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Sample records for generalized dressing method

  1. Optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding based on a generalized utility function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The existing studies, concerning the dressing process, focus on the major influence of the dressing conditions on the grinding response variables. However, the choice of the dressing conditions is often made, based on the experience of the qualified staff or using data from reference books. The optimal dressing parameters, which are only valid for the particular methods and dressing and grinding conditions, are also used. The paper presents a methodology for optimization of the dressing parameters in cylindrical grinding. The generalized utility function has been chosen as an optimization parameter. It is a complex indicator determining the economic, dynamic and manufacturing characteristics of the grinding process. The developed methodology is implemented for the dressing of aluminium oxide grinding wheels by using experimental diamond roller dressers with different grit sizes made of medium- and high-strength synthetic diamonds type ??32 and ??80. To solve the optimization problem, a model of the generalized utility function is created which reflects the complex impact of dressing parameters. The model is built based on the results from the conducted complex study and modeling of the grinding wheel lifetime, cutting ability, production rate and cutting forces during grinding. They are closely related to the dressing conditions (dressing speed ratio, radial in-feed of the diamond roller dresser and dress-out time), the diamond roller dresser grit size/grinding wheel grit size ratio, the type of synthetic diamonds and the direction of dressing. Some dressing parameters are determined for which the generalized utility function has a maximum and which guarantee an optimum combination of the following: the lifetime and cutting ability of the abrasive wheels, the tangential cutting force magnitude and the production rate of the grinding process. The results obtained prove the possibility of control and optimization of grinding by selecting particular dressing

  2. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. Nonlocal integrable partners to generalized MKdV and two-dimensional Toda lattice equation in the formalism of a dressing method with quantized spectral parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degasperis, A.; Lebedev, D.; Olshanetsky, M.; Pakuliak, S.; Perelomov, A.; Santini, P.

    1991-10-01

    Two new hierarchies, MILW2 and a two-dimensional nonlocal Toda lattice are constructed. The characteristic property of the first one is the connection with the ILW2 hierarchy by means of gl(2) Miura transformation. On the other hand, MILW2 equations turn out to be symmetry equations for a two-dimensional nonlocal Toda lattice. A new version of the dressing technique with quantized spectral parameter is proposed.

  4. Dressed qubits: a new method for eliminating inherent gate errors in quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2003-03-01

    Inherent gate errors can arise in quantum computation when the applied Hamiltonian deviates from the desired one. Two important examples are (1) Quantum computation using spin-coupled quantum dots in the presence of spin-orbit perturbations to the Heisenberg exchange interaction; (2) Off-resonant transitions induced by strong and fast pulses. Quantum error correcting codes cannot deal with such errors if they are too strong. In this talk we propose a new solution for dealing with such inherent errors: dressed qubits. Particularly important is the fact that the dressed qubits method does not require additional operations or encoding redundancy, can be applied in the presence of large errors, and is experimentally feasible. We present the general notion of dressed qubits and then focus on the two examples of inherent errors mentioned above.

  5. A variational method for the calculation of dynamic polarizabilities and two-photon transition moments - The dressed molecule approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, W. M.

    1984-10-01

    The solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation of the molecule + radiation field system is analyzed. A quantized radiation field is used. The relationship between the oscillatory wave function and the dressed state wave function is established, the oscillatory wave function being the solution if the radiation field is turned on at t = 0 and the dressed state being the stationary solution satisfying the boundary condition only if the field is present at t = negative infinity. In general, the oscillatory wave function can be expressed using a complete set of dressed states. However, in the presence of a nonresonant radiation field, the system is well represented by a single dressed state. Molecular properties such as dynamic polarizabilities and two-photon transition moments can be deduced from the dressed state wave function instead of the oscillatory wave function as in previous methods. Because of its stationary character, the dressed state is more amenable to approximate calculations. A CI method is developed for this purpose. The CI matrix is simple in form and can be readily constructed using existing computer codes. The present method can also be adapted to calculate other optical properties.

  6. Comparison of two uncertainty dressing methods: SAD VS DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon, Jérémy; Mathevet, Thibault; Le-Lay, Matthieu; Gailhard, Joël

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPSs) allow a better representation of meteorological and hydrological forecast uncertainties and improve human expertise of hydrological forecasts. An operational HEPS has been developed at EDF (French Producer of Electricity) since 2008 and is being used since 2010 on a hundred of watersheds in France. Depending on the hydro-meteorological situation, streamflow forecasts could be issued on a daily basis and are used to help dam management operations during floods or dam works within the river. A part of this HEPS is characterized by a streamflow ensemble post-processing, where a large human expertise is solicited. The aim of post-processing methods is to achieve better overall performances, by dressing hydrological ensemble forecasts with hydrological model uncertainties. The present study compares two post-processing methods, which are based on a logarithmic representation of the residuals distribution of the Rainfall-Runoff (RR) model, based on "perfect" forcing forecasts - i.e. forecasts with observed meteorological variables as inputs. The only difference between the two post-processing methods lies in the sampling of the perfect forcing forecasts for the estimation of the residuals statistics: (i) a first method, referred here as Statistical Analogy Dressing (SAD) model and used for operational HEPS, estimates beforehand the statistics of the residuals by streamflow sub-samples of quantile class and lead-time, since RR model residuals are not homoscedastic. (ii) an alternative method, referred as Dynamical Analogy Dressing (DAD) model, estimates the statistics of the residuals using the N most similar perfect forcing forecasts. The selection of this N forecasts is based on streamflow range and variation. On a set of 20 watersheds used for operational forecasts, both models were evaluated with perfect forcing forecasts and with ensemble forecasts. Results show that both approaches ensure a good post-processing of

  7. New method for testing the absorbency of surgical dressings.

    PubMed

    Betts, T J; Czarniak, P A; Filippin, P

    1988-09-01

    Absorbent cellulose dressings have been tested by immersion in a standard aqueous solution of picric acid followed by standard draining, elution of the picric acid, and measurement of the absorbance of the yellow colour at 355 nm. Six samples of gauze were graded by this procedure, and two considered unsatisfactory, despite all sinking in less than 10s. Filmated gauzes and unwoven dressings required greater dilution for the absorbance readings, reflecting their different structures.

  8. The "stegosaurus" dressing: a simple and effective method of securing skin grafts in the burn patient.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, J K; Smith, C E; Milner, S M

    2000-10-01

    Skin grafts are vulnerable to shear stress, infection, and hematoma formation during the postoperative period, all of which reduce graft survival. Various methods of dressing application and materials have been described in the literature to try and prevent graft loss. The authors report the use of the "stegosaurus dressing" (Eggcrate Pad) in 6 patients to secure skin grafts. Patients chosen were those who were either noncompliant or who sustained burns in unfavorable anatomic sites. All grafts demonstrated complete take without infection and hematoma formation. This foam dressing provides an even pressure to the recipient bed, absorbs drainage, and protects the graft from shearing. It also demonstrates the versatility to be used in difficult nonburn skin graft areas. The stegosaurus dressing is easy to apply, inexpensive, and provides a very secure dressing over the skin graft.

  9. DRESS syndrome and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by antituberculosis medications and moxifloxacin: case report
.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunah; Bang, Eun Sook; Lim, Seung-Kwan; Lee, Jae Myeong

    2016-10-01

    To report a rare case of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome caused by antituberculosis (TB) drugs, which progressed to acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) after moxifloxacin treatment. A 25-year-old female was hospitalized for dyspnea and dizziness. She had a history of TB and experienced rifampin-induced skin rash. She was treated for TB with moxifloxacin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Upon admission, she had a fever of 39.2 °C, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and eosinophil count increased during the first 10 days after admission. The patient had a rash all over the body with itching, pain, and a burning sensation. Diagnosis of DRESS syndrome was made. Immunoglobulin and prednisolone administration improved the DRESS symptoms. After the first DRESS syndrome diagnosis, anti-TB medications were changed to isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, cycloserine, and streptomycin, which also caused a skin rash, itching, and elevated AST/ALT levels, and eosinophil count. Then, the anti-TB treatment was changed to cycloserine, streptomycin, ethionamide, and para-aminosalicylic acid. The rash and itching persisted and eosinophil count increased further. All TB medications were discontinued except streptomycin. Due to the flushing and a burning sensation by streptomycin at the injection site, it was replaced with moxifloxacin. The patient experienced erythematous pustules and patches on skin with desquamation, fissures, and swelling. Therefore, a diagnosis of moxifloxacin-induced AGEP was made. DRESS syndrome induced by anti-TB drugs developed in a 25-year-old woman with moxifloxacin-related subsequent AGEP.
.

  10. A rapid screening method for wound dressing by cell-on-a-chip device.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qilong; Wang, Shiwen; Xie, Yunyan; Zheng, Wenfu; Wang, Zhuo; Xiao, Le; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2012-09-01

    This report demonstrates an in vitro method for screening wound dressing candidates that can minimize the use of animals for developing better methods for wound care. The development of materials and formulations for wound dressings, an important application of biomaterials, is laboriously and ethically challenging because of the use of a large number of animals. A method for rapid and effective screening of wound dressings in vitro, therefore, is in great need. A cell-on-a-chip model was used to simulate the cutaneous wound in vitro and screen the performances of several electrospun fibrous wound dressings in enhancing wound healing. For comparison, the performances of wound dressings were also evaluated in a rat model. It was found that the results acquired by microchip model corroborates well with animal experiments. It is the first time, as far as we know, that a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo results is reported for fibrous wound dressings. The cell-on-a-chip wound model we developed here may change the way that scientists screen candidates for wound dressings. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dressed elliptic genus of heterotic compactifications with torsion and general bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israël, Dan; Sarkis, Matthieu

    2016-08-01

    We define and compute the dressed elliptic genus of {N}=2 heterotic compactifications with torsion that are principal two-torus bundles over a K3 surface. We consider a large class of gauge bundles compatible with supersymmetry, consisting of a stable holomorphic vector bundle over the base together with an Abelian bundle over the total space, generalizing the computation previously done by the authors in the absence of the latter. Starting from a (0,2) gauged linear sigma-model with torsion we use supersymmetric localization to obtain the result. We provide also a mathematical definition of the dressed elliptic genus as a modified Euler characteristic and prove that both expressions agree for hypersurfaces in weighted projective spaces. Finally we show that it admits a natural decomposition in terms of {N}=4 superconformal characters, that may be useful to investigate moonshine phenomena for this wide class of {N}=2 vacua, that includes K3 × T 2 compactifications as special cases.

  12. Bluebelle study (phase A): a mixed-methods feasibility study to inform an RCT of surgical wound dressing strategies.

    PubMed

    2016-09-22

    Dressing primary surgical wounds is common, but the implications for surgical site infection (SSI) remain unknown. The Bluebelle study aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing 'simple', 'complex' or 'no' dressings on abdominal wounds, as prespecified in a funder's research brief. Bluebelle includes exploratory work (phase A) to inform a pilot version of the proposed RCT (phase B). Phase A aimed to investigate current dressing practices and perspectives on the proposed RCT, with a view to refining the forthcoming pilot. Mixed methods, including semi-structured interviews and document analysis. 6 UK hospitals. 51 patients and 92 clinical professionals from abdominal surgical specialities. Professionals had variable interpretations of what constitutes a 'dressing', particularly with respect to 'glue'-a product listed under 'wound-closure products' in the British National Formulary, which some surgeons reportedly applied as a 'wound covering'. Areas of ambiguity arising from interviews informed development of pragmatic definitions, including specification of conditions under which glue constituted a 'dressing'. Professionals reported that 'simple' dressings were routinely used in practice, whereas 'complex' dressings were not. This raised questions about the relevance of comparison groups, prompting the design of a survey to determine the types/frequency of dressing use in abdominal surgery (reported elsewhere). This confirmed that complex dressings were rarely used, while 'glue as a dressing' was used relatively frequently. 'Complex dressings' were therefore substituted for 'glue as a dressing' (following an updated Cochrane review, which found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of 'glue as a dressing'). Patients and professionals acknowledged uncertainty around dressing use and SSI prevention, but felt dressings may serve practical and/or psychological benefits. This steered development of additional

  13. [DRESS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rabenkogo, A; Vigue, M G; Jeziorski, E

    2015-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (drug reaction eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a rare and serious drug toxidermia with potentially multiple organ dysfunctions. This report relates the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented a right cervical and mediastinal adenopathy with a mediastinal lump, fever, and deterioration of the general condition. The hospital assessment concluded in an abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus secreting a Panton-Valentine toxin with nonsevere pleuritis and pericarditis. The outcome was favorable with antibiotic treatment consisting of amoxicillin-acid clavulanic, amikacin, and clindamycin followed by oxacillin, rifampicin, and colchicine. On the 25th day of treatment, she presented recurrence of fever with a generalized rash, moderate hepatic cytolysis, hypereosinophilia, with the presence of activated lymphocytes that were further suggestive of visceral DRESS syndrome. A skin biopsy was performed that confirmed the diagnosis. The outcome was favorable after stopping all ongoing treatments even though none of the administered treatments were classically responsible for the syndrome. Symptomatic treatments (antihistaminic and topical steroids) were also administered. Patch tests, performed secondarily, were positive to penicillins; amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or oxacillin were then suspected of being responsible for the DRESS syndrome. Potentially serious, the DRESS syndrome should be considered together with atoxic epidermal necrolysis or Stevens-Johnson syndromes in the case of any rash appearing after drug administration, especially in the presence of face and eyelid edema. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A mathematical analysis of dressed photon in ground state of generalized quantum Rabi model using pair theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirokawa, Masao; Møller, Jacob S.; Sasaki, Itaru

    2017-05-01

    We consider the generalized quantum Rabi model with the so-called A 2-term in the light of the Hepp-Lieb-Preparata quantum phase transition. We investigate the dressed photon in its ground state when the atom-light coupling strength is in the deep-strong coupling regime. This regime is introduced by Casanova et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 263603) as the coupling regime exceeding the ultra-strong one. We show how the dressed photon appears in the ground state. We dedicate this paper to Pavel Exner and Herbert Spohn on the occasion of their 70th birthdays, and Klaus Hepp on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  15. Dressing method and quadratic bundles related to symmetric spaces. Vanishing boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valchev, T. I.

    2016-02-01

    We consider quadratic bundles related to Hermitian symmetric spaces of the type SU(m + n)/S(U(m) × U(n)). The simplest representative of the corresponding integrable hierarchy is given by a multi-component Kaup-Newell derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation which serves as a motivational example for our general considerations. We extensively discuss how one can apply Zakharov-Shabat's dressing procedure to derive reflectionless potentials obeying zero boundary conditions. Those could be used for one to construct fast decaying solutions to any nonlinear equation belonging to the same hierarchy. One can distinguish between generic soliton type solutions and rational solutions.

  16. [Evaluation of the influence of sterilization method on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose wound dressing].

    PubMed

    Muselík, Jan; Wojnarová, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Sopuch, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose, especially its sodium salt, is a versatile pharmaceutical excipient. From a therapeutic point of view, sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the production of modern wound dressings to allow moist wound healing. Wound dressings must be sterile and stable throughout their shelf life and have to be able to withstand different temperature conditions. At the present time, a number of sterilization methods are available. In the case of polymeric materials, the selected sterilization process must not induce any changes in the polymer structure, such as polymer chains cleavage, changes in cross-linking, etc. This paper evaluates the influence of different sterilization methods (γ-radiation, β-radiation, ethylene oxide) on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose and the results of long-term and accelerated stability testing. Evaluation of samples was performed using size-exclusion chromatography. The obtained results showed that ethylene oxide sterilization was the least aggressive variant of the sterilization methods tested. When the γ-radiation sterilization was used, the changes in the size of the carboxymethyl cellulose molecule occurred. In the course of accelerated and long term stability studies, no further degradation changes were observed, and thus sterilized samples are suitable for long term storage.

  17. Development and application of methods for the determination of silver in polymeric dressings used for the care of burns.

    PubMed

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Fenzi, Federica; Guerriero, Paolo; Cairns, Warren R L

    2013-10-15

    Open vessel and microwave digestion methods have been developed for the determination of total silver in six commercial dressing used for the treatment of skin burns. An extraction method using TMAH has also been developed to determine the amount of silver present in the exudates found on the surface after dressing removal so an estimation of the patient dose can be made. All microwave methods had a quantitative recovery, whereas the open vessel had recoveries that ranged from 80 to 100%. The silver concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using an external calibration. In the absence of suitable reference materials, isotope dilution analysis was applied to validate the accuracy of results obtained by external calibration. All the products had a total Ag content that agreed with the values declared by the producer, which ranged from 10 to 0.2% Ag by weight. One of the methods was applied to the indirect determination of Ag released in vivo by Acticoat™ Flex 3, a dressing composed of silver nanoparticles on a polymer net. Silver levels were determined in used dressings after application to patients with partial thickness skin burns. A maximum of 62% of the silver was found to have been released onto the patient where hemopurulent exudate occurred, indicating that the dressing was virtually exhausted after 3 days of use. We conclude that the Ag released into the patient's tissues is closely correlated with the local severity of the wound. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Wound dressings].

    PubMed

    Breuninger, H

    1988-01-01

    The wide variety of dermatologic surgical procedures has resulted in a corresponding choice of wound dressings. Considering the chemical and physical properties as well as the function of the dressings, standardized dressing techniques can be performed with relatively few materials. This saves both time and money.

  19. Bluebelle study (phase A): a mixed-methods feasibility study to inform an RCT of surgical wound dressing strategies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dressing primary surgical wounds is common, but the implications for surgical site infection (SSI) remain unknown. The Bluebelle study aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing ‘simple’, ‘complex’ or ‘no’ dressings on abdominal wounds, as prespecified in a funder's research brief. Bluebelle includes exploratory work (phase A) to inform a pilot version of the proposed RCT (phase B). Phase A aimed to investigate current dressing practices and perspectives on the proposed RCT, with a view to refining the forthcoming pilot. Design Mixed methods, including semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Setting 6 UK hospitals. Participants 51 patients and 92 clinical professionals from abdominal surgical specialities. Results Professionals had variable interpretations of what constitutes a ‘dressing’, particularly with respect to ‘glue’—a product listed under ‘wound-closure products’ in the British National Formulary, which some surgeons reportedly applied as a ‘wound covering’. Areas of ambiguity arising from interviews informed development of pragmatic definitions, including specification of conditions under which glue constituted a ‘dressing’. Professionals reported that ‘simple’ dressings were routinely used in practice, whereas ‘complex’ dressings were not. This raised questions about the relevance of comparison groups, prompting the design of a survey to determine the types/frequency of dressing use in abdominal surgery (reported elsewhere). This confirmed that complex dressings were rarely used, while ‘glue as a dressing’ was used relatively frequently. ‘Complex dressings’ were therefore substituted for ‘glue as a dressing’ (following an updated Cochrane review, which found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of ‘glue as a dressing’). Patients and professionals acknowledged uncertainty around dressing use and SSI prevention, but felt

  20. A new method of microskin autografting with a Vaseline-based moisture dressing on granulation tissue.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Houan; Li, Chongan; Zhou, Xiaoqian; Wang, Xuqiang; Wu, Zhouhu; Zhang, Li; Liu, Chen; Wang, Zhenhua; An, Hongzhao; Wang, Yu; Gao, Shuping; Zhang, Yongjie

    2014-03-01

    In the conventional method of microskin autografting, aggressive early excision is adopted, followed by coverage with a microskin-allograft complex to close extensive burn wounds. However, early excision is always associated with a defect of viable tissue, resulting in massive blood loss and causing high risk to aged patients or those with other systemic diseases. We developed a new method in which an eschar thinning operation was first adopted, followed by raising granulation tissue and microskin autografting, which was covered by a Vaseline-based moisture dressing. A total of 52 patients were included in this study and randomly assigned to the control group (n=26) and the experimental group (n=26) for the conventional method and the new method, respectively. The re-epithelisation rate on the 21st day after autografting indicated that there was no significant difference between both groups. There was also no significant difference between the two groups when the re-epithelialisation rate was compared with the type of organisms cultured. However, the Vancouver Burn Skin Score (VBSS) results demonstrated a significant improvement of cosmetic appearance in the experimental group (score=2.1) as compared to the control group (score=3.9). The new method also showed other advantages, including less blood loss, shorter surgical duration and lower cost of surgery. From this prospective study, it can be concluded that the new method can be an alternative to the conventional microskin autografting procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparative Study of Collagen Dressing versus Petrolatum Gauze Dressing in reducing Pain at the Donor Area

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, BA; Jayalakshmi, BK; Mohan, J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Skin graft is one of the commonly done procedures by plastic surgeons, dermato surgeons and general surgeons. Pain at the donor area is a common complaint by the patient. The skin graft donor site area is usually covered with petrolatum dressing dermatosurgeons. Aim: This study was done to compare collagen dressing with petroleum gauze dressing in control of post-operative pain on skin graft donor area. Materials and Methods: The study was done on forty patients, twenty as study group who received collagen dressing and twenty as control group who received petroleum gauze dressing. The procedure was randomly selected by permutated block size of four. The post-operative pain was assessed with numerical pain rating scale 0 to 10. Nursing staff did the recording of pain scale. The nursing staff was not aware whether patient had collagen or petroleum gauze dressing. Statistics: Statistical analysis used was independent ‘t’-test (two-sample test) and Levene's test. Results: Statistics proved that study group (collagen dressing) had lesser pain than control group (petroleum gauze dressing). Conclusion: The collagen sheet dressing on skin graft donor area reduces pain in post-operative period. PMID:28529416

  2. Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes. PMID:24578815

  3. Non-healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients: general and local interfering conditions and management options with advanced wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Uccioli, Luigi; Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Ruotolo, Valeria; Giurato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Medical knowledge about wound management has improved as recent studies have investigated the healing process and its biochemical background. Despite this, foot ulcers remain an important clinical problem, often resulting in costly, prolonged treatment. A non-healing ulcer is also a strong risk factor for major amputation. Many factors can interfere with wound healing, including the patient's general health status (i.e., nutritional condition indicated by albumin levels) or drugs such as steroids that can interfere with normal healing. Diabetic complications (i.e., renal insufficiency) may delay healing and account for higher amputation rates observed in diabetic patients under dialysis treatment. Wound environment (e.g., presence of neuropathy, ischaemia, and infection) may significantly influence healing by interfering with the physiological healing cascade and adding local release of factors that may worsen the wound. The timely and well-orchestrated release of factors regulating the healing process, observed in acute wounds, is impaired in non-healing wounds that are blocked in a chronic inflammatory phase without progressing to healing. This chronic phase is characterised by elevated protease activity (EPA) of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases (e.g., human neutrophil elastase) that interfere with collagen synthesis, as well as growth factor release and action. EPA (mainly MMP 9, MMP-8 and elastase) and inflammatory factors present in the wound bed (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa) account for the catabolic state of non-healing ulcers. The availability of wound dressings that modulate EPA has added new therapeutic options for treating non-healing ulcers. The literature confirms advantages obtained by reducing protease activity in the wound bed, with better outcomes achieved by using these dressings compared with traditional ones. New technologies also allow a physician to know the status of the wound bed environment, particularly EPA, in a clinical

  4. Wound Healing and the Dressing*

    PubMed Central

    Scales, John T.

    1963-01-01

    The evolution of surgical dressings is traced from 1600 b.c. to a.d. 1944. The availability of an increasing variety of man-made fibres and films from 1944 onwards has stimulated work on wound dressings, and some of the more important contributions, both clinical and experimental, are discussed. The functions of a wound dressing and the properties which the ideal wound dressing should possess are given. The necessity for both histological and clinical evaluation of wound dressings in animals and in man is stressed. Wound dressings are the most commonly used therapeutic agents, but there is no means whereby their performance can be assessed. An attempt should be made either nationally or internationally to establish a standard method of assessing the performance of wound dressings. For this it is necessary to have an internationally agreed standard dressing which could be used as a reference or control dressing in all animal and human work. The only animal with skin morphologically similar to that of man is the domestic pig. Three types of wounds could be used: (1) partial-thickness wounds; (2) full-thickness excisions; and (3) third-degree burns. The development of standard techniques for the assessment of the efficiency of wound dressings would be of considerable benefit to the research worker, the medical profession, the patient, and the surgical dressings industry. PMID:13976490

  5. A Change of Traditional Method of Treatment of Partial Thickness Burn with Hydrofibre Dressings.

    PubMed

    Mitura, Kryspin; Osłowska, Jolanta; Mitura, Alicja

    2015-02-01

    Nearly 1% of population is affected with burn trauma annually. Among patients seeking advanced medical care almost 8% require hospital stay. Most burns are superficial and do not cause full thickness damage to the skin. Standard topical treatment of burn wounds with creams and ointments requires frequent dressings' changes. The healing process is long and expensive. The technological revolution, as occurred in the last decade in the field of dressing care allows us to introduce the use of advanced material solutions. Modern materials allow to shorten the treatment time, reduce the expenses and diminish the patient discomfort leading to good outcome. The study presented a case of four patients treated due to the partial thickness burn wound. Hydrofiber dressing with silver ions were introduced in the treatment. We observed good short and long term results.

  6. [DRESS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Adamcová, Monika; Šturdík, Igor; Koller, Tomáš; Payer, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is severe drug-induced allergic-type reaction which occurs few days to weeks after taking a drug in a predisposed patient. Organ damage, eosinophilia and skin rash are typical at presentation. Corticotherapy is often necessary in severe cases. In this report we describe a case of 56-year old female with fever, elevated liver tests and skin rash. DRESS syndrome was diagnosed and allopurinol was indentified as a causative drug. Due to possible fatal outcome, DRESS syndrome should be considered in a differential diagnosis of all patients presenting with similar signs and symptoms.

  7. Generalized subspace correction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kolm, P.; Arbenz, P.; Gander, W.

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  8. Two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via the {partial_derivative}-dressing method: New exactly solvable potentials, wave functions, and their physical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu.

    2010-09-15

    The classes of exactly solvable multiline soliton potentials and corresponding wave functions of two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via {partial_derivative}-dressing method are constructed and their physical interpretation is discussed.

  9. Generalized fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Létourneau, Pierre-David; Cecka, Cristopher; Darve, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) is a technique allowing the fast calculation of long-range interactions between N points in O(N) or O(N ln N) steps with some prescribed error tolerance. The FMM has found many applications in the field of integral equations and boundary element methods, in particular by accelerating the solution of dense linear systems arising from such formulations. Original FMMs required analytical expansions of the kernel, for example using spherical harmonics or Taylor expansions. In recent years, the range of applicability and the ease of use of FMMs has been extended by the introduction of black box [1] or kernel independent techniques [2]. In these approaches, the user only provides a subroutine to numerically calculate the interaction kernel. This allows changing the definition of the kernel with minimal change to the computer program. In this talk we will present a novel kernel independent FMM, which leads to diagonal multipole-to-local operators. This results in a significant reduction in the computational cost [1], in particular when high accuracy is needed. The approach is based on Cauchy's integral formula and the Laplace transform. We will present a numerical analysis of the convergence, methods to choose the parameters in the FMM given some tolerance, and the steps required to build a multilevel scheme from the single level formulation. Numerical results are given for benchmark calculations to demonstrate the accuracy as a function of the number of multipole coefficients, and the computational cost of the different steps in the method.

  10. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  11. DRESS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Vincent; Ranger-Rogez, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, initially recognized as a serious form of cutaneous drug adverse reaction, is now viewed as a drug-related syndrome that can cause life-threatening organ dysfunctions. Characteristic features include a long time interval from first drug exposure to symptom onset and a prolonged course, often with flares, even after discontinuation of the causal drug. The pathophysiology of DRESS syndrome remains incompletely understood but involves reactivation of herpes viruses (HHV-6, HHV-7, EBV, and CMV), against which the body mounts a strong immune response. The culprit drugs may not only affect epigenetic control mechanisms, thereby promoting viral reactivation, but also induce an antiviral T-cell response by interacting with the major histocompatibility complex receptor in individuals with genetic susceptibility factors. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening form of cutaneous drug adverse reaction. The severity of this syndrome is related to the systemic manifestations, which can result in multiorgan failure. DRESS syndrome is characterized by highly specific features, most notably regarding the timing of the manifestations. New insights into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms indicate a role for immunogenetic susceptibility factors and for reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHVs), chiefly HHV-6. We report a typical case of DRESS syndrome and discuss recent data about this condition. Copyright © 2013 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dress Nicer = Know More? Young Children's Knowledge Attribution and Selective Learning Based on How Others Dress.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kyla P; Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research explored whether children judge the knowledge state of others and selectively learn novel information from them based on how they dress. The results indicated that 4- and 6-year-olds identified a formally dressed individual as more knowledgeable about new things in general than a casually dressed one (Study 1). Moreover, children displayed an overall preference to seek help from a formally dressed individual rather than a casually dressed one when learning about novel objects and animals (Study 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the halo effect, and may have important implications for child educators regarding how instructor dress might influence young students' knowledge attribution and learning preferences.

  13. Effect of fresh human amniotic membrane dressing on graft take in patients with chronic burn wounds compared with conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza; Kiasat, Mandana; Tavakkolian, Ahmad Reza; Imani, Mohammad Taghi; Ayaz, Mehdi; Tolide-ie, Hamid Reza

    2013-03-01

    Burns are among the most devastating forms of injury. Nowadays the standard treatment for deep partial thickness and full-thickness burn is early excision and grafting, but this technique is not always feasible; and this leads to chronicity and microbial colonization of burn wounds. Interesting properties of human amniotic membrane made us use it in management of chronic infected burn wounds. From January 2008 to September 2010, in a prospective clinical trail, 38 patients (76 limbs) with symmetric chronic burn wounds in both upper or lower limbs included in this study. Tissue cultures were taken from all the wounds. For the right, after debridement of granulation tissue and meshed split thickness skin grafting, the graft surfaces were covered with amniotic membrane dressing and in left limb wounds, after debridement, skin grafting was done in conventional method. 21 days later, the success rate of graft take was compared between two groups. The study group was composed of 76 limbs in 38 patients with mean age of 27.18±6.38 and burn in 29.18±7.23 TBSA%. The most common causes of the burn wounds chronicity in the selected patients was delayed admission due to poor compliance of the patients (44.8%). Staphylococcus was the most frequent isolate in wounds in our patients (62.85%). Mean graft take was observed in 90.13% of right upper limbs, and 67.36% of left upper limbs; which was significantly different (P<0.001). Our study showed that human amniotic membrane dressing significantly increases the success rate of graft take in chronic wounds, and it can be recommended as an important dressing in chronic burn wounds management, due to interesting anti-microbial, and better graft take effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing tragacanth gum based sterile hydrogel by radiation method for use in drug delivery and wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju; Rajneesh

    2016-07-01

    Present article discusses synthesis and characterization of the sterile and pure hydrogel wound dressings which were prepared through radiation method by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), tragacanth gum (TG) and sodium alginate (SA). The polymer films were characterized by SEM, Cryo-SEM, FTIR, solid state C(13) NMR and XRD, TGA, and DSC. Some important biological properties such as O2 permeability, water vapor transmission rate, microbial permeability, haemolysis, thrombogenic behavior, antioxidant activity, bio-adhesion and mechanical properties were also studied. The hydrogel film showed thrombogenicity (82.43±1.54%), haemolysis (0.83±0.09%), oxygen permeability (6.433±0.058mg/L) and water vapor permeability (197.39±25.34g/m(2)/day). Hydrogel films were found biocompatible and impermeable to microbes. The release of antibiotic drug moxifloxacin occurred through non-Fickian mechanism and release profile was best fitted in Hixson-Crowell model for drug release. Overall, these results indicate the suitability of these hydrogels in wound dressing applications.

  15. Generalized James' effective Hamiltonian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wenjun; Wu, Chunfeng; Feng, Xun-Li

    2017-03-01

    James' effective Hamiltonian method has been extensively adopted to investigate largely detuned interacting quantum systems. This method only corresponds to the second-order perturbation theory and cannot be exploited to treat problems which should be solved by using the third- or higher-order perturbation theory. In this paper, we generalize James' effective Hamiltonian method to the higher-order case. Using the method developed here, we reexamine two recently published examples [L. Garziano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601; Ken K. W. Ma and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 92, 023842 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023842]; our results turn out to be the same as the original ones derived from the third-order perturbation theory and adiabatic elimination method, respectively. For some specific problems, this method can simplify the calculating procedure and the resultant effective Hamiltonian is more general.

  16. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial activity of wound dressings: influence of the test method selected and impact of the pH.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Abel, Martin; Ruth, Peter; Elsner, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of dressings containing antimicrobials is mostly evaluated using in vitro tests. However, the various methods available differ significantly in their properties and results obtained are influenced by the method selected, micro-organisms used, and extraction method, the degree of solubility or the diffusability of the test-compounds. Here, results on antimicrobial activity of silver-containing dressings obtained by agar diffusion test (ADT), challenge tests (JIS L 1902, AATCC 100), and extraction-based methods (microplate laser nephelometry (MLN), luminescent quantification of bacterial ATP (LQbATP)) using Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the pH on antibacterial efficacy of these dressings was investigated. All silver-containing dressings exerted antimicrobial activity in all in vitro tests and results correlated considerably well. Differences were observed testing the agent-free basic materials. They did not exhibit any antimicrobial effects in the ADT, MLN or LQbATP, since these methods depend on diffusion/extraction of an active agent. However, they showed a strong antimicrobial effect in the challenge tests as they possess a high absorptive capacity, and are able to bind and sequester micro-organisms present. Therefore, it seems recommendable to choose several tests to distinguish whether a material conveys an active effect or a passive mechanism. In addition, it could be shown that release of silver and its antimicrobial efficacy is partially pH-dependent, and that dressings themselves affect the pH. It can further be speculated that dressings' effects on pH and release of silver ions act synergistically for antimicrobial efficacy.

  17. DRESS and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Cahyanur, Rahmat; Oktavia, Dina; Koesno, Sukamto

    2012-07-01

    DRESS (drug rash eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a life threatening condition characterized by skin rash, fever, leucocytosis with eosinophilia or atypical lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. This case report would like to describe an interesting case of DRESS coincidence with ischemic stroke. A 38 year old woman had been admitted with skin rash and fever since four days before. Four weeks before admission she received antibiotic and multivitamin for one week. The patient looked ill, with body temperature 38.0°C. Marked physical findings were cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly. Dermatological examination finding was generalized exanthema. Laboratory evaluation showed leucocytosis, eosinophilia, and increased level of ALT and AST. During hospitalization the patient also suffered from ischemic stroke. Treatments administered in this patient were oxygen, adequate intravenous fluid, parenteral nutrition, methyl prednisolone, cethirizin bid, ranitidin bid, and antibiotic. The antibiotic treatment in this case was performed with graded challenge or test dosing.

  18. Experience with specially designed pored polyacetal mold dressing method used in McIndoe-style vaginoplasty.

    PubMed

    Han, So-Eun; Go, Ju Young; Choi, Doo Seok; Seo, Gi Hong; Lim, So Young

    2017-06-16

    Appropriate postoperative care and prolonged use of the mold are prerequisites for achieving successful results in McIndoe-style vaginoplasty. We introduce a specially designed pored polyacetal mold to maintain the reconstructed vagina, with favorable long-term results allowing drainage of the serous and bloody discharge without removal of the mold, and reduction of infection rate and the chance of skin graft shearing in McIndoe vaginoplasty. We retrospectively reviewed data of 10 consecutive patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome who underwent McIndoe vaginoplasty between March 2010 and January 2014. We used a specially designed pored polyacetal mold (Figure) in all reconstructed vaginal wounds. The anatomical surgical success was evaluated by physical examination and functional success, which was defined as satisfaction with sex evaluated by patient self-assessed questionnaire. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 3.5 years. The postoperative mean vaginal length was 9.5 cm in nine patients who used the mold regularly. In all cases in which a pored polyacetal mold was used, skin engraftment was successfully maintained without partial skin graft loss or infection. The subjective patient self-assessed satisfaction evaluation reported a high satisfaction rate. The multi-holed polyacetal vaginal mold was designed to perform vaginal irrigation without removal of the mold, allowing drainage of the serous and bloody discharge. This makes it possible to reduce infection rate and maintain successful skin engraftment by reducing the chance of skin graft shearing. The characteristics of polyacetal make it useful as a vaginal mold material as it is lightweight to use, easy to manufacture in accordance with the dimensions of the neovaginal space, and cost-effective. Although a constant follow-up evaluation is required, the pored polyacetal mold is an attractive vaginal mold dressing material to maximize the initial graft uptake, and it can be individually

  19. Draconian dress act repealed.

    PubMed

    Mhone, C

    1994-01-01

    The Dress Act was put into place in Malawi by the government of President Kamuzu Banda after the long period of direct colonialism. The act made it illegal for women in Malawi to be seen publicly wearing dresses which did not completely cover their knees or wearing pants; men had to wear their hair short. Police officers even scrutinized women's attire at private house parties and in homes. The autocratic political structure established by Banda, however, was voted out in a referendum June 14, 1993. Pressure by opposition forces such as the United Democratic Front forced a repeal of the act on November 16 of the same year. The repeal was vigorously attacked by female Parliament members as a move which would result in moral degradation and an increase in the level of sexual harassment against women. Other citizens and tourists have generally detested the act. The act has most certainly kept many potential visitors from vacationing in Malawi. Some expert observers think that repeals of the Dress Act, the Forfeiture Act, and legislation which allowed the government to detain opposition figures without trial were done to garner support from the Paris Club for the resumption of balance of payments support suspended due to the country's poor human rights record.

  20. Lasers without inversion: Interference of dressed lifetime-broadened states

    SciTech Connect

    Imamoglu, A.; Harris, S.E.

    1989-12-15

    We describe the use of a coupling electromagnetic field to provide a general method of producing inversion-free laser systems. The interference between dressed states produces a zero in absorption while allowing gains of the order of that of the uncoupled system.

  1. Contemporary Methods Allowing for Safe and Convenient Use of Amniotic Membrane as a Biologic Wound Dressing for Burns.

    PubMed

    Herndon, David N; Branski, Ludwik K

    2017-02-01

    Partial-thickness burns involve damage to the upper layer of skin, which leaves nerve endings exposed, and therefore represent the most painful of several categories of thermal injuries. Historically, partial-thickness burns were treated conservatively by debriding the blisters, by daily tubbing and washing, and the application of new bandages with topical medications. Human amniotic membrane has been used for centuries as a biological wound dressing. In the past 20 years, there has been an increasing body of literature addressing the use of amniotic tissue in chronic wounds and burns. In this review, we present an overview of the use of amniotic membrane in the treatment of burns including processing methods and early clinical use. We believe that amniotic membranes have great potential in improving burn wound care in the future. Standardized processing methods and terminal sterilization ensure safety and allow the material to be available for use by health care providers around the world in clinical trials and for patient care.

  2. Odor Absorbing Hydrocolloid Dressings for Direct Wound Contact.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Roger D A; van Bavel, Davy

    2007-05-01

    Patients in institutional settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, often have or acquire chronic wounds such as those resulting from venous insufficiency and pressure ulcers-these wounds can possess a very offensive odor. 1 The most direct way of avoiding or eliminating wound odor is to prevent or eradicate the infection responsible for it.Topical antibiotics, such as metronidazole gel (0.8 w/v) have proved to be quite effective, but can generate resistant organisms. Further, the action of metronidazole can be sluggish; often several days are needed for any infection to be resolved, and meanwhile the odor is still being generated.Thus, in practice, other methods such as charcoal-based dressings are often used with or with-out concomitant antibiotic therapy. Odor absorbing dressings have been marketed in one form or other for many years. During the past decades a number of charcoal based dressings have been introduced into the market. Some of the more current products are Actisorb ® Silver (Johnson & Johnson Medical Ltd, Gargrave, UK), CarboFlex ® (ConvaTec, Princeton, NJ), Carbonet ® (Smith and Nephew Abstract: Charcoal based odor-absorbing dressings for management of odoriferous chronic wounds have been marketed for many years. However, the presence of wound serum deactivates the charcoal and inhibits the adsorption of odor molecules. Charcoal dressings also gen-erally need adjunct fixation to hold them in place. A new series of hydrocolloid adhesives based on cyclodextrins has been developed to provide an alternative technology for the adsorption of chronic wound odors. Dressings incorporating this technology are suitable for direct wound contact. In presence of serum, superior odor absorption with these new materials in comparison with charcoal dressings has been demonstrated in vitro. These new dressings have significant fluid absorption potential, are self-adhesive, and require no additional fixa-tion. Some of the factors affecting performance of

  3. "Pocket sandwich" dressing in auricular surgery.

    PubMed

    Schmidtberger, Lindsey; El Tal, Abdel Kader; MacFarlane, Deborah F

    2015-01-01

    The auricular dressing presents a challenge to medical staff and patients alike. The task is to dress the ear, which may include exposed cartilage, in a manner that provides protection but does not distort auricular anatomy. Two lengths of adhesive tape are sandwiched over the posterior and anterior aspects of the ear to cover the defect in an occlusive manner, creating a "pocket sandwich"-type dressing. This method results in a dressing that can be used to cover a post-surgical defect on any part of the ear. It is inexpensive and easily reproducible by the patient. The present dressing is non-bulky, easy to perform, and encases the ear in a pocket of adhesive tape. Further advantages are that it avoids the auricular distortion that may occur with overly bulky dressings, provides an occlusive environment, is esthetically pleasing, and comfortably accommodates eyewear. We highly recommend its use for ear wound defects. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. A general topology, Godunov method

    SciTech Connect

    Addessio, F.; Cline, M.; Dukowicz, J.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical technique that utilizes a general topology mesh is described. The method employs the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian procedure and explicit, finite-volume, Godunov numerics. Material interfaces are resolved to eliminate fictitious mixing and nonphysical shear impedance. Cell-centered variables, including velocity, are used to provide consistent control volumes for the advection of mass, momentum, and energy, and to allow arbitrary slip between material regions. The computational mesh is composed of arbitrary polygonal cells. The constraint of a fixed logical connectivity for the mesh is removed. Consequently, geometrical mesh limitations, which are responsible for inaccuracies and code failure during the evolution of region boundaries, are absent. Arbitrary boundaries can be resolved, and the mesh is capable of changing smoothly and rapidly from regions of high to low resolution. Lack of a coherent mesh orientation minimizes numerical anisotropy. A mesh rezoning approach, based on a dual triangulation and coupled with a global remapping algorithm, allows the mesh to evolve dynamically. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Dressed qubits in nuclear spin baths

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Lianao

    2010-04-15

    We present a method to encode a dressed qubit into the product state of an electron spin localized in a quantum dot and its surrounding nuclear spins via a dressing transformation. In this scheme, the hyperfine coupling and a portion of a nuclear dipole-dipole interaction become logic gates, while they are the sources of decoherence in electron-spin qubit proposals. We discuss errors and corrections for the dressed qubits. Interestingly, the effective Hamiltonian of nuclear spins is equivalent to a pairing Hamiltonian, which provides the microscopic mechanism to protect dressed qubits against decoherence.

  6. Testing wound dressings using an in vitro wound model

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, C.; Kirker, K.; Agostinho, A.; James, G.; Stewart, P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether or not there are any significant differences in the effects of wound dressings on bacterial bioburden. Method A selection of non-occlusive, non-adhesive dressings was tested for their effect on bacterial bioburden. The dressings selected included two dressings with antimicrobial properties (one containing silver and one containing PHMB), a cotton-based dressing enclosed in a perforated sleeve of poly(ethylene terephthalate), a carboxymethyl cellulose-based dressing, a fibre-free alginate dressing, and a 12-ply 100% cotton gauze. Using the colony-drip flow reactor (DFR) model, a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was grown underneath a dressing sample. Biofilm growth was examined via plate counts, fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results The dressings containing antimicrobial agents had the greatest effect on bacterial load. In the MRSA experiments, both antimicrobial dressings produced lower bacteria counts than the other dressings (p≤0.001), while in the P. aeruginosa experiments, only the silver-containing sample had fewer bacteria (p≤0.0001). However, neither antimicrobial dressing was able to completely eradicate the bacteria when testing with either microorganism. Conclusion The results presented herein illustrate that bacteria can grow unchallenged within the dressing environment and that an antimicrobial dressing can limit this bacterial growth. PMID:20551862

  7. A numerical dressing method for the nonlinear superposition of solutions of the KdV equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogdon, Thomas; Deconinck, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the unification of two existing numerical methods for the construction of solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The first method is used to solve the Cauchy initial-value problem on the line for rapidly decaying initial data. The second method is used to compute finite-genus solutions of the KdV equation. The combination of these numerical methods allows for the computation of exact solutions that are asymptotically (quasi-)periodic finite-gap solutions and are a nonlinear superposition of dispersive, soliton and (quasi-)periodic solutions in the finite (x, t)-plane. Such solutions are referred to as superposition solutions. We compute these solutions accurately for all values of x and t.

  8. [DRESS syndrome induced by ciprofloxacine].

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Rym; El Aïdli, Sihem; Zaïem, Ahmed; Lakhoua, Ghozlane; Kastalli, Sarrah; Daghfous, Riadh

    2015-04-01

    The Drug rash with hypereosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, or hypersensitivity syndrome, is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. It has been exceptionally described with ciprofloxacin. We report a 47-year-old-woman who developed DRESS syndrome, 2 days after taking ciprofloxacin for a urinary infection. She had a generalized maculopapular rash, severe rhabdomyolysis, liver involvement, renal failure and hypereosinophilia. Clinical symptoms had completely resolved after ciprofloxacin withdrawal. Renal failure has decrease after short corticosteroid treatment. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. DRESS Syndrome Presents as Leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tonekaboni, Seyed Hasan; Jafari, Narjes; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome, which reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, presenting by generalized skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytosis, and internal organ involvement. Herein a 21-month old male infant with DRESS and Encephalopathy syndrome is presented who complicated after phenobarbital usage that persisted due to phenytoin cream usage. The case received phenobarbital after a seizure disorder presented as "status epilepticus". He developed drug eruption, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, increased liver enzymes, encephalopathy and progressive loss of consciousness with extensive hyperintense white matter lesions in brain MRI. After discontinuation of phenobarbital and phenytoin, all symptoms were resolved, while brain MRI became normal after two months. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case that developed leukoencephalopathy along with DRESS syndrome.

  10. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  11. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  12. Seizure and Psychosocial Outcomes of Childhood and Juvenile Onset Generalized Epilepsies: Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, or Well-Dressed Wolf?

    PubMed

    Nickels, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Studies of generalized electroclinical syndromes can provide guidance regarding long-term seizure, cognitive, and psychosocial outcomes. Childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone are electroclinical syndromes typically associated with normal intellect and good response to antiseizure medications. However, studies have demonstrated significantly poorer psychosocial outcomes than expected for these syndromes, regardless of seizure control. Potential causes for this include underlying abnormalities in social skills, social stigma, and underlying abnormalities in brain development and maturation.

  13. Wound dressings for primary and revision total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhry, Madhav

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing post-surgical complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is of great importance, and application of an appropriate wound dressing is necessary. Since no dressing encompasses all the parameters required for ideal wound healing, a comparison of the available dressing types can assist the surgeon to choose the best dressing after TJA. Methods Studies evaluating postoperative wound dressings after TJA were reviewed in order to assess the outcomes, complications and costs associated with dressing types. Results Traditional cotton dressings have a high ability to absorb exudate. However, they dry out sooner and there is a risk of pain and additional trauma during dressing changes. Although vapor permeable dressings allow transmission of moisture, but they have low absorptive capacity and require frequent changes even with moderately exudating wounds. On the other hand, hydrofiber and hydrocolloid dressings have high absorptive capacity and permeability, and can cope with exudate production. They are changed less often and have low blistering rates, which may reduce surgical site infection (SSI). Although the unit cost associated with advanced dressings is much higher than the traditional dressings, the decreased rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and the cost associated with treating PJI more than compensate for it. Conclusions Choice of dressing type after TJA should depend upon permeability, absorptive capacity, documented rate of SSI and cost effectiveness with its use, apart from a surgeon’s past clinical experience and familiarity. PMID:26605314

  14. A simple dressing for hypospadias surgery in children

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Gallart, Roberto; García-Palacios, María; Rodríguez-Barca, Pablo; Estévez-Martínez, Elina; Carril, Ana Lema; Bautista-Casasnovas, Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    One of the most controversial aspects of hypospadias surgery is the election of an appropriate wound dressing. In fact, there may be as many different types of dressing as there are types of surgical repair. Here, we describe a new, simple method for hypospadias dressing in children that minimizes painful removal. PMID:28163817

  15. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878.4022 Section 878.4022 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878.4022 Section 878.4022 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878.4022 Section 878.4022 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4022 - Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogel wound dressing and burn dressing. 878.4022 Section 878.4022 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of tragacanth gum based hydrogels by radiation method for use in wound dressing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljit; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju; Rajneesh

    2017-06-01

    Keeping in view the inherent wound healing ability of tragacanth gum (TG), mucoadhesive and gel forming nature of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), in the present work, an attempt has been made to prepare the antibiotic drug 'gentamicin' and analgesic drug 'lidocaine' loaded sterile TG-PVA-PVP hydrogel dressings for care of wound infection and wound pain together. These polymers were characterized by cryo-SEM, AFM, FTIR, XRD, 13C NMR, TGA, DSC and swelling studies. Drug release mechanism and kinetic models, network parameters and other properties like haemolysis, mucoadhesion, water vapor permeability, microbial penetration, antioxidant activities and oxygen permeability were also determined. The results showed wound fluid absorption and slow drug release ability of hydrogel films. These polymer films were found to be blood compatible, permeable to water vapor and O2, and impermeable to microorganism. Further, the synergic effects of mucoadhesive, antimicrobial and antioxidant nature of hydrogel dressings will make them suitable candidate for wound management.

  20. Umbilical cord inverting technique: a simple method to utilize the umbilical cord as a biologic dressing for sutureless gastroschisis closure.

    PubMed

    Machida, Mizuho; Takamizawa, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    A sutureless gastroschisis closure provides a cosmetically appealing outcome. The umbilical cord is usually used as a covering material in a sutureless closure because it is a native tissue. However, during the staged closure with a silo placement, special attention is required to keep the umbilical cord moist. The authors report a simple technique to preserve the feasibility of the umbilical cord as a biologic dressing during the silo placement in staged gastroschisis closures.

  1. Effect of periodontal dressings on human gingiva fibroblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Eber, R.M.; Shuler, C.F.; Buchanan, W.; Beck, F.M.; Horton, J.E. )

    1989-08-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity studies of periodontal dressings have not generally produced a result consistent with in vivo observations. These prior in vitro studies have not used human intraoral cell lines. We tested the effects of two eugenol containing and two non-eugenol periodontal dressings on cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) (ATCC No. 1292). Replicate HGF cultures grown in microtiter plates were exposed to stock, 1:4 and 1:16 dilutions of extracts made from each of the four periodontal dressings. The HGF cultures were pulse labelled with tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Incorporations of the labelled thymidine were measured using liquid scintillation counting and expressed as counts per minute. The results showed that undiluted extracts from all four periodontal dressings totally inhibited 3HTdR uptake (P less than 0.05). The 1:4 dilution of eugenol dressings inhibited 3HTdR uptake significantly more than non-eugenol dressings (P less than 0.05). Interestingly, at 72 hours the 1:16 dilution of the non-eugenol dressings caused significantly increased 3HTdR uptake which was not observed with the eugenol dressings. The present results suggest that the use of a human fibroblastic cell line for testing the effects of periodontal dressings may provide information about the relative biological effects of these dressings. Using this cell line, we have found that eugenol dressings inhibit fibroblast proliferation to a greater extent than non-eugenol dressings.

  2. BLOCH modes dressed by evanescent waves and the generalized Goos-Hänchen effect in photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Felbacq, Didier; Smaâli, Rafik

    2004-05-14

    It is common knowledge that in an infinite periodic medium, for instance, an infinite photonic crystal, the direction of propagation of a monochromatic wave packet is given by the normal to the isofrequency diagram. We show that this is no longer true in a finite size medium, due to the existence of evanescent waves near the interfaces of the photonic crystal. We derive a renormalized isofrequency diagram giving the correct direction. We give a physical interpretation, showing that this phenomenon can be considered as a generalized Goos-Hänchen effect.

  3. [Improper use of dressings].

    PubMed

    Candas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Neither nurses nor doctors receive initial training in wounds and the use of dressings. They are however required in their daily practice to provide this type of care. Advances in wound healing techniques and the appearance of "modern" dressings offer a wide range of solutions to caregivers. Professionals must acquire skills in this area and make the best possible use of the dressings at their disposal to optimise the controlled wound healing.

  4. Blended General Linear Methods based on Generalized BDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnano, Luigi; Magherini, Cecilia

    2008-09-01

    General Linear Methods were introduced in order to encompass a large family of numerical methods for the solution of ODE-IVPs, ranging from LMF to RK formulae. In so doing, it is possible to obtain methods able to overcome typical drawbacks of the previous classes of methods. For example, stability limitations of LMF and order reduction for RK methods. Nevertheless, these goals are usually achieved at the price of a higher computational cost. Consequently, many efforts have been done in order to derive GLMs with particular features, to be exploited for their efficient implementation. In recent years, the derivation of GLMs from particular Boundary Value Methods (BVMs), namely the family of Generalized BDF (GBDF), has been proposed for the numerical solution of stiff ODE-IVPs. Here, this approach is further developed in order to derive GLMs combining good stability and accuracy properties with the possibility of efficiently solving the generated discrete problems via the blended implementation of the methods.

  5. Monitoring dressing activity failures through RFID and video.

    PubMed

    Matic, A; Mehta, P; Rehg, J M; Osmani, V; Mayora, O

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of Activities of Daily Living in general, and dressing activity in particular, is an important indicator in the evaluation of the overall cognitive state of patients. In addition, the effectiveness of therapy in patients with motor impairments caused by a stroke, for example, can be measured through long-term monitoring of dressing activity. However, automatic monitoring of dressing activity has not received significant attention in the current literature. Considering the importance of monitoring dressing activity, the main goal of this work was to investigate the possibility of recognizing dressing activities and automatically identifying common failures exhibited by patients suffering from motor or cognitive impairments. The system developed for this purpose comprised analysis of RFID (radio frequency identification) tracking and computer vision processing. Eleven test subjects, not connected to the research, were recruited and asked to perform the dressing task by choosing any combination of clothes without further assistance. Initially the test subjects performed correct dressing and then they were free to choose from a set of dressing failures identified from the current research literature. The developed system was capable of automatically recognizing common dressing failures. In total, there were four dressing failures observed for upper garments and three failures for lower garments, in addition to recognizing successful dressing. The recognition rate for identified dressing failures was between 80% and 100%. We developed a robust system to monitor the dressing activity. Given the importance of monitoring the dressing activity as an indicator of both cognitive and motor skills the system allows for the possibility of long term tracking and continuous evaluation of the dressing task. Long term monitoring can be used in rehabilitation and cognitive skills evaluation.

  6. Fournier's Gangrene: Conventional Dressings versus Dressings with Dakin's Solution

    PubMed Central

    Altunoluk, Bülent; Resim, Sefa; Efe, Erkan; Eren, Mustafa; Benlioglu, Can; Kankilic, Nazim; Baykan, Halit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Fournier's gangrene is a fulminant and destructive inflammation of the scrotum, penis, and perineum. The objective of this study was to compare 2 different approaches to wound management after aggressive surgical debridement. Methods. Data from 14 patients with Fournier's gangrene were retrospectively collected (2005–2011). Once the patients were stabilized following surgery, they were treated with either daily antiseptic (povidone iodine) dressings (group I, n = 6) or dressings with dakin's solution (sodium hypochloride) (group II, n = 8). Results. The mean age of the patients was 68.2 ± 7.8 (55–75) years in group I and 66.9 ± 10.2 (51–79) years in group II. Length of hospital stay was 13 ± 3.5 (7–16) days in group I and 8.9 ± 3.0 (4–12) days in group II (P < 0.05). The number and rate of mortality was 1/6 (16.7%) in group I, and 1/8 (12.5%) in group II. Conclusions. The hospitalization time can be reduced with the use of dakin's solution for the dressings in the treatment of FG. Also, dressings with dakin's solution seems to have favorable effects on morbidity and mortality. Consequently dakin's solution may alter the treatment of this disastrous disease by reducing cost, morbidity and mortality. PMID:22567424

  7. A study on the temperature field of a bronze-bonded diamond wheel dressed using a laser/ultrasonic vibration combined method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhibo; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Aiju; Liu, Shian

    2017-01-01

    To solve problems in dressings for metal-bonded super-hard abrasive wheels, such as low efficiency and rapid wear, this article introduces a laser-assisted ultrasonic vibration dressing technique. Firstly, finite-element simulations were conducted on the dressing process of a bronze-bonded diamond wheel, and the wheel's temperature field distributions under different laser parameters were simulated. By analysing the simulation results of temperature fields and the melting point of the bronze bond, the laser parameters for laser-assisted ultrasonic vibration dressing tests were optimized, and then actual tests were carried out on the bronze-bonded diamond wheel. Results showed that, with appropriate technology parameters, the laser-assisted ultrasonic vibration dressing technique achieved desirable dressing results; specifically, the dressing force was low, the abrasive particles had high protrusions and the wheel had a large chip space and favourable surface topography.

  8. A study on the temperature field of a bronze-bonded diamond wheel dressed using a laser/ultrasonic vibration combined method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhibo; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Aiju; Liu, Shian

    2017-01-01

    To solve problems in dressings for metal-bonded super-hard abrasive wheels, such as low efficiency and rapid wear, this article introduces a laser-assisted ultrasonic vibration dressing technique. Firstly, finite-element simulations were conducted on the dressing process of a bronze-bonded diamond wheel, and the wheel's temperature field distributions under different laser parameters were simulated. By analysing the simulation results of temperature fields and the melting point of the bronze bond, the laser parameters for laser-assisted ultrasonic vibration dressing tests were optimized, and then actual tests were carried out on the bronze-bonded diamond wheel. Results showed that, with appropriate technology parameters, the laser-assisted ultrasonic vibration dressing technique achieved desirable dressing results; specifically, the dressing force was low, the abrasive particles had high protrusions and the wheel had a large chip space and favourable surface topography.

  9. Dressed coordinates: The path-integral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casana, R.; Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Pimentel, B. M.

    2007-02-01

    The recently introduced dressed coordinates are studied in the path-integral approach. These coordinates are defined in the context of a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to massless scalar field and it is shown that in this model the dressed coordinates appear as a coordinate transformation preserving the path-integral functional measure. The analysis also generalizes the sum rules established in a previous work.

  10. The Dress Mess.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1990-01-01

    Any restrictions on student dress must have a legitimate educational rationale. Standards of attire for school employees are also permissible. A dress-code policy that calls for reasonable restrictions and is enforced with common sense can create a better school environment. Restrictive measures can lead to costly lawsuits. Cites advantages of…

  11. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  12. Silver-coated nylon dressings for pediatric burn victims

    PubMed Central

    Borsuk, Daniel E; Gallant, Michel; Richard, Diane; Williams, H Bruce

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Silver dressings are a proven method for burn treatment. Current challenges associated with burn treatment include pain management and limited hospital resources. A new silver-coated nylon dressing was used at the Montreal Children’s Hospital (Montreal, Quebec) to help reduce traumatic dressing changes and cost. METHODS: Burn victims in a pediatric patient population were followed over two years. Patients were excluded if they were evaluated more than 48 h postburn or if the burn affected less than 5% of the total body surface area. The same burn team admitted and treated all case subjects, and one dressing nurse recorded and monitored all progress throughout the study to ensure standardization. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included in the study. The average number of dressing changes needed was 4.13, with a median of three changes. The average total body surface area burned was 8%, with a mean of 13.9 days before superficial wounds were re-epithelialized. The average length of in-hospital stay was four days. The cost was $388 less for silver-coated nylon dressings than for silver sulfadiazine cream for seven days of treatment. Silver-coated nylon dressings did not leave any residue or pseudoeschar on the wounds and were easily maintained at home. CONCLUSION: The silver-coated nylon dressings are as effective as other silver dressings used for pediatric burn victims. The dressings are less traumatic, require fewer resources and do not leave wound residue compared with other dressings. PMID:19554127

  13. Some general methods of preparing affinity columns

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, P.V.

    1974-01-01

    Some general methods of covalent coupling of nucleotides, especially derivatized nucleotides, polynucleotides and cofactors to insoluble polymers are described in this paper. Wherever necessary individual methods also carry some information on the binding of enzymes to the same polymers to serve as a guide to the efficiency of the coupling methods. PMID:10793714

  14. Research on the 2-axis cup-wheel dressing technology of arc-diamond grinding wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, X. L.; Wu, H. Y.; Peng, Y. F.

    2014-08-01

    The precision dressing of arc-diamond wheel is very hard, expensive and time-consuming because of the super-hard diamond particles and complicated geometrical shape. This paper aims to investigate the cup-wheel dressing technology to realize the high-efficiency regeneration of the arc-diamond wheel. A two-axis cup-wheel dressing technique for precision dressing arc-diamond wheel was suggested and tested. The dressing mechanism of 2-axis cup-wheel was studied. The dressing algorithm and error compensation method were further investigated to improve the dressing precision and efficiency. The experimental results show that the 2-axis cup-wheel dressing technique is valid and applicable to realize the precision dressing of arc-diamond wheel. The machined optical surface condition was apparently improved with the cup-wheel dressed diamond wheel and even became much better when the error compensation algorithm was performed on the arc-diamond wheel.

  15. Generalization of the ERIT principle and method.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.G.

    2007-11-04

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  16. Generalization of the ERIT Principle and Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero,A.

    2008-02-01

    The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).

  17. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, DRESS, AGEP: Do overlap cases exist?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs (SCARs) include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and epidermal necrolysis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome–toxic epidermal necrolysis [SJS-TEN]). Because of the varied initial presentation of such adverse drug reactions, diagnosis may be difficult and suggests overlap among SCARs. Overlapping SCARs are defined as cases fulfilling the criteria for definite or probable diagnosis of at least 2 ADRs according to scoring systems for AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overlap among SCARs among cases in the referral hospital in France. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data for 216 patients hospitalized in the referral centre over 7 years with a discharge diagnosis of AGEP (n = 45), DRESS (n = 47), SJS-TEN (n = 80) or “drug rash” (n = 44). Each case with detailed clinical data and a skin biopsy specimen was scored for AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN by use of diagnostic scores elaborated by the RegiSCAR group. Results In total, 45 of 216 cases (21%) had at least 2 possible diagnoses: 35 had a single predominant diagnosis (definite or probable), 7 had several possible diagnoses and 3 (2.1% of 145 confirmed SCARs) were overlap SCARs. Conclusions Despite ambiguities among SCARs, confirmed overlap cases are rare. This study did not avoid pitfalls linked to its retrospective nature and selection bias. In the acute stage of disease, early identification of severe ADRs can be difficult because of clinical or biologic overlapping features and missing data on histology, biology and evolution. Retrospectively analyzing cases by use of diagnostic algorithms can lead to reliable discrimination among AGEP, DRESS and SJS-TEN. PMID:23009177

  18. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  19. Dress Codes for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phay, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews Second Circuit Court of Appeals decision upholding right of school boards to adopt "reasonable" regulations governing teacher dress or hairstyle. Case offers the most exhaustive judicial examination of the issue to date. (Author/PKP)

  20. Spectral Methods in General Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, David

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I discuss the use of spectral methods in improving the accuracy of a General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) computer code. I introduce SpecCosmo, a GRMHD code developed as a Cactus arrangement at UHCL, and show simulation results using both Fourier spectral methods and finite differencing. This work demonstrates the use of spectral methods with the FFTW 3.3 Fast Fourier Transform package integrated with the Cactus Framework to perform spectral differencing using MPI.

  1. A pilot study on efficacy treatment of acne vulgaris using a new method: results of a randomized double-blind trial with Acne Dressing.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chao-Ming; Lai, Wei-Yu; Wu, Bai-Yao; Chang, Hung-Chia; Huang, Wei-Shuan; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2006-01-01

    For many years the positive effect of hydrocolloid dressings on skin-related conditions attracted the attention of the medical scientific community. The use of Acne Dressing, a tape of hydrocolloid dressing, for the treatment of acne has not been reported previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and beneficial effect of Acne Dressing on the marker for sebum output evaluations. We also determined the cosmetic outcome of this application during the treatment of acne and whether the material could prevent hand touching and UVB light from reaching the skin surface. The objective of this study was to assess improvement in acne vulgaris and tolerability during one week of short contact treatment with Acne Dressing compared to skin tapes. Efficacy data specific to treatment of acne vulgaris with Acne Dressing (3M Health Care) from a double-blind, randomized, skin types-controlled study is reported. A total of 20 patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris applied the skin tapes or Acne Dressing every two days for up to one week. Twenty patients were enrolled in this study: ten patients received Acne Dressing and ten patients received skin tapes. Both groups showed decreases from baseline to the end of treatment in the mean of the overall severity scale (decrease of 1.37 from 1.8 to 0.43 with Acne Dressing and 0.28 from 1.08 to 0.8 with skin tapes). A statistically significant greater reduction was observed over a period of three to seven days in the overall severity of acne and inflammation in the Acne Dressing group compared with the mono-therapy (skin tapes) group. Similarly, Acne Dressing resulted in a significantly greater improvement in the redness, oiliness, dark pigmentation, and sebum casual level at days 3, 5, and 7. The ratio of transmission of UVB light with Acne Dressing was 7.4%, and 38% with skin tapes, which shows less UVB light reaching the skin surface with the Acne Dressing. No significant adverse events were identified in

  2. Dress Nicer = Know More? Young Children’s Knowledge Attribution and Selective Learning Based on How Others Dress

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kyla P.; Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research explored whether children judge the knowledge state of others and selectively learn novel information from them based on how they dress. The results indicated that 4- and 6-year-olds identified a formally dressed individual as more knowledgeable about new things in general than a casually dressed one (Study 1). Moreover, children displayed an overall preference to seek help from a formally dressed individual rather than a casually dressed one when learning about novel objects and animals (Study 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the halo effect, and may have important implications for child educators regarding how instructor dress might influence young students’ knowledge attribution and learning preferences. PMID:26636980

  3. [DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH OF BIOLOGICAL DRESSING].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Hao, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinpeng; Luo, Bo; Liu, Peng

    2015-02-01

    To review the research progress of modern biological dressings. The related literature at home and abroad was reviewed, analyzed, and summarized in the progress of biological dressing situation and various types of biological dressing research. Compared with the traditional dressing, the biological dressing can greatly promote wound healing. Biological dressings are mainly divided into the natural materials, artificial synthetic materials, and drug loaded dressings. The natural material dressings are mainly the alginate dressing, this kind of dressing can promote wound healing, which has been confirmed by a large number of studies. The artificial synthetic materials include film dressings, liquid, water colloids, gels, and foam, each has its own advantages and disadvantages, which can be chosen according to need. The drug dressing can play the role of drug loading, and further promote the wound healing; using microcapsule technology to construct the dressing and choosing Chinese medicine as drugs is the research direction of load. The experiment and clinical application of biological dressing are many types, clinical application prospect is wide, but each has its own advantages and disadvantages, further study is needed to improve its efficacy.

  4. Dressing Techniques for Children Who Have Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    This pamphlet offers general rules and specific suggestions for people who are dressing children with cerebral palsy. Common dressing problems are examined, such as the child becoming stiff, crossing the legs, or curling the toes, and possible solutions are outlined step-by-step and accompanied by illustrations. Guidelines are also provided for…

  5. 40 CFR 94.907 - Engine dressing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine dressing exemption. 94.907... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption Provisions § 94.907 Engine dressing exemption. (a) General provisions. If you are an engine manufacturer,...

  6. 40 CFR 94.907 - Engine dressing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine dressing exemption. 94.907... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and Exemption Provisions § 94.907 Engine dressing exemption. (a) General provisions. If you are an engine manufacturer,...

  7. Multislope MUSCL method for general unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Touze, C.; Murrone, A.; Guillard, H.

    2015-03-01

    The multislope concept has been recently introduced in the literature to deal with MUSCL reconstructions on triangular and tetrahedral unstructured meshes in the finite volume cell-centered context. Dedicated scalar slopes are used to compute the interpolations on each face of a given element, in opposition to the monoslope methods in which a unique limited gradient is used. The multislope approach reveals less expensive and potentially more accurate than the classical gradient techniques. Besides, it may also help the robustness when dealing with hyperbolic systems involving complex solutions, with large discontinuities and high density ratios. However some important limitations on the mesh topology still have to be overcome with the initial multislope formalism. In this paper, a generalized multislope MUSCL method is introduced for cell-centered finite volume discretizations. The method is freed from constraints on the mesh topology, thereby operating on completely general unstructured meshes. Moreover optimal second-order accuracy is reached at the faces centroids. The scheme can be written with nonnegative coefficients, which makes it L∞-stable. Special attention has also been paid to equip the reconstruction procedure with well-adapted dedicated limiters, potentially CFL-dependent. Numerical tests are provided to prove the ability of the method to deal with completely general meshes, while exhibiting second-order accuracy.

  8. Wet to dry dressing changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... warm water before and after each dressing change. Put on a pair of non-sterile gloves. Carefully ... pads or packing tape from inside your wound. Put the old dressing, packing material, and your gloves ...

  9. Prototype Development of a Responsive Emotive Sensing System (DRESS) to aid older persons with dementia to dress independently

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Burleson, Winslow; Lozano, Cecil; Ravishankar, Vijay; Mahoney, Edward Leo

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior research has critiqued the lack of attention to the stressors associated with dementia related dressing issues, stigmatizing patient clothing, and wearable technology challenges. This paper describes the conceptual development and feasibility testing of an innovative ‘smart dresser’ context aware affective system (DRESS) to enable dressing by people with moderate memory loss through individualized audio and visual task prompting in real time. Methods Mixed method feasibility study involving qualitative focus groups with 25 Alzheimer’s family caregivers experiencing dressing difficulties to iteratively inform system design and a quantitative usability trial with 10 healthy subjects in a controlled laboratory setting to assess validity of technical operations. Results Caregivers voiced the need for tangible dressing assistance to reduce their frustration from time spent in repetitive cueing and power struggles over dressing. They contributed 6 changes that influenced the prototype development, most notably adding a dresser top iPad to mimic a familiar ‘TV screen’ for the audio and visual cueing. DRESS demonstrated promising overall functionality, however the validity of identification of dressing status ranged from 0% for the correct pants dressing to 100% for all shirts dressing scenarios. Adjustments were made to the detection components of the system raising the accuracy of detection of all acted dressing scenarios for pants from 50% to 82%. Conclusions Findings demonstrate family caregiver acceptability of the proposed system, the successful interoperability of the built system’s components, and the system’s ability to interpret correct and incorrect dressing actions in controlled laboratory simulations. Future research will advance the system to the alpha stage and subsequent testing with end users in real world settings. PMID:26321895

  10. Patients' perspectives on how doctors dress.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, S; Hocken, D B

    2010-01-01

    Infection in hospitals is a serious problem. Attempting to address the spread of infection, many UK National Health Service trusts have adopted a 'bare-below-the-elbows' and tie-less dress-code policy. This followed publication of Department of Health guidelines on staff uniforms in September 2007. Although the potential for colonisation of clothing with pathogens has been investigated, patients' opinions on dress-code and policy change have not. This survey of 75 patients in Great Western Hospital, Swindon, UK, used questionnaires to address this. The survey showed that, although patients did feel that doctors' dress was important, neckties and white coats were not expected. Moreover, surgical scrubs were considered acceptable forms of attire. Problems of identifying doctors and determining their grade were repeatedly raised. Patients were generally unaware of the new dress-code, and few knew anything of its relationship to infection control. This work demonstrates that more 'traditional' dress is not expected. Given the problems of identification and perception of surgical scrubs as suitable, their introduction as a 'uniform for doctors' should be considered. Furthermore, work needs to be done to advertise policy change and increase patient awareness of infection control. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Restricting Student Dress in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the authority of school officials to regulate student dress by examining school dress codes, first with respect to communicative dress--or dress that communicates speech--and then with respect to noncommunicative dress. Provides a summary of the law on dress codes and a basic set of rules to assist school officials in drafting…

  12. Restricting Student Dress in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the authority of school officials to regulate student dress by examining school dress codes, first with respect to communicative dress--or dress that communicates speech--and then with respect to noncommunicative dress. Provides a summary of the law on dress codes and a basic set of rules to assist school officials in drafting…

  13. Some Qualitative and Rheological Properties of Virgin Olive Oil- Apple Vinegar Salad Dressing Stabilized With Xanthan Gum

    PubMed Central

    Abedinzadeh, Solmaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Azadmard-Damirchi, Sodeif

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lipid oxidation and rheological properties are the main qualitative parameters determined in food emulsions. Salad dressings are food emulsions important in our daily diet, but conventional salad dressings have high amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids because of egg yolk in their formulations. There are many studies on the modification of salad dressing formulations to replace egg yolk and saturated fats. The present study describes new formulation of salad dressing with olive oil and apple vinegar to produce a functional food product. Methods: This study investigated the qualitative properties, oxidative stability, rheological behavior and microstructure of the salad dressing without egg yolk. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared with virgin olive oil and apple vinegar stabilized with various percentages of xanthan (T1: 0.25%, T2: 0.5%. T3: 0.75%). Samples were stored at refrigerator for 90 days and experiments were performed at production day and during storage. Results: The obtained results showed that peroxide value was increased for all samples during storage, but it was at an acceptable level. Fatty acid changes were not significant during storage. Droplet size was reduced by increasing xanthan gum. T2 had the best rheological properties during storage. Generally, T2 and T3 had higher scores and were more acceptable in organoleptic assay. Conclusion: Obtained results showed that T2 had suitable qualitative and rheological properties and can be a proper egg yolk free salad dressing to introduce to the market. PMID:28101467

  14. Some Qualitative and Rheological Properties of Virgin Olive Oil- Apple Vinegar Salad Dressing Stabilized With Xanthan Gum.

    PubMed

    Abedinzadeh, Solmaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Azadmard-Damirchi, Sodeif

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Lipid oxidation and rheological properties are the main qualitative parameters determined in food emulsions. Salad dressings are food emulsions important in our daily diet, but conventional salad dressings have high amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids because of egg yolk in their formulations. There are many studies on the modification of salad dressing formulations to replace egg yolk and saturated fats. The present study describes new formulation of salad dressing with olive oil and apple vinegar to produce a functional food product. Methods: This study investigated the qualitative properties, oxidative stability, rheological behavior and microstructure of the salad dressing without egg yolk. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared with virgin olive oil and apple vinegar stabilized with various percentages of xanthan (T1: 0.25%, T2: 0.5%. T3: 0.75%). Samples were stored at refrigerator for 90 days and experiments were performed at production day and during storage. Results: The obtained results showed that peroxide value was increased for all samples during storage, but it was at an acceptable level. Fatty acid changes were not significant during storage. Droplet size was reduced by increasing xanthan gum. T2 had the best rheological properties during storage. Generally, T2 and T3 had higher scores and were more acceptable in organoleptic assay. Conclusion: Obtained results showed that T2 had suitable qualitative and rheological properties and can be a proper egg yolk free salad dressing to introduce to the market.

  15. General relativistic neutrino transport using spectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Bruno; Penner, Andrew Jason; Novak, Jérôme; Bonazzola, Silvano

    2014-02-01

    We present a new code, Lorene's Ghost (for Lorene's gravitational handling of spectral transport) developed to treat the problem of neutrino transport in supernovae with the use of spectral methods. First, we derive the expression for the nonrelativistic Liouville operator in doubly spherical coordinates (r, θ, ϕ, ɛ, Θ, Φ), and further its general relativistic counterpart. We use the 3 + 1 formalism with the conformally flat approximation for the spatial metric, to express the Liouville operator in the Eulerian frame. Our formulation does not use any approximations when dealing with the angular arguments (θ, ϕ, Θ, Φ), and is fully energy-dependent. This approach is implemented in a spherical shell, using either Chebyshev polynomials or Fourier series as decomposition bases. It is here restricted to simplified collision terms (isoenergetic scattering) and to the case of a static fluid. We finish this paper by presenting test results using basic configurations, including general relativistic ones in the Schwarzschild metric, in order to demonstrate the convergence properties, the conservation of particle number and correct treatment of some general relativistic effects of our code. The use of spectral methods enables to run our test cases in a six-dimensional setting on a single processor.

  16. A Generalized Slave-Particle Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru Bogdan; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    Two slave-particle methods, namely the slave-rotor and the slave-spin approaches, have been of recent interest in the computational correlated electron community. Both methods solve Hubbard-type models and go beyond the single-particle approximations by describing aspects of correlated electron behavior in a computationally efficient manner. We present a generalized slave-particle formalism that connects the the two while reproducing the results of each method in the appropriate limit. The framework automatically corrects the problematic small U behavior of the slave-rotor approach while reproducing its behavior in situations where it has been found physically relevant (e.g., for nickelate heterostructures). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant MRSEC NSF DMR-1119826.

  17. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  18. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  19. Student Dress Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

  20. Telaprevir-induced DRESS.

    PubMed

    Kesar, Vivek; Kesar, Varun; Khaitova, Viktoriya; Motamed, David; Schiano, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Telaprevir, a protease inhibitor, was recently approved for management of Chronic Hepatits C (CHC) due to HCV genotype 1. Various RCTs have demonstarted increased incidence of cutaneous adverse effects with use of Telaprevir. Herein, we report two cases of drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) secondary to Telaprevir use.

  1. Dresses Make the Girl: Gender and Identity from "The Hundred Dresses" to "10,000 Dresses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulders, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a close reading of two works, Eleanor Estes' "The Hundred Dresses" (1944) and Marcus Ewert's "10,000 Dresses" (2008), that feature in current anti-bullying campaigns. Starting with "The Hundred Dresses," this essay examines how Estes' use of the school story not only exposes the social dynamics of…

  2. Dresses Make the Girl: Gender and Identity from "The Hundred Dresses" to "10,000 Dresses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulders, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a close reading of two works, Eleanor Estes' "The Hundred Dresses" (1944) and Marcus Ewert's "10,000 Dresses" (2008), that feature in current anti-bullying campaigns. Starting with "The Hundred Dresses," this essay examines how Estes' use of the school story not only exposes the social dynamics of…

  3. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  4. A general method to determine twinning elements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Li, Zongbin; Esling, Claude; Muller, Jacques; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theory of crystal twinning has been long established, leading to a significant advance in understanding the nature of this physical phenomenon. However, there remains a substantial gap between the elaborate theory and the practical determination of twinning elements. This paper proposes a direct and simple method – valid for any crystal structure and based on the minimum shear criterion – to calculate various twinning elements from the experimentally determined twinning plane for Type I twins or the twinning direction for Type II twins. Without additional efforts, it is generally applicable to identify and predict possible twinning modes occurring in a variety of crystalline solids. Therefore, the present method is a promising tool to characterize twinning elements, especially for those materials with complex crystal structure. PMID:22477779

  5. Hilbert's axiomatic method and Carnap's general axiomatics.

    PubMed

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper compares the axiomatic method of David Hilbert and his school with Rudolf Carnap's general axiomatics that was developed in the late 1920s, and that influenced his understanding of logic of science throughout the 1930s, when his logical pluralism developed. The distinct perspectives become visible most clearly in how Richard Baldus, along the lines of Hilbert, and Carnap and Friedrich Bachmann analyzed the axiom system of Hilbert's Foundations of Geometry—the paradigmatic example for the axiomatization of science. Whereas Hilbert's axiomatic method started from a local analysis of individual axiom systems in which the foundations of mathematics as a whole entered only when establishing the system's consistency, Carnap and his Vienna Circle colleague Hans Hahn instead advocated a global analysis of axiom systems in general. A primary goal was to evade, or formalize ex post, mathematicians' 'material' talk about axiom systems for such talk was held to be error-prone and susceptible to metaphysics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanofibrillar cellulose wound dressing in skin graft donor site treatment.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, T; Koivuniemi, R; Kosonen, M; Escobedo-Lucea, C; Sanz-Garcia, A; Vuola, J; Valtonen, J; Tammela, P; Mäkitie, A; Luukko, K; Yliperttula, M; Kavola, H

    2016-12-28

    Although new therapeutic approaches for burn treatment have made progress, there is still need for better methods to enhance wound healing and recovery especially in severely burned patients. Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) has gained attention due to its renewable nature, good biocompatibility and excellent physical properties that are of importance for a range of applications in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. In the present study, we investigated the potential of a wood based NFC wound dressing in a clinical trial on burn patients. Previously, we have investigated NFC as a topical functionalized wound dressing that contributes to improve wound healing in mice. Wood based NFC wound dressing was tested in split-thickness skin graft donor site treatment for nine burn patients in clinical trials at Helsinki Burn Centre. NFC dressing was applied to split thickness skin graft donor sites. The dressing gradually dehydrated and attached to donor site during the first days. During the clinical trials, physical and mechanical properties of NFC wound dressing were optimized by changing its composition. From patient 5 forward, NFC dressing was compared to commercial lactocapromer dressing, Suprathel® (PMI Polymedics, Germany). Epithelialization of the NFC dressing-covered donor site was faster in comparison to Suprathel®. Healthy epithelialized skin was revealed under the detached NFC dressing. NFC dressing self-detached after 11-21days for patients 1-9, while Suprathel® self-detached after 16-28days for patients 5-9. In comparison studies with patients 5-9, NFC dressing self-detached on average 4days earlier compared with Suprathel®. Lower NFC content in the material was evaluated to influence the enhanced pliability of the dressing and attachment to the wound bed. No allergic reaction or inflammatory response to NFC was observed. NFC dressing did not cause more pain for patients than the traditional methods to treat the skin graft donor sites. Based on the

  7. An Inexpensive Bismuth-Petrolatum Dressing for Treatment of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Chang, Kathleen; Nguyen, Khoa; Galvez, Michael G.; Legrand, Anais; Davis, Christopher; McGoldrick, Rory; Long, Chao; Pham, Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xeroform remains the current standard for treating superficial partial-thickness burns but can be prohibitively expensive in developing countries with prevalent burn injuries. This study (1) describes the production of an alternative low-cost dressing and (2) compares the alternative dressing and Xeroform using the metrics of cost-effectiveness, antimicrobial activity, and biocompatibility in vitro, and wound healing in vivo. Methods: To produce the alternative dressing, 3% bismuth tribromophenate powder was combined with petroleum jelly by hand and applied to Kerlix gauze. To assess cost-effectiveness, the unit costs of Xeroform and components of the alternative dressing were compared. To assess antimicrobial properties, the dressings were placed on agar plated with Escherichia coli and the Kirby-Bauer assay performed. To assess biocompatibility, the dressings were incubated with human dermal fibroblasts and cells stained with methylene blue. To assess in vivo wound healing, dressings were applied to excisional wounds on rats and the rate of re-epithelialization calculated. Results: The alternative dressing costs 34% of the least expensive brand of Xeroform. Antimicrobial assays showed that both dressings had similar bacteriostatic effects. Biocompatibility assays showed that there was no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the cytotoxicity of Xeroform, alternative dressing, and Kerlix gauze. Finally, the in vivo healing model showed no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in mean re-epithelialization time between Xeroform (13.0 ± 1.6 days) and alternative dressing (13.5 ± 1.0 days). Conclusions: Xeroform is biocompatible, reduces infection, and enhances healing of burn wounds by preventing desiccation and mechanical trauma. Handmade petrolatum gauze may be a low-cost replacement for Xeroform. Future studies will focus on clinical trials in burn units. PMID:27482485

  8. Generalized HPC method for the Poisson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardazzi, A.; Lugni, C.; Antuono, M.; Graziani, G.; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and innovative numerical algorithm based on the use of Harmonic Polynomials on each Cell of the computational domain (HPC method) has been recently proposed by Shao and Faltinsen (2014) [1], to solve Boundary Value Problem governed by the Laplace equation. Here, we extend the HPC method for the solution of non-homogeneous elliptic boundary value problems. The homogeneous solution, i.e. the Laplace equation, is represented through a polynomial function with harmonic polynomials while the particular solution of the Poisson equation is provided by a bi-quadratic function. This scheme has been called generalized HPC method. The present algorithm, accurate up to the 4th order, proved to be efficient, i.e. easy to be implemented and with a low computational effort, for the solution of two-dimensional elliptic boundary value problems. Furthermore, it provides an analytical representation of the solution within each computational stencil, which allows its coupling with existing numerical algorithms within an efficient domain-decomposition strategy or within an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm.

  9. Review of the Generalized Least Squares Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, William

    2014-09-01

    The generalized least squares (GLS) method uses both data and prior information to solve for a best-fitting set of model parameters. We review the method and present simplified derivations of its essential formulas. Concepts of resolution and covariance—essential in all of inverse theory—are applicable to GLS, but their meaning, and especially that of resolution, must be carefully interpreted. We introduce derivations that show that the quantity being resolved is the deviation of the solution from the prior model and that the covariance of the model depends on both the uncertainty in the data and the uncertainty in the prior information. On face value, the GLS formulas for resolution and covariance seem to require matrix inverses that may be difficult to calculate for the very large (but often sparse) linear systems encountered in practical inverse problems. We demonstrate how to organize the computations in an efficient manner and present MATLAB code that implements them. Finally, we formulate the well-understood problem of interpolating data with minimum curvature splines as an inverse problem and use it to illustrate the GLS method.

  10. Review of the Generalized Least Squares Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, William

    2015-01-01

    The generalized least squares (GLS) method uses both data and prior information to solve for a best-fitting set of model parameters. We review the method and present simplified derivations of its essential formulas. Concepts of resolution and covariance—essential in all of inverse theory—are applicable to GLS, but their meaning, and especially that of resolution, must be carefully interpreted. We introduce derivations that show that the quantity being resolved is the deviation of the solution from the prior model and that the covariance of the model depends on both the uncertainty in the data and the uncertainty in the prior information. On face value, the GLS formulas for resolution and covariance seem to require matrix inverses that may be difficult to calculate for the very large (but often sparse) linear systems encountered in practical inverse problems. We demonstrate how to organize the computations in an efficient manner and present MATLAB code that implements them. Finally, we formulate the well-understood problem of interpolating data with minimum curvature splines as an inverse problem and use it to illustrate the GLS method.

  11. Prevalence of DRESS syndrome.

    PubMed

    López-Rocha, Eunice; Blancas, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Gaspar-López, Arturo; O'Farrill-Romanillos, Patricia; Amaya-Mejía, Adela; Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy; Campos-Romero, Freya; Aguilar-Hinojosa, Nadia; Suárez, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is an idiosyncratic reaction (type B), characterized by peripheral eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, such as fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, atypical lymphocytes and elevation of liver enzymes at least twice its normal level or increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT) >100 U/L. Its incidence is of 1/1,000 to 10,000 exposures and its mortality is of 10%-20%. Treatment is based on steroids and on the suspension of the suspect drug. This paper reports the cases of six patients with DRESS syndrome attended at Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico City, from September 2012 to September 2013, which accounted for 12.5% of patients attended with adverse reactions to drugs.

  12. Umbilical Negative Pressure Dressing for Transumbilical Appendectomy in Childern

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Neilendu; Guerron, Alfredo D.; Garland, Mary M.; Gaffley, Michaela W. G.; Worley, Sarah; Knight, Colin G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted appendectomy (TULAA) carries a high risk for surgical site infection. We investigated the effect of a bio-occlusive umbilical vacuum dressing on wound infection rates after TULAA for patients with acute appendicitis and compared to it with a conventional 3-port appendectomy with a nonvacuum dressing. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of 1377 patients (2–20 years) undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis in 2 tertiary care referral centers from January 2007 through December 2012. Twenty-two different operative technique/dressing variations were documented. The 6 technique/dressing groups with >50 patients were assessed, including a total of 1283 patients. Results: The surgical site infection rate of the 220 patients treated with TULAA and application of an umbilical vacuum dressing with dry gauze is 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0–10.3%). This compares to an infection rate of 4.1% (95% CI, 1.3–10.5%) in 97 patients with dry dressing without vacuum. In the 395 patients who received an umbilical vacuum dressing with gauze and bacitracin, the surgical site infection rate was found to be 4.3% (95% CI, 2.7–6.8%). Conclusions: Application of an umbilical negative-pressure dressing with dry gauze lowers the rate of umbilical site infections in patients undergoing transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted appendectomy for acute appendicitis. PMID:27807398

  13. A new postoperative otoplasty dressing technique using cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Miriam; Foehn, Matthias; Wedler, Volker

    2010-04-01

    There are many techniques for cosmetic surgery of the ears and also many different procedures for postoperative treatment. The postoperative dressing is described as important for a successful outcome. We present our method of postoperative dressing in the form of liquid bonding. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives as liquid bonding agents are used for fixation of the pinna at the mastoid area. After 10-14 days the bonding can be easily removed. No huge dressings, tapes, or plasters are necessary. The patients are satisfied with the light dressing; they do not feel ashamed to appear in public. We have found this dressing technique to be simple and economical, especially because of the use of the bonding for skin closure before. It can be used after otoplasty with an anterior or a posterior approach.

  14. Evidence generation for wound care dressing selection: reviewing the issues.

    PubMed

    Pagnamenta, F

    2017-09-02

    In the UK, dressings are categorised as medical devices and manufacturers only have to provide limited evidence of effectiveness before dressings are used in clinical practice. Therefore, evidence based on clinical trial methods is scant. As a direct result, governing bodies in the UK are now recommending that decisions to select one dressing over another could mainly be made on price. Placed within the movement critiquing evidence-based practice (EBP), this paper summarises the main issues surrounding the generation of evidence in selecting dressings for wound care, which is immersed in a context that lacks resources, legislative clarity and freedom to choose methodological alternatives. Dressings are therapeutic medical devices rather than consumables and any rationalisation based on costs may have far-reaching implications for wound care clinicians through purchasing decisions and thus may limit their ability to manage wounds effectively.

  15. Treecode-based generalized Born method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenli; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Haizhao

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge-charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.

  16. Alginate dressings in surgery and wound management--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S

    2000-02-01

    Large quantities of alginate dressings are used each year to treat exuding wounds, such as leg ulcers, pressure sores and infected surgical wounds. Originally these dressings were a loose fleece formed primarily from fibres of calcium alginate. More recently they have been developed so that the fibres have been entangled to form a product with more cohesive structure, which increases the fabric's strength when it is soaked with exudate or blood. Some products also contain a significant proportion of sodium alginate to improve the gelling properties of the dressing in use. Other dressings have been produced from freeze-dried alginate. Once in contact with an exuding wound, an ion-exchange reaction takes place between the calcium ions in the dressing and sodium ions in serum or wound fluid. When a significant proportion of the calcium ions on the fibre have been replaced by sodium, the fibre swells and partially dissolves forming a gel-like mass. The degree of swelling is determined principally by the chemical composition of the alginate, which depends on its botanical source. Although it is recognised that the differences between the various brands of dressings may influence their handling characteristics--particularly when wet--it is generally assumed that these differences are of limited relevance to the dressing's performance clinically or at a cellular level. There is some evidence to suggest, however, that these assumptions may be wrong and that alginates may influence wound healing in a number of ways not yet fully understood. This three-part review of the literature encompasses the history, origin, structure, chemistry and clinical applications of alginates and alginate dressings. This review reveals that, despite their widespread use, alginates have been the subject of very few well-controlled clinical studies. There is fairly convincing evidence, however, that they do offer advantages over more traditional dressings for at least some clinical indications

  17. Dressings and topical agents for treating pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Westby, Maggie J; Dumville, Jo C; Soares, Marta O; Stubbs, Nikki; Norman, Gill

    2017-06-22

    to an open pressure ulcer and left in situ. We excluded from this review dressings attached to external devices such as negative pressure wound therapies, skin grafts, growth factor treatments, platelet gels and larval therapy. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We conducted network meta-analysis using frequentist mega-regression methods for the efficacy outcome, probability of complete healing. We modelled the relative effectiveness of any two treatments as a function of each treatment relative to the reference treatment (saline gauze). We assumed that treatment effects were similar within dressings classes (e.g. hydrocolloid, foam). We present estimates of effect with their 95% confidence intervals for individual treatments compared with every other, and we report ranking probabilities for each intervention (probability of being the best, second best, etc treatment). We assessed the certainty (quality) of the body of evidence using GRADE for each network comparison and for the network as whole. We included 51 studies (2947 participants) in this review and carried out NMA in a network of linked interventions for the sole outcome of probability of complete healing. The network included 21 different interventions (13 dressings, 6 topical agents and 2 supplementary linking interventions) and was informed by 39 studies in 2127 participants, of whom 783 had completely healed wounds.We judged the network to be sparse: overall, there were relatively few participants, with few events, both for the number of interventions and the number of mixed treatment contrasts; most studies were small or very small. The consequence of this sparseness is high imprecision in the evidence, and this, coupled with the (mainly) high risk of bias in the studies informing the network, means that we judged the vast majority of the evidence to be of low or very low certainty. We have no confidence in the findings regarding the

  18. DRESS syndrome in ophthalmic patients.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Jacqueline Martins de; Nascimento, Heloisa; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction associated with skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiple organ injury. A number of pharmacological agents are known to cause DRESS syndrome such as allopurinol, anticonvulsants, vancomycin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Here, we describe two patients who developed DRESS syndrome during ocular treatment. The first case was being treated for late postoperative endophthalmitis with topical antibiotics, intravenous cephalothin, meropenem, and intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime before symptoms developed. We were unable to identify the causal drug owing to the large number of medications concurrently administered. The second case presented with DRESS syndrome symptoms during ocular toxoplasmosis treatment. In this case, a clearer association with pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine was observed. As a result of the regular prescription of pharmacological agents associated with DRESS syndrome, ophthalmologists should be aware of the potentially serious complications of DRESS syndrome.

  19. Dress syndrome induced by levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Eleni, K

    2015-02-01

    The tremendous increase in the use of drugs has considerably increased their side effects. The aim of this work is to demonstrate Dress syndrome induced by levetiracetam an anti-epileptic drug. We describe a skin eruption observed in an-hospitalized in an intensive care unit patient who received levetiracetam. According to morphology of the rash and the laboratory findings the rash fulfills the criteria for Dress syndrome. Levetiracetam may induce Dress syndrome. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. The Bagautdinov dressing method: negative pressure wound therapy in a patient with an allergy to acrylate adhesive.

    PubMed

    Daar, David A; Wirth, Garrett A; Evans, Gregory Rd; Carmean, Melissa; Gordon, Ian L

    2017-02-01

    Current embodiments of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) create a hermetically sealed chamber at the surface of the body using polyurethane foam connected to a vacuum pump, which is then covered by a flexible adhesive drape. Commercially available NPWT systems routinely use flexible polyethylene films that have a sticky side, coated with the same acrylate adhesives used in other medical devices such as ECG leads and grounding pads. Severe reactions to the acrylate adhesives in these other devices, although uncommon, have been reported. We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with an intractable leg ulcer resulting from external-beam radiotherapy (XRT). Treatment with a standard commercial NPWT system induced severe inflammation of the skin in direct contact with drape adhesive. We successfully administered prolonged, outpatient NPWT to the patient using an alternative method (first described by Bagautdinov in 1986), using plain polyethylene film and petrolatum. The necessary hermetic seal is achieved by smearing the skin with petrolatum before applying the polyethylene film and activating the vacuum pump. The Bagautdinov method is a practical solution to the problem of adapting NPWT to patients with contact sensitivity or skin tears related to the adhesive compounds in the flexible drapes. Its use of a circumferential elastic wrap to maintain constant pressure on the seal probably limits the Bagautdinov technique to the extremities. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A comparison of an antibacterial sandwich dressing vs dressing containing silver.

    PubMed

    Krasowski, Grzegorz; Jawień, Arkadiusz; Tukiendorf, Andrzej; Rybak, Zbigniew; Junka, Adam; Olejniczak-Nowakowska, Małgorzata; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Smutnicka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of dressings containing octenidine vs. dressings containing silver in the wound healing in the course of a chronic venous disease. There were two groups of 40 patients who met the inclusion criteria and who did not meet the exclusion criteria. The patients were randomly assigned into the groups (envelope method). The first, "O group" was treated with octenidine-based dressings. The second, "S group" was treated with silver dressings. The study lasted for 56 days. All patients in the research were treated with medical compression stockings with cotton understockings. Microbiological eradication was observed on the 28th day of the study among 33% of patients in the treatment group vs. 6% in control group. On the 56th day of the treatment, these percentages equalled 72% and 35%. The rate of healing was faster in the 0 group than in the S group. In the wounds <10 cm(2) it was faster by 1.35 cm(2)/week and in wounds >10 cm(2) it equalled 3.44 cm(2). The reduction of pain level was 37.5% higher in the O group, in contrast with the S group. One change of a dressing in the O group led to a 0.06 cm(2) greater wound size reduction and in the case of wounds >10 cm(2) to 0.29 cm(2) reduction compared with the S group. The presented results indicate that the efficacy of dressings containing octenidine is higher compared to silver dressings. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of the absorbency of four dressings and their effects on the evaporation of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiong; Han, Chun-mao; Su, Guo-liang; Tang, Zhi-jian; Su, Shi-jie; Lin, Xiao-wei

    2007-10-20

    Wound dressings are divided into traditional and new types. The new dressings are thought to accelerate wound healing. The purpose of this study was to supplement the scanty data on the absorbency of the new dressings and their effects on evaporation from the burn surface. The water absorption rate of four dressings (carbon fiber dressing, hydrogel dressing, silver nanoparticle dressing, and vaseline gauze) were measured by the immersion-weight gain method. A total of 120 inpatients with 10% superficial partial-thickness burn wounds were randomly assigned to four groups, each with 30 participants. Carbon fiber dressing, hydrogel dressing, and silver nanoparticle dressing were used in groups A, B, and C as the primary dressing, and traditional vaseline gauze was used in group D as the control. Multi-spot evaporation from normal skin and naked wound, and from wounds covered with each of the four dressings was measured post-burn on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 by an EP-I evaporimeter under conditions of 21 degrees C - 22 degrees C ambient temperature and 74% - 78% humidity. The absorption rates of the four dressings were 988% with carbon fiber dressing, 96% with silver nanoparticle, 41% with vaseline gauze, and 6% with hydrogel. Evaporation from the naked burn wounds was about 1/3 higher than from normal skin (P < 0.01). Compared with wounds without applied dressing, evaporation from dressed wounds decreased and was time-dependent (P < 0.01). The evaporation of wounds with carbon fiber dressing was the lowest ((13.40 +/- 2.82) mlxh(-1)xm(-2), P < 0.01) on day 1 post-burn, compared with the other groups. All four dressings have water retention capacity while carbon fiber dressing has the highest absorption rate and shows the best containment and evaporation from the burn wound.

  3. Assessment in vitro of the active hemostatic properties of wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Jesty, Jolyon; Wieland, Martin; Niemiec, Jack

    2009-05-01

    The development of actively hemostatic wound dressings for use in severe trauma remains a major public-health and military goal. But, although some manufacturers claim that existing dressings activate platelets and/or blood coagulation, mechanistic evidence is often lacking. We describe a method for assessing the active hemostatic properties of dressings in vitro, entailing measurement of the flow of recalcified platelet-rich plasma (PRP) through a dressing sample. If the dressing is hemostatically active, flow is reduced. This flow is then compared with the flow-through of PRP in which both platelet and coagulation function are blocked with EDTA. The ratio of the two generates a hemostatic index that ranges from 1.0 (no active hemostasis) to 0 (highly potent). The method is applicable to porous or semiporous dressings, whether fabric, sponge, fleece, or granules. For an active dressing, the test is easily modified to differentiate between the contributions of platelet and coagulation to overall hemostasis. The method is illustrated for fabrics, over-the-counter gauze and sponge dressings, collagen-based sheets, and an absorbent granule dressing. One active collagen dressing is used to illustrate discrimination between platelet and coagulation function. The ability to assess hemostatic properties may significantly enhance the development of advanced active dressings.

  4. Prospective cohort study on surgical wounds comparing a polyhexanide-containing biocellulose dressing with a dialkyl-carbamoyl-chloride-containing hydrophobic dressing.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anna Marie; Andriessen, Anneke

    2012-09-01

    Postsurgery dressing changes in diabetic foot amputation wounds and surgical wounds healing by secondary intention are often conducted in the operating room under general anesthesia. A prospective comparative cohort study was performed in 60 patients (n = 60: n = 30/n = 30) with secondary-intention surgical wounds (82% had forefoot and/or digit[s] amputations) to compare 2 different dressing types. Patients at the study center gave informed written consent, after which they were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups. Group A received a biocellulose dressing with polyhexanide, and group B a hydrophobic dressing with dialkyl-carbamoyl-chloride. In both groups, gauze was used as secondary dressing and fixed with a film dressing. One day after surgery, the dressings were removed by the surgeon and patient-reported pain and dressing adherence/integrity were evaluated. The number of patients that required general anesthesia was determined during the procedure and afterward. All patients (n = 60; n = 30/n = 30) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Pain levels in group A were significantly (t (59) = 4.026, P < .000) lower upon dressing removal, when compared with group B; in group A, n = 21 reported no pain versus n = 8 (26%) for group B. In group A, the dressing adhered in 7 subjects (23%) versus n = 27 (90%) of cases in group B (P = .000). No anesthesia was required for the patients in group A, contrary to group B, where 16% of patients received general anesthesia for dressing removal. Pain levels were significantly lower and the dressing adhered significantly less in group A, compared with group B, demonstrating a better quality of life for the patients in group A.

  5. Efficacy of Dressing with Absorbent Foam versus Dressing with Gauze in Prevention of Tracheostomy Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinegad, Mehdi; Lashkarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ghahreman, Minoo; Shabani, Mohammad; Mokhtare, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracheostomy site infection can cause numerous problems. Absorbent foam dressing may be able to prevent proliferation of infectious microorganisms by absorbing the tracheostomy stoma exudate. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of absorbent foam with gauze dressing for prevention of tracheostomy site infection. Materials and Methods In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 80 patients (18 to 60 years) hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe head injury were randomly divided into two groups and early tracheostomy was done for them during the first 2 days. In the first group, gauze was used as tracheostomy site dressing, while in the second, absorbent foam, was placed. Tracheostomy site was checked daily for any sign of infection and samples were taken from the stoma for culture in case of presence of any sign of infection. Results Of a total of 80, 11 had tracheostomy site infection (13.75%), including 7 (17.5%) in the gauze group and 4 (10%) in the foam group. The difference in this regard between the two groups was not significant (P=0.051). Also, the dominant strains in the culture of gauze group were hospital-acquired Gram-negative bacteria (particularly Acinetobacter), while in the foam group, Gram-positives and more commonly Staphylococcus epidermidis were found. Conclusion Absorbent foam dressing is not superior to gauze dressings for prevention of tracheostomy site infection. PMID:25506371

  6. Toxicity assessment of nanosilver wound dressing in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Mahdavi, Moujan; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Korani, Mitra; Amani, Amir; Ziarati, Parisa

    2013-05-07

    Antibiotic resistance to microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care in burns patients. Silver nanoparticles have come up as potent antimicrobial agent and are being evaluated in diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings to silver coated medical devices. We aimed in present study to test the release of nanosilver from nanosilver wound dressing and compare the dermal and systemic toxicity of nanosilver dressings in a repeated dose (21 days) model. Under general anesthesia, a limited standard 2nd degree burns were provided on the back of each rat in all treatment, negative control (simple dressing) and 5% silver nitrate groups, each contained 5 male wistar rats. According to the analysis made by atomic absorption spectrometry, the wound dressings released 0.599 ± 0.083 ppm of nanosilver during first 24 hrs of study. Daily observations were recoded and wounds were covered with new dressings each 24 hrs. Burn healing was observed in nanosilver wound dressing group in shorter time periods than the control groups. In toxicity assessment, this dressing didn't cause any hematological and histopathological abnormalities in treatment group but biochemical studies showed significant rise of plasma transaminase (ALT) at the endpoint (21 days) of the study (P=0.027). Portal mononuclear lymphoid and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrations in three to four adjacent foci were recognized around the central hepatic vein in treatment group. Mild hepatotoxic effects of nanosilver wound dressing in wistar rat emphasize the necessity of more studies on toxicity potentials of low dose nanosilver by dermal applications.

  7. Comparison of negative pressure wound therapy and conventional dressing methods for fibula free flap donor site management in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christine A; Guilleré, Lia; Yildiz, Sinasi; Wagner, Isabelle; Darmon, Serge; Chabolle, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy in fibula free flap donor site management in head and neck cancer. We conducted a single-center retrospective study from 2007 to 2013 comparing fibula free flap donor site healing time after conventional bolster dressing or negative pressure wound therapy. Thirteen patients were treated by conventional dressing and 16 patients were treated by negative pressure wound therapy. The mean graft loss rate was higher in the bolster group (37%) than in the negative pressure wound therapy group (19%). The mean total healing time was significantly shorter in the negative pressure wound therapy group than in the bolster group (67 days vs 163 days; p = .02). The use of negative pressure wound therapy for fibula free flap donor site management facilitates early patient mobilization, ensures better graft acceptance, and significantly decreases the healing time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. DRESS syndrome with autoimmune hepatitis from strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    di Meo, Nicola; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Crocè, Lory; Tiribelli, Claudio; Trevisan, Giusto

    2016-05-01

    Strontium ranelate, which is used for postmenopausal osteoporosis, has been associated with drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, a severe, acute, potentially fatal, multisystem adverse drug reaction characterized by skin rash, fever, hematological abnormalities, and lymphadenopathy with involvement of several internal organs. We report the case of a woman who developed DRESS syndrome with a generalized maculopapular rash, eosinophilia, dyspnea, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, and reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with liver damage 3 weeks after administration of strontium ranelate for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Approximately 6 months after total remission of cutaneous symptoms, the patient developed autoimmune hepatitis. This case confirms that strontium ranelate should be considered as a possible factor in the etiopathology of DRESS syndrome as well as in the subsequent development of autoimmune hepatitis. The possibility of developing autoimmune hepatitis as a part of DRESS syndrome related to strontium ranelate use can occur months after the acute episode.

  9. Novel Asymmetric Wettable AgNPs/Chitosan Wound Dressing: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Donghui; Lu, Zhong; Yang, Hao; Gao, Jingting; Chen, Rong

    2016-02-17

    A novel silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/chitosan composite dressing with asymmetric wettability surfaces was successfully prepared via a simple two-step method for biomedical applications as wound healing materials. First, AgNPs were assembled into the chitosan sponge which was prepared by lyophilization process. Then one side of the sponge was modified by a thin layer of stearic acid. The incorporation of AgNPs into chitosan dressing could enhance the antibacterial activity against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The asymmetric surface modification endows the dressing with both highly hydrophobic property and inherent hydrophilic nature of chitosan. The hydrophobic surface of the dressing shows waterproof and antiadhesion for contaminant properties, whereas the hydrophilic surface preserves its water-absorbing capability and efficiently inhibits the growth of bacteria. Furthermore, the AgNPs/chitosan composite dressing displays improved moisture retention and blood clotting ability compared to the unmodified dressings. Cytocompatibility test evaluated in vitro and in a wound infection model illustrates the nontoxic nature of the composite dressing. More importantly, the in vivo wound healing model evaluation in mice reveals that the asymmetric AgNPs/chitosan dressing promotes the wound healing and accelerates the reepithelialization and collagen deposition. The silver accumulation in mice body treated by the composite dressing is far lower than that of the clinically used Acasin nanosilver dressing treated mice. This work indicates the huge potential of the novel AgNPs/chitosan wound dressing with asymmetrical wettability for clinical use.

  10. Efficacy of commercial dressings in managing malodorous wounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gillian; Anand, Subhash C; Rajendran, S; Walker, Ian

    This paper investigates a novel in vitro method of ascertaining quantitative comparative data on a selection of commercial available odour absorbent wound dressing. The aim of this study is to determine and evaluate quantitative desirable data on the efficiency of odour absorbency along with other comparable physical characteristics of commercial odour absorbent dressings. This study is a part of an ongoing research programme into the design and development of novel odour absorbent dressings for managing malodorous wounds. The study also includes the development of a controlled in vitro test method that simulates a more realistic situation. A selection of commercially available activated charcoal dressings were analysed and tested, and comparative evaluation was carried out and discussed.

  11. First general methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates.

    PubMed

    Barthes, Nicolas; Grison, Claude

    2012-02-01

    We herein report two innovative methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates and the first saccharidic aldehyde enolphosphates. Aldehyde enolphosphate function is worthwhile to be considered as a good phosphoenolpyruvate analogue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dressed soliton in quantum dusty pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.; Roy, Kaushik

    2009-11-15

    Nonlinear propagation of a quantum ion-acoustic dressed soliton is studied in a dusty pair-ion plasma. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived using reductive perturbation technique. A higher order inhomogeneous differential equation is obtained for the higher order correction. The expression for a dressed soliton is calculated using a renormalization method. The expressions for higher order correction are determined using a series solution technique developed by Chatterjee et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 072102 (2009)].

  13. An introduction to absorbent dressings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Menna Lloyd

    2014-12-01

    Exudate bathes the wound bed with a serous fluid that contains essential components that promote wound healing. However, excess exudate is often seen as a challenge for clinicians. Absorbent dressings are often used to aid in the management of exudate, with the aim of providing a moist but unmacerated environment. With so many different types of absorbent dressings available today-alongside making a holistic assessment-it is essential that clinicians also have the knowledge and skill to select the most appropriate absorbent dressing for a given patient.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of a Novel Vascular Access Film Dressing Containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate

    PubMed Central

    Wibaux, Anne; Thota, Priyaleela; Mastej, Jozef; Prince, Daniel L.; Carty, Neal; Johnson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Covering insertion sites with chlorhexidine impregnated dressings has been proven to be clinically effective in reducing catheter related blood stream infections (CR-BSI). Two chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-impregnated dressings are commercially available, a polyurethane foam disk and a film dressing containing a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated gel pad. While both have demonstrated efficacy in clinical settings, the major drawback of high cost and impaired IV insertion site visibility limits their usage. A new, simple film dressing containing CHG within its adhesive layer is now available. The objective of this study was to test the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of the new dressing in comparison to the CHG-impregnated gel dressing. Methods Quantitative aliquots of suspensions (concentration of 1.0x106 to 5.0x106 cfu/sample) of clinically relevant challenge organisms (Staphylococcus species, gram-negative bacilli, Candida albicans) were incubated in contact with the new CHG-containing film dressing, a placebo version of the same (negative control) and the commercially available CHG-impregnated gel dressing (positive control). Serial dilutions of the surviving organisms were quantified using the pour plate after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation in order to calculate an antimicrobial log10 reduction for each organism/dressing combination at each point in time. Results The new CHG-containing film dressing delivered greater than 5.0 log10 reduction throughout the 7 days on all aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus species tested. As of day 1 the CHG-containing film dressing provided greater than 5.0 log10 reduction on Candida albicans. There were no statistically significant differences in the log10 reduction between the two dressings tested. Conclusion The new CHG-containing film dressing was found to be as effective as the chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated gel dressing on clinically relevant microbes. PMID:26599087

  15. [General concepts and study methods in pharmacogenetics].

    PubMed

    Lubomirov, Rubin; Telenti, Amalio; Rotger, Margalida

    2008-05-01

    Pharmacogenetics, the study of how individual genetic profiles influence the response to drugs, is an important topic. Results from pharmacogenetics studies in various clinical settings may lead to personalized medicine. Herein, we present the most important concepts of this discipline, as well as currently-used study methods.

  16. Superconvergence in the Generalized Finite Element Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Galerkin method for elliptic equations based on tensor products of piecewise polynomials. RAIRO Anal. Numer., 8:61– 66, 1974. [19] M. Kř́ıžek...London, 1986. [22] P. Lesaint and M. Zlámal. Superconvergence of the gradient of finite ele- ment solutions. RAIRO Anal. Numer., 13:139–166, 1979. [23] Q

  17. Generalized summability methods of functions using ideals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaş, Ekrem

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we shall make a new approach to two well known summability methods by using ideals and introduce new notions, namely, ℐ-statistical convergence and ℐ-lacunary statistical convergence by taking a nonnegative real-valued Lebesque measurable function in the interval (1, ∞) and mainly investigate their relationship and also make some observations about these classes.

  18. Generalization of the Engineering Method to the UNIVERSAL METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Billy Vaughn

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that there is a universal method for all realms of knowledge. Reviews Descartes's definition of the universal method, the engineering definition, and the philosophical basis for the universal method. Contends that the engineering method best represents the universal method. (ML)

  19. Generalized direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of stability and attraction in general time systems

    SciTech Connect

    Druzhinina, O V; Shestakov, A A

    2002-10-31

    A generalized direct Lyapunov method is put forward for the study of stability and attraction in general time systems of the following types: the classical dynamical system in the sense of Birkhoff, the general system in the sense of Zubov, the general system in the sense of Seibert, the general system with delay, and the general 'input-output' system. For such systems, with the help of generalized Lyapunov functions with respect to two filters, two quasifilters, or two filter bases, necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and attraction are obtained under minimal assumptions about the mathematical structure of the general system.

  20. Teacher Dress Codes in Employee Handbooks: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey

    2010-01-01

    This study used role theory to analyze dress codes for teachers to discern what dress items expressed role embracement and role distance. Inductive content analysis of teacher dress codes in 103 U.S. K-12 school handbooks revealed three categories of dress: (a) conventional dress (mentioned in 97.1% of the dress codes); (b) casual dress (mentioned…

  1. Teacher Dress Codes in Employee Handbooks: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Beth Winfrey

    2010-01-01

    This study used role theory to analyze dress codes for teachers to discern what dress items expressed role embracement and role distance. Inductive content analysis of teacher dress codes in 103 U.S. K-12 school handbooks revealed three categories of dress: (a) conventional dress (mentioned in 97.1% of the dress codes); (b) casual dress (mentioned…

  2. [DRESS syndrome. A clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Muciño-Bermejo, Jimena; Díaz de León-Ponce, Manuel; Briones-Vega, Carlos Gabriel; Guerrero-Hernández, Antonio; Sandoval-Ayala, Oswaldo Israel; Sáenz-Coronado, Ana Gabriela; Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos

    2013-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) or reaction to drugs with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms is a serious drug reaction associated with the use of aromatic anticonvulsants and allopurinol. At least 44 drugs have been associated with DRESS. The aim was to present the case of a patient with DRESS syndrome associated with phenytoin. a 20 year old woman, with a history of seizures since childhood, presented generalised tonic-clonic seizures for the last three months. Therefore, she began treatment with 100 mg of phenytoin, administered orally, every 8 hours. Three weeks later, she developed fever up to 42 degrees, papules in the hands extending to trunk and extremities, generalized rubicund, pruritus, pain while urinating, adding hyperoxia, dysphagia and dry cough. Consequently, she went to the emergency room. the diagnosis is clinical and it is set according to the criteria of the scale of RegiSCAR. As the initial manifestations are unspecific, the diagnosis and treatment could be delayed. The importance of recognizing this syndrome is an early treatment to get better prognostics. The mortality is up to 10 %.

  3. Cardiac involvement in DRESS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thongsri, Tomon; Chularojanamontri, Leena; Pichler, Werner J

    2017-03-01

    Cardiac involvement in drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome varies considerably between 4% and 21%. Here we present our case and review literatures for its diagnosis and management. An algorithm for diagnosis of cardiac involvement in DRESS syndrome is proposed in this article. Data regarding DRESS-associated myocarditis and eosinophilic myocarditis were gather primarily from MEDLINE database. DRESS syndrome is a hypersensitivity reaction which is due to massive T cell stimulation resulting in cytotoxicity and eosinophil activation and recruitment. It is characterized by fever, morbilliform rash, and various systemic symptoms, in particular hepatitis. Hypersensitivity myocarditis (acute eosinophilic myocarditis) which is typically related to a drug reaction can lead to acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis, cardiac thrombosis and fibrotic stage. Cardiac symptoms range from no symptoms to cardiogenic shock. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical findings, cardiac biomarkers and cardiac imaging techniques. Endomyocardial biopsy is done in a minority of patients for definite diagnosis. If suspected, drug discontinuation and suppression of immune reactions are the first therapies. Corticosteroids are the cornerstone of systemic treatments and should be initiated at the time of diagnosis of DRESS syndrome. Additional therapy and ventricular assist devices could be considered in refractory cases. According to its high morbidity and mortality, patients with DRESS syndrome should be carefully monitored or screened for cardiac involvement. Multidisciplinary care is important for a successful treatment outcome.

  4. A Polytomous Extension of the Generalized Distance Discriminating Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jianan; Xin, Tao; Zhang, Shumei; de la Torre, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a generalized distance discriminating method for test with polytomous response (GDD-P). The new method is the polytomous extension of an item response theory (IRT)-based cognitive diagnostic method, which can identify examinees' ideal response patterns (IRPs) based on a generalized distance index. The similarities between…

  5. Dressing Wear Time after Breast Reconstruction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Luiz Francisley; Fonseca, Fernando Elias Martins; Cabral, Isaías Vieira; Pinto, Natália Lana Larcher; Juliano, Yara

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence to support dressing standards for breast surgery wounds is empiric and scarce. Objective This two-arm randomized clinical trial was designed to assess the effect of dressing wear time on surgical site infection (SSI) rates, skin colonization and patient perceptions. Methods A total of 200 breast cancer patients undergoing breast reconstruction were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to group I (dressing removed on the first postoperative day, n = 100) or group II (dressing removed on the sixth postoperative day, n = 100). SSIs were defined and classified according to criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Samples collected before placing the dressing and after 1 day (group I) and 6 days (both groups) were cultured for skin colonization assessments. Patients preferences and perceptions with regard to safety, comfort and convenience were recorded and analyzed. Results A total of 186 patients completed the follow-up. The global SSI rate was 4.5%. Six patients in group I and three in group II had SSI (p = 0.497). Before dressing, the groups were similar with regard to skin colonization. At the sixth day, there was a higher colonization by coagulase-negative staphylococci in group I (p<0.0001). Patients preferred to keep dressing for six days (p<0.0001), and considered this a safer choice (p<0.05). Conclusions Despite group I had a higher skin colonization by coagulase-negative staphylococci on the sixth postoperative day, there was no difference in SSI rates. Patients preferred keeping dressing for six days and considered it a safer choice. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01148823 PMID:27911904

  6. Epicutaneous patch testing in drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DRESS).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Felicidade; Gonçalo, Margarida; Vieira, Ricardo; Coelho, Sónia; Figueiredo, Américo

    2010-01-01

    In some patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions, and depending on the culprit drug, patch testing has been helpful in confirming its cause. Its value in Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has not been established in a large cohort of patients. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the safety and usefulness of patch testing in DRESS. Between January 1998 and December 2008, we studied 56 patients with DRESS induced by antiepileptic agents in 33 patients (59%), allopurinol in 19 (34%) and sulfasalazine, cotrimoxazole, tenoxicam, and amoxicillin in 1 patient each (7%). A positive patch test reaction was observed in 18 patients (32.1%), of which 17 were with antiepileptics and 1 with tenoxicam. In the antiepileptic group, carbamazepine alone was responsible for 13 of 17 positive reactions (76.5%). Patch tests with allopurinol and its metabolite were negative in all cases attributed to this drug. In this study, patch testing was a safe and useful method in confirming the culprit drug in DRESS induced by antiepileptic drugs, whereas it had no value in DRESS induced by allopurinol. The pathogenesis of DRESS is not yet entirely clarified, but positive patch tests suggest a drug-dependent delayed hypersensitivity mechanism.

  7. Hydrogel-impregnated dressings for graft fixation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Choi, J-S; Lee, J-H; Kim, S-M; Kim, Y-J; Choi, J-Y; Jun, Y-J

    2015-07-01

    Infection is the second most common cause of graft loss after skin grafting. Cutimed Sorbact is a range of dressings coated with a hydrophobic fatty acid that irreversibly binds to the bacterial surface and mechanically removes bacteria from the wound. The dressing is a hydrogel-impregnated material, which prevents wounds from drying. Here, we report on cases in which we used the gel instead of the widely used petrolatum gauze or paraffin gauze in a tie-over dressing for the fixation of grafted skin. Patients treated for skin grafting between March 2013 and July 2013 were treated with the hydrogel-impregnated dressings and a tie over dressing. The wounds were opened five days after treatment. In total seven patients were treated with an age range of 23-86 years old. No infections were seen and the method was effective regardless of wound size, the thickness of the skin harvested and condition of the defect. Using this hydrogel-impregnated dressings, provide antibacterial and moisturising effects simultaneously, which a petrolatum or paraffin gauze cannot provide. There were no external sources of funding for this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  8. School Dress Code Law in the 90's: "Tinkering" with Fashion and Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    Dress codes directed at gang attire present school officials with the dilemma of ensuring the safety of the students in a school environment versus the First Amendment rights of students to express themselves. A review of some of the court decisions limited to freedom of expression and general dress code cases serves as a foundation from which to…

  9. Silver-Coated Nylon Dressing Plus Active DC Microcurrent for Healing of Autogenous Skin Donor Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Silver-Coated Nylon Dressing Plus Active DC Microcurrent for Healing of Autogenous Skin Donor Sites Edward W. Malin, MD, Chaya M. Galin, BSN, RN... microcurrent in comparison to silver-coated dressing with sham microcurrent on wound-closure time for autogenous skin donor sites. Methods: Four...hundred five patients were screened for treatment of their donor sites using a silver-coated nylon dressing with either sham or active microcurrent

  10. Calcium alginate dressings--I. Physico-chemical characterization and effect of sterilization.

    PubMed

    Grizzi, I; Braud, C; Vert, M

    1998-01-01

    In order to analyze the alginate components of alginate dressings and the fractions which are released when the dressing is in contact with model biological fluids, the use of various analytical methods was considered. The first step was the conversion of a calcium alginate batch to pure sodium alginate. The recovery of the latter from either insoluble or soluble mixed sodium/calcium alginates was performed by complexation of calcium ions with sodium citrate followed by ultrafiltration. Comparisons were made between sugar analysis, 1H NMR and circular dichroism (CD) data to determinate the contents in guluronic and mannuronic acids of sodium alginate chains. It was shown that CD measurements afford a rapid and nondestructive method for determination of %G when one takes the ratio theta200/theta220 into account. Fractionation of crude alginate (generally ranging from 30 to 70% G) was achieved by the triangle dissolution/precipitation method in order to increase the range of alginate in sugar composition. The various validated procedures were applied to investigate the effects of irradiation sterilization on alginate dressings. It was shown that sugar composition is retained whereas molecular weight decreased dramatically due to chain scission.

  11. A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method

    DOE PAGES

    Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu

    2016-03-31

    In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.

  12. Processing parameter optimization for the laser dressing of bronze-bonded diamond wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H.; Chen, G. Y.; Zhou, C.; Li, S. C.; Zhang, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a pulsed fiber-laser dressing method for bronze-bonded diamond wheels was studied systematically and comprehensively. The mechanisms for the laser dressing of bronze-bonded diamond wheels were theoretically analyzed, and the key processing parameters that determine the results of laser dressing, including the laser power density, pulse overlap ratio, ablation track line overlap ratio, and number of scanning cycles, were proposed for the first time. Further, the effects of these four key parameters on the oxidation-damaged layer of the material surface, the material removal efficiency, the material surface roughness, and the average protrusion height of the diamond grains were explored and summarized through pulsed laser ablation experiments. Under the current experimental conditions, the ideal values of the laser power density, pulse overlap ratio, ablation track line overlap ratio, and number of scanning cycles were determined to be 4.2 × 107 W/cm2, 30%, 30%, and 16, respectively. Pulsed laser dressing experiments were conducted on bronze-bonded diamond wheels using the optimized processing parameters; next, both the normal and tangential grinding forces produced by the dressed grinding wheel were measured while grinding alumina ceramic materials. The results revealed that the normal and tangential grinding forces produced by the laser-dressed grinding wheel during grinding were smaller than those of grinding wheels dressed using the conventional mechanical method, indicating that the pulsed laser dressing technology provides irreplaceable advantages relative to the conventional mechanical dressing method.

  13. Sulfasalazine-induced DRESS and severe agranulocytosis successfully treated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Rached, Salaheddine; Hachfi, Wissem; Letaief, Amel; Ben Salem, Chaker

    2015-08-01

    A drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom (DRESS) is a severe and rare adverse-drug hypersensitivity syndrome. The evolution of DRESS is unpredictable and haematological abnormalities may occur in 50 % of cases. Sulfasalazine (SSZ) is rarely associated with DRESS. Agranulocytosis is a rare but recognized side-effect to SSZ. Both DRESS and agranulocytosis were not reported previously with SSZ. We report a case of SSZ-induced DRESS followed by severe agranulocytosis occurring in a 25-year-old man. The patient's general condition and laboratory tests gradually improved after the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF). In our patient, the co-occurrence of DRESS and agranulocytosis is unlikely to be coincidental. Immunological mechanisms may play an important role in drug associated agranulocytosis in patients presenting DRESS. According to the Naranjo's algorithm the likelihood that our patient's DRESS and agranulocytosis occurred as a result of therapy with SSZ is probable. G-CSF was found to be useful in shortening the duration of granulocyte recovery in drug-induced agranulocytosis. Careful monitoring of neutrophil counts is required on SSZ therapy as well as in the course of DRESS.

  14. Modified wound dressing with phyto-nanostructured coating to prevent staphylococcal and pseudomonal biofilm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ficai, Anton; Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Maganu, Maria; Lazǎr, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports a newly fabricated nanophyto-modified wound dressing with microbicidal and anti-adherence properties. Nanofluid-based magnetite doped with eugenol or limonene was used to fabricate modified wound dressings. Nanostructure coated materials were characterized by TEM, XRD, and FT-IR. For the quantitative measurement of biofilm-embedded microbial cells, a culture-based method for viable cell count was used. The optimized textile dressing samples proved to be more resistant to staphylococcal and pseudomonal colonization and biofilm formation compared to the uncoated controls. The functionalized surfaces for wound dressing seems to be a very useful tool for the prevention of wound microbial contamination on viable tissues.

  15. Comparing the Effect of Dressing Versus No-dressing on Exit Site Infection and Peritonitis in Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Shahram; Ahmadnia, Mahdieh; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Karimi, Shirin; Reihani, Homa; Seirafian, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Bachground: Peritonitis and exit site (ES) infection are two main complications of peritoneal dialysis. There are some controversies regard to preventive strategies for ES care. In this study we compared peritonitis and ES infection rates in patients with and without dressing. Materials and Methods: This historical cohort study carried out on 72 patients under continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment, 54 with dressing versus 18 patients without dressing, followed from October 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011 for peritonitis and ES infection. Results: A total of 17 episodes of ES infection occurred in 12 patients in dressing group, but no case was seen in no-dressing group (P = 0.02). Twenty-one episodes of peritonitis occurred in 15 patients in both groups (one episode every 20.6 patient-months). In no-dressing group two episodes occurred in only one patient (one episode every 54 patient-months), and in dressing group, 19 episode in 14 patients (one episode every 17.1 patient-months) (P = 0.03). Peritonitis was significantly more frequent in male versus female in overall patients (38% vs. 14%, P = 0.025) and in dressing group (52% vs. 15%, P = 0.003). In dressing group, peritonitis was more frequent in diabetics versus non-diabetics (48% vs. 11%, P = 0.01). Odds ratio for developing peritonitis was 9.4 in dressing group (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.05 − 84.4; P = 0.045), and 4.4 in men (95% CI = 1.26 − 15.19; P = 0.02). Conclusion: In this study, chronic ES care without dressing was associated with lower risk of peritonitis and ES infection. PMID:28217650

  16. DRESS syndrome with cerebral vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Sola, Daniele; Rossi, Luca; Sainaghi, Pier Paolo; Pirisi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    DRESS (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome is a severe reaction triggered by drugs that manifests as pyrexia and eosinophilia with involvement of the skin and internal organs. We herein describe the case of a patient who developed hyperuricemia after receiving treatment for tuberculosis, then took allpurinol and developed DRESS syndrome with a contextual coma and right hemisyndrome. This report describes for the first time the presence of vasculitic cerebral involvement in a patient with DRESS syndrome. The cerebral vasculitis responded to treatment, showing clinical and instrumental remission. In cases such as this, allergic cerebral vasculitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis because it can be treated if recognized early, thus leading to remission without the development of any sequelae.

  17. Wound dressings: selecting the most appropriate type.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Karen C; Powers, Jennifer Gloeckner

    2013-12-01

    Appropriate wound dressing selection is guided by an understanding of wound dressing properties and an ability to match the level of drainage and depth of a wound. Wounds should be assessed for necrosis and infection, which need to be addressed prior to selecting an ideal dressing. Moisture-retentive dressings include films, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, alginates, and hydrofibers and are useful in a variety of clinical settings. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressings can be useful in wounds that are superficially infected or are at higher risk for infection. For refractory wounds that need more growth stimulation, tissue-engineered dressings have become a viable option in the past few decades, especially those that have been approved for burns, venous ulcers, and diabetic ulcers. As wounds heal, the ideal dressing type may change, depending on the amount of exudate and depth of the wound; thus success in wound dressing selection hinges on recognition of the changing healing environment.

  18. Dressed counterions: Polyvalent and monovalent ions at charged dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Matej; Naji, Ali; Forsman, Jan; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the ion distribution and overcharging at charged interfaces with dielectric inhomogeneities in the presence of asymmetric electrolytes containing polyvalent and monovalent ions. We formulate an effective “dressed counterion” approach by integrating out the monovalent salt degrees of freedom and show that it agrees with results of explicit Monte Carlo simulations. We then apply the dressed counterion approach within the framework of the generalized strong-coupling theory, valid for polyvalent ions at low concentrations, which enables an analytical description for salt effects as well as dielectric inhomogeneities in the limit of strong Coulomb interactions. Limitations and applicability of this theory are examined by comparing the results with simulations.

  19. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878.4018 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878.4018 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878.4018 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878.4018 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4020 - Occlusive wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occlusive wound dressing. 878.4020 Section 878.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4020 Occlusive wound...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4018 - Hydrophilic wound dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrophilic wound dressing. 878.4018 Section 878.4018 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4018 Hydrophilic wound...

  14. Good-by to Dress Codes--for Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bettye

    1979-01-01

    Strict dress codes have been virtually eliminated in the public schools, particularly those regulations for hair length and style. The existing grooming policies are general and deal mainly with cleanliness, neatness, appropriateness, safety, health, and nondisruption of the learning environment. (Author)

  15. Good-by to Dress Codes--for Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bettye

    1979-01-01

    Strict dress codes have been virtually eliminated in the public schools, particularly those regulations for hair length and style. The existing grooming policies are general and deal mainly with cleanliness, neatness, appropriateness, safety, health, and nondisruption of the learning environment. (Author)

  16. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  17. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-01-01

    Four different methods of teaching--cooperative learning, class discussions, concept maps, and lectures--were integrated into a freshman-level general chemistry course to compare students' levels of participation. Findings support the idea that multiple modes of learning foster the metacognitive skills necessary for mastering general chemistry.…

  18. Dress Codes and Gang Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1996-01-01

    Concern with school violence and efforts to reduce gang visibility at school have led to controversy about students' constitutional rights to freedom of expression. This document outlines legal precedents and offers guidelines for developing a sound school policy on dress codes. It answers the following questions: (1) Are gang clothing and symbols…

  19. Redressing Cross-Dressed Shakespeare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Thomas L.; Pesta, Duke

    2003-01-01

    Gender critics obsess over the boy actors who played female roles on the Elizabethan stage. But, in their far-fetched interpretation of Shakespearean drama as a spectacle of cross dressing, these new historicists lose sight of a fundamental principle of theater. Thomas Martin and Duke Pesta argue that with their prurient chatter of "the…

  20. Antimicrobial Wound Dressing. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-11

    aureus Infections and mixed itifections containing both organisms. 14. SUBJICT TERMS . 5 464i501 OF PAGES Wound dressing; Sustained release...hydrogels were efficacious against es- tablished staphylococcus aureus infections and mixed infections containing both organisms (see Table 2). Page 2...acid. Kanitkar and Bhide (1947) give some data on the effectiveness of phosphanilic acid against Staphylococcus aureus . Lee, et al. (1980) describe

  1. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  2. Optimal explicit strong-stability-preserving general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E.; Sandu, A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper constructs strong-stability-preserving general linear time-stepping methods that are well suited for hyperbolic PDEs discretized by the method of lines. These methods generalize both Runge-Kutta (RK) and linear multistep schemes. They have high stage orders and hence are less susceptible than RK methods to order reduction from source terms or nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. A global optimization strategy is used to find the most efficient schemes that have low storage requirements. Numerical results illustrate the theoretical findings.

  3. Species tree inference by the STAR method and its generalizations.

    PubMed

    Allman, Elizabeth S; Degnan, James H; Rhodes, John A

    2013-01-01

    The multispecies coalescent model describes the generation of gene trees from a rooted metric species tree and thus provides a framework for the inference of species trees from sampled gene trees. We prove that the STAR method of Liu et al. (2009) and generalizations of it, are statistically consistent methods of topological species tree inference under this model. We discuss the impact of gene tree sampling schemes for species tree inference using generalized STAR methods and reinterpret the original STAR as a consensus method based on clades.

  4. A Dressing Solution for Burn Wounds: Antibacterial and Low-Adherent Wound Dressings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Tianyun

    Considering the infection and second trauma caused by dressing changes, development of antibacterial and low-adherent wound dressings is urgently needed. Silver ion is a widely used antimicrobial agent, but its cytotoxicity remains a problem. In this study, low-adherent PAM (polyacrylamide) hydrogel incorporated with less toxic AgNP (silver nanoparticle), was immobilized onto PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) substrates by an IPN (interpenetrating polymer network) method. The modified PET is effectively antibacterial and the surface is significantly less adherent than untreated PET. However, silver-resistant bacteria become a potential problem. Thus, ionic 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) analogues containing either a quaternary ammonium moiety or a phosphonate functional group were designed and synthesized. The DMH analogues were converted to antibacterial N-chloramine counterparts through chlorination to serve as potential alternatives to AgNP. The N-chloramine with a structural cation exhibited distinctly enhanced antibacterial functions both in solution and after immobilization on fabrics.

  5. General image method in a plane-layered elastostatic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, N.; Li, V. C.

    1988-01-01

    The general-image method presently used to obtain the elastostatic fields in plane-layered media relies on the use of potentials in order to represent elastic fields. For the case of a single interface, this method yields the displacement field in closed form, and is applicable to antiplane, plane, and three-dimensional problems. In the case of multiplane interfaces, the image method generates the displacement fields in terms of infinite series whose convergences can be accelerated to improve method efficiency.

  6. The design, characteristics, and application of polyurethane dressings using the electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampeerapappun, Piyaporn

    In general, a dressing is used to protect and help heal wounds. There are several types of dressings on the market such as hydrocolloid, hydrogel, and medicated dressings. One technique for making a dressing is electrospinning, which is a very simple procedure used to produce fibers. Due to much smaller fiber-diameters than produced with the conventional technique, the fibers from electrospinning have unique properties: high porosity and high surface areas, which are advantageous for wound healing. In this research, the fibers were electrospun using polyurethane, TecophilicRTM or TecoflexRTM, with various additives. First, multilayer transdermal electrospun dressings, four and five-layers, were developed that allowed for the controlled release of nitric oxide (NO) from a NO2 -/ascorbic acid system encapsulated in polymer nanofibers. The amount of NO released from each wound dressing was investigated. Both the four and five-layer dressings were tested for morphology of fibers, water absorption, nitrite distribution, NO release profile after sterilization by gamma radiation, and stability. In the case of the four-layer transdermal dressing, the dressing was tested in diabetic, periodontal, and cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Furthermore, the color change of dressing was investigated. TecophilicRTM was also spun with an antimicrobial agent, which was added to the TecophilicRTM solution to electrospin an antimicrobial dressing. The morphology of fibers was tested using an optical microscope and the water absorption, uniformity, and percent extraction of dressing were also determined. In addition, the efficiency of the antimicrobial agent in the dressing was determined according to SN 195920-1994 and ASTM 2149-01. Another NO-releasing dressing was developed employing the NO donor molecules, sodium salt of linear polyethylenimine NONOates (LPEINO-Na) and calcium salt of linear polyethylenimine NONOates (LPEINO-Ca), which were electrospun with TecophilicRTM. The NO

  7. Spectroscopic signatures of dressed Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold Rydberg-dressed atoms exhibit strong, long-range interactions that can potentially create exotic phases of matter and entangled states that are useful in quantum computation and metrology. Rydberg-dressed atoms are obtained by off-resonantly admixing a Rydberg state | R > into a long-lived electronic state, often the ground state. As a tool to observe dressed Rydberg interactions, we theoretically consider a spectroscopic method that relies on strontium's unique long-lived (~ 23 μ s) electronic excited state 3P1. Specifically, we consider an effective two level system: the electronic ground state | G > and the Rydberg dressed state | D > = | 3 P1 > + ɛ | R > with ɛ << 1 . Using spin language to describe this two level system, our proposed Ramsey scheme rotates the spins by angle θ, allows the atoms to interact for a time t, and then measures the final spin vector. Our calculation is exact and includes experimental complications, such as dissipation and pulse timing errors. Excitingly, the dependence of the spin vector on time and θ can be used to experimentally measure the strength and power law dependence of the dressed Rydberg atom interaction.

  8. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  9. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  10. General method for calculating derivatives of the lattice electrostatic energy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, D. E.; Eftis, J.; Arkilic, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    A method for calculating the derivatives of lattice electrostatic strain energy is proposed. It offers a computation procedure that is more general, concise, and systematic than any of the procedures previously used by Fuchs (1936), Cousins (1967), and Suzuki et al. (1968). The method can also easily be extended to fourth- and higher-order derivatives without undue difficulty.

  11. A General Method for Modeling Macromolecular Shape in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    A general method for modeling macromolecular shape in solution is described involving measurements of viscosity, radius of gyration, and the second thermodynamic virial coefficient. The method, which should be relatively straightforward to apply, does not suffer from uniqueness problems, involves shape functions that are independent of hydration, and models the gross conformation of the macromolecule in solution as a general triaxial ellipsoid. The method is illustrated by application to myosin, and the relevance and applicability of ellipsoid modeling to biological structures is discussed. PMID:19431695

  12. Multi wave method for the generalized form of BBM equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildik, Necdet; Tandogan, Yusuf Ali

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we apply the multi-wave method to find new multi wave solutions for an important nonlinear physical model. This model is well known as generalized form of Benjamin Bona Mahony (BBM) equation. Using the mathematics software Mathematica, we compute the traveling wave solutions. Then, the multi wave solutions including periodic wave solutions, bright soliton solutions and rational function solutions are obtained by the multi wave method. It is seen that this method is very useful mathematical approach for generalized form of BBM equation.

  13. The wound dressing supply chain within England's National Health Service: unravelling the context for users.

    PubMed

    Browne, Natasha; Grocott, Patricia; Cowley, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    To explore the representation of user needs (nurses and patients, both individuals and groups) at the industrial (wound dressing manufacture) and National Health Service interface. The wound dressing supply chain is outlined, tracking organizational changes. The methods that are used to transfer user information between industries that produce dressings and those using the products are reviewed in terms of their ability to communicate what users need from dressings. Organizational policies and systems are outlined, with the focus on their role in facilitating the communication of user needs. Methods for generating user information that can directly inform dressing design are needed together with interactive communication routes within the supply chain, specifically between users, manufacturers, purchasers and suppliers. This will facilitate dual benefits for nursing management through improvements in purchasing decisions and nurses' management of wound care.

  14. Disconnection: the user voice within the wound dressing supply chain.

    PubMed

    Campling, Natasha; Grocott, Patricia; Cowley, Sarah

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the user voice in England's National Health Service (NHS) wound dressing supply chain. The impetus for this work came from involvement in a collaboration between industry and clinicians, entitled Woundcare Research for Appropriate Products. Experiences from that study highlighted the notable absence of research about the impact of the supply chain on the users of dressings. Interview data are presented following an outline of the grounded theory method used. These data were obtained from key stakeholders (n = 41) within the wound dressing supply chain such as nurses, manufacturers, distributors, professional organizations, government organizations and user groups. The consequences of supply disconnection revealed haphazard supply, unmet user needs and lack of information transfer between player groups. These consequences explain the lack of user voice in the supply chain and have far-reaching implications for nursing management, through purchasing decisions and nurses' management of wound care.

  15. The traditions and terminology of wound dressings: food for thought.

    PubMed

    van Rijswijk, L; Beitz, J

    1998-05-01

    During the past 40 years, health care professionals have witnessed an evolution of wound care traditions and terminology and an explosion in the number of wound care products and the amount of information. Unfortunately, these developments have not resulted in optimal wound care for all patients. Appropriate dressing selection and communication are hampered by a lack of clinically valid definitions, as well as ambiguous indications, contraindications, and instructions for their use. One method of setting the stage for a more therapeutic future would be to classify dressings based on their functions rather than the ingredients they contain.

  16. A fast method for a generalized nonlocal elastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ning; Wang, Hong; Wang, Che

    2015-09-01

    We develop a numerical method for a generalized nonlocal elastic model, which is expressed as a composition of a Riesz potential operator with a fractional differential operator, by composing a collocation method with a finite difference discretization. By carefully exploring the structure of the coefficient matrix of the numerical method, we develop a preconditioned fast Krylov subspace method, which reduces the computations to (Nlog ⁡ N) per iteration and the memory to O (N). The use of the preconditioner significantly reduces the number of iterations, and the preconditioner can be inverted in O (Nlog ⁡ N) computations. Numerical results show the utility of the method.

  17. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  18. Exposing the Dressed Quark's Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H. L. L.; Chang, L.; Cloët, I. C.; Roberts, C. D.

    2011-02-01

    This snapshot of recent progress in hadron physics made in connection with QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations includes: a perspective on confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB); a précis on the physics of in-hadron condensates; results on the hadron spectrum, including dressed-quark-core masses for the nucleon and Δ, their first radial excitations, and the parity-partners of these states; an illustration of the impact of DCSB on the electromagnetic pion form factor, thereby exemplifying how data can be used to chart the momentum-dependence of the dressed-quark mass function; and a prediction that F1p,d/F_1p,u passes through zero at {Q2} ≈ 5mN2 owing to the presence of nonpointlike scalar and axial-vector diquark correlations in the nucleon.

  19. Wound Dressing in Maxillofacial Trauma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-31

    Pharmacology Wound healing Hemostatics PolymersLLocal anesthetics Encapsulating Polylactide * - Antiinfectives and antibacterials Polymeric films...8 C. Wound Dressings 8 D. Polylactide /Polyglycolide Systems 9 E. Drug Selection 10 1. Anesthetic Agents 10 2. Antiseptic Agents 12 3. Anti...Inflammatory Drugs 14 4. Hemostatic Agents 15 II. POLYMER SYNTHESIS 16 A. Polylactides 16 1. Poly-L(-)lactide Synthesis (RSV - 1.3 dl/g) 16 2. Poly-L(-)lactide

  20. Get dressed and get well.

    PubMed

    Young, Lorna

    2017-06-14

    [Figure: see text] I read your #endPJparalysis news analysis (31 May) with wonder and anger. I have worked in rehabilitation nursing for more than 20 years from strokes to surgical to amputation. We always strive to get patients dressed, to aid recovery, promote independence, encourage exercise and to help the patient regain their individuality. I am shocked that the acute sector is making such a fuss about something they should have been doing all along.

  1. In vivo wound-healing effects of novel benzalkonium chloride-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Giu; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Dong-Wuk; Li, Dong Xun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the wound-healing effects of a novel benzalkonium chloride (BC)-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing (HCD). A BC-loaded HCD was prepared with various constituents using a hot melting method, and its mechanical properties and antimicrobial activities were assessed. The in vivo wound healings of the BC-loaded HCD in various would models were evaluated in rats compared with a commercial wound dressing, Duoderm™. This BC-loaded HCD gave better skin adhesion, swelling, mechanical strength, and flexibility compared with the commercial wound dressing. It showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, as compared with the commercial wound dressing, it showed more improved wound healings and tissue restoration effect on the excision, infection, and abrasion wounds in rats. Thus, this novel BC-loaded HCD would be an excellent alternative to the commercial wound dressing for treatment of various wounds.

  2. Avoided-Level-Crossing Spectroscopy with Dressed Matter Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, Andre; Holthaus, Martin

    2008-12-12

    We devise a method for probing resonances of macroscopic matter waves in shaken optical lattices by monitoring their response to slow parameter changes, and show that such resonances can be disabled by particular choices of the driving amplitude. The theoretical analysis of this scheme reveals far-reaching analogies between dressed atoms and time periodically forced matter waves.

  3. Avoided-level-crossing spectroscopy with dressed matter waves.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, André; Holthaus, Martin

    2008-12-12

    We devise a method for probing resonances of macroscopic matter waves in shaken optical lattices by monitoring their response to slow parameter changes, and show that such resonances can be disabled by particular choices of the driving amplitude. The theoretical analysis of this scheme reveals far-reaching analogies between dressed atoms and time periodically forced matter waves.

  4. Avoided-Level-Crossing Spectroscopy with Dressed Matter Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, André; Holthaus, Martin

    2008-12-01

    We devise a method for probing resonances of macroscopic matter waves in shaken optical lattices by monitoring their response to slow parameter changes, and show that such resonances can be disabled by particular choices of the driving amplitude. The theoretical analysis of this scheme reveals far-reaching analogies between dressed atoms and time periodically forced matter waves.

  5. The Effect of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain Relief During Dressing Changes in Children with Chronic Wounds on Lower Limbs.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yun; Qiu, Rong; Yao, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients with chronic wounds experience the most pain during dressing changes. Currently, researchers focus mostly on analgesics and appropriate dressing materials to relieve pain during dressing changes of chronic wounds. However, the effect of nonpharmacologic interventions, such as virtual reality distraction, on pain management during dressing changes of pediatric chronic wounds remains poorly understood. To investigate the effect of virtual reality distraction on alleviating pain during dressing changes in children with chronic wounds on their lower limbs. A prospective randomized study. A pediatric center in a tertiary hospital. Sixty-five children, aged from 4 to 16 years, with chronic wounds on their lower limbs. Pain and anxiety scores during dressing changes were recorded by using the Wong-Baker Faces picture scale, visual analogue scale, and pain behavior scale, as well as physiological measurements including pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Time length of dressing change was recorded. Virtual reality distraction significantly relieved pain and anxiety scores during dressing changes and reduced the time length for dressing changes as compared to standard distraction methods. The use of virtual reality as a distraction tool in a pediatric ward offered superior pain reduction to children as compared to standard distractions. This device can potentially improve clinical efficiency by reducing length time for dressing changes.

  6. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR GEOPHYSICAL METHODS APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geophysics is the application of physical quantity measurement techniques to provide information on conditions or features beneath the earth’s surface. With the exception of borehole geophysical methods and soil probes like a cone penetrometer, these techniques are generally noninvasive with physica...

  7. General Anisotropy Identification of Paperboard with Virtual Fields Method

    Treesearch

    J.M. Considine; F. Pierron; K.T. Turner; D.W. Vahey

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous efforts in plate bending of Virtual Fields Method (VFM) parameter identification to include a general 2-D anisotropicmaterial. Such an extension was needed for instances in which material principal directions are unknown or when specimen orientation is not aligned with material principal directions. A new fixture with a multiaxial force...

  8. DRESS Syndrome Following Metformin Administration: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Voore, Prakruthi; Odigwe, Chibuzo; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Rifai, Dana; Iroegbu, Nkemakolam A

    The drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome also known as DRESS syndrome refers to an idiosyncratic drug reaction commonly characterized by rashes, fever, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. We report a case of this syndrome in a 40-year-old man presenting with a rash, generalized pruritus, lymphadenopathy, and eosinophilia after metformin treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report linking metformin to the DRESS syndrome. The patient improved remarkably with drug withdrawal. A high index of clinical suspicion is emphasized to facilitate prompt diagnosis of medication related adverse effect and its discontinuation. In this article, we review the recent literature on DRESS syndrome.

  9. General Method for Describing Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Viacheslav; Forbes, Terry; Priest, Eric; Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon

    2009-11-01

    A general method for describing magnetic reconnection in arbitrary three-dimensional magnetic configurations is proposed. The method is based on the field-line mapping technique previously used only for the analysis of magnetic structure at a given time. This technique is extended here so as to analyze the evolution of magnetic structure. Such a generalization is made with the help of new dimensionless quantities called ``slip-squashing factors''. Their large values define the surfaces that border the reconnected or to-be-reconnected magnetic flux tubes for a given period of time during the magnetic evolution. The proposed method is universal, since it assumes only that the time sequence of evolving magnetic field and the tangential boundary flows are known. We illustrate our method for several examples and compare it with the general magnetic reconnection theory, proposed previously by Hesse and coworkers. The new method admits a straightforward numerical implementation and provides a powerful tool for the diagnostics of numerical data obtained in theoretical or experimental studies of magnetic reconnection in space and laboratory plasmas.

  10. A parallel Lanczos method for symmetric generalized eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.; Simon, H.D.

    1997-12-01

    Lanczos algorithm is a very effective method for finding extreme eigenvalues of symmetric matrices. It requires less arithmetic operations than similar algorithms, such as, the Arnoldi method. In this paper, the authors present their parallel version of the Lanczos method for symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem, PLANSO. PLANSO is based on a sequential package called LANSO which implements the Lanczos algorithm with partial re-orthogonalization. It is portable to all parallel machines that support MPI and easy to interface with most parallel computing packages. Through numerical experiments, they demonstrate that it achieves similar parallel efficiency as PARPACK, but uses considerably less time.

  11. Superabsorbent dressings for copiously exuding wounds.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Nathalie; Safar, Helene; Baret, Mylène; Philippe, Anne; Farid, Rachida

    Exudate control is important in the management of both acute and chronic wounds. A new category of absorbent dressings that contain superabsorbent particles promises high absorbency. The aim of this multicentre, prospective, non-comparative observational study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and absorbent capacity of a superabsorbent dressing. Fifteen inpatients and outpatients with highly exuding wounds were included. Most patients (n=8) (53%) had chronic wounds; 20% (n=3) had ulcerating tumours. The superabsorbent dressing was used as a primary or a secondary dressing. Assessment was on day 0 (start), day 3 and day 7 (end of study). The study looked at wound bed and periwound skin condition, exudate production, pain upon dressing removal, reason for dressing removal, and frequency of dressing changes. A clinical visual scoring tool was used, together with digital photographs, which were assessed by the same experienced clinician. All 15 patients completed the study, during which no adverse events were noted. At day 7, maceration had reduced from 46.7% (n=7) at day 0 to 6.7% (n=1). After only 3 days, dressing change frequency was reduced from once daily to twice weekly in 80% (n=12) of patients. The superabsorbent dressing seems to reduce complications associated with exudate production, stimulate wound healing and increase patient comfort; it may also save time and costs for caregivers.

  12. A polyurethane dressing is beneficial for split-thickness skin-graft donor wound healing.

    PubMed

    Akita, Sadanori; Akino, Kozo; Imaizumi, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Katsumi; Anraku, Kuniaki; Yano, Hiroki; Hirano, Akiyoshi

    2006-06-01

    Few comparative studies have been performed on the various wound-dressing materials or methods proposed for use. To clarify the efficacy of wound dressing, 35 patients (17 females, aged 44.8+/-26.86 years and 18 males, aged 35.4+/-29.70) were subjected to a prospective study comparing a polyurethane dressing and a hydrogel dressing for split-thickness skin donors from the lateral thighs. We examined their clinical usefulness such as accelerated healing time, frequency of changing the dressing, degree of pain, or amount of exudates, and performed moisture meter analysis at 1 month and 1 year after re-epithelialization, which reflects the quality of the stratum corneum and subsequent scarring. The polyurethane dressing was superior to hydrogel in the wound healing time, amount of exudates, and frequency of dressing changes: the hydrogel was better for regulating the degree of pain. There was a positive correlation between transepidermal water loss and the effective contact coefficient, which indicates skin barrier function and affected by skin surface electrolytes and reflects water content, in moisture meter analysis (r(2)=0.32, p<0.01). Transepidermal water loss returned to the control level at 1 year after healing with both dressings. The effective contact coefficient of the polyurethane wound was significantly lower than that of hydrogel at 1 month (p<0.01), while both dressing wounds demonstrated significantly higher values at both 1 month and 1 year compared to the control (p<0.01). The polyurethane dressing is therefore superior both clinically and in moisture meter analysis.

  13. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Novel Dressing and Securement Techniques in 101 Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Tricia M; Ullman, Amanda J; Gibson, Victoria; Chaseling, Brett; Schoutrop, Jason; Mihalia, Gabor; Rickard, Claire M

    2017-09-08

    To evaluate feasibility of an efficacy trial comparing peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) dressing and securement techniques to prevent complications and failure. This pilot, 3-armed, randomized controlled trial was undertaken at Royal Children's Hospital and Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, between April 2014 and September 2015. Pediatric participants (N = 101; age range, 0-18 y) were assigned to standard care (bordered polyurethane [BPU] dressing, sutureless securement device), tissue adhesive (TA) (plus BPU dressing), or integrated securement dressings (ISDs). Average PICC dwell time was 8.1 days (range, 0.2-27.7 d). Primary outcome was trial feasibility including PICC failure. Secondary outcomes were PICC complications, dressing performance, and parent and staff satisfaction. Protocol feasibility was established. PICC failure was 6% (2/32) with standard care, 6% (2/31) with ISD, and 3% (1/32) with TA. PICC complications were 16% across all groups. TA provided immediate postoperative hemostasis, prolonging the first dressing change until 5.5 days compared with 3.5 days and 2.5 days with standard care and ISD respectively. Bleeding was the most common reason for first dressing change: standard care (n = 18; 75%), ISD (n = 11; 69%), TA (n = 4; 27%). Parental satisfaction (median 9.7/10; P = .006) and staff feedback (9.2/10; P = .002) were most positive for ISD. This research suggests safety and acceptability of different securement dressings compared with standard care; securement dressings may also reduce dressing changes after insertion. Further research is required to confirm clinically cost-effective methods to prevent PICC failure. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. General Characterization Methods for Photoelectrochemical Cells for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinjian; Cai, Lili; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Xiaolin; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-10-12

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a very promising technology that converts water into clean hydrogen fuel and oxygen by using solar light. However, the characterization methods for PEC cells are diverse and a systematic introduction to characterization methods for PEC cells has rarely been attempted. Unlike most other review articles that focus mainly on the material used for the working electrodes of PEC cells, this review introduces general characterization methods for PEC cells, including their basic configurations and methods for characterizing their performance under various conditions, regardless of the materials used. Detailed experimental operation procedures with theoretical information are provided for each characterization method. The PEC research area is rapidly expanding and more researchers are beginning to devote themselves to related work. Therefore, the content of this Minireview can provide entry-level knowledge to beginners in the area of PEC, which might accelerate progress in this area. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Sensitivity analysis and approximation methods for general eigenvalue problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, D. V.; Haftka, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Optimization of dynamic systems involving complex non-hermitian matrices is often computationally expensive. Major contributors to the computational expense are the sensitivity analysis and reanalysis of a modified design. The present work seeks to alleviate this computational burden by identifying efficient sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis methods. For the algebraic eigenvalue problem involving non-hermitian matrices, algorithms for sensitivity analysis and approximate reanalysis are classified, compared and evaluated for efficiency and accuracy. Proper eigenvector normalization is discussed. An improved method for calculating derivatives of eigenvectors is proposed based on a more rational normalization condition and taking advantage of matrix sparsity. Important numerical aspects of this method are also discussed. To alleviate the problem of reanalysis, various approximation methods for eigenvalues are proposed and evaluated. Linear and quadratic approximations are based directly on the Taylor series. Several approximation methods are developed based on the generalized Rayleigh quotient for the eigenvalue problem. Approximation methods based on trace theorem give high accuracy without needing any derivatives. Operation counts for the computation of the approximations are given. General recommendations are made for the selection of appropriate approximation technique as a function of the matrix size, number of design variables, number of eigenvalues of interest and the number of design points at which approximation is sought.

  16. Estimating functions and the generalized method of moments

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Joao; Chandler, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating functions provide a very general framework for statistical inference, and are particularly useful when one is either unable or unwilling to specify a likelihood function. This paper aims to provide an accessible review of estimating function theory that has potential for application to the analysis and modelling of a wide range of complex systems. Assumptions are given in terms that can be checked relatively easily in practice, and some of the more technical derivations are relegated to an online supplement for clarity of exposition. The special case of the generalized method of moments is considered in some detail. The main points are illustrated by considering the problem of inference for a class of stochastic rainfall models based on point processes, with simulations used to demonstrate the performance of the methods. PMID:23226587

  17. QUEST+: A general multidimensional Bayesian adaptive psychometric method.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew B

    2017-03-01

    QUEST+ is a Bayesian adaptive psychometric testing method that allows an arbitrary number of stimulus dimensions, psychometric function parameters, and trial outcomes. It is a generalization and extension of the original QUEST procedure and incorporates many subsequent developments in the area of parametric adaptive testing. With a single procedure, it is possible to implement a wide variety of experimental designs, including conventional threshold measurement; measurement of psychometric function parameters, such as slope and lapse; estimation of the contrast sensitivity function; measurement of increment threshold functions; measurement of noise-masking functions; Thurstone scale estimation using pair comparisons; and categorical ratings on linear and circular stimulus dimensions. QUEST+ provides a general method to accelerate data collection in many areas of cognitive and perceptual science.

  18. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS): a clinical update and review of current thinking.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S A; Creamer, D

    2011-01-01

    Summary Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) describes a severe medication-induced adverse reaction, which has cutaneous, haematological and solid-organ features. It is one of the triad of life-threatening drug hypersensitivity dermatoses, along with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). In this article, we discuss several controversies that surround DRESS, including problems with nomenclature and the lack of consensus in diagnostic criteria.

  19. Automated general temperature correction method for dielectric soil moisture sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilaratne, R. G. C. Jeewantinie; Lu, Minjiao

    2017-08-01

    An effective temperature correction method for dielectric sensors is important to ensure the accuracy of soil water content (SWC) measurements of local to regional-scale soil moisture monitoring networks. These networks are extensively using highly temperature sensitive dielectric sensors due to their low cost, ease of use and less power consumption. Yet there is no general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors, instead sensor or site dependent correction algorithms are employed. Such methods become ineffective at soil moisture monitoring networks with different sensor setups and those that cover diverse climatic conditions and soil types. This study attempted to develop a general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors which can be commonly used regardless of the differences in sensor type, climatic conditions and soil type without rainfall data. In this work an automated general temperature correction method was developed by adopting previously developed temperature correction algorithms using time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements to ThetaProbe ML2X, Stevens Hydra probe II and Decagon Devices EC-TM sensor measurements. The rainy day effects removal procedure from SWC data was automated by incorporating a statistical inference technique with temperature correction algorithms. The temperature correction method was evaluated using 34 stations from the International Soil Moisture Monitoring Network and another nine stations from a local soil moisture monitoring network in Mongolia. Soil moisture monitoring networks used in this study cover four major climates and six major soil types. Results indicated that the automated temperature correction algorithms developed in this study can eliminate temperature effects from dielectric sensor measurements successfully even without on-site rainfall data. Furthermore, it has been found that actual daily average of SWC has been changed due to temperature effects of dielectric sensors with a

  20. A general method to diverse cinnolines and cinnolinium salts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongbing; Wu, Qian; Huang, Xiaolei; Song, Feijie; Lv, Taiyong; You, Jingsong

    2013-05-10

    Rhodium catalysis: A highly efficient and general method has been established to prepare cinnolines, cinnolinium salts, and polycyclic cinnolinium salts through the rhodium(III)-catalyzed oxidative C-H activation/cyclization of azo compounds with alkynes (see scheme). Key features of this methodology include the unprecedented capacity to create both cinnoline and cinnolinium frameworks. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. [DRESS syndrome following sulfasalazine treatment].

    PubMed

    Pirklbauer, M; Gruber, J

    2014-03-01

    A female patient developed systemic rash, lung edema, electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities and fulminant hepatitis with partial liver failure 4 weeks after the start of sulfasalazine treatment. Peripheral T-cell activation, a positive PCR test for human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 as well as eosinophilia in bronchial lavage and a differential blood count were also present. After initiation of systemic corticosteroid therapy and cessation of accompanying medication the clinical symptoms and abnormal laboratory test levels were gradually resolved. A DRESS syndrome (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) was confirmed in accordance with the diagnostic criteria.

  2. Clinical Curative Effect of Mesalt Combined with Mepilex Dressing in Postoperative Infection of Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenjun; Xiong, Zhonghua; Wu, Jiayu; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Inguinal hernia is a common surgical disease. Tension-free hernioplasty is currently commonly used for its treatment, with multiple advantages such as simple surgical method, low recurrence rate, and ability to be performed in primary care hospitals, but the risk of incision infection still exists. Mild infection can be cured by local washing, dressing, and systemic antibiotics. If the infection is severe, the wound may not heal after removing the patch, and secondary suturing is needed. Material/Methods A total of 60 patients with postoperative infection after tension-free repair of inguinal hernia were randomly divided into control (n=30) and treatment (n=30) groups. Patients in the treatment group received Mesalt combined with Mepilex for dressing while the patients in the control group received conventional gauze for dressing. Pain degree, wound healing time, and dressing times were observed. Results The clinical therapeutic effect in the treatment group was significantly better than in the control group. The treatment group exhibited significantly less pain when patients receive dressing, shorter wounds healing time (15±3.5 vs. 30±5.0), and less dressing frequency (10±2.1 vs. 20±2.4). Conclusions Mesalt combined with Mepilex can effectively improve postoperative infection after inguinal hernia treatment, obviously reducing pain, shorting wound healing time, and decreasing dressing frequency. It can be widely used in clinical practice. PMID:25854191

  3. Computational method for general multicenter electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Batcho, P F

    2000-06-01

    Here a three-dimensional fully numerical (i.e., chemical basis-set free) method [P. F. Batcho, Phys. Rev. A 57, 6 (1998)], is formulated and applied to the calculation of the electronic structure of general multicenter Hamiltonian systems. The numerical method is presented and applied to the solution of Schrödinger-type operators, where a given number of nuclei point singularities is present in the potential field. The numerical method combines the rapid "exponential" convergence rates of modern spectral methods with the multiresolution flexibility of finite element methods, and can be viewed as an extension of the spectral element method. The approximation of cusps in the wave function and the formulation of multicenter nuclei singularities are efficiently dealt with by the combination of a coordinate transformation and a piecewise variational spectral approximation. The complete system can be efficiently inverted by established iterative methods for elliptical partial differential equations; an application of the method is presented for atomic, diatomic, and triatomic systems, and comparisons are made to the literature when possible. In particular, local density approximations are studied within the context of Kohn-Sham density functional theory, and are presented for selected subsets of atomic and diatomic molecules as well as the ozone molecule.

  4. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D R; Goode, P S; LaMaster, K; Tennyson, T

    1998-10-01

    Aloe vera has been used for centuries as a topical treatment for various conditions and as a cathartic. An amorphous hydrogel dressing derived from the aloe plant (Carrasyn Gel Wound Dressing, Carrington Laboratories, Inc., Irving, TX) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of Stages I through IV pressure ulcers. To evaluate effectiveness of this treatment, 30 patients were randomized to receive either daily topical application of the hydrogel study dressing (acemannan hydrogel wound dressing) or a moist saline gauze dressing. Complete healing of the study ulcer occurred in 19 of 30 subjects (63%) during the 10-week observation period. No difference was observed in complete healing between the experimental and the control groups (odds ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.16, 5.2). This study indicates that the acemannan hydrogel dressing is as effective as, but is not superior to, a moist saline gauze wound dressing for the management of pressure ulcers.

  5. Dress Codes: We Forget Our Own Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Morris J.

    1970-01-01

    Eccentric dress on the part of adolescents should not be treated as a moral issue. The conflict between youth and adults over school dress codes is but another variation of the conflict between the needs and rights of the individual as opposed to those of a larger society. (CK)

  6. Student Dress Codes Using Zero Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the issue involving zero tolerance in the Texas district whether the dress code policy is reasonable. In a small Texas school district, over 700 students were suspended in a single month for violating a zero-tolerance dress code policy. This suspension, which attracted national attention and threats of…

  7. Role Conflict and Conformity in Dress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasper, Cynthia R.; Roach-Higgins, Mary Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Examined conflict regarding what form of dress is appropriate for Roman Catholic priest. Data from 5,475 American Catholic priests revealed that priests who conformed to church regulations regarding dress differed from nonconformists in beliefs about their roles as priests and in their opinions of church reform, commitment to the priesthood,…

  8. Role Conflict and Conformity in Dress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasper, Cynthia R.; Roach-Higgins, Mary Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Examined conflict regarding what form of dress is appropriate for Roman Catholic priest. Data from 5,475 American Catholic priests revealed that priests who conformed to church regulations regarding dress differed from nonconformists in beliefs about their roles as priests and in their opinions of church reform, commitment to the priesthood,…

  9. Student Dress Codes Using Zero Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the issue involving zero tolerance in the Texas district whether the dress code policy is reasonable. In a small Texas school district, over 700 students were suspended in a single month for violating a zero-tolerance dress code policy. This suspension, which attracted national attention and threats of…

  10. Dress Codes: We Forget Our Own Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Morris J.

    1970-01-01

    Eccentric dress on the part of adolescents should not be treated as a moral issue. The conflict between youth and adults over school dress codes is but another variation of the conflict between the needs and rights of the individual as opposed to those of a larger society. (CK)

  11. Wound dressings: a myriad of challenging decisions.

    PubMed

    Baranoski, Sharon

    2005-05-01

    Choosing the appropriate wound dressing is critical to positive patient outcomes. This article helps the nurse choose dressings based on wound care principles and the comprehensive assessment. Tools are provided to choose the different products that can be used as the wound progresses through the stages of healing.

  12. Putting on the style: what patients think of the way their doctor dresses.

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, B; Wang, J X

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how acceptable patients found different styles of doctors' dress and whether patients felt that a doctor's style of dress influenced their respect for his or her opinion. A total of 475 patients from five general practices in Lothian were surveyed using photographs of different styles in a male and female doctor and questions about their attitudes to doctors' dress in general. Overall, patients seemed to favour a more formal approach to dress, with the male doctor wearing a formal suit and tie and the female doctor in a white coat scoring the most high marks. This was particularly true of older patients and those in social classes 1 and 2. The male doctor wearing a tweed jacket and informal shirt and tie scored fewer low marks and this was therefore the least disliked of the outfits. There was a marked variation between preferences of patients registered with different practices. When asked, 28% of patients said they would be unhappy about consulting one of doctors shown, usually the ones who were informally dressed. However, some patients said they would dislike their doctor wearing a white coat. Although there are more important attributes for a general practitioner than the way he or she dresses, a majority of patients (64%) thought that the way their doctor dressed was very important or quite important. Given that 41% of the patients said they would have more confidence in the ability of one of the doctors based on their appearance it would seem logical for doctors to dress in a way that inspires confidence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images A B C D E F G H PMID:1747264

  13. Honey: A Biologic Wound Dressing.

    PubMed

    Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them.

  14. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions

  15. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na(+)-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  16. A vortex-lattice method for general, unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstadinopoulos, P.; Thrasher, D. F.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L.

    1985-01-01

    A general method of calculating unsteady, incompressible, inviscid, three-dimensional flows around arbitrary planforms has been developed. The method is an extension of the vortex-lattice technique. It is not limited by aspect ratio, camber, or angle of attack, as long as vortex breakdown does not occur above the surface of the wing and separation occurs only along sharp edges. As the wing performs arbitrary maneuvers, the position of the wake and the distribution of circulation on the wing and in the wake are obtained as functions of time. One desirable feature of the present method is its ability to treat steady lifting flows very efficiently. Several examples of steady and unsteady flows are presented. These include rectangular wings, with and without flaps, delta, and cropped delta wings.

  17. A generalized solid-state nudged elastic band method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Daniel; Xiao, Penghao; Chemelewski, William; Johnson, Duane D.; Henkelman, Graeme

    2012-02-01

    A generalized solid-state nudged elastic band (G-SSNEB) method is presented for determining reaction pathways of solid-solid transformations involving both atomic and unit-cell degrees of freedom. We combine atomic and cell degrees of freedom into a unified description of the crystal structure so that calculated reaction paths are insensitive to the choice of periodic cell. For the rock-salt to wurtzite transition in CdSe, we demonstrate that the method is robust for mechanisms dominated either by atomic motion or by unit-cell deformation; notably, the lowest-energy transition mechanism found by our G-SSNEB changes with cell size from a concerted transformation of the cell coordinates in small cells to a nucleation event in large cells. The method is efficient and can be applied to systems in which the force and stress tensor are calculated using density functional theory.

  18. Generalized slave-particle method for extended Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a set of generalized slave-particle models for extended Hubbard models that treat localized electronic correlations using slave-boson decompositions. Our models automatically include two slave-particle methods of recent interest, the slave-rotor and slave-spin methods, as well as a ladder of new intermediate models where one can choose which of the electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., spin or orbital labels) are treated as correlated degrees of freedom by the slave bosons. In addition, our method removes the aberrant behavior of the slave-rotor model, where it systematically overestimates the importance of electronic correlation effects for weak interaction strength, by removing the contribution of unphysical states from the bosonic Hilbert space. The flexibility of our formalism permits one to separate and isolate the effect of correlations on the key degrees of freedom.

  19. A vortex-lattice method for general, unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstadinopoulos, P.; Thrasher, D. F.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L.

    1985-01-01

    A general method of calculating unsteady, incompressible, inviscid, three-dimensional flows around arbitrary planforms has been developed. The method is an extension of the vortex-lattice technique. It is not limited by aspect ratio, camber, or angle of attack, as long as vortex breakdown does not occur above the surface of the wing and separation occurs only along sharp edges. As the wing performs arbitrary maneuvers, the position of the wake and the distribution of circulation on the wing and in the wake are obtained as functions of time. One desirable feature of the present method is its ability to treat steady lifting flows very efficiently. Several examples of steady and unsteady flows are presented. These include rectangular wings, with and without flaps, delta, and cropped delta wings.

  20. Covalently antibacterial alginate-chitosan hydrogel dressing integrated gelatin microspheres containing tetracycline hydrochloride for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huinan; Xing, Xiaodong; Tan, Huaping; Jia, Yang; Zhou, Tianle; Chen, Yong; Ling, Zhonghua; Hu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    An antibacterial and biodegradable composite hydrogel dressing integrated with microspheres is developed for drug delivery and wound healing. The mechanism of gelation is attributed to the Schiff-base reaction between aldehyde and amino groups of oxidized alginate (OAlg) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). To enhance antibacterial and mechanical properties, tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) loaded gelatin microspheres (GMs) were fabricated by an emulsion cross-linking method, followed by integrating into the OAlg-CMCS hydrogel to produce a composite gel dressing. In vitro gelation time, swelling, degradation, compressive modulus and rheological properties of the gel dressing were investigated as the function of microsphere ratios. With increasing ratios of microspheres from 10 to 40mg/mL, the composite dressing manifested shorter gelation time and lower swelling ratios, as well as higher mechanical strength. Comparing to other formulations, the gel dressing with 30mg/mL microspheres showed more suitable stabilities and mechanical properties for wound healing. Also, in vitro drug release results showed that the loaded TH could be sustained release from the composite gel dressing by contrast with pure hydrogels and microspheres. Furthermore, powerful bacteria growth inhibition effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus suggested that the composite gel dressing, especially the one with 30mg/mL GMs containing TH, has a promising future in treatment of bacterial infection.

  1. Influence of hydrophilic polymers on functional properties and wound healing efficacy of hydrocolloid based wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Giu; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jin Ki; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different hydrophilic polymers on the swelling, bioadhesion and mechanical strength of hydrocolloid wound dressings (HCDs) in order to provide an appropriate composition for a hydrocolloid wound dressing system. In this study, the HCDs were prepared with styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer (SIS) and polyisobutylene (PIB) as the base using a hot melting method. Additionally, numerous SIS/PIB-based HCDs were prepared with six hydrophilic polymers, and their wound dressing properties were assessed. Finally, the wound healing efficacy of the selected formulations was compared to a commercial wound dressing. The swelling ratio, bioadhesive force and mechanical strengths of HCDs were increased in the order of sodium alginate>sodium CMC=poloxamer=HPMC>PVA=PVP, sodium alginate>sodium CMC=poloxamer>PVA>HPMC=PVP and sodium alginate≥PVA>PVP=HPMC=sodium CMC>poloxamer, respectively. Among the hydrophilic polymers tested, sodium alginate most enhanced the swelling capacity, bioadhesive force and mechanical strengths. Thus, the hydrophilic polymers played great role in the swelling, bioadhesion and mechanical strength of SIS/PIB-based HCDs. The HCD formulation composed of PIB, SIS, liquid paraffin and sodium alginate at the weight ratio of 20/25/12/43 gave better wound dressing properties and more excellent wound healing efficacy than the commercial wound dressing. Therefore, the novel HCD formulation could be a promising hydrocolloid system for wound dressings.

  2. Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, E. R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Austin, D. R.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S. E. E.; Siegel, T.; Ruberti, M.; Averbukh, V.; Miseikis, L.; Strüber, C. S.; Chipperfield, L.; Marangos, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the vectorial response of strongly dressed helium atoms probed by an attosecond pulse train (APT) polarised either parallel or perpendicular to the dressing field polarisation. The transient absorption is probed as a function of delay between the APT and the linearly polarised 800 nm field of peak intensity 1.3× {10}14 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The APT spans the photon energy range 16-42 eV, covering the first ionisation energy of helium (24.59 eV). With parallel polarised dressing and probing fields, we observe modulations with periods of one half and one quarter of the dressing field period. When the polarisation of the dressing field is altered from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the APT polarisation we observe a large suppression in the modulation depth of the above ionisation threshold absorption. In addition to this we present the intensity dependence of the harmonic modulation depth as a function of delay between the dressing and probe fields, with dressing field peak intensities ranging from 2 × 1012 to 2 × 1014 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. We compare our experimental results with a full-dimensional solution of the single-atom time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation obtained using the recently developed abinitio TD B-spline ADC method and find good qualitative agreement for the above threshold harmonics.

  3. CASE REPORT Use of a Hydroconductive Dressing to Treat a Traumatic Avulsive Injury of the Face

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Colin Jerome; Robson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Traumatic avulsive injuries present complex therapeutic decisions. Radical and repeated debridement of all foreign material, necrotic tissue, bacteria, and deleterious chemicals followed by control of the bacterial bioburden and wound closure has been the gold standard. However, when such injuries occur in the face, the treatment requires modification. Specialized structures, nerves, and a maximum amount of tissue must be preserved. Topical antimicrobials may lead to dessication and further injury to tissue. Therefore, alternative treatments must be considered. Recently, a hydroconductive dressing has been demonstrated to decrease edema by removing excess exudate, to remove debris and necrotic tissue, and to decrease bacteria and deleterious cytokines in wounds. Methods: Regular dressings were done between 1 and 3 days by dedicated personnel, using a hydroconductive dressing. Following an initial conservative debridement and reconstruction while attempting to preserve as much of the normal structure as possible, the wounds were dressed with a hydroconductive dressing. Results: Using only selective conservative debridement following bony reconstruction and repeated hydroconductive dressing changes, this severe injury healed with preservation of the important facial features. No further extensive surgical procedures were required. On discharge, the patient was able to function well with a reasonably good aesthetic result. She was subsequently lost to follow-up. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates that a hydroconductive dressing can be useful for traumatic avulsive injuries. PMID:22848776

  4. Dressing wear time after breast reconstruction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the major risk variables for surgical site infection is wound management. Understanding infection risk factors for breast operations is essential in order to develop infection-prevention strategies and improve surgical outcomes. The aim of this trial is to assess the influence of dressing wear time on surgical site infection rates and skin colonization. Patients’ perception at self-assessment will also be analyzed. Methods/Design This is a two-arm randomized controlled trial. Two hundred breast cancer patients undergoing immediate or delayed breast reconstruction will be prospectively enrolled. Patients will be randomly allocated to group I (dressing removed on postoperative day one) or group II (dressing removed on postoperative day six). Surgical site infections will be defined by standard criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Skin colonization will be assessed by culture of samples collected at predefined time points. Patients will score dressing wear time with regard to safety, comfort and convenience. Discussion The evidence to support dressing standards for breast surgery wounds is empiric and scarce. CDC recommends protecting, with a sterile dressing for 24 to 48 hours postoperatively, a primarily closed incision, but there is no recommendation to cover this kind of incision beyond 48 hours, or on the appropriate time to shower or bathe with an uncovered incision. The results of the ongoing trial may support standard recommendations regarding dressing wear time after breast reconstruction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: http://NCT01148823. PMID:23432779

  5. Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Biesaga, Magdalena; Gierczak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces. Material/Methods Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors. Results All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around. Conclusions Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used. PMID:26264209

  6. Clinical acceptability of a dressing with matrix technology: a multisite evaluation of acute and chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, J; Potter, R

    2016-08-01

    This article will describe the findings of an evaluation on the performance and clinical acceptability of Urgotul Absorb Border (Urgo Medical), a silicone border adhesive foam dressing containing technology lipidocolloid (TLC) healing matrix technology, as either a primary or secondary dressing in the management of acute and chronic wounds in a multisite evaluation. The purpose of the evaluation was to establish the effectiveness of the silicone border dressing for managing exudate, ease of use, patient comfort and acceptability of the clinician for the dressing to meet with treatment objectives Method: The patient experiences given through verbal or written feedback were also documented. Local Health Board evaluation forms were used to capture data and the authors of this article created a data evaluation tool to collate and subsequently report all study findings. A total of 100 patients with wounds considered suitable for the application of the dressing were selected to take part in the study. In less than a four week period, 38 patients achieved wound healing with a further 36 patients demonstrating wound improvements within the same time period. The dressing was found to have met both the clinicians and patients aims when used as either a primary or secondary dressing and was considered suitable for use in both acute and chronic wounds of varying duration.

  7. Local Velocity Postprocessing for Multipoint Flux Methods on General Hexahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M. F.; Xue, G.; Yotov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The authors formulated in a multipoint flux mixed finite element method that reduces to a cell-centered pressure system on general quadrilaterals and hexahedra for elliptic equations arising in subsurface flow problems. In addition they showed that a special quadrature rule yields O(h) convergence for face fluxes on distorted hexahedra. Here a first order local velocity postprocessing procedure using these face fluxes is developed and analyzed. The algorithm involves solving a 3 × 3 system on each element and utilizes an enhanced mixed finite element space introduced by Falk, Gatto, and Monk. Computational results verifying the theory are demonstrated.

  8. Nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, G.; Detroux, T.; Viguié, R.; Kerschen, G.

    2015-02-01

    This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA), is introduced in this paper. An unconventional aspect of the NLTVA is that the mathematical form of its restoring force is tailored according to the nonlinear restoring force of the primary system. The NLTVA parameters are then determined using a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method. The mitigation of the resonant vibrations of a Duffing oscillator is considered to illustrate the proposed developments.

  9. A general method for unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Platzer, Max F.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a general method for calculating unsteady heat transfer on turbine blades is described. It is based on the numerical solution of the boundary-layer equations for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows. A novel procedure has been developed to account for the movement of the stagnation point caused by blade-passing wakes and has been applied to the stagnation region of three model flows with results which confirm its validity for laminar flows. It has also been applied to an experimental arrangement in which the average Nusselt number has been reported for turbulent flows and the results show considerable promise.

  10. A general method for the quantitative assessment of mineral pigments.

    PubMed

    Ares, M C Zurita; Fernández, J M

    2016-01-01

    A general method for the estimation of mineral pigment contents in different bases has been proposed using a sole set of calibration curves, (one for each pigment), calculated for a white standard base, thus elaborating patterns for each utilized base is not necessary. The method can be used in different bases and its validity had ev en been proved in strongly tinted bases. The method consists of a novel procedure that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, second derivatives and the Kubelka-Munk function. This technique has proved to be at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than X-Ray diffraction for colored compounds, since it allowed the determination of the pigment amount in colored samples containing 0.5 wt% of pigment that was not detected by X-Ray Diffraction. The method can be used to estimate the concentration of mineral pigments in a wide variety of either natural or artificial materials, since it does not requiere the calculation of each pigment pattern in every base. This fact could have important industrial consequences, as the proposed method would be more convenient, faster and cheaper.

  11. Combining the complex Langevin method and the generalized Lefschetz-thimble method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    The complex Langevin method and the generalized Lefschetz-thimble method are two closely related approaches to the sign problem, which are both based on complexification of the original dynamical variables. The former can be viewed as a generalization of the stochastic quantization using the Langevin equation, whereas the latter is a deformation of the integration contour using the so-called holomorphic gradient flow. In order to clarify their relationship, we propose a formulation which combines the two methods by applying the former method to the real variables that parametrize the deformed integration contour in the latter method. Three versions, which differ in the treatment of the residual sign problem in the latter method, are considered. By applying them to a single-variable model, we find, in particular, that one of the versions interpolates the complex Langevin method and the original Lefschetz-thimble method.

  12. Generalized grain cluster method for multiscale response of multiphase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegari, Sourena; Turteltaub, Sergio; Suiker, Akke S. J.

    2015-08-01

    A multiscale approach termed the generalized grain cluster method (GGCM) is presented, which can be applied for the prediction of the macroscopic behavior of an aggregate of single crystal grains composing a multiphase material. The GGCM is based on the minimization of a functional that depends on the microscopic deformation gradients in the grains through the equilibrium requirements of the grains as well as kinematic compatibility between grains. By means of the specification of weighting factors it is possible to mimic responses falling between the Taylor and Sachs bounds. The numerical solution is computed with an incremental-iterative algorithm based on a constrained gradient descent method. For a multiscale analysis, the GCCM can be included at integration points of a standard finite element code to simulate macroscopic problems. A comparison with FEM direct numerical simulations illustrates that the computational time of the GGCM may be up to about an order of magnitude lower.

  13. Generalized method for retrieving effective parameters of anisotropic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Castanié, A; Mercier, J-F; Félix, S; Maurel, A

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic or acoustic metamaterials can be described in terms of equivalent effective, in general anisotropic, media and several techniques exist to determine the effective permeability and permittivity (or effective mass density and bulk modulus in the context of acoustics). Among these techniques, retrieval methods use the measured reflection and transmission coefficients (or scattering coefficients) for waves incident on a metamaterial slab containing few unit cells. Until now, anisotropic effective slabs have been considered in the literature but they are limited to the case where one of the axes of anisotropy is aligned with the slab interface. We propose an extension to arbitrary orientations of the principal axes of anisotropy and oblique incidence. The retrieval method is illustrated in the electromagnetic case for layered media, and in the acoustic case for array of tilted elliptical particles.

  14. Intermediate electrostatic field for the generalized elongation method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Korchowiec, Jacek; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-05-18

    An intermediate electrostatic field is introduced to improve the accuracy of fragment-based quantum-chemical computational methods by including long-range polarizations of biomolecules. The point charge distribution of the intermediate field is generated by a charge sensitivity analysis that is parameterized for five different population analyses, namely, atoms-in-molecules, Hirshfeld, Mulliken, natural orbital, and Voronoi population analysis. Two model systems are chosen to demonstrate the performance of the generalized elongation method (ELG) combined with the intermediate electrostatic field. The calculations are performed for the STO-3G, 6-31G, and 6-31G(d) basis sets and compared with reference Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that the error in the total energy is reduced by one order of magnitude, independently of the population analyses used. This demonstrates the importance of long-range polarization in electronic-structure calculations by fragmentation techniques.

  15. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  16. First Principles Structure Calculations Using the General Potential Lapw Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Su-Huai

    We have developed a completely general first principles self-consistent full-potential linearized-augmented-plane -wave (LAPW) method program within the density functional formalism to calculate electronic band structure, total energy, pressure and other quantities. No symmetry assumptions are used for the crystal structure. Shape unrestricted charge densities and potentials are calculated inside muffin -tin (MT) spheres as well as in the interstitial regions. All contributions to the Hamiltonian matrix elements are completely taken into account. The core states are treated fully relativistically using the spherical part of the potential only. Scalar relativistic effects are included for the band-states, and spin-orbit coupling is included using a second variation procedure. Both core states and valence states are treated self-consistently, the frozen core approximation is not required. The fast Fourier transformation method is used wherever it is applicable, and this greatly improves the efficiency. This state-of-the-art program has been tested extensively to check the accuracy and convergence properties by comparing calculated electronic band structures, ground state properties, equations of state and cohesive energies for bulk W and GaAs with other theoretical calculations and experimental results. It has been successfully applied to calculate and predict structural and metal-insulator phase transitions for close-packed crystal BaSe and BaTe and the geometric structure of the d-band metal W(001) surface. The results are in generally good agreement with experiment.

  17. General Methods for Evolutionary Quantitative Genetic Inference from Generalized Mixed Models.

    PubMed

    de Villemereuil, Pierre; Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Morrissey, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Methods for inference and interpretation of evolutionary quantitative genetic parameters, and for prediction of the response to selection, are best developed for traits with normal distributions. Many traits of evolutionary interest, including many life history and behavioral traits, have inherently nonnormal distributions. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework has become a widely used tool for estimating quantitative genetic parameters for nonnormal traits. However, whereas GLMMs provide inference on a statistically convenient latent scale, it is often desirable to express quantitative genetic parameters on the scale upon which traits are measured. The parameters of fitted GLMMs, despite being on a latent scale, fully determine all quantities of potential interest on the scale on which traits are expressed. We provide expressions for deriving each of such quantities, including population means, phenotypic (co)variances, variance components including additive genetic (co)variances, and parameters such as heritability. We demonstrate that fixed effects have a strong impact on those parameters and show how to deal with this by averaging or integrating over fixed effects. The expressions require integration of quantities determined by the link function, over distributions of latent values. In general cases, the required integrals must be solved numerically, but efficient methods are available and we provide an implementation in an R package, QGglmm. We show that known formulas for quantities such as heritability of traits with binomial and Poisson distributions are special cases of our expressions. Additionally, we show how fitted GLMM can be incorporated into existing methods for predicting evolutionary trajectories. We demonstrate the accuracy of the resulting method for evolutionary prediction by simulation and apply our approach to data from a wild pedigreed vertebrate population.

  18. General Methods for Evolutionary Quantitative Genetic Inference from Generalized Mixed Models

    PubMed Central

    de Villemereuil, Pierre; Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Morrissey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Methods for inference and interpretation of evolutionary quantitative genetic parameters, and for prediction of the response to selection, are best developed for traits with normal distributions. Many traits of evolutionary interest, including many life history and behavioral traits, have inherently nonnormal distributions. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework has become a widely used tool for estimating quantitative genetic parameters for nonnormal traits. However, whereas GLMMs provide inference on a statistically convenient latent scale, it is often desirable to express quantitative genetic parameters on the scale upon which traits are measured. The parameters of fitted GLMMs, despite being on a latent scale, fully determine all quantities of potential interest on the scale on which traits are expressed. We provide expressions for deriving each of such quantities, including population means, phenotypic (co)variances, variance components including additive genetic (co)variances, and parameters such as heritability. We demonstrate that fixed effects have a strong impact on those parameters and show how to deal with this by averaging or integrating over fixed effects. The expressions require integration of quantities determined by the link function, over distributions of latent values. In general cases, the required integrals must be solved numerically, but efficient methods are available and we provide an implementation in an R package, QGglmm. We show that known formulas for quantities such as heritability of traits with binomial and Poisson distributions are special cases of our expressions. Additionally, we show how fitted GLMM can be incorporated into existing methods for predicting evolutionary trajectories. We demonstrate the accuracy of the resulting method for evolutionary prediction by simulation and apply our approach to data from a wild pedigreed vertebrate population. PMID:27591750

  19. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: A general method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ9-40, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  20. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: a general method.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Li, Mai Suan; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2014-03-07

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ9-40, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  1. Amyloid oligomer structure characterization from simulations: A general method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan

    2014-03-07

    Amyloid oligomers and plaques are composed of multiple chemically identical proteins. Therefore, one of the first fundamental problems in the characterization of structures from simulations is the treatment of the degeneracy, i.e., the permutation of the molecules. Second, the intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom of the various molecules must be taken into account. Currently, the well-known dihedral principal component analysis method only considers the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and other methods employing collective variables can only describe intermolecular degrees of freedom at the global level. With this in mind, we propose a general method that identifies all the structures accurately. The basis idea is that the intramolecular and intermolecular states are described in terms of combinations of single-molecule and double-molecule states, respectively, and the overall structures of oligomers are the product basis of the intramolecular and intermolecular states. This way, the degeneracy is automatically avoided. The method is illustrated on the conformational ensemble of the tetramer of the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ{sub 9−40}, resulting from two atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent, each of 200 ns, starting from two distinct structures.

  2. Generalized Weighted Residual Method; Advancements and Current Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffel, Jan; Lindvall, Kristoffer

    2016-10-01

    The Generalized Weighted Residual Method (GWRM) is a time-spectral method for solving initial value partial differential equations. The GWRM treats the temporal, spatial, and parameter domains by projecting the residual to a Chebyshev polynomial space, with the variational principle being that the residual is zero. This treatment provides a global semi-analytical solution. However, straightforward global solution is not economical. One remedy is the inclusion of spatial and temporal sub-domains with coupled internal boundary conditions, which decreases memory requirements and introduces sparse matrices. Only the equations pertaining to the boundary conditions need be solved globally, making the method parallelizable in time. Efficient solution of the linearized ideal MHD stability equations of screw-pinch equilibria are proved possible. The GWRM has also been used to solve strongly nonlinear ODEs such as the Lorenz equations (1984), and is capable of competing with finite time difference schemes in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. GWRM solutions of linear and nonlinear model problems of interest for stability and turbulence modelling will be presented, including detailed comparisons with time stepping methods.

  3. Generalized Bootstrap Method for Assessment of Uncertainty in Semivariogram Inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.

    2011-01-01

    The semivariogram and its related function, the covariance, play a central role in classical geostatistics for modeling the average continuity of spatially correlated attributes. Whereas all methods are formulated in terms of the true semivariogram, in practice what can be used are estimated semivariograms and models based on samples. A generalized form of the bootstrap method to properly model spatially correlated data is used to advance knowledge about the reliability of empirical semivariograms and semivariogram models based on a single sample. Among several methods available to generate spatially correlated resamples, we selected a method based on the LU decomposition and used several examples to illustrate the approach. The first one is a synthetic, isotropic, exhaustive sample following a normal distribution, the second example is also a synthetic but following a non-Gaussian random field, and a third empirical sample consists of actual raingauge measurements. Results show wider confidence intervals than those found previously by others with inadequate application of the bootstrap. Also, even for the Gaussian example, distributions for estimated semivariogram values and model parameters are positively skewed. In this sense, bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which are not centered around the empirical semivariogram and do not require distributional assumptions for its construction, provide an achieved coverage similar to the nominal coverage. The latter cannot be achieved by symmetrical confidence intervals based on the standard error, regardless if the standard error is estimated from a parametric equation or from bootstrap. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.

  4. The Dress: Transforming a web viral event into a scientific survey.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Lavorgna, Luigi; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Bonavita, Simona

    2016-05-01

    The Dress picture recently has become a hot topic on the Internet, prompting a debate whether it was black and blue, or white and gold. To investigate The Dress color perception in both multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, characterized by frequent visual system impairment with ensuing color vision effects, and general population. We developed a questionnaire to record demographics, clinical features, and The Dress color perception, posted on general and MS-specific social networks. No statistically significant differences were observed in The Dress color perception between MS patients (n=103) and general population (n=441). Furthermore, white and gold color perception was positively associated with aging in the general population (p=0.04), whereas negatively associated with progressive course (p=0.03) and longer disease duration (p<0.001) in MS patients, independently from patients' age. The Dress black and blue or white and gold perception might be due to aging in the general population, whereas black and blue perception, despite of aging, might suggest a specific effect of the MS burden (i.e. disease duration and progression) on the visual structures specifically involved in the white and gold perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recommendations for road surface dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidance is provided for the preparation of specifications needed to cater to the wide range of traffic conditions and types of surfaces likely to be encountered on country lanes as well as other motorways. Both chippings and binders are considered as well as their application. Topics covered include surface preparation; application of the binder; spraying time; joining strips of sprayed binder; applying chips; rolling; and traffic management during and after operations. Special areas discussed include heavily trafficked high speed roads; hard shoulders; open-textured and porous bituminous surfaces; unbound surfaces; sealing roadbases, subgrades, and subbases; bituminous mist sprays; high stressed sites (epoxy resin based systems); the treatment of fatted surface dressings; and the control of materials and workmanship. Procedures for measuring hardness, and the rate of spread of spray binders and of chippings are included.

  6. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kiet A. E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Pachter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Day, Paul N.

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  7. Flutter and Divergence Analysis using the Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    The Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method (GAAM) is applied to the analysis of three well-studied checkcases: restrained and unrestrained airfoil models, and a wing model. An eigenvalue iteration procedure is used for converging upon roots of the complex stability matrix. For the airfoil models, exact root loci are given which clearly illustrate the nature of the flutter and divergence instabilities. The singularities involved are enumerated, including an additional pole at the origin for the unrestrained airfoil case and the emergence of an additional pole on the positive real axis at the divergence speed for the restrained airfoil case. Inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new, exact results are discussed and resolved. The generalization of a Doublet Lattice Method computer code is described and the code is applied to the calculation of root loci for the wing model for incompressible and for subsonic flow conditions. The error introduced in the reduction of the singular integral equation underlying the unsteady lifting surface theory to a linear algebraic equation is discussed. Acknowledging this inherent error, the solutions of the algebraic equation by GAAM are termed 'exact.' The singularities of the problem are discussed and exponential series approximations used in the evaluation of the kernel function shown to introduce a dense collection of poles and zeroes on the negative real axis. Again, inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new 'exact' results are discussed and resolved. In all cases, aeroelastic flutter and divergence speeds and frequencies are in good agreement with published results. The GAAM solution procedure allows complete control over Mach number, velocity, density, and complex frequency. Thus all points on the computed root loci can be matched-point, consistent solutions without recourse to complex mode tracking logic or dataset interpolation, as in the k and p

  8. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. [in celestial mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A. H.; Tapley, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence Duffing's equation, the van der Pol equation and the oscillator with quadratic damping problem are solved using each method.

  9. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A.; Tapley, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence both Duffing's equation and the van der Pol equation are solved using each method.

  10. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. [in celestial mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A. H.; Tapley, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence Duffing's equation, the van der Pol equation and the oscillator with quadratic damping problem are solved using each method.

  11. Equivalence of the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, A.; Tapley, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    In this investigation, a comparison is made of two methods for developing perturbation theories for non-canonical dynamical systems. The methods compared are the generalized Lie-Hori method and the method of averaging. In the comparison presented here, the equivalence of the methods up to the second order in the small parameter is shown. However, the approach used can be extended to demonstrate the equivalence for higher orders. To illustrate the equivalence both Duffing's equation and the van der Pol equation are solved using each method.

  12. Dress Codes in the Public Schools: Principals, Policies, and Precepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.; Fossey, Richard; Cobb, Casey

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 157 principals (65 percent of a national sample) showed strong support for dress codes. Research focuses on the perception of school principals regarding dress codes, analyzes dress codes for common features, and proposes a constitutional standard of review for contested dress codes. (58 footnotes) (MLF)

  13. Dress Codes in the Public Schools: Principals, Policies, and Precepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.; Fossey, Richard; Cobb, Casey

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 157 principals (65 percent of a national sample) showed strong support for dress codes. Research focuses on the perception of school principals regarding dress codes, analyzes dress codes for common features, and proposes a constitutional standard of review for contested dress codes. (58 footnotes) (MLF)

  14. Dress and Appearance Codes in Public Secondary School Handbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbon, Beth; Workman, Jane E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed and compared dress and appearance codes from 154 secondary school handbooks. Unacceptable dress and appearance was listed more frequently that acceptable or required dress; concerns about health, safety, and modesty were reflected; and 80 percent included a statement that dress should not be disruptive to the educational process.…

  15. Blue-Black or White-Gold? Early Stage Processing and the Color of 'The Dress'

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In Feb 2015 an image of a dress posted on Tumblr triggered an internet phenomenon: Is the Dress blue and black (BB) or white and gold (WG)? Many claim BB and others insist WG while the true colors are BB. The prevailing theory is that assumptions about the illuminant govern perception of the Dress with WG due to bluish lighting and BB due to yellowish. Our purpose was to determine if early stage optical, retinal and/or neural factors also impact perception of the Dress. Methods Thirty-nine subjects were categorized as BB or WG based on their initial perception of the Dress and their perception reported when viewing the Dress on iPhone 5, iPad, and 22” LCD displays. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measured with the QuantifEye™ MPS II and visual brainwaves (VEPs) in response to brief presentations of a transparency of the Dress illuminated by a flashing light were measured on each subject and compared between BB and WG groups. Additionally, CIE chromaticity (color) and luminance (brightness) were measured from multiple areas of the Dress image to determine cone stimulation and contrast. Results Mean MPOD was higher in the WG group (0.49) vs. the BB (0.41, p = 0.04) and median values were higher as well (WG = 0.46, BB = 0.36, p = 0.03). There was no difference in VEP amplitude between groups (p > 0.85) but mean VEP latency was longer in WG (130 msec.) vs. the BB group (107 msec., p = 0.0005). Colorimetry of the Dress showed significantly greater stimulation of blue cones (contrast = 73%) vs. red and green sensitive cones (contrast = 13%). Conclusions Our findings indicate that observers with denser MPOD may be predisposed to perceive the Dress as WG due to great absorption of blue light by the macular pigment. Moreover, the novel, substantial stimulation of blue cones by the Dress may contribute to ambiguity and dichotomous perception since the blue cones are so sparse in the retina. Finally, the delayed WG VEPs indicate distinct neural processing

  16. THE EXOPLANET CENSUS: A GENERAL METHOD APPLIED TO KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Youdin, Andrew N.

    2011-11-20

    We develop a general method to fit the underlying planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of planet or target star properties. We apply the method to announced Kepler planet candidates that transit solar-type stars. The Kepler team's estimates of the detection efficiency are used and are shown to agree with theoretical predictions for an ideal transit survey. The PLDF is fit to a joint power law in planet radius, down to 0.5 R{sub Circled-Plus }, and orbital period, up to 50 days. The estimated number of planets per star in this sample is {approx}0.7-1.4, where the range covers systematic uncertainties in the detection efficiency. To analyze trends in the PLDF we consider four planet samples, divided between shorter and longer periods at 7 days and between large and small radii at 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }. The size distribution changes appreciably between these four samples, revealing a relative deficit of {approx}3 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets at the shortest periods. This deficit is suggestive of preferential evaporation and sublimation of Neptune- and Saturn-like planets. If the trend and explanation hold, it would be spectacular observational support of the core accretion and migration hypotheses, and would allow refinement of these theories.

  17. Adaptive Elastic Net for Generalized Methods of Moments.

    PubMed

    Caner, Mehmet; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2014-01-30

    Model selection and estimation are crucial parts of econometrics. This paper introduces a new technique that can simultaneously estimate and select the model in generalized method of moments (GMM) context. The GMM is particularly powerful for analyzing complex data sets such as longitudinal and panel data, and it has wide applications in econometrics. This paper extends the least squares based adaptive elastic net estimator of Zou and Zhang (2009) to nonlinear equation systems with endogenous variables. The extension is not trivial and involves a new proof technique due to estimators lack of closed form solutions. Compared to Bridge-GMM of Caner (2009), we allow for the number of parameters to diverge to infinity as well as collinearity among a large number of variables, also the redundant parameters set to zero via a data dependent technique. This method has the oracle property, meaning that we can estimate nonzero parameters with their standard limit and the redundant parameters are dropped from the equations simultaneously. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the performance of the new method.

  18. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein’s ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter’s mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na+-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21016.001 PMID:28121290

  19. General method for plasmid construction using homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Raymond, C K; Pownder, T A; Sexson, S L

    1999-01-01

    We describe a general method for plasmid assembly that uses yeast and extends beyond yeast-specific research applications. This technology exploits the homologous recombination, double-stranded break repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to join DNA fragments. Synthetic, double-stranded "recombination linkers" were used to "subclone" a DNA fragment into a plasmid with > 80% efficiency. Quantitative data on the influence of DNA concentration and overlap length on the efficiency of recombination are presented. Using a simple procedure, plasmids were shuttled from yeast into E. coli for subsequent screening and large-scale plasmid preps. This simple method for plasmid construction has several advantages. (i) It bypasses the need for extensive PCR amplification and for purification, modification and/or ligation techniques routinely used for plasmid constructions. (ii) The method does not rely on available restriction sites, thus fragment and vector DNA can be joined within any DNA sequence. This enables the use of multifunctional cloning vectors for protein expression in mammalian cells, other yeast species, E. coli and other expression systems as discussed. (iii) Finally, the technology exploits yeast strains, plasmids and microbial techniques that are inexpensive and readily available.

  20. A modern method of treatment: The role of silver dressings in promoting healing and preventing pathological scarring in patients with burn wounds

    PubMed Central

    Munteanu, A; Florescu, IP; Nitescu, C

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds are a global public health problem, which affects all countries, no matter the development stage and occurs in all age groups, from toddlers to elderly. In spite of burns being the cause of numerous household and work accidents, there are still no clear stated unanimous rules for their treatment. Every day new products appear on the market, each of them trying to prove more effective. Since ancient times, silver has been known for its antimicrobial properties, so it has been used for a long time in the treatment of burns and other types of wounds. One of the relatively modern methods of treatment is applying silver sheets on the scald lesions. In this paper, which was part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis), concerning prevention and treatment of the post-burn pathological scars, the cases of some patients with burns, who were treated by using the above mentioned method were presented and analyzed. The results obtained by applying silver sheets were then commented and interpreted, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages compared to silver sulfadiazine creams and ointments, which have already been used at a large scale. The prevention and treatment of post-burn pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) scars is a field in which still little is known and in which there are also no clearly set therapy plans. We hope that through this research and the following ones we will manage to establish some major guidelines concerning the prevention of pathological scars, which are not only disabling, but also a major aesthetic issue for any patient, in order to obtain better outcomes. PMID:27974941

  1. A modern method of treatment: The role of silver dressings in promoting healing and preventing pathological scarring in patients with burn wounds.

    PubMed

    A, Munteanu; Ip, Florescu; C, Nitescu

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds are a global public health problem, which affects all countries, no matter the development stage and occurs in all age groups, from toddlers to elderly. In spite of burns being the cause of numerous household and work accidents, there are still no clear stated unanimous rules for their treatment. Every day new products appear on the market, each of them trying to prove more effective. Since ancient times, silver has been known for its antimicrobial properties, so it has been used for a long time in the treatment of burns and other types of wounds. One of the relatively modern methods of treatment is applying silver sheets on the scald lesions. In this paper, which was part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis), concerning prevention and treatment of the post-burn pathological scars, the cases of some patients with burns, who were treated by using the above mentioned method were presented and analyzed. The results obtained by applying silver sheets were then commented and interpreted, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages compared to silver sulfadiazine creams and ointments, which have already been used at a large scale. The prevention and treatment of post-burn pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) scars is a field in which still little is known and in which there are also no clearly set therapy plans. We hope that through this research and the following ones we will manage to establish some major guidelines concerning the prevention of pathological scars, which are not only disabling, but also a major aesthetic issue for any patient, in order to obtain better outcomes.

  2. An efficient iterative method for the generalized Stokes problem

    SciTech Connect

    Sameh, A.; Sarin, V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an efficient iterative scheme for the generalized Stokes problem, which arises frequently in the simulation of time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow. The general form of the linear system is where A = {alpha}M + vT is an n x n symmetric positive definite matrix, in which M is the mass matrix, T is the discrete Laplace operator, {alpha} and {nu} are positive constants proportional to the inverses of the time-step {Delta}t and the Reynolds number Re respectively, and B is the discrete gradient operator of size n x k (k < n). Even though the matrix A is symmetric and positive definite, the system is indefinite due to the incompressibility constraint (B{sup T}u = 0). This causes difficulties both for iterative methods and commonly used preconditioners. Moreover, depending on the ratio {alpha}/{nu}, A behaves like the mass matrix M at one extreme and the Laplace operator T at the other, thus complicating the issue of preconditioning.

  3. Appropriate model selection methods for nonstationary generalized extreme value models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanbeen; Kim, Sooyoung; Shin, Hongjoon; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2017-04-01

    Several evidences of hydrologic data series being nonstationary in nature have been found to date. This has resulted in the conduct of many studies in the area of nonstationary frequency analysis. Nonstationary probability distribution models involve parameters that vary over time. Therefore, it is not a straightforward process to apply conventional goodness-of-fit tests to the selection of an appropriate nonstationary probability distribution model. Tests that are generally recommended for such a selection include the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), corrected Akaike's information criterion (AICc), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and likelihood ratio test (LRT). In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation was performed to compare the performances of these four tests, with regard to nonstationary as well as stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions. Proper model selection ratios and sample sizes were taken into account to evaluate the performances of all the four tests. The BIC demonstrated the best performance with regard to stationary GEV models. In case of nonstationary GEV models, the AIC proved to be better than the other three methods, when relatively small sample sizes were considered. With larger sample sizes, the AIC, BIC, and LRT presented the best performances for GEV models which have nonstationary location and/or scale parameters, respectively. Simulation results were then evaluated by applying all four tests to annual maximum rainfall data of selected sites, as observed by the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  4. Novel Methods for Communicating Plasma Science to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Merali, Aliya; Wissel, S. A.; Delooper, John

    2012-10-01

    The broader implications of Plasma Science remains an elusive topic that the general public rarely discusses, regardless of their relevance to energy, the environment, and technology. Recently, we have looked beyond print media for methods to reach large numbers of people in creative and informative ways. These have included video, art, images, and music. For example, our submission to the ``What is a Flame?'' contest was ranked in the top 15 out of 800 submissions. Images of plasmas have won 3 out of 5 of the Princeton University ``Art of Science'' competitions. We use a plasma speaker to teach students of all ages about sound generation and plasma physics. We report on the details of each of these and future videos and animations under development.

  5. Generalized dual-plane digital holographic imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Panezai, Spozmai; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2016-12-01

    A generalized dual-plane technique for digital holographic imaging is proposed. Two holograms are recorded at two slightly displaced planes. The complex amplitude of the plane reference wave is obtained according to the measured intensity of the reference beam and the spectrum of hologram. The holograms are modified with the known information of the reference wave. Then, the modified holograms are reconstructed by the dual-plane algorithm. The zero-order and the twin images are removed in the reconstructed image. The simulation and experiments demonstrate that this method is valid for both on-axis and off-axis digital holography and high resolution reconstruction is achieved even with a very small offset angle of the reference beam.

  6. A general radiochemical-color method for quantitation of immunoblots.

    PubMed

    Esmaeli-Azad, B; Feinstein, S C

    1991-12-01

    Quantitative interpretation of protein immunoblotting procedures is hampered by a variety of technical liabilities inherent in the use of photographic and densitometric methods. In this paper, we present a novel, simple, and generally applicable alternative procedure to acquire quantitative data from immunoblots. Our strategy employs both the standard alkaline phosphatase color reaction and radiolabelled Protein A. The color reaction is used to localize the polypeptide of interest after transfer to a solid support. The colored bands are then excised and the radioactivity in the colocalized Protein A is quantitated in a gamma counter. In addition to avoiding the problems associated with photographic and densitometric procedures, our assay also overcomes common problems associated with variable gel lane width and individual band distortion. The resulting data is linear over a range of at least 50-fold (10-500 ng of specific protein, for the example used in this study) and is highly reproducible.

  7. Comparison of three different dressings for partial thickness burns in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the paediatric population, pain and distress associated with burn injuries during wound care procedures remain a constant challenge. Although silver dressings are the gold standard for burn care in Australasia, very few high-level trials have been conducted that compare silver dressings to determine which will provide the best level of care clinically. Therefore, for paediatric patients in particular, identifying silver dressings that are associated with lower levels of pain and rapid wound re-epithelialisation is imperative. This study will determine whether there is a difference in time to re-epithelialisation and pain and distress experienced during wound care procedures among Acticoat™, Acticoat™ combined with Mepitel™ and Mepilex Ag™ dressings for acute, paediatric partial thickness burns. Methods/Design Children aged 0 to 15 years with an acute partial thickness (superficial partial to deep partial thickness inclusive) burn injury and a burn total body surface area of ≤10% will be eligible for the trial. Patients will be randomised to one of the three dressing groups: (1) Acticoat™ or (2) Acticoat™ combined with Mepitel™ or (3) Mepilex Ag™. A minimum of 28 participants will be recruited for each treatment group. Primary measures of pain, distress and healing will be repeated at each dressing change until complete wound re-epithelialisation occurs or skin grafting is required. Additional data collected will include infection status at each dressing change, physical function, scar outcome and scar management requirements, cost effectiveness of each dressing and staff perspectives of the dressings. Discussion The results of this study will determine the effects of three commonly used silver and silicone burn dressing combinations on the rate of wound re-epithelialisation and pain experienced during dressing procedures in acute, paediatric partial thickness burn injuries. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  8. Creation and transfer of nonclassical states of motion using Rydberg dressing of atoms in a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, L. F.; Mølmer, K.; Petrosyan, D.

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the motional states of trapped ground-state atoms using Rydberg dressing via nonresonant laser fields. The forces resulting from Rydberg state interaction between dressed neighboring atoms in an array of microtraps or an optical lattice can strongly couple their motion. We show that intensity modulation of the dressing field allows us to squeeze the relative motion of a pair of atoms and generate nonclassical mechanical states. Extending this pairwise scheme to one-dimensional chains provides flexible control over the mechanical degrees of freedom of the whole system. We illustrate our findings with protocols to manipulate all motional degrees of freedom of a pair of atoms and create entangled states. We also present a method to transfer nonclassical correlations along an atomic chain of nontrivial length. The long-lived nature of motional states, together with the high tunability of Rydberg dressing, makes our proposal feasible for current experimental setups.

  9. A novel generalized ridge regression method for quantitative genetics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xia; Alam, Moudud; Fikse, Freddy; Rönnegård, Lars

    2013-04-01

    As the molecular marker density grows, there is a strong need in both genome-wide association studies and genomic selection to fit models with a large number of parameters. Here we present a computationally efficient generalized ridge regression (RR) algorithm for situations in which the number of parameters largely exceeds the number of observations. The computationally demanding parts of the method depend mainly on the number of observations and not the number of parameters. The algorithm was implemented in the R package bigRR based on the previously developed package hglm. Using such an approach, a heteroscedastic effects model (HEM) was also developed, implemented, and tested. The efficiency for different data sizes were evaluated via simulation. The method was tested for a bacteria-hypersensitive trait in a publicly available Arabidopsis data set including 84 inbred lines and 216,130 SNPs. The computation of all the SNP effects required <10 sec using a single 2.7-GHz core. The advantage in run time makes permutation test feasible for such a whole-genome model, so that a genome-wide significance threshold can be obtained. HEM was found to be more robust than ordinary RR (a.k.a. SNP-best linear unbiased prediction) in terms of QTL mapping, because SNP-specific shrinkage was applied instead of a common shrinkage. The proposed algorithm was also assessed for genomic evaluation and was shown to give better predictions than ordinary RR.

  10. Generalized method of eigenoscillations for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Castro Neto, Antonio; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the ``probe'') and a material surface (the ``sample'') is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances (eigenoscillations), corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe, as well as the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several axisymmetric particle shapes (spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped). For spheroids an efficient numerical method is proposed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. The method is applied to modeling near-field spectroscopy studies of various materials. For highly resonant materials such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene) a rich structure of the simulated signal is found, including multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves. These features have a strong dependence on physical parameters, e.g., the probe shape. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide the dependence is weaker, and the spheroid model is generally applicable.

  11. Process Setting through General Linear Model and Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjuntichai, Angsumalin

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the efficiency of the flow-wrap packaging process in soap industry through the reduction of defectives. At the 95% confidence level, with the regression analysis, the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimper are found to be the significant factors for the flow-wrap process with respect to the number/percentage of defectives. Twenty seven experiments have been designed and performed according to three levels of each controllable factor. With the general linear model (GLM), the suggested values for the sealing temperature, temperatures of upper and lower crimpers are 185, 85 and 85° C, respectively while the response surface method (RSM) provides the optimal process conditions at 186, 89 and 88° C. Due to different assumptions between percentage of defective and all three temperature parameters, the suggested conditions from the two methods are then slightly different. Fortunately, the estimated percentage of defectives at 5.51% under GLM process condition and the predicted percentage of defectives at 4.62% under RSM process condition are not significant different. But at 95% confidence level, the percentage of defectives under RSM condition can be much lower approximately 2.16% than those under GLM condition in accordance with wider variation. Lastly, the percentages of defectives under the conditions suggested by GLM and RSM are reduced by 55.81% and 62.95%, respectively.

  12. Generalized non-separable two-dimensional Dammann encoding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junjie; Zhou, Changhe; Zhu, Linwei; Lu, Yancong; Wu, Jun; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We generalize for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the Dammann encoding method into non-separable two-dimensional (2D) structures for designing various pure-phase Dammann encoding gratings (DEGs). For examples, three types of non-separable 2D DEGs, including non-separable binary Dammann vortex gratings, non-separable binary distorted Dammann gratings, and non-separable continuous-phase cubic gratings, are designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Correspondingly, it is shown that 2D square arrays of optical vortices with topological charges proportional to the diffraction orders, focus spots shifting along both transversal and axial directions with equal spacings, and Airy-like beams with controllable orientation for each beam, are generated in symmetry or asymmetry by these three DEGs, respectively. Also, it is shown that a more complex-shaped array of modulated beams could be achieved by this non-separable 2D Dammann encoding method, which will be a big challenge for those conventional separable 2D Dammann encoding gratings. Furthermore, the diffractive efficiency of the gratings can be improved around ∼10% when the non-separable structure is applied, compared with their conventional separable counterparts. Such improvement in the efficiency should be of high significance for some specific applications.

  13. Nonequilibrium dressing in a cavity with a movable reflecting mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armata, Federico; Kim, M. S.; Butera, Salvatore; Rizzuto, Lucia; Passante, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    We consider a movable mirror coupled to a one-dimensional massless scalar field in a cavity. Both the field and the mirror's mechanical degrees of freedom are described quantum mechanically, and they can interact with each other via the radiation pressure operator. We investigate the dynamical evolution of mirror and field starting from a nonequilibrium initial state, and their local interaction which brings the system to a stationary configuration for long times. This allows us to study the time-dependent dressing process of the movable mirror interacting with the field, and its dynamics leading to a local equilibrium dressed configuration. Also, in order to explore the effect of the radiation pressure on both sides of the movable mirror, we generalize the effective field-mirror Hamiltonian and previous results to the case of two cavities sharing the same mobile boundary. This leads us to address, in the appropriate limit, the dynamical dressing problem of a single mobile wall, bounded by a harmonic potential, in the vacuum space.

  14. A dressed spin qubit in silicon

    DOE PAGES

    Laucht, Arne; Kalra, Rachpon; Simmons, Stephanie; ...

    2016-10-17

    Coherent dressing of a quantum two-level system provides access to a new quantum system with improved properties—a different and easily tunable level splitting, faster control and longer coherence times. In our work we investigate the properties of the dressed, donor-bound electron spin in silicon, and assess its potential as a quantum bit in scalable architectures. The two dressed spin-polariton levels constitute a quantum bit that can be coherently driven with an oscillating magnetic field, an oscillating electric field, frequency modulation of the driving field or a simple detuning pulse. We measure coherence times of T*2p = 2.4 ms and THahn2pmore » = 9 ms, one order of magnitude longer than those of the undressed spin. Moreover, the use of the dressed states enables coherent coupling of the solid-state spins to electric fields and mechanical oscillations.« less

  15. A dressed spin qubit in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Laucht, Arne; Kalra, Rachpon; Simmons, Stephanie; Dehollain, Juan P.; Muhonen, Juha T.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Freer, Solomon; Hudson, Fay E.; Itoh, Kohei M.; Jamieson, David N.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, A.

    2016-10-17

    Coherent dressing of a quantum two-level system provides access to a new quantum system with improved properties—a different and easily tunable level splitting, faster control and longer coherence times. In our work we investigate the properties of the dressed, donor-bound electron spin in silicon, and assess its potential as a quantum bit in scalable architectures. The two dressed spin-polariton levels constitute a quantum bit that can be coherently driven with an oscillating magnetic field, an oscillating electric field, frequency modulation of the driving field or a simple detuning pulse. We measure coherence times of T*2p = 2.4 ms and THahn2p = 9 ms, one order of magnitude longer than those of the undressed spin. Moreover, the use of the dressed states enables coherent coupling of the solid-state spins to electric fields and mechanical oscillations.

  16. A dressed spin qubit in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Arne; Kalra, Rachpon; Simmons, Stephanie; Dehollain, Juan P.; Muhonen, Juha T.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Freer, Solomon; Hudson, Fay E.; Itoh, Kohei M.; Jamieson, David N.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, A.

    2017-01-01

    Coherent dressing of a quantum two-level system provides access to a new quantum system with improved properties—a different and easily tunable level splitting, faster control and longer coherence times. In our work we investigate the properties of the dressed, donor-bound electron spin in silicon, and assess its potential as a quantum bit in scalable architectures. The two dressed spin-polariton levels constitute a quantum bit that can be coherently driven with an oscillating magnetic field, an oscillating electric field, frequency modulation of the driving field or a simple detuning pulse. We measure coherence times of and , one order of magnitude longer than those of the undressed spin. Furthermore, the use of the dressed states enables coherent coupling of the solid-state spins to electric fields and mechanical oscillations.

  17. [DRESS syndrome: Report of nine cases].

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Garza, Jorge; Ocampo-Garza, Sonia Sofía; Martínez-Villarreal, José Darío; Barbosa-Moreno, Laura Elena; Guerrero-González, Guillermo Antonio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2015-05-01

    DRESS Syndrome (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is an uncommon disease caused by drugs. It is characterized by a polymorphic disseminated eruption with fever and multiple organ dysfunction. To report the etiology, characteristics, treatment, prognosis, and follow up of patients with DRESS Syndrome admitted to a clinical hospital. Review of medical records of patients admitted for drug reactions, selecting those patients complying with clinical criteria for DRESS Syndrome. Drugs used during three months prior to the onset of symptoms were evaluated as possible causes of the disease. Nine patients aged 16 to 68 years (six males) complied with the clinical criteria for the disease. The causative medications were carbamazepine in three patients, phenytoin in three, antituberculous drugs in two and amoxicillin in one. All were treated with systemic steroids with a complete clinical resolution. DRESS syndrome is usually underdiagnosed and has a good response to systemic steroids.

  18. Colour Vision: Understanding #TheDress.

    PubMed

    Brainard, David H; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2015-06-29

    A widely-viewed image of a dress elicits striking individual variation in colour perception. Experiments with multiple variants of the image suggest that the individual differences may arise through the action of visual mechanisms that normally stabilise object colour.

  19. Chitosan-containing hydrogel wound dressings prepared by radiation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozalewska, Wiktoria; Czechowska-Biskup, Renata; Olejnik, Alicja K.; Wach, Radoslaw A.; Ulański, Piotr; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an antimicrobial hydrogel wound dressing by means of radiation-initiated crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers, i.e. by well-established technology comprising gel manufacturing and its sterilization in one process. The approach included admixture of chitosan of relatively low molecular weight dissolved in lactic acid (LA) into the initial regular components of the conventional hydrogel dressing based on poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and agar. Molecular weight of chitosan was regulated by radiation-initiated degradation in the range of 39-132 kg mol-1. Optimum total concentration of LA in the resultant hydrogel dressing was evaluated as 0.05 mol dm-3, that is ca. 0.5%. Presence of LA in the system influenced essential radiation and technological parameters of hydrogel manufacturing. The setting temperature of the pre-hydrogel mixture, resulting from agar ability to congeal, was reduced with LA concentration, yet remained significantly above the room temperature. 0.5% of chitosan was effectively dissolved in aqueous solution of lactic acid due to its pH (lower than 5.5). Radiation parameters of PVP crosslinking in the presence of LA, as determined with generalized Charlesby-Pinner equation, were reflected in slight reduction of the maximum gel fraction and increase in gelation dose and in the factor comparing yields of scission to crosslinking. Nevertheless, essentially physical characteristics of the hydrogel was not affected, except for somewhat increased water uptake capacity, what in turn improves functionality of the dressing as extensive exudate for the wound can be efficiently absorbed. Preliminary microbiological studies showed antimicrobial character of the chitosan-containing hydrogel towards Gram-positive bacterial strain.

  20. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C S

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  1. Strategies to reduce wound dressing waste.

    PubMed

    Denhartog, Lauren; Hallman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate use of dressing supplies and the amount of unused, unopened dressings, often stockpiled in patient rooms and discarded upon patient discharge begs the question about the environmental impact of this common practice. Thousands of dollars could be saved each year if nurses placed more emphasis on prevention and education, and addressed wound care in a standardized way that blends cost-effectiveness with evidence-based practice.

  2. [The "DRESS" syndrome in antituberculosis drugs].

    PubMed

    Bopaka, R G; El Khattabi, W; Afif, H; Aichane, A; Bouayad, Z

    2014-06-01

    The DRESS syndrome is a serious drug reaction that may involve life-threatening. We have to think before any skin reaction after taking drugs. We report a clinical case of a 27-year-old patient treated for pleural tuberculosis with the DRESS syndrome induced by antituberculosis. Through this work, we underline the rarity of this syndrome to antituberculosis treatment, but it should not be underestimated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Release of antibiotics from collagen dressing.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, J; Antos-Bielska, M; Ołdak, E; Trafny, E A

    1997-01-01

    Our new collagen dressing has been developed recently. Three types (A, B, and C) of the dressing were prepared in this study. Each type contained bacitracin, neomycin or colistin. The antibiotic was input into: i. collagen sponge (CS)--type A, ii. layer of limited hydrophobicity (LLH)--type B, and iii. into both CS and LLH layers--type C. The final concentration of the antibiotic that resulted from the loading level was 2 mg/cm2 for the dressings of type A and B and 4 mg/cm2 for the dressing of type C. The antibiotics were then extracted from the pieces of dressings for two days through dialysis membrane. Susceptibility of 54 bacterial strains (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter) isolated from burn wounds were tested to the three antibiotics used for preparation of the dressings. The results of the study evidenced that efficiency of released of antibiotics into the extracts depended on the kind of antibiotic and on the type of dressing. The concentration of the antibiotics proved to be much higher than MIC90 values of the bacterial isolates tested in respect to their susceptibility. The dressing containing mixture of the three antibiotics in two layers--CS and LLH is now considered as potentially effective for care of infected wounds. It may be useful for the treatment of infected wounds or for profilaxis of contaminated wounds, ensuring: i. sufficient antimicrobial activity in wound, and ii. optimal wound environment for the presence of collagenic biomaterial on the damaged tissue.

  4. Using absorbable chitosan hemostatic sponges as a promising surgical dressing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofei; Sun, Yongfu; Nie, Jingyi; Lu, Wentao; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yin, Hongping; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2015-04-01

    As absorbable hemostatic dressings, chitosan with a deacetylation degree of 40% (CS-40) and 73% (CS-73) have been fabricated into sponges via a modified method. The hemostatic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties were evaluated through in vivo assays. In a hepatic hemorrhage model, the chitosan sponges, with excellent blood compatibility, achieved less blood loss than the gelation sponge (GS). In addition, CS-40 showed better hemostatic capability and biodegradability than CS-73. After implantation, a histological analysis indicated that CS-40 exhibited the best biodegradability, tissue regeneration and least tissue adhesion. By contrasting CS-40 and CS-73, the deacetylation degree is confirmed to be a key factor for the hemostatic effect, biodegradability, biocompatibility and tissue regeneration. Our overall results demonstrated the potential application of CS-40 for use in absorbable hemostatic dressings.

  5. Species-selective confinement of atoms dressed with multiple radiofrequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentine, E.; Harte, T. L.; Luksch, K.; Barker, A. J.; Mur-Petit, J.; Yuen, B.; Foot, C. J.

    2017-05-01

    Methods to manipulate the individual constituents of an ultracold quantum gas mixture are essential tools for a number of applications, such as the direct quantum simulation of impurity physics. We investigate a scheme in which species-selective control is achieved using magnetic potentials dressed with multiple radiofrequencies, exploiting the different Landé {g}F-factors of the constituent atomic species. We describe a mixture dressed with two frequencies, where atoms are confined in harmonic potentials with a controllable degree of overlap between the two atomic species. This is then extended to a four radiofrequency scheme in which a double well potential for one species is overlaid with a single well for the other. The discussion is framed with parameters that are suitable for a {}85{Rb} and {}87{Rb} mixture, but is readily generalised to other combinations.

  6. The application of moist dressing in treating burn wound

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Basic experiments have demonstrated that the effect of wound healing in moist environments is better than that in dry environments; therefore, research on moist dressing is the focus of wound healing research. 42 burn patients receiving treatment in Jiangsu Provincial People’s Hospital were selected as experimental cases. Wound surface is divided into treatment group and control group using a self-contrasted method. The treatment group received a moist dressing in the treatment of burn wounds and the control group adopted iodine gauze or Vaseline gauze coverage. Wound healing effect and the impact on the degree of pain of in the two different treatment methods were observed after treatment. The results of 42 patients were included in the analysis. The average healing time of patients’ burn wounds in treatment group is (10.9 3.3) d, and the average healing time in control group is (13.8 3.6) d, so, the difference is significant (P<0.01). Wound pain in the treatment group is significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). Using moist dressing (Mepitel and Mepilex, etc.) in the treatment of burn wounds, wound-healing time can be shortened and wound pain can be reduced significantly. PMID:28352735

  7. Burning issues: early cooling of the brain after resuscitation using burn dressings. A proof of concept observation.

    PubMed

    Adams, R; Koster, R W

    2008-08-01

    Early cooling of resuscitated patients improves neurological outcome. Out-of hospital initiation of cooling is uncommon however for mainly practical reasons. Using burn dressings in the out-of-hospital care could initiate brain cooling in an early stage and therefore be of value; the method is easily adaptable by ambulance crews. The influence of burn dressings on brain temperature is however unknown. We determined tympanic temperature changes as proxy for brain temperature in healthy volunteers after the application of cooling dressings to face and neck as a proof of concept study. In 10 healthy human volunteers tympanic temperatures were measured in 30s intervals before, during and after the application of burn-dressings, special trauma burn-care dressings that are designed for the acute treatment of skin burns (Burnshield emergency burn care sterile trauma burn dressings, Burnshield Ltd., Wadefield, South Africa) for the duration of 20min for each episode. In all study subjects the tympanic temperature was significantly lowered after 20min of the application of the burnshields. The mean difference between baseline and 2nd half of the exposure period was 0.43 degrees C (p<0.0001), ranging from 0.10 to 1.18 degrees C. Burn dressings could be of value in the early initiation of brain cooling in resuscitated patients. This study warrants further research to the effect of burnshield dressings on neurological activity and the effect on outcome after resuscitation.

  8. Cluster-cell calculation using the method of generalized homogenization

    SciTech Connect

    Laletin, N.I.; Boyarinov, V.F.

    1988-05-01

    The generalized-homogenization method (GHM), used for solving the neutron transfer equation, was applied to calculating the neutron distribution in the cluster cell with a series of cylindrical cells with cylindrically coaxial zones. Single-group calculations of the technological channel of the cell of an RBMK reactor were performed using GHM. The technological channel was understood to be the reactor channel, comprised of the zirconium rod, the water or steam-water mixture, the uranium dioxide fuel element, and the zirconium tube, together with the adjacent graphite layer. Calculations were performed for channels with no internal sources and with unit incoming current at the external boundary as well as for channels with internal sources and zero current at the external boundary. The PRAKTINETs program was used to calculate the symmetric neutron distributions in the microcell and in channels with homogenized annular zones. The ORAR-TsM program was used to calculate the antisymmetric distribution in the microcell. The accuracy of the calculations were compared for the two channel versions.

  9. Generalization of the H - κ stacking method to anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviani, Ayoub; Rümpker, Georg

    2015-04-01

    The effect of anisotropy on the estimates of crustal thickness H and average bulk vP/vS-ratio κ can be significant in the presence of strong seismic anisotropy. Here we extend the stacking approach of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to include all twenty P-to-S converted phases and their crustal reverberations that are generated in the anisotropic case - instead of only five phases in the isotropic case. The ray-based algorithm of Frederiksen and Bostock (2000) is used to calculate the amplitude and arrival time of each phase. Synthetic tests are performed to investigate the feasibility and robustness of the stacking approach. For simplicity, we assume hexagonal symmetry and a horizontal symmetry axis but more general anisotropy may be considered. The tests reveal that the estimates of H and κ can be significantly affected by the presence of crustal anisotropy. We verify the feasibility of the stacking approach for real data by applying the method to examples from three different tectonic regions. The results show that the anisotropic stacking scheme presented here can provide much better constraints on the estimation of H and κ in comparison to the isotropic stacking. The anisotropic stacking can also help to resolve ambiguities in the determination of H and κ when several maxima of stacked receiver-function amplitudes arise in cases of complex crustal structure.

  10. To dress or not to dress surgical wounds? Patients' attitudes to wound care after major abdominal operations.

    PubMed

    Persson, M; Svenberg, T; Poppen, B

    1995-11-01

    To find out what patients' attitudes were to wound care after abdominal operations to ensure that patients' own views were not violated by introducing a new method of wound care. Randomised study. University hospital, Sweden. 68 consecutive patients operated for benign gastrointestinal disease. Patients were randomised to have their abdominal wounds dressed or exposed. On their last day in hospital their attitudes were assessed by visual analogue score and questionnaire. Attitudes to wound care. There were no differences between the two groups in any of the variables studied. The visual analogue scores for postoperative pain were higher than had been anticipated. Most patients do not mind whether their wounds are covered with a dressing or not after abdominal operations.

  11. A wet dressing for male genital surgery: A phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Fábio de Oliveira; Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; Albuquerque, Amanda Vasconcelos; Martins, Ana Gabriela Santos; de Araújo, Luiz Alberto Pereira; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade; Lima, Salvador Vilar Correia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study was to confirm the safety and efficacy of BC dressing when used in surgical male wound healing at the urogenital area. Methods: Open, non-controlled clinical study of phase II. A total of 141 patients, among those children, adolescents and adults with hypospadias (112), epispadias (04), phymosis (13) and Peyronie's disease (12) that had a BC dressing applied over the operated area after surgery. A written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Study exclusion criteria were patients with other alternative treatment indications due to the severity, extent of the injury or the underlying disease. The outcomes evaluated were efficacy, safe and complete healing. The costs were discussed. Results: In 68% patients, the BC dressing fell off spontaneously. The BC was removed without complications in 13% of patients at the outpatient clinic during the follow-up visit and 17% not reported the time of removal. In 3% of the cases, the dressing fell off early. Complete healing was observed between 8th and 10th days after surgery. The BC dressings have shown a good tolerance by all the patients and there were no reports of serious adverse events. Conclusion: The bacterial cellulose dressings have shown efficacy, safety and that can be considered as a satisfactory alternative for postoperative wound healing in urogenital area and with low cost. PMID:27649111

  12. Randomized Comparison of Dry Dressings Versus Hydrogel in Management of Radiation-Induced Moist Desquamation

    SciTech Connect

    Macmillan, Maureen S. . E-mail: m.macmillan@napier.ac.uk; Wells, Mary; MacBride, Sheila; Raab, Gillian M.; Munro, Alastair; MacDougall, Hugh

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a randomized controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effect of a hydrogel or dry dressing on the time to healing of moist desquamation after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck, breast, or anorectal areas. Methods and Materials: A total of 357 patients were randomized before radiotherapy to receive simple dry dressings (Tricotex) or a hydrogel (Intrasite), with Tricotex as a secondary dressing. Patients were instructed to use their dressings from the onset of moist desquamation, if it occurred. Results: Of the 357 patients, 100 (28%) developed moist desquamation. The time to healing was significantly prolonged (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.99), in patients assigned to gel dressings. No evidence was found that gel dressings had a significant impact on subjectively reported skin symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study have not supported the routine use of hydrogels in the care of patients with moist desquamation and suggests that the healing times are prolonged, without any improvement in patient comfort.

  13. Febuxostat-associated drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).

    PubMed

    Chou, H-Y; Chen, C-B; Cheng, C-Y; Chen, Y-A; Ng, C Y; Kuo, K-L; Chen, W-L; Chen, C-H

    2015-12-01

    Febuxostat is recommended as an alternative drug for gouty patients with a history of allopurinol hypersensitivity or carrying the HLA-B*5801 allele. An 81-year-old man with the medical history of gout presented to our clinic with generalized rashes for 2 days. After taking febuxostat for 2 days, he developed generalized skin rash with high fever. Laboratory tests showed elevated liver enzymes and acute kidney injury. This is the first identified case of febuxostat-associated DRESS. Febuxostat should be withdrawn immediately when DRESS is observed to avoid further serious complications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. On-machine precision preparation and dressing of ball-headed diamond wheel for the grinding of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjun; Li, Ziang; Yu, Bo; Peng, Hui; Fang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    In the grinding of high quality fused silica parts with complex surface or structure using ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel with small diameter, the existing dressing methods are not suitable to dress the ball-headed diamond wheel precisely due to that they are either on-line in process dressing which may causes collision problem or without consideration for the effects of the tool setting error and electrode wear. An on-machine precision preparation and dressing method is proposed for ball-headed diamond wheel based on electrical discharge machining. By using this method the cylindrical diamond wheel with small diameter is manufactured to hemispherical-headed form. The obtained ball-headed diamond wheel is dressed after several grinding passes to recover geometrical accuracy and sharpness which is lost due to the wheel wear. A tool setting method based on high precision optical system is presented to reduce the wheel center setting error and dimension error. The effect of electrode tool wear is investigated by electrical dressing experiments, and the electrode tool wear compensation model is established based on the experimental results which show that the value of wear ratio coefficient K' tends to be constant with the increasing of the feed length of electrode and the mean value of K' is 0.156. Grinding experiments of fused silica are carried out on a test bench to evaluate the performance of the preparation and dressing method. The experimental results show that the surface roughness of the finished workpiece is 0.03 μm. The effect of the grinding parameter and dressing frequency on the surface roughness is investigated based on the measurement results of the surface roughness. This research provides an on-machine preparation and dressing method for ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel used in the grinding of fused silica, which provides a solution to the tool setting method and the effect of electrode tool wear.

  15. Adolescent Dress, Part I: Dress and Body Markings of Psychiatric Outpatients and Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelman, John D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated dress and body markings of 100 hospitalized and never-hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients using in-depth interviews. Found that hospitalized patients had higher incidence of self-scarring, but other individual expressions of appearance did not differentiate two groups. Suggests that dress and appearance observations,…

  16. Adolescent Dress, Part I: Dress and Body Markings of Psychiatric Outpatients and Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelman, John D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated dress and body markings of 100 hospitalized and never-hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients using in-depth interviews. Found that hospitalized patients had higher incidence of self-scarring, but other individual expressions of appearance did not differentiate two groups. Suggests that dress and appearance observations,…

  17. Choosing a Wound Dressing Based on Common Wound Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Ganary; Damstetter, Elizabeth; Phillips, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds are a major healthcare burden.The practitioner should have an appropriate understanding of both the etiology of the wound as well as the optimal type of dressings to use. Fundamental wound characteristics may be used to guide the practitioner's choice of dressings. The identification of optimal dressings to use for a particular wound type is an important element in facilitating wound healing. Recent Advances: Researchers have sought to design wound dressings that aim to optimize each stage in the healing process. In addition, dressings have been designed to target and kill infection-causing bacteria, with the incorporation of antimicrobial agents. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are frequently dynamic in presentation, and the numerous wound dressings available make dressing selection challenging for the practitioner. Choosing the correct dressing decreases time to healing, provides cost-effective care, and improves patient quality of life. Future Directions: Research into the mechanisms of wound healing has enhanced our ability to heal chronic wounds at a faster rate through the use of moisture-retentive dressings. Newer dressings are incorporating the use of nanotechnology by incorporating miniature electrical sensors into the dressing. These dressings are engineered to detect changes in a wound environment and alert the patient or practitioner by altering the color of the dressing or sending a message to a smartphone. Additional investigations are underway that incorporate biologic material such as stem cells into dressings.

  18. Cytotoxicity testing of burn wound dressings: first results.

    PubMed

    Hajská, M; Dragúňová, J; Koller, J

    2017-06-01

    Topical antimicrobial therapy represents an essential part of burn wound care. In order to prevent and treat burn wound infection dressings with antimicrobial properties are applied directly on the wound surface. Not only the infection control but also promotion of healing is very important in burn wound management. It is well known, that a dressing in bactericidal concentration might also delay wound healing. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential toxic effect of topical antimicrobial agents on murine and human dermal cells. For toxicity testing the method by Vittekova et al. was used to evaluate potential toxic effects of 16 agents and 6 control samples on two in vitro cultured cell systems [3T3 cells and dermal fibroblasts] during the first 24 h. Following the 24 h cell culture with the tested agents the live cell counts were evaluated. According to results obtained on both cell systems, the tested samples were divided into three groups-nontoxic, semi-toxic and toxic. Nontoxic samples included Acetic acid 1%, Acticoat(®), Dermacyn(®), Framykoin(®), Silverlon(®), gauze, acellular human allodermis and acellular porcine xenodermis. Semi-toxic group included Algivon(®)Plus, Aquacel(®)Ag, Betadine(®), Nitrofurazone, Octenisept(®), Suprasorb(®) A and a porcine dermal scaffold Xeno-Impl. Finally, the toxic group included Algivon(®), Dermazin(®), Ialugen(®)Plus, Prontoderm(®), Suprasorb(®) A Ag and 20% SDS. As the preliminary results of this study have shown, our findings may serve as a potential guide to selection of the most appropriate topical antimicrobial dressings for treatmet of burns. However before they can be translated into clinical practice recommendations, more research on antimicrobial dressings cytotoxicity testing will be necessary.

  19. Bio-Conjugated Polycaprolactone Membranes: A Novel Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Teo, Erin Yiling; Jing, Lim; Koh, Yun Pei; Qian, Tan Si; Wen, Feng; Lee, James Wai Kit; Hing, Eileen Chor Hoong; Yap, Yan Lin; Lee, Hanjing; Lee, Chuen Neng; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Lim, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of polycaprolactone and hyaluronic acid creates an ideal environment for wound healing. Hyaluronic acid maintains a moist wound environment and accelerates the in-growth of granulation tissue. Polycaprolactone has excellent mechanical strength, limits inflammation and is biocompatible. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of bio-conjugated polycaprolactone membranes (BPM) as a wound dressing. Methods 16 New Zealand white rabbits were sedated and local anaesthesia was administered. Two 3.0×3.0 cm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of each rabbit, between the lowest rib and the pelvic bone. The wounds were dressed with either BPM (n=12) or Mepitel (n=12) (control), a polyamide-silicon wound dressing. These were evaluated macroscopically on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days for granulation, re-epithelialization, infection, and wound size, and histologically for epidermal and dermal regeneration. Results Both groups showed a comparable extent of granulation and re-epithelialization. No signs of infection were observed. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in wound size between the two groups. BPM (n=6): 8.33 cm2, 4.90 cm2, 3.12 cm2, 1.84 cm2; Mepitel (n=6): 10.29 cm2, 5.53 cm2, 3.63 cm2, 2.02 cm2; at the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postoperative days. The extents of epidermal and dermal regeneration were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions BPM is comparable to Mepitel as a safe and efficacious wound dressing. PMID:25396174

  20. Stability and physicochemical properties of model salad dressings prepared with pregelatinized potato starch.

    PubMed

    Bortnowska, Grażyna; Balejko, Jerzy; Schube, Violetta; Tokarczyk, Grzegorz; Krzemińska, Natalia; Mojka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-13

    The effects of pregelatinized potato starch concentration (PSC) ranged from 0 to 5 wt% on the physical stability, color, rheological, textural, and sensory properties of model salad dressings prepared with 2 wt% dried egg yolk (DEY) or sodium caseinate (SC) were explored. All dressings showed shear-thinning behavior with yield stress. Raising PSC increased storage (G') and loss (G") moduli decreasing loss tangent (tanδ) and samples containing ≥ 3 wt% starch showed a weak gel-like (tanδ<1) response. A generalized Cox-Merz rule was applicable to indicate shear/strain sensitivity of the dressings structures. Rheological characterization based on Bohlin's parameters (A, z) was useful for distinguishing physical stability of dressings made with different formulations. Changes in color were generally very small and mainly PSC-dependent. Correlation analyses revealed that sensory descriptors could be satisfactory modeled with the appropriate instrumental data. Overall, the results proved that pregelatinized potato starch may be suitable ingredient in low-fat dressings applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ovine-Based Collagen Matrix Dressing: Next-Generation Collagen Dressing for Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Gregory; Liden, Brock; Schultz, Gregory; Yang, Qingping; Gibson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MMP) reduction along with inherent aspects of an extracellular matrix (ECM) dressing can bring about improved wound healing outcomes and shorter treatment duration. Initial reports of clinical effectiveness of a new ovine-based collagen extracellular matrix (CECM) dressing demonstrate benefits in chronic wound healing. Recent Advances: CECM dressings are processed differently than oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen dressings. CECM dressings consist primarily of collagens I and III arranged as native fibers that retain the three-dimensional architecture present in tissue ECM. As such, ovine-based ECM dressings represent a new generation of collagen dressings capable of impacting a broad spectrum of MMP excess known to be present in chronic wounds. Critical Issues: While MMPs are essential in normal healing, elevated presence of MMPs has been linked to wound failure. Collagen has been shown to reduce levels of MMPs, acting as a sacrificial substrate for excessive proteases in a chronic wound. Preserving collagen dressings in a more native state enhances bioactivity in terms of the ability to affect the chronic wound environment. Clinical observation and assessment may not be sufficient to identify a wound with elevated protease activity that can break down ECM, affect wound fibroblasts, and impair growth factor response. Future Directions: Collagen dressings that target broad-spectrum excessive MMP levels and can be applied early in the course of care may positively impact healing rates in difficult wounds. Next-generation collagen dressings offer broader MMP reduction capacity while providing a provisional dermal matrix or ECM. PMID:26858910

  2. Soft silicone foam dressing is more effective than polyurethane film dressing for preventing intraoperatively acquired pressure ulcers in spinal surgery patients: the Border Operating room Spinal Surgery (BOSS) trial in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mine; Ohura, Norihiko; Tanaka, Junko; Ichimura, Shoichi; Kasuya, Yusuke; Hotta, Oruto; Kagaya, Yu; Sekiyama, Takuya; Tannba, Mitsuko; Suzuki, Nao

    2016-12-07

    Preventing intraoperatively acquired pressure ulcers (IAPUs) in patients undergoing spinal surgery in the prone position using a Relton-Hall frame is challenging. We investigated the efficacy of soft silicone foam dressings in preventing IAPUs. A prospective dual-center sham study was conducted among patients undergoing elective spinal surgery in a general hospital and a university hospital in Japan. The incidence of IAPUs that developed when soft silicone foam dressings and polyurethane film dressings were used was compared on two sides in the same patient. IAPUs developed on the chest in 11 of 100 patients (11%). Polyurethane film dressings were associated with a significantly higher rate of IAPUs than soft silicone foam dressings (11 versus 3, P = 0·027). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a diastolic blood pressure of <50 mmHg (P = 0·025, OR 3·74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·18-13·08) and the length of surgery (by 1 hour: P = 0·038, OR 1·61, 95% CI 1·03-2·64) were independently associated with the development of IAPUs. The use of soft silicone foam dressings reduced the risk of IAPUs (P = 0·019, OR 0·23, 95% CI 0·05-0·79) and was more effective than film dressings for preventing IAPUs in spinal surgery patients.

  3. The effectiveness of hydrocolloid dressings versus other dressings in the healing of pressure ulcers in adults and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Pott, Franciele Soares; Meier, Marineli Joaquim; Stocco, Janislei Giseli Dorociak; Crozeta, Karla; Ribas, Janyne Dayane

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrocolloids in the healing of pressure ulcers in adult and older adult patients. Method systematic review with meta-analysis, based on the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook. The search was undertaken in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Cochrane Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science and the Scientific Electronic Library Online. Results 646 primary studies were identified, 69 were evaluated and nine were selected, referring to the use of the hydrocolloid dressing in healing; of these, four studies allowed meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the hydrocolloid group and the foams group (p value=0.84; Odds Ratio 1.06, CI 95% 0.61-1.86). A slight superiority of the polyurethane dressings was observed in relation to the hydrocolloid dressings. Conclusion the evidence is not sufficient to affirm whether the efficacy of hydrocolloid dressings is superior to that of other dressings. It is suggested that clinical randomized trials be undertaken so as to ascertain the efficacy of this intervention in the healing of pressure ulcers, in relation to other treatments. PMID:25029065

  4. General Quality Control (QC) Guidelines for SAM Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn more about quality control guidelines and recommendations for the analysis of samples using the methods listed in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  5. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  6. DRESS syndrome: cerebral vasculitic-like presentation.

    PubMed

    Gaha, Mehdi; Landry, David; Bélair, Manon; Paquet, Brenda; Chapdelaine, Hugo; Bard, Céline

    2015-10-01

    DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction. It manifests with pyrexia, eosinophilia, and lymphadenopathy, with multiple organ involvement, mainly the skin, liver, and kidneys. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that DRESS syndrome can be associated with cerebral manifestations, a concept not well known in the neuroradiological literature. We describe three cases of DRESS syndrome associated with cerebral vasculitic-like lesions and realize a review of the literature to demonstrate that this association represents a very rare entity. Acute ischemic lesions were found among two patients. In all cases, perivascular enhancement was present. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) sequence was normal. Although no cerebral biopsy was performed, this enhancement pattern is strongly suggestive of a vasculitic process associated with DRESS syndrome. Diagnosis of cerebral vasculitic-like associated lesions must be considered in patients with DRESS syndrome since it can be reversed completely by withdrawing the causal medication and instigating corticosteroid treatment in a timely fashion.

  7. Root-cubing and general root-powering methods for finding the zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical analysis technique generalizes a root squaring and root cubing method into a general root powering method. The introduction of partitioned polynomials into this general root powering method simplifies the coding of the polynomial transformations into input data suitable for processing by computer. The method includes analytic functions.

  8. A fast Gaussian beam tracing method for reflection and refraction of general vectorial astigmatic Gaussian beams from general curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohani, A.; Shishegar, A. A.; Safavi-Naeini, S.

    2004-03-01

    A fast Gaussian beam tracing method for general vectorial astigmatic Gaussian beams based on phase matching has been formulated. Given the parameters of a vectorial Gaussian beam in its principal coordinate system the parameters of the reflected and refracted beams from a general curved surface (with general constitutive parameters) are found. The reflection and transmission of such beams from and through passive photonic structures such as lenses, mirrors and prisms can then be found by considering multiple reflections and transmissions.

  9. Testing photobiomodulatory effects of laser irradiation on wound healing: development of an improved model for dressing wounds in mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tzu-Yun; Peplow, Philip V; Baxter, G David

    2010-10-01

    To develop a suitable method for dressing skin wounds in BKS.Cg-m(+)/(+)Lepr(db) mice for subsequent use in laser irradiation of wounds. The healing of nonirradiated wounds (controls) was examined histologically to provide essential reference data. Dressing excisional skin wounds in mice has many advantages. However, previous studies using dressings such as Tegaderm W or OpSite, with or without adhesives, have shown that this is not easily achieved. In a pilot study, a full-thickness wound was made on the left flank in six diabetic and six nondiabetic mice, and five different methods were tried for dressing the wounds with Tegaderm HP to develop an optimized procedure. The optimized procedure was used in subsequent studies, with a total of 23 diabetic and 13 nondiabetic mice being controls for laser-irradiated mice. Measurements of healing outcomes from histologic sections of controls were statistically analyzed. The optimized procedure used Tegaderm HP with Cavilon and Fixomull Stretch strips for the first dressing, and with Mastisol for subsequent dressings. Wound closure by contraction was retarded in a large proportion of diabetic mice (approximately 80%) and a small proportion of nondiabetic mice. These wounds, described as "splinted," healed mainly by epithelial regeneration and granulation tissue formation. A simple, easy-to-perform procedure was developed for dressing wounds in diabetic and nondiabetic mice. It was found to cause splinting with wound healing mimicking that in human patients. This model is suitable for examining the effects of different therapies on wound healing, including lasers.

  10. Quasideterminant solutions of the generalized Heisenberg magnet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, U.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Darboux transformation for the generalized Heisenberg magnet (GHM) model based on the general linear Lie group GL(n) and construct multi-soliton solutions in terms of quasideterminants. Further we relate the quasideterminant multi-soliton solutions obtained by means of Darboux transformation with those obtained by the dressing method. We also discuss the model based on the Lie group SU(n) and obtain explicit soliton solutions of the model based on SU(2).

  11. Iterative methods for elliptic finite element equations on general meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolaides, R. A.; Choudhury, Shenaz

    1986-01-01

    Iterative methods for arbitrary mesh discretizations of elliptic partial differential equations are surveyed. The methods discussed are preconditioned conjugate gradients, algebraic multigrid, deflated conjugate gradients, an element-by-element techniques, and domain decomposition. Computational results are included.

  12. [Severe cholestatic hepatitis revealing a DRESS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Droz, N; Thiebaut, M; Terrier, B; Bérézné, A; Sogni, P; Beuvon, F; Guillevin, L; Mouthon, L

    2013-10-01

    Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, characterized by rash, hyereosinophilia and multiorgan failure, including cytolytic hepatitis. A 75-year-old man, treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, presented with jaundice and disabling pruritus associated with severe cholestatic hepatitis, related to a DRESS syndrome. Because of the persistence of cholestasis and the severity of pruritus, a treatment with corticosteroids and plasma exchanges was initiated, allowing a rapid and complete remission. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, although rarely described in the literature, is a rare cause of DRESS syndrome. Severe cholestatic hepatitis associated with disabling pruritus may be one of the systemic manifestations, with a good prognosis using corticosteroids and plasma exchanges. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishing guidelines for employee dress and hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2003-01-01

    Can you tell your medical practice staff how you want them to look? Where in your office they can eat? Can they chew gum at work? Can they wear red nail polish or a charm bracelet? In the pages that follow, the author suggests not only that you can establish rules for employee dress and hygiene, but why you should. This article suggests several good ways to structure staff rules for wearing uniforms and street clothing. It also covers possible rules for wearing practice nametags, cosmetics, jewelry, hair styles, neatness, stowing of personal possessions, personal hygiene, drinking, eating, smoking, and gum chewing. Finally, this article offers practical suggestions for establishing your practice's dress and hygiene "first aid" kit as well as guidance for making your practice's dress and hygiene codes non-discriminatory.

  14. Investigation on Curcumin nanocomposite for wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbu, G Devanand; Anusuya, T

    2017-05-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. The primary active constituent of turmeric and the one responsible for its vibrant yellow color is curcumin. Curcumin is used for treatment of wound and inflammation. It had antimicrobial and antioxidant property. It has low intrinsic toxicity and magnificent properties like with comparatively lesser side-effects. Cotton cloth is one of the most successful wound dressings which utilize the intrinsic properties of cotton fibers. Modern wound dressings, however, require other properties such as antibacterial and moisture maintaining capabilities. In this study, conventional cotton cloth was coated with Curcumin composite for achieving modern wound dressing properties. Curcumin nanocomposite is characterized. The results show that coated cotton cloth with Curcumin nanocomposite has increased drying time (74%) and water absorbency (50%). Furthermore, they show antibacterial efficiency against bacterial species present in wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Laboratory findings on the exudate-handling capabilities of cavity foam and foam-film dressings.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S

    2010-05-01

    accredited laboratory. The author had no involvement either with the choice of test methods, or the range of dressings included in the study, and has no financial interests in any of the products concerned.

  16. Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S.; Tomaselli, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms. Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to “ideal” as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the “ideal” dressing may be chosen. Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail. PMID:25126472

  17. Precise Method for Investigation of Lissajous Generalized Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers--a horizontal and a vertical--cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate…

  18. Precise Method for Investigation of Lissajous Generalized Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers--a horizontal and a vertical--cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate…

  19. Evaluation of Stimulus Preference Assessment Methods with General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2009-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the ability of three stimulus preference assessments to identify effective reinforcers for general education students. Four students from Grades K through 5 and their teachers participated. A student nomination, teacher nomination, and ongoing (daily) stimulus preference assessment were evaluated. The results…

  20. A General Simulation Method for Multiple Bodies in Proximate Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of unsteady aerodynamic simulation for an arbitrary number of independent bodies flying in close proximity are considered. A novel method to efficiently detect collision contact points is described. A method to compute body trajectories in response to aerodynamic loads, applied loads, and inter-body collisions is also given. The physical correctness of the methods are verified by comparison to a set of analytic solutions. The methods, combined with a Navier-Stokes solver, are used to demonstrate the possibility of predicting the unsteady aerodynamics and flight trajectories of moving bodies that involve rigid-body collisions.

  1. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. 130.12 Section 130.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General methods for water capacity and...

  2. Extending the alias Monte Carlo sampling method to general distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.L.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Smidt, R.K. )

    1991-01-07

    The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. DRESS Syndrome: Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Hemant; Shah, Manish; Tulle, Rahul

    2015-05-01

    DRESS Syndrome is caused by exposure to certain medications that may cause fever, rash, inflammation of internal organs, lymphadenopathy and characteristic hematologic abnormalities such as eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia and atypical lymphocytosis. We herein report a case of DRESS syndrome who presented with fever and rash, secondary to sulfasalazine ingestion. Diagnosis of DRESS is often delayed, as several diseases have clinical and laboratory features similar to DRESS syndrome.

  4. A collaborative project to enhance efficiency through dressing change practice.

    PubMed

    Joy, H; Bielby, A; Searle, R

    2015-07-01

    A collaborative project between Hull CHCP and Smith and Nephew wound management, which sought to enhance practice efficiency, specifically in relation to the optimisation of dressing change frequency. The project involved the use of a new foam dressing (Allevyn Life, Smith & Nephew, Hull) designed to manage wound exudate more effectively, be more acceptable to patients by masking staining of the dressing surface, and to provide both the patient and clinical staff with an indicator for dressing change. The project comprised a targeted programme of training and education to promote appropriate use of the new product and encourage practice change in dressing change frequency. The frequency of nursing visits, dressing changes and, where applicable, the reasons for a dressing change were documented pre- and post-implementation to determine the effect of this approach. Switching to the new dressing was accompanied by a reduction in dressing change visit frequency in 97.3% (36/37) of patients. The mean reduction in dressing change frequency was 1.8 visits per week, representing a 50.0% reduction. Post-implementation the mean number of dressings used per patient per dressing change had fallen from 2.1 at baseline to 1.1 (a 47.6% reduction). Furthermore, at baseline an average of 9.8 dressings were used per week per patient. This fell to an average of 2.0 dressings per week per patient following implementation, a reduction in dressings per patient of 79.6%. The results illustrate that a much less complex approach to the use of dressing products can be achieved. Furthermore, they demonstrate that with the adoption of advanced practice-enhancing products, coupled with appropriate training, education and effective promotion of practice change, valuable nursing time can be released. Alistair Bielby is a contractor for Smith & Nephew. Richard Searle is an employee of Smith & Nephew. This project was supported by an unrestricted grant from Smith & Nephew.

  5. Exact Solutions for The Generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov Equation with Variable Coefficients Using The Generalized (G'/G)-expansion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Elsayed M. E.; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud A. M.

    2010-09-01

    In this article, the generalized G'/G-expansion method using a generalized wave transformation is applied to find exact traveling wave solutions of the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients. As a result, hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational function solutions with parameters are obtained. When these parameters are taken special values, the solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solution. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be applied to many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  6. Generalized dilatation operator method for non-relativistic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemissany, Wissam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    We present a general algorithm for constructing the holographic dictionary for Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating Lifshitz backgrounds for any value of the dynamical exponent z and any value of the hyperscaling violation parameter θ compatible with the null energy condition. The objective of the algorithm is the construction of the general asymptotic solution of the radial Hamilton-Jacobi equation subject to the desired boundary conditions, from which the full dictionary can be subsequently derived. Contrary to the relativistic case, we find that a fully covariant construction of the asymptotic solution for running non-relativistic theories necessitates an expansion in the eigenfunctions of two commuting operators instead of one. This provides a covariant but non-relativistic grading of the expansion, according to the number of time derivatives.

  7. An Adaptive Shifted Power Method for Computing Generalized Tensor Eigenpairs

    SciTech Connect

    Kolda, Tamara G.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2014-12-11

    Several tensor eigenpair definitions have been put forth in the past decade, but these can all be unified under generalized tensor eigenpair framework, introduced by Chang, Pearson, and Zhang [J. Math. Anal. Appl., 350 (2009), pp. 416--422]. Given mth-order, n-dimensional real-valued symmetric tensors ${\\mathscr{A}}$ and $\\boldsymbol{\\mathscr{B}}$, the goal is to find $\\lambda \\in \\mathbb{R}$ and $\\mathbf{x} \\in \\mathbb{R}^{n}, \\mathbf{x} \

  8. Generalized Newton Method for Energy Formulation in Image Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Blurred (b) - Newton with LH (c) - Standard Newton (d) - Newton with Ls Fig. 5.2. Deblurring of the clown image with different Newton-like methods...proposed method, the inner product can be adapted to the problem at hand. In the second example, Figure 5.2, the 330 × 291 clown image was additionally

  9. A fitted neoprene garment to cover dressings in swine models.

    PubMed

    Mino, Matthew J; Mauskar, Neil A; Matt, Sara E; Pavlovich, Anna R; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2012-12-17

    Domesticated porcine species are commonly used in studies of wound healing, owing to similarities between porcine skin and human skin. Such studies often involve wound dressings, and keeping these dressings intact on the animal can be a challenge. The authors describe a novel and simple technique for constructing a fitted neoprene garment for pigs that covers dressings and maintains their integrity during experiments.

  10. Rationale for Student Dress Codes: A Review of School Handbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Workman, Jane E.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    Through dress codes, schools establish rules governing student appearance. This study examined stated rationales for dress and appearance codes in secondary school handbooks; 182 handbooks were received. Of 150 handbooks containing a rationale, 117 related dress and appearance regulations to students' right to a non-disruptive educational…

  11. Dressing of Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents: Description and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Creedon, Michael A.; Malone, Thomas; Parpura-Gill, Aleksandra; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Heasly, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Getting dressed is an activity that is of particular difficulty for many persons with dementia, given the need for hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, and overall planning skills. Despite several studies concerning interventions to improve dressing behavior, very little is known about the dressing process as it is currently…

  12. Rationale for Student Dress Codes: A Review of School Handbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Workman, Jane E.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    Through dress codes, schools establish rules governing student appearance. This study examined stated rationales for dress and appearance codes in secondary school handbooks; 182 handbooks were received. Of 150 handbooks containing a rationale, 117 related dress and appearance regulations to students' right to a non-disruptive educational…

  13. Dressing of Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents: Description and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Creedon, Michael A.; Malone, Thomas; Parpura-Gill, Aleksandra; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Heasly, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Getting dressed is an activity that is of particular difficulty for many persons with dementia, given the need for hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, and overall planning skills. Despite several studies concerning interventions to improve dressing behavior, very little is known about the dressing process as it is currently…

  14. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  15. The Effect of Dressing Styles and Attitudes of Psychiatrists on Treatment Preferences: Comparison between Patients and Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    ATASOY, Nuray; ŞENORMANCI, Ömer; SARAÇLI, Özge; DOĞAN, Veysel; KAYGISIZ, İsmet; ATİK, Levent; ÖRSEL, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recently, different dressing styles and attitudes of psychiatrists have been proposed to enhance the interaction between patients and the physician. The aim of the present study was to investigate the preferences of dressing style and attitudes of a psychiatrist of the patients referred to an outpatient psychiatry clinic and the perception of psychiatrists regarding the preferences of the patients. Methods One hundred and fifty-three patients referred to the outpatient psychiatry clinic of the Bülent Ecevit University School of Medicine, and 94 psychiatrists have been included in the present study. Results When the images of psychiatrists were evaluated in terms of referral for treatment, trust in treatment, and willingness to share their confidential matters, both groups gave minimum scores to causal/sports dress style. While psychiatrists preferred to dress in a suit, casuals, and white coat, the preference order was white coat, casual dress, and suit in the patient group. There was a significant difference between the groups with respect to three dressing styles. Conclusion It can be suggested that psychiatrists assume that patients are traditional in terms of their preference of the dressing style of a doctor and doctor–patient relationship, and a white coat is important to enhance the treatment adherence of patients.

  16. The KS Method in Light of Generalized Euler Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    NUMBER TR 79-434 .TITLE (and Subtitle) LGTO--Of -Rt"*T & "*AGO COVERED _E THOD IN LIGHT OF GENERALIZED EULER PT #S P ERFORMING ORO . REPORT NUMBER 7...the potential energy is E . V potential kep r so that the total Keplerian energy is * kep kin. + Vkep 2 k The total energy Et can be written as E E...non-gravitational perturbationsp Vt = Total Potential = Vkep + VpG + Vp Then Et can be written as Et = -2ak + VPG + Vp With the definition 2ao0 -Et the

  17. Apparatus and General Methods for Exposing Rats to Audiogenic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Most organisms react innately to the sudden onset of environmental stimulation. Audiogenic or loud noise in rodents provides an effective threatening signal to study the central nervous circuits responsible for the elaboration of various responses typically elicited by threatening/stressful environmental stimulation. Audiogenic stress offers many advantages over other environmental stimulation, including exquisite control over timing, intensity, and frequency, using off-the-shelf components that produce easily reproducible results. This protocol provides blueprints for the construction of sound attenuation chambers, the associated sound generation, amplification, and delivery equipment, and general procedures sufficient to elicit multimodal responses to loud noises in rodents. PMID:28573165

  18. Rapid Methods for the Detection of General Fecal Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specified that EPA should develop: appropriate and effective indicators for improving detection in a timely manner of pathogens in coastal waters appropriate, accurate, expeditious and cost-effective methods for the timely detection of pathogens in coastal waters

  19. Rapid Methods for the Detection of General Fecal Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specified that EPA should develop: appropriate and effective indicators for improving detection in a timely manner of pathogens in coastal waters appropriate, accurate, expeditious and cost-effective methods for the timely detection of pathogens in coastal waters

  20. Dominating Scale-Free Networks Using Generalized Probabilistic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Molnár,, F.; Derzsy, N.; Czabarka, É.; Székely, L.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    2014-01-01

    We study ensemble-based graph-theoretical methods aiming to approximate the size of the minimum dominating set (MDS) in scale-free networks. We analyze both analytical upper bounds of dominating sets and numerical realizations for applications. We propose two novel probabilistic dominating set selection strategies that are applicable to heterogeneous networks. One of them obtains the smallest probabilistic dominating set and also outperforms the deterministic degree-ranked method. We show that a degree-dependent probabilistic selection method becomes optimal in its deterministic limit. In addition, we also find the precise limit where selecting high-degree nodes exclusively becomes inefficient for network domination. We validate our results on several real-world networks, and provide highly accurate analytical estimates for our methods. PMID:25200937

  1. [The general analytical methods for gases dissolved in liquids: sonoluminescence].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiu-Shuai; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    How to analyze the gases dissolved in water or organic liquids is a challenging problem in analytical chemistry. Till the present time, only the dissolved oxygen in water can be analyzed by chemical and instrumental methods, while other gases, e. g. CO2, N2, CH4, Ar, He, Ke, still can not be analyzed by chemical or instrumental methods. The present paper gives a review on using sonoluminescence for gas analysis in water or organic liquids.

  2. The collaborative method. A strategy for improving Australian general practice.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2004-04-01

    The United Kingdom National Primary Care Collaborative (NPCC) is said to be the largest health service improvement project in the world. The 2000 practices participating serve 11.5 million patients throughout the UK. Improvements such as a 60% reduction in waiting times to see a general practitioner and a four-fold reduction in coronary heart disease mortality have drawn the attention of policy makers in Australia. In 2003, I accompanied a group of Australians to Manchester in the UK to participate in an international training course in collaboratives hosted by the NPCC. The Australian government has recently called for tenders to run the Australian Primary Care Collaborative (APCC) program. To describe the NPCC and discuss how the methodology could be adapted and applied to Australia. The Australian primary health care system faces challenges in application of evidence to patient care. Collaborative methodology warrants consideration to address these. Differences including distance, business issues, remuneration mechanisms, infrastructure deficiencies and clinician cynicism present challenges in adaptation and application to Australia. Given adequate support, an APCC could empower general practices to continue to make improvements in many areas of activity.

  3. A new general 1-D vadose zone flow solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Lai, Wencong; Steinke, Robert C.; Zhu, Jianting; Talbot, Cary A.; Wilson, John L.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed an alternative to the one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE) attributed to Richards (1931) that describes unsaturated porous media flow in homogeneous soil layers. Our solution is a set of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) derived from unsaturated flux and mass conservation principles. We used a hodograph transformation, the Method of Lines, and a finite water-content discretization to produce ODEs that accurately simulate infiltration, falling slugs, and groundwater table dynamic effects on vadose zone fluxes. This formulation, which we refer to as "finite water-content", simulates sharp fronts and is guaranteed to conserve mass using a finite-volume solution. Our ODE solution method is explicitly integrable, does not require iterations and therefore has no convergence limits and is computationally efficient. The method accepts boundary fluxes including arbitrary precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The method can simulate heterogeneous soils using layers. Results are presented in terms of fluxes and water content profiles. Comparing our method against analytical solutions, laboratory data, and the Hydrus-1D solver, we find that predictive performance of our finite water-content ODE method is comparable to or in some cases exceeds that of the solution of Richards' equation, with or without a shallow water table. The presented ODE method is transformative in that it offers accuracy comparable to the Richards (1931) PDE numerical solution, without the numerical complexity, in a form that is robust, continuous, and suitable for use in large watershed and land-atmosphere simulation models, including regional-scale models of coupled climate and hydrology.

  4. Physical methods of nucleic acid transfer: general concepts and applications

    PubMed Central

    Villemejane, Julien; Mir, Lluis M

    2009-01-01

    Physical methods of gene (and/or drug) transfer need to combine two effects to deliver the therapeutic material into cells. The physical methods must induce reversible alterations in the plasma membrane to allow the direct passage of the molecules of interest into the cell cytosol. They must also bring the nucleic acids in contact with the permeabilized plasma membrane or facilitate access to the inside of the cell. These two effects can be achieved in one or more steps, depending upon the methods employed. In this review, we describe and compare several physical methods: biolistics, jet injection, hydrodynamic injection, ultrasound, magnetic field and electric pulse mediated gene transfer. We describe the physical mechanisms underlying these approaches and discuss the advantages and limitations of each approach as well as its potential application in research or in preclinical and clinical trials. We also provide conclusions, comparisons, and projections for future developments. While some of these methods are already in use in man, some are still under development or are used only within clinical trials for gene transfer. The possibilities offered by these methods are, however, not restricted to the transfer of genes and the complementary uses of these technologies are also discussed. As these methods of gene transfer may bypass some of the side effects linked to viral or biochemical approaches, they may find their place in specific clinical applications in the future. This article is part of a themed section on Vector Design and Drug Delivery. For a list of all articles in this section see the end of this paper, or visit: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2009 PMID:19154421

  5. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  6. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  7. Swellability of Silver (I) Antimicrobial Wound Dressings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important characteristic of moist wound dressings is their ability to swell and absorb exudates from the wound, while maintaining a moist atmosphere at the wound site. At the Southern Regional Research Center, we have developed antimicrobial silver- CM-cotton print cloth from CM-Printcloth with l...

  8. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  9. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  10. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  11. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  12. Gribov's horizon and the ghost dressing function

    SciTech Connect

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-11-01

    We study a relation recently derived by K. Kondo at zero momentum between the Zwanziger's horizon function, the ghost dressing function and Kugo's functions u and w. We agree with this result as far as bare quantities are considered. However, assuming the validity of the horizon gap equation, we argue that the solution w(0)=0 is not acceptable since it would lead to a vanishing renormalized ghost dressing function. On the contrary, when the cutoff goes to infinity, u(0){yields}{infinity}, w(0){yields}-{infinity} such that u(0)+w(0){yields}-1. Furthermore w and u are not multiplicatively renormalizable. Relaxing the gap equation allows w(0)=0 with u(0){yields}-1. In both cases the bare ghost dressing function, F(0,{lambda}), goes logarithmically to infinity at infinite cutoff. We show that, although the lattice results provide bare results not so different from the F(0,{lambda})=3 solution, this is an accident due to the fact that the lattice cutoffs lie in the range 1-3 GeV{sup -1}. We show that the renormalized ghost dressing function should be finite and nonzero at zero momentum and can be reliably estimated on the lattice up to powers of the lattice spacing; from published data on a 80{sup 4} lattice at {beta}=5.7 we obtain F{sub R}(0,{mu}=1.5 GeV){approx_equal}2.2.

  13. Student Dress Policies. ERIC Digest, Number 117.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Lynne

    Educators and the public are divided over the value of implementing school-uniform policies in the public schools. This digest examines arguments for and against school-uniform policies, identifies legal considerations, and offers guidelines for implementing policies on student dress. Most parents have responded favorably to uniform policies,…

  14. Dressed fluxon in a Josephson window junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Jean Guy; Flytzanis, Nikos; Devoret, Michel

    1994-09-01

    The static fluxon solutions of a Josephson window junction have been studied numerically. We show that the effect of the idle region surrounding the junction is to ``dress'' the fluxon causing its energy to increase. This effect can be predicted accurately by a simple model.

  15. Student Dress Codes and Uniforms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    According to an Education Commission of the States "Policy Report", research on the effects of dress code and school uniform policies is inconclusive and mixed. Some researchers find positive effects; others claim no effects or only perceived effects. While no state has legislatively mandated the wearing of school uniforms, 28 states and…

  16. The Effects of Dress on School Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Norman L.

    This report presents the results of a study to determine the effects of student dress on behavior while at school. The study took place at 5 high schools, 4 junior high schools, and 10 elementary schools during the 2000-01 school year. The total enrollment of the schools was 8,194. The study involved two or three sets consisting of three days…

  17. Scattering of dressed nucleons in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    1998-11-01

    The scattering of dressed nucleons in nuclear matter is studied. By casting the conventional asymptotic analysis of scattering in free space in the language of the two-body propagator, it becomes possible to develop modifications of this analysis due to the dressing of the scattering nucleons in the medium. While the scattering energy singles out a unique (on-shell) momentum characterizing the relative wave function of free or mean-field nucleons, this uniqueness is no longer maintained for dressed nucleons. The resulting distribution of momenta in the relative wave function leads to a localization in coordinate space of the influence of the scattering process which can be expressed as a healing of the wave function to the noninteracting one. An analytic approximation to the noninteracting propagator of the dressed nucleons is utilized to illustrate these points. The localization of the scattered wave implies that the particles no longer ``remember'' their scattering event beyond some finite distance. This feature suggests that the strict notion of a cross section in the medium is a tenuous concept. Approximate expressions are developed to characterize the strength of the interaction in the medium in terms of phase shifts and cross sections to facilitate comparisons with results of calculations involving mean-field nucleons.

  18. Generalized framework for context-specific metabolic model extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Robaina Estévez, Semidán; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) are increasingly applied to investigate the physiology not only of simple prokaryotes, but also eukaryotes, such as plants, characterized with compartmentalized cells of multiple types. While genome-scale models aim at including the entirety of known metabolic reactions, mounting evidence has indicated that only a subset of these reactions is active in a given context, including: developmental stage, cell type, or environment. As a result, several methods have been proposed to reconstruct context-specific models from existing genome-scale models by integrating various types of high-throughput data. Here we present a mathematical framework that puts all existing methods under one umbrella and provides the means to better understand their functioning, highlight similarities and differences, and to help users in selecting a most suitable method for an application. PMID:25285097

  19. A general method for saturation mutagenesis of cloned DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Myers, R M; Lerman, L S; Maniatis, T

    1985-07-19

    A new procedure for generating and isolating random single-base substitutions in cloned DNA fragments is presented. The mutations are generated by treatment of single-stranded DNA with various chemicals, followed by the synthesis of the complementary strand with reverse transcriptase. Misincorporation frequently occurs when the enzyme encounters a damaged base in the mutagenized template DNA. The resulting duplex DNA fragments containing random single-base substitutions are cloned, amplified as a population, and isolated from wild-type DNA by preparative denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The physical separation of mutant DNA fragments makes it possible to isolate and characterize large numbers of site-directed single-base substitutions in the absence of a phenotypic selection. This procedure should be generally applicable to the fine-structure genetic analysis of regulatory and protein-coding sequences.

  20. Dressing plantar wounds with foam dressings, is it too much pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Scott Causby, Ryan; Pod, M; Jones, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes and its associated complications have become a major concern locally, nationally and internationally. One such complication is lower extremity amputation, commonly preceded by chronic ulceration. The cause of this tissue breakdown is multi-faceted, but includes an increase in pressure, particularly plantar pressure. As such, the choice of dressing to be applied to a plantar wound should ideally not increase this pressure further. A commonly used and possibly more bulky dressing is the foam dressing. This pilot study investigates the plantar pressures associated with three common foam dressings (Allevyn®, Lyofoam® and Mepilex®) compared with a control dressing (Melolin®). Twelve healthy males and 19 females [SD] age 36.6 [10.4] were measured using the F-scan plantar pressure measurement system. Substantial variations in individual pressure changes occurred across the foot. No significant differences were identified, once a Bonferroni correction was applied. In healthy adults, it could be concluded that foam dressings do not have any effect on the plantar pressures of the foot. However, the need remains for a robust trial on a pathological population. PMID:22396822

  1. Generalized Mantel-Haenszel Methods for Differential Item Functioning Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidalgo, Angel M.; Madeira, Jaqueline M.

    2008-01-01

    Mantel-Haenszel methods comprise a highly flexible methodology for assessing the degree of association between two categorical variables, whether they are nominal or ordinal, while controlling for other variables. The versatility of Mantel-Haenszel analytical approaches has made them very popular in the assessment of the differential functioning…

  2. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  3. General advancing front packing algorithm for the discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfa, Carlos A. Recarey; Pérez Morales, Irvin Pablo; de Farias, Márcio Muniz; de Navarra, Eugenio Oñate Ibañez; Valera, Roberto Roselló; Casañas, Harold Díaz-Guzmán

    2016-11-01

    A generic formulation of a new method for packing particles is presented. It is based on a constructive advancing front method, and uses Monte Carlo techniques for the generation of particle dimensions. The method can be used to obtain virtual dense packings of particles with several geometrical shapes. It employs continuous, discrete, and empirical statistical distributions in order to generate the dimensions of particles. The packing algorithm is very flexible and allows alternatives for: 1—the direction of the advancing front (inwards or outwards), 2—the selection of the local advancing front, 3—the method for placing a mobile particle in contact with others, and 4—the overlap checks. The algorithm also allows obtaining highly porous media when it is slightly modified. The use of the algorithm to generate real particle packings from grain size distribution curves, in order to carry out engineering applications, is illustrated. Finally, basic applications of the algorithm, which prove its effectiveness in the generation of a large number of particles, are carried out.

  4. Scalable Kernel Methods and Algorithms for General Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuksa, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of large-scale sequential data has become an important task in machine learning and pattern recognition, inspired in part by numerous scientific and technological applications such as the document and text classification or the analysis of biological sequences. However, current computational methods for sequence comparison still lack…

  5. Scalable Kernel Methods and Algorithms for General Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuksa, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of large-scale sequential data has become an important task in machine learning and pattern recognition, inspired in part by numerous scientific and technological applications such as the document and text classification or the analysis of biological sequences. However, current computational methods for sequence comparison still lack…

  6. Projected Hybrid Orbitals: A General QM/MM Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A projected hybrid orbital (PHO) method was described to model the covalent boundary in a hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) system. The PHO approach can be used in ab initio wave function theory and in density functional theory with any basis set without introducing system-dependent parameters. In this method, a secondary basis set on the boundary atom is introduced to formulate a set of hybrid atomic orbtials. The primary basis set on the boundary atom used for the QM subsystem is projected onto the secondary basis to yield a representation that provides a good approximation to the electron-withdrawing power of the primary basis set to balance electronic interactions between QM and MM subsystems. The PHO method has been tested on a range of molecules and properties. Comparison with results obtained from QM calculations on the entire system shows that the present PHO method is a robust and balanced QM/MM scheme that preserves the structural and electronic properties of the QM region. PMID:25317748

  7. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  8. Surgical Adhesive Drape (IO-ban) as Postoperative Surgical Site Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Hasan R; Snyder, Rita; McGowan, Jason E; Jha, Ribhu T; Nair, Mani N

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective chart analysis. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the senior author’s (MNN) experience applying a widely available surgical drape as a postoperative sterile surgical site dressing for both cranial and spinal procedures. Summary of Background Data: Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important complication of spine surgery that can result in significant morbidity. There is wide variation in wound care management in practice, including dressing type. Given the known bactericidal properties of the surgical drape, there may be a benefit of continuing its use immediately postoperatively. Methods: All of the senior author’s cases from September 2014 through September 2015 were reviewed. These were contrasted to the previous year prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as a postoperative dressing. Results: Only one surgical case out of 157 operative interventions (35 cranial, 124 spinal) required operative debridement due to infection. From September 2013 to September 2014, prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as dressing, the author had five infections out of 143 operations (46 cranial, 97 spinal) requiring intervention. Conclusion: The implementation of a sterile surgical drape as a closed postoperative surgical site dressing has led to a decrease in surgical site infections. The technique is simple and widely available, and should be considered for use to diminish surgical site infections. PMID:26798570

  9. Aquacel Surgical Dressing after Thigh Lift: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bocchiotti, Maria A.; Baglioni, Elisabetta A.; Spaziante, Luca; Frenello, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The postoperative dressing in patients undergoing thigh lift is often difficult, not very resistant to movement, and uncomfortable for the patient, and often exposes surgical site to infection, maceration, or delay in wound healing. Methods: We included 40 patients in a case–control crossover study with no period effects, who were treated both by Aquacel Surgical and a traditional wound dressing. Surveys with a 10-point scale evaluation were used to assess nontraumatic removal level, ease of application, adhesion, and strength of the 2 treatments. We reported the number of days necessary for wound healing, the number of infection cases, and wound-related complications. Costs of the 2 medications were also considered. Ten days after surgery, patients answered a questionnaire with 6 multiple-choice questions to assess comfort, pain at dressing change, pruritus, strength, and number of dressing changes. Results: Compared with controls, surveys revealed Aquacel Surgical to be less traumatic to remove, easier to apply, and to be more adherent and stronger. Significant acceleration of the wound healing was also evident with Aquacel Surgical compared with the traditional dressing. Nonsignificant differences were reported about the risk of infection and wound-related complications between the 2 treatments. A statistical analysis of costs revealed that Aquacel Surgical is significantly more expensive than the traditional medication. Conclusion: We recommend the use of Aquacel Surgical in all the surgery procedures where the risk of wound dehiscence and maceration is high. PMID:27757328

  10. A General Method to Discover Epitopes from Sera

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Kurt; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Sykes, Kathryn; Shen, Luhui

    2016-01-01

    Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been explored since deciphering these interactions can greatly facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In silico B cell epitope mapping approaches have been widely pursued, though success has not been consistent. Antibody mixtures in immune sera have been used as handles for biologically relevant antigens, but these and other experimental approaches have proven resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods are often tailored to individual diseases or a specific proteome, rather than providing a universal platform. Most of these methods are not able to identify the specific antibody’s epitopes from unknown antigens, such as un-annotated neo antigens in cancer. Alternatively, a peptide library comprised of sequences unrestricted by naturally-found protein space provides for a universal search for mimotopes of an antibody’s epitope. Here we present the utility of such a non-natural random sequence library of 10,000 peptides physically addressed on a microarray for mimotope discovery without sequence information of the specific antigen. The peptide arrays were probed with serum from an antigen-immunized rabbit, or alternatively probed with serum pre-absorbed with the same immunizing antigen. With this positive and negative screening scheme, we identified the library-peptides as the mimotopes of the antigen. The unique library peptides were successfully used to isolate antigen-specific antibodies from complete immune serum. Sequence analysis of these peptides revealed the epitopes in the immunized antigen. We present this method as an inexpensive, efficient method for identifying mimotopes of any antibody’s targets. These mimotopes should be useful in defining both components of the antigen

  11. A general method to determine the stability of compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Chang, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several problems were studied using two completely different approaches. The initial method was to use the standard linearized perturbation theory by finding the value of the individual small disturbance quantities based on the equations of motion. These were serially eliminated from the equations of motion to derive a single equation that governs the stability of fluid dynamic system. These equations could not be reduced unless the steady state variable depends only on one coordinate. The stability equation based on one dependent variable was found and was examined to determine the stability of a compressible swirling jet. The second method applied a Lagrangian approach to the problem. Since the equations developed were based on different assumptions, the condition of stability was compared only for the Rayleigh problem of a swirling flow, both examples reduce to the Rayleigh criterion. This technique allows including the viscous shear terms which is not possible in the first method. The same problem was then examined to see what effect shear has on stability.

  12. A general method for modeling population dynamics and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K

    2013-12-01

    Studying populations, be it a microbe colony or mankind, is important for understanding how complex systems evolve and exist. Such knowledge also often provides insights into evolution, history and different aspects of human life. By and large, populations' prosperity and decline is about transformation of certain resources into quantity and other characteristics of populations through growth, replication, expansion and acquisition of resources. We introduce a general model of population change, applicable to different types of populations, which interconnects numerous factors influencing population dynamics, such as nutrient influx and nutrient consumption, reproduction period, reproduction rate, etc. It is also possible to take into account specific growth features of individual organisms. We considered two recently discovered distinct growth scenarios: first, when organisms do not change their grown mass regardless of nutrients availability, and the second when organisms can reduce their grown mass by several times in a nutritionally poor environment. We found that nutrient supply and reproduction period are two major factors influencing the shape of population growth curves. There is also a difference in population dynamics between these two groups. Organisms belonging to the second group are significantly more adaptive to reduction of nutrients and far more resistant to extinction. Also, such organisms have substantially more frequent and lesser in amplitude fluctuations of population quantity for the same periodic nutrient supply (compared to the first group). Proposed model allows adequately describing virtually any possible growth scenario, including complex ones with periodic and irregular nutrient supply and other changing parameters, which present approaches cannot do.

  13. Systematic and general method for quantifying localization in microscopy images

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Huanjie; Stauffer, Weston

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quantifying the localization of molecules with respect to other molecules, cell structures and intracellular regions is essential to understanding their regulation and actions. However, measuring localization from microscopy images is often difficult with existing metrics. Here, we evaluate a metric for quantifying localization termed the threshold overlap score (TOS), and show it is simple to calculate, easy to interpret, able to be used to systematically characterize localization patterns, and generally applicable. TOS is calculated by: (i) measuring the overlap of pixels that are above the intensity thresholds for two signals; (ii) determining whether the overlap is more, less, or the same as expected by chance, i.e. colocalization, anti-colocalization, or non-colocalization; and (iii) rescaling to allow comparison at different thresholds. The above is repeated at multiple threshold combinations to generate a TOS matrix to systematically characterize the relationship between localization and signal intensities. TOS matrices were used to identify and distinguish localization patterns of different proteins in various simulations, cell types and organisms with greater specificity and sensitivity than common metrics. For all the above reasons, TOS is an excellent first line metric, particularly for cells with mixed localization patterns. PMID:27979831

  14. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. 130.12 Section 130.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General...

  15. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. 130.12 Section 130.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General...

  16. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. 130.12 Section 130.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General...

  17. 21 CFR 130.12 - General methods for water capacity and fill of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General methods for water capacity and fill of containers. 130.12 Section 130.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD STANDARDS: GENERAL General Provisions § 130.12 General...

  18. Hemostatic dressings for the first responder: a review.

    PubMed

    Neuffer, Marcus C; McDivitt, Jonathan; Rose, David; King, Kelly; Cloonan, Clifford C; Vayer, Joshua S

    2004-09-01

    The military is interested in finding a hemostatic dressing that is effective in controlling hemorrhage from combat wounds, relatively inexpensive, and easy to transport. The fibrin dressing has existed for decades, but the military has been reluctant to use the dressing because it is not Food and Drug Administration approved, fairly expensive, and difficult to apply on certain wounds. Newer dressings such as the microporous polysaccharide hemosphere (TraumaDEX), mineral zeolite (QuikClot), poly-N-acetylglucosamine (HemCon), and microporous hydrogel-forming polyacrylamide (BioHemostat) dressings have addressed these deficiencies in that they are relatively inexpensive, easy to transport, and easy to apply. However, the effectiveness of these new dressings on wounds sustained in combat is still questionable according to studies and anecdotal reports from Operation Iraqi Freedom. More research is needed to draw definite conclusions about the effectiveness of these dressings in a combat setting.

  19. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2016-02-07

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the “probe”) and a material surface (the “sample”) is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  20. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the "probe") and a material surface (the "sample") is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  1. A Fast Optimization Method for General Binary Code Learning.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fumin; Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Yang; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-09-22

    Hashing or binary code learning has been recognized to accomplish efficient near neighbor search, and has thus attracted broad interests in recent retrieval, vision and learning studies. One main challenge of learning to hash arises from the involvement of discrete variables in binary code optimization. While the widely-used continuous relaxation may achieve high learning efficiency, the pursued codes are typically less effective due to accumulated quantization error. In this work, we propose a novel binary code optimization method, dubbed Discrete Proximal Linearized Minimization (DPLM), which directly handles the discrete constraints during the learning process. Specifically, the discrete (thus nonsmooth nonconvex) problem is reformulated as minimizing the sum of a smooth loss term with a nonsmooth indicator function. The obtained problem is then efficiently solved by an iterative procedure with each iteration admitting an analytical discrete solution, which is thus shown to converge very fast. In addition, the proposed method supports a large family of empirical loss functions, which is particularly instantiated in this work by both a supervised and an unsupervised hashing losses, together with the bits uncorrelation and balance constraints. In particular, the proposed DPLM with a supervised `2 loss encodes the whole NUS-WIDE database into 64-bit binary codes within 10 seconds on a standard desktop computer. The proposed approach is extensively evaluated on several large-scale datasets and the generated binary codes are shown to achieve very promising results on both retrieval and classification tasks.

  2. ON THE QUADRATIC CONVERGENCE OF A GENERALIZATION OF THE JACOBI METHOD TO ARBITRARY MATRICES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and plane shears (non-unitary). The method is a generalization of the Jacobi Method in that for the case of normal matrices it is equivalent to the method which is given by Goldstine and Horwitz. (Author)

  3. A general method for modeling biochemical and biomedical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Lerd Ng, Jia; Hughes, Tyler; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The impressive achievements of biomedical science have come mostly from experimental research with human subjects, animal models, and sophisticated laboratory techniques. Additionally, theoretical chemistry has been a major aid in designing new drugs. Here we introduce a method which is similar to others already well known in theoretical systems biology, but which specifically addresses biochemical changes as the human body responds to medical interventions. It is common in systems biology to use first-order differential equations to model the time evolution of various chemical concentrations, and we as physicists can make a significant impact through designing realistic models and then solving the resulting equations. Biomedical research is rapidly advancing, and the technique presented in this talk can be applied in arbitrarily large models containing tens, hundreds, or even thousands of interacting species, to determine what beneficial effects and side effects may result from pharmaceuticals or other medical interventions.

  4. A general method for sifting linguistic knowledge from structured terminologies.

    PubMed Central

    Grabar, N.; Zweigenbaum, P.

    2000-01-01

    Morphological knowledge is useful for medical language processing, information retrieval and terminology or ontology development. We show how a large volume of morphological associations between words can be learnt from existing medical terminologies by taking advantage of the semantic relations already encoded between terms in these terminologies: synonymy, hierarchy and transversal relations. The method proposed relies on no a priori linguistic knowledge. Since it can work with different relations between terms, it can be applied to any structured terminology. Tested on SNOMED and ICD in French and English, it proves to identify fairly reliable morphological relations (precision > 90%) with a good coverage (over 88% compared to the UMLS lexical variant generation program). For English words with a stem longer than 3 characters, recall reaches 98.8% for inflection and 94.7% for derivation. PMID:11079895

  5. Generalized Derivation of the RRV Method and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. R.; Peng, Q. Y.; Wang, N.; Peng, H. W.; Zhang, Q. F.; Li, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Very recently, Heinze & Metchev proposed a novel method for calculating precise distances to the main-belt asteroids using only two nights of data from a single observatory. In this paper, we re-derive the solution but use easily understood spherical astronomy. Our derivation is based on the premise that the geocentric angular velocity of an asteroid changes linearly with time, which is closer to the real situation. Therefore, a possible extra error of rotational reflex velocity, in some cases, is eliminated. A total of 193 frames of CCD images over four nights for 10 asteroids in a conventional stare mode taken with the 1 m telescope at Yunnan Observatory were used to test the improved solution and precise distances were evaluated.

  6. A generalized self-consistent mechanics method for microcracked solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Hu, K. X.; Chandra, A.

    1994-08-01

    A CRACK-MATRIX-COMPOSITE model is proposed and studied for microcracked solids. The model properly accounts for the effect of crack interactions on the effective moduli of microcracked solids. Approximate formulas for randomly distributed penny-shaped cracks and tunnel cracks are given. The difference between the crack-matrix-composite model and that of the dilute or non-interacting solution is of the order ɛ {5}/{2} for penny-shaped cracks and ɛ 2 for tunnel cracks, where ɛ is the crack density. The results from an accurate numerical method for arbitrarily distributed cracks, based on a pseudo-traction approach, verify the present crack-matrix-composite model.

  7. Hybrid optimization method with general switching strategy for parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Balsa-Canto, Eva; Peifer, Martin; Banga, Julio R; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian

    2008-03-24

    Modeling and simulation of cellular signaling and metabolic pathways as networks of biochemical reactions yields sets of non-linear ordinary differential equations. These models usually depend on several parameters and initial conditions. If these parameters are unknown, results from simulation studies can be misleading. Such a scenario can be avoided by fitting the model to experimental data before analyzing the system. This involves parameter estimation which is usually performed by minimizing a cost function which quantifies the difference between model predictions and measurements. Mathematically, this is formulated as a non-linear optimization problem which often results to be multi-modal (non-convex), rendering local optimization methods detrimental. In this work we propose a new hybrid global method, based on the combination of an evolutionary search strategy with a local multiple-shooting approach, which offers a reliable and efficient alternative for the solution of large scale parameter estimation problems. The presented new hybrid strategy offers two main advantages over previous approaches: First, it is equipped with a switching strategy which allows the systematic determination of the transition from the local to global search. This avoids computationally expensive tests in advance. Second, using multiple-shooting as the local search procedure reduces the multi-modality of the non-linear optimization problem significantly. Because multiple-shooting avoids possible spurious solutions in the vicinity of the global optimum it often outperforms the frequently used initial value approach (single-shooting). Thereby, the use of multiple-shooting yields an enhanced robustness of the hybrid approach.

  8. Research on the ELID-ultrasound dressing technology based on multi-field coupling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, JiCai

    This paper utilizes the multi-field coupling theory to conduct numerical simulation for the electrolyte flow state between the anode and cathode of ELID (Electrolytic In-process Dressing) - ultrasound dressing system. The simulation results show that this theory is an effective solution to the electrolyte's uneven distribution problem of traditional ELID dressing, thereby the uniform electrolysis on the grinding wheel surface enabling the oxide film to cover the entire surface. In addition, as the local vibration of the electrolyte caused by the ultrasonic vibration is conductive for the updating of ion concentration reacting around the electrolyte as well as the acceleration of the process of the electrode reaction. This method is suitable for ultra-precision grinding as well as the high-speed and efficient grinding.

  9. Generalized method for constructing the atomic coordinates of nanotube caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M.; Suarez-Martinez, I.; Marks, N. A.

    2013-04-01

    A practical numerical method for the rapid construction of nanotube caps is proposed. Founded upon the notion of lattice duality, the algorithm considers the face dual representation of a given nanotube which is used to solve an energy minimization problem analogous to The Thomson Problem. Not only does this produce caps for nanotubes of arbitrary chirality, but the caps generated will be physically sensible and in most cases the lowest energy structure. To demonstrate the applicability of the technique, caps of the (5,5) and the (10,0) nanotubes are investigated by means of density-functional tight binding (DFTB). The calculation of cap energies highlights the ability of the algorithm to produce lowest energy caps. Due to the preferential construction of spherical caps, the technique is particularly well suited for the construction of capped multiwall nanotubes (MWNTs). To validate this proposal and the overall robustness of the algorithm, a MWNT is constructed containing the chiralities (9,2)@(15,6)@(16,16). The algorithm presented paves the way for future computational investigations into the physics and chemistry of capped nanotubes.

  10. Observational methods used to assess rat behavior: general activity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carol Ann; Beltz, Barbara; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2007-09-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe activity-inactivity continuum is an important parameter of behavior, and quantification of overall locomotor activity in the rat should identify it as a naturally nocturnal animal. Disruptions in nocturnal activity can be caused by damage in visual inputs to the brain or damage in the hypothalamus. Many commercial devices are available to measure activity automatically; some can be integrated with a computer to allow overnight monitoring in the absence of an observer. A less sophisticated but still accurate method of measuring activity is to create a home-made activity chamber by replacing the bottom of a box with Plexiglas or by marking lines on the bottom of a clean rat cage so that the observer can record rat activity by noting when the lines are crossed, while simultaneously recording other behaviors. Activity in rat pups can be observed as soon as they are 10 days old using smaller activity chambers. This protocol describes the construction of a home-made activity chamber and how to measure four activities: locomotion, rearing, circling, and grooming.

  11. Parallel Methods for Synthesizing Whole-Hand Grasps from Generalized Prototypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    AD-A276 798 Technical Report 1464 Parallel Methods for Synthesizing Whole-Hand Grasps from Generalized Prototypes DTIC S ELECTE MAR 0 919940 F. Nancy...report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Parallel Methods for Synthesizing Whole-Hand Grasps from NOCO 14-91 -J4038 Generalized Prototypes N000 I 4...102 Parallel Methods for Synthesizing Whole-Hand Grasps from Generalized Prototypes by Nancy S. Pollard Revised version of a thesis submitted to the

  12. Normal saline wound dressing--is it really normal?

    PubMed

    Lim, J K; Saliba, L; Smith, M J; McTavish, J; Raine, C; Curtin, P

    2000-01-01

    Gauze swabs soaked in normal saline are frequently used as dressing on open wounds. Their exact mechanism of action is not known. This study was designed to assess the hypothesis that normal saline dressings act in part as an osmotic dressing. Ten patients had skin ulcers (n = 10) dressed with normal saline soaked sponges. Acting as controls (n = 10) identical sponges were placed upon intact skin. The sponge fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentrations were serially assayed to test our hypothesis. In the control group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations increased with time as a result of evaporation, altering it from an isotonic to a hypertonic dressing. However, in the ulcer group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the sponge fluid remained relatively isotonic with time. This result is statistically significant (P< 0.05). We postulate that, as a result of evaporation, the sponge dressing increases its tonicity. This draws fluid from the wound into the dressing so that a dynamic equilibrium occurs and the sponge dressing regains isotonicity. The dressing remains functional provided that the wound fluid is absorbed freely from the wound. This process is terminated when either the dressing completely absorbs the wound fluid or the dressing dries out. The latter often occurs prematurely in a contaminated wound or in a wound where exudate forms a non-permeable barrier which prevents osmosis and allows the remaining water in the dressing to evaporate completely. This correlates with the observation in clinical practice that for maximum efficacy the dressing should be changed regularly. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  13. DRESS syndrome: à propos de trois observations

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi, Wafa; Souissi, Jihed; Chelli, Jihène; Larbi, Fatma; Zantour, Baha; Habib Sfar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome d'hypersensibilité médicamenteuse ou Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) est une toxidermie rare mais sévère. Nous rapportons trois observations de DRESS syndromes secondaires à la prise de carbamazipine dans deux cas et de salazopyrine dans un cas. Le délai moyen entre la prise médicamenteuse et la survenue du DRESS syndrome était de six semaines. Le médicament incriminé était arrêté d'une façon définitive dans tous les cas. Une corticothérapie par voie générale était instaurée chez tous les patients devant l'atteinte hépatique sévère. L’évolution était favorable avec disparation des lésions cutanées et normalisation du bilan hépatique. Le diagnostic du syndrome DRESS doit être évoqué devant un tableau associant une éruption fébrile et des signes systémiques faisant suite à une prise médicamenteuse. La précocité du diagnostic est fondamentale pour l'arrêt définitif des médicaments suspects. Le traitement n'est pas bien codifié mais repose actuellement sur la corticothérapie générale. PMID:25810802

  14. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Fabbri, Alessandro; Martínez, Cristián; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space-time with a negative cosmological constant in (2 + 1)-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress-energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space-time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak) cosmic censorship.

  15. Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J.; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in

  16. Dressed-quarks and the Roper resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C. D.; Cloët, I. C.; Chang, L.; Roberts, H. L. L.

    2012-04-01

    A Dyson-Schwinger equation calculation of the light hadron spectrum, which correlates the masses of meson and baryon ground- and excited-states within a single framework, produces a description of the Roper resonance that corresponds closely with conclusions drawn recently by EBAC. Namely, the Roper is a particular type of radial excitation of the nucleon's dressed-quark core augmented by a material meson cloud component. There are, in addition, some surprises.

  17. Hydrogel Dressings for Advanced Wound Management.

    PubMed

    Francesko, Antonio; Petkova, Petya; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2017-09-20

    Composed in a large extent of water and due to their non-adhesiveness, hydrogels found their way to the wound dressing market as materials that provide a moisture environment for healing while being comfortable to the patient. Hydrogels' exploitation is constantly increasing after evidences of their even broader therapeutic potential due to resemblance to dermal tissue and ability to induce partial skin regeneration. The innovation in advanced wound care is further directed to the development of so-called active dressings, where hydrogels are combined with components that enhance the primary purpose of providing a beneficial environment for wound healing. The aim of this mini-review is to concisely describe the relevance of hydrogel dressings as platforms for delivery of active molecules for improved management of difficult-to-treat wounds. The emphasis is on the most recent advances in development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels, which allow for control over wound healing efficiency in response to different external modalities. Novel strategies for monitoring of the wound status and healing progress based on incorporation of sensor molecules into the hydrogel platforms are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Antigen Presentation by MHC-Dressed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as conventional dendritic cells (DCs) process protein antigens to MHC-bound peptides and then present the peptide–MHC complexes to T cells. In addition to this canonical antigen presentation pathway, recent studies have revealed that DCs and non-APCs can acquire MHC class I (MHCI) and/or MHC class II (MHCII) from neighboring cells through a process of cell–cell contact-dependent membrane transfer called trogocytosis. These MHC-dressed cells subsequently activate or regulate T cells via the preformed antigen peptide–MHC complexes without requiring any further processing. In addition to trogocytosis, intercellular transfer of MHCI and MHCII can be mediated by secretion of membrane vesicles such as exosomes from APCs, generating MHC-dressed cells. This review focuses on the physiological role of antigen presentation by MHCI- or MHCII-dressed cells, and also discusses differences and similarities between trogocytosis and exosome-mediated transfer of MHC. PMID:25601867

  19. The role of allogenic keratin - derived dressing in wound healing in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Konop, Marek; Sulejczak, Dorota; Czuwara, Joanna; Kosson, Piotr; Misicka, Aleksandra; Lipkowski, Aandrzej W; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-12-20

    Keratin is an interesting protein needed for wound healing and tissue recovery. We have recently proposed a new, simple and inexpensive method to obtain fur and hair keratin-derived biomaterials suitable for medical application. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the fur keratin derived protein (FKDP) dressing in the allogenic full-thickness surgical skin wound model.

  20. CHLORHEXIDINE-IMPREGNATED DRESSING FOR PREVENTION OF CATHETER-RELATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTION: A META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Nasia; O’Horo, John C.; Ghufran, Aiman; Bearden, Allison; Didier, Maria Eugenia; Chateau, Dan; Maki, Dennis G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and effective methods for their prevention are needed. Objective To assess the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter-related colonization and CRBSI using meta-analysis. Data Sources Multiple computerized database searches supplemented by manual searches including relevant conference proceedings. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing compared with conventional dressings for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI. Data Extraction Data were extracted on patient and catheter characteristics and outcomes. Data Synthesis Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and I2. Subgroup analyses were used to explore heterogeneity. Results Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Use of a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing resulted in a reduced incidence of CRBSI (random effects RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42–0.79, P=0.002). The incidence of catheter colonization was also markedly reduced in the chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing group (random effects RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.39–0.67, P< 0.001). There was significant benefit for prevention of catheter colonization and CRBSI, including arterial catheters used for hemodynamic monitoring. Other than in low birth weight infants, adverse effects were rare and minor. Conclusions Our analysis shows that a chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing is beneficial in preventing catheter colonization and, more importantly, CRBSI and warrants routine use in patients at high risk of CRBSI and CVC or arterial catheter colonization in ICUs. PMID:24674924

  1. Economic impact of Tegaderm chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) dressing in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Thokala, Praveen; Arrowsmith, Martin; Poku, Edith; Martyn-St James, Marissa; Anderson, Jeff; Foster, Steve; Elliott, Tom; Whitehouse, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the economic impact of a TegadermTM chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) gel dressing compared with a standard intravenous (i.v.) dressing (defined as non-antimicrobial transparent film dressing), used for insertion site care of short-term central venous and arterial catheters (intravascular catheters) in adult critical care patients using a cost-consequence model populated with data from published sources. Material and Methods: A decision analytical cost-consequence model was developed which assigned each patient with an indwelling intravascular catheter and a standard dressing, a baseline risk of associated dermatitis, local infection at the catheter insertion site and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), estimated from published secondary sources. The risks of these events for patients with a Tegaderm CHG were estimated by applying the effectiveness parameters from the clinical review to the baseline risks. Costs were accrued through costs of intervention (i.e. Tegaderm CHG or standard intravenous dressing) and hospital treatment costs depended on whether the patients had local dermatitis, local infection or CRBSI. Total costs were estimated as mean values of 10,000 probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) runs. Results: Tegaderm CHG resulted in an average cost-saving of £77 per patient in an intensive care unit. Tegaderm CHG also has a 98.5% probability of being cost-saving compared to standard i.v. dressings. Conclusions: The analyses suggest that Tegaderm CHG is a cost-saving strategy to reduce CRBSI and the results were robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:27582899

  2. A retrospective analysis of ambulatory burn patients: focus on wound dressings and healing times

    PubMed Central

    Gravante, Gianpiero; Montone, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this study, we retrospectively analysed healing times of ambulatory burn patients after silver-based dressings were introduced in late December 2005, and compared the results with those obtained before. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were collected in November–December 2005 and in January–February 2006. We excluded from the study: (i) admitted patients; (ii) patients with mixed superficial partial thickness and deep partial thickness burns; (iii) patients with full-thickness burns; and (iv) operated patients that came for follow-up. We recorded the age, sex, cause (flame vs scald), burn depth, dressings used and healing times. RESULTS We selected 347 patients corresponding to 455 burned areas (64.4% superficial and 35.6% deep; 47.7% treated in 2005 and 52.3% in 2006). During the years 2005 and 2006, there was an increase in the use of silver-based dressings (2005, 9.7%; 2006, 38.7%; chi-squared test, P < 0.001) and a decrease in the use of paraffin gauzes (2005, 66.4%; 2006, 40.3%; chi-squared test, P < 0.001). The healing time of overall burns and of superficial burns showed no significant differences between 2005 and 2006. However, in deep partial thickness burns, a significant reduction was present (2006, 19; 2005, 29 days; Student's t-test, P < 0.01). Among all dressings, paraffin gauzes had the shortest healing times in superficial burns (5 days); with silver-based dressings in deep burns, the healing times were nanocrystalline silver (16 days) and silver carboxymethylcellulose (21 days). CONCLUSIONS Results of our retrospective study would suggest that paraffin gauzes are a valuable option in superficial burns, while silver-based dressings are preferable in deep burns. PMID:19995488

  3. Wound dressing following primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, M; Bidaye, A; Baird, E; Abu-Rajab, R; Stark, A; Jones, B; Ingram, R; Anthony, I

    2016-01-01

    This study compared three methods of surgical wound dressing in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty to determine their effect on wound leakage. Total hip arthroplasties were randomised to 3 groups: 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond-Ethicon Inc, G) with Opsite (Smith & Nephew; O) [G+O], 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with Tegaderm (3M; T) [G+T], and Opsite without 2-octyl cyanoacrylate [O]. Postoperative wound leakage was assessed and graded daily until discharge, the frequency of the dressing changes was also recorded. Patients were clinically reviewed at three months to assess cosmesis of their surgical scar and wound complications. In all 211 total hip arthoplasties were included. A greater proportion of patients' dressings remained dry on day 1 postoperatively in the two groups using 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (G+O and G+T) compared to the no glue group (O; p=0.0001). The G+T group had a significantly lower proportion of patients with increased leakage of wounds on days 2 and 3 postoperatively compared with both G+O and O groups (p=0.0043). The overall rate of dressing change for G+O was 8%, G+T 5%, and O 13%. Overall wound cosmesis was similar in all groups (p=0.690). The reduction in frequency of dressing changes coupled with low levels of wound leakage observed using the combination of the glue and nonabsorbent dressings (O+T), makes this combination of wound closing products ideal for facilitating enhanced recovery and early discharge programmes in elective hip arthroplasty.

  4. Role of Surgical Dressings in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Springer, Bryan D; Beaver, Walter B; Griffin, William L; Mason, J Bohannon; Odum, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare efficacy of an occlusive antimicrobial barrier dressing and a standard surgical dressing in patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty. Two hundred sixty-two patients were randomized to receive either an occlusive dressing or a standard dressing. Wounds were closed in identical fashion. Outcomes included wound complications, dressing changes, and patient satisfaction. With use of occlusive dressing (vs standard dressing), wound complications (including skin blistering) were significantly (P = 0.15) reduced; there were significantly (P < .0001) fewer dressing changes; and patient satisfaction was significantly (P < .0001) higher. Use of occlusive dressings can reduce wound complications and promote wound healing after total joint arthroplasty.

  5. 29 CFR 4281.17 - Asset valuation methods-in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asset valuation methods-in general. 4281.17 Section 4281.17... MASS WITHDRAWAL Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.17 Asset valuation methods—in general. (a) General rule. The plan sponsor shall value plan assets as of the valuation date, using the...

  6. 29 CFR 4281.17 - Asset valuation methods-in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset valuation methods-in general. 4281.17 Section 4281.17... MASS WITHDRAWAL Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.17 Asset valuation methods—in general. (a) General rule. The plan sponsor shall value plan assets as of the valuation date, using the...

  7. Detection of mustard, egg, milk, and gluten in salad dressing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

    PubMed

    Lee, Poi-Wah; Niemann, Lynn M; Lambrecht, Debra M; Nordlee, Julie A; Taylor, Steve L

    2009-06-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a commonly used method for the detection of trace amounts of potentially allergenic protein residues in foods. However, food matrices and processing conditions can affect the detection of protein residues. The effects of acidity on the detectability of several allergenic proteins commonly found in salad dressing using ELISAs was investigated. First, recovery experiments were performed on salad dressing formulated with 0 to 1000 ppm mustard flour (mustard). The mean percent recovery for mustard from the salad dressing was only 7.7%+/- 1.6%. When the pH of the salad dressing was adjusted to pH 7 prior to spiking with mustard, recovery improved to 94.1%+/- 7.6%. However, if the pH was adjusted to pH 7 after spiking and extraction, the recovery was only 11.1%+/- 1.7%. When vinegar was spiked with mustard flour at pH 3, 3.5, and 4, detectability of mustard was lowest at pH 3. Basic extraction of mustard proteins from salad dressing did not improve the mustard detection. Acidic salad dressing matrices reduced the detectability of mustard by the mustard ELISA probably because of acid precipitation of mustard proteins that renders them insoluble and nonextractable. Commercial salad dressings containing 100 ppm (mg/kg) of egg, milk, or gluten were analyzed every 2 to 4 d for 90 d using 3 commercially available ELISAs. A decrease in the detection of the egg, milk, and gluten in the salad dressing upon storage was observed. Our study highlighted the importance of evaluating the utility of various ELISAs for specific food matrices and the recovery as a function of product storage.

  8. Surgical site infections following colorectal cancer surgery: a randomized prospective trial comparing common and advanced antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver was found effective in reducing surgical-site infection in a preliminary study of colorectal cancer elective surgery. We decided to test this finding in a randomized, double-blind trial. Methods Adults undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery at two university-affiliated hospitals were randomly assigned to have the surgical incision dressed with Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing or a common dressing. To blind the patient and the nursing and medical staff to the nature of the dressing used, scrub nurses covered Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber with a common wound dressing in the experimental arm, whereas a double common dressing was applied to patients of control group. The primary end-point of the study was the occurrence of any surgical-site infection within 30 days of surgery. Results A total of 112 patients (58 in the experimental arm and 54 in the control group) qualified for primary end-point analysis. The characteristics of the patient population and their surgical procedures were similar. The overall rate of surgical-site infection was lower in the experimental group (11.1% center 1, 17.5% center 2; overall 15.5%) than in controls (14.3% center 1, 24.2% center 2, overall 20.4%), but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.451), even with respect to surgical-site infection grade 1 (superficial) versus grades 2 and 3, or grade 1 and 2 versus grade 3. Conclusions This randomized trial did not confirm a statistically significant superiority of Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing in reducing surgical-site infection after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00981110 PMID:22621779

  9. Severe descending necrotizing mediastinitis: vacuum-assisted dressing did wonder.

    PubMed

    Liew, Y T; Lim, Elizabeth Yenn Lynn; Zulkiflee, A B; Prepageran, N

    2017-04-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rapidly progressive disease from the spread of cervical infection. Transcervical and transthoracic drainage was the recognized traditional surgical approach to achieve adequate clearance of infection. Non-invasive vacuum-assisted dressing is a new technique where applied negative pressure can help remove infective fluid and to promote wound healing. A 60-year-old man presented with odynophagia, fever and anterior neck swelling for 2 weeks. He was diagnosed to have anterior neck abscess and underwent surgical drainage. However, it did not respond well, but progressed to involve superior and inferior mediastinum. Vacuum-assisted dressing was applied for total of 2 weeks and the patient recovered without going through usual traditional transthoracic drainage. Vacuum drainage is a simple, safe and non-invasive method of managing DNM, in well selected group with small abscess cavity without airway obstruction and septicemia. This potential technique can lead to paradigm shift in treating life-threatening DNM.

  10. Quantum gates and memory using microwave-dressed states.

    PubMed

    Timoney, N; Baumgart, I; Johanning, M; Varón, A F; Plenio, M B; Retzker, A; Wunderlich, Ch

    2011-08-10

    Trapped atomic ions have been used successfully to demonstrate basic elements of universal quantum information processing. Nevertheless, scaling up such methods to achieve large-scale, universal quantum information processing (or more specialized quantum simulations) remains challenging. The use of easily controllable and stable microwave sources, rather than complex laser systems, could remove obstacles to scalability. However, the microwave approach has drawbacks: it involves the use of magnetic-field-sensitive states, which shorten coherence times considerably, and requires large, stable magnetic field gradients. Here we show how to overcome both problems by using stationary atomic quantum states as qubits that are induced by microwave fields (that is, by dressing magnetic-field-sensitive states with microwave fields). This permits fast quantum logic, even in the presence of a small (effective) Lamb-Dicke parameter (and, therefore, moderate magnetic field gradients). We experimentally demonstrate the basic building blocks of this scheme, showing that the dressed states are long lived and that coherence times are increased by more than two orders of magnitude relative to those of bare magnetic-field-sensitive states. This improves the prospects of microwave-driven ion trap quantum information processing, and offers a route to extending coherence times in all systems that suffer from magnetic noise, such as neutral atoms, nitrogen-vacancy centres, quantum dots or circuit quantum electrodynamic systems.

  11. Physically crosslinked-sacran hydrogel films for wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Okajima, Maiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2016-08-01

    The thin hydrogel films consisting of water-swollen polymer networks can potentially be applied for biomedical fields. Recently, natural polysaccharides have great attentions to be developed as wound healing and protection. In the present study, we newly prepared and characterized a physically crosslinked-hydrogel film composed of a novel megamolecular polysaccharide sacran for wound dressing application. We successfully fabricated a physically crosslinked-sacran hydrogel film by a solvent-casting method. The thickness of a sacran hydrogel film was lower than that of a sodium alginate (Na-alginate) film. Importantly, the swollen ratio of a sacran hydrogel film in water at 24h was 19-fold, compared to initial weight. Meanwhile, a Na-alginate hydrogel film was completely broken apart after rehydration. Moreover, a sacran hydrogel film did not show any cytotoxicity on NIH3T3 cells, a murine fibroblast cell line. The in vivo skin hydration study revealed that a sacran hydrogel film significantly increased the moisture content on hairless mice skin and considerably improved wound healing ability, compared to control (non-treated), probably due to not only the moisturing effect but also the anti-inflammatory effect of sacran. These results suggest that sacran has the potential properties as a basic biomaterial in a hydrogel film for wound dressing application.

  12. Managers, Teachers, Students, and Parents' Opinions Concerning Changes on Dress Code Practices as an Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birel, Firat Kiyas

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Dressing for school has been intensely disputed and has led to periodic changes in dress codes since the foundation of the Turkish republic. Practitioners have tried to put some new practices related to school dress codes into practice for redressing former dress code issues involving mandatory dress standards for both students…

  13. Adolescent dress, Part I: Dress and body markings of psychiatric outpatients and inpatients.

    PubMed

    Michelman, J D; Eicher, J B; Michelman, S O

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigated the dress and body markings of 100 adolescent psychiatric patients (both hospitalized and never-hospitalized). Data were obtained from in-depth interviews conducted by a child psychiatrist. In contrast to nonhospitalized patients, hospitalized patients had a higher incidence of self-scarring, i.e., marks applied to self, either as a self-mutilation/suicide gesture or serving another purpose (for example, carving a boyfriend's initials into one's arm). Other individual expressions of appearance did not differentiate hospitalized from nonhospitalized patients. Detailed dress and appearance observations, questionnaires, photo reviews, self-portraits, and family discussions contributed to the beneficial effect of psychotherapy by focusing on feelings evoked and symbolized in dress and body markings.

  14. Dressings Combined with Injection of Meglumine Antimoniate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Alireza; Talaee, Rezvan; Rahshenas, Makan; Khamesipour, Ali; Mehryan, Pedram; Tehrani, Sepideh; Dowlati, Yahya; Firooz, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected infectious disease and a major health problem in several developing countries. Despite some reasonable explanation for their potential benefits, there is only trace evidence regarding the role of dressings in the treatment of CL. Methods This randomized, assessor-blind, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in an endemic area for CL caused by Leishmania major in Iran to assess the efficacy of administration of weekly intralesional meglumine antimoniate (i.l.MA) either alone or combined with application of a silver or a non-silver polyester dressing on their lesions for 6 weeks. After screening of 241 patients with CL lesions, 83 eligible patients with 158 lesions were randomly allocated in three arms of the study. Eligibility criteria included parasitologically confirmed CL, age of 12 to 60 years; willingness to participate, duration of lesion<3 months, number of lesions<5, largest ulcer diameter<5 cm. Pregnant or lactating women were excluded. The primary outcome was absolute risk reduction (ARR) based on the proportion of complete healing, which was defined as more than 75% reduction in the size of the lesion compared with baseline in each group at the termination of treatment and 1 month later. Findings ARR (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was 5.98% (−7.07% to 20.25%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −0.23% (−13.53% to 14.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −6.21%(−18.28% to 6.52%) after 6 weeks of treatment. ARR (95% CI) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was −2.22% (−22.12% to 18.10%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 3.64% (−15.36% to 22.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 5.86% (−12.86% to 24.31%) 1 month later. Conclusion It could not be demonstrated that the efficacy of i

  15. Propensity-matched analysis of the gap between capacity and actual performance of dressing in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Sone, Toshimasa; Midorikawa, Manabu; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Bumsuk, Lee; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Dressing is an activity of daily living for which stroke patients often show discrepancies between capacity and actual performance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physical function and unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients that reduce their level of actual performance despite having the capacity for dressing independently. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 60 first-time stroke patients judged by occupational therapists as able to dress independently. The patients were divided into two groups according to their FIM(®) instrument scores for dressing the upper and lower body: an independent group with both scores ≥6 and an assistance group with one or both scores ≤5. After adjusting for confounding factors through propensity score matching, the groups were compared by using Stroke Impairment Assessment Set items, the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function of both upper limbs, and the Berg balance scale. [Results] The assistance group had a significantly lower score for the Berg balance scale than the independent dressing group (31.0 ± 12.3 vs. 47.8 ± 7.4). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggested that the balance function has an effect on the discrepancy between dressing capacity and performance.

  16. Construction, application and biosafety of silver nanocrystalline chitosan wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuangyun; Gao, Wenjuan; Gu, Hai Ying

    2008-08-01

    A novel wound dressing composed of nano-silver and chitosan was fabricated using a nanometer and self-assembly technology. Sterility and pyrogen testing assessed biosafety, and efficacy was evaluated using Sprague-Dawley rats with deep partial-thickness wounds. Silver sulfadiazine and chitosan film dressings were used as controls. At intervals wound areas were measured, wound tissues biopsied and blood samples taken. Compared with the controls, the silver nanocrystalline chitosan dressing significantly (p<0.01) increased the rate of wound healing and was associated with silver levels in blood and tissues lower than levels associated with the silver sulfadiazine dressing (p<0.01). Sterility and pyrogen tests of the silver nanocrystalline chitosan dressing were negative. Thus this dressing should have wide application in clinical settings.

  17. A vapour-permeable film dressing used on superficial wounds.

    PubMed

    Meuleneire, Frans

    2014-08-12

    Films are an extremely versatile dressing type that can be effectively used in the treatment of many superficial wounds, such as skin grafts, surgical wounds and superficial burns; they provide an optimal moist environment to promote healing, act as a barrier to bacteria, and afford protection from urine and faecal contamination. Unfortunately, many film dressings are difficult to handle and use traditional adhesives, which can cause trauma to the wound and surrounding skin, as well as increased wound pain at dressing removal. Mepitel® Film is a new, easy-to-use wound dressing designed with Safetac® technology that helps to minimise dressing-related trauma and pain and assist undisturbed wound healing. This article presents case studies that examine Mepitel Film's use on a variety of wounds, and reviews the findings of research that was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of using this recently developed dressing.

  18. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP( F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K)) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K)) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  19. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles impregnated wound dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, V. V.; Jadhav, P. R.; Patil, P. S.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by simple wet chemical reduction method. The silver nitrate was reduced by Sodium borohydride used as reducing agent and Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as stabilizing agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Absorption spectrum consist two plasmon peaks at 410 and 668 nm revels the formation of anisotropic nanoparticles confirmed by TEM. The formation of silver nanoparticles was also evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) study. DLS showed polydisperse silver nanoparticles with hydrodynamic size 32 nm. Protecting mechanism of PVP was manifested by FT-Raman study. Silver nanoparticles were impregnated into wound dressing by sonochemical method. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The antimicrobial activity of the samples has been tested against gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. The generalized order-k Fibonacci-Pell sequence by matrix methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Emrah

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the usual and generalized order-k Fibonacci and Pell recurrences, then we define a new recurrence, which we call generalized order-k F-P sequence. Also we present a systematic investigation of the generalized order-k F-P sequence. We give the generalized Binet formula, some identities and an explicit formula for sums of the generalized order-k F-P sequence by matrix methods. Further, we give the generating function and combinatorial representations of these numbers. Also we present an algorithm for computing the sums of the generalized order-k Pell numbers, as well as the Pell numbers themselves.

  2. An update and review of cell-based wound dressings and their integration into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoussa, Austin; Gardner, Daniel J.; Johnson, Maxwell B.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wounds affect over 4 million individuals and pose a significant burden to the US healthcare system. Diabetes, venous stasis, radiation or paralysis are common risk factors for chronic wounds. Unfortunately, the current standard of care (SOC) has a high relapse rate and these wounds continue to adversely affect patients’ quality of life. Fortunately, advances in tissue engineering have allowed for the development of cell-based wound dressings that promote wound healing by improving cell migration and differentiation. As the available options continue to increase in quantity and quality, physicians should have a user-friendly guide to reference when deciding which dressing to use. The objective of this review is to identify the currently available biologic dressings, describe their indications, and provide a framework for integration into clinical practice. This review included 53 studies consisting of prospective and retrospective cohorts as well as several randomized control trials. Three general categories of cell-based biologic dressings were identified and nine brands were included. Cell-based biologic dressings have shown efficacy in a broad range of scenarios, and studies examining their efficacy have improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic wounds. Amniotic and placental membranes have the widest scope and can be used to treat all subtypes of chronic wounds. Human skin allografts and bioengineered skin substitutes can be used for chronic ulcers but generally require a vascularized wound bed. Autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) has shown promise in venous stasis ulcers and decubitus ulcers that have failed conventional treatment. Overall, more research is necessary to determine if these novel therapeutic options will change the current SOC, but current studies demonstrate encouraging results in the treatment of chronic wounds. PMID:28090513

  3. Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale). Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s) that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such patients. Thus, we aim to

  4. Allopurinol-induced DRESS syndrome mimicking biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Gyu; Byun, Junsu; Moon, Chae Ho; Yoon, Jong Ho; Yang, Ki Young; Park, Su Cheol; Han, Chul Ju

    2014-03-01

    An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, jaundice, and itching. He had been diagnosed previously with chronic renal failure and diabetes, and had been taking allopurinol medication for 2 months. A physical examination revealed that he had a fever (38.8℃), jaundice, and a generalized maculopapular rash. Azotemia, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytosis, elevation of liver enzymes, and hyperbilirubinemia were detected by blood analysis. Magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed multiple cysts similar to choledochal cysts in the liver along the biliary tree. Obstructive jaundice was suspected clinically, and so an endoscopic ultrasound examination was performed, which ruled out a diagnosis of obstructive jaundice. The patient was diagnosed with DRESS (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) syndrome due to allopurinol. Allopurinol treatment was stopped and steroid treatment was started. The patient died from cardiac arrest on day 15 following admission.

  5. A CFT perspective on gravitational dressing and bulk locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowycz, Aitor; Turiaci, Gustavo J.; Verlinde, Herman

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the construction of local bulk operators in AdS/CFT with special focus on gravitational dressing and its consequences for bulk locality. Specializing to 2+1-dimensions, we investigate these issues via the proposed identification between bulk operators and cross-cap boundary states. We obtain explicit expressions for correlation functions of bulk fields with boundary stress tensor insertions, and find that they are free of non-local branch cuts but do have non-local poles. We recover the HKLL recipe for restoring bulk locality for interacting fields as the outcome of a natural CFT crossing condition. We show that, in a suitable gauge, the cross-cap states solve the bulk wave equation for general background geometries, and satisfy a conformal Ward identity analo-gous to a soft graviton theorem. Virasoro symmetry, the large N conformal bootstrap and the uniformization theorem all play a key role in our derivations.

  6. Exploratory Development of an Ultrafast-Curing Wound Dressing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    guinea pigs. This dressing was effective in vivo against StreD. Dvogenes, Staph . aureus and P. aeruginosa under prophylactic conditions. An...incorporating 20% silver sulfadiazine and 10% chlorhexidine gluconate was also formulated and tested on guinea pigs. This dressing was effective against Staph ... aureus and P. aeruicinosa when used prophylactically. However, the effectiveness of this dressing against Candida is yet to be evaluated in vivo

  7. Comparison of 10 Different Hemostatic Dressings in an Aortic Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    group (n 5) received suture repair (4-0 Prolene , Ethicon, Inc., Somerville, NJ). Two of the dressings were commercially available, Surgicel and Avitene...hole was closed using a continuous running suture with 4-0 cardiovascular Prolene suture with an atraumatic RB-1 half-circle needle. After the dressing...translucent polyglactin mesh /fibrin clot matrix (Fig. 2). No evidence of intralumi- nal clotting was observed in any animal for any of the dressings. Fig. 1

  8. 20 CFR 404.240 - Old-start method-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Old-start method-general. 404.240 Section 404.240 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Old-Start Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.240 Old-start method—general....

  9. 18 CFR 385.403 - Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403). 385.403 Section 385.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.403 Methods of discovery; general...

  10. 18 CFR 385.403 - Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403). 385.403 Section 385.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.403 Methods of discovery; general...

  11. 18 CFR 385.403 - Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403). 385.403 Section 385.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.403 Methods of discovery; general...

  12. 18 CFR 385.403 - Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403). 385.403 Section 385.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.403 Methods of discovery; general...

  13. 18 CFR 385.403 - Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403). 385.403 Section 385.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Discovery Procedures for Matters Set for Hearing Under Subpart E § 385.403 Methods of discovery; general...

  14. Teaching Methods Associated with Student Progress in General Education Courses. IDEA Research Report #9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Stephen L.; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined which teaching methods are most highly correlated with student progress on relevant course objectives in first- and second-year (lower-level) general education courses. We specifically sought to identify teaching methods that distinguish progress made by students taking a general education course from that made by students…

  15. The role of dressings in the prevention of pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie

    2016-08-11

    Pressure ulceration is a significant global healthcare problem and represents a considerable burden on healthcare resources. Within the literature an increasing number of studies have examined the role prophylactic dressings play in redistributing pressure and helping to protect the skin from the effects of friction and shear. The use of dressings to prevent pressure ulcers may be considered a controversial issue, as previous opinion has been that dressings do not reduce the effects of pressure. This article will critically evaluate the literature to examine the role dressings play in the prevention of pressure ulceration.

  16. Constructing medical social authority on dress in Victorian Canada.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    During the late-Victorian period, campaigns to "reform" middle-class women's dress were grounded in discourses on health, eugenics, declining birth rates, comfort, and aesthetics. In Britain, the United States and Germany, organized "dress reform" movements emerged in the latter half of the 19th century, while in Canada the campaign was led primarily by physicians through public health education. This article explores the discussion on women's dress in public health literature in Canadian circulation between 1860-1900 and interprets findings within a feminist poststructuralist framework that posits the understanding of women's bodies and gender regulation to be central to knowledge construction on women's dress.

  17. Motivation for cross-dressing in heterosexual transvestism.

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N

    1978-02-01

    The literature concerning the motivation for cross-dressing in heterosexual transvestism is briefly reviewed. Thirty-three members of a club established for heterosexual transvestites were interviewed. The sensations they derived from cross-dressing and the importance of compulsive and narcissistic aspects in their transvestite behaviour were assessed and compared with those reported by 24 transsexual subjects. While cross-dressed, transvestite and transsexual subjects frequently reported feeling relaxed, comfortable and relieved of masculine demands. Transvestite subjects showed significantly more compulsive and narcissistic aspects in their transvestite behaviour than transsexual subjects. Fetishistic pleasure was infrequently given as a motivation for cross-dressing.

  18. 9 CFR 108.9 - Dressing rooms and other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY... establishment shall have dressing rooms, toilet facilities, and lavatory accommodations, including hot and cold...

  19. 9 CFR 108.9 - Dressing rooms and other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY... establishment shall have dressing rooms, toilet facilities, and lavatory accommodations, including hot and cold...

  20. 9 CFR 108.9 - Dressing rooms and other facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY... establishment shall have dressing rooms, toilet facilities, and lavatory accommodations, including hot and cold...

  1. Mafenide acetate solution dressings: an adjunct in burn wound care.

    PubMed

    Shuck, J M; Thorne, L W; Cooper, C G

    1975-07-01

    A continuation of the study of 5% aqueous Sulfamylon solution dressings in burned patients was analyzed in 150 consecutive cases. The rate of invasive infection and mortality was not excessive. Dressings were used as an adjunct to other topical chemotherapeutic agents as well as homo/heterograft skin in the overall burn care program. Sulfamylon soaks were shown to be effective for debridement, granulation tissue protection and preparation, and bacterial control. The dressings were comfortable when in place and the wounds appeared clean. Epithelialization was not hampered so that the dressings could be utilized in partial thickness wounds as well as for mesh autografts on extensive burn surfaces=

  2. Approximate Method of Calculating Heating Rates at General Three-Dimensional Stagnation Points During Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. H., II

    1982-01-01

    An approximate method for calculating heating rates at general three dimensional stagnation points is presented. The application of the method for making stagnation point heating calculations during atmospheric entry is described. Comparisons with results from boundary layer calculations indicate that the method should provide an accurate method for engineering type design and analysis applications.

  3. Physico-mechanical, morphological and biomedical properties of a novel natural wound dressing material.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing as a complex biological process greatly affects the quality of patients׳ lives. The high initial cost of wound treatment using advanced wound dressing is a major concern that warrants more attention. Because of the similarities between body macromolecules and polysaccharides and proteoglycans, gelatin and starch were used extensively as wound dressings; however their solubility in aqueous environment is known as a major drawback. Crosslinking, as a common method for enhancing mechanical properties, has its own limitation as some chemical cross-likers reduce biocompatibility. In this research, a simple and economical method for the fabrication of a novel wound dressing foam based on natural polymers of starch and gelatin with borax as the crosslinking agent is introduced. To evaluate the utility of the foams for wound dressing application, morphology, swelling behaviour and kinetics of swelling, vapour permeability, dimension stability, their mechanical properties and cytotoxicity as well as their ability to control release properties were examined as a function of crosslinking density. It was found that however, all borax-induced-samples show acceptable biocompatibility, incorporation of 30% borax solution optimises their mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How to dress donor sites of split thickness skin grafts: a prospective, randomised study of four dressings.

    PubMed

    Persson, K; Salemark, L

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the effects of four dressings on donor sites of split thickness skin grafts. Eighty patients undergoing elective split thickness skin grafting were randomly allocated to one of four groups. The dressings were paraffin gauze, polyurethane foam, polyethane film, and polyurethane film. The main outcome measures were pain and discomfort, healing of donor sites, and time to remove dressings. Polyurethane film caused less pain and discomfort and was also easiest to remove. There were no differences in healing among the four groups.

  5. Adhesive retention dressings are more comfortable than alginate dressings on split skin graft donor sites--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Giele, H.; Tong, A.; Huddleston, S.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective randomised trial examining the effectiveness, comparative comfort and ease of care of two different split skin graft donor site dressings was performed. One of the dressings was an alginate (Kaltostat), and the other an adhesive retention tape (Mefix). Alginates are the standard plastic surgical dressing, whereas the use of adhesive retention tapes as a donor site dressing presents a novel use of a readily available product. A total of 30 consecutive patients requiring split skin grafts were randomised to receive either alginate or retention donor site dressings. Dressings were assessed by interview and questionnaire at 24 h and 48 h and at 2 weeks, and by wound review at 2 weeks. Retention dressings were found to be more comfortable. They also required less nursing care and attention. The retention dressings allowed the patients easier mobility and a greater range of daily activities, especially washing. There was no significant difference in wound healing nor in complications. Adhesive retention tape applied directly to the split skin graft donor site wound is an effective, cheap and comfortable dressing requiring little postoperative care. PMID:11777142

  6. A Special Investigation to Develop a General Method for Three-dimensional Photoelastic Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frocht, M M; Guernsey, R , Jr

    1953-01-01

    The method of strain measurement after annealing is reviewed and found to be satisfactory for the materials available in this country. A new general method is described for the photoelastic determination of the principal stresses at any point of a general body subjected to arbitrary load. The method has been applied to a sphere subjected to diametrical compressive loads. The results show possibilities of high accuracy.

  7. Generalized source method in curvilinear coordinates for 2D grating diffraction simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexey A.; Tishchenko, Alexandre V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a curvilinear coordinate Fourier space integral method for linear optical rigorous grating diffraction simulation in 3D (crossed grating diffraction). The presented formulation extends our previous work on a related method for 1D periodic grating diffraction. Following this previous work we exploit a concept of the generalized metric sources to efficiently solve the Maxwell's equations. The article provides a general description of the method together with a detailed formulation and analysis of sinusoidal corrugation crossed grating diffraction.

  8. Riemannian Optimization Method on Generalized Flag Manifolds for Complex and Subspace ICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimori, Yasunori; Akaho, Shotaro; Plumbley, Mark D.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of manifolds, generalized flag manifolds, for the complex and subspace ICA problems. A generalized flag manifold is a manifold consisting of subspaces which are orthogonal to each other. The class of generalized flag manifolds include the class of Grassmann manifolds. We extend the Riemannian optimization method to include this new class of manifolds by deriving the formulas for the natural gradient and geodesics on these manifolds. We show how the complex and subspace ICA problems can be solved by optimization of cost functions on a generalized flag manifold. Computer simulations demonstrate our algorithm gives good performance compared with the ordinary gradient descent method.

  9. Clinical safety and effectiveness evaluation of a new antimicrobial wound dressing designed to manage exudate, infection and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Daniel G; Parsons, David; Bowler, Philip G

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a next-generation antimicrobial wound dressing (NGAD; AQUACEL(®) Ag+ Extra™ dressing) designed to manage exudate, infection and biofilm. Clinicians were requested to evaluate the NGAD within their standard protocol of care for up to 4 weeks, or as long as deemed clinically appropriate, in challenging wounds that were considered to be impeded by suspected biofilm or infection. Baseline information and post-evaluation dressing safety and effectiveness data were recorded using standardised evaluation forms. This data included wound exudate levels, wound bed appearance including suspected biofilm, wound progression, skin health and dressing usage. A total of 112 wounds from 111 patients were included in the evaluations, with a median duration of 12 months, and biofilm was suspected in over half of all wounds (54%). After the introduction of the NGAD, exudate levels had shifted from predominantly high or moderate to low or moderate levels, while biofilm suspicion fell from 54% to 27% of wounds. Wound bed coverage by tissue type was generally shifted from sloughy or suspected biofilm towards predominantly granulation tissue after the inclusion of the NGAD. Stagnant (65%) and deteriorating wounds (27%) were shifted to improved (65%) or healed wounds (13%), while skin health was also reported to have improved in 63% of wounds. High levels of clinician satisfaction with the dressing effectiveness and change frequency were accompanied by a low number of dressing-related adverse events (n = 3; 2·7%) and other negative observations or comments. This clinical user evaluation supports the growing body of evidence that the anti-biofilm technology in the NGAD results in a safe and effective dressing for the management of a variety of challenging wound types. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dressings for the prevention of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Dumville, Jo C; Gray, Trish A; Walter, Catherine J; Sharp, Catherine A; Page, Tamara; Macefield, Rhiannon; Blencowe, Natalie; Milne, Thomas Kg; Reeves, Barnaby C; Blazeby, Jane

    2016-12-20

    Surgical wounds (incisions) heal by primary intention when the wound edges are brought together and secured, often with sutures, staples, or clips. Wound dressings applied after wound closure may provide physical support, protection and absorb exudate. There are many different types of wound dressings available and wounds can also be left uncovered (exposed). Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of wounds and this may be associated with using (or not using) dressings, or different types of dressing. To assess the effects of wound dressings compared with no wound dressings, and the effects of alternative wound dressings, in preventing SSIs in surgical wounds healing by primary intention. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register (searched 19 September 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 8); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and Epub Ahead of Print; 1946 to 19 September 2016); Ovid Embase (1974 to 19 September 2016); EBSCO CINAHL Plus (1937 to 19 September 2016).There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing wound dressings with wound exposure (no dressing) or alternative wound dressings for the postoperative management of surgical wounds healing by primary intention. Two review authors performed study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment and data extraction independently. We included 29 trials (5718 participants). All studies except one were at an unclear or high risk of bias. Studies were small, reported low numbers of SSI events and were often not clearly reported. There were 16 trials that included people with wounds resulting from surgical procedures with a 'clean' classification, five trials that included people undergoing what was considered 'clean/contaminated' surgery, with the remaining studies including people

  11. One Dress, Two Dress: Dialectal Influence on Spelling of English Words among Kindergarten Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of Singapore Colloquial English (SCE) on Standard English word spelling through a plural formation task of four words ("man", "tooth", "dress" and "child") among 168 Singaporean bilingual children with Chinese background. It was found that "dropping the…

  12. Effects of TLC-Ag dressings on skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bouschbacher, Marielle; Thomassin, Laetitia

    2013-06-01

    The TLC-Ag dressings, a combination of technology lipido-colloid and silver salts, are used to promote healing in wounds with risks or signs of local infection, thanks to the antimicrobial properties of the silver salts. Nanocrystalline silver dressings containing nanocrystalline silver, also used to improve wound healing, present both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of TLC-Ag dressings in a model of chronic skin inflammation induced by repeated application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to the skin of hairless mice, in comparison with TLC dressing, Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing, desonide cream 0.05%, a corticoid cream used as positive control, and gauze. Daily treatments of the mice began 7 days after the start of induction of chronic skin inflammation and lasted for 7 days. A macroscopic score was performed daily during the treatment period until the mice killing on day 15 and skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis. TLC-Ag reduced significantly the macroscopic score of chronic skin inflammation from day 10 in comparison with gauze and TLC dressing, similarly to Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing and desonide cream, which presented the best anti-inflammatory effects. No significant differences were observed between TLC dressing and gauze. TLC-Ag reduced significantly the microscopic score of chronic skin inflammation in comparison with TLC dressing and gauze, similarly to Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing but significantly less than desonide cream. These results demonstrate that TLC-Ag dressings present significant anti-inflammatory effects on chronic skin inflammation. They can improve wound healing, due to both the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. An Inexpensive Bismuth-Petrolatum Dressing for Treatment of Burns.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Chang, Kathleen; Nguyen, Khoa; Galvez, Michael G; Legrand, Anais; Davis, Christopher; McGoldrick, Rory; Long, Chao; Pham, Hung; Chang, James

    2016-06-01

    Xeroform remains the current standard for treating superficial partial-thickness burns but can be prohibitively expensive in developing countries with prevalent burn injuries. This study (1) describes the production of an alternative low-cost dressing and (2) compares the alternative dressing and Xeroform using the metrics of cost-effectiveness, antimicrobial activity, and biocompatibility in vitro, and wound healing in vivo. To produce the alternative dressing, 3% bismuth tribromophenate powder was combined with petroleum jelly by hand and applied to Kerlix gauze. To assess cost-effectiveness, the unit costs of Xeroform and components of the alternative dressing were compared. To assess antimicrobial properties, the dressings were placed on agar plated with Escherichia coli and the Kirby-Bauer assay performed. To assess biocompatibility, the dressings were incubated with human dermal fibroblasts and cells stained with methylene blue. To assess in vivo wound healing, dressings were applied to excisional wounds on rats and the rate of re-epithelialization calculated. The alternative dressing costs 34% of the least expensive brand of Xeroform. Antimicrobial assays showed that both dressings had similar bacteriostatic effects. Biocompatibility assays showed that there was no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in the cytotoxicity of Xeroform, alternative dressing, and Kerlix gauze. Finally, the in vivo healing model showed no statistical difference (P < 0.05) in mean re-epithelialization time between Xeroform (13.0 ± 1.6 days) and alternative dressing (13.5 ± 1.0 days). Xeroform is biocompatible, reduces infection, and enhances healing of burn wounds by preventing desiccation and mechanical trauma. Handmade petrolatum gauze may be a low-cost replacement for Xeroform. Future studies will focus on clinical trials in burn units.

  14. Orion EFT-1 Wet Dress Rehearsal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-05

    In the Hangar A&E control room, displays are seen during a dress rehearsal for the launch of the United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket for the upcoming Orion Flight Test. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch Dec. 4, 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  15. Large energy superpositions via Rydberg dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazali, Mohammadsadegh; Lau, Hon Wai; Humeniuk, Adam; Simon, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    We propose to create superposition states of over 100 strontium atoms in a ground state or metastable optical clock state using the Kerr-type interaction due to Rydberg state dressing in an optical lattice. The two components of the superposition can differ by an order of 300 eV in energy, allowing tests of energy decoherence models with greatly improved sensitivity. We take into account the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, spatial inhomogeneity of the interaction, decay from the Rydberg state, collective many-body decoherence, atomic motion, molecular formation, and diminishing Rydberg level separation for increasing principal number.

  16. Porous dressings of modified chitosan with poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) for topical wound delivery of levofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Siafaka, Panoraia I; Zisi, Asimina P; Exindari, Maria K; Karantas, Ioannis D; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2016-06-05

    Absorbable and non-absorbable dressings have been fabricated into sponges via a modified thermally induced phase separation method, using a grafted derivative of chitosan with 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (CS-g-PHEA). The material was synthesized via free-radical polymerization and was characterized with FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. The swelling ability, biocompatibility and biodegradability of the dressings were evaluated through in vitro assays while antibacterial studies were performed using three different bacterial strains, Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Levofloxacin was used as model drug at different concentrations. Morphological characterization of the drug loaded dressings was performed by scanning electron microscopy, while drug-matrix interactions were evaluated by FT-IR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction studies were carried out for the identification of the physical state for both neat and drug loaded materials. The prepared dressings showed a significant inhibition zone of the bacteria indicating the antibacterial property of the materials and loaded sponges.

  17. Formulation of Novel Layered Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Film Wound Dressings with Ibuprofen for Alleviating Wound Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vinklárková, Lenka; Vetchý, David; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2015-01-01

    Effective assessment and management of wound pain can facilitate both improvements in healing rates and overall quality of life. From a pharmacological perspective, topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of film wound dressings may be a good choice. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop novel layered film wound dressings containing ibuprofen based on partially substituted fibrous sodium carboxymethylcellulose (nonwoven textile Hcel NaT). To this end, an innovative solvent casting method using a sequential coating technique has been applied. The concentration of ibuprofen which was incorporated as an acetone solution or as a suspension in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose dispersion was 0.5 mg/cm2 and 1.0 mg/cm2 of film. Results showed that developed films had adequate mechanical and swelling properties and an advantageous acidic surface pH for wound application. An in vitro drug release study implied that layered films retained the drug for a longer period of time and thus could minimize the frequency of changing the dressing. Films with suspended ibuprofen demonstrated higher drug content uniformity and superior in vitro drug release characteristics in comparison with ibuprofen incorporation as an acetone solution. Prepared films could be potential wound dressings for the effective treatment of wound pain in low exuding wounds. PMID:26090454

  18. GENERAL: (G'/G)-Expansion Method Equivalent to Extended Tanh Function Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Ping

    2009-06-01

    In a recent article [Physics Letters A 372 (2008) 417], Wang et al. proposed a method, which is called the (G'/G)-expansion method, to look for travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The travelling wave solutions involving parameters of the KdV equation, the mKdV equation, the variant Boussinesq equations, and the Hirota-Satsuma equations are obtained by using this method. They think the (G'/G)-expansion method is a new method and more travelling wave solutions of many nonlinear evolution equations can be obtained. In this paper, we will show that the (G'/G)-expansion method is equivalent to the extended tanh function method.

  19. A New DEM Generalization Method Based on Watershed and Tree Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonggang; Ma, Tianwu; Chen, Xiaoyin; Chen, Zhende; Yang, Chunju; Lin, Chenzhi; Shan, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    The DEM generalization is the basis of multi-dimensional observation, the basis of expressing and analyzing the terrain. DEM is also the core of building the Multi-Scale Geographic Database. Thus, many researchers have studied both the theory and the method of DEM generalization. This paper proposed a new method of generalizing terrain, which extracts feature points based on the tree model construction which considering the nested relationship of watershed characteristics. The paper used the 5 m resolution DEM of the Jiuyuan gully watersheds in the Loess Plateau as the original data and extracted the feature points in every single watershed to reconstruct the DEM. The paper has achieved generalization from 1:10000 DEM to 1:50000 DEM by computing the best threshold. The best threshold is 0.06. In the last part of the paper, the height accuracy of the generalized DEM is analyzed by comparing it with some other classic methods, such as aggregation, resample, and VIP based on the original 1:50000 DEM. The outcome shows that the method performed well. The method can choose the best threshold according to the target generalization scale to decide the density of the feature points in the watershed. Meanwhile, this method can reserve the skeleton of the terrain, which can meet the needs of different levels of generalization. Additionally, through overlapped contour contrast, elevation statistical parameters and slope and aspect analysis, we found out that the W8D algorithm performed well and effectively in terrain representation. PMID:27517296

  20. A comparison of Epi-Lock and saline dressings in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kraft, M R; Lawson, L; Pohlmann, B; Reid-Lokos, C; Barder, L

    1993-11-01

    The use of Epi-Lock dressings was compared to moist saline dressings as a treatment for Stage II and III pressure ulcers in 38 patients. Demographic and clinical data were collected at the onset of the investigation. At the time of enrollment and during weeks six, 12 and 24, pressure ulcers were inspected and measured, and laboratory data were collected. More healing occurred with Epi-Lock dressing than with moist saline dressing for Stage II and III pressure ulcers. Although individual Epi-Lock dressings were more expensive than saline dressings, they required less dressing changes. Therefore considering cost of nursing time, Epi-Lock dressings are more cost effective.

  1. Observables, gravitational dressing, and obstructions to locality and subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William; Giddings, Steven B.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum field theory—our basic framework for describing all nongravitational physics—conflicts with general relativity: the latter precludes the standard definition of the former's essential principle of locality, in terms of commuting local observables. We examine this conflict more carefully, by investigating implications of gauge (diffeomorphism) invariance for observables in gravity. We prove a dressing theorem, showing that any operator with nonzero Poincaré charges, and in particular any compactly supported operator, in flat-spacetime quantum field theory must be gravitationally dressed once coupled to gravity, i.e., it must depend on the metric at arbitrarily long distances, and we put lower bounds on this nonlocal dependence. This departure from standard locality occurs in the most severe way possible: in perturbation theory about flat spacetime, at leading order in Newton's constant. The physical observables in a gravitational theory therefore do not organize themselves into local commuting subalgebras: the principle of locality must apparently be reformulated or abandoned, and in fact we lack a clear definition of the coarser and more basic notion of a quantum subsystem of the Universe. We discuss relational approaches to locality based on diffeomorphism-invariant nonlocal operators, and reinforce arguments that any such locality is state-dependent and approximate. We also find limitations to the utility of bilocal diffeomorphism-invariant operators that are considered in cosmological contexts. An appendix provides a concise review of the canonical covariant formalism for gravity, instrumental in the discussion of Poincaré charges and their associated long-range fields.

  2. Predicting the effectiveness of virtual reality relaxation on pain and anxiety when added to PCA morphine in patients having burns dressings changes.

    PubMed

    Konstantatos, A H; Angliss, M; Costello, V; Cleland, H; Stafrace, S

    2009-06-01

    Pain arising in burns sufferers is often severe and protracted. The prospect of a dressing change can heighten existing pain by impacting both physically and psychologically. In this trial we examined whether pre-procedural virtual reality guided relaxation added to patient controlled analgesia with morphine reduced pain severity during awake dressings changes in burns patients. We conducted a prospective randomized clinical trial in all patients with burns necessitating admission to a tertiary burns referral centre. Eligible patients requiring awake dressings changes were randomly allocated to single use virtual reality relaxation plus intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) infusion or to intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia infusion alone. Patients rated their worst pain intensity during the dressing change using a visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was presence of 30% or greater difference in pain intensity ratings between the groups in estimation of worst pain during the dressing change. Of 88 eligible and consenting patients having awake dressings changes, 43 were assigned to virtual reality relaxation plus intravenous morphine PCA infusion and 43 to morphine PCA infusion alone. The group receiving virtual reality relaxation plus morphine PCA infusion reported significantly higher pain intensities during the dressing change (mean=7.3) compared with patients receiving morphine PCA alone (mean=5.3) (p=0.003) (95% CI 0.6-2.8). The addition of virtual reality guided relaxation to morphine PCA infusion in burns patients resulted in a significant increase in pain experienced during awake dressings changes. In the absence of a validated predictor for responsiveness to virtual reality relaxation such a therapy cannot be recommended for general use in burns patients having awake dressings changes.

  3. The Role of Dress Codes, Uniforms in Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPoint, Velma; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In response to problems relating to student appearance, dress, and behavior, most urban schools use various kinds of dress codes or uniforms. African-American youth experience difficulties because of a cultural heritage favoring bold designs and bright colors, efforts to compensate for low socioeconomic status, consumerist exploitation, and…

  4. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on wound dressings

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Kenneth S.; Calderon, Diego F.; Kierski, Patricia R.; Brown, Amanda L.; Shah, Nihar M.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Schurr, Michael J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-healing skin wounds often contain bacterial biofilms that prevent normal wound healing and closure and present challenges to the use of conventional wound dressings. We investigated inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, a common pathogen of chronic skin wounds, on a commercially available biological wound dressing. Building upon prior reports, we examined whether the amino acid tryptophan would inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on the 3-dimensional surface of the biological dressing. Bacterial biomass and biofilm polysaccharides were quantified using crystal violet staining or an enzyme linked lectin, respectively. Bacterial cells and biofilm matrix adherent to the wound dressing were visualized through scanning electron microscopy. D-/L-tryptophan inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on the wound dressing in a dose dependent manner and was not directly cytotoxic to immortalized human keratinocytes although there was some reduction in cellular metabolism or enzymatic activity. More importantly, D-/L-tryptophan did not impair wound healing in a splinted skin wound murine model. Furthermore, wound closure was improved when D-/L-tryptophan treated wound dressing with P. aeruginosa biofilms were compared with untreated dressings. These findings indicate that tryptophan may prove useful for integration into wound dressings to inhibit biofilm formation and promote wound healing. PMID:26342168

  5. [DRESS syndrome secondary to antituberculosis drugs: about a case].

    PubMed

    Jridi, Siham; Azzeddine, Rajae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2017-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity syndrome or Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms or DRESS syndrome is a severe and potentially life-threatening toxidermia. It should be suspected in patients developing cutaneous reaction following drug intake. We report the case of a 45-year old patient treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (TPM+) who developed DRESS syndrom induced by antibacillaries.

  6. Identification of Workplace Dress by Low-Income Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiki, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The author examined how low-income job seekers participating in a workplace dress program identified traditional business and business casual dress. Seventy low-income job seekers identified clothing items as traditional business (e.g., suits, ties), similar to identifications made by professionals and image consultants in previous literature.…

  7. Uniforms and Dress-Code Policies. ERIC Digest Number 148.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest examines schools' dress-code policies and discusses the legal considerations and research findings about the effects of such changes. Most revisions to dress codes involve the use of uniforms, typically as a way to curb school violence and create a positive learning environment. A recent survey of secondary school principals found that…

  8. Civil Behavior, Safe-School Planning, and Dress Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studak, Cathryn M.; Workman, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined news reports in order to identify incidents that precipitated dress code revisions. News reports were examined within the framework of rules for civil behavior. Using key words "school dress codes" and "violence," LEXIS/NEXIS was used to access 104 articles from 44 U.S. newspapers from December 3, 2004 to December 2, 2005.…

  9. Will Dress Codes Save the Schools? Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvez, Aggie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues related to dress codes, student behavior, and youth gangs. Presents a role-playing activity based on a proposed dress code aimed at gang-related clothing in a secondary school. Includes two student handouts and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

  10. The Role of Dress Codes, Uniforms in Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPoint, Velma; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In response to problems relating to student appearance, dress, and behavior, most urban schools use various kinds of dress codes or uniforms. African-American youth experience difficulties because of a cultural heritage favoring bold designs and bright colors, efforts to compensate for low socioeconomic status, consumerist exploitation, and…

  11. Identification of Workplace Dress by Low-Income Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiki, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The author examined how low-income job seekers participating in a workplace dress program identified traditional business and business casual dress. Seventy low-income job seekers identified clothing items as traditional business (e.g., suits, ties), similar to identifications made by professionals and image consultants in previous literature.…

  12. Will Dress Codes Save the Schools? Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvez, Aggie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues related to dress codes, student behavior, and youth gangs. Presents a role-playing activity based on a proposed dress code aimed at gang-related clothing in a secondary school. Includes two student handouts and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

  13. Civil Behavior, Safe-School Planning, and Dress Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studak, Cathryn M.; Workman, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined news reports in order to identify incidents that precipitated dress code revisions. News reports were examined within the framework of rules for civil behavior. Using key words "school dress codes" and "violence," LEXIS/NEXIS was used to access 104 articles from 44 U.S. newspapers from December 3, 2004 to December 2, 2005.…

  14. Effects of a normothermic dressing on pressure ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Kloth, L C; Berman, J E; Dumit-Minkel, S; Sutton, C H; Papanek, P E; Wurzel, J

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effects of radiant heat applied through a semiocclusive dressing on periwound skin temperature and wound healing. Before-after trial. Spinal cord injury and geriatric units of a VA medical center. Twenty inpatients with 21 Stage III and IV pressure ulcers. A semiocclusive, heated dressing was applied to 15 Stage III and IV pressure ulcers for 4.5 hours, Monday through Friday, for 4 consecutive weeks. The dressing emitted heat at 38.0 degrees C for 2 60-minute periods daily. At all other times, the wounds received only standard wound care. Six wounds in a separate control group received only standard wound care during the same 4-week period. Periwound skin temperature within and adjacent to the dressing and measurements of wound surface area. Mean skin temperatures inside and outside the heated dressing increased by 0.97 degree C and 1.08 degrees C (P < .05), respectively, from baseline values. Wounds treated with standard care plus the heated dressing underwent a statistically significant reduction in mean surface area of 60.73%. Wounds in the control group underwent a statistically insignificant reduction in mean surface area of 19.24%. Wounds treated with a radiant heat dressing healed significantly faster than wounds that received only standard care. There were no adverse effects from the radiant heat dressing.

  15. Marine Maternity Dress Uniform Tunic, Skirt, and Slack Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    military apparel items. The Cal Poly Demo produces military items in small quantities and used the Marine Maternity Dress Uniform Tunic , Skirt and Slack as...one of its study subjects. This report includes the findings of the study for the Demo’s Year 3 manufacturing of the Marine Maternity Dress Uniform Tunic , Skirt and Slack.

  16. Fashion as Argument: Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the place of the body in the dress-reform movement, a social movement that focused on fashion as a vehicle for achieving social and political equality. Discusses how fashion became one arena in which definitions of gender were contested. Suggests the dress-reform movement's failure in redefining femininity indicates the depth of…

  17. Fashion as Argument: Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the place of the body in the dress-reform movement, a social movement that focused on fashion as a vehicle for achieving social and political equality. Discusses how fashion became one arena in which definitions of gender were contested. Suggests the dress-reform movement's failure in redefining femininity indicates the depth of…

  18. Honey dressing versus paraffin tulle gras following toenail surgery.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, C D; Thomson, C E

    2006-03-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that certain honey dressings have a positive effect on wound healing. However, there is limited empirical evidence supporting its use. This double-blind randomised controlled trial investigated the effect of a honey dressing on wound healing following toenail surgery with matrix phenolisation. Participants (n=100) were randomly assigned to receive either an active manuka honey dressing (n=52) or paraffin-impregnated tulle gras (n=48). The primary outcome was time (days) taken for complete re-epithelialisation of the nail bed. Mean healing times were 40.30 days (SD 18.21) for the honey group and 39.98 days (SD 25.42) for the paraffin tulle gras group. Partial avulsion wounds healed statistically significantly faster (p=0.01) with paraffin tulle gras (19.62 days, SD 9.31) than with the honey dressing (31.76 days, SD 18.8), but no significant difference (p=0.21) was found following total avulsion when comparing honey (45.28 days, SD 18.03.) with paraffin tulle gras dressings (52.03 days, SD 21.3). The results suggest that patients may benefit more from paraffin tulle gras dressings than honey dressings following partial toenail avulsion. No statistically significant difference was found for healing times after total toenail avulsion, although the marginal benefit of the honey dressing on these healing times warrants further investigation.

  19. Nonresonant photon dressing in spin one quadrupolar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Y.L.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis mainly studied the effects of nonresonant photon dressing on spin 1 pure quadrupolar system with symmetric EFG. Energy levels of spin 1 nuclei dressed by linearly or circularly polarized photons were theoretically derived and numerically analyzed. The degeneracy of m[sub [Zeta

  20. Moral Crisis in Higher Institutions and the Dress Code Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayokun, K. O.; Adedeji, S. O.; Oyebade, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed the case of indecent dressing among the youth of today especially on the universities campuses, which has forced the authorities of those institutions to enact dress codes to stem the tide and restore high moral standards, integrity and decency. Whether this bid was successful or not was another thing which was a function of…