicating the issue of preconditioning.

  12. Appropriate model selection methods for nonstationary generalized extreme value models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanbeen; Kim, Sooyoung; Shin, Hongjoon; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2017-04-01

    Several evidences of hydrologic data series being nonstationary in nature have been found to date. This has resulted in the conduct of many studies in the area of nonstationary frequency analysis. Nonstationary probability distribution models involve parameters that vary over time. Therefore, it is not a straightforward process to apply conventional goodness-of-fit tests to the selection of an appropriate nonstationary probability distribution model. Tests that are generally recommended for such a selection include the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), corrected Akaike's information criterion (AICc), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and likelihood ratio test (LRT). In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation was performed to compare the performances of these four tests, with regard to nonstationary as well as stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions. Proper model selection ratios and sample sizes were taken into account to evaluate the performances of all the four tests. The BIC demonstrated the best performance with regard to stationary GEV models. In case of nonstationary GEV models, the AIC proved to be better than the other three methods, when relatively small sample sizes were considered. With larger sample sizes, the AIC, BIC, and LRT presented the best performances for GEV models which have nonstationary location and/or scale parameters, respectively. Simulation results were then evaluated by applying all four tests to annual maximum rainfall data of selected sites, as observed by the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence for flexible sigmoidoscopy as a screening method for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, C; Hilton, S; Macfarlane, G J; Phull, P

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is a significant cause of death. Removal of precancerous adenomas, and early detection and treatment of cancer, has been shown to reduce the risk of death. The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to determine whether flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) is an effective population screening method for reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. MEDLINE (1946 to December 2012) and Embase (1980-2012, week 15) were searched for randomized clinical trials in which FS was used to screen non-symptomatic adults from a general population, and FS was compared with either no screening or any other alternative screening methods. Meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects Mantel-Haenzsel model. Twenty-four papers met the inclusion criteria, reporting results from 14 trials. Uptake of FS was usually lower than that for stool-based tests, although FS was more effective at detecting advanced adenoma and carcinoma. FS reduced the incidence of colorectal cancer after screening, and long-term mortality from colorectal cancer, compared with no screening in a selected population. Compared with stool-based tests in a general population, FS was associated with fewer interval cancers. FS is efficacious at reducing colorectal cancer mortality compared with no screening. It is more effective at detecting advanced adenoma and carcinoma than stool-based tests. FS may be compromised by poorer uptake. Introduction of FS as a screening method should be done on a pilot basis in populations in which it is not currently used, and close attention should be paid to maximizing uptake. The relative risk of adverse events with FS compared with stool-based tests should be quantified, and its real-world effectiveness evaluated against the most effective stool-based tests. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Novel Methods for Communicating Plasma Science to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Merali, Aliya; Wissel, S. A.; Delooper, John

    2012-10-01

    The broader implications of Plasma Science remains an elusive topic that the general public rarely discusses, regardless of their relevance to energy, the environment, and technology. Recently, we have looked beyond print media for methods to reach large numbers of people in creative and informative ways. These have included video, art, images, and music. For example, our submission to the ``What is a Flame?'' contest was ranked in the top 15 out of 800 submissions. Images of plasmas have won 3 out of 5 of the Princeton University ``Art of Science'' competitions. We use a plasma speaker to teach students of all ages about sound generation and plasma physics. We report on the details of each of these and future videos and animations under development.

  15. Generalized dual-plane digital holographic imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Panezai, Spozmai; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2016-12-01

    A generalized dual-plane technique for digital holographic imaging is proposed. Two holograms are recorded at two slightly displaced planes. The complex amplitude of the plane reference wave is obtained according to the measured intensity of the reference beam and the spectrum of hologram. The holograms are modified with the known information of the reference wave. Then, the modified holograms are reconstructed by the dual-plane algorithm. The zero-order and the twin images are removed in the reconstructed image. The simulation and experiments demonstrate that this method is valid for both on-axis and off-axis digital holography and high resolution reconstruction is achieved even with a very small offset angle of the reference beam.

  16. A general radiochemical-color method for quantitation of immunoblots.

    PubMed

    Esmaeli-Azad, B; Feinstein, S C

    1991-12-01

    Quantitative interpretation of protein immunoblotting procedures is hampered by a variety of technical liabilities inherent in the use of photographic and densitometric methods. In this paper, we present a novel, simple, and generally applicable alternative procedure to acquire quantitative data from immunoblots. Our strategy employs both the standard alkaline phosphatase color reaction and radiolabelled Protein A. The color reaction is used to localize the polypeptide of interest after transfer to a solid support. The colored bands are then excised and the radioactivity in the colocalized Protein A is quantitated in a gamma counter. In addition to avoiding the problems associated with photographic and densitometric procedures, our assay also overcomes common problems associated with variable gel lane width and individual band distortion. The resulting data is linear over a range of at least 50-fold (10-500 ng of specific protein, for the example used in this study) and is highly reproducible.

  17. An extension of the Coconut Cream Agar method to screen Penicillium citrinum isolates for citrinin production.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, S; Flint, S; Palmer, J; Fletcher, G C; Pitt, J I

    2013-09-01

    A simple and rapid screening method was developed for the detection of citrinin in fungal cultures using Coconut Cream Agar (CCA) described previously for detecting aflatoxin and ochratoxin A. Fifteen isolates of Penicillium citrinum were inoculated onto CCA and incubated at 25 and 30°C for 10 days. All isolates produced a distinct yellow green fluorescence on CCA when the reverse side of the agar plates were viewed under long wavelength UV light. Detection was optimal at 25°C after four to 5 days of incubation. Isolates positive by the CCA method also tested positive for citrinin production by the TLC agar plug method after growth on CCA, Czapek yeast extract agar and yeast extract sucrose agar. Control cultures were negative by both methods, indicating that the CCA Petri dish method was suitable for screening cultures for citrinin production. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Universe of Chemicals and General Validation Principles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document was developed by the EPA to provide guidance to staff and managers regarding the EDSP universe of chemicals and general validation principles for consideration of computational toxicology tools for chemical prioritization.

  19. A screening method for evaluating resistance to the spotted wing drosophilla (drosophilla suzukii)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the study was to develop an effective screening method for evaluating resistance to the Spotted Wing Drosophilla (SWD, and to locate resistance in southern adapted blueberry germplasm including the hexaploid rabbiteye (Vaccinium asheii Reade = V. virgatum Aiton) and the tetraploid s...

  20. [Establishment of a screening method for AZF microdeletions by capillary technology and a clinical trial].

    PubMed

    He, Tianwen; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Jian; Zheng, Yichun; Zhang, Changbin; Yin, Aihua

    2016-08-01

    To establish an accurate, fast and simple screening method for AZF microdeletions using capillary technology and use it for clinical testing. For each pair of primers, the 5' end of either forward or reverse primer was labeled with a FAM, JOE or TAMRA fluorescence dyes to establish multiplex quantitative fluorescence PCR systems for the establishment of a screening method of Y chromosome AZF microdeletions by capillary technology. The detection of Y chromosome AZF microdeletion was carried out on 725 cases of non-obstructive azoospermia, oligospermia or asthenospermia. A screening method for Y chromosome AZF microdeletions using capillary technology was established. Thirty eight cases of AZF microdeletions were found among 725 cases of non-obstructive azoospermia, oligospermia or asthenospermia, which gave a deletion rate of 5.24%. Y chromosomal microdeletions were found in 8.62% of the azoospermia group, 6.75% of the oligozoospermic group, and 2.23% of the asthenospermia group. An accurate, fast and simple screening method of Y chromosome AZF microdeletions by capillary technology has been established, which may have an important clinical value.

  1. Optimization and visualization of the edge weights in optimal assignment methods for virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Lars; Jahn, Andreas; Dörr, Alexander; Zell, Andreas

    2013-03-26

    Ligand-based virtual screening plays a fundamental part in the early drug discovery stage. In a virtual screening, a chemical library is searched for molecules with similar properties to a query molecule by means of a similarity function. The optimal assignment of chemical graphs has proven to be a valuable similarity function for many cheminformatic tasks, such as virtual screening. The optimal assignment assumes all atoms of a query molecule to be equally important, which is not realistic depending on the binding mode of a ligand. The importance of a query molecule's atoms can be integrated in the optimal assignment by weighting the assignment edges. We optimized the edge weights with respect to the virtual screening performance by means of evolutionary algorithms. Furthermore, we propose a visualization approach for the interpretation of the edge weights. We evaluated two different evolutionary algorithms, differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, for their suitability for optimizing the assignment edge weights. The results showed that both optimization methods are suited to optimize the edge weights. Furthermore, we compared our approach to the optimal assignment with equal edge weights and two literature similarity functions on a subset of the Directory of Useful Decoys using sophisticated virtual screening performance metrics. Our approach achieved a considerably better overall and early enrichment performance. The visualization of the edge weights enables the identification of substructures that are important for a good retrieval of ligands and for the binding to the protein target. The optimization of the edge weights in optimal assignment methods is a valuable approach for ligand-based virtual screening experiments. The approach can be applied to any similarity function that employs the optimal assignment method, which includes a variety of similarity measures that have proven to be valuable in various cheminformatic tasks. The proposed

  2. Optimization and visualization of the edge weights in optimal assignment methods for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ligand‐based virtual screening plays a fundamental part in the early drug discovery stage. In a virtual screening, a chemical library is searched for molecules with similar properties to a query molecule by means of a similarity function. The optimal assignment of chemical graphs has proven to be a valuable similarity function for many cheminformatic tasks, such as virtual screening. The optimal assignment assumes all atoms of a query molecule to be equally important, which is not realistic depending on the binding mode of a ligand. The importance of a query molecule’s atoms can be integrated in the optimal assignment by weighting the assignment edges. We optimized the edge weights with respect to the virtual screening performance by means of evolutionary algorithms. Furthermore, we propose a visualization approach for the interpretation of the edge weights. Results We evaluated two different evolutionary algorithms, differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, for their suitability for optimizing the assignment edge weights. The results showed that both optimization methods are suited to optimize the edge weights. Furthermore, we compared our approach to the optimal assignment with equal edge weights and two literature similarity functions on a subset of the Directory of Useful Decoys using sophisticated virtual screening performance metrics. Our approach achieved a considerably better overall and early enrichment performance. The visualization of the edge weights enables the identification of substructures that are important for a good retrieval of ligands and for the binding to the protein target. Conclusions The optimization of the edge weights in optimal assignment methods is a valuable approach for ligand‐based virtual screening experiments. The approach can be applied to any similarity function that employs the optimal assignment method, which includes a variety of similarity measures that have proven to be valuable in various

  3. A novel screening method to assess developability of antibody-like molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Neeraj; Jain, Nidhi; Geddie, Melissa L; Razlog, Maja; Xu, Lihui; Lugovskoy, Alexey A

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and antibody-like molecules represent a fast-growing class of bio-therapeutics that has rapidly transformed patient care in a variety of disease indications. The discovery of antibodies that bind to particular targets with high affinity is now a routine exercise and a variety of in vitro and in vivo techniques are available for this purpose. However, it is still challenging to identify antibodies that, in addition to having the desired biological effect, also express well, remain soluble at different pH levels, remain stable at high concentrations, can withstand high shear stress, and have minimal non-specific interactions. Many promising antibody programs have ultimately failed in development due to the problems associated with one of these factors. Here, we present a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based screening method to assess these developability factors earlier in discovery process. This method is robust and requires only microgram quantities of proteins. Briefly, we show that for antibodies injected on a commercially available pre-packed Zenix HPLC column, the retention times are inversely related to their colloidal stability with antibodies prone to precipitation or aggregation retained longer on the column with broader peaks. By simply varying the salt content of running buffer, we were also able to estimate the nature of interactions between the antibodies and the column. We believe this approach should generally be applicable to assessment of the developability of other classes of bio-therapeutic molecules, and that the addition of this simple tool early in the discovery process will lead to selection of molecules with improved developability characteristics. PMID:25961854

  4. Virtual screening of protein kinase C inhibitors from natural product library to modulate general anaesthetic effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junhui; Zhou, Chuixian

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in neurotransmission in the central nervous system, and targeting PKC domain is considered as a strategy to modulate the anaesthetic effects. In this study, we described a synthetic pipeline to perform high-throughput virtual screening against a large library of 3D structural natural products released recently in order to discover those potential PKC modulators. A total of 100 natural products with top scores were raised, from which 12 promising candidates were tested to determine their inhibitory potencies against PKC. As might be expected, the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed a high PKC inhibitory activity (IC50 = 64 nM), and other two tested compounds, i.e. fisetin and tetrahydropapaverine, were also highly potent with their activities at nanomolar level (IC50 = 370 and 190, respectively).

  5. Evaluation of Immunoassays and General Biological Indicator Tests for Field Screening of Bacillus anthracis and Ricin

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Arce, Jennifer S.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Hofstad, Beth A.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Jarman, Kristin; Melville, Angela M.; Victry, Kristin D.

    2017-01-01

    There is little published data on the performance of biological indicator tests and immunoassays that could be used by first responders to determine if a suspicious powder contains a potential biothreat agent. We evaluated a range of biological indicator tests, including 3 protein tests, 2 ATP tests, 1 DNA test, and 1 FTIR spectroscopy instrument for their ability to screen suspicious powders for Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores and ricin. We also evaluated 12 immunoassays (mostly lateral flow immunoassays) for their ability to screen for B. anthracis and ricin. We used a cost-effective, statistically based test plan that allows instruments to be evaluated at performance levels ranging from 0.85 to 0.95 lower confidence bound of the probability of detection at confidence levels of 80% to 95%. We also assessed interference with 22 common suspicious powders encountered in the field. The detection reproducibility for the biological indicators was evaluated at 108 B. anthracis spores and 62.5 μg ricin, and the immunoassay detection reproducibility was evaluated at 107 spores/mL (B. anthracis) and 0.1 μg/mL (ricin). Seven out of 12 immunoassays met our most stringent criteria for B. anthracis detection, while 9 out of 12 met our most stringent test criteria for ricin detection. Most of the immunoassays also detected ricin in 3 different crude castor seed preparations. Our testing results varied across products and sample preparations, indicating the importance of reviewing performance data for specific instruments and sample types of interest for the application in order to make informed decisions regarding the selection of biodetection equipment for field use. PMID:28192054

  6. Preparation of PbTiO3 Thin Films by Screen Printing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futakuchi, Tomoaki; Tanino, Katsumi

    1994-12-01

    PbTiO3 thin films were obtained by the screen printing method on Au bottom electrodes using Si(100) substrates. The screen-printable paste was synthesized from the Pb Ti complex alkoxide and abietic acid. The optimum conditions of amount of PbO content in the paste and annealing temperature were investigated to prepare the ferroelectric thin film. The remanent polarization and coercive field of this thin film were 8 µ C/cm2 and 110 kV/cm, respectively. Pyroelectric coefficient was 0.67× 10-8 (C/cm2·K) after poling.

  7. A novel generalized ridge regression method for quantitative genetics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xia; Alam, Moudud; Fikse, Freddy; Rönnegård, Lars

    2013-04-01

    As the molecular marker density grows, there is a strong need in both genome-wide association studies and genomic selection to fit models with a large number of parameters. Here we present a computationally efficient generalized ridge regression (RR) algorithm for situations in which the number of parameters largely exceeds the number of observations. The computationally demanding parts of the method depend mainly on the number of observations and not the number of parameters. The algorithm was implemented in the R package bigRR based on the previously developed package hglm. Using such an approach, a heteroscedastic effects model (HEM) was also developed, implemented, and tested. The efficiency for different data sizes were evaluated via simulation. The method was tested for a bacteria-hypersensitive trait in a publicly available Arabidopsis data set including 84 inbred lines and 216,130 SNPs. The computation of all the SNP effects required <10 sec using a single 2.7-GHz core. The advantage in run time makes permutation test feasible for such a whole-genome model, so that a genome-wide significance threshold can be obtained. HEM was found to be more robust than ordinary RR (a.k.a. SNP-best linear unbiased prediction) in terms of QTL mapping, because SNP-specific shrinkage was applied instead of a common shrinkage. The proposed algorithm was also assessed for genomic evaluation and was shown to give better predictions than ordinary RR.

  8. Generalized method of eigenoscillations for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Castro Neto, Antonio; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the ``probe'') and a material surface (the ``sample'') is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances (eigenoscillations), corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe, as well as the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several axisymmetric particle shapes (spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped). For spheroids an efficient numerical method is proposed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. The method is applied to modeling near-field spectroscopy studies of various materials. For highly resonant materials such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene) a rich structure of the simulated signal is found, including multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves. These features have a strong dependence on physical parameters, e.g., the probe shape. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide the dependence is weaker, and the spheroid model is generally applicable.

  9. Process Setting through General Linear Model and Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjuntichai, Angsumalin

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the efficiency of the flow-wrap packaging process in soap industry through the reduction of defectives. At the 95% confidence level, with the regression analysis, the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimper are found to be the significant factors for the flow-wrap process with respect to the number/percentage of defectives. Twenty seven experiments have been designed and performed according to three levels of each controllable factor. With the general linear model (GLM), the suggested values for the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimpers are 185, 85 and 85° C, respectively while the response surface method (RSM) provides the optimal process conditions at 186, 89 and 88° C. Due to different assumptions between percentage of defective and all three temperature parameters, the suggested conditions from the two methods are then slightly different. Fortunately, the estimated percentage of defectives at 5.51% under GLM process condition and the predicted percentage of defectives at 4.62% under RSM process condition are not significant different. But at 95% confidence level, the percentage of defectives under RSM condition can be much lower approximately 2.16% than those under GLM condition in accordance with wider variation. Lastly, the percentages of defectives under the conditions suggested by GLM and RSM are reduced by 55.81% and 62.95%, respectively.

  10. Generalized non-separable two-dimensional Dammann encoding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junjie; Zhou, Changhe; Zhu, Linwei; Lu, Yancong; Wu, Jun; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We generalize for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the Dammann encoding method into non-separable two-dimensional (2D) structures for designing various pure-phase Dammann encoding gratings (DEGs). For examples, three types of non-separable 2D DEGs, including non-separable binary Dammann vortex gratings, non-separable binary distorted Dammann gratings, and non-separable continuous-phase cubic gratings, are designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Correspondingly, it is shown that 2D square arrays of optical vortices with topological charges proportional to the diffraction orders, focus spots shifting along both transversal and axial directions with equal spacings, and Airy-like beams with controllable orientation for each beam, are generated in symmetry or asymmetry by these three DEGs, respectively. Also, it is shown that a more complex-shaped array of modulated beams could be achieved by this non-separable 2D Dammann encoding method, which will be a big challenge for those conventional separable 2D Dammann encoding gratings. Furthermore, the diffractive efficiency of the gratings can be improved around ∼10% when the non-separable structure is applied, compared with their conventional separable counterparts. Such improvement in the efficiency should be of high significance for some specific applications.

  11. Cytology versus HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in the general population.

    PubMed

    Koliopoulos, George; Nyaga, Victoria N; Santesso, Nancy; Bryant, Andrew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre Pl; Mustafa, Reem A; Schünemann, Holger; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-08-10

    Cervical cancer screening has traditionally been based on cervical cytology. Given the aetiological relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical carcinogenesis, HPV testing has been proposed as an alternative screening test. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of HPV testing for detecting histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+), including adenocarcinoma in situ, in women participating in primary cervical cancer screening; and how it compares to the accuracy of cytological testing (liquid-based and conventional) at various thresholds. We performed a systematic literature search of articles in MEDLINE and Embase (1992 to November 2015) containing quantitative data and handsearched the reference lists of retrieved articles. We included comparative test accuracy studies if all women received both HPV testing and cervical cytology followed by verification of the disease status with the reference standard, if positive for at least one screening test. The studies had to include women participating in a cervical cancer screening programme who were not being followed up for previous cytological abnormalities. We completed a 2 x 2 table with the number of true positives (TP), false positives (FP), true negatives (TN), and false negatives for each screening test (HPV test and cytology) used in each study. We calculated the absolute and relative sensitivities and the specificities of the tests for the detection of CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ at various thresholds and computed sensitivity (TP/(TP + TN) and specificity (TN/ (TN + FP) for each test separately. Relative sensitivity and specificity of one test compared to another test were defined as sensitivity of test-1 over sensitivity of test-2 and specificity of test-1 over specificity of test-2, respectively. To assess bias in the studies, we used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic test Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. We used a bivariate random

  12. Surface electromyography as a screening method for evaluation of dysphagia and odynophagia

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, Michael; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2009-01-01

    Objective Patients suspected of having swallowing disorders, could highly benefit from simple diagnostic screening before being referred to specialist evaluations. The article analyzes various instrumental methods of dysphagia assessment, introduces surface electromyography (sEMG) to carry out rapid assessment of such patients, and debates proposed suggestions for sEMG screening protocol in order to identify abnormal deglutition. Data sources Subject related books and articles from 1813 to 2007 were obtained through library search, MEDLINE (1949–2007) and EMBASE (1975–2007). Methods Specifics steps for establishing the protocol for applying the technique for screening purposes (e.g., evaluation of specific muscles), the requirements for diagnostic sEMG equipment, the sEMG technique itself, and defining the tests suitable for assessing deglutition (e.g., saliva, normal, and excessive swallows and uninterrupted drinking of water) are presented in detail. SEMG is compared with other techniques in terms of cost, timing, involvement of radiation, etc. Results According to the published data, SEMG of swallowing is a simple and reliable method for screening and preliminary differentiation among dysphagia and odynophagia of various origins. This noninvasive radiation-free examination has a low level of discomfort, and is simple, time-saving and inexpensive to perform. The major weakness of the method seems to be inability for precise diagnostic of neurologically induced dysphagia. Conclusion With standardization of the technique and an established normative database, sEMG might serve as a reliable screening method for optimal patient management but cannot serve for proper investigation of neurogenic dysphagia. PMID:19232090

  13. [Three-Iindex-Value Method for Rapid Screening Unqualified Vegetable Oil].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-xuan; Hong, Gui-shui; Fang, Run; Cai, Xian-chun; Huang, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, by measuring the A3 005 (representing unsaturation), A985 (representing conjugated fatty acids), A960 + A985 (representing trans-fatty acid ) of southern common vegetable oils (peanut oil, corn oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, tea seed oil and olive oil), "waste oil" and overdue vegetable oils, the pass-setting-range of these three index values for the vegetable oils was obtained. On this basis, a method for rapid screening unqualified vegetable oil (expired, adding low-cost oil, adding "waste oil") was established. The method effectively improved the monitoring efficiency of vegetable oil. With this method of screening a number of suspected substandard oils were proved unqualified by determination of fatty acid composition and 11, 12, 13, 17 fatty acid content. Through the combination of several detection methods, the causes for disqualification of vegetable oils can be further inferred.

  14. Alizarin Red S for Online Pyrophosphate Detection Identified by a Rapid Screening Method

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Jens; Loh, Qiuting; Bier, Frank F.; Lim, Theam Soon; Frohme, Marcus; Glökler, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    We identified Alizarin Red S and other well known fluorescent dyes useful for the online detection of pyrophosphate in enzymatic assays, including the loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. An iterative screening was used for a selected set of compounds to first secure enzyme compatibility, evaluate inorganic pyrophosphate sensitivity in the presence of manganese as quencher and optimize conditions for an online detection. Of the selected dyes, the inexpensive alizarin red S was found to selectively detect pyrophosphate under LAMP and PCR conditions and is superior with respect to its defined red-shifted spectrum, long shelf life and low toxicity. In addition, the newly identified properties may also be useful in other enzymatic assays which do not generate nucleic acids but are based on inorganic pyrophosphate. Finally, we propose that our screening method may provide a blueprint for rapid screening of compounds for detecting inorganic pyrophosphate. PMID:28338022

  15. Screening for disease resistance in barley cultivars against Bipolaris sorokiniana using callus culture method.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ramesh; Sen, Devyani; Prasad, K D; Singh, A K; Bashyal, B M; Prasad, L C; Joshi, A K

    2008-04-01

    Screening for resistant barley genotypes in response to fungal toxin of Bipolaris sorokiniana was assessed on standing barley plants as well as in selected callus lines of the same. For the standing lines tested, those manifesting chlorosis in response to toxin infiltration showed a significantly slower disease progress as compared to the necrotic lines. Also, necrosis in the callus tissues of the susceptible cultivar in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of the crude toxin was significantly higher than in the callus tissues of the chlorotic lines studied. Similar host response to the toxin in in vitro and field situations open up the possibility of screening barley cultivars for resistance to spot blotch using callus culture as against classical methods of screening in order to increase accuracy and save time and space.

  16. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C S

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  17. [Screening for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by general practitioners in home visits].

    PubMed

    Crocheton, Nicolas; Machet, Ewa; Haouache, Hakim; Houdart, Eric; Huat, Georges; Claverot, José; Fortin, Bruno; Lapostolle, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the interest of carbon monoxide (CO) detector used by general practionners visiting patients at home. CO detector (cost: 200 euros) was attributed to 300 general practionners visiting at least 20 patients at home per week. Alarm was triggered when ambient CO concentration exceeded 80ppm. Measurement of CO in expired breath was also possible. Activity and alarms were prospectively collected. Circumstances of intoxication were recorded. Evaluation was finally performed. The end-poind was to quantify CO-poisoning detected by the use of the device and the cost of this stratégy. From November 2001 to November 2004, 65 scenes of intoxication with 79 victims were prospectively reported by 12 general practionners. Final evaluation revealed that 23 physicians omitted to declare alarms. Alarm incidence was of 1 for 17.527 visits; with a related cost of approximately 858 euros for 24 months. Ambient carbon monoxide concentration exceeded 200ppm in 25% of cases. Hospital admission was required for 91% of the victims. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was performed in two cases. General practionners (n=272) considered that CO detector was useful for safety reasons (91%), they wanted to continue the experience, but did not plan to buy such device (59%). Use of CO detectors by general practionners visiting patients at home allowed to identify 65 scenes of CO intoxication. In most cases, the cause of the visit did not suggested CO poisoning. The cost of the device seems to limits its large use. CO detector is a safety tool for both general prationners and patients. Its large use has to be questioned. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A rapid and general method for measurement of protein in micro-algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, Stephen P; Ross, Michael; Thomas, Naomi; McNeill, Sharon; Stanley, Michele S

    2013-02-01

    A convenient small-scale extraction method for lyophilized micro-algae is described that dispenses with labor-intensive homogenization and is widely applicable to algae from different phyla. The procedure employs an optimized sequential extraction in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and NaOH to achieve chemical lysis. Conditions were tested using several micro-algal strains to develop a method that was generally applicable. Incubation of lyophilized material in 24% (w/v) TCA at 95 °C followed by a hot alkaline treatment was found to be effective for strains that are resistant to conventional extraction approaches, such as the Chlorella and the Eustigmatophycean species. The single-tube extraction procedure can be complete in 4h and is conveniently followed by the Lowry assay, requiring a further 30 min. Overall, this method proved to be generally applicable and ideal either for single samples or for high-throughput screening of multiple algal strains for protein content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thin-Film Thermoelectric Module for Power Generator Applications Using a Screen-Printing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heon-Bok; Yang, Hyun Jeong; We, Ju Hyung; Kim, Kukjoo; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Cho, Byung Jin

    2011-05-01

    A new process for fabricating a low-cost thermoelectric module using a screen-printing method has been developed. Thermoelectric properties of screen-printed ZnSb films were investigated in an effort to develop a thermoelectric module with low cost per watt. The screen-printed Zn x Sb1- x films showed a low carrier concentration and high Seebeck coefficient when x was in the range of 0.5 to 0.57 and the annealing temperature was kept below 550°C. When the annealing temperature was higher than 550°C, the carrier concentration of the Zn x Sb1- x films reached that of a metal, leading to a decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. In the present experiment, the optimized carrier concentration of screen-printed ZnSb was 7 × 1018/cm3. The output voltage and power density of the ZnSb film were 10 mV and 0.17 mW/cm2, respectively, at Δ T = 50 K. A thermoelectric module was produced using the proposed screen-printing approach with ZnSb and CoSb3 as p-type and n-type thermoelectric materials, respectively, and copper as the pad metal.

  20. A multistep screening method to identify genes using evolutionary transcriptome of plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kug; Lim, Hye-Min; Na, Jong-Kuk; Choi, Ji-Weon; Sohn, Seong-Han; Park, Soo-Chul; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Kab; Kim, Dool-Yi

    2014-01-01

    We introduced a multistep screening method to identify the genes in plants using microarrays and ribonucleic acid (RNA)-seq transcriptome data. Our method describes the process for identifying genes using the salt-tolerance response pathways of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) plant. Gene expression was analyzed using microarrays and RNA-seq experiments that examined three potato lines (high, intermediate, and low salt tolerance) under conditions of salt stress. We screened the orthologous genes and pathway genes involved in salinity-related biosynthetic pathways, and identified nine potato genes that were candidates for salinity-tolerance pathways. The nine genes were selected to characterize their phylogenetic reconstruction with homologous genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and a Circos diagram was generated to understand the relationships among the selected genes. The involvement of the selected genes in salt-tolerance pathways was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. One candidate potato gene was selected for physiological validation by generating dehydration-responsive element-binding 1 (DREB1)-overexpressing transgenic potato plants. The DREB1 overexpression lines exhibited increased salt tolerance and plant growth when compared to that of the control. Although the nine genes identified by our multistep screening method require further characterization and validation, this study demonstrates the power of our screening strategy after the initial identification of genes using microarrays and RNA-seq experiments.

  1. A rapid screening method for wound dressing by cell-on-a-chip device.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qilong; Wang, Shiwen; Xie, Yunyan; Zheng, Wenfu; Wang, Zhuo; Xiao, Le; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2012-09-01

    This report demonstrates an in vitro method for screening wound dressing candidates that can minimize the use of animals for developing better methods for wound care. The development of materials and formulations for wound dressings, an important application of biomaterials, is laboriously and ethically challenging because of the use of a large number of animals. A method for rapid and effective screening of wound dressings in vitro, therefore, is in great need. A cell-on-a-chip model was used to simulate the cutaneous wound in vitro and screen the performances of several electrospun fibrous wound dressings in enhancing wound healing. For comparison, the performances of wound dressings were also evaluated in a rat model. It was found that the results acquired by microchip model corroborates well with animal experiments. It is the first time, as far as we know, that a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo results is reported for fibrous wound dressings. The cell-on-a-chip wound model we developed here may change the way that scientists screen candidates for wound dressings. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Barrier screens: a method to sample blood-fed and host-seeking exophilic mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining the proportion of blood meals on humans by outdoor-feeding and resting mosquitoes is challenging. This is largely due to the difficulty of finding an adequate and unbiased sample of resting, engorged mosquitoes to enable the identification of host blood meal sources. This is particularly difficult in the south-west Pacific countries of Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea where thick vegetation constitutes the primary resting sites for the exophilic mosquitoes that are the primary malaria and filariasis vectors. Methods Barrier screens of shade-cloth netting attached to bamboo poles were constructed between villages and likely areas where mosquitoes might seek blood meals or rest. Flying mosquitoes, obstructed by the barrier screens, would temporarily stop and could then be captured by aspiration at hourly intervals throughout the night. Results In the three countries where this method was evaluated, blood-fed females of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles bancroftii, Anopheles longirostris, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles kochi, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles tessellatus, Culex vishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia spp were collected while resting on the barrier screens. In addition, female Anopheles punctulatus and Armigeres spp as well as male An. farauti, Cx. vishnui, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes species were similarly captured. Conclusions Building barrier screens as temporary resting sites in areas where mosquitoes were likely to fly was an extremely time-effective method for collecting an unbiased representative sample of engorged mosquitoes for determining the human blood index. PMID:23379959

  3. A Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Method for Screening Disulfide Tethering Fragments.

    PubMed

    Hallenbeck, Kenneth K; Davies, Julia L; Merron, Connie; Ogden, Pierce; Sijbesma, Eline; Ottmann, Christian; Renslo, Adam R; Wilson, Christopher; Arkin, Michelle R

    2017-09-01

    We report the refinement of a high-throughput, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based screening method for the identification of covalent small-molecule binders to proteins. Using a custom library of 1600 disulfide-capped fragments targeting surface cysteine residues, we optimize sample preparation, chromatography, and ionization conditions to maximize the reliability and flexibility of the approach. Data collection at a rate of 84 s per sample balances speed with reliability for sustained screening over multiple, diverse projects run over a 24-month period. The method is applicable to protein targets of various classes and a range of molecular masses. Data are processed in a custom pipeline that calculates a percent bound value for each compound and identifies false positives by calculating significance of detected masses (signal significance). An example pipeline is available through Biovia's ScienceCloud Protocol Exchange. Data collection and analysis methods for the screening of covalent adducts of intact proteins are now fast enough to screen the largest covalent compound libraries in 1 to 2 days.

  4. The WST survival assay: an easy and reliable method to screen radiation-sensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Guertler, A; Kraemer, A; Roessler, U; Hornhardt, S; Kulka, U; Moertl, S; Friedl, A A; Illig, T; Wichmann, E; Gomolka, M

    2011-02-01

    An easy, fast and reliable method was developed to screen hundreds of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines (lymphoblastoid cell lines, LCLs) for radiation sensitivity that were generated from lymphocytes isolated from young lung cancer patients. The WST-1 test explores the metabolic activity of the mitochondria as an indicator for the vital status of cells. Cell proliferation as well as indirect cell death can be quantified by this method on a large scale in microtiter plates. Cell survival was measured at 24- and 48-h post-irradiation with 10 Gy ((137)Cs source) by the WST-1 assay and Trypan blue staining. To set up the experimental screening conditions and to establish a positive and a negative control, an ATM-mutated cell line from a radiation-sensitive ATM patient and an ATM proficient cell line from a healthy brother were compared. An optimal differentiation between the two cell lines was demonstrated for 10 Gy and 24- and 48-h cell growth after irradiation. Upon screening 120 LCLs of young lung cancer patients under these conditions, 5 of them were found to be radiation sensitive to a high degree of statistical significance. The results have been confirmed by a second laboratory by means of Trypan blue testing. The WST-1 test represents an efficient and reliable method by means of screening for radiation-sensitive cell lines.

  5. A powerful antiradiation compound revealed by a new high-throughput screening method.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Stéphane; Desage-El Murr, Marine; Nowaczyk, Stéphanie; Le Gall, Thierry; Pin, Serge; Renault, Jean-Philippe; Boquet, Didier; Créminon, Christophe; Saint-Aman, Eric; Valleix, Alain; Taran, Frédéric; Mioskowski, Charles

    2004-06-07

    We present a new high-throughput screening method for the selection of powerful water-soluble antiradiation compounds. This method, which uses conventional immunoassay techniques, allowed the capacity of a given compound to protect thymidine from irradiation to be evaluated. By applying this assay to an antioxidant library, we showed for the first time that norbadione A, a well-known mushroom pigment, has pronounced atypical antiradiation properties.

  6. BioCompoundML: A General Biofuel Property Screening Tool for Biological Molecules Using Random Forest Classifiers

    DOE PAGES

    Whitmore, Leanne S.; Davis, Ryan W.; McCormick, Robert L.; ...

    2016-09-15

    Screening a large number of biologically derived molecules for potential fuel compounds without recourse to experimental testing is important in identifying understudied yet valuable molecules. Experimental testing, although a valuable standard for measuring fuel properties, has several major limitations, including the requirement of testably high quantities, considerable expense, and a large amount of time. This paper discusses the development of a general-purpose fuel property tool, using machine learning, whose outcome is to screen molecules for desirable fuel properties. BioCompoundML adopts a general methodology, requiring as input only a list of training compounds (with identifiers and measured values) and a listmore » of testing compounds (with identifiers). For the training data, BioCompoundML collects open data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, incorporates user-provided features, imputes missing values, performs feature reduction, builds a classifier, and clusters compounds. BioCompoundML then collects data for the testing compounds, predicts class membership, and determines whether compounds are found in the range of variability of the training data set. We demonstrate this tool using three different fuel properties: research octane number (RON), threshold soot index (TSI), and melting point (MP). Here we provide measures of its success with these properties using randomized train/test measurements: average accuracy is 88% in RON, 85% in TSI, and 94% in MP; average precision is 88% in RON, 88% in TSI, and 95% in MP; and average recall is 88% in RON, 82% in TSI, and 97% in MP. The receiver operator characteristics (area under the curve) were estimated at 0.88 in RON, 0.86 in TSI, and 0.87 in MP. We also measured the success of BioCompoundML by sending 16 compounds for direct RON determination. Finally, we provide a screen of 1977 hydrocarbons/oxygenates within the 8696 compounds in MetaCyc, identifying compounds with high

  7. A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer Screening in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Nam, Robert K; Wallis, Christopher J D; Stojcic-Bendavid, Jessica; Milot, Laurent; Sherman, Christopher; Sugar, Linda; Haider, Masoom A

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge the role of magnetic resonance imaging as a first line screening test for prostate cancer is unknown. We performed a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of prostate magnetic resonance imaging as the primary screening test for prostate cancer. We recruited unselected men from the general population. Prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and random or targeted biopsies were performed in all patients, in addition to prostate specific antigen testing. We compared the performance of prostate magnetic resonance imaging and prostate specific antigen test results to predict prostate cancer. Of the 47 recruited patients 18 (38.3%) had cancer while 29 (61.7%) had no evidence of cancer. The adjusted OR of prostate cancer was significantly higher for magnetic resonance imaging score than for prostate specific antigen level (2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.4, p = 0.004 vs 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.4, p = 0.21). Among the 30 patients with a normal prostate specific antigen (less than 4.0 ng/ml) the positive predictive value in those with a magnetic resonance imaging score of 4 or more was 66.7% (6 of 9) and the negative predictive value in those with a magnetic resonance imaging score of 3 or less was 85.7% (18 of 21, p = 0.004). In this pilot study we determined the feasibility of using multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging as the primary screening test for prostate cancer. Initial results showed that prostate magnetic resonance imaging was better to predict prostate cancer than prostate specific antigen in an unselected sample of the general population. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A simple method for primary screening of antibacterial peptides in plant seeds

    PubMed Central

    Aliahmadi, A; Roghanian, R; Emtiazi, G; Ghassempour, A

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Regarding the importance of finding new antibacterial drugs, screening of plants as a promising resource are now conducted worldwide. In this study, we report the application of a simple previously described method for screening of different plant seeds in order to find the best resources of plant antimicrobial peptides. Materials and Methods Total water soluble protein of 10 different plant seeds were extracted and subjected to SDS-PAGE and subsequent agar-overlay bioassays. Standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Escherichia coli were included in the bioassays. This method also was used for total proteins precipitated by Ammonium sulphate which ensure the protein nature of the test substances. Molecular size and the amounts of effective peptides were estimated using Tricin-SDS-PAGE and densitometry. Results Two different plant seeds showed noticeable antibacterial activities against tested Gram positive bacteria and a moderate inhibitory effect on Gram negative ones. Based on the results of Tricin-SDS-PAGE analysis which were carried out in parallel to bioassays, it was concluded that effective antibacterial substances are peptides with molecular weight of slightly larger than 5 kDa. Conclusion On the basis of results of agar-overlay experiments and by screening of 10 different herbal seeds, we could introduce seeds of M. sativa L. and Onobrychis sativa Lam., as great sources of putative plant antibacterial peptides. The proposed screening method can be used for screening of large number of different plant seeds and even other parts of the plant body, regarding some necessary modification in total water soluble protein extraction steps. PMID:22347591

  9. [Intratesticular subcapsular assay, a simple method for the preliminary screening of male contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z T; Lin, N; Qian, S Z

    1993-01-01

    The MB-50 protocol worked out for long by the World Health Organization has been widely employed for the screening of male contraceptives. With this method, 40-80 rats will be used for 1 sample and the course of study will be about 3 months. In view of the high expenses and long duration of time needed, it seems to be not suitable for a preliminary screening. We have exploited a much simpler method, the intratesticular subcapsular assay. The method is as follows: Puncture the scrotal skin and the tunica albuginea at the equatorial plane of the testis just opposite to the epididymis with an intradermal needle fixed at a tuberculin syringe. Then push on the needle for 3-4 mm along the equator parallel to the tunica albuginea. Inject 100 microliters of solution containing 0.1-5 mg of the sample to each testis. To the controls, only the vehicle is injected. One week later the same procedure is repeated and 2 more weeks later, the animals are sacrificed and the data are observed (see Table 1 and 2). In this paper, 7 samples screened with this method were compared with results of the MB-50 method, no positive sample was missed except one false positive sample. These results indicate the coincidence between these two methods.

  10. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this.

  11. A clone screening method using mRNA levels to determine specific productivity and product quality for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina J; Seth, Gargi; Tsukuda, Joni; Hamilton, Robert W

    2009-03-01

    To meet increasing demands for efficient and streamlined production processes of therapeutic antibodies, improved methods of screening clones are required. In this article, we examined the potential of using antibody transcript levels as criteria for clone screening. We evaluated the QuantiGene Plex, a commercially available, high-throughput assay for simultaneously measuring multiple transcripts from cell lysate. Using the development of stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as examples, we investigated the relationship between transcript and antibody levels through several rounds of screening. First, we observed that measured heavy chain transcript levels are generally correlated with specific productivity, enabling the identification of high-producing clones from mRNA. Second, we observed that low ratios (< 1.5) of light to heavy chain transcript levels may be indicative of high antibody aggregation levels, allowing for the rapid identification and elimination of clones of questionable product quality. Therefore, an efficient process of identifying high-producing clones of desirable product quality is possible by using QuantiGene Plex assay to measure antibody transcript levels.

  12. Screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer: assessment of two methods that attempt to improve compliance.

    PubMed

    Ore, L; Hagoel, L; Lavi, I; Rennert, G

    2001-06-01

    Screening with the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has been shown in randomized control trials to be effective in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. Compliance to this test recommendation, however, by the general population is usually low. To evaluate different methods of increasing compliance with FOBT, using mailed test kits or order cards, with or without information leaflets, subjects were randomly assigned to receive a test kit or a kit request card. An information leaflet was included in half of the mailings. All participants were contacted for interview. Compliance was evaluated through the central computer system of the study's FOBT laboratory. Self-initiated compliance with FOBT in the year preceding the study was 0.6% of the study participants. The overall compliance rate with the programme invitation was 17.9%, with a somewhat higher, though non-significant response to the mailed kit (19.9%) over the kit request card (15.9%). Women complied with the test significantly more than men, older participants more than younger. Compliance to FOBT is low among the Israeli population aged 50-74 who receive a formal invitation to carry out this screening. Mailing a kit request card within the framework of a screening programme can achieve a substantial increase (to 17.9%) in the level of compliance for the relatively low cost of postage. More effort is needed to study additional means of convincing the non-responders to take part in this potentially life saving activity.

  13. Automatic tailoring and transplanting: a practical method that makes virtual screening more useful.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Zhihai; Wang, Renxiao

    2011-06-27

    Docking-based virtual screening of large compound libraries has been widely applied to lead discovery in structure-based drug design. However, subsequent lead optimizations often rely on other types of computational methods, such as de novo design methods. We have developed an automatic method, namely automatic tailoring and transplanting (AutoT&T), which can effectively utilize the outcomes of virtual screening in lead optimization. This method detects suitable fragments on virtual screening hits and then transplants them onto a lead compound to generate new ligand molecules. Binding affinities, synthetic feasibilities, and drug-likeness properties are considered in the selection of final designs. In this study, our AutoT&T program was tested on three different target proteins, including p38 MAP kinase, PPAR-α, and Mcl-1. In the first two cases, AutoT&T was able to produce molecules identical or similar to known inhibitors with better potency than the given lead compound. In the third case, we demonstrated how to apply AutoT&T to design novel ligand molecules from scratch. Compared to the solutions generated by other two de novo design methods, i.e., LUDI and EA-Inventor, the solutions generated by AutoT&T were structurally more diverse and more promising in terms of binding scores in all three cases. AutoT&T also completed the assigned jobs more efficiently than LUDI and EA-Inventor by several folds. Our AutoT&T method has certain technical advantages over de novo design methods. Importantly, it expands the application of virtual screening from lead discovery to lead optimization and thus may serve as a valuable tool for many researchers.

  14. Cost and effectiveness comparison of two methods for screening potential blood donors for anaemia in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, A; Worrall, E; Que, T N; Bates, I

    2011-06-01

    To compare the cost and effectiveness of Copper Sulphate (CS) and HemoCue (HC) methods for screening blood donors for anaemia. Robust information from developing countries about cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods for blood donors is scarce. In such countries there are widespread shortages of blood, so the most cost-effective method should maximise blood supply without compromising donor safety. Economic data (e.g. staff time, equipment and buildings) were collected from direct observation of procedures and purchase data from Hanoi's Central Blood Bank administrative department. A framework for comparing the cost and effectiveness of anaemia screening methods was developed and a cost per effective (i.e. usable and accurate) test was generated for each method. Samples from 100 potential donors from the Hanoi Central Blood Bank (static) and 198 from two mobile units were tested. The mean probability of an ineffective anaemia test was 0·1 (0·05-0·2). The average cost of an HC test was $0·75 (static $0·61 and mobile $0·89) and a CS test was $0·31 (static $0·17 and mobile $0·45). The difference between static and mobile units was predominantly due to transport costs; the difference between the two methods was predominantly due to the HC microcuvettes. In this setting the CS yields greater value for money than the HC method for screening blood donors. The relative cost and effectiveness of CS and HC may be different in places with higher staff turnover, lower test accuracy, higher anaemia prevalence or lower workload than in Vietnam. © 2010 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. A new screening method to identify inhibitors of the Lol (localization of lipoproteins) system, a novel antibacterial target.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideaki; Ura, Atsushi; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamagishi, Jun-Ichi; Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Matsuyama, Shin-Ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    As the Lol system, which is involved in localization of lipoproteins, is essential for Escherichia coli growth and widely conserved among gram-negative bacteria, it is considered to be a promising target for the development of anti-gram-negative bacterial agents. However, no high-throughput screening method has so far been developed to screen for Lol system inhibitors. By combining three assay systems (anucleate cell blue assay, Lpp assay, and LolA-dependent release inhibition assay) and a drug susceptibility test, we have successfully developed a new screening method for identification of compounds that inhibit the Lol system. Using this new screening method, we screened 23,600 in-house chemical compounds and found 2 Lol system inhibitors. We therefore conclude that our new screening method can efficiently identify new antibacterial agents that target the Lol system.

  16. General practitioners' and nurses' experiences of using computerised decision support in screening for diabetic foot disease: implementing Scottish Clinical Information - Diabetes Care in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Fay; Bekker, Hilary L; Young, Matthew; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    The Scottish Care Information - Diabetes Collaboration (SCI-DC) developed a computer-based information system to create a shared electronic record for use by all involved in the care of patients with diabetes mellitus. The objectives of this study were to understand primary care practitioners' views towards screening for diabetic foot disease and their experience of the SCI-DC system. We conducted an exploratory study using qualitative methods. Semi-structured interviews were audiotape-recorded, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Seven practice nurses and six general practitioners (GPs) with special responsibility for diabetes care in NHS Lothian participated. Primary care clinicians reported good systems in place to screen for diabetes-related complications and to refer their patients to specialist care. Foot ulceration was rarely observed; other diabetes related conditions were seen as a higher priority. Most had heard of the SCI-DC foot assessment tool, but its failure to integrate with other primary care information technology (IT) systems meant it was not used in these general practices. Adoption of the SCI-DC foot assessment tool in primary care is not perceived as clinically necessary. Although information recorded by specialist services on SCI-DC is helpful, important structural barriers to its implementation mean the potential benefits associated with its use are unlikely to be realised; greater engagement with primary care priorities for diabetes management is needed to assist its successful implementation and adoption.

  17. Cluster-cell calculation using the method of generalized homogenization

    SciTech Connect

    Laletin, N.I.; Boyarinov, V.F.

    1988-05-01

    The generalized-homogenization method (GHM), used for solving the neutron transfer equation, was applied to calculating the neutron distribution in the cluster cell with a series of cylindrical cells with cylindrically coaxial zones. Single-group calculations of the technological channel of the cell of an RBMK reactor were performed using GHM. The technological channel was understood to be the reactor channel, comprised of the zirconium rod, the water or steam-water mixture, the uranium dioxide fuel element, and the zirconium tube, together with the adjacent graphite layer. Calculations were performed for channels with no internal sources and with unit incoming current at the external boundary as well as for channels with internal sources and zero current at the external boundary. The PRAKTINETs program was used to calculate the symmetric neutron distributions in the microcell and in channels with homogenized annular zones. The ORAR-TsM program was used to calculate the antisymmetric distribution in the microcell. The accuracy of the calculations were compared for the two channel versions.

  18. Generalization of the H - κ stacking method to anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviani, Ayoub; Rümpker, Georg

    2015-04-01

    The effect of anisotropy on the estimates of crustal thickness H and average bulk vP/vS-ratio κ can be significant in the presence of strong seismic anisotropy. Here we extend the stacking approach of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to include all twenty P-to-S converted phases and their crustal reverberations that are generated in the anisotropic case - instead of only five phases in the isotropic case. The ray-based algorithm of Frederiksen and Bostock (2000) is used to calculate the amplitude and arrival time of each phase. Synthetic tests are performed to investigate the feasibility and robustness of the stacking approach. For simplicity, we assume hexagonal symmetry and a horizontal symmetry axis but more general anisotropy may be considered. The tests reveal that the estimates of H and κ can be significantly affected by the presence of crustal anisotropy. We verify the feasibility of the stacking approach for real data by applying the method to examples from three different tectonic regions. The results show that the anisotropic stacking scheme presented here can provide much better constraints on the estimation of H and κ in comparison to the isotropic stacking. The anisotropic stacking can also help to resolve ambiguities in the determination of H and κ when several maxima of stacked receiver-function amplitudes arise in cases of complex crustal structure.

  19. A parallelized screen-based method for rendering polylines and polygons on terrain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jiangfeng; Zhou, Yang; Tan, Xin; Li, Xingong; Guo, Xingchen

    2017-02-01

    Two dimensional (2D) vector features, when rendered on terrain as reference or highlight features, can improve the intelligibility of three dimensional (3D) scenes. This research proposes a new screen-space based method to render solid color 2D polylines and polygons on terrain. Using the z-buffer value and window coordinates in screen space, a pixel's spatial extent in real world coordinates can be calculated. The pixel's color is changed, if its spatial extent intersects with a polyline or polygon feature, to reflect the fact that there is a polyline going through or a polygon covering the pixel. Compared to other existing methods, our method eliminates undesirable rendering artifacts. A parallel computing schema was proposed and implemented as well to improve rendering performance.

  20. Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario.

    PubMed

    Güren, Onan; Çayören, Mehmet; Ergene, Lale Tükenmez; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2014-10-07

    A new microwave imaging method that uses microwave contrast agents is presented for the detection and localization of breast tumours. The method is based on the reconstruction of breast surface impedance through a measured scattered field. The surface impedance modelling allows for representing the electrical properties of the breasts in terms of impedance boundary conditions, which enable us to map the inner structure of the breasts into surface impedance functions. Later a simple quantitative method is proposed to screen breasts against malignant tumours where the detection procedure is based on weighted cross correlations among impedance functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is capable of detecting small malignancies and provides reasonable localization.

  1. Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güren, Onan; Çayören, Mehmet; Tükenmez Ergene, Lale; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    A new microwave imaging method that uses microwave contrast agents is presented for the detection and localization of breast tumours. The method is based on the reconstruction of breast surface impedance through a measured scattered field. The surface impedance modelling allows for representing the electrical properties of the breasts in terms of impedance boundary conditions, which enable us to map the inner structure of the breasts into surface impedance functions. Later a simple quantitative method is proposed to screen breasts against malignant tumours where the detection procedure is based on weighted cross correlations among impedance functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is capable of detecting small malignancies and provides reasonable localization.

  2. Laboratory investigation of monoclonal gammopathy during 10 years of screening in a general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Malacrida, V; De Francesco, D; Banfi, G; Porta, F A; Riches, P G

    1987-01-01

    Protein electrophoresis was carried out on 102,000 samples from the patients of a district general hospital over 10 years, and a monoclonal protein was detected in 730 cases; of these, 114 could be classified as B cell malignancies and 261 as monoclonal gammopathy of undefined significance (MGUS). The various clinical and laboratory features of monoclonal gammopathy were examined with respect to distinguishing the malignant conditions from MGUS at first presentation. PMID:3114329

  3. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (In)Justice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    PubMed Central

    Gaffron, Philine; Niemeier, Deb

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling). We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA) from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits. PMID:25679341

  4. School locations and traffic emissions—environmental (in)justice findings using a new screening method.

    PubMed

    Gaffron, Philine; Niemeier, Deb

    2015-02-11

    It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling). We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA) from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools' Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool's tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  5. Barrier screens: a method to sample blood-fed and host-seeking exophilic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Burkot, Thomas R; Russell, Tanya L; Reimer, Lisa J; Bugoro, Hugo; Beebe, Nigel W; Cooper, Robert D; Sukawati, Supraman; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F

    2013-02-05

    Determining the proportion of blood meals on humans by outdoor-feeding and resting mosquitoes is challenging. This is largely due to the difficulty of finding an adequate and unbiased sample of resting, engorged mosquitoes to enable the identification of host blood meal sources. This is particularly difficult in the south-west Pacific countries of Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea where thick vegetation constitutes the primary resting sites for the exophilic mosquitoes that are the primary malaria and filariasis vectors. Barrier screens of shade-cloth netting attached to bamboo poles were constructed between villages and likely areas where mosquitoes might seek blood meals or rest. Flying mosquitoes, obstructed by the barrier screens, would temporarily stop and could then be captured by aspiration at hourly intervals throughout the night. In the three countries where this method was evaluated, blood-fed females of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles bancroftii, Anopheles longirostris, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles kochi, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles tessellatus, Culex vishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia spp were collected while resting on the barrier screens. In addition, female Anopheles punctulatus and Armigeres spp as well as male An. farauti, Cx. vishnui, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes species were similarly captured. Building barrier screens as temporary resting sites in areas where mosquitoes were likely to fly was an extremely time-effective method for collecting an unbiased representative sample of engorged mosquitoes for determining the human blood index.

  6. Rapid screening of guar gum using portable Raman spectral identification methods.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Guar gum is a well-known inactive ingredient (excipient) used in a variety of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms as a thickener and stabilizer of suspensions and as a binder of powders. It is also widely used as a food ingredient in which case alternatives with similar properties, including chemically similar gums, are readily available. Recent supply shortages and price fluctuations have caused guar gum to come under increasing scrutiny for possible adulteration by substitution of cheaper alternatives. One way that the U.S. FDA is attempting to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution is through field-deployable spectroscopic screening. Here we report a comprehensive approach to evaluate two field-deployable Raman methods--spectral correlation and principal component analysis--to differentiate guar gum from other gums. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods with current compendial identification tests. The ability of the spectroscopic methods to perform unambiguous identification of guar gum compared to other gums makes them an enhanced surveillance alternative to the current compendial identification tests, which are largely subjective in nature. Our findings indicate that Raman spectral identification methods perform better than compendial identification methods and are able to distinguish guar gum from other gums with 100% accuracy for samples tested by spectral correlation and principal component analysis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Did the London Initiative Zone investment programme affect general practice structure and performance in East London? A time series analysis of cervical screening coverage and asthma prescribing.

    PubMed

    Naish, J; Eldridge, S; Moser, K; Sturdy, P

    2002-11-01

    A programme of incentives was set up in the London Initiative Zones to improve primary care in inner London based on the findings of the Tomlinson Enquiry in 1992. This descriptive study is a 4-y time series analysis of changes in general practice structure in East London as the result of London Initiative Zone investment, and an exploration of the possible effect of investment on practice performance. We used routinely available administrative data for the whole analysis. General practice characteristics and two selected performance indicators: the asthma prophylaxis to bronchodilator ratio and cervical cytology screening rate, for all practices in the East London and the City Health Authority for 4 y, 1993-1996, were used. Both reflect practice efficiency, but relate to different aspects of practice performance. The prescribing indicator is more indicative of the quality of clinical practise, whereas cervical screening coverage relates more to the characteristics of the practice population and to practice organisation. Repeated measures analyses were used to identify trends and to explore the relationship between changes in practice characteristics and performance. Graphical methods were used to compare East London trends with the rest of England. There were significant improvements in practice structure as the consequence of London Initiative Zone investment. There was a positive association with improvements in practice performance, but East London still lagged some way behind national patterns. The findings suggest that while improvements in asthma prescribing follow the national trend, practices have difficulty in achieving and sustaining the 80% target for cervical cytology screening, and that an overall population coverage of 80% may be in doubt.Increased investment in practice staffing may be influential in improving some aspects of performance. However, in common with other inner cities, a greater effort and more innovative strategies may be needed to

  8. A Novel Approach for Efficient Pharmacophore-based Virtual Screening: Method and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Oranit; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Inbar, Yuval; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual screening is emerging as a productive and cost-effective technology in rational drug design for the identification of novel lead compounds. An important model for virtual screening is the pharmacophore. Pharmacophore is the spatial configuration of essential features that enable a ligand molecule to interact with a specific target receptor. In the absence of a known receptor structure, a pharmacophore can be identified from a set of ligands that have been observed to interact with the target receptor. Here, we present a novel computational method for pharmacophore detection and virtual screening. The pharmacophore detection module is able to: (i) align multiple flexible ligands in a deterministic manner without exhaustive enumeration of the conformational space, (ii) detect subsets of input ligands that may bind to different binding sites or have different binding modes, (iii) address cases where the input ligands have different affinities by defining weighted pharmacophores based on the number of ligands that share them, and (iv) automatically select the most appropriate pharmacophore candidates for virtual screening. The algorithm is highly efficient, allowing a fast exploration of the chemical space by virtual screening of huge compound databases. The performance of PharmaGist was successfully evaluated on a commonly used dataset of G-Protein Coupled Receptor alpha1A. Additionally, a large-scale evaluation using the DUD (directory of useful decoys) dataset was performed. DUD contains 2950 active ligands for 40 different receptors, with 36 decoy compounds for each active ligand. PharmaGist enrichment rates are comparable with other state-of-the-art tools for virtual screening. Availability The software is available for download. A user-friendly web interface for pharmacophore detection is available at http://bioinfo3d.cs.tau.ac.il/PharmaGist. PMID:19803502

  9. Novel approach for efficient pharmacophore-based virtual screening: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Dror, Oranit; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Inbar, Yuval; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J

    2009-10-01

    Virtual screening is emerging as a productive and cost-effective technology in rational drug design for the identification of novel lead compounds. An important model for virtual screening is the pharmacophore. Pharmacophore is the spatial configuration of essential features that enable a ligand molecule to interact with a specific target receptor. In the absence of a known receptor structure, a pharmacophore can be identified from a set of ligands that have been observed to interact with the target receptor. Here, we present a novel computational method for pharmacophore detection and virtual screening. The pharmacophore detection module is able to (i) align multiple flexible ligands in a deterministic manner without exhaustive enumeration of the conformational space, (ii) detect subsets of input ligands that may bind to different binding sites or have different binding modes, (iii) address cases where the input ligands have different affinities by defining weighted pharmacophores based on the number of ligands that share them, and (iv) automatically select the most appropriate pharmacophore candidates for virtual screening. The algorithm is highly efficient, allowing a fast exploration of the chemical space by virtual screening of huge compound databases. The performance of PharmaGist was successfully evaluated on a commonly used data set of G-Protein Coupled Receptor alpha1A. Additionally, a large-scale evaluation using the DUD (directory of useful decoys) data set was performed. DUD contains 2950 active ligands for 40 different receptors, with 36 decoy compounds for each active ligand. PharmaGist enrichment rates are comparable with other state-of-the-art tools for virtual screening.

  10. Intimate partner violence among female drug users admitted to the general hospital: screening and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Caldentey, Clara; Tirado Muñoz, Judit; Ferrer, Tessie; Fonseca Casals, Francina; Rossi, Paola; Mestre-Pintó, Juan Ignacio; Torrens Melich, Marta

    2016-09-29

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Several factors have been found to be associated with an increased prevalence of IPV, such as substance use. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of IPV among women entering Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) for any medical/surgical reason, and who had a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Secondly, it was intended to psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with Harm, Screamed (HITS) questionnaire. All patients were assessed by two IPV questionnaires, the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) and HITS. Out of 52 patients interviewed, 46 answered both questionnaires. According to the CAS questionnaire, 23 patients (50%) experienced IPV at some point in their lives and 11 (23.9%) in the last year. Cannabis consumption was also associated with an increased severity of IPV (95% CI 3.5-28.9, p = .013).According to the HITS questionnaire, there was a prevalence of 39.1% (18 patients) in the last 12 months. HITS had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 78% relative to the CAS questionnaire. A cut-off score x∈ [6.7], derived through ROC analysis, correctly discriminated 91% of the victims and 100% of the non-victims. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of IPV was very high among women who suffered from more than one substance use disorder. Therefore, it is highly recommended to systematically screen for IPV victimization by putting the HITS questionnaire into practice.

  11. The incidence of monoclonal proteins during 7 years of screening in a District General Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R A; Smith, L; Pickering, P E

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of monoclonal proteins, during a 7-year period, in the population served by a typical District General Hospital. 183,300 sera were electrophoresed and 804 monoclonal proteins were detected. Various biochemical prognostic criteria, such as the concentration of monoclonal protein, incidence of Bence-Jones protein and the presence of reduced polyclonal immunoglobulins, were studied in an attempt to assess the benign or malignant nature of the monoclonal protein. In this study, 75% of the patients with monoclonal proteins fulfilled at least one of these criteria, demonstrating the importance of long-term monitoring. PMID:6698575

  12. Nanoliter microfluidic hybrid method for simultaneous screening and optimization validated with crystallization of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Mustafi, Debarshi; Fu, Qiang; Tereshko, Valentina; Chen, Delai L.; Tice, Joshua D.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2006-01-01

    High-throughput screening and optimization experiments are critical to a number of fields, including chemistry and structural and molecular biology. The separation of these two steps may introduce false negatives and a time delay between initial screening and subsequent optimization. Although a hybrid method combining both steps may address these problems, miniaturization is required to minimize sample consumption. This article reports a “hybrid” droplet-based microfluidic approach that combines the steps of screening and optimization into one simple experiment and uses nanoliter-sized plugs to minimize sample consumption. Many distinct reagents were sequentially introduced as ≈140-nl plugs into a microfluidic device and combined with a substrate and a diluting buffer. Tests were conducted in ≈10-nl plugs containing different concentrations of a reagent. Methods were developed to form plugs of controlled concentrations, index concentrations, and incubate thousands of plugs inexpensively and without evaporation. To validate the hybrid method and demonstrate its applicability to challenging problems, crystallization of model membrane proteins and handling of solutions of detergents and viscous precipitants were demonstrated. By using 10 μl of protein solution, ≈1,300 crystallization trials were set up within 20 min by one researcher. This method was compatible with growth, manipulation, and extraction of high-quality crystals of membrane proteins, demonstrated by obtaining high-resolution diffraction images and solving a crystal structure. This robust method requires inexpensive equipment and supplies, should be especially suitable for use in individual laboratories, and could find applications in a number of areas that require chemical, biochemical, and biological screening and optimization. PMID:17159147

  13. Combined Methods for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening, Using Retina Photographs and Tear Fluid Proteomics Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Csosz, Eva; Molnar, Agnes M.; Berta, Andras; Hajdu, Andras; Nagy, Valeria; Domokos, Balint

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is estimated that 347 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus (DM), and almost 5 million are blind due to diabetic retinopathy (DR). The progression of DR can be slowed down with early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore our aim was to develop a novel automated method for DR screening. Methods. 52 patients with diabetes mellitus were enrolled into the project. Of all patients, 39 had signs of DR. Digital retina images and tear fluid samples were taken from each eye. The results from the tear fluid proteomics analysis and from digital microaneurysm (MA) detection on fundus images were used as the input of a machine learning system. Results. MA detection method alone resulted in 0.84 sensitivity and 0.81 specificity. Using the proteomics data for analysis 0.87 sensitivity and 0.68 specificity values were achieved. The combined data analysis integrated the features of the proteomics data along with the number of detected MAs in the associated image and achieved sensitivity/specificity values of 0.93/0.78. Conclusions. As the two different types of data represent independent and complementary information on the outcome, the combined model resulted in a reliable screening method that is comparable to the requirements of DR screening programs applied in clinical routine. PMID:26221613

  14. An efficient screening method for simultaneous detection of recurrent copy number variants associated with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Julio; Carrera, Noa; Arrojo, Manuel; Amigo, Jorge; Sobrino, Beatriz; Páramo, Mario; Paz, Eduardo; Agra, Santiago; Ramos-Ríos, Ramón; Brenlla, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Costas, Javier

    2015-05-20

    Several recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) increasing risk to neuropsychiatric diseases have been identified in recent years. They show variable clinical expressivity, being associated with different disorders, and incomplete penetrance. However, due to its very low frequency, the full variety of clinical outcomes associated with each one of these CNVs is unknown. Current methods for detection of CNVs are labor intensive, expensive or not suitable for high throughput analysis. Quantitative interspecies competitive PCR linked to variant minisequencing and detection by mass-spectrometry may overcome these limitations. Here, we present two multiplex assays based on this method to screen for eleven psychiatric risk CNVs, such as 1q21, 16p11.2, 3q29, or 16p13.11 regions, among others. The assays were tested in our collection of 514 schizophrenia patients. Results were compared with MLPA at two CNVs. Additional positive results were confirmed by exome sequencing. A total of fourteen patients were CNV carriers. The method presents high sensitivity and specificity, showing its utility as a cheap, accurate, high throughput screening tool for recurrent CNVs. The method may be very useful for management of psychiatric patients as well as screening of different collections of samples to better identify the full spectrum of clinical variability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time and online screening method for materials emitting volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changhyuk; Sul, Yong Tae; Pui, David Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    In the semiconductor industry, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cleanroom air work as airborne molecular contamination, which reduce the production yield of semiconductor chips by forming nanoparticles and haze on silicon wafers and photomasks under ultraviolet irradiation during photolithography processes. Even though VOCs in outdoor air are removed by gas filters, VOCs can be emitted from many kinds of materials used in cleanrooms, such as organic solvents and construction materials (e.g., adhesives, flame retardants and sealants), threatening the production of semiconductors. Therefore, finding new replacements that emit lower VOCs is now essential in the semiconductor industry. In this study, we developed a real-time and online method to screen materials for developing the replacements by converting VOCs into nanoparticles under soft X-ray irradiation. This screening method was applied to measure VOCs emitted from different kinds of organic solvents and adhesives. Our results showed good repeatability and high sensitivity for VOCs, which come from aromatic compounds, some alcohols and all tested adhesives (Super glue and cleanroom-use adhesives). In addition, the overall trend of measured VOCs from cleanroom-use adhesives was well matched with those measured by a commercial thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is a widely used off-line method for analyzing VOCs. Based on the results, this screening method can help accelerate the developing process for reducing VOCs in cleanrooms.

  16. Electrochemical estrogen screen method based on the electrochemical behavior of MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlian; Song, Jia; Bi, Sheng; Zhou, Shi; Cui, Jiwen; Liu, Jiguang; Wu, Dongmei

    2016-08-05

    It was an urgent task to develop quick, cheap and accurate estrogen screen method for evaluating the estrogen effect of the booming chemicals. In this study, the voltammetric behavior between the estrogen-free and normal fragmented MCF-7 cell suspensions were compared, and the electrochemical signal (about 0.68V attributed by xanthine and guanine) of the estrogen-free fragmented MCF-7 cell suspension was obviously lower than that of the normal one. The electrochemistry detection of ex-secretion purines showed that the ability of ex-secretion purines of cells sharp decreased due to the removing of endogenous estrogen. The results indicated that the electrochemical signal of MCF-7 cells was related to the level of intracellular estrogen. When the level of intracellular estrogen was down-regulated, the concentrations of the xanthine and hypoxanthine decreased, which led to the electrochemical signal of MCF-7 cells fall. Based on the electrochemical signal, the electrochemical estrogen screen method was established. The estrogen effect of estradiol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was evaluated with the electrochemical method, and the result was accordant with that of MTT assay. The electrochemical estrogen screen method was simple, quickly, cheap, objective, and it exploits a new way for the evaluation of estrogenic effects of chemicals.

  17. A simple method for screening emission sources of carbonyl compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shohei; Kume, Kazunari; Horiike, Toshiyuki; Honma, Nobuyuki; Fusaya, Masahiro; Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi

    2010-06-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from building and furnishing materials are frequently observed in high concentrations in indoor air. Nondestructive analytical methods that determine the main parameters influencing concentration of the chemical substances are necessary to screen for sources of VOC emissions. Toward this goal, we have developed a new flux sampler, referred to herein as an emission cell for simultaneous multi-sampling (ECSMS), that is used for screening indoor emission sources of VOCs and for determining the emission rates of these sources. Because the ECSMS is based on passive sampling, it can be easily used on-site at a low cost. Among VOCs, low-molecular-weight carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde are frequently detected at high concentrations in indoor environments. In this study, we determined the reliability of the ECSMS for the collection of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds emitted from wood-based composites of medium density fiberboards and particleboards. We then used emission rates determined by the ECSMS to predict airborne concentrations of formaldehyde emitted from a bookshelf in a large chamber, and these data were compared to formaldehyde concentrations that were acquired simultaneously by means of an active sampling method. The values obtained from the two methods were quite similar, suggesting that ECSMS measurement is an effective method for screening primary sources influencing indoor concentrations of formaldehyde. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved method for effective screening of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase producing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chandrashekhar; Suryawanshi, Rahul; Koli, Sunil; Patil, Satish

    2016-12-01

    Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) producing microorganisms support plant growth under a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions such as drought, soil salinity, flooding, heavy metal pollution and phyto-pathogen attack. Available screening methods for ACCD give idea only about its primary microbial ACCD activity than the actual potential. In the present investigation, we have simply improved screening method by incorporating pH indicator dyes (phenol red and bromothymol blue) in ACC containing medium. This modification is based on the basic principle that ACCD action releases ammonia which can be detected by color change and zone around the bacterial colony. High color intensity and zone around the colony indicates most potent producer, colony showing only a color change indicates moderate potential and no change in colony color indicates least efficiency. Enzymatic bioassays as well as root elongation studies revealed that ACC-deaminase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacillus subtilis clearly corresponds to their growth on dye incorporated ACC medium. This method could be used to complement the existing screening methods and to speed up the targeted isolation of agriculturally important microorganisms.

  19. A rapid and simple method for preparing an insoluble substrate for screening of microbial xylanase.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyong-Cheol; Han, Yunjon; Shin, Bong Seok; Choi, Jong Hyun; Song, Jae Jun

    2012-06-01

    Several types of enzymes, including cellulases and xylanases, are required to degrade hemicelluloses and cellulose, which are major components of lignocellulosic biomass. Such degradative processes can be used to produce various useful industrial biomaterials. Screening methods for detecting polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms include the use of dye-labeled substrates in growth medium and culture plate staining techniques. However, the preparation of screening plates, which typically involves chemical cross-linking to synthesize a dye-labeled substrate, is a complicated and time-consuming process. Moreover, such commercial substrates are very expensive, costing tenfold more than the natural xylan. Staining methods are also problematic because they may damage relevant microorganisms and are associated with contamination of colonies of desirable organisms with adjacent unwanted bacteria. In the present study, we describe a sonication method for the simple and rapid preparation of an insoluble substrate that can be used to screen for xylanase-expressing bacteria in microbial populations. Using this new method, we have successfully isolated a novel xylanase gene from a xylolytic microorganism termed Xyl02-KBRB and Xyl14-KBRB in the bovine rumen.

  20. Clinical diagnostic tools for screening of perioperative stroke in general surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Yue, Y; Leung, C C H; Chan, M T V; Gelb, A W

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative stroke is a devastating complication that carries high mortality and functional disability. Unfortunately, residual anaesthesia and analgesia may obscure important warning signs and may lead to a delay in the assessment and treatment of major stroke after surgery. The purpose of this review is to examine the utility of existing stroke scales, for the recognition of perioperative stroke in the general surgical population. A total of 21 stroke scales have been described in the literature. Diagnostic performance was reported in 17 scales. The majority of the stroke scales were designed to evaluate current neurological deficits after an established stroke event. Recent abbreviated stroke test, such as the Face, Arm, Speech Test (FAST), were developed to facilitate stroke identification in the emergency department. Only two stroke scales have been applied in the perioperative setting after cardiac, carotid and neurological surgeries. The modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale appears to be useful in detecting new subtle neurological deficits in critical care, or high dependency units after surgery. However, in the general postsurgical wards, given the concern about the workload required, abbreviated stroke tests may be more appropriate for routine regular stroke surveillance. It is hoped that these tests will provide rapid assessment of global neurological function to facilitate timely diagnosis and treatment of perioperative stroke. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  2. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  3. Application of EU guidelines for the validation of screening methods for veterinary drugs.

    PubMed

    Stolker, Alida A M Linda

    2012-08-01

    Commission Decision (CD) 2002/657/EC describes detailed rules for method validation within the framework of residue monitoring programmes. The approach described in this CD is based on criteria. For (qualitative) screening methods, the most important criteria is that the CCβ has to be below any regulatory limit. Especially when microbiological or immunochemical methods are involved, the approach described in the CD is not easily applied. For example, by those methods, a large number of analytes (all antibiotics) within several different matrices (meat, milk, fish, eggs, etc.) are detected. It is not completely clear whether all those analytes and all matrices have to be taken into account during method validation. To clarify this, a working group - from EU Reference Laboratories - came up with a practical approach to validate multi-analyte multi-matrix screening methods. It describes how many analyte/matrix combinations have to be tested and how these combinations are selected. Furthermore it describes how to determine CCβ for screening methods in relation to a large list of compounds and maximum residue limits (MRLs). First for each analyte/matrix combination the 'cut-off' level - i.e. the level at which the method separates blanks from contaminated samples - is established. The validation is preferably at the concentration of 50% of the regulatory limit. A minimum set of 20 different samples has to be tested. From the experiences with applying these guidelines it was concluded that the validation approach is very 'practical'; however, there are some remarks. One has to be careful with selecting 'representative' analytes and matrices and it is strongly recommended to collect additional validation data during the routine application of the method. © 2012 RIKILT-Wageningen University and Research. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A Novel Two-Step Method for Screening Shade Tolerant Mutant Plants via Dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Thammina, Chandra; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Yer, Huseyin; Merewitz, Emily; Guillard, Karl; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J; Liu, Zongrang; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of perennial ryegrass by first screening for dominant dwarf mutants, and then screening dwarf plants for shade tolerance. The two-step screening process to isolate shade tolerant mutants can be done efficiently with limited space at early seedling stages, which enables quick and efficient isolation of shade tolerant mutants, and thus facilitates development of shade tolerant new cultivars of turfgrasses. Using the method, we isolated 136 dwarf mutants from 300,000 mutagenized seeds, with 65 being shade tolerant (0.022%). When screened directly for shade tolerance, we recovered only four mutants from a population of 150,000 (0.003%) mutagenized seeds. One shade tolerant mutant, shadow-1, was characterized in detail. In addition to dwarfism, shadow-1 and its sexual progeny displayed high degrees of tolerance to both natural and artificial shade. We showed that endogenous gibberellin (GA) content in shadow-1 was higher than wild-type controls, and shadow-1 was also partially GA insensitive. Our novel, simple and effective two-step screening method should be applicable to breeding shade tolerant cultivars of turfgrasses, ground covers, and other economically important crop plants that can be used under canopies of existing vegetation to increase productivity per unit area of land.

  5. A Novel Two-Step Method for Screening Shade Tolerant Mutant Plants via Dwarfism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Thammina, Chandra; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Yer, Huseyin; Merewitz, Emily; Guillard, Karl; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J.; Liu, Zongrang; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of perennial ryegrass by first screening for dominant dwarf mutants, and then screening dwarf plants for shade tolerance. The two-step screening process to isolate shade tolerant mutants can be done efficiently with limited space at early seedling stages, which enables quick and efficient isolation of shade tolerant mutants, and thus facilitates development of shade tolerant new cultivars of turfgrasses. Using the method, we isolated 136 dwarf mutants from 300,000 mutagenized seeds, with 65 being shade tolerant (0.022%). When screened directly for shade tolerance, we recovered only four mutants from a population of 150,000 (0.003%) mutagenized seeds. One shade tolerant mutant, shadow-1, was characterized in detail. In addition to dwarfism, shadow-1 and its sexual progeny displayed high degrees of tolerance to both natural and artificial shade. We showed that endogenous gibberellin (GA) content in shadow-1 was higher than wild-type controls, and shadow-1 was also partially GA insensitive. Our novel, simple and effective two-step screening method should be applicable to breeding shade tolerant cultivars of turfgrasses, ground covers, and other economically important crop plants that can be used under canopies of existing vegetation to increase productivity per unit area of land. PMID:27752260

  6. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of €75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands. PMID:27165008

  7. A simple method to generate adipose stem cell-derived neurons for screening purposes.

    PubMed

    Bossio, Caterina; Mastrangelo, Rosa; Morini, Raffaella; Tonna, Noemi; Coco, Silvia; Verderio, Claudia; Matteoli, Michela; Bianco, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    Strategies involved in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation toward neuronal cells for screening purposes are characterized by quality and quantity issues. Differentiated cells are often scarce with respect to starting undifferentiated population, and the differentiation process is usually quite long, with high risk of contamination and low yield efficiency. Here, we describe a novel simple method to induce direct differentiation of MSCs into neuronal cells, without neurosphere formation. Differentiated cells are characterized by clear morphological changes, expression of neuronal specific markers, showing functional response to depolarizing stimuli and electrophysiological properties similar to those of developing neurons. The method described here represents a valuable tool for future strategies aimed at personalized screening of therapeutic agents in vitro.

  8. Simple screening method for molds producing intracellular mycotoxins in pure cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Filtenborg, O; Frisvad, J C; Svendsen, J A

    1983-01-01

    A simple screening method for molds producing the intracellular mycotoxins brevianamide A, citreoviridin, cyclopiazonic acid, luteoskyrin, penitrem A, roquefortine C, sterigmatocystin, verruculogen, viomellein, and xanthomegnin was developed. After removing an agar plug from the mold culture, the mycelium on the plug is wetted with a drop of methanol-chloroform (1:2). By this treatment the intracellular mycotoxins are extracted within seconds and transferred directly to a thin-layer chromatography plate by immediately placing the plug on the plate while the mycelium is still wet. After removal of the plug, known thin-layer chromatographic procedures are carried out. The substrate (Czapek yeast autolysate agar) and growth conditions (25 degrees C for 7 days) used by Penicillium taxonomists proved suitable for the production of the mycotoxins investigated when 60 known toxigenic isolates and 865 cultures isolated from foods and feedstuffs were tested with this screening method. PMID:6338829

  9. Simple screening method for molds producing intracellular mycotoxins in pure cultures.

    PubMed

    Filtenborg, O; Frisvad, J C; Svendsen, J A

    1983-02-01

    A simple screening method for molds producing the intracellular mycotoxins brevianamide A, citreoviridin, cyclopiazonic acid, luteoskyrin, penitrem A, roquefortine C, sterigmatocystin, verruculogen, viomellein, and xanthomegnin was developed. After removing an agar plug from the mold culture, the mycelium on the plug is wetted with a drop of methanol-chloroform (1:2). By this treatment the intracellular mycotoxins are extracted within seconds and transferred directly to a thin-layer chromatography plate by immediately placing the plug on the plate while the mycelium is still wet. After removal of the plug, known thin-layer chromatographic procedures are carried out. The substrate (Czapek yeast autolysate agar) and growth conditions (25 degrees C for 7 days) used by Penicillium taxonomists proved suitable for the production of the mycotoxins investigated when 60 known toxigenic isolates and 865 cultures isolated from foods and feedstuffs were tested with this screening method.

  10. Medium-throughput profiling method for screening polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in complex bacterial extracts.

    PubMed

    Fer, Maude; Préchoux, Aurélie; Leroy, Andréa; Sassi, Jean-François; Lahaye, Marc; Boisset, Claire; Nyvall-Collén, Pi; Helbert, William

    2012-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the most abundant and the most diverse renewable materials found on earth. Due to the stereochemical variability of carbohydrates, polysaccharide-degrading enzymes - i.e. glycoside hydrolases and polysaccharide lyases - are essential tools for resolving the structure of these complex macromolecules. The exponential increase of genomic and metagenomic data contrasts sharply with the low number of proteins that have ascribed functions. To help fill this gap, we designed and implemented a medium-throughput profiling method to screen for polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in crude bacterial extracts. Our strategy was based on a series of filtrations, which are absolutely necessary to eliminate any reducing sugars not directly generated by enzyme degradation. In contrast with other protocols already available in the literature, our method can be applied to any panel of polysaccharides having known and unknown structures because no chemical modifications are required. We applied this approach to screen for enzymes that occur in Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora grown in two culture conditions.

  11. Application of a screening method in assessing occupational safety and health of computer workstations.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Lehtelä, Jouni; Länsikallio, Riina

    2014-01-01

    Employers and workers need concrete guidance to plan and implement changes in the ergonomics of computer workstations. The Näppärä method is a screening tool for identifying problems requiring further assessment and corrective actions. The aim of this study was to assess the work of occupational safety and health (OSH) government inspectors who used Näppärä as part of their OSH enforcement inspections (430 assessments) related to computer work. The modifications in workstation ergonomics involved mainly adjustments to the screen, mouse, keyboard, forearm supports, and chair. One output of the assessment is an index indicating the percentage of compliance items. This method can be considered as exposure assessment and ergonomics intervention used as a benchmark for the level of ergonomics. Future research can examine whether the effectiveness of participatory ergonomics interventions should be investigated with Näppärä.

  12. Screening methods for linear-scaling short-range hybrid calculations on CPU and GPU architectures.

    PubMed

    Beuerle, Matthias; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-04-14

    We present screening schemes that allow for efficient, linear-scaling short-range exchange calculations employing Gaussian basis sets for both CPU and GPU architectures. They are based on the LinK [C. Ochsenfeld et al., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1663 (1998)] and PreLinK [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] methods, but account for the decay introduced by the attenuated Coulomb operator in short-range hybrid density functionals. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of short-range electron repulsion integrals on GPUs. The introduction of our screening methods allows for speedups of up to a factor 7.8 as compared to the underlying linear-scaling algorithm, while retaining full numerical control over the accuracy. With the increasing number of short-range hybrid functionals, our new schemes will allow for significant computational savings on CPU and GPU architectures.

  13. Screening methods for linear-scaling short-range hybrid calculations on CPU and GPU architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuerle, Matthias; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-04-01

    We present screening schemes that allow for efficient, linear-scaling short-range exchange calculations employing Gaussian basis sets for both CPU and GPU architectures. They are based on the LinK [C. Ochsenfeld et al., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1663 (1998)] and PreLinK [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] methods, but account for the decay introduced by the attenuated Coulomb operator in short-range hybrid density functionals. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of short-range electron repulsion integrals on GPUs. The introduction of our screening methods allows for speedups of up to a factor 7.8 as compared to the underlying linear-scaling algorithm, while retaining full numerical control over the accuracy. With the increasing number of short-range hybrid functionals, our new schemes will allow for significant computational savings on CPU and GPU architectures.

  14. Histidine-containing peptide catalysts developed by a facile library screening method.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Kengo; Sakai, Nobutaka; Kudo, Kazuaki

    2015-02-02

    Although peptide catalysts have a high potential for the use as organocatalysts, the optimization of peptide sequences is laborious and time-consuming. To address this issue, a facile screening method for finding efficient aminocatalysts from a peptide library has been developed. In the screening for the Michael addition of a malonate to an enal, a dye-labeled product is immobilized on resin-bound peptides through reductive amination to visualize active catalysts. This procedure allows for the monitoring of the reactivity of entire peptides without modifying the resin beads beforehand. Peptides containing histidine at an appropriate position were identified by this method. A novel function of the histidyl residue, which enhances the binding of a substrate to the catalyst by capturing an iminium intermediate, was indicated.

  15. Using stable isotopes to monitor forms of sulfur during desulfurization processes: A quick screening method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.; Kruse, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method using stable isotope ratio analysis to monitor the reactivity of sulfur forms in coal during thermal and chemical desulfurization processes has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The method is based upon the fact that a significant difference exists in some coals between the 34S/32S ratios of the pyritic and organic sulfur. A screening method for determining the suitability of coal samples for use in isotope ratio analysis is described. Making these special coals available from coal sample programs would assist research groups in sorting out the complex sulfur chemistry which accompanies thermal and chemical processing of high sulfur coals. ?? 1987.

  16. Microengineering Methods for Cell Based Microarrays and High-Throughput Drug Screening Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time-consuming and often face ethical concerns due to extensive use of animals. To improve cost-effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems have facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell based drug-screening models, which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell based drug screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds a great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility. PMID:21725152

  17. Screen detected high blood pressure under 40: a general practice population followed up for 21 years.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, J T; Edwards, C; Hart, M; Jones, J; Jones, M; Haines, A; Watt, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess hypertension detected under 40 in a general practice population. DESIGN--Prospective case-control study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--Former coal mining community in south Wales. Systematic case finding for hypertension and associated risk factors applied to a mean total population of 1945 from age 20 on a five year cycle through 21 years. Mean population aged 20-39, 227 men and 213 women. Case criteria: age < 40 and mean systolic pressure > or = 160 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > or = 100 mm Hg. Age and sex matched controls randomly sampled from the same population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mean initial pressures and pressures at follow up in 1989 or preceding death, and all cardiovascular events. RESULTS--25 men and 16 women met criteria. Estimated five yearly inceptions were 26/1000 for men and 18/1000 for women. Male group mean initial blood pressure was 164/110 mm Hg for cases, falling to 148/89 mm Hg at follow up. Five male cases died at mean age 47.8, compared with two controls at 49.5. Female group mean initial pressure was 172/107 mm Hg for cases, falling to 145/86 mm Hg at follow up. One female case died aged 50, no controls. 10 male cases had non-fatal cardiovascular events at mean age 40.2, compared with two controls at mean age 50.5. Four female cases had non-fatal events at mean age 47.2, compared with one control aged 58. Male differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS--Hypertension under 40 is dangerous, commoner in men than women, rarely secondary to classic causes, and may be controlled in general practice on a whole community basis. PMID:8461729

  18. The usefulness of the Denver Developmental Screening Test to predict kindergarten problems in a general community population.

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, D; Chambers, L W; Walter, S D; Feldman, W; Smith, K; Ferguson, R

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) was administered to 2,569 children five to seven months prior to starting kindergarten in September 1980 in a geographically well-defined community. The test was administered by trained public health nurses. At the end of the 1980-1981 school year, all 163 kindergarten teachers in the area completed a rating form for each child in their class. The rating form determined global ratings of: 1) learning abilities; 2) classroom behavior; 3) amount of special attention required; and 4) referrals to special education services outside the classroom. The specificity of the DDST in predicting kindergarten teacher ratings was 99 per cent for all areas. Test sensitivity varied from 5 per cent to 10 per cent in detecting problems in the four areas. The predictive values of an positive test varied from 31 per cent for behavior problems to 62 per cent for extra attention required in the classroom. Negative test predictive values varied from 79 per cent to 93 per cent. These results based on kindergarten teacher ratings suggest that, because of the low sensitivity and modest predictive value, the DDST may be relatively inefficient to use in a school entry screening program in a general community population of children. PMID:6206733

  19. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  20. On the Use of Accelerated Aging Methods for Screening High Temperature Polymeric Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Grayson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing of high temperature polymeric composites is discussed. The methods provided are considered tools useful in the screening of new materials systems for long-term application to extreme environments that include elevated temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for specific aging mechanisms.

  1. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  2. Statistical studies of animal response data from USF toxicity screening test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical examination of animal response data obtained using Procedure B of the USF toxicity screening test method indicates that the data deviate only slightly from a normal or Gaussian distribution. This slight departure from normality is not expected to invalidate conclusions based on theoretical statistics. Comparison of times to staggering, convulsions, collapse, and death as endpoints shows that time to death appears to be the most reliable endpoint because it offers the lowest probability of missed observations and premature judgements.

  3. The views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards the barriers and facilitators of proactive, internet-based chlamydia screening for reaching young heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Karen; Martin, Susan; McDaid, Lisa M

    2014-06-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which disproportionately affects young people under 25 years. Commonly, more women are offered screening than men. This study obtained the views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards Internet-based screening and assessed levels of support for the development of proactive screening targeting young heterosexual men via the Internet. Semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 general practitioners and 8 practice nurses, across Central Scotland. Topics covered: experience of screening heterosexual men for chlamydia, views on the use of the Internet as a way to reach young men for chlamydia screening, beliefs about the potential barriers and facilitators to Internet-based screening. Transcripts from audio recordings were analysed with Framework Analysis, using QSR NVivo10. Experiences of chlamydia screening were almost exclusively with women, driven by the nature of consultations and ease of raising sexual health issues with female patients; few practice nurses reported seeing men during consultations. All participants spoke in favour of Internet-based screening for young men. Participants reported ease of access and convenience as potential facilitators of an Internet-based approach but anonymity and confidentiality could be potential barriers and facilitators to the success of an Internet approach to screening. Concerns over practical issues as well as those pertaining to gender and socio-cultural issues were raised. Awareness of key barriers and facilitators, such as confidentiality, practicality and socio-cultural influences, will inform the development of an Internet-based approach to screening. However, this approach may have its limits in terms of being able to tackle wider social and cultural barriers, along with shifts in young people's and health professionals' attitudes towards screening. Nevertheless, employing innovative efforts as part of a multi

  4. Estimation of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness using data collected in primary care in France: comparison of the test-negative design and the screening method.

    PubMed

    Vilcu, Ana-Maria; Souty, Cécile; Enouf, Vincent; Capai, Lisandru; Turbelin, Clément; Masse, Shirley; Behillil, Sylvie; Valette, Martine; Guerrisi, Caroline; Rossignol, Louise; Blanchon, Thierry; Lina, Bruno; Hanslik, Thomas; Falchi, Alessandra

    2017-09-09

    In this study we discuss which method between the test-negative design and the screening method could provide more robust real-time and end-of-season vaccine effectiveness estimates, using data collected from routine influenza surveillance in primary care. We used data collected during two influenza seasons (2014/15 and 2015/16). SCREENING METHOD: we estimated end-of-season vaccine effectiveness in preventing medically attended influenza-like illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza among the population at risk. Test-negative design: we estimated end-of-season vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza among both the general and the at risk population. We estimated real-time vaccine effectiveness using both methods. Screening method: the overall adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness was 24% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 16 to 32) and 12% (95%CI: -16 to 33) during season 2014/15, and 53% (95%CI: 44 to 60) and 47% (95%CI: 23 to 64) during season 2015/16, in preventing ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza respectively. Test-negative design: the overall adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness was -17% (95%CI: -79 to 24) and -38% (95%CI: -199 to 13) in 2014/15, and 10% (95%CI: -31 to 39) and 18% (95%CI: -33 to 50) in 2015/16, among the general and at risk population respectively. Real-time vaccine effectiveness estimates obtained through the test-negative design showed more variability across each season and lower precision than those estimated with the screening method. Although the worldwide use of the test-negative design allows for comparison of overall vaccine effectiveness estimates between countries, the screening method performs better in providing robust real-time vaccine effectiveness estimates among the population at risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. General Quality Control (QC) Guidelines for SAM Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  6. Terbium-sensitised luminescence screening method for fluoroquinolones in beef serum.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marilyn J; Yun, Limei; Lehotay, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Enrofloxacin and danofloxacin are the only fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the United States. Microbial screening methods commonly used for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay was developed to detect fluoroquinolones in beef serum. This approach takes advantage of the DNA-enhanced luminescence signal of a fluoroquinolone-Tb⁺³ complex. In this method, serum samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile in the presence of magnesium sulfate. After centrifugation, evaporation of the supernatant was followed by dissolution of the residue in buffer and filtration. Addition of Tb⁺³ and DNA then allowed a reading of the luminescence signal. The technique was illustrated using enrofloxacin, and provided good recoveries (73-88%) at 25, 50 and 100 ng ml⁻¹, with reasonable RSDs averaging at 11%. The LOD was 2.5 ng ml⁻¹ based on the variability of response of control serum samples from 18 different steers. The method provided no false-positive or false-negative results while screening blind samples for enrofloxacin and was demonstrated to be quantitative over a range of 0-100 ng ml⁻¹.

  7. Parallel production and verification of protein products using a novel high-throughput screening method.

    PubMed

    Tegel, Hanna; Yderland, Louise; Boström, Tove; Eriksson, Cecilia; Ukkonen, Kaisa; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter; Ottosson, Jenny; Hober, Sophia

    2011-08-01

    Protein production and analysis in a parallel fashion is today applied in laboratories worldwide and there is a great need to improve the techniques and systems used for this purpose. In order to save time and money, a fast and reliable screening method for analysis of protein production and also verification of the protein product is desired. Here, a micro-scale protocol for the parallel production and screening of 96 proteins in plate format is described. Protein capture was achieved using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and the product was verified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS. In order to obtain sufficiently high cell densities and product yield in the small-volume cultivations, the EnBase® cultivation technology was applied, which enables cultivation in as small volumes as 150 μL. Here, the efficiency of the method is demonstrated by producing 96 human, recombinant proteins, both in micro-scale and using a standard full-scale protocol and comparing the results in regard to both protein identity and sample purity. The results obtained are highly comparable to those acquired through employing standard full-scale purification protocols, thus validating this method as a successful initial screening step before protein production at a larger scale. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A simple and efficient method for CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutant screening.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yufeng; Wang, Chun; Huang, Jian; Wang, Kejian

    2017-04-20

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system provides a technological breakthrough in mutant generation. Several methods such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/restriction enzyme (RE) assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) assay, Surveyor nuclease assay, PAGE-based genotyping assay, and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis-based assay have been developed for screening CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutants. However, these methods are time- and labour-intensive and may also be sequence-limited or require very expensive equipment. Here, we described a cost-effective and sensitive screening technique based on conventional PCR, annealing at critical temperature PCR (ACT-PCR), for identifying mutants. ACT-PCR requires only a single PCR step followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We demonstrated that ACT-PCR accurately distinguished CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutants from wild type in both rice and zebrafish. Moreover, the method can be adapted for accurately determining mutation frequency in cultured cells. The simplicity of ACT-PCR makes it particularly suitable for rapid, large-scale screening of CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutants in both plants and animals. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Condorcet and borda count fusion method for ligand-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal; Salim, Naomie; Abdo, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    It is known that any individual similarity measure will not always give the best recall of active molecule structure for all types of activity classes. Recently, the effectiveness of ligand-based virtual screening approaches can be enhanced by using data fusion. Data fusion can be implemented using two different approaches: group fusion and similarity fusion. Similarity fusion involves searching using multiple similarity measures. The similarity scores, or ranking, for each similarity measure are combined to obtain the final ranking of the compounds in the database. The Condorcet fusion method was examined. This approach combines the outputs of similarity searches from eleven association and distance similarity coefficients, and then the winner measure for each class of molecules, based on Condorcet fusion, was chosen to be the best method of searching. The recall of retrieved active molecules at top 5% and significant test are used to evaluate our proposed method. The MDL drug data report (MDDR), maximum unbiased validation (MUV) and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiments with the standard two data sets show that the use of Condorcet fusion provides a very simple way of improving the ligand-based virtual screening, especially when the active molecules being sought have a lowest degree of structural heterogeneity. However, the effectiveness of the Condorcet fusion was increased slightly when structural sets of high diversity activities were being sought.

  10. A simple, fast and sensitive screening LC-ESI-MS/MS method for antibiotics in fish.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Letícia Rocha; Santos, Flávio Alves; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia S R; Fernandes, Christian; Silva, Luiza H M; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A

    2017-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a fast, sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the screening of six classes of antibiotics (aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, macrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines) in fish. Samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid. LC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column and gradient elution using 0.1% heptafluorobutyric acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring mode via electrospray interface operated in the positive ionization mode, with sulfaphenazole as internal standard. The method was suitable for routine screening purposes of 40 antibiotics, according to EC Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines, taking into consideration threshold value, cut-off factor, detection capability, limit of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Real fish samples (n=193) from aquaculture were analyzed and 15% were positive for enrofloxacin (quinolone), one of them at a higher concentration than the level of interest (50µgkg(-1)), suggesting possible contamination or illegal use of that antibiotic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks: A Study in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Bita; Neria, Yuval; Gameroff, Marc J.; Olfson, Mark; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of terrorism beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The associations between exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in New York City and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms were examined in a sample of 929 primary care patients. After controlling for PTSD, depression, panic and substance use disorders, and pre-9/11 trauma, patients who screened positive (vs. negative) for GAD symptoms were roughly twice as likely to report having a loved one at the 9/11 disaster site, twice as likely to know someone who was killed by the attacks, and twice as likely to know someone who was involved with the rescue/recovery efforts after the disaster. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19475656

  12. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  13. Evaluation of detection methods for screening meat and poultry products for the presence of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, Valerie M; Gensler, Gary E; King, Robin K; Wu, John T; McMullen, Lynn M

    2005-12-01

    Rapid and molecular technologies such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation can reduce the time and labor involved in screening food products for the presence of pathogens. These technologies were compared with conventional culture methodology for the detection of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in raw and processed meat and poultry products. Recommended protocols were modified so that the same enrichment broths used in the culture methods were also used in the ELISA, PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation assays. The percent agreement between the rapid technologies and culture methods ranged from 80 to 100% depending on the pathogen detected and the method used. ELISA, PCR, and lateral flow immunoprecipitation all performed well, with no statistical difference, compared with the culture method for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. ELISA performed better for the detection of Salmonella, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 100%. PCR performed better for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni, with 100% agreement to the culture method. PCR was highly sensitive for the detection of all the foodborne pathogens tested except Listeria monocytogenes. Although the lateral flow immunoprecipitation tests were statistically different from the culture methods for Salmonella and Listeria because of false-positive results, the tests did not produce any false negatives, indicating that this method would be suitable for