Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Kishan
2011-01-01
This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Leclair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul
2011-01-01
GFSSP stands for Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program. It is a general-purpose computer program to compute pressure, temperature and flow distribution in a flow network. GFSSP calculates pressure, temperature, and concentrations at nodes and calculates flow rates through branches. It was primarily developed to analyze Internal Flow Analysis of a Turbopump Transient Flow Analysis of a Propulsion System. GFSSP development started in 1994 with an objective to provide a generalized and easy to use flow analysis tool for thermo-fluid systems.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) - Version 6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; LeClair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul
2015-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, flow control valves and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermo-fluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids, and 24 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. Users can introduce new physics, non-linear and time-dependent boundary conditions through user-subroutine.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 6.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.; Moore, A.; Schallhorn, P. A.
2013-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependant flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermo-fluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids, and 24 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 25 demonstrated example problems.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 5.0-Educational
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.
2011-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the point, drag and click method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids and 21 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 12 demonstrated example problems.
Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 6.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.; Moore, R.; Schallhorn, P. A.
2016-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. Two thermodynamic property programs (GASP/WASP and GASPAK) provide required thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 36 fluids: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutene, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and air. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. The users can also supply property tables for fluids that are not in the library. Twenty-four different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include pipe flow, flow through a restriction, noncircular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct
A Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Flow Distribution in Fluid Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Bailey, John W.; Schallhorn, Paul; Steadman, Todd
1998-01-01
This paper describes a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The program is capable of modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The program's preprocessor allows the user to interactively develop a fluid network simulation consisting of nodes and branches. Mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes; the momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. The program contains subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 33 fluids. The fluids are: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. Seventeen different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include: pipe flow, flow through a restriction, non-circular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct, labyrinth seal, parallel plates, common fittings and valves, pump characteristics, pump power, valve with a given loss coefficient, and a Joule-Thompson device. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. This paper also illustrates the application and verification of the code by comparison with Hardy Cross method for steady state flow and analytical solution for unsteady flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiSalvo, Roberto; Deaconu, Stelu; Majumdar, Alok
2006-01-01
One of the goals of this program was to develop the experimental and analytical/computational tools required to predict the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through the various system components of a propulsion system: pipes, valves, pumps etc. To achieve this goal we selected to augment the capabilities of NASA's Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) software. GFSSP is a general-purpose computer program designed to calculate steady state and transient pressure and flow distributions in a complex fluid network. While the current version of the GFSSP code is able to handle various systems components the implicit assumption in the code is that the fluids in the system are Newtonian. To extend the capability of the code to non-Newtonian fluids, such as silica gelled fuels and oxidizers, modifications to the momentum equations of the code have been performed. We have successfully implemented in GFSSP flow equations for fluids with power law behavior. The implementation of the power law fluid behavior into the GFSSP code depends on knowledge of the two fluid coefficients, n and K. The determination of these parameters for the silica gels used in this program was performed experimentally. The n and K parameters for silica water gels were determined experimentally at CFDRC's Special Projects Laboratory, with a constant shear rate capillary viscometer. Batches of 8:1 (by weight) water-silica gel were mixed using CFDRC s 10-gallon gelled propellant mixer. Prior to testing the gel was allowed to rest in the rheometer tank for at least twelve hours to ensure that the delicate structure of the gel had sufficient time to reform. During the tests silica gel was pressure fed and discharged through stainless steel pipes ranging from 1", to 36", in length and three diameters; 0.0237", 0.032", and 0.047". The data collected in these tests included pressure at tube entrance and volumetric flowrate. From these data the uncorrected shear rate, shear stress, residence time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok
2013-01-01
The purpose of the paper is to present the analytical capability developed to model no vent chill and fill of cryogenic tank to support CPST (Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer) program. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) was adapted to simulate charge-holdvent method of Tank Chilldown. GFSSP models were developed to simulate chilldown of LH2 tank in K-site Test Facility and numerical predictions were compared with test data. The report also describes the modeling technique of simulating the chilldown of a cryogenic transfer line and GFSSP models were developed to simulate the chilldown of a long transfer line and compared with test data.
A Novel Approach for Modeling Chemical Reaction in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sozen, Mehmet; Majumdar, Alok
2002-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a computer code developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for analyzing steady state and transient flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The code, which performs system level simulation, can handle compressible and incompressible flows as well as phase change and mixture thermodynamics. Thermodynamic and thermophysical property programs, GASP, WASP and GASPAK provide the necessary data for fluids such as helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, water, a hydrogen, isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, several refrigerants, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program which was developed out of need for an easy to use system level simulation tool for complex flow networks, has been used for the following purposes to name a few: Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Secondary Flow Circuits, Axial Thrust Balance of the Fastrac Engine Turbopump, Pressurized Propellant Feed System for the Propulsion Test Article at Stennis Space Center, X-34 Main Propulsion System, X-33 Reaction Control System and Thermal Protection System, and International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System design. There has been an increasing demand for implementing a combustion simulation capability into GFSSP in order to increase its system level simulation capability of a liquid rocket propulsion system starting from the propellant tanks up to the thruster nozzle for spacecraft as well as launch vehicles. The present work was undertaken for addressing this need. The chemical equilibrium equations derived from the second law of thermodynamics and the energy conservation equation derived from the first law of thermodynamics are solved simultaneously by a Newton-Raphson method. The numerical scheme was implemented as a User
Rayleigh-Taylor stability of a two-fluid system under a general rotation field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dávalos-Orozco, L. A.
1996-01-01
In this paper we investigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a two-fluid layer system under a general rotation field. Gravity is always perpendicular to the two horizontal layers and rotation has an arbitrary angle with respect to the vertical. It is found that, in an unstable situation, an increase in the non-dimensional density-difference increases the stable angular area of wave propagation, measured with respect to the horizontal component of rotation. However, it is found that the vertical component of rotation reduces not only this stable angular area but also the range in which the horizontal component stabilizes the system according to a previous study by Dávalos-Orozco ( Fluid Dyn. Res., 12: 243, 1993). This decrease in stable area occurs along with a decrease in the growth rate in the unstable region. Numerical analysis of the eigenvalue equation shows that the stable angular area disappears after the non-dimensional vertical component of rotation attains the value 0.33. Exact and approximate analytical expressions for the critical values are calculated to help to understand the physics of the numerical analysis.
General Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Secondary Flows in Turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok K.; Van Hoosier, Katherine P.
1995-01-01
The complexity and variety of turbomachinery flow circuits created a need for a general fluid system simulation program for test data anomaly resolution as well as design review. The objective of the paper is to present a computer program that has been developed to support Marshall Space Flight Center's turbomachinery internal flow analysis efforts. The computer program solves for the mass. energy and species conservation equation at each node and flow rate equation at each branch of the network by a novel numerical procedure which is a combination of both Newton-Ralphson and successive substitution method and uses a thermodynamic property program for computing real gas properties. A generalized, robust, modular, and 'user-friendly' computer program has been developed to model internal flow rates, pressures, temperatures, concentrations of gas mixtures and axial thrusts. The program can be used for any network for compressible and incompressible flows, choked flow, change of phase and gaseous mixturecs. The code has been validated by comparing the predictions with Space Shuttle Main Engine test data.
Spinning fluids in general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.
1982-01-01
General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; Hedayat, A.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the experience of the authors in using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) in teaching Design of Thermal Systems class at University of Alabama in Huntsville. GFSSP is a finite volume based thermo-fluid system network analysis code, developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, and is extensively used in NASA, Department of Defense, and aerospace industries for propulsion system design, analysis, and performance evaluation. The educational version of GFSSP is freely available to all US higher education institutions. The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the utilization of this user-friendly code for the thermal systems design and fluid engineering courses and to encourage the instructors to utilize the code for the class assignments as well as senior design projects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.
2011-01-01
The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the point, drag and click method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids and 21 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 12 demonstrated example problems. This supplement gives the input and output data files for the examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.; Hedayat, A.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the experience of the authors in using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) in teaching Design of Thermal Systems class at University of Alabama in Huntsville. GFSSP is a finite volume based thermo-fluid system network analysis code, developed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, and is extensively used in NASA, Department of Defense, and aerospace industries for propulsion system design, analysis, and performance evaluation. The educational version of GFSSP is freely available to all US higher education institutions. The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the utilization of this user-friendly code for the thermal systems design and fluid engineering courses and to encourage the instructors to utilize the code for the class assignments as well as senior design projects. The need for a generalized computer program for thermofluid analysis in a flow network has been felt for a long time in aerospace industries. Designers of thermofluid systems often need to know pressures, temperatures, flow rates, concentrations, and heat transfer rates at different parts of a flow circuit for steady state or transient conditions. Such applications occur in propulsion systems for tank pressurization, internal flow analysis of rocket engine turbopumps, chilldown of cryogenic tanks and transfer lines, and many other applications of gas-liquid systems involving fluid transients and conjugate heat and mass transfer. Computer resource requirements to perform time-dependent, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of such systems are prohibitive and therefore are not practical. Available commercial codes are generally suitable for steady state, single-phase incompressible flow. Because of the proprietary nature of such codes, it is not possible to extend their capability to satisfy the above-mentioned needs. Therefore, the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP1) has been developed at NASA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Chongming
2009-05-01
The approximation method in multiple coordinate systems at first post Newtonian (1 PN) level has been established by Darmour, Soffel and Xu (Phys. Rev. D(PRD) 43, 3273 (1991);D 45, 1017(1992);D 47, 3124 (1993);D 49, 618 (1994)). Normally, to discuss an astronomical object (e.g. a star in binary systems or the earth in solar system) we need multiple coordinate systems, especially for precise astrometry 1 PN (some time even 2 PN) approximate method is required. As we know up to now the ideas on elastic body, fluid, rigid body and liquid in the framework of Newtonian physics are still very useful for understanding and calculating some practical problems. Although the general relativistic theories of elastic body, general relativistic hydrodynamics and post-Newtonian quasi-rigid body have been discussed by many authors (including our papers (PRD63, 043002(2001); D63, 064001(2001); D68, 064009(2003); D69, 024003(2004); D71,024030 (2005))), but there is no completing discussion on all of these ideas in a unified point view. The applications of these ideas in the general relativity are important in the research fields of astrometry and geophysics, especially in case precise measurements reach so higher level (millimicro arc sec). The extended relativistic versions of these ideas should be revised the Newtonian results. In this paper, we shall give a complete discussion on all of these ideas in 1 PN approximation. We shall clarify the ideas on perfect elastic material, quasi-rigid body, quasi-liquid and so on with some precise mathematical forms. For fluid we show the hydrodynamic equations of a non-perfect fluid in multiple coordinates systems (both local and global).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.
Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2005-06-01
Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.
General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm
1992-03-12
SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude resultsmore » from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less
Generalized Langevin Theory for Inhomogeneous Fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, Martin Garth
This thesis presents a molecular theory of the dynamics of inhomogeneous fluids. Dynamical correlations in a nonuniform system are studied through the generalized Langevin approach. The equations of motion (formally exact) are obtained for the number density, momentum density, energy density, stress tensor and heat flux. We evaluate all the relevant sum rules appearing in the frequency matrix exactly in terms of microscopic pair potentials and an external field. We show using functional derivatives how these microscopic sum rules relate to more familiar, though now nonlocal, hydrodynamic-like quantities. The set of equations is closed by a Markov approximation in the equations for stress tensor and heat flux. As a result, these equations become analogous to Grad's 13-moment equations for low density fluids and constitute a generalization to inhomogeneous fluids of the work of Schofield and Akcasu-Daniels. We apply this formalism to several problems. We study the correlation of currents orthogonal to a diffuse planar, liquid-vapour, interface, introducing new nonlocal elastic moduli and new nonlocal, frequency dependent, viscosities. Novel symmetry breaking contributions are obtained, which are related to the Young-Laplace equation for pressure balance. The normal modes, associated with the symmetry breaking interface in the liquid-vapour system, are analyzed, taking into account the nonlocal nature of the diffuse planar interface. We obtain the classical dispersion relation for capillary waves, observed in light scattering experiments, from an adiabatic (molecular) approach. We consider the 'capillary wave model' (CWM) of the equilibrium liquid-vapour interface. CWM is reformulated to be consistent with capillary waves; corrections to the standard CWM results, due to self-consistent long range coupling, are obtained for finite surface area and nonzero gravitational acceleration. Finally, we obtain the Landau-Lifshitz theory of fluctuating hydrodynamics from the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.
Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.
1993-01-01
A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.
Modeling extended fluid objects in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiff, Conrad
The purpose of this dissertation is to introduce and explore the notion of modeling extended fluid objects in numerical general relativity. These extended fluid objects, called Fat Particles, are proxies for compact hydrodynamic objects. Unlike full hydrodynamic models, we make the approximation that the details of the matter distribution are riot as important as the gross motion of the Fat Particles center of mass and its contribution to the gravitational field. Thus we provide a semi-analytic model of matter for numerical simulations of Einstein's equations, which may help in modeling gravitational radiation from candidate sources. Our approach to carrying out these investigations is to begin with a continuum variational principle, which yields the desired hydrodynamic and gravitational equations for ideal fluids. Following our analysis of the related numerical technique, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), we apply a set of discretization and smoothing rules to obtain a discrete action. Subsequent variations yield the Fat Particle equations. Our analysis of a classical ideal fluid demonstrated that a Newtonian Fat Particle is capable of remaining at rest while generating its own gravitational field. We then developed analogous principles for describing relativistic ideal fluids in both covariant and ADM 3+1 forms. Using these principles, we developed analytic and numerical results from relativistic Fat Particle theory. We began with the Subscribe Only model, in which a Fat Particle of negligible mass moves in a fixed background metric. Corrections to its motion due to the extended nature of the Fat Particle, are obtained by summing metric contributions over its volume. We find a universal scaling law that describes the phase shift, relative to a test particle, that is independent of its size, shape, and distribution. We then show that finite-size effects eventually dominate radiation damping effects in describing the motion of a white dwarf around a more
Multiphase fluid characterization system
Sinha, Dipen N.
2014-09-02
A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, José P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2009-07-01
Previous theorems concerning Weyl type systems, including Majumdar-Papapetrou systems, are generalized in two ways, namely, we take these theorems into d spacetime dimensions (d≥4), and we also consider the very interesting Weyl-Guilfoyle systems, i.e., general relativistic charged fluids with nonzero pressure. In particular within the Newton-Coulomb theory of charged gravitating fluids, a theorem by Bonnor (1980) in three-dimensional space is generalized to arbitrary (d-1)>3 space dimensions. Then, we prove a new theorem for charged gravitating fluid systems in which we find the condition that the charge density and the matter density should obey. Within general relativity coupled to charged dust fluids, a theorem by De and Raychaudhuri (1968) in four-dimensional spacetime is rendered into arbitrary d>4 dimensions. Then a theorem, new in d=4 and d>4 dimensions, for Weyl-Guilfoyle systems, is stated and proved, in which we find the condition that the charge density, the matter density, the pressure, and the electromagnetic energy density should obey. This theorem comprises, in particular cases, a theorem by Gautreau and Hoffman (1973) and results in four dimensions by Guilfoyle (1999). Upon connection of an interior charged solution to an exterior Tangherlini solution (i.e., a Reissner-Nordström solution in d dimensions), one is able to give a general definition for gravitational mass for this kind of relativistic systems and find a mass relation with several quantities of the interior solution. It is also shown that for sources of finite extent the mass is identical to the Tolman mass.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.
1998-01-01
An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huggett, Daniel J.; Majumdar, Alok
2013-01-01
Cryogenic propellants are readily heated when used. This poses a problem for rocket engine efficiency and effective boot-strapping of the engine, as seen in the "hot" LOX (Liquid Oxygen) problem on the S-1 stage of the Saturn vehicle. In order to remedy this issue, cryogenic fluids were found to be sub-cooled by injection of a warm non-condensing gas. Experimental results show that the mechanism behind the sub-cooling is evaporative cooling. It has been shown that a sub-cooled temperature difference of approximately 13 deg F below saturation temperature [1]. The phenomenon of sub-cooling of cryogenic propellants by a non-condensing gas is not readily available with the General Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) [2]. GFSSP is a thermal-fluid program used to analyze a wide variety of systems that are directly impacted by thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. In order to model this phenomenon, additional capabilities had to be added to GFSSP in the form of a FORTRAN coded sub-routine to calculate the temperature of the sub-cooled fluid. Once this was accomplished, the sub-routine was implemented to a GFSSP model that was created to replicate an experiment that was conducted to validate the GFSSP results.
Intravenous Fluid Generation System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John
2013-01-01
The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš
2016-03-01
This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.
Taking Fluid Mechanics to the General Public
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyon, Etienne; Guyon, Marie Yvonne
2014-01-01
Fluid flow phenomena are omnipresent; they can be observed and described in many locations and circumstances. However, in most cases, their presence does not stimulate an interest in science. We consider successively domains of activities in which the presence of fluid flow phenomena can be used: natural sites, industrial ones, sporting events, artistic creations and presentations, the production of images and books, science museums, cultural centers, and also popular mass media. The last section is devoted to outreach activities that can be practiced within the educational system.
Propulsion in a generalized Newtonian fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vélez-Cordero, Juan Rodrigo; Lauga, Eric
2012-11-01
The two-dimensional dynamics of an undulating surface has been used as a simplified model to study the transport of fluid by the movement of cilia carpets (so-called envelope model). The collective motion of cilia is idealized as a surface that displaces waves in one direction and whose material points (tips of the cilia) perform a combination of normal and tangential motion with respect to the mean plane. We calculate the mean pumping velocity and rate of work done by an undulating surface in a Generalized Newtonian fluid modeled by the Carreau equation. The influence of the variable viscosity appears only to fourth order in the wave parameter, Ak, where A and k are the wave amplitude and wavenumber respectively. The non-Newtonian effects appear only if both modes of motion, normal plus tangential, are active. The mean rate of work always diminishes for different combinations of normal and tangential motion if the fluid is shear-thinning. Surprisingly, this is not similar for the mean velocity, which for certain motion patterns increases if the fluid is shear-thinning, but for others increases if it is shear-thickening.
A Generalized Fluid Formulation for Turbomachinery Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merkle, Charles L.; Sankaran, Venkateswaran; Dorney, Daniel J.; Sondak, Douglas L.
2003-01-01
A generalized formulation of the equations of motion of an arbitrary fluid are developed for the purpose of defining a common iterative algorithm for computational procedures. The method makes use of the equations of motion in conservation form with separate pseudo-time derivatives used for defining the numerical flux for a Riemann solver and the convergence algorithm. The partial differential equations are complemented by an thermodynamic and caloric equations of state of a complexity necessary for describing the fluid. Representative solutions with a new code based on this general equation formulation are provided for three turbomachinery problems. The first uses air as a working fluid while the second uses gaseous oxygen in a regime in which real gas effects are of little importance. These nearly perfect gas computations provide a basis for comparing with existing perfect gas code computations. The third case is for the flow of liquid oxygen through a turbine where real gas effects are significant. Vortex shedding predictions with the LOX formulations reduce the discrepancy between perfect gas computations and experiment by approximately an order of magnitude, thereby verifying the real gas formulation as well as providing an effective case where its capabilities are necessary.
A systems approach to theoretical fluid mechanics: Fundamentals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anyiwo, J. C.
1978-01-01
A preliminary application of the underlying principles of the investigator's general system theory to the description and analyses of the fluid flow system is presented. An attempt is made to establish practical models, or elements of the general fluid flow system from the point of view of the general system theory fundamental principles. Results obtained are applied to a simple experimental fluid flow system, as test case, with particular emphasis on the understanding of fluid flow instability, transition and turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammond, J. C.
1975-01-01
Development of a fluid infusion system was undertaken in response to a need for an intravenous infusion device operable under conditions of zero-g. The initial design approach, pursued in the construction of the first breadboard instrument, was to regulate the pressure of the motive gas to produce a similar regulated pressure in the infusion liquid. This scheme was not workable because of the varying bag contact area, and a major design iteration was made. A floating sensor plate in the center of the bag pressure plate was made to operate a pressure regulator built into the bellows assembly, effectively making liquid pressure the directly controlled variable. Other design changes were made as experience was gained with the breadboard. Extensive performance tests were conducted on both the breadboard and the prototype device; accurately regulated flows from 6 m1/min to 100 m1/min were achieved. All system functions were shown to operate satisfactorily.
Generalized Langevin theory for inhomogeneous fluids: The equations of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, Martin; Desai, Rashmi C.
1982-05-01
We use the generalized Langevin approach to study the dynamical correlations in an inhomogeneous system. The equations of motion (formally exact) are obtained for the number density, momentum density, energy density, stress tensor, and heat flux. We evaluate all the relevant sum rules appearing in the frequency matrix exactly in terms of microscopic pair potentials and an external field. We show using functional derivatives how these microscopic sum rules relate to more familiar, though now nonlocal, hydrodynamiclike quantities. The set of equations is closed by a Markov approximation in the equations for stress tensor and heat flux. As a result, these equations become analogous to Grad's 13-moment equations for low-density fluids and constitute a generalization to inhomogeneous fluids of the work of Schofield and Akcasu-Daniels. We also indicate how the resulting general set of equations would simplify for systems in which the inhomogeneity is unidirectional, e.g., a liquid-vapor interface.
Houck, Edward D.
1994-01-01
An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.
Houck, E.D.
1994-10-11
An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.
Houck, E.D.
1993-12-31
This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.
Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad
2006-06-06
A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.
Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System
Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.
2003-10-21
A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.
Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system
Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.
2002-10-08
A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.
Oil well fluid processing system
Cobb, J.R.
1988-10-25
This patent describes an oil well fluid processing system, comprising: a skid having a first skid section and a second skid section separable from the first skid section; means for connecting one end of the first skid section to one end of the second skid section; a cylindrical fluid processing apparatus pivotally mounted at a lower end thereof on the first skid section for pivoting movement between a raised position wherein the fluid processing apparatus extends vertically from the first skid section and a lowered position wherein the fluid processing apparatus overlays the second skid section at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together; and means mounted on the second skid section and connectable to the fluid processing apparatus for moving the fluid processing apparatus between the raised and lowered positions at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together.
Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.
Fluid management systems technology summaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.
1974-01-01
A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.
On some generalizations of the second grade fluid model
Massoudi, M.; Vaidya, A.
2008-01-01
In this article, we provide a brief review of some generalizations of the second grade fluid model. We discuss certain similarities between these fluids and fluids of higher grades, while also describing certain limitations of these models. The new models that we put forth are based upon some interesting experimental results which suggest that not only can normal stress coefficients depend upon the shear rate, but that this dependency is in fact not the same rate as that of shear viscosity variation with shear rate. We then discuss some steady flows of these generalized second grade fluid models.
On some generalizations of the second grade fluid model
Massoudi, Mehrdad; Vaidya, Ashwin
2008-07-01
In this article, we provide a brief review of some generalizations of the second grade fluid model. We discuss certain similarities between these fluids and fluids of higher grades, while also describing certain limitations of these models. The new models that we put forth are based upon some interesting experimental results which suggest that not only can normal stress coefficients depend upon the shear rate, but that this dependency is in fact not the same rate as that of shear viscosity variation with shear rate. We then discuss some steady flows of these generalized second grade fluid models.
The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.
2014-11-01
A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.
Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system
Brieger, Emmet F.
2001-01-01
A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.
Intraoperative Fluids and Fluid Management for Ambulatory Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia.
Saraghi, Mana
2015-01-01
Intravenous fluids are administered in virtually every parenteral sedation and general anesthetic. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of body-water distribution and fluid dynamics at the vascular endothelium, evaluation of fluid status, calculation of fluid requirements, and the clinical rationale for the use of various crystalloid and colloid solutions. In the setting of elective dental outpatient procedures with minor blood loss, isotonic balanced crystalloid solutions are the fluids of choice. Colloids, on the other hand, have no use in outpatient sedation or general anesthesia for dental or minor oral surgery procedures but may have several desirable properties in long and invasive maxillofacial surgical procedures where advanced hemodynamic monitoring may assess the adequacy of intravascular volume. PMID:26650497
Intraoperative Fluids and Fluid Management for Ambulatory Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia.
Saraghi, Mana
2015-01-01
Intravenous fluids are administered in virtually every parenteral sedation and general anesthetic. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of body-water distribution and fluid dynamics at the vascular endothelium, evaluation of fluid status, calculation of fluid requirements, and the clinical rationale for the use of various crystalloid and colloid solutions. In the setting of elective dental outpatient procedures with minor blood loss, isotonic balanced crystalloid solutions are the fluids of choice. Colloids, on the other hand, have no use in outpatient sedation or general anesthesia for dental or minor oral surgery procedures but may have several desirable properties in long and invasive maxillofacial surgical procedures where advanced hemodynamic monitoring may assess the adequacy of intravascular volume.
On generalized Volterra systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.
2015-01-01
We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.
Volume transport and generalized hydrodynamic equations for monatomic fluids.
Eu, Byung Chan
2008-10-01
In this paper, the effects of volume transport on the generalized hydrodynamic equations for a pure simple fluid are examined from the standpoint of statistical mechanics and, in particular, kinetic theory of fluids. First, we derive the generalized hydrodynamic equations, namely, the constitutive equations for the stress tensor and heat flux for a single-component monatomic fluid, from the generalized Boltzmann equation in the presence of volume transport. Then their linear steady-state solutions are derived and examined with regard to the effects of volume transport on them. The generalized hydrodynamic equations and linear constitutive relations obtained for nonconserved variables make it possible to assess Brenner's proposition [Physica A 349, 11 (2005); Physica A 349, 60 (2005)] for volume transport and attendant mass and volume velocities as well as the effects of volume transport on the Newtonian law of viscosity, compression/dilatation (bulk viscosity) phenomena, and Fourier's law of heat conduction. On the basis of study made, it is concluded that the notion of volume transport is sufficiently significant to retain in irreversible thermodynamics of fluids and fluid mechanics.
General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mach, Patryk; Malec, Edward
2015-06-01
We formulate new general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids. They have been used to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well-known geometric dragging of frames. We derive two other general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the recently discovered dynamic antidragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids self-gravity. One can use the rotation laws to study the uniqueness and the convergence of the post-Newtonian approximations as well as the existence of the post-Newtonian limits.
Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system
Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W
2014-11-25
A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.
Mimicking static anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boonserm, Petarpa; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt
2016-11-01
We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic static anisotropic fluid sphere, (static and spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully mimicked by suitable linear combinations of theoretically attractive and quite simple classical matter: a classical (charged) isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore, we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of both electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model. The generalized TOV equation implies that the perfect fluid component in this model is automatically in internal equilibrium, with pressure forces, electric forces, and scalar forces balancing the gravitational pseudo-force. Consequently, we can build theoretically attractive matter models that can be used to mimic almost any static spherically symmetric spacetime.
On the thermodynamics of some generalized second-grade fluids
Man CS, Massoudi M
2010-01-01
The generalized second-grade fluids, which have been used for modeling the creep of ice and the flow of coal-water and coal-oil slurries, are among the simplest non-Newtonian fluid models that can describe shear-thinning/thickening and exhibit normal stress effects. In this article, we conduct thermodynamic analysis on a class of generalized second-grade fluids, one distinguishing feature of which is the existence of a constitutive function that describes frictional heating. We work within the framework of Serrin’s original formulation of neoclassical thermodynamics, where internal energy and entropy functions, if they exist for a continuous body at all, are to be derived from the classical First Law and (quantitatively reformulated) Second Law of thermodynamics for cycles. For the class of generalized second-grade fluids in question, we show from the First Law that an internal energy density u exists, and we derive the equation of energy balance; from the Second Law, we demonstrate the existence of an entropy density s and derive the Clausius–Duhem inequality that it satisfies.We obtain explicit expressions for u, s and the frictional heating , and derive thermodynamic restrictions on thematerial functions of temperature μ, α1, and α2 that appear in the constitutive relation for the Cauchy stress. For the special case of second-grade fluids, our expressions for u and s agree with those which Dunn and Fosdick [6] derived under the theoretical framework of the rational thermodynamics of Coleman and Noll.
System for connecting fluid couplings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cody, Joseph C. (Inventor); Matthews, Paul R. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
A system for mating fluid transfer couplings is constructed having a male connector which is provided with a pair of opposed rollers mounted to an exterior region thereof. A male half of a fluid transfer coupling is rotatably supported in an opening in an end of the connector and is equipped with an outwardly extending forward portion. The forward portion locks into an engagement and locking region of a female half of the fluid transfer coupling, with female half being rotatably supported in a receptacle. The receptacle has an opening aligned with locking region, with this opening having a pair of concentric, annularly disposed ramps extending around an interior portion of opening. These ramps are inclined toward the interior of the receptacle and are provided with slots through which rollers of the connector pass. After the connector is inserted into the receptacle (engaging forward portion into engagement region), relative rotation between the connector and receptacle causes the rollers to traverse ramps until the rollers abut and are gripped by retainers. This axially forces the forward portion into locked, sealed engagement with the engagement region.
Spinning fluids in general relativity. II - Self-consistent formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, John R.; Smalley, Larry, L.; Krisch, Jean P.
1987-01-01
Methods used earlier to derive the equations of motion for a spinning fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory are specialized to the case of general relativity. The main idea is to include the spin as a thermodynamic variable in the theory.
Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.
Safety drain system for fluid reservoir
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.
On the thermodynamics of some generalized second-grade fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Chi-Sing; Massoudi, Mehrdad
2010-01-01
The generalized second-grade fluids, which have been used for modeling the creep of ice and the flow of coal-water and coal-oil slurries, are among the simplest non-Newtonian fluid models that can describe shear-thinning/thickening and exhibit normal stress effects. In this article, we conduct thermodynamic analysis on a class of generalized second-grade fluids, one distinguishing feature of which is the existence of a constitutive function Φ that describes frictional heating. We work within the framework of Serrin’s original formulation of neoclassical thermodynamics, where internal energy and entropy functions, if they exist for a continuous body at all, are to be derived from the classical First Law and (quantitatively reformulated) Second Law of thermodynamics for cycles. For the class of generalized second-grade fluids in question, we show from the First Law that an internal energy density u exists, and we derive the equation of energy balance; from the Second Law, we demonstrate the existence of an entropy density s and derive the Clausius-Duhem inequality that it satisfies. We obtain explicit expressions for u, s and the frictional heating Φ, and derive thermodynamic restrictions on the material functions of temperature μ, α 1, and α 2 that appear in the constitutive relation for the Cauchy stress. For the special case of second-grade fluids, our expressions for u and s agree with those which Dunn and Fosdick [6] derived under the theoretical framework of the rational thermodynamics of Coleman and Noll.
Thermal fluids in low temperature systems. Part 2
Lynde, P.G.; Yonkers, E.D.
1996-02-01
This article focuses on the lifeblood of these systems, the thermal transfer fluid itself. Low-temperature heat-transfer fluids are used to condition engine fluids, test chambers, cooling fluids, or a combination of these in environmental test facilities. To meet the specific test criteria, these fluids may be required to maintain pumpability and function with thermal efficiency at temperatures as low as {minus}120 F. This article presents information related to heat-transfer fluids used in low-temperature cooling applications. Three general groups of fluids are discussed: water-based antifreezes (ethylene and propylene glycol solutions); chlorinated solvents (methylene chloride and trichloroethylene); organic and synthetic coolants (diethylbenzene, two forms of dimethylpolysiloxane, heavy naphtha hydrotreated, and citrus terpene).
Generalized parastatistical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satriawan, Mirza
2002-01-01
In the first chapter we consider systems of n-identical particles whose Hilbert spaces are invariant under the "particle permutation group" Sn, and which obey cluster decomposition. The classification of such systems by Hartle, Stolt, and Taylor in terms of state symmetry types is used, together with an additional classification based on the allowed observables in the system. We have indistinguishable (p, q)- statistics, indistinguishable infinite statistics, distinguishable (p, q)-statistics, and distinguishable infinite statistics. We refer to all of these as generalized parastatistical systems. We obtain a closed form for the grand canonical partition function (GCPF) for a non-interacting gas of particles obeying indistinguishable ( p, q)-statistics (for any p and q). As a special case we have the GCPF for the usual parabose statistics of order p, solving a 50 year old problem. Except for indistinguishable (1,1)-statistics, our results are not suitable for calculating the GCPF in the continuum energy limit. However, for indistinguishable (1,1)-statistics we calculate the continuum limit and obtain some simple thermodynamic results. In particular, we show that a system of free particles in any spatial dimension d ≥ 2 that obeys indistinguishable (1,1)-statistics will exhibit Bose-like condensation. In the second chapter we consider systems similar to those in the first chapter, but now assuming that the GCPF factorizes so that we obtain an extensive system. It turns out that having such an extensive GCPF is equivalent to the factorization of the counting function, and also to the factorization of the cluster coefficients and to the strong cluster condition on the counting coefficients. We calculate several simple thermodynamic quantities for such systems, where the results are given in terms of the cluster coefficients. In the third chapter, we give a second quantized realization of generalized parastatistical systems in the form of scalar product requirements
Fluid management system for a zero gravity cryogenic storage system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
The fluid management system comprises a mixing/recirculation system including an external recirculation pump for receiving fluid from a zero gravity storage system and returning an output flow of the fluid to the storage system. An internal axial spray injection system is provided for receiving a portion of the output flow from the recirculation pump. The spray injection system thermally de-stratifies liquid and gaseous cryogenic fluid stored in the storage system.
Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor
Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.
1994-11-22
A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.
Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor
Lau, Louis K.; Alper, Naum I.
1994-01-01
A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.
Space station integrated propulsion and fluid system study: Fluid systems configuration databook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, L.; Bicknell, B.; Bergman, D.; Wilson, S.
1987-01-01
This databook contains fluid system requirements and system descriptions for Space Station program elements including the United States and International modules, integrated fluid systems, attached payloads, fluid servicers and vehicle accommodation facilities. Separate sections are devoted to each of the program elements and include a discussion of the overall system requirements, specific fluid systems requirements and systems descriptions. The systems descriptions contain configurations, fluid inventory data and component lists. In addition, a list of information sources is referenced at the end of each section.
Thermodynamic analysis of endogeneous fluid systems: The paradigm shift of the 21st century
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letnikov, F. A.
2016-06-01
At the end of the 20th century, the methods of equilibrium thermodynamics in studying natural fluid systems were replaced by synergetics, a more general paradigm. The main difference of the synergetic approach is its interdisciplinary character, and one of its achievements is understanding the role of governing parameters in particular fluid systems and introducing the concept of endogeneous fluid systems as polystationary systems.
Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems
1994-06-20
FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors, gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.
Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems
1994-06-20
FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less
Fluid systems for RICH detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullaland, O.
2005-11-01
The optical properties of the radiator media are of prime importance in Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The main requirements for the radiator fluid are a stable refractive index and a photon absorption as low as possible. We will in this note cover some of the cleaning procedures which are required together with distillation and similar separation procedures. Thin film membranes have been introduced during the last decade. They have proven particularly interesting in separating air from some Cherenkov fluids. We will also discuss the use of molecular sieves.
GVS - GENERAL VISUALIZATION SYSTEM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, S. R.
1994-01-01
The primary purpose of GVS (General Visualization System) is to support scientific visualization of data output by the panel method PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on the Silicon Graphics Iris computer. GVS allows the user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. Additionally, geometries can be color shaded according to phenomena such as pressure coefficient or velocity. Screen objects can be interactively translated and/or rotated to permit easy viewing. Keyframe animation is also available for studying unsteady cases. The purpose of scientific visualization is to allow the investigator to gain insight into the phenomena they are examining, therefore GVS emphasizes analysis, not artistic quality. GVS uses existing IRIX 4.0 image processing tools to allow for conversion of SGI RGB files to other formats. GVS is a self-contained program which contains all the necessary interfaces to control interaction with PMARC data. This includes 1) the GVS Tool Box, which supports color histogram analysis, lighting control, rendering control, animation, and positioning, 2) GVS on-line help, which allows the user to access control elements and get information about each control simultaneously, and 3) a limited set of basic GVS data conversion filters, which allows for the display of data requiring simpler data formats. Specialized controls for handling PMARC data include animation and wakes, and visualization of off-body scan volumes. GVS is written in C-language for use on SGI Iris series computers running IRIX. It requires 28Mb of RAM for execution. Two separate hardcopy documents are available for GVS. The basic document price for ARC-13361 includes only the GVS User's Manual, which outlines major features of the program and provides a tutorial on using GVS with PMARC_12 data. Programmers interested in modifying GVS for use with data in formats other than PMARC_12 format may purchase a copy of the draft GVS 3.1 Software Maintenance
General proof of the entropy principle for self-gravitating fluid in f ( R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Xiongjun; Guo, Minyong; Jing, Jiliang
2016-08-01
The discussions on the connection between gravity and thermodynamics attract much attention recently. We consider a static self-gravitating perfect fluid system in f ( R) gravity, which is an important theory could explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We first show that the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation of f ( R) theories can be obtained by thermodynamical method in spherical symmetric spacetime. Then we prove that the maximum entropy principle is also valid for f ( R) gravity in general static spacetimes beyond spherical symmetry. The result shows that if the constraint equation is satisfied and the temperature of fluid obeys Tolmans law, the extrema of total entropy implies other components of gravitational equations. Conversely, if f ( R) gravitational equation hold, the total entropy of the fluid should be extremum. Our work suggests a general and solid connection between f ( R) gravity and thermodynamics.
Fluid permeability measurement system and method
Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John
2008-02-05
A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.
Generalized Newtonian fluid flow through fibrous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mierzwiczak, Magdalena; Kołodziej, Jan Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof
2016-06-01
The numerical calculations of the velocity field and the component of transverse permeability in the filtration equation for steady, incompressible flow of the generalized Newtonian fluid through the assemblages of cylindrical fibers are presented in this paper. The fibers are arranged regularly in arrays. Flow is transverse with respect to the fibers. The non-linear governing equation in the repeated element of the array is solved using iteration method. At each iteration step the method of fundamental solutions and the method of particular solutions are used. The bundle of fibers is treated as a porous media and on the base of velocity field the permeability coefficients are calculated as a function of porosity.
Numerical simulation of steady and unsteady flow for generalized Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keslerová, Radka; Trdlička, David; Řezníček, Hynek
2016-08-01
This work presents the numerical solution of laminar incompressible viscous flow in a three dimensional branching channel with circle cross section for generalized Newtonian fluids. The governing system of equations is based on the system of balance laws for mass and momentum. Numerical solution is based on cetral finite volume method using explicit Runge- Kutta time integration. In the case of unsteady computation artificial compressibility method is considered.
Surface cleanliness of fluid systems, specification for
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
This specification establishes surface cleanliness levels, test methods, cleaning and packaging requirements, and protection and inspection procedures for determining surface cleanliness. These surfaces pertain to aerospace parts, components, assemblies, subsystems, and systems in contact with any fluid medium.
Numerical Modeling of Fluid Transient in Cryogenic Fluid Network of Rocket Propulsion System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Flachbart, Robin
2003-01-01
Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicles propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shut down. For ground safety reasons, many spacecrafts are launched with the propellant lines dry. These lines are often evacuated by the time the spacecraft reaches orbit. When the propellant isolation valve opens during propulsion system activation, propellant rushes into lines creating a pressure surge. During propellant system shutdown, a pressure surge is created due to sudden closure of a valve. During both activation and shutdown, pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. The method of characteristics is the most widely used method of calculating fluid transients in pipeline [ 1,2]. The method of characteristics, however, has limited applications in calculating flow distribution in complex flow circuits with phase change, heat transfer and rotational effects. A robust cryogenic propulsion system analyzer must have the capability to handle phase change, heat transfer, chemical reaction, rotational effects and fluid transients in conjunction with subsystem flow model for pumps, valves and various pipe fittings. In recent years, such a task has been undertaken at Marshall Space Flight Center with the development of the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which is based on finite volume method in fluid network [3]. GFSSP has been extensively verified and validated by comparing its predictions with test data and other numerical methods for various applications such as internal flow of turbo-pump [4], propellant tank pressurization [5,6], chilldown of cryogenic transfer line [7] and squeeze film damper rotordynamics [8]. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the applicability of the finite volume method to predict fluid transient in cryogenic flow
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your drilling fluid program to...
21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm... rape and other sex-related crimes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid (sperm... rape and other sex-related crimes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.
Control system for fluid heated steam generator
Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.
1984-05-29
A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.
Control system for fluid heated steam generator
Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.
1985-01-01
A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reardon, John E.; Violett, Duane L., Jr.
1991-01-01
The AFAS Database System was developed to provide the basic structure of a comprehensive database system for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Structures and Dynamics Laboratory Aerophysics Division. The system is intended to handle all of the Aerophysics Division Test Facilities as well as data from other sources. The system was written for the DEC VAX family of computers in FORTRAN-77 and utilizes the VMS indexed file system and screen management routines. Various aspects of the system are covered, including a description of the user interface, lists of all code structure elements, descriptions of the file structures, a description of the security system operation, a detailed description of the data retrieval tasks, a description of the session log, and a description of the archival system.
Finite element analysis of fluid-filled elastic piping systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everstine, G. C.; Marcus, M. S.; Quezon, A. J.
1983-01-01
Two finite element procedures are described for predicting the dynamic response of general 3-D fluid-filled elastic piping systems. The first approach, a low frequency procedure, models each straight pipe or elbow as a sequence of beams. The contained fluid is modeled as a separate coincident sequence axial members (rods) which are tied to the pipe in the lateral direction. The model includes the pipe hoop strain correction to the fluid sound speed and the flexibility factor correction to the elbow flexibility. The second modeling approach, an intermediate frequency procedure, follows generally the original Zienkiewicz-Newton scheme for coupled fluid-structure problems except that the velocity potential is used as the fundamental fluid unknown to symmetrize the coefficient matrices. From comparisons of the beam model predictions to both experimental data and the 3-D model, the beam model is validated for frequencies up to about two-thirds of the lowest fluid-filled labor pipe mode. Accurate elbow flexibility factors are seen to be crucial for effective beam modeling of piping systems.
Filling of orbital fluid management systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merino, F.; Blatt, M. H.; Thies, N. C.
1978-01-01
A study was performed with three objectives: (1) analyze fluid management system fill under orbital conditions; (2) determine what experimentation is needed; and (3) develop an experimental program. The fluid management system was a 1.06m (41.7 in) diameter pressure vessel with screen channel device. Analyses were conducted using liquid hydrogen and N2O4. The influence of helium and autogenous pressurization systems was considered. Analyses showed that fluid management system fill will be more difficult with a cryogen than with an earth storable. The key to a successful fill with cryogens is in devising techniques for filling without vent liquid, and removing trapped vapor from the screen device at tank fill completion. This will be accomplished with prechill, fill, and vapor condensation processes. Refill will require a vent and purge process, to dilute the residual helium, prior to introducing liquid. Neither prechill, chill, nor purge processes will be required for earth storables.
FLUENT/BFC - A general purpose fluid flow modeling program for all flow speeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvinsky, Arkady S.
FLUENT/BFC is a fluid flow modeling program for a variety of applications. Current capabilities of the program include laminar and turbulent flows, subsonic and supersonic viscous flows, incompressible flows, time-dependent and stationary flows, isothermal flows and flows with heat transfer, Newtonian and power-law fluids. The modeling equations in the program have been written in coordinate system invariant form to accommodate the use of boundary-conforming, generally nonorthogonal coordinate systems. The boundary-conforming coordinate system can be generated using both an internal grid generator, which is an integral part of the code, and external application-specific grid generators. The internal grid generator is based on a solution of a system of elliptic partial differential equations and can produce grids for a wide variety of two- and three-dimensional geometries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Lydon, M.
1988-01-01
Commonality and integration of propulsion and fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements are being evaluated. The Space Station elements consist of the core station, which includes habitation and laboratory modules, nodes, airlocks, and trusswork; and associated vehicles, platforms, experiments, and payloads. The program is being performed as two discrete tasks. Task 1 investigated the components of the Space Station architecture to determine the feasibility and practicality of commonality and integration among the various propulsion elements. This task was completed. Task 2 is examining integration and commonality among fluid systems which were identified by the Phase B Space Station contractors as being part of the initial operating capability (IOC) and growth Space Station architectures. Requirements and descriptions for reference fluid systems were compiled from Space Station documentation and other sources. The fluid systems being examined are: an experiment gas supply system, an oxygen/hydrogen supply system, an integrated water system, the integrated nitrogen system, and the integrated waste fluids system. Definitions and descriptions of alternate systems were developed, along with analyses and discussions of their benefits and detriments. This databook includes fluid systems descriptions, requirements, schematic diagrams, component lists, and discussions of the fluid systems. In addition, cost comparison are used in some cases to determine the optimum system for a specific task.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, S.
2015-02-01
We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N ⩾ 2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N - 1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N - 1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2 (N - 1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir-de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.
Dong, S.
2015-02-15
We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N−1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N−1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2(N−1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir–de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sochi, Taha
2015-05-01
We continue our investigation to the use of the variational method to derive flow relations for generalized Newtonian fluids in confined geometries. While in the previous investigations we used the straight circular tube geometry with eight fluid rheological models to demonstrate and establish the variational method, the focus here is on the plane long thin slit geometry using those eight rheological models, namely: Newtonian, power law, Ree-Eyring, Carreau, Cross, Casson, Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley. We demonstrate how the variational principle based on minimizing the total stress in the flow conduit can be used to derive analytical expressions, which are previously derived by other methods, or used in conjunction with numerical procedures to obtain numerical solutions which are virtually identical to the solutions obtained previously from well established methods of fluid dynamics. In this regard, we use the method of Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch- Mooney-Schofield (WRMS), with our adaptation from the circular pipe geometry to the long thin slit geometry, to derive analytical formulae for the eight types of fluid where these derived formulae are used for comparison and validation of the variational formulae and numerical solutions. Although some examples may be of little value, the optimization principle which the variational method is based upon has a significant theoretical value as it reveals the tendency of the flow system to assume a configuration that minimizes the total stress. Our proposal also offers a new methodology to tackle common problems in fluid dynamics and rheology.
Relativistic model of anisotropic charged fluid sphere in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pant, Neeraj; Pradhan, N.; Bansal, Rajeev K.
2016-01-01
In this present paper, we present a class of static, spherically symmetric charged anisotropic fluid models of super dense stars in isotropic coordinates by considering a particular type of metric potential, a specific choice of electric field intensity E and pressure anisotropy factor Δ which involve parameters K (charge) and α (anisotropy) respectively. The solutions so obtained are utilized to construct the models for super-dense stars like neutron stars and strange quark stars. Our solutions are well behaved within the following ranges of different constant parameters. In the absence of pressure anisotropy and charge present model reduces to the isotropic model Pant et al. (Astrophys. Space Sci. 330:353-359, 2010). Our solution is well behaved in all respects for all values of X lying in the range 0< X ≤ 0.18, α lying in the range 0 ≤ α ≤6.6, K lying in the range 0< K ≤ 6.6 and Schwarzschild compactness parameter "u" lying in the range 0< u ≤ 0.38. Since our solution is well behaved for a wide ranges of the parameters, we can model many different types of ultra-cold compact stars like quark stars and neutron stars. We have shown that corresponding to X=0.088, α=0.6 and K=4.3 for which u=0.2054 and by assuming surface density ρb = 4.6888 × 10^{14} g/cm3 the mass and radius are found to be 1.51 M_{\\varTheta} and 10.90 km respectively. Assuming surface density ρb = 2 × 10^{14} g/cm3 the mass and radius for a neutron star candidate are found to be 2.313 M_{\\varTheta} and 16.690 km respectively. Hence we obtain masses and radii that fall in the range of what is generally expected for quark stars and neutron stars.
Fluid Mechanics of Liquid-Liquid Systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richards, John Reed
The detailed hydrodynamics of selected liquid -liquid flow systems are investigated to provide a firm foundation for the rational design of separation processes. The implementation of this objective centers on the development of a robust code to simulate liquid-liquid flows. We have applied this code to the realistic simulation of aspects of the complex fluid mechanical behavior, and developed quantitative insight into the underlying processes involved. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is combined with the Continuous Surface Force (CSF) algorithm to provide a numerically stable code capable of solving high Reynolds numbers free surface flows. One of the developments during the testing was an efficient method for solving the Young-Laplace equation describing the shape of the meniscus in a vertical cylinder for a constrained liquid volume. The steady-state region near the nozzle for the laminar flow of a Newtonian liquid jet injected vertically into another immiscible Newtonian liquid is investigated for various Reynolds numbers by solving the axisymmetric transient equations of motion and continuity. The analysis takes into account pressure, viscous, inertial, gravitational, and surface tension forces, and comparison with previous experimental measurements shows good agreement. Comparisons of the present numerical method with the numerical results of previous boundary-layer methods help establish their range of validity. A new approximate equation for the shape of the interface of the steady jet, based on an overall momentum balance, is also developed. The full transient from liquid-liquid jet startup to breakup into drops is also simulated numerically. In comparison with experiment, the results of the present numerical method show a greater sensitivity of the jet length to the Reynolds number than the best predictions of previous linear stability analyses. The formation of drops is investigated at low to high Reynolds numbers before and after jet formation. The
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your...
SINFAC - SYSTEMS IMPROVED NUMERICAL FLUIDS ANALYSIS CODE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costello, F. A.
1994-01-01
The Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to the April 1983 revision of SINDA, a general thermal analyzer program. The purpose of the additional routines is to allow for the modeling of active heat transfer loops. The modeler can simulate the steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different heat transfer loop components including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs and many types of valves and fittings. In addition, the program contains a property analysis routine that can be used to compute the thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. SINFAC can simulate the response to transient boundary conditions. SINFAC was first developed as a method for computing the steady-state performance of two phase systems. It was then modified using CNFRWD, SINDA's explicit time-integration scheme, to accommodate transient thermal models. However, SINFAC cannot simulate pressure drops due to time-dependent fluid acceleration, transient boil-out, or transient fill-up, except in the accumulator. SINFAC also requires the user to be familiar with SINDA. The solution procedure used by SINFAC is similar to that which an engineer would use to solve a system manually. The solution to a system requires the determination of all of the outlet conditions of each component such as the flow rate, pressure, and enthalpy. To obtain these values, the user first estimates the inlet conditions to the first component of the system, then computes the outlet conditions from the data supplied by the manufacturer of the first component. The user then estimates the temperature at the outlet of the third component and computes the corresponding flow resistance of the second component. With the flow resistance of the second component, the user computes the conditions down stream, namely the inlet conditions of the third. The computations follow for the rest of the system, back to the first component
Fluid Power Systems. Energy Technology Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
This course in fluid power systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored…
Parallel-plate fluid flow systems for bone cell stimulation.
Huesa, Carmen; Helfrich, Miep H; Aspden, Richard M
2010-04-19
Bone responds to changes in its mechanical environment, but the mechanisms by which it does so are poorly understood. One hypothesis of mechanosensing in bone states that osteocytes can sense the flow of fluid through the canalicular system. To study this in vitro a number of fluid flow devices have been designed in which cells are placed between parallel plates in sealed chambers. Fluid flows through the chambers at controlled rates, most commonly driven by a peristaltic pump. In addition to fluid flow, high pressures have been observed in these chambers, but the effect of this on the cellular responses has generally been ignored or considered irrelevant, something challenged by recent cellular experiments using pressure only. We have, therefore, devised a system in which we can considerably reduce the pressure while maintaining the flow rate to enable study of their effects individually and in combination. As reducing pressure also reduces the risk of leaks in flow chambers, our system is suitable for real-time microscopical experiments. We present details of the new systems and of experiments with osteoblasts to illustrate the effects of fluid flow with and without additional pressure on the translocation of beta-catenin to the nucleus.
A general purpose contouring system
Evenden, Gerald Ian
1975-01-01
Three Decsystem-10 FORTRAN IV programs provide a general purpose system for contouring two-dimensional data. The system can provide both quick or final, publication quality contour maps on either interactive or offline plotting devices. Complete user documentation, with examples, and program listings are presented.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Breaker system for high viscosity fluids
Hinkel, J. J.
1985-12-24
A tertiary amine/persulfate breaker system is disclosed which effects complete breaks of polysaccharide based water-gels or fluids in the ambient temperature range. Induction time may be controlled over wide permissible limits. The invention claims improved compositions and methods, particularly advantageously applied to the treatment and stimulation of shallow oil and gas wells (formation temperatures from about 50/sup 0/ to 125/sup 0/ F.).
Testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, A. S.; Tyler, Tony R.
1998-01-01
The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development prototype satellite servicer. The device was designed to transfer consumables from one spacecraft to another. An engineering model was built and underwent development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center. While the current AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit.
Phase change fluids for solar thermal systems
Sama, D.A.; Sladek, K.J.
1981-01-01
This study explores the use, for storage of solar energy, of phase change materials which are suspended or emulsified in an immiscible carrier fluid. Emulsions of up to 50 weight % paraffin wax in water were found to be very fluid, highly stable, and quite flame resistant. Such easily pumped emulsions allow for an increase in stored energy density while avoiding the severe heat transfer rate problems normally encountered with phase change storage. Since the suspended phase change materials can be used both to collect and store solar energy, a heat transfer step is eliminated and the energy may be stored at a higher average temperature. This in turn results in a higher thermodynamic availability which is shown to be particularly advantageous in the storage of solar energy for refrigeration or heat pump systems. 6 refs.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor. PMID:26073599
Natural convection flow of a generalized second grade fluid between two vertical walls
Massoudi, M.C.; Vaidya, Ashwin; Wulandana, Rachmadian
2008-02-01
We study the flow due to natural convection of a non-Newtonian fluid, modeled as a generalized second grade fluid, between two vertical parallel walls. The flow results from the two walls being held at different temperatures. The viscosity of the fluid is taken to be a function of temperature according to Reynolds’ exponential law. We solve for the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles and study their dependence upon certain material parameters.
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each carburetor deicing fluid system— (1) May not be less than the greater of— (i) That required to provide...
Precision Clean Hardware: Maintenance of Fluid Systems Cleanliness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharp, Sheila; Pedley, Mike; Bond, Tim; Quaglino, Joseph; Lorenz, Mary Jo; Bentz, Michael; Banta, Richard; Tolliver, Nancy; Golden, John; Levesque, Ray
2003-01-01
The ISS fluid systems are so complex that fluid system cleanliness cannot be verified at the assembly level. A "build clean / maintain clean" approach was used by all major fluid systems: Verify cleanliness at the detail and subassembly level. Maintain cleanliness during assembly.
Generalized van der Waals theory for the thermodynamic properties of square-well fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Largo, J.; Solana, J. R.
2003-06-01
A theory previously developed for the coordination number of square-well fluids is used within the context of a generalized van der Waals theory to obtain the compressibility factor and the internal energy of these fluids. Results are compared with computer simulations for several densities, temperatures, and potential widths, which are also reported.
Sustained and generalized extracellular fluid expansion following heat acclimation
Patterson, Mark J; Stocks, Jodie M; Taylor, Nigel A S
2004-01-01
We measured intra- and extravascular body-fluid compartments in 12 resting males before (day 1; control), during (day 8) and after (day 22) a 3-week, exercise–heat acclimation protocol to investigate plasma volume (PV) changes. Our specific focus was upon the selective nature of the acclimation-induced PV expansion, and the possibility that this expansion could be sustained during prolonged acclimation. Acclimation was induced by cycling in the heat, and involved 16 treatment days (controlled hyperthermia (90 min); core temperature = 38.5°C) and three experimental exposures (40 min rest, 96.9 min (s.d. 9.5 min) cycling), each preceded by a rest day. The environmental conditions were a temperature of 39.8°C (s.d. 0.5°C) and relative humidity of 59.2% (s.d. 0.8%). On days 8 and 22, PV was expanded and maintained relative to control values (day 1: 44.0 ± 1.8; day 8: 48.8 ± 1.7; day 22: 48.8 ± 2.0 ml kg−1; P < 0.05). The extracellular fluid compartment (ECF) was equivalently expanded from control values on days 8 (279.6 ± 14.2versus 318.6 ± 14.3 ml kg−1; n = 8; P < 0.05) and 22 (287.5 ± 10.6 versus 308.4 ± 14.8 ml kg−1; n = 12; P < 0.05). Plasma electrolyte, total protein and albumin concentrations were unaltered following heat acclimation (P > 0.05), although the total plasma content of these constituents was elevated (P < 0.05). The PV and interstitial fluid (ISF) compartments exhibited similar relative expansions on days 8 (15.0 ± 2.2% versus 14.7 ± 4.1%; P > 0.05) and 22 (14.4 ± 3.6%versus 6.4 ± 2.2%; P = 0.10). It is concluded that the acclimation-induced PV expansion can be maintained following prolonged heat acclimation. In addition, this PV expansion was not selective, but represented a ubiquitous expansion of the extracellular compartment. PMID:15218070
Telerobotic on-orbit remote fluid resupply system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
The development of a telerobotic on-orbit fluid resupply demonstration system is described. A fluid transfer demonstration system was developed which functionally simulates operations required to remotely transfer fluids (liquids or gases) from a servicing spacecraft to a receiving spacecraft through the use of telerobotic manipulations. The fluid system is representative of systems used by current or planned spacecraft and propulsion stages requiring on-orbit remote resupply. The system was integrated with an existing MSFC remotely controlled manipulator arm to mate/demate couplings for demonstration and evaluation of a complete remotely operated fluid transfer system.
The cost of swimming in generalized Newtonian fluids: experiments with C. elegans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagnon, D. A.; Arratia, P. E.
2016-08-01
Numerous natural processes are contingent on microorganisms' ability to swim through fluids with non-Newtonian rheology. Here, we use the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and tracking methods to experimentally investigate the dynamics of undulatory swimming in shear-thinning fluids. Theory and simulation have proposed that the cost of swimming, or mechanical power, should be lower in a shear-thinning fluid compared to a Newtonian fluid of the same zero-shear viscosity. We aim to provide an experimental investigation into the cost of swimming in a shear-thinning fluid from (i) an estimate of the mechanical power of the swimmer and (ii) the viscous dissipation rate of the flow field, which should yield equivalent results for a self-propelled low Reynolds number swimmer. We find the cost of swimming in shear-thinning fluids is less than or equal to the cost of swimming in Newtonian fluids of the same zero-shear viscosity; furthermore, the cost of swimming in shear-thinning fluids scales with a fluid's effective viscosity and can be predicted using fluid rheology and simple swimming kinematics. Our results agree reasonably well with previous theoretical predictions and provide a framework for understanding the cost of swimming in generalized Newtonian fluids.
Kong, Feng; Chen, Zhencai; Xue, Song; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia
2015-11-01
Lower parental education impairs cognitive abilities of their offspring such as general fluid intelligence dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but the independent contribution of mother's and father's education is unknown. We used an individual difference approach to test whether mother's and father's education independently affected general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood at both the behavioral and neural level. Behaviorally, mother's but not father's education accounted for unique variance in general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood (assessed by the Raven's advanced progressive matrices). Neurally, the whole-brain correlation analysis revealed that the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial PFC was related to both mother's education and general fluid intelligence but not father's education. Furthermore, after controlling for mother's education, the association between general fluid intelligence and the rGMV in medial PFC was no longer significant, indicating that mother's education plays an important role in influencing the structure of the medial PFC associated with general fluid intelligence. Taken together, our study provides the first behavioral and neural evidence that mother's education is a more important determinant of general cognitive ability in emerging adulthood than father's education.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefansson, A.; Keller, N. S.; Gunnarsson Robin, J.; Kjartansdottir, R.; Ono, S.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E.
2014-12-01
Carbon and sulfur are among major components in geothermal systems. They are found in various oxidation state and present in solid phases and fluids (water and vapor). In order to study the reactions and mass movement within multiphase geothermal systems, we have combined geochemical fluid-fluid and fluid-rock modelling with sulfur and carbon isotope fractionation modelling and compared the results with measured carbon and sulfur isotopes in geothermal fluids (water and vapor) for selected low- and high-enthalpy geothermal systems in Iceland. In this study we have focused on δ34S for H2S in vapor and water and SO4 in water as well as δ13C for CO2 in vapor and water phases. Isotope fractionations for CO2 and H2S between vapor and liquid water, upon aqueous speciation and upon carbonate and sulfide mineral formation were revised. These were combined with reaction modelling involving closed system boiling and progressive water-rock interaction to constrain the mass movement and isotope abundance between various phases. The results indicate that for a closed system, carbon and sulfur isotope abundance is largely dependent on progressive fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction and the initial total δ34S and δ13C value of the system. Initially, upon progressive fluid rock interaction the δ34S and δ13C values for the bulk aqueous phase approach that of the host rocks. Secondary mineral formation may alter these values, the exact isotope value of the mineral and resulting aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation factor. In turn, aqueous speciation and mineral saturation depends on progressive fluid-rock interaction, fluid-fluid interaction, temperature and acid supply to the system. Depressurization boiling also results in isotope fractionation, the exact isotope value of the vapor and aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation fractor. In this way, carbon and sulfur isotopes may be used combined with
System and method for improving performance of a fluid sensor for an internal combustion engine
Kubinski, David; Zawacki, Garry
2009-03-03
A system and method for improving sensor performance of an on-board vehicle sensor, such as an exhaust gas sensor, while sensing a predetermined substance in a fluid flowing through a pipe include a structure for extending into the pipe and having at least one inlet for receiving fluid flowing through the pipe and at least one outlet generally opposite the at least one inlet, wherein the structure redirects substantially all fluid flowing from the at least one inlet to the sensor to provide a representative sample of the fluid to the sensor before returning the fluid through the at least one outlet.
Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karra, Satish; Rajagopal, K. R.
2012-02-01
The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to degradation or healing associated with diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation/healing mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid—which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context—creeps and stress relaxes due to degradation/healing when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a degrading/healing generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentration. Different boundary conditions for the fluid concentration are also considered. We also solve the problem for the case when the diffusivity of the fluid depends on the deformation of the generalized neo-Hookean solid.
Heat pipe systems using new working fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, David F. (Inventor); Zhang, Nengli (Inventor)
2004-01-01
The performance of a heat pipe system is greatly improved by the use of a dilute aqueous solution of about 0.0005 and about 0.005 moles per liter of a long chain alcohol as the working fluid. The surface tension-temperature gradient of the long-chain alcohol solutions turns positive as the temperature exceeds a certain value, for example about 40.degree. C. for n-heptanol solutions. Consequently, the Marangoni effect does not impede, but rather aids in bubble departure from the heating surface. Thus, the bubble size at departure is substantially reduced at higher frequencies and, therefore, increases the boiling limit of heat pipes. This feature is useful in microgravity conditions. In addition to microgravity applications, the heat pipe system may be used for commercial, residential and vehicular air conditioning systems, micro heat pipes for electronic devices, refrigeration and heat exchangers, and chemistry and cryogenics.
Fluid injection device for high-pressure systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, E. J.; Ward, J. B.
1970-01-01
Screw activated device, consisting of a compressor, shielded replaceable ampules, a multiple-element rubber gland, and a specially constructed fluid line fitting, injects measured amounts of fluids into a pressurized system. It is sturdy and easily manipulated.
FLUFIXMOD2. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems
Lyczkowski, R.W.; Bouillard, J.X.; Folga, S.M.
1992-04-01
FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors, gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.
Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sipos, Maksim
In this thesis, I consider systems from two seemingly different fields: fluid dynamics and microbial ecology. In these systems, the unifying features are the existences of global non-equilibrium steady states. I consider generic and statistical models for transitions between these global states, and I relate the model results with experimental data. A theme of this thesis is that these rather simple, minimal models are able to capture a lot of functional detail about complex dynamical systems. In Part I, I consider the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. I find that quantitative and qualitative features of pipe flow experiments, the superexponential lifetime and the splitting of turbulent puffs, and the growth rate of turbulent slugs, can all be explained by a coarse-grained, phenomenological model in the directed percolation universality class. To relate this critical phenomena approach closer to the fluid dynamics, I consider the transition to turbulence in the Burgers equation, a simplified model for Navier-Stokes equations. Via a transformation to a model of directed polymers in a random medium, I find that the transition to Burgers turbulence may also be in the directed percolation universality class. This evidence implies that the turbulent-to-laminar transition is statistical in nature and does not depend on details of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid flow. In Part II, I consider the disparate subject of microbial ecology where the complex interactions within microbial ecosystems produce observable patterns in microbe abundance, diversity and genotype. In order to be able to study these patterns, I develop a bioinformatics pipeline to multiply align and quickly cluster large microbial metagenomics datasets. I also develop a novel metric that quantifies the degree of interactions underlying the assembly of a microbial ecosystem, particularly the transition between neutral (random) and niche (deterministic) assembly. I apply this
Quantization of Generally Covariant Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sforza, Daniel M.
2000-12-01
Finite dimensional models that mimic the constraint structure of Einstein's General Relativity are quantized in the framework of BRST and Dirac's canonical formalisms. The first system to be studied is one featuring a constraint quadratic in the momenta (the "super-Hamiltonian") and a set of constraints linear in the momenta (the "supermomentum" constraints). The starting point is to realize that the ghost contributions to the supermomentum constraint operators can be read in terms of the natural volume induced by the constraints in the orbits. This volume plays a fundamental role in the construction of the quadratic sector of the nilpotent BRST charge. It is shown that the quantum theory is invariant under scaling of the super-Hamiltonian. As long as the system has an intrinsic time, this property translates in a contribution of the potential to the kinetic term. In this aspect, the results substantially differ from other works where the scaling invariance is forced by introducing a coupling to the curvature. The contribution of the potential, far from being unnatural, is beautifully justified in the light of the Jacobi's principle. Then, it is shown that the obtained results can be extended to systems with extrinsic time. In this case, if the metric has a conformal temporal Killing vector and the potential exhibits a suitable behavior with respect to it, the role played by the potential in the case of intrinsic time is now played by the norm of the Killing vector. Finally, the results for the previous cases are extended to a system featuring two super-Hamiltonian constraints. This step is extremely important due to the fact that General Relativity features an infinite number of such constraints satisfying a non trivial algebra among themselves.
A flexible micro fluid transport system featuring magnetorheological elastomer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrooz, Majid; Gordaninejad, Faramarz
2016-02-01
This study presents a flexible magnetically-actuated micro fluid transport system utilizing an isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). Theoretical modeling and analysis of this system is presented for a two-dimensional model. This fluid transport system can propel the fluid by applying a fluctuating magnetic field on the MRE. The magneto-fluid-structure interaction analysis is employed to determine movement of the solid domain and the velocity of the fluid under a controllable magnetic field. The effects of key material, geometric, and magnetic parameters on the behavior of this system are examined. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can propel the fluid unidirectionally, and the volume of the transported fluid is significantly affected by some of the design parameters.
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids.
Hansen, J S
2013-09-01
This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia per unit mass. In the regime of large moment of inertia the fast relaxation is wave-vector independent and dominated by the coupling between spin and the fluid streaming velocity, whereas for small inertia the relaxation is slow and spin diffusion plays a significant role. The fast wave-vector-independent relaxation is also observed for highly packed systems. The transverse and longitudinal spin modes have, to a good approximation, identical relaxation, indicating that the longitudinal and transverse spin viscosities have same value. The relaxation is also shown to be isomorphic invariant. Finally, the effect of the coupling in the zero frequency and wave-vector limit is quantified by a characteristic length scale; if the system dimension is comparable to this length the coupling must be included into the fluid dynamical description. It is found that the length scale is independent of moment of inertia but dependent on the state point. PMID:24125208
Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Charles R.
1995-09-01
Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved is very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible.
An intelligent data acquisition system for fluid mechanics research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantwell, E. R.; Zilliac, G.; Fukunishi, Y.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a novel data acquisition system for use with wind-tunnel probe-based measurements, which incorporates a degree of specific fluid dynamics knowledge into a simple expert system-like control program. The concept was developed with a rudimentary expert system coupled to a probe positioning mechanism operating in a small-scale research wind tunnel. The software consisted of two basic elements, a general-purpose data acquisition system and the rulebased control element to take and analyze data and supplying decisions as to where to measure, how many data points to take, and when to stop. The system was validated in an experiment involving a vortical flow field, showing that it was possible to increase the resolution of the experiment or, alternatively, reduce the total number of data points required, to achieve parity with the results of most conventional data acquisition approaches.
Mantle fluids in the San Andreas fault system, California
Kennedy, B.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Evans, William C.; Ellwood, A.; DePaolo, D.J.; Thordsen, J.; Ambats, G.; Mariner, R.H.
1997-01-01
Fluids associated with the San Andreas and companion faults n central and south-central California have high 3He/4He ratios. The lack of correlation between helium isotopes and fluid chemistry or local geology requires that fluids enter the fault system from the mantle. Mantle fluids passing through the ductile lower crust must enter the brittle fault zone at or near lithostatic pressures; estimates of fluid flux based on helium isotopes suggest that they may thus contribute directly to fault-weakening high-fluid pressures at seismogenic depths.
Method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system is provided. A first response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) not in contact with a fluid of interest. A second response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) fully immersed in the fluid of interest. Using the first and second responses, a plurality of expected responses of the system's sensor(s) is (are) generated for a corresponding plurality of levels of immersion of the sensor(s) in the fluid of interest.
Concept of planetary gear system to control fluid mixture ratio
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgroarty, J. D.
1966-01-01
Mechanical device senses and corrects for fluid flow departures from the selected flow ratio of two fluids. This system has been considered for control of rocket engine propellant mixture control but could find use wherever control of the flow ratio of any two fluids is desired.
A general photonic crystal sensing motif: creatinine in bodily fluids.
Sharma, Anjal C; Jana, Tushar; Kesavamoorthy, Rasu; Shi, Lianjun; Virji, Mohamed A; Finegold, David N; Asher, Sanford A
2004-03-10
We developed a new sensing motif for the detection and quantification of creatinine, which is an important small molecule marker of renal dysfunction. This novel sensor motif is based on our intelligent polymerized crystalline colloidal array (IPCCA) materials, in which a three-dimensional crystalline colloidal array (CCA) of monodisperse, highly charged polystyrene latex particles are polymerized within lightly cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogels. These composite hydrogels are photonic crystals in which the embedded CCA diffracts visible light and appears intensely colored. Volume phase transitions of the hydrogel cause changes in the CCA lattice spacings which change the diffracted wavelength of light. We functionalized the hydrogel with two coupled recognition modules, a creatinine deiminase (CD) enzyme and a 2-nitrophenol (2NPh) titrating group. Creatinine within the gel is rapidly hydrolyzed by the CD enzyme in a reaction which releases OH(-). This elevates the steady-state pH within the hydrogel as compared to the exterior solution. In response, the 2NPh is deprotonated. The increased solubility of the phenolate species as compared to that of the neutral phenols causes a hydrogel swelling which red-shifts the IPCCA diffraction. This photonic crystal IPCCA senses physiologically relevant creatinine levels, with a detection limit of 6 microM, at physiological pH and salinity. This sensor also determines physiological levels of creatinine in human blood serum samples. This sensing technology platform is quite general. It may be used to fabricate photonic crystal sensors for any species for which there exists an enzyme which catalyzes it to release H(+) or OH(-). PMID:14995215
System and Method for Wirelessly Determining Fluid Volume
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system and method are provided for determining the volume of a fluid in container. Sensors are positioned at distinct locations in a container of a fluid. Each sensor is sensitive to an interface defined by the top surface of the fluid. Interfaces associated with at least three of the sensors are determined and used to find the volume of the fluid in the container in a geometric process.
Network Flow Simulation of Fluid Transients in Rocket Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Hamill, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Majumdar, Alok
2011-01-01
Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicle propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shutdown. The pressure rise due to sudden opening and closing of valves of propulsion feed lines can cause serious damage during activation and shutdown of propulsion systems. During activation (valve opening) and shutdown (valve closing), pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. In the current work, a network flow simulation software (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) based on Finite Volume Method has been used to predict the pressure surges in the feed line due to both valve closing and valve opening using two separate geometrical configurations. The valve opening pressure surge results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and the numerical results compared very well within reasonable accuracy (< 5%) for a wide range of inlet-to-initial pressure ratios. A Fast Fourier Transform is preformed on the pressure oscillations to predict the various modal frequencies of the pressure wave. The shutdown problem, i.e. valve closing problem, the simulation results are compared with the results of Method of Characteristics. Most rocket engines experience a longitudinal acceleration, known as "pogo" during the later stage of engine burn. In the shutdown example problem, an accumulator has been used in the feed system to demonstrate the "pogo" mitigation effects in the feed system of propellant. The simulation results using GFSSP compared very well with the results of Method of Characteristics.
High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers
Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D
2014-10-14
An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.
Tracing Injection Fluids in Engineered Geothermal Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, P. E.; Leecaster, K.; Mella, M.; Ayling, B.; Bartl, M. H.
2011-12-01
The reinjection of produced fluids is crucial to the effective management of geothermal reservoirs, since it provides a mechanism for maintaining reservoir pressures while allowing for the disposal of a toxic byproduct. Tracers are essential to the proper location of injection wells since they are the only known tool for reliably characterizing the flow patterns of recirculated fluids. If injection wells are placed too close to production wells, then reinjected fluids do not have sufficient residence time to extract heat from the reservoir and premature thermal breakthrough results. If injection wells are placed too far away, then the reservoir risks unacceptable pressure loss. Several thermally stable compounds from a family of very detectable fluorescent organic compounds (the naphthalene sulfonates) were characterized and found to be effective for use as geothermal tracers. Through batch-autoclave reactions, their Arrhenius pseudo-first-order decay-rate constants were determined. An analytical method was developed that allows for the laboratory determination of concentrations in the low parts-per-trillion range. Field experiments in numerous geothermal reservoirs throughout the world have confirmed the laboratory findings. Whereas conservative tracers such as the naphthalene sulfonates are effective tools for indicating interwell flow patterns and for measuring reservoir pore volumes, 'reactive' tracers can be used to constrain fracture surface area, which is the effective area for heat extraction. This is especially important for engineered geothermal system (EGS) wells, since reactive tracers can be used to measure fracture surface area immediately after drilling and while the well stimulation equipment is still on site. The reactive properties of these tracers that can be exploited to constrain fracture surface area are reversible sorption, contrasting diffusivity, and thermal decay. Laboratory batch- and flow-reactor experiments in combination with numerical
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
Koseff, J.R.
1989-04-07
A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in our case) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating and surface shear. The goals of the proposed work include: (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in an experimental facility which is located in the Stanford Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues: (1) the formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; (2) the interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; (3) the measurement of heat and mass fluxes; and (4) the influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. 1 fig.
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...
Systems, compositions, and methods for fluid purification
Ho, W.S. Winston; Verweij, Hendrik; Shqau, Krenar; Ramasubranian, Kartik
2015-12-22
Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.
Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus
Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis
2009-02-24
A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.
Microstructure development in viscoelastic fluid systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huaping
This thesis deals with the mechanisms of microstructure development in polymer blends. Much work has been performed on the breakup process of immiscible systems where the dispersed phase is suspended inside another matrix. The fluids used were polymer melts or model viscoelastic fluids, and the processing flows were model shear flow or processing flows seen in industry. It is found that in industrial extruders or batch mixers, the morphology of the dispersed polymer evolves from pellets to films, and subsequently to fibers and particles. In this thesis, it is demonstrated based on force analysis that the in-situ graft reactive compatibilization facilitates breakup of the dispersed phase by suppressing slip at the interface of the dispersed phase and matrix phase. The morphology development of polymer blends in industrial mixers was simulated by performing experiments of model viscoelastic drop deformation and breakup under shear flow. Two distinct modes of drop deformation and breakup were observed. Namely, viscoelastic drops can elongate and breakup either in (1) the flow direction or (2) the vorticity direction. The first normal stress difference N1 plays a decisive role in the conditions and modes of drop breakup. Drop size is an important factor which determines to a great extent the mode of drop breakup and the critical point when the drop breakup mechanism changes. Small drops break along the vorticity direction, whereas large drops break in the flow direction. A dramatic change in the critical shear rate was found when going from one breakup mode to another. Polymer melts processed under shear flow present different morphology development mechanisms: films, fibers, vorticity elongation and surface instability. The mechanisms depend greatly on the rheological properties of both the dispersed and matrix phases, namely the viscosity ratio and elasticity ratio. High viscosity ratio and high elasticity ratio result elongation of the dispersed phase in the
Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system.
Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang
2015-01-01
Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ(7)Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ(7)Liquartz-fluid = -8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R(2) = 0.98; 175 °C-340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ(7)Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ(7)Li range from -0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175-340 °C. This δ(7)Li range, together with Li-O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process. PMID:26347051
Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system.
Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang
2015-09-08
Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ(7)Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ(7)Liquartz-fluid = -8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R(2) = 0.98; 175 °C-340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ(7)Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ(7)Li range from -0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175-340 °C. This δ(7)Li range, together with Li-O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process.
Transient thermal analysis of fluid systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, G. D.; Trust, R. D.
1977-01-01
Computer program performs transient thermal analysis of any 2-node to 200-node-thermal network, which transports heat by fluid flow convection. Program can be modified to add conduction along tubes and radiation.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1995-03-01
Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.
Statistical mechanics of homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems.
Krakoviack, Vincent
2010-12-01
The homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems are simple models of a fluid confined in a disordered porous matrix obtained by arresting randomly chosen particles in a one-component bulk fluid or one of the two components of a binary mixture. In this paper, their configurational properties are investigated. It is shown that a peculiar complementarity exists between the mobile and immobile phases, which originates from the fact that the solid is prepared in presence of and in equilibrium with the adsorbed fluid. Simple identities follow, which connect different types of configurational averages, either relative to the fluid-matrix system or to the bulk fluid from which it is prepared. Crucial simplifications result for the computation of important structural quantities, both in computer simulations and in theoretical approaches. Finally, possible applications of the model in the field of dynamics in confinement or in strongly asymmetric mixtures are suggested.
The energy-momentum tensor for a dissipative fluid in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pimentel, Oscar M.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.
2016-10-01
Considering the growing interest of the astrophysicist community in the study of dissipative fluids with the aim of getting a more realistic description of the universe, we present in this paper a physical analysis of the energy-momentum tensor of a viscous fluid with heat flux. We introduce the general form of this tensor and, using the approximation of small velocity gradients, we relate the stresses of the fluid with the viscosity coefficients, the shear tensor and the expansion factor. Exploiting these relations, we can write the stresses in terms of the extrinsic curvature of the normal surface to the 4-velocity vector of the fluid, and we can also establish a connection between the perfect fluid and the symmetries of the spacetime. On the other hand, we calculate the energy conditions for a dissipative fluid through contractions of the energy-momentum tensor with the 4-velocity vector of an arbitrary observer. This method is interesting because it allows us to compute the conditions in a reasonably easy way and without considering any approximation or restriction on the energy-momentum tensor.
Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Shepard, D.; Rossier, R.
1988-01-01
The program study was performed in two tasks: Task 1 addressed propulsion systems and Task 2 addressed all fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements, which also included propulsion and pressurant systems. Program results indicated a substantial reduction in life cycle costs through integrating the oxygen/hydrogen propulsion system with the environmental control and life support system, and through supplying nitrogen in a cryogenic gaseous supercritical or subcritical liquid state. A water sensitivity analysis showed that increasing the food water content would substantially increase the amount of water available for propulsion use and in all cases, the implementation of the BOSCH CO2 reduction process would reduce overall life cycle costs to the station and minimize risk. An investigation of fluid systems and associated requirements revealed a delicate balance between the individual propulsion and fluid systems across work packages and a strong interdependence between all other fluid systems.
System for Dispensing a Precise Amount of Fluid
Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Dzenitis, John M.; Ness, Kevin D.
2008-08-12
A dispensing system delivers a precise amount of fluid for biological or chemical processing and/or analysis. Dispensing means moves the fluid. The dispensing means is operated by a pneumatic force. Connection means delivers the fluid to the desired location. An actuator means provides the pneumatic force to the dispensing means. Valving means transmits the pneumatic force from the actuator means to the dispensing means.
Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Grankvist, Nina; Krizhanovskii, Camilla
2016-01-01
Objective Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. Methods Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones. Results The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0) was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P < 0.001). Plasma osmolality and plasma sodium were somewhat higher in those with a high FRI (mean 294.8 vs. 293.4 mosmol/kg and 140.3 vs. 139.9 mmol/l). Plasma vasopressin was consistently below the limit of detection, and the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, and renin concentrations were similar in subjects with a high or low FRI. The very highest FRI values (≥ 5.0, N = 61) were always accompanied by albuminuria. Conclusion Fluid retention consistent with moderate dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital. PMID:27764121
A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy
2016-06-01
This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.
A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures
Meier, E T; Shumlak, U
2012-04-06
A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.
Vein mineralizations - archives of paleo-fluid systems in the Thuringian basin (Germany)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abratis, M.; Brey, M.; Fritsch, S.; Majzlan, J.; Viereck-Götte, L.
2012-04-01
We investigate vein mineralizations within and around the Thuringian basin (Germany) in order to characterize paleo-fluid systems that have been active in the basin. By investigating the composition, temperature, origin, age and evolution of paleo-fluids in the Thuringian basin as a model case, we aim for comprehensive understanding of the character of mineralized fluid systems in sedimentary basins in general and their evolution over geological time scales. Mineralizations along faults are archives for the composition of fluids which intruded the basin and circulated within it millions of years ago. These mineralizations give information on the physical and chemical characteristics of the related fluids as well as on their evolution with time during basin evolution. Mapping of mineralizations in space and time and comparison with the present-day fluid circulation system allows for recognition of the paleo-fluid dynamics and high temperature fluid influx pathways. The chemical characteristics of vein-related mineralizations are proxies for the paleo-fluid sources and their solution load. Methods implied comprise bulk rock analyses (petrography, XRD, XRF, ICP-MS), mineral analyses (EPMA, LA-ICP-MS), fluid inclusion measurements (microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, ion chromatography) and isotope studies (O, H, C, S, Sr). Vein-related mineralizations within the Mesozoic sediments of the basin occur predominantly along WNW-ESE trending fault systems and comprise mainly carbonates and sulfates. Mineralizations within the basin-confining uplifted Variscan basement rocks and lowermost sedimentary units (Zechstein) show also (Fe-, Cu-, Zn-, As-, Sb-) sulfides, (Fe-, Mn-) oxides, fluorite and barite. The present study is part of INFLUINS, a BMBF-funded project bundle which is dedicated to comprehensive description and understanding of the fluid systems within the Thuringian basin in time and space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.
2014-05-01
We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.
Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S
2014-05-21
We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time. PMID:24852549
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele-Macinnis, M.; Bodnar, R. J.; Lowell, R.; Rimstidt, J. D.
2009-05-01
Quartz is a nearly ubiquitous gangue mineral in hydrothermal mineral deposits, most often constituting the bulk of hydrothermal mineralization. The dissolution, transport and precipitation of quartz is controlled by the solubility of silica; in particular, in hot hydrothermal fluids in contact with quartz, silica saturation can generally be assumed, as rates of dissolution and precipitation are generally much faster than fluid flow rates. The solubility of silica in aqueous fluids can be used to understand the evolution of hydrothermal systems by tracing the silica distribution in these systems through time. The solubility of quartz in an aqueous fluid is dependent upon the pressure, temperature and composition (PTX) of the fluid. Silica solubility in pure water as a function of pressure and temperature is well understood. However, natural fluids contain variable amounts of dissolved ionic species, thus it is necessary to include the effects of salinity on silica solubility to accurately predict quartz distribution in hydrothermal systems. In particular, addition of NaCl results in enhanced quartz solubility over a wide range of PT conditions. Furthermore, if phase separation occurs in saline fluids, silica is preferentially partitioned into the higher salinity brine phase; if vapor is removed from the system, the bulk salinity in the system evolves towards the brine end member, and overall silica solubility is enhanced. There is abundant evidence from natural fluid inclusions for fluid immiscibility in hydrothermal ore deposits. Additionally, recent hydrothermal models that include fluid phase equilibria effects predict that phase separation may be an important control on the distribution of dissolved components in seafloor hydrothermal systems. An empirical equation describing the solubility of silica in salt-bearing hydrothermal solutions over a wide range of PTX conditions has been incorporated into a multiphase fluid flow model for seafloor hydrothermal
UAH/NASA Workshop on Fluids Experiment System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, J. (Editor); Askins, B. (Editor)
1979-01-01
The Fluids Experiment System is being developed to fit into a Spacelab rack. Papers presented at this workshop describe a variety of fluid and chemical experiments that would be of great benefit to researchers of processes in a low gravity environment.
Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
Lambirth, Gene Richard
2011-01-11
Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.
Fluid Power Systems Maintenance and Operation. Instructor's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paule, Bob A.
Written to complement the Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulic and Basic Pneumatics guides, this curriculum guide contains materials for a seven-unit course in fluid power systems maintenance and operation. Units, which consist of one to eight lessons, cover these topics: preventive maintenance, repair machine malfunctions, overhaul/recondition hydraulic…
Methods and systems for integrating fluid dispensing technology with stereolithography
Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan; Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Don W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.
2010-02-09
An integrated system and method of integrating fluid dispensing technologies (e.g., direct-write (DW)) with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies (e.g., stereolithography (SL)) without part registration comprising: an SL apparatus and a fluid dispensing apparatus further comprising a translation mechanism adapted to translate the fluid dispensing apparatus along the Z-, Y- and Z-axes. The fluid dispensing apparatus comprises: a pressurized fluid container; a valve mechanism adapted to control the flow of fluid from the pressurized fluid container; and a dispensing nozzle adapted to deposit the fluid in a desired location. To aid in calibration, the integrated system includes a laser sensor and a mechanical switch. The method further comprises building a second part layer on top of the fluid deposits and optionally accommodating multi-layered circuitry by incorporating a connector trace. Thus, the present invention is capable of efficiently building single and multi-material SL fabricated parts embedded with complex three-dimensional circuitry using DW.
Thermally induced instabilities of two-layer fluid systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingber, M. S.
Thermally induced instabilities of two layer fluid systems are studied by the use of both a linear and nonlinear analysis. Two essentially different destabilizing mechanisms are identified, namely buoyancy and surface tension. A general procedure is developed to determine the relative importance of each mechanism. The interfacial boundary conditions are comparisons with experiment are performed to attain a level of confidence. The investigation is motivated from the study of the geophysical problem of a body of water cooled by the atmosphere. The effects of surface tension and surface curvature are explored in depth. The reinforcing nature of the destabilizing mechanisms, surface tension and buoyancy is demonstrated. The relationship between the mean surface tension and surface curvature is also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiao-Gang; Yu, Wei-Lun; Cen, Hai-Peng; Wang, Yan-Qin; Guo, Yuan; Chen, Wei-Yi
2015-02-01
A hierarchical model is developed to predict the streaming potential (SP) in the canaliculi of a loaded osteon. Canaliculi are assumed to run straight across the osteon annular cylinder wall, while disregarding the effect of lacuna. SP is generalized by the canalicular fluid flow. Analytical solutions are obtained for the canalicular fluid velocity, pressure, and SP. Results demonstrate that SP amplitude (SPA) is proportional to the pressure difference, strain amplitude, frequency, and strain rate amplitude. However, the key loading factor governing SP is the strain rate, which is a representative loading parameter under the specific physiological state. Moreover, SPA is independent of canalicular length. This model links external loads to the canalicular fluid pressure, velocity, and SP, which can facilitate further understanding of the mechanotransduction and electromechanotransduction mechanisms of bones.
Fluid limit of the continuous-time random walk with general Levy jump distribution functions
Cartea, A.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B
2007-01-01
The continuous time random walk (CTRW) is a natural generalization of the Brownian random walk that allows the incorporation of waiting time distributions psi(t) and general jump distribution functions eta(x). There are two well-known fluid limits of this model in the uncoupled case. For exponential decaying waiting times and Gaussian jump distribution functions the fluid limit leads to the diffusion equation. On the other hand, for algebraic decaying waiting times psi similar to t(-(1+beta)) and algebraic decaying jump distributions eta similar to x(-(1+alpha)) corresponding to Levy stable processes, the fluid limit leads to the fractional diffusion equation of order alpha in space and order beta in time. However, these are two special cases of a wider class of models. Here we consider the CTRW for the most general Levy stochastic processes in the Levy-Khintchine representation for the jump distribution function and obtain an integrodifferential equation describing the dynamics in the fluid limit. The resulting equation contains as special cases the regular and the fractional diffusion equations. As an application we consider the case of CTRWs with exponentially truncated Levy jump distribution functions. In this case the fluid limit leads to a transport equation with exponentially truncated fractional derivatives which describes the interplay between memory, long jumps, and truncation effects in the intermediate asymptotic regime. The dynamics exhibits a transition from superdiffusion to subdiffusion with the crossover time scaling as tau(c)similar to lambda(-alpha/beta), where 1/lambda is the truncation length scale. The asymptotic behavior of the propagator (Green's function) of the truncated fractional equation exhibits a transition from algebraic decay for t <
Principles of Design of Fluid Transport Systems in Zoology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labarbera, Michael
1990-08-01
Fluid transport systems mediate the transfer of materials both within an organism and between an organism and its environment. The architecture of fluid transport systems is determined by the small distances over which transfer processes are effective and by hydrodynamic and energetic constraints. All fluid transport systems within organisms exhibit one of two geometries, a simple tube interrupted by a planar transfer region or a branched network of vessels linking widely distributed transfer regions; each is determined by different morphogenetic processes. By exploiting the signal inherent in local shear stress on the vessel walls, animals have repeatedly evolved a complex branching hierarchy of vessels approximating a globally optimal system that minimizes the costs of the construction and maintenance of the fluid transport system.
Generalized asymptotic expansions for coupled wavenumbers in fluid-filled cylindrical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunte, M. V.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sonti, Venkata R.
2010-12-01
Analytical expressions are found for the coupled wavenumbers in an infinite fluid-filled cylindrical shell using the asymptotic methods. These expressions are valid for any general circumferential order ( n). The shallow shell theory (which is more accurate at higher frequencies) is used to model the cylinder. Initially, the in vacuo shell is dealt with and asymptotic expressions are derived for the shell wavenumbers in the high- and the low-frequency regimes. Next, the fluid-filled shell is considered. Defining a relevant fluid-loading parameter μ, we find solutions for the limiting cases of small and large μ. Wherever relevant, a frequency scaling parameter along with some ingenuity is used to arrive at an elegant asymptotic expression. In all cases, Poisson's ratio ν is used as an expansion variable. The asymptotic results are compared with numerical solutions of the dispersion equation and the dispersion relation obtained by using the more general Donnell-Mushtari shell theory ( in vacuo and fluid-filled). A good match is obtained. Hence, the contribution of this work lies in the extension of the existing literature to include arbitrary circumferential orders ( n).
String-fluid transition in systems with aligned anisotropic interactions.
Brandt, P C; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G E
2010-06-21
Systems with aligned anisotropic interactions between particles exhibit numerous phase transitions. A remarkable example of the fluid phase transition occurring in such systems is the formation of particle strings--the so-called "string" or "chain" fluids. We employ an approach based on the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation, which allows us to calculate structural properties of fluids with aligned anisotropic interactions. We show that the string-fluid transition can be associated with the bifurcation of the "isotropic" correlation length into two distinct scales which characterize the longitudinal and transverse order in string fluids and, hence, may be used as a fingerprint of this transition. The comparison of the proposed OZ theory with the Monte Carlo simulations reveals fairly good agreement.
String-fluid transition in systems with aligned anisotropic interactions.
Brandt, P C; Ivlev, A V; Morfill, G E
2010-06-21
Systems with aligned anisotropic interactions between particles exhibit numerous phase transitions. A remarkable example of the fluid phase transition occurring in such systems is the formation of particle strings--the so-called "string" or "chain" fluids. We employ an approach based on the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation, which allows us to calculate structural properties of fluids with aligned anisotropic interactions. We show that the string-fluid transition can be associated with the bifurcation of the "isotropic" correlation length into two distinct scales which characterize the longitudinal and transverse order in string fluids and, hence, may be used as a fingerprint of this transition. The comparison of the proposed OZ theory with the Monte Carlo simulations reveals fairly good agreement. PMID:20572736
System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, Marcos German; Kidd, Terrel G.
1999-01-01
A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.
System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, M.G.; Kidd, T.G.
1999-05-18
A system is described for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements. 3 figs.
Analytical and Numerical Solutions of a Generalized Hyperbolic Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Sarı, Pınar; Solmaz, Bekir
2010-03-01
The generalized hyperbolic non-Newtonian fluid model first proposed by Al-Zahrani [J. Petroleum Sci. Eng. 17, 211 (1997)] is considered. This model was successfully applied to some drilling fluids with a better performance in relating shear stress and velocity gradient compared to power-law and the Hershel-Bulkley model. Special flow geometries namely pipe flow, parallel plate flow, and flow between two rotating cylinders are treated. For the first two cases, analytical solutions of velocity profiles and discharges in the form of integrals are presented. These quantities are calculated by numerically evaluating the integrals. For the flow between two rotating cylinders, the differential equation is solved by the Runge-Kutta method combined with shooting. For all problems, the power-law approximation of the model is compared with the generalized hyperbolic model, too.
Lithium isotope traces magmatic fluid in a seafloor hydrothermal system
Yang, Dan; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Kejun; Yang, Zhiming; Tian, Shihong; Fu, Qiang
2015-01-01
Lithium isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions and hosted gangue quartz from a giant volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in China provide robust evidence for inputting of magmatic fluids into a Triassic submarine hydrothermal system. The δ7Li results vary from +4.5‰ to +13.8‰ for fluid inclusions and from +6.7‰ to +21.0‰ for the hosted gangue quartz(9 gangue quartz samples containing primary fluid inclusions). These data confirm the temperature-dependent Li isotopic fractionation between hydrothermal quartz and fluid (i.e., Δδ7Liquartz-fluid = –8.9382 × (1000/T) + 22.22(R2 = 0.98; 175 °C–340 °C)), which suggests that the fluid inclusions are in equilibrium with their hosted quartz, thus allowing to determine the composition of the fluids by using δ7Liquartz data. Accordingly, we estimate that the ore-forming fluids have a δ7Li range from −0.7‰ to +18.4‰ at temperatures of 175–340 °C. This δ7Li range, together with Li–O modeling , suggest that magmatic fluid played a significant role in the ore formation. This study demonstrates that Li isotope can be effectively used to trace magmatic fluids in a seafloor hydrothermal system and has the potential to monitor fluid mixing and ore-forming process. PMID:26347051
Considerations of a nonhomogeneous fluid in the deep groundwater flow system at Hanford
Nelson, R.W.
1988-11-01
This report presents such a general theory capable of describing the flow on nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media, theory that is a composite from several disciplines including groundwater hydrology, soil physics, civil engineering, petroleum reservoir engineering, mechanics, and mathematical physics. The report discussed the conceptual basis for considering the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids. From this conceptual basis emphasis shifts to providing complete definitions and then appropriately describing those definitions in mathematical terms. Throughout the report, the necessary assumptions are stated in detail because the limitations of any theory are best assessed through careful scrutiny of the assumptions. From the mathematical definitions with appropriate functional dependence the results and constraints needed are derived to provide the general theory necessary to describe the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media. Particular attention is given to comparing the general theory with the classical theory of flow for a homogeneous fluid. Such comparison provides significant insight to the effects of variable fluid properties on subsurface flow systems. The comparisons also indicate the importance of carefully formulating subsurface flow models within the more general theoretical framework describing the flow of nonhomogeneous fluids in porous media. 29 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.
Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems
Sloan, Jr., Earle D.
1995-01-01
Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member and/or six member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Dharmendra; Pandey, S. K.; Das, S.
2011-07-01
The present investigation deals with the peristaltic transport of generalized Burgers' fluid with fractional element model in a channel. The analysis is carried out under long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. An efficient mathematical tool, namely, Adomian decomposition method, is used to obtain the analytical approximate solutions of the fractional differential equation. The channel is governed by the propagation of sinusoidal waves that help the walls contract and relax but not expand beyond the natural boundary. The expressions of axial velocity, volume flow rate and pressure gradient are obtained. The effects of the fractional parameters and the material constants are discussed on pressure difference and the friction force across one wavelength. The comparative studies for various models of viscoelastic fluids such as fractional generalized Burgers' model, generalized Burgers' model, fractional Burgers' model and Burgers' model are performed. It is inferred that the movement of viscoelastic chyme with generalized Burgers' model through the small intestine is favorable in comparison to the movement of viscoelastic chyme with fractional generalized Burgers' model.
Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitner, Phillip A.
While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…
Ice Detector and Deicing Fluid Effectiveness Monitoring System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
An ice detector and deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring system for an aircraft is disclosed. The ice detection portion is particularly suited for use in flight to notify the flight crew of an accumulation of ice on an aircraft lifting and control surfaces, or helicopter rotors, whereas the deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring portion is particularly suited for use on the ground to notify the flight crew of the possible loss of the effectiveness of the deicing fluid. The ice detection portion comprises a temperature sensor and a parallel arrangement of electrodes whose coefficient of coupling is indicative of the formation of the ice, as well as the thickness of the formed ice. The fluid effectiveness monitoring portion comprises a temperature sensor and an ionic-conduction cell array that measures the conductivity of the deicing fluid which is indicative of its concentration and, thus, its freezing point. By measuring the temperature and having knowledge of the freezing point of the deicing fluid, the fluid effectiveness monitoring portion predicts when the deicing fluid may lose its effectiveness because its freezing point may correspond to the temperature of the ambient.
Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, L.; Bergman, D.; Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.
1987-01-01
This Databook addresses the integration of fluid systems of the Space Station program. It includes a catalog of components required for the Space Station elements fluid systems and information on potential hardware commonality. The components catalog is in four parts. The first part lists the components defined for all the fluid systems identified in EP 2.1, Space Station Program Fluid Systems Configuration Databook. The components are cross-referenced in three sections. Section 2.1 lists the components by the fluid system in which they are used. Section 2.2 lists the components by type. Section 2.3 lists by the type of fluid media handled by the component. The next part of the catalog provides a description of the individual component. This section (2.4) is made up of data retrieved from Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace component data base. The third part is an assessment of propulsion hardware technology requirements. Section 2.5 lists components identified during the study as requiring development prior to flight qualification. Finally, Section 2.6 presents the results of the evaluation of commonality between components. The specific requirements of each component have been reviewed and duplication eliminated.
Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems
2012-02-07
-04) created at INL to work inside SharePoint. The GUI tool links slider bars and drop downs to specific inputs and output of the ModelCenter model that is executable from SharePoint. The modeler also creates in SAS, dashboards, graphs and tables that are exposed by links and SAS and ModelCenter Web Parts into the SharePoint system. The user can then log into SharePoint, move slider bars and select drop down lists to configure the model parameters, click to run the model, and then view the output results that are based on their particular input choices. The main point is that GEMS eliminates the need for a programmer to connect and create the web artifacts necessary to implement and deliver an executable model or decision aid to customers.
Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems
2012-02-07
Part (CW-12-04) created at INL to work inside SharePoint. The GUI tool links slider bars and drop downs to specific inputs and output of the ModelCenter model that is executable from SharePoint. The modeler also creates in SAS, dashboards, graphs and tables that are exposed by links and SAS and ModelCenter Web Parts into the SharePoint system. The user can then log into SharePoint, move slider bars and select drop down lists to configure the model parameters, click to run the model, and then view the output results that are based on their particular input choices. The main point is that GEMS eliminates the need for a programmer to connect and create the web artifacts necessary to implement and deliver an executable model or decision aid to customers.« less
[Infection of cerebrospinal fluid shunt systems].
Jiménez-Mejías, Manuel E; García-Cabrera, Emilio
2008-04-01
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infection is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Shunt infection is produced mainly during surgery and by surgical wound infection. Staphylococcus spp. (> 50% methicillin-resistant) are the most common causative bacteria, although gram-negative bacilli (10%-25%) and Propionibacterium acnes are becoming increasingly implicated. Shunt malfunction syndrome and fever are the most frequent clinical manifestations, whereas signs of meningeal irritation are uncommon. Other clinical manifestations depend on the location of the distal catheter. CSF should be obtained by puncture of the shunt reservoir or the distal catheter and processed for biochemical analyses, cell count, Gram stain, and aerobic and anaerobic cultures (lengthy incubation). Because of biofilm formation and to avoid recurrences, the recommended treatment is intravenous antibiotics plus removal of all components of the infected shunt, followed by placement of an external drainage catheter and a new shunt. Prophylaxis is important and can include antimicrobial prophylaxis and/or antibiotic-impregnated catheters.
Fluid evolution in submarine magna-hydrothermal systems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, Deborah S.; Gillis, Kathryn M.; Thompson, Geoff
1993-11-01
Fluid inclusion in a suite of gabbro, quartz-breccia, and metabasalt samples recovered from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Kane Fracture Zone (MARK) area on the Mid-Atlanitc Ridge are the product of a complex hydrothermal history involving late stage magmatic fluids at temperatures greater than 700 C and penetration by modified seawater at 300-400 C. The evolution of volatiles during the early stage of solidification and cooling of magma bodies near the ridge-transform intersection is marked by exsolution of a CO2 fluid, entrapped within primary inclusions in fluorapatites. Attendant with progressive melt fractionation, residual evolved melts reached water saturation, and locally, supercritical CO2+H2O+NaCl+/-Fe brines (greater than 50 wt % NaCl) and cogenetic H2O+CO2-rich vapors (1-2 wt % NaCl) were exsolved as immiscible phases. Concomitant or subsequent fracturing, perhaps in response to volatile exsolution from the melts, allowed migration of these fluids along microfracture networks at greater than 700 C. Trondhjemitic-hosted inclusions, which homogenize by halite dissolution, indicate that the last fluids exsolved from the melts may have been 35-40 wt % brines. The transition from magmatic to seawater-dominated hydrothermal conditions in the gabbros is marked by initial penetration of lower salinity fluids (1-7 wt % NaCl) at temperatures in excess of 400 C, with the general cessation of fluid flow occurring at minimum temperatures of approximately = 250 C. The relative enrichment and depletion of NaCl with respect to seawater in these fluids may record supercitical phases separation of seawater or boiling of hydrothermal fluids enriched in NaCl. Migration along microfracture networks of Ch4-rich, 350 C fluids, may reflect deeper seated hydrothermal processes involving hydration of underlying mantle material in response to fluid flow along deeply penetrating fault systems. In shallow crustal rocks, circulation of seawater-derived fluids fluids occurred at temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.
2011-01-01
This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.
Towards a generalized computational fluid dynamics technique for all Mach numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walters, R. W.; Slack, D. C.; Godfrey, A. G.
1993-07-01
flux formulae. In addition, we improved the convergence rate of the implicit time integration schemes in GASP through the use of inner iteration strategies and the use of the GMRES (General Minimized Resisual) which belongs to the class of algorithms referred to as Krylov subspace iteration. Finally, we significantly improved the practical utility of GASP through the addition of mesh sequencing, a technique in which computations begin on a coarse grid and get interpolated onto successively finer grids. The fluid dynamic problems of interest to the propulsion community involve complex flow physics spanning different velocity regimes and possibly involving chemical reactions. This class of problems results in widely disparate time scales causing numerical stiffness. Even in the absence of chemical reactions, eigenvalue stiffness manifests itself at transonic and very low speed flows which can be quantified by the large condition number of the system and evidenced by slow convergence rates. This results in the need for thorough numerical analysis and subsequent implementation of sophisticated numerical techniques for these difficult yet practical problems. As a result of this work, we have been able to extend the range of applicability of compressible codes to very low speed inviscid flows (M = .001) and reacting flows.
Towards a generalized computational fluid dynamics technique for all Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walters, R. W.; Slack, D. C.; Godfrey, A. G.
1993-01-01
flux formulae. In addition, we improved the convergence rate of the implicit time integration schemes in GASP through the use of inner iteration strategies and the use of the GMRES (General Minimized Resisual) which belongs to the class of algorithms referred to as Krylov subspace iteration. Finally, we significantly improved the practical utility of GASP through the addition of mesh sequencing, a technique in which computations begin on a coarse grid and get interpolated onto successively finer grids. The fluid dynamic problems of interest to the propulsion community involve complex flow physics spanning different velocity regimes and possibly involving chemical reactions. This class of problems results in widely disparate time scales causing numerical stiffness. Even in the absence of chemical reactions, eigenvalue stiffness manifests itself at transonic and very low speed flows which can be quantified by the large condition number of the system and evidenced by slow convergence rates. This results in the need for thorough numerical analysis and subsequent implementation of sophisticated numerical techniques for these difficult yet practical problems. As a result of this work, we have been able to extend the range of applicability of compressible codes to very low speed inviscid flows (M = .001) and reacting flows.
Heat-Transfer Fluids for Solar-Energy Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, J. C.
1982-01-01
43-page report investigates noncorrosive heat-transport fluids compatible with both metallic and nonmetallic solar collectors and plumbing systems. Report includes tables and figures of X-ray inspections for corrosion and schematics of solar-heat transport systems and heat rejection systems.
Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.
Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L
2015-04-01
In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.
Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement System Equips Boat Owners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
While developing a measurement acquisition system to be used to retrofit aging aircraft with vehicle health monitoring capabilities, Langley Research Center developed an innovative wireless fluid-level measurement system. The NASA technology was of interest to Tidewater Sensors LLC, of Newport News, Virginia, because of its many advantages over conventional fuel management systems, including its ability to provide an accurate measurement of volume while a boat is experiencing any rocking motion due to waves or people moving about on the boat. These advantages led the company to license this novel fluid-level measurement system from NASA for marine applications.
A Generalized Multi-Phase Framework for Modeling Cavitation in Cryogenic Fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet
2003-01-01
A generalized multi-phase formulation for cavitation in fluids operating at temperatures elevated relative to their critical temperatures is presented. The thermal effects and the accompanying property variations due to phase change are modeled rigorously. Thermal equilibrium is assumed and fluid thermodynamic properties are specified along the saturation line using the NIST-12 databank. Fundamental changes in the physical characteristics of the cavity when thermal effects become pronounced are identified; the cavity becomes more porous, the interface less distinct, and has increased entrainment when temperature variations are present. Quantitative estimates of temperature and pressure depressions in both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen were computed and compared with experimental data of Hord for hydrofoils. Excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable. Liquid nitrogen cavities were consistently found to be in thermal equilibrium while liquid hydrogen cavities exhibited small, but distinct, non-equilibrium effects.
Exact relativistic expressions for wave refraction in a generally moving fluid.
Cavalleri, G; Tonni, E; Barbero, F
2013-04-01
The law for the refraction of a wave when the two fluids and the interface are moving with relativistic velocities is given in an exact form, at the same time correcting a first order error in a previous paper [Cavalleri and Tonni, Phys. Rev. E 57, 3478 (1998)]. The treatment is then extended to a generally moving fluid with variable refractive index, ready to be applied to the refraction of acoustic, electromagnetic, or magnetohydrodynamic waves in the atmosphere of rapidly rotating stars. In the particular case of a gas cloud receding because of the universe expansion, our result can be applied to predict observable micro- and mesolensings. The first order approximation of our exact result for the deviation due to refraction of the light coming from a further quasar has a relativistic dependence equal to the one obtained by Einsteins' linearized theory of gravitation. PMID:23679540
Generalized multiscale finite element method for non-Newtonian fluid flow in perforated domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, E. T.; Iliev, O.; Vasilyeva, M. V.
2016-10-01
In this work, we consider a non-Newtonian fluid flow in perforated domains. Fluid flow in perforated domains have a multiscale nature and solution techniques for such problems require high resolution. In particular, the discretization needs to honor the irregular boundaries of perforations. This gives rise to a fine-scale problems with many degrees of freedom which can be very expensive to solve. In this work, we develop a multiscale approach that attempt to solve such problems on a coarse grid by constructing multiscale basis functions. We follow Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) [1, 2] and develop a multiscale procedure where we identify multiscale basis functions in each coarse block using snapshot space and local spectral problems [3, 4]. We show that with a few basis functions in each coarse block, one can accurately approximate the solution, where each coarse block can contain many small inclusions.
Exact relativistic expressions for wave refraction in a generally moving fluid.
Cavalleri, G; Tonni, E; Barbero, F
2013-04-01
The law for the refraction of a wave when the two fluids and the interface are moving with relativistic velocities is given in an exact form, at the same time correcting a first order error in a previous paper [Cavalleri and Tonni, Phys. Rev. E 57, 3478 (1998)]. The treatment is then extended to a generally moving fluid with variable refractive index, ready to be applied to the refraction of acoustic, electromagnetic, or magnetohydrodynamic waves in the atmosphere of rapidly rotating stars. In the particular case of a gas cloud receding because of the universe expansion, our result can be applied to predict observable micro- and mesolensings. The first order approximation of our exact result for the deviation due to refraction of the light coming from a further quasar has a relativistic dependence equal to the one obtained by Einsteins' linearized theory of gravitation.
Development and testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milton, Martha E.; Tyler, Tony R.
1993-01-01
The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development program aimed at becoming the standard interface for satellite servicing for years to come. The AFIS will be capable of transferring propellants, fluids, gasses, power, and cryogens from a tanker to an orbiting satellite. The AFIS program currently under consideration is a joint venture between the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Moog, Inc. An engineering model has been built and is undergoing development testing to investigate the mechanism's abilities.
Development and testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milton, Martha E.; Tyler, Tony R.
1993-05-01
The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development program aimed at becoming the standard interface for satellite servicing for years to come. The AFIS will be capable of transferring propellants, fluids, gasses, power, and cryogens from a tanker to an orbiting satellite. The AFIS program currently under consideration is a joint venture between the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Moog, Inc. An engineering model has been built and is undergoing development testing to investigate the mechanism's abilities.
Systems and methods for separating particles and/or substances from a sample fluid
Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dougherty, George M.; Dzenitis, John M.; Miles, Robin R.; Clague, David S.
2016-11-01
Systems and methods for separating particles and/or toxins from a sample fluid. A method according to one embodiment comprises simultaneously passing a sample fluid and a buffer fluid through a chamber such that a fluidic interface is formed between the sample fluid and the buffer fluid as the fluids pass through the chamber, the sample fluid having particles of interest therein; applying a force to the fluids for urging the particles of interest to pass through the interface into the buffer fluid; and substantially separating the buffer fluid from the sample fluid.
Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems
Koseff, J.R.
1990-04-03
The major accomplishments of our initial research period (August 1, 1987, to March 1, 1990) are as follows; we completed construction of the experimental facility. Originally, it had been our intent to modify an existing facility in our laboratory. When this became impractical we constructed a new stand-alone facility. Modified an existing three-dimensional numerical code developed in our laboratory, SEAFLOS1, by incorporating a salinity transport equation. Developed experimental and analytical techniques, and performed both physical and numerical experiments for a wide range of initial and boundary conditions. Focused our overall research effort to answer the following four questions pertaining to the formation of convective intrusions due to lateral temperature gradients established by sidewall heating. (1) What is the internal structure of the convective intrusions as a function of the initial stratification and sidewall heating rates (2) What is the correct scaling for the initial vertical dimension of the intrusions (3) How does the merging process vary as a function of initial stratification and sidewall heating rate (4) Is the sidewall heating critical for continued propagation of the intrusions, or is it merely a trigger which releases the internal instability in the fluid
Generalized Predictive and Neural Generalized Predictive Control of Aerospace Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelkar, Atul G.
2000-01-01
The research work presented in this thesis addresses the problem of robust control of uncertain linear and nonlinear systems using Neural network-based Generalized Predictive Control (NGPC) methodology. A brief overview of predictive control and its comparison with Linear Quadratic (LQ) control is given to emphasize advantages and drawbacks of predictive control methods. It is shown that the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) methodology overcomes the drawbacks associated with traditional LQ control as well as conventional predictive control methods. It is shown that in spite of the model-based nature of GPC it has good robustness properties being special case of receding horizon control. The conditions for choosing tuning parameters for GPC to ensure closed-loop stability are derived. A neural network-based GPC architecture is proposed for the control of linear and nonlinear uncertain systems. A methodology to account for parametric uncertainty in the system is proposed using on-line training capability of multi-layer neural network. Several simulation examples and results from real-time experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Waves in general relativistic two-fluid plasma around a Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, M. Atiqur
2012-10-01
Waves propagating in the relativistic electron-positron or ions plasma are investigated in a frame of two-fluid equations using the 3+1 formalism of general relativity developed by Thorne, Price and Macdonald (TPM). The plasma is assumed to be freefalling in the radial direction toward the event horizon due to the strong gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole. The local dispersion relations for transverse and longitudinal waves have been derived, in analogy with the special relativistic formulation as explained in an earlier paper, to take account of relativistic effects due to the event horizon using WKB approximation.
ISS-CREAM Thermal and Fluid System Design and Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorpe, Rosemary S.
2015-01-01
Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. The ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station) payload is being developed by an international team and will provide significant cosmic ray characterization over a long time frame. Cold fluid provided by the ISS Exposed Facility (EF) is the primary means of cooling for 5 science instruments and over 7 electronics boxes. Thermal fluid integrated design and analysis was performed for CREAM using a Thermal Desktop model. This presentation will provide some specific design and modeling examples from the fluid cooling system, complex SCD (Silicon Charge Detector) and calorimeter hardware, and integrated payload and ISS level modeling. Features of Thermal Desktop such as CAD simplification, meshing of complex hardware, External References (Xrefs), and FloCAD modeling will be discussed.
21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866....5860 Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A total spinal fluid... the total protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Measurement of spinal fluid proteins may aid in...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeso, M. J.; Solana, J. R.
The Carnahan-Starling method for obtaining the equation of state of the hard-sphere fluid is generalized and used to derive an equation of state for hard Gaussian overlap fluids. The results are in excellent agreement with existing simulation data.
Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.
Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.
2002-04-23
An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.
Determination of gas volume trapped in a closed fluid system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, W. F.; Jolley, J. E.
1971-01-01
Technique involves extracting known volume of fluid and measuring system before and after extraction, volume of entrapped gas is then computed. Formula derived from ideal gas laws is basis of this method. Technique is applicable to thermodynamic cycles and hydraulic systems.
Generalized effective operator formalism for decaying systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paraschiv, Marius; Wölk, Sabine; Mannel, Thomas; Gühne, Otfried
2016-10-01
Systems of neutral kaons can be used to observe entanglement and the violation of Bell inequalities. The decay of these particles poses some problems, however, and recently an effective formalism for treating such systems has been derived. We generalize this formalism and make it applicable to other quantum systems that can be made to behave in a similar manner. As examples, we discuss two possible implementations of the generalized formalism using trapped ions such as 171Yb or 172Yb, which may be used to simulate kaonic behavior in a quantum optical system.
Lagrangian reduction of generalized nonholonomic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cendra, Hernán; Ferraro, Sebastián; Grillo, Sergio
2008-10-01
In this paper we study the Lagrangian reduction of generalized nonholonomic systems (GNHS) with symmetry. We restrict ourselves to those GNHS, defined on a configuration space Q, with kinematic constraints given by a general submanifold CK⊂TQ, and variational constraints given by a distribution CV on Q. We develop a reduction procedure that is similar to that for nonholonomic systems satisfying d'Alembert's principle, i.e. with CK a distribution and CV=CK. Special care is taken in identifying the geometrical structures and mappings involved. We illustrate the general theory with an example.
Fluid flow and chemical reaction kinetics in metamorphic systems
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M. )
1993-05-01
The treatment and effects of chemical reaction kinetics during metamorphism are developed along with the incorporation of fluid flow, diffusion, and thermal evolution. The interplay of fluid flow and surface reaction rates, the distinction between steady state and equilibrium, and the possible overstepping of metamorphic reactions are discussed using a simple analytic model. This model serves as an introduction to the second part of the paper, which develops a reaction model that solves the coupled temperature-fluid flow-chemical composition differential equations relevant to metamorphic processes. Consideration of stable isotopic evidence requires that such a kinetic model be considered for the chemical evolution of a metamorphic aureole. A general numerical scheme is discussed to handle the solution of the model. The results of this kinetic model allow us to reach several important conclusions regarding the factors controlling the chemical evolution of mineral assemblages during a metamorphic event. 41 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.
Space Station Freedom external fluid utilities system design and integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhard, Dawn M.
1993-02-01
This paper presents the current Space Station Freedom External Fluid System Design, which is an integrated design of numerous criteria, such as safety, reliability, availability, manufacturability, commonality and compatibility with Extravehicular Activity (EVA). McDonnell Douglas engineers are working to meet a Critical Design Review (CDR) in 1993 and to begin production of fluid system hardware for first launch in 1996, with successive launches continuing through the decade. The fluid system design hardware, such as the 316L Stainless Steel tubing, Inconel, flexible metal hoses, tee fittings, clamping systems and quick disconnect couplings will be presented, with special emphasis on how they were selected in the early phases of the design process. Fabrication and assembly of the Space Station Freedom fluid utility system, using the Numerically Controlled (NC) tube bender and Orbital Welder will be discussed. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) on-orbit assembly and maintenance techniques of this system will also be briefly explained. Recommendations which have contributed to the success of this design effort include: Consistent communications between groups. a centralized computer-aided drafting/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system with Electronic Development Fixture (EDF) capability, and technical review boards to control and minimize changes to the design baseline.
LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotae, Vlad; Creanga, Ioan
2005-03-01
Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 μl/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 μl/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.
Rotation of a rod system containing inertial fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, A. D.
2012-11-01
This paper considers a rod system for which it is possible to correctly formulate and solve the problem of three-dimensional motion in the physical space of an elastic pipeline area containing inertial incompressible fluid flow. The precession of the axis of an elastic pipeline along which inertial incompressible fluid flows is described, a physical phenomenon which has not been previously studied. With the use of rigid body dynamics, it was theoretically established that a three-dimensional dynamic process is possible in an open (exchanging mass with the environment) elastic-inertial rod system.
Generalized fictitious methods for fluid-structure interactions: Analysis and simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yue; Baek, Hyoungsu; Karniadakis, George Em
2013-07-01
We present a new fictitious pressure method for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in incompressible flow by generalizing the fictitious mass and damping methods we published previously in [1]. The fictitious pressure method involves modification of the fluid solver whereas the fictitious mass and damping methods modify the structure solver. We analyze all fictitious methods for simplified problems and obtain explicit expressions for the optimal reduction factor (convergence rate index) at the FSI interface [2]. This analysis also demonstrates an apparent similarity of fictitious methods to the FSI approach based on Robin boundary conditions, which have been found to be very effective in FSI problems. We implement all methods, including the semi-implicit Robin based coupling method, in the context of spectral element discretization, which is more sensitive to temporal instabilities than low-order methods. However, the methods we present here are simple and general, and hence applicable to FSI based on any other spatial discretization. In numerical tests, we verify the selection of optimal values for the fictitious parameters for simplified problems and for vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) even at zero mass ratio ("for-ever-resonance"). We also develop an empirical a posteriori analysis for complex geometries and apply it to 3D patient-specific flexible brain arteries with aneurysms for very large deformations. We demonstrate that the fictitious pressure method enhances stability and convergence, and is comparable or better in most cases to the Robin approach or the other fictitious methods.
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. (a) All fluid power and control... with § 58.30-1(a)(14). (2) The hydraulic fluid used in the system must comply with § 58.30-10. (3)...
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. (a) All fluid power and control... with § 58.30-1(a)(14). (2) The hydraulic fluid used in the system must comply with § 58.30-10. (3)...
Atabay, Keramettin
1979-01-01
The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.
General Training System; GENTRAS. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. Federal Systems Div.
GENTRAS (General Training System) is a computer-based training model for the Marine Corps which makes use of a systems approach. The model defines the skill levels applicable for career growth and classifies and defines the training needed for this growth. It also provides a training cost subsystem which will provide a more efficient means of…
GPLAN: A Generalized Data Base Planning System.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nunamaker, J. F., Jr.; And Others
It is recognized that there is a major gap between the promises of large data bases and optimization and simulation models and their actual ability to solve real world problems. This document describes a Generalized Data Base Planning System (GPLAN), currently being developed at Purdue University, that is proposed as a system to bridge this gap. A…
On Generalized Non-holonomic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balseiro, P.; Solomin, J. E.
2008-04-01
Generalized non-holonomic mechanical systems are analyzed from a geometric point of view. The existence and uniqueness of solutions, D’Alembert principle, Gauss principle of minimal constraint, the non-holonomic momentum and Gibbs-Appell equations for such systems are studied in an invariant Lagrangian framework.
Building a generalized distributed system model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukkamala, Ravi
1991-01-01
A number of topics related to building a generalized distributed system model are discussed. The effects of distributed database modeling on evaluation of transaction rollbacks, the measurement of effects of distributed database models on transaction availability measures, and a performance analysis of static locking in replicated distributed database systems are covered.
Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems
Sloan, Jr., Earle D.
1995-01-01
Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.
Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems
Sloan, E.D. Jr.
1995-07-11
Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone. Additives can also contain multiple cyclic chemical groupings having different size rings. One such additive is sold under the name Gaffix VC-713.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok K.; LeClair, Andre C.; Hedayat, Ali
2016-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model of pressurization of a cryogenic propellant tank for the Integrated Vehicle Fluid (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been running tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to develop an integrated model of the tank and the pressurization system. This paper presents an iterative algorithm for converging the interface boundary conditions between different component models of a large system model. The model results have been compared with test data.
Control system for cheng dual-fluid cycle engine system
Cheng, D.Y.
1987-07-21
A dual-fluid heat engine is described which is operated to produce co-generated process steam having: a chamber; compressor means for introducing a first gaseous working fluid comprising air into the chamber, the compressor means having a predetermined pressure ratio (CPR); means for introducing a second liquid-vapor working fluid comprising water in the form of a vapor within the chamber at a defined water/air working fluid ratio (XMIX); means for heating the water vapor and air in the chamber at a defined specific heat input rate (SHIR); turbine means responsive to the mixture of the first and second working fluids for converting the energy associated with the mixture to mechanical energy, the temperature of the mixture entering the turbine means defining the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and having a design maximum turbine inlet temperature (TITmax); counterflow heat exchanger means for transferring residual thermal energy from the exhausted mixture of first and second working fluids to the incoming working fluid water to thereby preheat the same to water vapor prior to its introduction within the chamber; means for diverting water vapor from the chamber, if desired, for co-generated process steam; and wherein the improvement comprises: means for operating the engine under partial load conditions such that when substantially no co-generated process steam is required. The engine control path follows a locus of peak efficiency points resulting in declining TIT as the load decreases, and such that XMIX and SHIR are selected so that for a given value of TIT, XMIX is at or near XMIX peak, where XMIX peak occurs when conditions are met simultaneously.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullah, Saif; Ullah, Arshad; Iqbal, Mohsan
2015-12-01
This investigation deals with analytical solutions of thin film flow for withdrawal and drainage of an incompressible generalized Oldroyd-B fluid on a vertical cylinder under the influence of non-isothermal effects. The derived solutions are presented under series form for velocity profile, temperature distribution, volume flux, average film velocity and shear stress in both cases. These solutions satisfy both the governing equations and all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The corresponding exact solutions for Newtonian fluid are also obtained as a special case of our derived solutions. Moreover, solutions for generalized Maxwell fluid and Power Law model, performing the same motion, can be obtained as limiting cases of our general solutions. The influence of pertinent parameters on the fluid motion is also underlined by graphical illustration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, G. O.; Fowlis, W. W.; Miller, T. L.
1984-01-01
Numerical methods are used to design a spherical baroclinic flow model experiment of the large scale atmosphere flow for Spacelab. The dielectric simulation of radial gravity is only dominant in a low gravity environment. Computer codes are developed to study the processes at work in crystal growing systems which are also candidates for space flight. Crystalline materials rarely achieve their potential properties because of imperfections and component concentration variations. Thermosolutal convection in the liquid melt can be the cause of these imperfections. Such convection is suppressed in a low gravity environment. Two and three dimensional finite difference codes are being used for this work. Nonuniform meshes and implicit iterative methods are used. The iterative method for steady solutions is based on time stepping but has the options of different time steps for velocity and temperature and of a time step varying smoothly with position according to specified powers of the mesh spacings. This allows for more rapid convergence. The code being developed for the crystal growth studies allows for growth of the crystal as the solid-liquid interface. The moving interface is followed using finite differences; shape variations are permitted. For convenience in applying finite differences in the solid and liquid, a time dependent coordinate transformation is used to make this interface a coordinate surface.
Automatic TLI recognition system, general description
Lassahn, G.D.
1997-02-01
This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.
14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. 23.1097 Section 23.1097 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... at the rate specified in § 23.1095 for a time equal to three percent of the maximum endurance of...
System proportions fluid-flow in response to demand signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
Control system provides proportioned fluid flow rates in response to demand signals. It compares a digital signal, representing a flow demand, with a reference signal to yield a control voltage to one or more solenoid valves connected to orifices of a predetermined size.
Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System Fluid Dynamics Investigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Tissue Culture Medium (TCM) is the bioreactor vessel in which cell cultures are grown. With its two syringe ports, it is much like a bag used to administer intravenous fluid, except it allows gas exchange needed for life. The TCM contains cell culture medium, and when frozen cells are flown to the ISS, they are thawed and introduced to the TCM through the syringe ports. In the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI) experiment, several mixing procedures are being assessed to determine which method achieves the most uniform mixing of growing cells and culture medium.
Retrieval of Green's functions of elastic waves from thermal fluctuations of fluid-solid systems.
Godin, Oleg A
2009-04-01
Fluctuation-dissipation and flow reversal theorems are used to study long-range correlation of thermal phonons in a stationary heterogeneous mechanical system comprised of arbitrary inhomogeneous fluid flow and anisotropic solid. At thermal equilibrium, with an appropriate choice of physical observables to characterize thermal fluctuations within the fluid and within the solid, the general integral expression for the two-point correlation function of the fluctuations reduces to a linear combination of deterministic Green's functions, which describe wave propagation in opposite directions between the two points. It is demonstrated that the cross-correlation of thermal noise contains as much information about the environment as can be obtained in active reciprocal transmission experiments with transceivers placed at the two points. These findings suggest a possible application of ambient noise cross-correlation to passive acoustic characterization of inhomogeneous flows in fluid-solid systems in laboratory and geophysical settings.
Internal fluid mechanics research on supercomputers for aerospace propulsion systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Brent A.; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Szuch, John R.
1988-01-01
The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center is combining the key elements of computational fluid dynamics, aerothermodynamic experiments, and advanced computational technology to bring internal computational fluid mechanics (ICFM) to a state of practical application for aerospace propulsion systems. The strategies used to achieve this goal are to: (1) pursue an understanding of flow physics, surface heat transfer, and combustion via analysis and fundamental experiments, (2) incorporate improved understanding of these phenomena into verified 3-D CFD codes, and (3) utilize state-of-the-art computational technology to enhance experimental and CFD research. Presented is an overview of the ICFM program in high-speed propulsion, including work in inlets, turbomachinery, and chemical reacting flows. Ongoing efforts to integrate new computer technologies, such as parallel computing and artificial intelligence, into high-speed aeropropulsion research are described.
Code System for Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis.
2001-05-30
Version 00 PELE-IC is a two-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics program for the solution of incompressible flow coupled to flexible structures. The code was developed to calculate fluid-structure interactions and bubble dynamics of a pressure-suppression system following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by calculation of benchmark problems and air and steam blowdown experiments. The code is written for both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is generalmore » enough to handle a wide variety of structural shapes. The concepts of void fractions and interface orientation are used to track the movement of free surfaces, allowing great versatility in following fluid-gas interfaces both for bubble definition and water surface motion without the use of marker particles.« less
A generalized hydrodynamic model for acoustic mode stability in viscoelastic plasma fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borah, B.; Haloi, A.; Karmakar, P. K.
2016-05-01
In this paper a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model to investigate acoustic-mode excitation and stability in simplified strongly coupled bi-component plasma is proposed. The goal is centered in seeing the viscoelasticity-influences on the instability properties. The dispersive and nondispersive features are methodologically explored followed by numerical illustrations. It is seen that, unlike usual plasma acoustic mode, here the mode stability is drastically modified due to the considered viscoelastic effects contributed from both the electronic and ionic fluids. For example, it is found that there exists an excitation threshold value on angular wavenumber, K ≈3 in the K-space on the Debye scale, beyond which only dispersive characteristic features prevail. Further, it is demonstrated that the viscoelastic relaxation time plays a stabilizing influential role on the wave dynamics. In contrast, it is just opposite for the effective viscoelastic relaxation effect. Consistency with the usual viscoelasticity-free situations, with and without plasma approximation taken into account, is also established and explained. It is identified and conjectured that the plasma fluid viscoelasticity acts as unavoidable dispersive agency in attributing several new characteristics to acoustic wave excitation and propagation. The analysis is also exploited to derive a quantitative glimpse on the various basic properties and dimensionless numbers of the viscoelastic plasma. Finally, extended implications of our results tentative to different cosmic, space and astrophysical situations, amid the entailed facts and faults, are highlighted together with indicated future directions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makinde, O. D.
2014-12-01
In this paper, the steady generalized axial Couette flow of Ostwald-de Waele power law reactive fluids between concentric cylindrical pipes is investigated. It is assumed that the outer cylinder is stationary and exchanges heat with the ambient surrounding following Newton's law of cooling, while the inner cylinder with isothermal surface is set in motion in the axial direction. The model nonlinear differential equations for the momentum and energy balance are obtained and tackled numerically using the shooting method coupled with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique. The effects of various embedded thermophysical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields including skin friction, Nusselt number and thermal criticality conditions are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
Numerical study of the general-relativistic gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, William (Bill) H., IV
1999-10-01
In this dissertation I study the critical behavior of a perfect fluid collapsing under its own gravity, with a linear equation of state, by solving the full set of nonlinear partial differential equations resulting from Einstein's theory of general relativity. To solve these equations accurately, I have developed a highly elaborate ``numerical laboratory'' specifically designed to handle the extreme behavior of this problem. The accuracy of my laboratory was examined extensively with two important test models. The results of the current work extend the previous works of M. Choptuik, C. R. Evans and J. S. Coleman, D. Maison, and many others. The first half of my results are derived from studying the precisely-critical behavior of the fluid. Maison's semi- analytical work had suggested that the critical solution for such a collapsing fluid might exhibit continuous self-similarity (CSS) for values of k less than approximately 0.89 [where the equation of state is pressure equals k times energy density]. Above this value, Maison conjectured that CSS solutions do not exist. However, owing to the assumptions of his approach, his results only suggest what may occur in full collapse simulations. In the current work, I have solved the full set of Einstein's equations-which had previously only been done for k = 1/3-to demonstrate the existence of CSS critical solutions for k values ranging from 0.1 to 0.999. My results thus contradict the above conjecture by Maison. The second half of my results are derived from studying the slightly super-critical behavior of a collapsing perfect fluid. Maison extended Evans and Coleman's work by using a semi-analytical perturbation approach to calculate possible critical exponents for k values less than 0.89. In the current work, I solved the full set of Einstein's equations to demonstrate the existence of mass-scaling laws for k values ranging from 0.1 to 0.999. The values of the critical exponents that I determined are in complete
Sustainable fouling management for spacecraft fluid handling systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Evan Alexander Beirne
Current technologies for microgravity fluid management utilize centripetal acceleration or capillary action to separate liquids from gases without gravity buoyancy. Centripetal acceleration hardware is prone to failure from fouling, while capillary technologies have only been utilized in favorable wetting environments, wherein the contact angle of the liquid, Qadv, a key design parameter, is reliably low. In this work, the impact of wastewater fouling on Qadv, is characterized, and the results applied to the development of a capillary static phase separator. Mean wastewater Qadv, on clean surfaces are between ≈78° and ≈89° on hydrophilic surfaces, and up to over ≈105° on hydrophobic surfaces. Small crystalline growth on the order of 10microm can lower advancing contact angles Qadv, by approximately 30°, while biofilm growth can lower them by approximately 15o. Vacuum drying of fouled surfaces increased Qadv, by about 8°, and defects greater in height than 5% of the capillary length increased Qadv, by approximately 30°. Interestingly, the promotion of wastewater fouling may even improve the performance of capillary dependent fluid management systems, and designs attempting to exploit wastewater wetting must account for highly variable wetting conditions. Reduced gravity flight tests demonstrated a static phase separator that achieved nearly 100% separation of gas from fluids with widely varying Qadv. The system uses centrifugal force to coalesce droplets via a circular path; collects bulk fluid via capillary geometries (wetting) or air drag (non-wetting); and contains bulk fluid by capillary force; while minimizing liquid carryover into the air stream by pinning edges (wetting) or tortuous path (non-wetting). Instead of attempting to prevent or reduce wastewater fouling, sustainable fluid management systems can be designed to accommodate fouling. For example, a lunar outpost water recovery system could be encouraged to foul regolith media and form
Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems
Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong
2006-09-15
In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.
A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Z. C.; Wang, J.
2012-10-01
This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment.
Generalized Training Devices for Avionic Systems Maintenance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, Edward L.
A research study was conducted to determine the feasibility and desirability of developing generalized training equipment for use in avionic systems maintenance training. The study consisted of a group of survey and analytic tasks to provide useful guidance to serve the needs of the Naval Aviation community in future years. The study had four…
Invariant of dynamical systems: A generalized entropy
Meson, A.M.; Vericat, F. |
1996-09-01
In this work the concept of entropy of a dynamical system, as given by Kolmogorov, is generalized in the sense of Tsallis. It is shown that this entropy is an isomorphism invariant, being complete for Bernoulli schemes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Generalization of the Einstein-Maxwell system
Nishioka, M.
1986-03-01
By making use of the Lie-isotopic generalization of electromagnetism, we derive a Lagrangian density for the system of electromagnetic, gravitational, and scalar fields. The scalar field can be automatically introduced through the Lie-isotopic element. A comparison of the Kaluza-Klein theory with ours is made.
Recent Updates to the CFD General Notation System (CGNS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Wedan, Bruce; Hauser, Thomas; Poinot, Marc
2012-01-01
The CFD General Notation System (CGNS) - a general, portable, and extensible standard for the storage and retrieval of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis data has been in existence for more than a decade (Version 1.0 was released in May 1998). Both structured and unstructured CFD data are covered by the standard, and CGNS can be easily extended to cover any sort of data imaginable, while retaining backward compatibility with existing CGNS data files and software. Although originally designed for CFD, it is readily extendable to any field of computational analysis. In early 2011, CGNS Version 3.1 was released, which added significant capabilities. This paper describes these recent enhancements and highlights the continued usefulness of the CGNS methodology.
State-of-the-art review of computational fluid dynamics modeling for fluid-solids systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyczkowski, R. W.; Bouillard, J. X.; Ding, J.; Chang, S. L.; Burge, S. W.
1994-05-01
As the result of 15 years of research (50 staff years of effort) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), through its involvement in fluidized-bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamics, and a variety of environmental programs, has produced extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and models to predict the multiphase hydrodynamic and reactive behavior of fluid-solids motions and interactions in complex fluidized-bed reactors (FBR's) and slurry systems. This has resulted in the FLUFIX, IRF, and SLUFIX computer programs. These programs are based on fluid-solids hydrodynamic models and can predict information important to the designer of atmospheric or pressurized bubbling and circulating FBR, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and slurry units to guarantee optimum efficiency with minimum release of pollutants into the environment. This latter issue will become of paramount importance with the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1995. Solids motion is also the key to understanding erosion processes. Erosion rates in FBR's and pneumatic and slurry components are computed by ANL's EROSION code to predict the potential metal wastage of FBR walls, intervals, feed distributors, and cyclones. Only the FLUFIX and IRF codes will be reviewed in the paper together with highlights of the validations because of length limitations. It is envisioned that one day, these codes with user-friendly pre- and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale, and biomass as energy sources; to retain energy security; and to remediate waste and ecological problems.
State-of-the-art review of computational fluid dynamics modeling for fluid-solids systems
Lyczkowski, R.W.; Bouillard, J.X.; Ding, J.; Chang, S.L.; Burge, S.W.
1994-05-12
As the result of 15 years of research (50 staff years of effort) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), through its involvement in fluidized-bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamics, and a variety of environmental programs, has produced extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and models to predict the multiphase hydrodynamic and reactive behavior of fluid-solids motions and interactions in complex fluidized-bed reactors (FBRS) and slurry systems. This has resulted in the FLUFIX, IRF, and SLUFIX computer programs. These programs are based on fluid-solids hydrodynamic models and can predict information important to the designer of atmospheric or pressurized bubbling and circulating FBR, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and slurry units to guarantee optimum efficiency with minimum release of pollutants into the environment. This latter issue will become of paramount importance with the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1995. Solids motion is also the key to understanding erosion processes. Erosion rates in FBRs and pneumatic and slurry components are computed by ANL`s EROSION code to predict the potential metal wastage of FBR walls, intervals, feed distributors, and cyclones. Only the FLUFIX and IRF codes will be reviewed in the paper together with highlights of the validations because of length limitations. It is envisioned that one day, these codes with user-friendly pre and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale and biomass as energy sources, to retain energy security, and to remediate waste and ecological problems.
An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.
1995-01-01
Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.
Liu, Chang; Dodin, Ilya Y.
2015-08-15
The nonlinear frequency shift is derived in a transparent asymptotic form for intense Langmuir waves in general collisionless plasma. The formula describes both fluid and kinetic effects simultaneously. The fluid nonlinearity is expressed, for the first time, through the plasma dielectric function, and the kinetic nonlinearity accounts for both smooth distributions and trapped-particle beams. Various known limiting scalings are reproduced as special cases. The calculation avoids differential equations and can be extended straightforwardly to other nonlinear plasma waves.
Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A generalized interactive information system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C. A.; Hipkins, K. R.
1975-01-01
An interactive information system is described. It is a general purpose, free format system which offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. Examples of the system's operation, commentary on the examples, and a complete listing of the system program are included.
14 CFR 23.1099 - Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system detail... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. Each carburetor deicing fluid system must meet the applicable requirements for the design of a fuel system, except as...
14 CFR 23.1099 - Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system detail... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. Each carburetor deicing fluid system must meet the applicable requirements for the design of a fuel system, except as...
14 CFR 23.1099 - Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system detail... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. Each carburetor deicing fluid system must meet the applicable requirements for the design of a fuel system, except as...
14 CFR 23.1099 - Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system detail... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. Each carburetor deicing fluid system must meet the applicable requirements for the design of a fuel system, except as...
14 CFR 23.1099 - Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system detail... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design. Each carburetor deicing fluid system must meet the applicable requirements for the design of a fuel system, except as...
Boron isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids from submarine hydrothermal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaoka, K.; Hong, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Gamo, T.; Kawahata, H.
2013-12-01
Boron is highly mobile in submarine hydrothermal systems and useful to trace the process of water-rock reaction. In this study, we measured the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids collected from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems in the western Pacific. In sediment-starved hydrothermal systems (Manus Basin, Suiyo Seamount, and Mariana Trough), the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids are dependent on type of host rock. The end member fluids from MORB-like basalt-hosted Vienna Woods in the Manus Basin showed low boron content and high δ11B value (0.53 mM, 29.8‰), while dacite-hosted PACMANUS and the Suiyo Seamount showed high boron contents and low δ11B values (1.45 and 1.52 mM, 13.6 and 18.5‰, respectively). The Alice Springs and Forecast Vent field in the Mariana Trough showed values intermediate between them (0.72 and 0.63 mM, 19.9 and 24.0‰, respectively), reflecting reaction of seawater and basalt influenced by slab material. In phase separated hydrothermal systems (North Fiji Basin), boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids (0.44-0.56 mM, 34.5-35.9‰) were similar to those in the Vienna Woods. Considering little fractionation of boron and boron isotope during phase separation demonstrated by the previous experimental studies, it is suggested that the host rock in the North Fiji Basin is MORB-like basalt. In sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (Okinawa Trough), the reaction with boron-enriched sediment following seawater-rock reaction resulted in significantly high boron contents and low δ11B values of vent fluids (4.4-5.9 mM, 1.5-2.6‰). The water-sediment ratio was estimated to be ~2. In spite of the different geological settings, the end member fuids from all vent fields are enriched in B relative to seawater (0.41 mM, 39.6‰) and the δ11B values are inversely propotional to the boron concentrations. It suggests that boron isotopic composition of vent fluid predominantly depends on the amount of
McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.
2016-09-02
Here, multiphase flow in porous medium systems is typically modeled using continuum mechanical representations at the macroscale in terms of averaged quantities. These models require closure relations to produce solvable forms. One of these required closure relations is an expression relating fluid pressures, fluid saturations, and, in some cases, the interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. An unresolved question is whether the inclusion of these additional morphological and topological measures can lead to a non-hysteretic closure relation compared to the hysteretic forms that are used in traditional models, which typically do not include interfacial areas, ormore » the Euler characteristic. We develop a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulation approach to investigate the equilibrium states of a two-fluid-phase porous medium system, which include disconnected now- wetting phase features. The proposed approach is applied to a synthetic medium consisting of 1,964 spheres arranged in a random, non-overlapping, close-packed manner, yielding a total of 42,908 different equilibrium points. This information is evaluated using a generalized additive modeling approach to determine if a unique function from this family exists, which can explain the data. The variance of various model estimates is computed, and we conclude that, except for the limiting behavior close to a single fluid regime, capillary pressure can be expressed as a deterministic and non-hysteretic function of fluid saturation, interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. This work is unique in the methods employed, the size of the data set, the resolution in space and time, the true equilibrium nature of the data, the parameterizations investigated, and the broad set of functions examined. The conclusion of essentially non-hysteretic behavior provides support for an evolving class of two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems models.« less
Erosion Rates for Components in Contact With Fluid-Solids Systems
1993-12-13
EROSION was developed for two-dimensional general analysis of erosion in fluid-solids systems and specific analysis of erosion in bubbling fluidized-bed combustors. The Finnie impaction, Nielson and Gilchrist combined ductile and brittle, and several forms of the monolayer energy dissipation erosion model are incorporated in the software, which calculates lifetimes of heat exchanger tubes, water-wall surfaces, internals, distributors, and baffles.
Modeling dynamically coupled fluid-duct systems with finite line elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saxon, J. B.
1994-02-01
Structural analysis of piping systems, especially dynamic analysis, typically considers the duct structure and the contained fluid column separately. Coupling of these two systems, however, forms a new dynamic system with characteristics not necessarily described by the superposition of the two component system's characteristics. Methods for modeling the two coupled components simultaneously using finite line elements are presented. Techniques for general duct intersections, area or direction changes, long radius bends, hydraulic losses, and hydraulic impedances are discussed. An example problem and results involving time transients are presented. Additionally, a program to enhance post-processing of line element models is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Li-Hua; Hou, Peng-Fei; Chen, Jia-Yun
2016-08-01
The 2D steady-state solutions regarding the expressions of stress and strain for fluid-saturated, orthotropic, poroelastic plane are derived in this paper. For this object, the general solutions of the corresponding governing equation are first obtained and expressed in harmonic functions. Based on these compact general solutions, the suitable harmonic functions with undetermined constants for line fluid source in the interior of infinite poroelastic body and a line fluid source on the surface of semi-infinite poroelastic body are presented, respectively. The fundamental solutions can be obtained by substituting these functions into the general solution, and the undetermined constants can be obtained by the continuous conditions, equilibrium conditions and boundary conditions.
PRISM: a general purpose programming system
Rogers, C.R.; O'Hara, S.A.
1983-03-01
This paper describes the development, uses, and features of the general purpose programming system PRISM, which is the foundation for future program development by the Computer Programming Branch and is available to all personnel within the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL). PRISM was designed to meet the need for an efficient and reliable programming tool that could be used like a high-order programming language but still provide the operating system interface and hardware controls of assembly language. It has special features that make it an especially powerful tool for new software development. These features were derived from an extensive analysis of coding sequences in existing library programs, interactions between library programs, and the identification of common programming procedures. PRISM was specifically designed for the development of general purpose programs by the Technical Services Division of AFHRL within the Computer Programming Branch; however, it is also an effective and efficient tool for applications programmers.
Analysis of Direct Samples of Early Solar System Aqueous Fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zolensky, Michael E.; Bodnar, R J.; Fedele, L.; Yurimoto,H.; Itoh, S.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.
2012-01-01
Over the past three decades we have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. Some carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have been altered by interactions with liquid water within the first 10 million years after formation of their parent asteroids. Millimeter to centimeter-sized aggregates of purple halite containing aqueous fluid inclusions were found in the matrix of two freshly-fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans (1998, hereafter simply "Monahans") (H5) and Zag (H3-6) (Zolensky et al., 1999; Whitby et al., 2000; Bogard et al., 2001) In order to understand origin and evolution of the aqueous fluids inside these inclusions we much measure the actual fluid composition, and also learn the O and H isotopic composition of the water. It has taken a decade for laboratory analytical techniques to catch up to these particular nanomole-sized aqueous samples. We have recently been successful in (1) measuring the isotopic composition of H and O in the water in a few fluid inclusions from the Zag and Monahans halite, (2) mineralogical characterization of the solid mineral phases associated with the aqueous fluids within the halite, and (3) the first minor element analyses of the fluid itself. A Cameca ims-1270 equipped with a cryo-sample-stage of Hokkaido University was specially prepared for the O and H isotopic measurements. The cryo-sample-stage (Techno. I. S. Corp.) was cooled down to c.a. -190 C using liquid nitrogen at which the aqueous fluid in inclusions was frozen. We excavated the salt crystal surfaces to expose the frozen fluids using a 15 keV Cs+ beam and measured negative secondary ions. The secondary ions from deep craters of approximately 10 m in depth emitted stably but the intensities changed gradually during measurement cycles because of shifting states of charge compensation, resulting in rather poor reproducibility of multiple measurements of standard fluid
Modular microfluidic systems using reversibly attached PDMS fluid control modules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Sip, Christopher G.; Folch, Albert; Dufva, Martin
2013-05-01
The use of soft lithography-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) valve systems is the dominating approach for high-density microscale fluidic control. Integrated systems enable complex flow control and large-scale integration, but lack modularity. In contrast, modular systems are attractive alternatives to integration because they can be tailored for different applications piecewise and without redesigning every element of the system. We present a method for reversibly coupling hard materials to soft lithography defined systems through self-aligning O-ring features thereby enabling easy interfacing of complex-valve-based systems with simpler detachable units. Using this scheme, we demonstrate the seamless interfacing of a PDMS-based fluid control module with hard polymer chips. In our system, 32 self-aligning O-ring features protruding from the PDMS fluid control module form chip-to-control module interconnections which are sealed by tightening four screws. The interconnection method is robust and supports complex fluidic operations in the reversibly attached passive chip. In addition, we developed a double-sided molding method for fabricating PDMS devices with integrated through-holes. The versatile system facilitates a wide range of applications due to the modular approach, where application specific passive chips can be readily attached to the flow control module.
Eleven theses of general systems theory (GST)
Waelchli, F.
1992-12-31
This paper chronicles an effort to distill and order (for purposes of discussion and elaboration) frequently mentioned and significant ideas encountered in the literature of General Systems theory (GST). The product is a set of eleven theses, representing the author`s selection and collation of seminal and recurrent GST themes. The author argues that attention to theory could aid the effort to develop practical applications of systems thinking. (Remember that a thesis is a statement or assertion, offered originally without proof, as the basis for an argument, discussion, or empirical test). 10 refs.
Advanced Digital Avionics System for general aviation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smyth, R. K.; Hoh, R. H.; Teper, G. L.
1977-01-01
Objectives and functions of the Advanced Digital Avionics System (ADAS) for general aviation are outlined with particular reference to navigation, flight control, engine management, ATC surveillance, flight management, communications, and the pilot controls and displays. The resulting ADAS design comprises the selection of off-the-shelf avionics to be integrated with ADAS-unique elements including new pilot displays and controls along with a microcomputer control complex (MCC). Reasons for which the ADAS achieves increased avionics capability are mentioned, including overall system integration through the MCC and pilot orientation from navigation map display.
Fluid technology (selected components, devices, and systems): A compilation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
Developments in fluid technology and hydraulic equipment are presented. The subjects considered are: (1) the use of fluids in the operation of switches, amplifiers, and servo devices, (2) devices and data for laboratory use in the study of fluid dynamics, and (3) the use of fluids as controls and certain methods of controlling fluids.
A general architecture for intelligent training systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loftin, R. Bowen
1987-01-01
A preliminary design of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems was developed. The architecture integrates expert system technology with teaching/training methodologies to permit the production of systems suitable for use by NASA, other government agencies, industry, and academia in the training of personnel for the performance of complex, mission-critical tasks. The proposed architecture consists of five elements: a user interface, a domain expert, a training session manager, a trainee model, and a training scenario generator. The design of this architecture was guided and its efficacy tested through the development of a system for use by Mission Control Center Flight Dynamics Officers in training to perform Payload-Assist Module Deploys from the orbiter.
GENERAL EARTHQUAKE-OBSERVATION SYSTEM (GEOS).
Borcherdt, R.D.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Jensen, E.G.; Maxwell, G.L.; VanSchaack, J.R.; Warrick, R.E.; Cranswick, E.; Johnston, M.J.S.; McClearn, R.
1985-01-01
Microprocessor technology has permitted the development of a General Earthquake-Observation System (GEOS) useful for most seismic applications. Central-processing-unit control via robust software of system functions that are isolated on hardware modules permits field adaptability of the system to a wide variety of active and passive seismic experiments and straightforward modification for incorporation of improvements in technology. Various laboratory tests and numerous deployments of a set of the systems in the field have confirmed design goals, including: wide linear dynamic range (16 bit/96 dB); broad bandwidth (36 hr to 600 Hz; greater than 36 hr available); selectable sensor-type (accelerometer, seismometer, dilatometer); selectable channels (1 to 6); selectable record mode (continuous, preset, trigger); large data capacity (1. 4 to 60 Mbytes); selectable time standard (WWVB, master, manual); automatic self-calibration; simple field operation; full capability to adapt system in the field to a wide variety of experiments; low power; portability; and modest costs. System design goals for a microcomputer-controlled system with modular software and hardware components as implemented on the GEOS are presented. The systems have been deployed for 15 experiments, including: studies of near-source strong motion; high-frequency microearthquakes; crustal structure; down-hole wave propagation; teleseismicity; and earth-tidal strains.
Acoustic design criteria in a general system for structural optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brama, Torsten
1990-01-01
Passenger comfort is of great importance in most transport vehicles. For instance, in the new generation of regional turboprop aircraft, a low noise level is vital to be competitive on the market. The possibilities to predict noise levels analytically has improved rapidly in recent years. This will make it possible to take acoustic design criteria into account in early project stages. The development of the ASKA FE-system to include also acoustic analysis has been carried out at Saab Aircraft Division and the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden in a joint project. New finite elements have been developed to model the free fluid, porous damping materials, and the interaction between the fluid and structural degrees of freedom. The FE approach to the acoustic analysis is best suited for lower frequencies up to a few hundred Hz. For accurate analysis of interior cabin noise, large 3-D FE-models are built, but 2-D models are also considered to be useful for parametric studies and optimization. The interest is here focused on the introduction of an acoustic design criteria in the general structural optimization system OPTSYS available at the Saab Aircraft Division. The first implementation addresses a somewhat limited class of problems. The problems solved are formulated: Minimize the structural weight by modifying the dimensions of the structure while keeping the noise level in the cavity and other structural design criteria within specified limits.
Microgravity fluid management requirements of advanced solar dynamic power systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Migra, Robert P.
1987-01-01
The advanced solar dynamic system (ASDS) program is aimed at developing the technology for highly efficient, lightweight space power systems. The approach is to evaluate Stirling, Brayton and liquid metal Rankine power conversion systems (PCS) over the temperature range of 1025 to 1400K, identify the critical technologies and develop these technologies. Microgravity fluid management technology is required in several areas of this program, namely, thermal energy storage (TES), heat pipe applications and liquid metal, two phase flow Rankine systems. Utilization of the heat of fusion of phase change materials offers potential for smaller, lighter TES systems. The candidate TES materials exhibit large volume change with the phase change. The heat pipe is an energy dense heat transfer device. A high temperature application may transfer heat from the solar receiver to the PCS working fluid and/or TES. A low temperature application may transfer waste heat from the PCS to the radiator. The liquid metal Rankine PCS requires management of the boiling/condensing process typical of two phase flow systems.
On multi-component Ermakov systems in a two-layer fluid: a variational approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Hongli; Fan, Engui; Zhu, Haixing
2012-10-01
By introducing Madelung-type transformations, a two-layer fluid model with a circular paraboloidal bottom topography is reduced to coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations incorporating harmonic traps and de Broglie-Bohm quantum potentials. A kind of multi-component Ermakov system is obtained via a variational approach and a multi-parameter Gaussian ansatz. In particular, three typical reductions to generalized Ermakov systems are discussed. Notable integrals of motion and additional Hamiltonian structures are employed to derive analytical solutions in terms of elliptic integrals for the multi-component Ermakov systems.
Nonlinear dynamics of fluid-structure systems. Annual technical report
Moon, F.C.; Muntean, G.
1994-01-01
We are investigating the nonlinear dynamics of a row of cylindrical tubes excited by the cross flow of fluid. Both experimental and analytical/numerical studies have been conducted. The goal of this research is to look for low dimensional dynamic models in flow- induced vibrations using modern methods of dynamical systems and chaos theory. The experimental study uses a 25 cm {times} 25 cm wind tunnel with flow velocity in the range of 15 m/sec. The use of a wind tunnel to explore dynamic phenomenon compliments the work of Chen at Argonne National Laboratory who also is conducting experiments with a water tunnel. The principal nonlinearities studies are impact constraints due to gaps in the cylinder supports and nonlinear fluid forces.
Valve latch device for drilling fluid telemetry systems
Larronde, M. L.; Hoos, R. G.
1985-07-30
A latch device for controlling a valve in a mud pulse telemetry system for imparting data pulses to drilling fluids circulating in a drill string is disclosed. A latch device and valve arrangement including an improved shear type, solenoid operated valve for modulating the pressure of the circulating drilling fluid is disclosed. A latching solenoid armature is connected to the valve gate through separate open and close solenoids having their armatures operatively connected to act as a single unit. The single unit armature is normally restrained from movement by the solenoid deactivated latch device. The latch device is arranged so that the vibrational and impact loads on the drill string serve to further maintain the modulating valve in a closed position.
Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow
McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.
2007-10-30
A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.
Instabilities of a spatial system of articulated pipes conveying fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bohn, M. P.; Herrmann, G.
1974-01-01
A spatial system of two articulated pipes conveying fluid is examined analytically and experimentally. As the flow rate is increased, stable equilibrium may be lost by either divergence (static buckling) or by flutter (oscillations with increasing amplitude), depending upon the value of an angle beta which measures the 'out-of-planeness' of the system. It is found that in the range O less than beta less than 90 deg there exists a transition value below which stability is lost by flutter and above which stability is lost by divergence.
Identification of general linear mechanical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sirlin, S. W.; Longman, R. W.; Juang, J. N.
1983-01-01
Previous work in identification theory has been concerned with the general first order time derivative form. Linear mechanical systems, a large and important class, naturally have a second order form. This paper utilizes this additional structural information for the purpose of identification. A realization is obtained from input-output data, and then knowledge of the system input, output, and inertia matrices is used to determine a set of linear equations whereby we identify the remaining unknown system matrices. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the number, type and placement of sensors and actuators are given which guarantee identificability, and less stringent conditions are given which guarantee generic identifiability. Both a priori identifiability and a posteriori identifiability are considered, i.e., identifiability being insured prior to obtaining data, and identifiability being assured with a given data set.
Híjar, Humberto
2015-02-01
We study the Brownian motion of a particle bound by a harmonic potential and immersed in a fluid with a uniform shear flow. We describe this problem first in terms of a linear Fokker-Planck equation which is solved to obtain the probability distribution function for finding the particle in a volume element of its associated phase space. We find the explicit form of this distribution in the stationary limit and use this result to show that both the equipartition law and the equation of state of the trapped particle are modified from their equilibrium form by terms increasing as the square of the imposed shear rate. Subsequently, we propose an alternative description of this problem in terms of a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account the effects of hydrodynamic correlations and sound propagation on the dynamics of the trapped particle. We show that these effects produce significant changes, manifested as long-time tails and resonant peaks, in the equilibrium and nonequilibrium correlation functions for the velocity of the Brownian particle. We implement numerical simulations based on molecular dynamics and multiparticle collision dynamics, and observe a very good quantitative agreement between the predictions of the model and the numerical results, thus suggesting that this kind of numerical simulations could be used as complement of current experimental techniques. PMID:25768490
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClure, James E.; Berrill, Mark A.; Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.
2016-09-01
Multiphase flows in porous medium systems are typically modeled at the macroscale by applying the principles of continuum mechanics to develop models that describe the behavior of averaged quantities, such as fluid pressure and saturation. These models require closure relations to produce solvable forms. One of these required closure relations is an expression relating the capillary pressure to fluid saturation and, in some cases, other topological invariants such as interfacial area and the Euler characteristic (or average Gaussian curvature). The forms that are used in traditional models, which typically consider only the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation, are hysteretic. An unresolved question is whether the inclusion of additional morphological and topological measures can lead to a nonhysteretic closure relation. Relying on the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, we develop an approach to investigate equilibrium states for a two-fluid-phase porous medium system, which includes disconnected nonwetting phase features. A set of simulations are performed within a random close pack of 1964 spheres to produce a total of 42 908 distinct equilibrium configurations. This information is evaluated using generalized additive models to quantitatively assess the degree to which functional relationships can explain the behavior of the equilibrium data. The variance of various model estimates is computed, and we conclude that, except for the limiting behavior close to a single fluid regime, capillary pressure can be expressed as a deterministic and nonhysteretic function of fluid saturation, interfacial area between the fluid phases, and the Euler characteristic. To our knowledge, this work is unique in the methods employed, the size of the data set, the resolution in space and time, the true equilibrium nature of the data, the parametrizations investigated, and the broad set of functions examined. The conclusion of essentially nonhysteretic behavior provides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Khani, Shaghayegh; Wagner, Jacob; Yamanoi, Mikio; Maia, Joao
2015-04-01
In this work, a generalized relation between the fluid compressibility, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), and the simulation parameters in multi-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is established. This required revisiting the MDPD equation of state previously reported in the literature and developing general relationships between the parameters used in the MDPD model. We derive a relationship to the Flory-Huggins χ parameter for incompressible fluids similar to the work previously done in dissipative particle dynamics by Groot and Warren. The accuracy of this relationship is evaluated using phase separation in small molecules and the solubility of polymers in dilute solvent solutions via monitoring the scaling of the radius of gyration (Rg) for different solvent qualities. Finally, the dynamics of the MDPD fluid is studied with respect to the diffusion coefficient and the zero shear viscosity.
Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in the central nervous system.
Sweetman, Brian; Linninger, Andreas A
2011-01-01
Cine-phase-contrast-MRI was used to measure the three-dimensional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow field inside the central nervous system (CNS) of a healthy subject. Image reconstruction and grid generation tools were then used to develop a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model of the CSF flow inside the CNS. The CSF spaces were discretized using the finite-element method and the constitutive equations for fluid and solid motion solved in ADINA-FSI 8.6. Model predictions of CSF velocity magnitude and stroke volume were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. CSF pressure gradients and amplitudes were computed in all regions of the CNS. The computed pressure gradients and amplitudes closely match values obtained clinically. The highest pressure amplitude of 77 Pa was predicted to occur in the lateral ventricles. The pressure gradient between the lateral ventricles and the lumbar region of the spinal canal did not exceed 132 Pa (~1 mmHg) at any time during the cardiac cycle. The pressure wave speed in the spinal canal was predicted and found to agree closely with values previously reported in the literature. Finally, the forward and backward motion of the CSF in the ventricles was visualized, revealing the complex mixing patterns in the CSF spaces. The mathematical model presented in this article is a prerequisite for developing a mechanistic understanding of the relationships among vasculature pulsations, CSF flow, and CSF pressure waves in the CNS.
Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems
Yarbro, S.L.
1996-11-01
Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Batey, Mark; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian
2009-01-01
Two studies examined the relationships between measures of intelligence, personality and divergent thinking (DT) in student samples. Study one investigated the incremental validity of measures of IQ and fluid intelligence with the Big Five Personality Inventory with regards to DT. Significant relationships of DT to fluid intelligence, Extraversion…
30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... well control. This program must address drilling fluid safe practices, testing and monitoring equipment... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil...
Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A Generalized Interactive Information System.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alterescu,Sidney; And Others
This report describes an interactive information system. It is a general purpose, free format system which can offer immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. The report is designed to serve as a manual for potential users--nontechnical personnel who will use the…
Fatality Analysis Reporting System, General Estimates System: 2001 Data Summary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
2003
The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which became operational in 1975, contains data on a census of fatal traffic crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The General Estimates System (GES), which began in 1988, provides data from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all…
Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids
Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook
2005-07-01
This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.
Possibilistic systems within a general information theory
Joslyn, C.
1999-06-01
The author surveys possibilistic systems theory and place it in the context of Imprecise Probabilities and General Information Theory (GIT). In particular, he argues that possibilistic systems hold a distinct position within a broadly conceived, synthetic GIT. The focus is on systems and applications which are semantically grounded by empirical measurement methods (statistical counting), rather than epistemic or subjective knowledge elicitation or assessment methods. Regarding fuzzy measures as special provisions, and evidence measures (belief and plausibility measures) as special fuzzy measures, thereby he can measure imprecise probabilities directly and empirically from set-valued frequencies (random set measurement). More specifically, measurements of random intervals yield empirical fuzzy intervals. In the random set (Dempster-Shafer) context, probability and possibility measures stand as special plausibility measures in that their distributionality (decomposability) maps directly to an aggregable structure of the focal classes of their random sets. Further, possibility measures share with imprecise probabilities the ability to better handle open world problems where the universe of discourse is not specified in advance. In addition to empirically grounded measurement methods, possibility theory also provides another crucial component of a full systems theory, namely prediction methods in the form of finite (Markov) processes which are also strictly analogous to the probabilistic forms.
GIDL: Generalized Interference Detection and Localization System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Konstantin Gennadievich
The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) and the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) are being developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide satellite navigation performance compliant with the stringent requirements for aircraft precision approach and landing. A primary design goal of both systems is to insure that signal-in-space failures are detected by ground facilities and to exclude the affected measurements before differential corrections are broadcast to users. One such failure is unintentional interference or intentional jamming in the GPS frequency band. To protect integrity, LAAS and WAAS ground facilities must quickly detect the presence of any hazardous interference falling within the restricted band used by GPS. To protect availability, ground personnel must be able to quickly locate and deactivate the interference source. In order to serve this purpose, the prototype Generalized Interference Detection and Localization System (GIDL) has been developed. This prototype includes four antennae and RF sections slaved to a common clock to allow detection and determination of a three-dimensional interference location. Measurements of differential signal propagation delays across the multiple baselines between the GIDL antennae are combined to estimate the location of the undesired interference transmitter. The GIDL system can be implemented in parallel with a three- or four-receiver LAAS ground facility (sharing components with the LAAS reference receivers and processors) or as a separate installation to support nearby LAAS and WAAS sites. This dissertation describes the GIDL theory and GIDL receiver design and derives theoretical predictions of the ability of the GIDL to accurately locate interference sources. The GIDL System has been successfully demonstrated to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
A comprehensive approach using fuzzy logic to select fracture fluid systems
Xiong, H.; Davidson, B.; Holditch, S.A.; Saunders, B.
1997-01-01
This system, which consists of several fuzzy logic evaluators, can also be applied to similar problems associated with drilling, completing and working over wells. With formation information, the fuzzy logic system first determines base fluid, viscosifying method and energization method before choosing the 3--5 best combinations of possible fluids. The system then determines polymer type and loading, crosslinker, gas type if necessary, and other additives for the fluid systems. Also using fuzzy logic, this system checks the compatibility of the fluid and additives with formation fluids and composition.
Shin, Hyun Kyung; Choi, Bongsik; Talkner, Peter; Lee, Eok Kyun
2014-12-01
Based on the generalized Langevin equation for the momentum of a Brownian particle a generalized asymptotic Einstein relation is derived. It agrees with the well-known Einstein relation in the case of normal diffusion but continues to hold for sub- and super-diffusive spreading of the Brownian particle's mean square displacement. The generalized asymptotic Einstein relation is used to analyze data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional soft disk fluid. We mainly concentrated on medium densities for which we found super-diffusive behavior of a tagged fluid particle. At higher densities a range of normal diffusion can be identified. The motion presumably changes to sub-diffusion for even higher densities.
21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... fluid are used in evaluating fetal maturity. (b) Classification. Class II. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system....
21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... fluid are used in evaluating fetal maturity. (b) Classification. Class II. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system....
21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866.5800 Section 866.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid...
21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866.5800 Section 866.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid...
21 CFR 866.5800 - Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. 866.5800 Section 866.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5800 Seminal fluid (sperm) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A seminal fluid...
Generalized fluctuation theorems for classical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, G. S.; Dattagupta, Sushanta
2015-11-01
The fluctuation theorem has a very special place in the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of physical systems. The form in which it is used most extensively is the Gallavoti-Cohen fluctuation theorem which is in terms of the distribution of the work p (W )/p (-W )=exp(α W ) . We derive the general form of the fluctuation theorems for an arbitrary multidimensional Gaussian Markov process. Interestingly, the parameter α is by no means universal, hitherto taken for granted in the case of linear Gaussian processes. As a matter of fact, conditions under which α does become a universal parameter 1 /K T are found to be rather restrictive. As an application we consider fluctuation theorems for classical cyclotron motion of an electron in a parabolic potential. The motion of the electron is described by four coupled Langevin equations and thus is nontrivial. The generalized theorems are equally valid for nonequilibrium steady states and could be especially important in the presence of anisotropic diffusion.
Peristaltic Motion of an Incompressible Generalized Newtonian Fluid in a Planar Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misery, A.; Elshehawey, Elsayed; Hakeem, A.
1996-11-01
Peristaltic flow in a two-dimensional channel with a sinusoidal wave is analyzed. Under the assumption of creeping motion, the problem is formulated using a perturbation expansion in terms of a variant of the Weissenberg number. To determine the characteristics of the peristaltic motion of shear thinning non-Newtonian fluids, the motion of a Carreau fluid in a planar channel having walls that are transversely displaced by an infinite, harmonic traveling wave of large wavelength and neglecting wave number. We found the pumping rate of a Carreau fluid is less than that for a Newtonian having a shear viscosity the same as zero-shear-rate viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid. The peristaltic pumping and the augmented pumping are discussed for various values of the physical parameters of interest.
Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer And Fluid Integrator (SINDA '85/FLUINT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goble, Richard; Cullimore, Brent; Ring, Steven; Jensen, Carl
1993-01-01
Comprehensive thermal analysis system handles complex models such as evaporators and permits interaction of thermal and fluid problems. Design flexibility provided by 20,000 nodes, 100,000 conductors, 100 thermal submodels, and 10 fluid submodels.
21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... the total protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Measurement of spinal fluid proteins may aid in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class...
21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... the total protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Measurement of spinal fluid proteins may aid in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the nervous system. (b) Classification. Class...
A scintillator purification plant and fluid handling system for SNO+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, Richard J.
2015-08-01
A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with 130Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.
A scintillator purification plant and fluid handling system for SNO+
Ford, Richard J.
2015-08-17
A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with {sup 130}Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.
Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin
2010-03-01
Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.
Fluid Flow Prediction with Development System Interwell Connectivity Influence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolshakov, M.; Deeva, T.; Pustovskikh, A.
2016-03-01
In this paper interwell connectivity has been studied. First of all, literature review of existing methods was made which is divided into three groups: Statistically-Based Methods, Material (fluid) Propagation-Based Methods and Potential (pressure) Change Propagation-Based Method. The disadvantages of the first and second groups are as follows: methods do not involve fluid flow through porous media, ignore any changes of well conditions (BHP, skin factor, etc.). The last group considers changes of well conditions and fluid flow through porous media. In this work Capacitance method (CM) has been chosen for research. This method is based on material balance and uses weight coefficients lambdas to assess well influence. In the next step synthetic model was created for examining CM. This model consists of an injection well and a production well. CM gave good results, it means that flow rates which were calculated by analytical method (CM) show matching with flow rate in model. Further new synthetic model was created which includes six production and one injection wells. This model represents seven-spot pattern. To obtain lambdas weight coefficients, the delta function was entered using by minimization algorithm. Also synthetic model which has three injectors and thirteen producer wells was created. This model simulates seven-spot pattern production system. Finally Capacitance method (CM) has been adjusted on real data of oil Field Ω. In this case CM does not give enough satisfying results in terms of field data liquid rate. In conclusion, recommendations to simplify CM calculations were given. Field Ω is assumed to have one injection and one production wells. In this case, satisfying results for production rates and cumulative production were obtained.
Design considerations for a micro-g superfluid helium fluid acquisition system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, J. M.
1989-01-01
The general description, the operation, and the design of a superfluid helium (SFHe) fluid acquisition system (FAS) for use under microgravity conditions is presented. For the type of FAS considered here, where fine-mesh woven screens are used to retain flowing SFHe within a gallery arm (flow) channel, those forces which determine the flow dynamics are the micro-g accelerations, liquid surface tension, and tensile strength and cumulative pressure drops along a flow path that begins at the bulk liquid and ends at the entrance to a pump. For this case, the dimensionless number, N(T) is written as the ratio between the pressure drop across the screen and the surface tension forces at the screen for low fluid velocities. Static Bond number measurements have bene taken for SFHe using 325 x 2300 twilled Dutch screen and have indicated a screen pore hydraulic radius of 0.00031 cm.
Microgravity fluid management in two-phase thermal systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parish, Richard C.
1987-01-01
Initial studies have indicated that in comparison to an all liquid single phase system, a two-phase liquid/vapor thermal control system requires significantly lower pumping power, demonstrates more isothermal control characteristics, and allows greater operational flexibility in heat load placement. As a function of JSC's Work Package responsibility for thermal management of space station equipment external to the pressurized modules, prototype development programs were initiated on the Two-Phase Thermal Bus System (TBS) and the Space Erectable Radiator System (SERS). JSC currently has several programs underway to enhance the understanding of two-phase fluid flow characteristics. The objective of one of these programs (sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA-Headquarters) is to design, fabricate, and fly a two-phase flow regime mapping experiment in the Shuttle vehicle mid-deck. Another program, sponsored by OAST, involves the testing of a two-phase thermal transport loop aboard the KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft to identify system implications of pressure drop variation as a function of the flow quality and flow regime present in a representative thermal system.
Zamir, Mair; Moore, James E; Fujioka, Hideki; Gaver, Donald P
2010-03-01
In the field of fluid flow within the human body, focus has been placed on the transportation of blood in the systemic circulation since the discovery of that system; but, other fluids and fluid flow phenomena pervade the body. Some of the most fascinating fluid flow phenomena within the human body involve fluids other than blood and a service other than transport--the lymphatic and pulmonary systems are two striking examples. While transport is still involved in both cases, this is not the only service which they provide and blood is not the only fluid involved. In both systems, filtration, extraction, enrichment, and in general some "treatment" of the fluid itself is the primary function. The study of the systemic circulation has also been conventionally limited to treating the system as if it were an open-loop system governed by the laws of fluid mechanics alone, independent of physiological controls and regulations. This implies that system failures can be explained fully in terms of the laws of fluid mechanics, which of course is not the case. In this paper we examine the clinical implications of these issues and of the special biofluid mechanics issues involved in the lymphatic and pulmonary systems.
Computational fluid dynamics applications to improve crop production systems
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), numerical analysis and simulation tools of fluid flow processes have emerged from the development stage and become nowadays a robust design tool. It is widely used to study various transport phenomena which involve fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, providing det...
Cellular Automata Generalized To An Inferential System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blower, David J.
2007-11-01
Stephen Wolfram popularized elementary one-dimensional cellular automata in his book, A New Kind of Science. Among many remarkable things, he proved that one of these cellular automata was a Universal Turing Machine. Such cellular automata can be interpreted in a different way by viewing them within the context of the formal manipulation rules from probability theory. Bayes's Theorem is the most famous of such formal rules. As a prelude, we recapitulate Jaynes's presentation of how probability theory generalizes classical logic using modus ponens as the canonical example. We emphasize the important conceptual standing of Boolean Algebra for the formal rules of probability manipulation and give an alternative demonstration augmenting and complementing Jaynes's derivation. We show the complementary roles played in arguments of this kind by Bayes's Theorem and joint probability tables. A good explanation for all of this is afforded by the expansion of any particular logic function via the disjunctive normal form (DNF). The DNF expansion is a useful heuristic emphasized in this exposition because such expansions point out where relevant 0s should be placed in the joint probability tables for logic functions involving any number of variables. It then becomes a straightforward exercise to rely on Boolean Algebra, Bayes's Theorem, and joint probability tables in extrapolating to Wolfram's cellular automata. Cellular automata are seen as purely deductive systems, just like classical logic, which probability theory is then able to generalize. Thus, any uncertainties which we might like to introduce into the discussion about cellular automata are handled with ease via the familiar inferential path. Most importantly, the difficult problem of predicting what cellular automata will do in the far future is treated like any inferential prediction problem.
Therapeutic Options for Controlling Fluids in the Visual System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curry, Kristina M.; Wotring, Virginia E.
2014-01-01
Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) is a newly recognized risk at NASA. The VIIP project examines the effect of long-term exposure to microgravity on vision of crewmembers before and after they return to Earth. Diamox (acetazolamide) is a medication which is used to decrease intraocular pressure; however, it carries a 3% risk of kidney stones. Astronauts are at a higher risk of kidney stones during spaceflight and the use Diamox would only increase the risk; therefore alternative therapies were investigated. Histamine 2 (H2) antagonist acid blockers such as cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and nizatidine are typically used to relieve the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). H2 receptors have been found in the human visual system, which has led to research on the use of H2 antagonist blockers to control fluid production in the human eye. Another potential therapeutic strategy is targeted at aquaporins, which are water channels that help maintain fluid homeostasis. Aquaporin antagonists are also known to affect intracranial pressure which can in turn alter intraocular pressure. Studies on aquaporin antagonists suggest high potential for effective treatment. The primary objective of this investigation is to review existing research on alternate medications or therapy to significantly reduce intracranial and intraocular pressure. A literature review was conducted. Even though we do not have all the answers quite yet, a considerable amount of information was discovered, and findings were narrowed, which should allow for more conclusive answers to be found in the near future.
NATRAN2. Fluid Hammer Analysis 1D & 2D Systems
Shin, Y.W.; Valentin, R.A.
1992-03-03
NATRAN2 analyzes short-term pressure-pulse transients in a closed hydraulic system consisting of a two-dimensional axisymmetric domain connected to a one-dimensional piping network. The one-dimensional network may consist of series or parallel piping, pipe junctions, diameter discontinuities, junctions of three to six branches, closed ends, surge tanks, far ends, dummy junctions, acoustic impedance discontinuities, and rupture disks. By default, the working fluid is assumed to be liquid sodium without cavitation; but another working fluid can be specified in terms of its density, sonic speed, and viscosity. The source pressure pulse can arise from one of the following: a pressure-time function specified at some point in the two-dimensional domain, a pressure-time function or a sodium-water reaction specified at some point in the one-dimensional domain. The pressure pulse from a sodium-water reaction is assumed to be generated according to the dynamic model of Zaker and Salmon.
Working fluid selection for space-based two-phase heat transport systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclinden, Mark O.
1988-01-01
The working fluid for externally-mounted, space-based two-phase heat transport systems is considered. A sequence of screening criteria involving freezing and critical point temperatures and latent heat of vaporization and vapor density are applied to a data base of 860 fluids. The thermal performance of the 52 fluids which pass this preliminary screening are then ranked according to their impact on the weight of a reference system. Upon considering other nonthermal criteria (flammability, toxicity, and chemical stability) a final set of 10 preferred fluids is obtained. The effects of variations in system parameters is investigated for these 10 fluids by means of a factorial design.
42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...
42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...
42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...
42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...
42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...
Calvo, Ivan; Carreras, Benjamin A; Sanchez, Raul; van Milligen, B. Ph.
2007-01-01
In this article, the continuous time random walk on the circle is studied. We derive the corresponding generalized master equation and discuss the effects of topology, especially important when Levy flights are allowed. Then, we work out the fluid limit equation, formulated in terms of the periodic version of the fractional Riemann-Liouville operators, for which we provide explicit expressions. Finally, we compute the propagator in some simple cases. The analysis presented herein should be relevant when investigating anomalous transport phenomena in systems with periodic dimensions.
COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii
2014-05-01
Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the
Safety System for Controlling Fluid Flow into a Suction Line
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A safety system includes a sleeve fitted within a pool's suction line at the inlet thereof. An open end of the sleeve is approximately aligned with the suction line's inlet. The sleeve terminates with a plate that resides within the suction line. The plate has holes formed therethrough. A housing defining a plurality of distinct channels is fitted in the sleeve so that the distinct channels lie within the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels has a first opening on one end thereof and a second opening on another end thereof. The second openings reside in the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels is at least approximately three feet in length. The first openings are in fluid communication with the water in the pool, and are distributed around a periphery of an area of the housing that prevents coverage of all the first openings when a human interacts therewith.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKee, Michael; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz
2011-03-01
A compact compressible magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper-liquid spring (CMRFD-LS) suspension system is designed, developed and tested. The performances of the CMRFD-LS are investigated under room temperature. However, MR fluids are temperature dependent. The effect of temperature is observed in both the viscosity and the compressibility of the MR fluid. This study is to experimentally determine how temperature affects the performance of a CMRFD-LS device. A test setup is developed to measure the stiffness and energy dissipated by the system under various frequency loadings, magnetic fields and temperatures. The experimental results demonstrate that both the stiffness and the energy dissipated by the CMRFD-LS are inversely related to the temperature of the MR fluid. These changes in damper characteristics show that the compressibility of MR fluid is proportional to the fluid temperature, while the viscosity of the MR fluid is inversely related to the fluid temperature.
EXPERIMENTAL BUBBLE FORMATION IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM FOR NEWTONIAN AND NONNEWTONIAN FLUIDS
Leishear, R; Michael Restivo, M
2008-06-26
The complexities of bubble formation in liquids increase as the system size increases, and a photographic study is presented here to provide some insight into the dynamics of bubble formation for large systems. Air was injected at the bottom of a 28 feet tall by 30 inch diameter column. Different fluids were subjected to different air flow rates at different fluid depths. The fluids were water and non-Newtonian, Bingham plastic fluids, which have yield stresses requiring an applied force to initiate movement, or shearing, of the fluid. Tests showed that bubble formation was significantly different in the two types of fluids. In water, a field of bubbles was formed, which consisted of numerous, distributed, 1/4 to 3/8 inch diameter bubbles. In the Bingham fluid, large bubbles of 6 to 12 inches in diameter were formed, which depended on the air flow rate. This paper provides comprehensive photographic results related to bubble formation in these fluids.
21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866.5860 Section 866.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the total protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Measurement of spinal fluid proteins may aid in...
Computational fluid dynamics for turbomachinery internal air systems.
Chew, John W; Hills, Nicholas J
2007-10-15
Considerable progress in development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aeroengine internal flow systems has been made in recent years. CFD is regularly used in industry for assessment of air systems, and the performance of CFD for basic axisymmetric rotor/rotor and stator/rotor disc cavities with radial throughflow is largely understood and documented. Incorporation of three-dimensional geometrical features and calculation of unsteady flows are becoming commonplace. Automation of CFD, coupling with thermal models of the solid components, and extension of CFD models to include both air system and main gas path flows are current areas of development. CFD is also being used as a research tool to investigate a number of flow phenomena that are not yet fully understood. These include buoyancy-affected flows in rotating cavities, rim seal flows and mixed air/oil flows. Large eddy simulation has shown considerable promise for the buoyancy-driven flows and its use for air system flows is expected to expand in the future.
Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.
2010-07-13
A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.
Chaos control and impact suppression in rotor-bearing system using magnetorheological fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piccirillo, V.; Balthazar, J. M.; Tusset, A. M.
2015-11-01
In this paper a general dynamic model of a rotor-bearing system using magnetorheological fluid (MR) is presented. The mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system results from a Jeffcott rotor with two-degrees of freedom and discontinuous supports. The effect of magnetorheological fluid on vibration is investigated based on a model of a modified LuGre dynamical friction model. A comparison with equivalent rotor-bearing system is made to verify the contribution of MR in this system. In this study two different implementations of the control procedure are presented, one eliminating the chaotic behavior and the second suppressing the unbalancing vibration so as to avoid impact in rotor-bearing system. First, to control the undesirable chaos in rotor-bearing system a damped passive control methodology is used. On the other hand, to suppressing the impact vibration, the Fuzzy Logic Control is considered. Results demonstrate that undesirable behaviors of rotor can be avoided by varying the damping force.
Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies for Advanced Green Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Motil, Susan M.; Meyer, Michael L.; Tucker, Stephen P.
2007-01-01
In support of the Exploration Vision for returning to the Moon and beyond, NASA and its partners are developing and testing critical cryogenic fluid propellant technologies that will meet the need for high performance propellants on long-term missions. Reliable knowledge of low-gravity cryogenic fluid management behavior is lacking and yet is critical in the areas of tank thermal and pressure control, fluid acquisition, mass gauging, and fluid transfer. Such knowledge can significantly reduce or even eliminate tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, and simplify vehicle operations. The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) Project is performing experimental and analytical evaluation of several areas within Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) to enable NASA's Exploration Vision. This paper discusses the status of the PCAD CFM technology focus areas relative to the anticipated CFM requirements to enable execution of the Vision for Space Exploration.
System and method for determining velocity of electrically conductive fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polzin, Kurt A. (Inventor); Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Markusic, Thomas E. (Inventor); Stanojev, Boris Johann (Inventor)
2008-01-01
A flowing electrically-conductive fluid is controlled between an upstream and downstream location thereof to insure that a convection timescale of the flowing fluid is less than a thermal diffusion timescale of the flowing fluid. First and second nodes of a current-carrying circuit are coupled to the fluid at the upstream location. A current pulse is applied to the current-carrying circuit so that the current pulse travels through the flowing fluid to thereby generate a thermal feature therein at the upstream location. The thermal feature is convected to the downstream location where it is monitored to detect a peak associated with the thermal feature so-convected. The velocity of the fluid flow is determined using a time-of-flight analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiodini, G.; Caliro, S.; De Martino, P.; Avino, R.; Cardellini, C.; Gherardi, F.
2012-04-01
Campi Flegrei caldera subsided for the twenty years following the last large crisis of 1982-1984. The subsidence was interrupted by 3 minor uplift episodes each accompanied by swarms of low energy earthquakes and by a peak of the concentration of magmatic fluids discharged by the fumaroles. Since 2000 the behavior of the system changed: the magmatic component of fumaroles started to increase almost continuously, swarms of earthquakes became more frequent and, after a decrease in the subsidence rate, the ground started a general uplifting trend. Contemporaneously the temperature of one of the biggest fumaroles increased, new vents formed and the deeply derived CO2 released by the soils changed degassing pattern and locally increased. In order to investigate these phenomena, long time series of fluid pressure and temperature, estimated on the base of CO2-H2O-H2-CO gas equilibria, were considered. The fumarole external to Solfatara crater (Pisciarelli) shows an annual cycle of CO contents indicating the occurrence of shallow secondary processes which mask the deep signals. On the contrary the fumaroles located inside the crater (BG and BN) do not show evidences of secondary processes and the compositional variations are linked to T-P changes within the hydrothermal system, indicating a pressurization of the upper part of the hydrothermal system. Furthermore, the CO2/CH4 ratio of the fumaroles, a good tracer of the input of magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system, displayed a general increase with numerous peaks well correlated in the time with pulsed episodes of ground uplifts and seismic swarm suggesting the occurrence of repeated episodes of injections of deep magmatic gases with high CO2 contents. The process was modeled by means of a geothermal simulator which was able to reproduce the H2S/CO2 fumarolic ratios and the PCO2 independently estimated for the fumaroles. Total injected fluid in the simulated events are in the range of fluids emitted during small
Seismic and infrasonic source processes in volcanic fluid systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matoza, Robin S.
Volcanoes exhibit a spectacular diversity in fluid oscillation processes, which lead to distinct seismic and acoustic signals in the solid earth and atmosphere. Volcano seismic waveforms contain rich information on the geometry of fluid migration, resonance effects, and transient and sustained pressure oscillations resulting from unsteady flow through subsurface cracks, fissures and conduits. Volcanic sounds contain information on shallow fluid flow, resonance in near-surface cavities, and degassing dynamics into the atmosphere. Since volcanoes have large spatial scales, the vast majority of their radiated atmospheric acoustic energy is infrasonic (<20 Hz). This dissertation presents observations from joint broadband seismic and infrasound array deployments at Mount St. Helens (MSH, Washington State, USA), Tungurahua (Ecuador), and Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii, USA), each providing data for several years. These volcanoes represent a broad spectrum of eruption styles ranging from hawaiian to plinian in nature. The catalogue of recorded infrasonic signals includes continuous broadband and harmonic tremor from persistent degassing at basaltic lava vents and tubes at Pu'u O'o (Kilauea), thousands of repetitive impulsive signals associated with seismic longperiod (0.5-5 Hz) events and the dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system at MSH, rockfall signals from the unstable dacite dome at MSH, energetic explosion blast waves and gliding infrasonic harmonic tremor at Tungurahua volcano, and large-amplitude and long-duration broadband signals associated with jetting during vulcanian, subplinian and plinian eruptions at MSH and Tungurahua. We develop models for a selection of these infrasonic signals. For infrasonic long-period (LP) events at MSH, we investigate seismic-acoustic coupling from various buried source configurations as a means to excite infrasound waves in the atmosphere. We find that linear elastic seismic-acoustic transmission from the ground to atmosphere is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amadei, A.; Apol, M. E. F.; Chillemi, G.; Berendsen, H. J. C.; di Nola, A.
In this article we present an equation of state for fluids, based on the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory. The temperature dependence along isochores is described by a confined Gamma state, previously introduced, combined with a simple perturbation term. The 11 parameters occurring in the free energy and pressure expressions along the isochores are obtained from molecular dynamics simulation data. The equation of state has been parametrized for the Lennard-Jones fluid in the (reduced) density range 0-1.0 and (reduced) temperature range 1.0-20.0 using (partly new) NVT molecular dynamics simulation data. An excellent agreement for both energy and pressure was obtained. To test the ability to extrapolate to unknown state points, the parametrization was also performed on a smaller set of data in the temperature range 1.0-6.0. The results in the two cases are remarkably close, even in the high temperature range, and are often almost indistinguishable, in contrast to a pure empirical equation of state, like for example the modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation. The coexistence line agrees in general very well with Gibbs ensemble and NpT simulation results, and only very close to the critical point there are deviations. Our estimate of the critical point for both parametrizations is somewhat different from the best estimate based on Gibbs ensemble simulations, but is in excellent agreement with other estimates based on NVT simulations and integral equations.
MPI implementation of PHOENICS: A general purpose computational fluid dynamics code
Simunovic, S.; Zacharia, T.; Baltas, N.; Spalding, D.B.
1995-04-01
PHOENICS is a suite of computational analysis programs that are used for simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, and dynamical reaction processes. The parallel version of the solver EARTH for the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program PHOENICS has been implemented using Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Implementation of MPI version of PHOENICS makes this computational tool portable to a wide range of parallel machines and enables the use of high performance computing for large scale computational simulations. MPI libraries are available on several parallel architectures making the program usable across different architectures as well as on heterogeneous computer networks. The Intel Paragon NX and MPI versions of the program have been developed and tested on massively parallel supercomputers Intel Paragon XP/S 5, XP/S 35, and Kendall Square Research, and on the multiprocessor SGI Onyx computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The preliminary testing results of the developed program have shown scalable performance for reasonably sized computational domains.
MPI implementation of PHOENICS: A general purpose computational fluid dynamics code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simunovic, S.; Zacharia, T.; Baltas, N.; Spalding, D. B.
1995-03-01
PHOENICS is a suite of computational analysis programs that are used for simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, and dynamical reaction processes. The parallel version of the solver EARTH for the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program PHOENICS has been implemented using Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Implementation of MPI version of PHOENICS makes this computational tool portable to a wide range of parallel machines and enables the use of high performance computing for large scale computational simulations. MPI libraries are available on several parallel architectures making the program usable across different architectures as well as on heterogeneous computer networks. The Intel Paragon NX and MPI versions of the program have been developed and tested on massively parallel supercomputers Intel Paragon XP/S 5, XP/S 35, and Kendall Square Research, and on the multiprocessor SGI Onyx computer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The preliminary testing results of the developed program have shown scalable performance for reasonably sized computational domains.
On the first G 1 stiff fluid spike solution in General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coley, A. A.; Gregoris, D.; Lim, W. C.
2016-11-01
Using the Geroch transformation we obtain the first example of an exact stiff fluid spike solution to the Einstein field equations in a closed form exhibiting a spacelike G 1 group of symmetries (i.e., with a single isometry). This new solution is of Petrov type I and exhibits a spike crossing which persists to the past, which allows us to better understand spike crossings in the context of structure formation.
Krukowski, Z H; Al-Sayer, H M; Reid, T M; Matheson, N A
1987-04-01
Quantitative bacteriology in peritoneal exudate was studied in 40 patients with generalized peritonitis of small intestinal, appendicular or colonic origin. Bacterial growth kinesis was measured in 28 of the patients. Systemic antibiotics given before operation resulted in a significant reduction in both the concentration and growth rate of viable bacteria in the peritoneal fluid. Lavage of the peritoneal cavity with saline resulted in a further reduction in growth rate in patients given pre-operative systemic antibiotics by an effect attributable to simple dilution. In contrast, peritoneal lavage with tetracycline (1 mg/ml) resulted in complete inhibition of bacterial growth in the residual peritoneal fluid. These observations support the policy of giving systemic antibiotics to patients with generalized peritonitis as soon as the diagnosis has been made and provide bacteriological evidence for the value of peroperative antibiotic peritoneal lavage.
de, Vivo B.; Belkin, H.E.; Barbieri, M.; Chelini, W.; Lattanzi, P.; Lima, A.; Tolomeo, L.
1989-01-01
A fluid inclusion study of core from the Mofete 1, Mofete 2, Mofete 5, San Vito 1, and San Vito 3 geothermal wells (Campi Flegrei, Campania, Italy) indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were precipitated from aqueous fluids (??CO2) that were moderately saline (3-4 wt.% NaCl equiv.) to hypersaline (> 26 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and at least in part, boiling. Three types of primary fluid inclusions were found in authigenic K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, and epidote: (A) two-phase [liquid (L) + vapor (V)], liquid-rich inclusions with a range of salinity; (B) two-phase (L + V), vaporrich inclusions with low salinity; and (C) three-phase [L + V + crystals (NaCL)], liquid-rich inclusions with hypersalinity. Results of microthermometric and crushing studies are reported for twenty drill core samples taken from the lower portions of the five vertical wells. Data presented for selected core samples reveal a general decrease in porosity and increase in bulk density with increasing depth and temperature. Hydrothermal minerals commonly fill fractures and pore-spaces and define a zonation pattern, similar in all five wells studied, in response to increasing depth (pressure) and temperature. A greenschist facies assemblage, defined by albite + actinolite, gives way to an amphibolite facies, defined by plagioclase (andesine) + hornblende, in the San Vito 1 well at about 380??C. The fluid inclusion salinity values mimic the saline and hypersaline fluids found by drilling. Fluid inclusion V/L homogenization temperatures increase with depth and generally correspond to the extrapolated down-hole temperatures. However, fluid inclusion data for Mofete 5 and mineral assemblage data for San Vito 3, indicate fossil, higher-temperature regimes. A limited 87Sr/86Sr study of leachate (carbonate) and the leached cores shows that for most samples (except San Vito 3) the carbonate deposition has been from slightly 87Sr-enriched fluids and that Sr isotopic exchange has been incomplete. However, San
Waste heat recovery fluids for heavy-duty transportation bottoming cycle systems: a summary report
Krazinski, J.L.; Uherka, K.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Ash, J.E.
1984-07-01
Working fluids used in Rankine bottoming cycle systems for heat recovery from long-haul trucks, marine vessels, and railroad locomotives are examined. Rankine bottoming cycle systems improve fuel economy by converting the exhaust heat from the prime mover into useful power. The report assesses fluid property requirements on the basis of previous experience with bottoming cycle systems. Also, the exhaust gas characteristics for the transportation modes of interest are summarized and compared. Candidate working fluids are discussed with respect to their potential for use in Rankine bottoming cycle systems. Analytical techniques are presented for calculating the thermodynamic properties of single-component working fluids. The resulting equations have been incorporated into a computer code for predicting the performance of Rankine bottoming cycle systems. In evaluating candidate working fluids, the code requires the user to input only a minimal amount of fluid property data.
Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie
2011-05-01
Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40
Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie
2011-05-01
Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40
Solar heat transport fluids for solar energy collection systems: A collection of quarterly reports
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
Noncorrosive fluid subsystem is being developed that is compatible with closed-loop solar heating and combined heating and hot water systems. The system is also to be compatible with both metallic and nonmetallic plumbing systems, and any combination of these. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered.
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. 58.30-50 Section 58.30-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous...
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems. 58.30-50 Section 58.30-50 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-50 Requirements for miscellaneous...
Flow simulation system for generalized static and dynamic grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koomullil, Roy Paulose
The objective of this study is to develop a flow simulation system using generalized grids that can be used on static geometries and on dynamically moving bodies. In a generalized grid, the physical domain of interest is decomposed into cells with arbitrary number of sides. The grid can be structured, unstructured, hanging node type, or a combination of the above. An edge-based data structure is used to store the grid information. This makes it easier to handle cells with any number of sides. The full Navier-Stokes equations, in the integral form, are taken as the relations that govern the fluid flow. A cell centered finite volume scheme is used for solving the governing equations. The numerical flux across the cell faces is calculated by an upwind scheme based on Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Taylor's series expansion of a function of multiple variables together with Green's theorem is used for the linear reconstruction of the conserved variables. The accuracy of the computations with first order and higher order schemes are compared. Limiter functions are used to preserve monotonocity and the effect of two different limiter functions on the convergence history is studied. Skin friction coefficient is used to study the accuracy of the limiter functions. Explicit and implicit schemes are implemented and the Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) method is used to solve the sparse linear system of equations resulting from the implicit scheme. The flux Jacobians for the implicit schemes are evaluated either using an approximate analytical method or numerical differentiation procedure. The effect of these Jacobians on the convergence of the solution to steady state is compared. Boundary conditions based on the characteristic variables are implemented for generalized grids. The viscous fluxes are evaluated explicitly. Spalart-Almaras one equation turbulence model is implemented for hybrid grids to evaluate the turbulent viscosity. For dynamically moving bodies, the
Test instrumentation evaluates electrostatic hazards in fluid system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, L. H.; Henry, R.; Krebs, D.
1967-01-01
RJ-1 fuel surface potential is measured with a probe to determine the degree of hazard originating from static electricity buildup in the hydraulic fluid. The probe is mounted in contact with the fluid surface and connected to an electrostatic voltmeter.
Generalized Reduced Order Modeling of Aeroservoelastic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gariffo, James Michael
Transonic aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling presents a significant technical and computational challenge. Flow fields with a mixture of subsonic and supersonic flow, as well as moving shock waves, can only be captured through high-fidelity CFD analysis. With modern computing power, it is realtively straightforward to determine the flutter boundary for a single structural configuration at a single flight condition, but problems of larger scope remain quite costly. Some such problems include characterizing a vehicle's flutter boundary over its full flight envelope, optimizing its structural weight subject to aeroelastic constraints, and designing control laws for flutter suppression. For all of these applications, reduced-order models (ROMs) offer substantial computational savings. ROM techniques in general have existed for decades, and the methodology presented in this dissertation builds on successful previous techniques to create a powerful new scheme for modeling aeroelastic systems, and predicting and interpolating their transonic flutter boundaries. In this method, linear ASE state-space models are constructed from modal structural and actuator models coupled to state-space models of the linearized aerodynamic forces through feedback loops. Flutter predictions can be made from these models through simple eigenvalue analysis of their state-transition matrices for an appropriate set of dynamic pressures. Moreover, this analysis returns the frequency and damping trend of every aeroelastic branch. In contrast, determining the critical dynamic pressure by direct time-marching CFD requires a separate run for every dynamic pressure being analyzed simply to obtain the trend for the critical branch. The present ROM methodology also includes a new model interpolation technique that greatly enhances the benefits of these ROMs. This enables predictions of the dynamic behavior of the system for flight conditions where CFD analysis has not been explicitly
A more general system for Poisson series manipulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cherniack, J. R.
1973-01-01
The design of a working Poisson series processor system is described that is more general than those currently in use. This system is the result of a series of compromises among efficiency, generality, ease of programing, and ease of use. The most general form of coefficients that can be multiplied efficiently is pointed out, and the place of general-purpose algebraic systems in celestial mechanics is discussed.
Criss, R.E.; Hofmeister, A.M.
1991-02-01
Fluid dynamics principles require that circulation of aqueous fluid will be practically ubiquitous in tectonically active parts of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Both experiment and theory demonstrate that flow, generally in the form of unicells (Hadley circulation), always occurs for isothermal tilts above a very small critical angle ({approximately}5{degree}), for any non-zero permeability or Rayleigh number, and even for hot over cold geometries. Interestingly, heat transport rates in the unicellular regime are essentially conductive, so such flow, unlike more vigorous flow at higher Rayleigh number, is not properly termed convective. These principles have numerous geological ramifications, including: (1) many of the hydrothermal systems developed around epizonal intrusions should be dominantly unicellular in nature, which explains their aspect ratios and the smooth and very regular {delta}{sup 18}O variations that are produced in the rocks; (2) large, long-lived unicells are predicted to occur deep in the Earth's crust wherever Rayleigh numbers are finite and isotherms are substantially inclined, as in zones of batholith intrusion, regional metamorphism, and collision; (3) unicells with lateral dimensions of several hundred kilometers are predicted to be associated with subduction zones dipping more than 6-12{degree}, with fluid advection into the hot mantle wedge being instrumental in mantle metasomatism and in the generation of andesitic magmas.
Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer And Fluid Integrator (SINDA '85/FLUINT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cullimore, Brent; Goble, Richard; Ring, Steven; Jensen, Carl
1991-01-01
General thermal analysis program handles both simple and extremely complex heat transfer problems, including those with both solid and fluid components. Available for DEC and Sun computers, program yields NASTRAN-compatible output.
A review of progress in understanding the fluid geochemistry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system
Truesdell, A.H.; Nehring, N.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Janik, C.J.; Coplen, T.B.
1984-01-01
Fluid geochemistry has played a major role in our present understanding of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have been used to indicate the origin of water, salts and gases, original subsurface temperature and fluid flow, fluid-production mechanisms, and production-induced aquifer boiling and cold-water entry. The extensive geochemical data and interpretations for Cerro Prieto published from 1964 to 1981 are reviewed and discussed. Fluid geochemistry must continue to play an important role in the further development of the Cerro Prieto field. ?? 1984.
46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...
46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...
46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...
46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...
46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...
46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...
46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...
46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...
46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section 108.431... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a) Sections 108.431 through 108.457 apply to high pressure...
46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154.1140... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas carrier must have a dry chemical firefighting system that meets §§ 154.1145 through 154.1170, Part 56...
46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154.1140... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas carrier must have a dry chemical firefighting system that meets §§ 154.1145 through 154.1170, Part 56...
46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154.1140... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas carrier must have a dry chemical firefighting system that meets §§ 154.1145 through 154.1170, Part 56...
46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154.1140... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas carrier must have a dry chemical firefighting system that meets §§ 154.1145 through 154.1170, Part 56...
46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154.1140... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas carrier must have a dry chemical firefighting system that meets §§ 154.1145 through 154.1170, Part 56...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, B. B.; Tuteja, G. S.
1991-08-01
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a continuously stratified magnetofluid under a general rotation field, earlier studied by Dávalos-Orozco and Aguilar-Rosas [Phys. Fluids A 1, 1600 (1989)] is reconsidered. Some corrections in their analysis are made and the discrepancies between their results in some special cases and those obtained by Chakraborty [Phys. Fluids 25, 743 (1982)] and Hide [J. Fluid Mech. 39, 283 (1969)] are removed.
Evolution paths of a general control system
Speckert, G.C.
1983-01-01
Large systems are built by teams of people who communicate through a set of design tools to produce an information model which describes the system. The model can be analyzed for consistency and completeness. A system building methodology based upon this information model can be used for the construction, operation, and maintenance of the system. Operational procedure knowledge derived from operating experience can be used for autonomous operation. Advancing computer technology is improving the engineering tools available in each of these areas. A unified set of such tools provides the maximum amount of computer assistance to the system builders.
Time Variation of Fluid Chemistry at Iheya North Seafloor Hydrothermal System, mid-Okinawa Trough
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, H.; Ishibashi, J.; Kataoka, S.; Umeki, Y.; Kouzuma, F.; Nakayama, N.; Tsunogai, U.
2002-12-01
Seafloor hydrothermal system at Iheya North, mid-Okinawa Trough, was discovered by the deep tow camera system in 1995. It is located at 27°47.2"N, 126°63.9"E and water depth of 1000m. The first fluid samples were collected by "Shinkai 2000" in 1996. Since then, fluid samples have been collected almost every year till 2002. Iheya North seafloor hydrothermal system extends about 200m in NS and 150m in EW directions. There are at least 9 hydrothermal vents in the area. Some of them are several tens meters high sulfide chimney emitting hydrothermal fluid from their top and side wall. The maximum temperature measured was 311°C at the center part of this field. The temperatures of venting fluids at the peripheral parts of the system are lower than that at the central part. The chemical compositions of hydrothermal fluids have spatial and time variations. Before 1999, salinities of hydrothermal fluids tend to be lower at the peripheral part of the system. The relationships between K and Cl concentrations lie on a single line originating from the origin. It means that the phase separation of the hydrothermal fluids under the seafloor influences the spatial variation of the hydrothermal fluids in this system. The line indicates that the chemistry of the hydrothermal fluid is K-rich compared to those of the sediment-starved mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids. It means that the fluids are reacted with hot acidic rock of the mid-Okinawa Trough. High concentrations of other components, such as NH4 and Li, indicate that the fluid is also reacted with the sediment of the mid-Okinawa Trough. After 2000, there were large decreases in salinities of the hydrothermal fluids in the southern part of this system. Hydrothermal fluid of one of the vent in southern part of the system becomes almost zero salinity. This sudden change in salinity indicates the big change in sub-seafloor hydrology in this hydrothermal system. When the hydrothermal system was aged and the path way of the
Bencivenga F.; Cunsolo A.
2012-03-16
The predictions of the generalized collective modes (GCM) theory on the non-hydrodynamic dispersion of collective excitations of liquids and supercritical fluids have been tested against previous inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on samples of increasing complexity. We observed a good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions within the hypothesis that sound propagation is adiabatic. Overall, the performed comparison provides an experimental validation of GCM predictions and shows that, even in the transition region between the hydrodynamic and the mesoscopic regimes, thermal fluctuations have a minor influence on the dispersion, whose non-hydrodynamic effects are mostly driven by viscoelastic phenomena.
A generalized fidelity amplitude for open systems.
Gorin, T; Moreno, H J; Seligman, T H
2016-06-13
We consider a central system which is coupled via dephasing to an open system, i.e. an intermediate system which in turn is coupled to another environment. Considering the intermediate and far environment as one composite system, the coherences in the central system are given in the form of fidelity amplitudes for a certain perturbed echo dynamics in the composite environment. On the basis of the Born-Markov approximation, we derive a master equation for the reduction of that dynamics to the intermediate system alone. In distinction to an earlier paper (Moreno et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92, 030104. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030104)), where we discussed the stabilizing effect of the far environment on the decoherence in the central system, we focus here on the possibility of using the measurable coherences in the central system for probing the open quantum dynamics in the intermediate system. We illustrate our results for the case of chaotic dynamics in the near environment, where we compare random matrix simulations with our analytical result.
Iron Release and Precipitation in Fracture Fluid-Shale Fracturing Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jew, A. D.; Joe-Wong, C. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Thomas, D.; Dustin, M. K.; Brown, G. E.; Maher, K.; Bargar, J.
2015-12-01
Hydraulic fracturing of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs is important to the United States energy portfolio. Hydrocarbon production from new wells generally declines rapidly over the initial months of production. One possible reason for the decrease is the mineralization and clogging of microfracture networks proximal to propped fractures. One important but relatively unexplored class of reactions is oxidation of Fe(II) derived from Fe(II)-bearing mineral dissolution (primarily pyrite and siderite) and subsequent precipitation of Fe(III)-(oxy)hydroxides. To explore this topic, we reacted fracture fluid with sand-sized and whole rock chips from four different geological localities (Marcellus Fm., Barnett Fm., Eagle Ford Fm., and Green River Fm.) containing highly varied concentrations of clays, carbonates, and TOC. Additionally, kerogen was isolated from the Green River Fm. and reacted with fracture fluid. All the shale sands showed an initial release of Fe into solution during the first 96 hours of reaction followed by a plateau or significant drop in Fe indicating that mineral precipitation occurred. Conversely, the Fe concentrations in the kerogen reactors kept increasing throughout the 3-week experiments. The whole rock samples showed a steady increase then a plateau in Fe during the 3-weeks, indicating a slower Fe release and subsequently, slower Fe precipitation. Reactors with Marcellus Fm. Sands contained dilute HCl, water only, the fracture fluid with no headspace, and fracture fluid with no HCl. Results from these experiments show that HCl is the most important additive for the promotion of Fe release into solution. Iron oxidation is not promoted solely by O2 or organics but instead requires a combination of the two for precipitation in these systems. These results indicate that Fe redox cycling is an important and complex part of hydraulic fracturing that most likely results in production slowdown over the life of a well.
System for concentrating and analyzing particles suspended in a fluid
Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Singh, Anup K.
2011-04-26
Disclosed is a device for separating and concentrating particles suspended in a fluid stream by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to trap and/or deflect those particles as they migrate through a fluid channel. The method uses fluid channels designed to constrain a liquid flowing through it to uniform electrokinetic flow velocities. This behavior is achieved by connecting deep and shallow sections of channels, with the channel depth varying abruptly along an interface. By careful design of abrupt changes in specific permeability at the interface, an abrupt and spatially uniform change in electrokinetic force can be selected. Because these abrupt interfaces also cause a sharp gradient in applied electric fields, a DEP force also can be established along the interface. Depending on the complex conductivity of the suspended particles and the immersion liquid, the DEP force can controllably complement or oppose the local electrokinetic force transporting the fluid through the channel allowing for manipulation of particles suspended in the transporting liquid.
46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d... (13 millimeters) high as follows: Attention General Alarm—When Alarm Sounds Go to Your Station. (e)...
46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering at least 1/2...
46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering at least 1/2...
Building a generalized distributed system model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukkamala, R.
1992-01-01
The key elements in the second year (1991-92) of our project are: (1) implementation of the distributed system prototype; (2) successful passing of the candidacy examination and a PhD proposal acceptance by the funded student; (3) design of storage efficient schemes for replicated distributed systems; and (4) modeling of gracefully degrading reliable computing systems. In the third year of the project (1992-93), we propose to: (1) complete the testing of the prototype; (2) enhance the functionality of the modules by enabling the experimentation with more complex protocols; (3) use the prototype to verify the theoretically predicted performance of locking protocols, etc.; and (4) work on issues related to real-time distributed systems. This should result in efficient protocols for these systems.
General properties of W Ursae Majoris systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maceroni, C.; Milano, L.; Russo, G.
1985-12-01
The light curves of a sample of 42 W Ursae Majoris binary systems (21 W-type, 21 A-type) have been synthesized using the computer code of Wilson and Devinney (1971). The masses, radii and luminosities of the stars have been derived assuming the global properties of a contact binary system are the same as those of an analogous detached system. A table listing the main photometric data is given. Substantial continuity was observed in the physical properties of the A-type and the W-type systems, suggesting a scenario in which almost all of the A-type systems are the evolved counterparts of the W-types. The existence of an inhomogeneous group, probably evolved into contact from a detached configuration, is confirmed. An upper limit for the primary mass of the unevolved objects is derived.
21 CFR 866.5860 - Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. 866.5860 Section 866.5860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5860 Total spinal fluid immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A total spinal...
Three-dimensional wire-mesh capacitor system measures fluid density
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1965-01-01
Gaging system automatically measures the bulk density of a stored, electrically nonconductive fluid containing varying portions of liquid and vapor. The system employs a three-dimensional wire-mesh capacitor whose capacitance varies with the bulk density of the fluid dielectric medium between the capacitor plates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.
1974-01-01
The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.
Sullivan, Scott C; Fansler, Douglas
2014-10-14
A vehicle having multiple isolated fluid circuits configured to be filled through a common fill port includes a first fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, the first fluid circuit having a first fill port, a second fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, and a conduit defining a fluid passageway between the first fluid circuit and second fluid circuit, the conduit including a valve. The valve is configured such that the first and second fluid circuits are fluidly coupled via the passageway when the valve is open, and are fluidly isolated when the valve is closed.
Existence of global solutions for a chemotaxis-fluid system with nonlinear diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Yun-Sung; Kang, Kyungkeun
2016-04-01
We consider a coupled system consisting of the Navier-Stokes equations and a porous medium type of Keller-Segel system that model the motion of swimming bacteria living in fluid and consuming oxygen. We establish the global-in-time existence of weak solutions for the Cauchy problem of the system in dimension three. In addition, if the Stokes system, instead Navier-Stokes system, is considered for the fluid equation, we prove that bounded weak solutions exist globally in time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riasi, M. S.; Huang, G.; Montemagno, C.; Yeghiazarian, L.
2014-12-01
Micro-scale modeling of multiphase flow in porous media is critical to characterize porous materials. Several modeling techniques have been implemented to date, but none can be used as a general strategy for all porous media applications due to challenges presented by non-smooth high-curvature and deformable solid surfaces, and by a wide range of pore sizes and porosities. Finite approaches like the finite volume method require a high quality, problem-dependent mesh, while particle-based approaches like the lattice Boltzmann require too many particles to achieve a stable meaningful solution. Both come at a large computational cost. Other methods such as pore network modeling (PNM) have been developed to accelerate the solution process by simplifying the solution domain, but so far a unique and straightforward methodology to implement PNM is lacking. Pore topology method (PTM) is a new topologically consistent approach developed to simulate multiphase flow in porous media. The core of PTM is to reduce the complexity of the 3-D void space geometry by working with its medial surface as the solution domain. Medial surface is capable of capturing all the corners and surface curvatures in a porous structure, and therefore provides a topologically consistent representative geometry for porous structure. Despite the simplicity and low computational cost, PTM provides a fast and straightforward approach for micro-scale modeling of fluid flow in all types of porous media irrespective of their porosity and pore size distribution. In our previous work, we developed a non-iterative fast medial surface finder algorithm to determine a voxel-wide medial surface of the void space of porous media as well as a set of simple rules to determine the capillary pressure-saturation curves for a porous system assuming quasi-static two-phase flow with a planar w-nw interface. Our simulation results for a highly porous fibrous material and polygonal capillary tubes were in excellent agreement
30 CFR 75.1101-6 - Water sprinkler systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water sprinkler systems; general. 75.1101-6... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-6 Water sprinkler systems; general. Water sprinkler systems may be installed to protect main and secondary...
30 CFR 75.1101-6 - Water sprinkler systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water sprinkler systems; general. 75.1101-6... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-6 Water sprinkler systems; general. Water sprinkler systems may be installed to protect main and secondary...
30 CFR 75.1101-6 - Water sprinkler systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water sprinkler systems; general. 75.1101-6... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-6 Water sprinkler systems; general. Water sprinkler systems may be installed to protect main and secondary...
30 CFR 75.1101-6 - Water sprinkler systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water sprinkler systems; general. 75.1101-6... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-6 Water sprinkler systems; general. Water sprinkler systems may be installed to protect main and secondary...
30 CFR 75.1101-6 - Water sprinkler systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water sprinkler systems; general. 75.1101-6... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-6 Water sprinkler systems; general. Water sprinkler systems may be installed to protect main and secondary...
46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inert gas systems: General. 154.903 Section 154.903... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas...
46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inert gas systems: General. 154.903 Section 154.903... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas...
46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inert gas systems: General. 154.903 Section 154.903... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas...
46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) Fixed carbon dioxide or halogenated extinguishing systems must be installed to protect...
46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed...
46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed...
46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) Fixed carbon dioxide or halogenated extinguishing systems must be installed to protect...
46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169... VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general. (a) A fixed carbon dioxide, Halon 1301, or clean agent extinguishing system must be installed...
46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...
46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...
46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...
46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...
46 CFR 108.403 - Fire extinguishing systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire extinguishing systems: General. 108.403 Section 108.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.403 Fire extinguishing systems: General. (a)...
46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section... Equipment Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas vessel and each liquefied toxic gas vessel must have an exterior water spray system that meets §§...
46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section... Equipment Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas vessel and each liquefied toxic gas vessel must have an exterior water spray system that meets §§...
46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section... Equipment Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas vessel and each liquefied toxic gas vessel must have an exterior water spray system that meets §§...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.
2015-01-01
Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids associated with felsic to intermediate composition magmas are generally dominated by (Na ± K)Cl, but often the fluids also contain significant concentrations of FeCl2. Previously, fluid inclusions containing such fluids were interpreted using the properties of H2O-NaCl because the effect of FeCl2 on the phase equilibrium and volumetric (PVTx) properties of aqueous fluids was essentially unknown. In this study, synthetic fluid inclusion experiments have been conducted to determine the vapor-saturated liquidus phase relations of the system H2O-NaCl-FeCl2. Microthermometric and microanalytical measurements on synthetic fluid inclusions have been combined with the limited existing data, as well as with predictions based on Pitzer's formalism, to determine the ternary cotectic and peritectic phase boundaries and liquidus fields. The liquidus is qualitatively similar to those of other ternary systems of H2O-NaCl plus divalent-cation chlorides (MgCl2 and CaCl2) and has been characterized through empirical equations that represent the liquid salinity on the ice- and halite-liquidus surfaces. The ice and halite liquidi intersect at a metastable cotectic curve, which can be used to determine fluid compositions in this system if metastable behavior is observed. Furthermore, based on the experimentally determined liquidus, bulk salinities of natural fluid inclusions can be determined from the last dissolution temperatures of ice and/or halite using the new empirical equations.
Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts
Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten; Apps, John
2008-01-17
There is growing interest in the novel concept of operating Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO{sub 2} instead of water as heat transmission fluid. Initial studies have suggested that CO{sub 2} will achieve larger rates of heat extraction, and can offer geologic storage of carbon as an ancillary benefit. Fluid-rock interactions in EGS operated with CO{sub 2} are expected to be vastly different in zones with an aqueous phase present, as compared to the central reservoir zone with anhydrous supercritical CO{sub 2}. Our numerical simulations of chemically reactive transport show a combination of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects in the peripheral zone of the systems. These could impact reservoir growth and longevity, with important ramifications for sustaining energy recovery, for estimating CO{sub 2} loss rates, and for figuring tradeoffs between power generation and geologic storage of CO{sub 2}.
Building a generalized distributed system model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukkamala, R.
1993-01-01
The key elements in the 1992-93 period of the project are the following: (1) extensive use of the simulator to implement and test - concurrency control algorithms, interactive user interface, and replica control algorithms; and (2) investigations into the applicability of data and process replication in real-time systems. In the 1993-94 period of the project, we intend to accomplish the following: (1) concentrate on efforts to investigate the effects of data and process replication on hard and soft real-time systems - especially we will concentrate on the impact of semantic-based consistency control schemes on a distributed real-time system in terms of improved reliability, improved availability, better resource utilization, and reduced missed task deadlines; and (2) use the prototype to verify the theoretically predicted performance of locking protocols, etc.
Pickett, G. R.
2014-12-15
As a specific offering towards his festschrift, we present a review the various properties of the excitation gas in superfluid {sup 3}He, which depend on Andreev reflection. This phenomenon dominates many of the properties of the normal fluid, especially at the lowest temperatures. We outline the ideas behind this dominance and describe a sample of the many experiments in this system which the operation of Andreev reflection has made possible, from temperature measurement, particle detection, vortex imaging to cosmological analogues.
Three new exact solutions for charged fluid spheres in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Dayanandan, Baiju; Smitha, T. T.
2015-03-01
In the present article three new exact solutions of Einstein's field equations for charged fluid spheres are derived as per Ivanov's classification ( ν, q). Where ` ν' stands for `log g 44' and q represents total charge inside the sphere of radius r. The solutions are obtained by considering ν= nlog B 1/ n (1+ br 2) with b<0, B>0 and assuming suitable charged function ` q'. The solutions so obtained are utilized to construct the super dense star models with surface density ρ a =2×1014 g cm-3 and possessing the maximum mass M and the corresponding radius a as: (i) n=-1, M=3.9678 M Θ , a=22.9698 km, (ii) n=-2, M=4.9489 M Θ , a=18.332 km, (iii) n=-3, M=0.9643 M Θ , a=3.1698 km. The red shift, adiabatic index, variation of velocity of light throughout the stars have been studied carefully and kept the every entity within the physical range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, Jason; Moore, Michael
2013-01-01
The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) is a modeling software package that combines nodal analysis and the hydraulic-electric analogy to simulate fluid, electrical, and thermal flow systems. GUNNS is developed by L-3 Communications under the TS21 (Training Systems for the 21st Century) project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), primarily for use in space vehicle training simulators at JSC. It has sufficient compactness and fidelity to model the fluid, electrical, and thermal aspects of space vehicles in real-time simulations running on commodity workstations, for vehicle crew and flight controller training. It has a reusable and flexible component and system design, and a Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing capability for rapid GUI-based simulator development, ease of maintenance, and associated cost savings. GUNNS is optimized for NASA's Trick simulation environment, but can be run independently of Trick.
Systems and methods for separating a multiphase fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor); Thomas, Evan A. (Inventor); Graf, John C. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
Apparatus and methods for separating a fluid are provided. The apparatus can include a separator and a collector having an internal volume defined at least in part by one or more surfaces narrowing toward a bottom portion of the volume. The separator can include an exit port oriented toward the bottom portion of the volume. The internal volume can receive a fluid expelled from the separator into a flow path in the collector and the flow path can include at least two directional transitions within the collector.
General Information about Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors
... System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Go ... in patients with a high-risk tumor. The information from tests and procedures done to detect (find) ...
General and explicit equations of motion for mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phohomsiri, Phailaung
This study presents the new, general forms of the explicit equations of motion for general mechanical systems subjected to holonomic and/or nonholonomic constraints. These constraints may or may not satisfy D'Alembert's principle. In this dissertation we first show that the general, explicit equations of motion for mechanical systems under nonideal constraints can be obtained without any use of generalized inverses. These equations are then shown to be equivalent to those obtained using generalized inverses. Next we derive the more general, explicit equations of motion capable of handling mechanical systems with symmetric, semi-positive definite mass matrices. These new equations are shown to be identical to ones obtained by Udwadia and Kalaba when the mass matrices become symmetric, positive definite. Examples are then provided to show that systems with singular mass matrices can really occur and to demonstrate the use of the new equations. Subsequently, we make use of quasi-velocities as independent variables to describe constrained motion. Based on these quasi-velocities, we generalize the Poincare equations for unconstrained systems and then derive the general, explicit Poincare equations of motion for constrained mechanical systems. These new explicit Poincare equations of motion for constrained systems might be probably considered the most general, explicit equations so far obtained.
Development of a filter regeneration system for advanced spacecraft fluid systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Behrend, A. F., Jr.; Descamp, V. A.
1974-01-01
The development of a filter regeneration system for efficiently cleaning fluid particulate filters is presented. Based on a backflush/jet impingement technique, the regeneration system demonstrated a cleaning efficiency of 98.7 to 100%. The operating principles and design features are discussed with emphasis on the primary system components that include a regenerable filter, vortex particle separator, and zero-g particle trap. Techniques and equipment used for ground and zero-g performance tests are described. Test results and conclusions, as well as possible areas for commercial application, are included.
Method for resisting corrosion in geothermal fluid handling systems
Love, W.W.; Cron, C.J.
1988-05-24
A method for resisting corrosion while conducting a flow of hot, corrosive geothermal fluid is described comprising the steps of: (a) forming a fluid conducting element of a beta and alpha titanium-base product produced by heating to form a metastable beta titantium matrix, and thereafter heat treating the matrix to form sufficient alpha phase therein providing an increase in ultimate tensile strength of at least about 10,000 psi over that of the matrix before the heat treating, the beta and alpha titantium-base product so formed having an average valence electron density of between about 4.15 and about 4.35. The composition consisting essentially of: (i) a total of between about 2 and about 10 weight percent of one or more beta eutectoid elements; (ii) between about 4 and about 10 weight percent of vanadium; (iii) between about 3 and about 6 weight percent of molybdenum; (iv) between about 2 and about 5 weight percent of aluminum; and (v) the balance titanium; and (b) following the geothermal fluid through the fluid conducting element.
Pumping fluids in microfluidic systems using the elastic deformation of poly(dimethylsiloxane).
Weibel, Douglas B; Siegel, Adam C; Lee, Andrew; George, Alexander H; Whitesides, George M
2007-12-01
This paper demonstrates a methodology for storing and pumping fluids that provide a useful capability for microfluidic devices. It uses microfluidic screw valves to isolate fluids in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microcompartments, in which the pressure of the liquid is stored in the elastic deformation of the walls and ceiling of the compartments. Fluids can be stored under pressure in these structures for months. When the valves are opened, the walls and ceiling push the fluid out of the compartments into microfluidic channels. The system has five useful characteristics: (i) it is made using soft lithographic techniques; (ii) it allows multiple reagents to be preloaded in devices and stored under pressure without any additional user intervention; (iii) it makes it possible to meter out fluids in devices, and to control rates of flow of fluids; (iv) it prevents the user from exposure to potentially toxic reagents; and (v) it is hand-operated and does not require additional equipment or resources. PMID:18030408
Waste heat recovery fluids for heavy-duty transportation bottoming cycle systems
Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.; Krazinski, J.L.
1983-01-01
The work effort associated with the Waste Heat Recovery Fluids for Heavy-Duty Transportation Bottoming Cycle Systems Project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is summarized. As part of this effort, information on fluid properties and bottoming cycle requirements was obtained from the following sources: a literature search, conversations with researchers, and site visits. It was found that adequate thermophysical property data are available for the more commonly used organic fluids, which have stability temperatures below approx. 750/sup 0/F, but that a technology gap exists for higher temperature fluids. A single-component fluid property subroutine has been developed and integrated into Argonne's Rankine bottoming cycle (RBC) Performance Code. Current efforts focus on documenting and integrating a multicomponent fluid property subroutine into the code.
Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids
Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon
2016-06-14
Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang
2006-01-01
This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…
Computational fluid dynamic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartley, Tom T.; Deabreu-Garcia, Alex
1989-01-01
A general technique is presented for modeling fluid, or gas, dynamic systems specifically for the development of control systems. The numerical methods which are generally used in computational fluid dynamics are borrowed to create either continuous-time or discrete-time models of the particular fluid system. The resulting equations can be either left in a nonlinear form, or easily linearized about an operating point. As there are typically very many states in these systems, the usual linear model reduction methods can be used on them to allow a low-order controller to be designed. A simple example is given which typifies many internal flow control problems. The resulting control is termed computational fluid dynamic control.
21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. 882.5550 Section 882.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... shunt is a device or combination of devices used to divert fluid from the brain or other part of...
21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. 882.5550 Section 882.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... shunt is a device or combination of devices used to divert fluid from the brain or other part of...
21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. 882.5550 Section 882.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... shunt is a device or combination of devices used to divert fluid from the brain or other part of...
21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. 882.5550 Section 882.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... shunt is a device or combination of devices used to divert fluid from the brain or other part of...
21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. 882.5550 Section 882.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... shunt is a device or combination of devices used to divert fluid from the brain or other part of...
Modeling deformation-induced fluid flow in cortical bone's canalicular-lacunar system.
Gururaja, S; Kim, H J; Swan, C C; Brand, R A; Lakes, R S
2005-01-01
To explore the potential role that load-induced fluid flow plays as a mechano-transduction mechanism in bone adaptation, a lacunar-canalicular scale bone poroelasticity model is developed and implemented. The model uses micromechanics to homogenize the pericanalicular bone matrix, a system of straight circular cylinders in the bone matrix through which bone fluids can flow, as a locally anisotropic poroelastic medium. In this work, a simplified two-dimensional model of a periodic array of lacunae and their surrounding systems of canaliculi is used to quantify local fluid flow characteristics in the vicinity of a single lacuna. When the cortical bone model is loaded, microscale stress, and strain concentrations occur in the vicinity of individual lacunae and give rise to microscale spatial variations in the pore fluid pressure field. Furthermore, loading of the bone matrix containing canaliculi generates fluid pressures in the contained fluids. Consequently, loading of cortical bone induces fluid flow in the canaliculi and exchange of fluid between canaliculi and lacunae. For realistic bone morphology parameters, and a range of loading frequencies, fluid pressures and fluid-solid drag forces in the canalicular bone are computed and the associated energy dissipation in the models compared to that measured in physical in vitro experiments on human cortical bone. The proposed model indicates that deformation-induced fluid pressures in the lacunar-canalicular system have relaxation times on the order of milliseconds as opposed to the much shorter times (hundredths of milliseconds) associated with deformation-induced pressures in the Haversian system.
46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...
46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...
46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...
46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...
46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...
Physical and Chemical Roles of Metalworking Fluids in a Vibration-Assisted Tapping System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nogami, Takeshi; Nakano, Ken
A vibration-assisted tapping system has been developed in which a piezoelectric-zirconate-titanate (PZT) oscillator applies small-amplitude vibrations to a workpiece and a torque transducer measures the time-evolving torque during the tapping process. To investigate the roles of metalworking fluids, four different metalworking conditions have been examined: without metalworking fluids (dry), with an additive-free fluid (base oil), with an oiliness-agent-containing fluid (fluid A), and with an extreme-pressure-agent-containing fluid (fluid B). The time evolutions of the tapping torque have been obtained for tapping M3 threads in S45C steel with varying vibration amplitudes, vibration frequencies, and tapping speed. It has been found that the present system decreases the tapping torque; in particular, a decrement of up to 14% in the tapping torque is obtained for fluid A using 800-Hz vibrations with an amplitude of 5 μm at a tapping speed of 3 rpm. Increments in the vibration amplitude and frequency lead to decrements in the tapping torque, but the effect of the vibration tends to fade with increasing tapping speeds. It appears that vibrations enhance not only the physical effects but also the chemical effects of metalworking fluids.
Fully non-linear cosmological perturbations of multicomponent fluid and field systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Park, Chan-Gyung
2016-09-01
We present fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in the presence of multiple components of fluids and minimally coupled scalar fields. We ignore the tensor-type perturbation. The equations are presented without taking the temporal gauge condition in the Friedmann background with general curvature and the cosmological constant. We include the anisotropic stress. Even in the absence of anisotropic stress of individual component, the multiple component nature introduces the anisotropic stress in the collective fluid quantities. We prove the Newtonian limit of multiple fluids in the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge conditions, present the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations in the presence of general relativistic pressure in the zero-shear gauge, and present the fully non-linear equations and the third-order perturbation equations of the non-relativistic pressure fluids in the CDM-comoving gauge.
GTOSS: Generalized Tethered Object Simulation System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lang, David D.
1987-01-01
GTOSS represents a tether analysis complex which is described by addressing its family of modules. TOSS is a portable software subsystem specifically designed to be introduced into the environment of any existing vehicle dynamics simulation to add the capability of simulating multiple interacting objects (via multiple tethers). These objects may interact with each other as well as with the vehicle into whose environment TOSS is introduced. GTOSS is a stand alone tethered system analysis program, representing an example of TOSS having been married to a host simulation. RTOSS is the Results Data Base (RDB) subsystem designed to archive TOSS simulation results for future display processing. DTOSS is a display post processors designed to utilize the RDB. DTOSS extracts data from the RDB for multi-page printed time history displays. CTOSS is similar to DTOSS, but is designed to create ASCII plot files. The same time history data formats provided for DTOSS (for printing) are available via CTOSS for plotting. How these and other modules interact with each other is discussed.
Synchronized Chaos in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics and in the Predictive Modeling of Natural Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duane, Gregory S.
2008-03-01
The ubiquitous phenomenon of synchronization among regular oscillators in Nature has been shown, in the past two decades, to extend to chaotic systems. Despite sensitive dependence on initial conditions, two chaotic systems will commonly fall into synchronized motion along their strange attractors when only some of the many degrees of freedom of one system are coupled to corresponding variables in the other. In geophysical fluid models, synchronization can mediate scale interactions, so that coupling of degrees of freedom that describe medium-scale components of the flow can result in synchronization, or partial synchronization, at all scales. Chaos synchronization has been used to interpret non-local "teleconnection" patterns in the Earth's climate system and to predict new ones. In the realm of practical meteorology, the fact that two PDE systems, conceived as "truth" and "model", respectively, can be made to synchronize when coupled at only a discrete set of points, explains how observations at a discrete set of weather stations can be sufficient for weather prediction by a synchronously coupled model. Minimizing synchronization error leads to general recipes for assimilation of observed data into a running model that systematize the treatment of nonlinearities in the dynamical equations. Equations can generally be added to adapt parameters as well as states as the model is running, so that the model "learns". The synchronization view of predictive modelling extends to any translationally- any PDE with constant coefficients, the general form of physical theories. The reliance on synchronicity as an organizing principle in Nature, alternative to causality, has philosophical roots in the collaboration of Carl Jung and Wolfgang Pauli, on the one hand, and in traditions outside of European science, on the other.
Critical elements in the design of piping systems for toxic fluids
Getz, R.C.
1996-09-01
While releases of hazardous/toxic fluids from pressurized pipelines are infrequent, the potential for a catastrophic event resulting from such a release warrants extraordinary care of the hazardous/toxic piping systems containing these fluids, during the entire plant life cycle. System identification, segregation, material and component selection, construction techniques, and preventative maintenance programs all contribute to improved system reliability, and are discussed herein. Methods to mitigate damages in the event of a failure are also discussed.
Preheating of fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system at cold startup
Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.
2016-07-12
Various technologies pertaining to causing fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to flow in a desired direction at cold startup of the system are described herein. A sensor is positioned at an inlet of a turbine, wherein the sensor is configured to output sensed temperatures of fluid at the inlet of the turbine. If the sensed temperature surpasses a predefined threshold, at least one operating parameter of the power generation system is altered.
Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth
2014-01-01
We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.
Evaluation of isolator system and large-volume centrifugation method for culturing body fluids.
Elston, H R; Wang, M; Philip, A
1990-01-01
The Isolator system was compared with the large-volume centrifugation method for processing and recovering organisms from body fluids other than blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. A total of 155 body fluid samples were processed for the recovery of clinically significant organisms. Of the 55 positive cultures, Isolator detected 94% and the large-volume centrifugation method detected 64%. The time necessary to indicate positivity was not significantly different in the two methods; however, in five cases, the Isolator system yielded clinically significant organisms 24 h sooner than the conventional method. The Isolator system was found to be a more sensitive alternative than the conventional large-volume centrifugation method. PMID:2405006
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominguez-Nuñez, L. A.; Silva-Navarro, G.
2014-04-01
The general study and applications of Magneto-Rhelogical (MR) dampers have been spread in the lasts years but only some studies have been focusing on the vibration control problems on rotor-bearings systems. Squeeze-Film Dampers (SFD) are now commonly used to passively control the vibration response on rotor-bearing systems because they can provide flexibility, damping and extend the so-called stability thresholds in rotating machinery. More recently, SFD are combined with MR or Electro-Rheological (ER) fluids to introduce a semiactive control mechanism to modify the rotordynamic coefficients and deal with the robust performance of the overall system response for higher operating speeds. There are, however, some theoretical and technological problems that complicate their extensive use, like the relationship between the centering spring flexibility and the rheological behavior of the smart fluid to produce the SFD forces. In this work it is considered a SFD with MR fluid and a set of circular section beams in a squirrel cage arrangement in combination with latex seals as centering springs. The mathematical model analysis includes the controllable viscoelastic properties associated to the MR fluid. The characterization of the SFD is made by the determination of some coefficients associated with a modified Choi-Lee-Park polynomial model. During the analysis is considered a rotor-bearing system modeled using finite element methods. The SFD with MR fluid is connected to an experimental platform to validate and experimentally evaluate the overall system. Finally, to improve the open-loop system performance, a methodology for the use of different control schemes is proposed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dang, Cai-Ping; Braeken, Johan; Ferrer, Emilio; Liu, Chang
2012-01-01
This study explored the controversy surrounding working memory: whether it is a unitary system providing general purpose resources or a more differentiated system with domain-specific sub-components. A total of 348 participants completed a set of 6 working memory tasks that systematically varied in storage target contents and type of information…
46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... this part and each cargo heating system must: (a) Meet the standards of Subchapters F (Marine... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section...
46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... this part and each cargo heating system must: (a) Meet the standards of Subchapters F (Marine... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section...
46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... this part and each cargo heating system must: (a) Meet the standards of Subchapters F (Marine... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section...
46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... this part and each cargo heating system must: (a) Meet the standards of Subchapters F (Marine... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section...
46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... this part and each cargo heating system must: (a) Meet the standards of Subchapters F (Marine... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section...
Feature Analysis of Generalized Data Base Management Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conference on Data Systems Languages, Monroeville, PA. Systems Committee.
A more complete definition of the features offered in present day generalized data base management systems is provided by this second technical report of the CODASYL Systems Committee. In a tutorial format, each feature description is followed by either narrative information covering ten systems or by a table for all systems. The ten systems…
Hysteresis and multiple stable configurations in a magnetic fluid system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, D. P.
2008-05-01
A magnetic liquid in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell is subjected to a vertical magnetic field. The width of the magnetic fluid finger is measured as a function of applied field and compared to a theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an energy minimization procedure and predicts a double energy minimum, hysteresis, and discontinuous transitions between a circle and a finger. The experimental data set agrees very well with the theory for a well-defined magnetic fluid finger. Near the transitions, the experiments show hysteresis and support for a double energy minimum; however, the agreement is not quite so good. The discrepancy between theory and experiment near the transition region is likely due to the simplified finger model used in the theory.
Hysteresis and multiple stable configurations in a magnetic fluid system.
Jackson, D P
2008-05-21
A magnetic liquid in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell is subjected to a vertical magnetic field. The width of the magnetic fluid finger is measured as a function of applied field and compared to a theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an energy minimization procedure and predicts a double energy minimum, hysteresis, and discontinuous transitions between a circle and a finger. The experimental data set agrees very well with the theory for a well-defined magnetic fluid finger. Near the transitions, the experiments show hysteresis and support for a double energy minimum; however, the agreement is not quite so good. The discrepancy between theory and experiment near the transition region is likely due to the simplified finger model used in the theory.
Masoumi, Nafiseh; Framanzad, F; Zamanian, Behnam; Seddighi, A S; Moosavi, M H; Najarian, S; Bastani, Dariush
2013-01-01
Many diseases are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. Therefore, understanding the hydrodynamics of CSF flow and intracranial pressure is helpful for obtaining deeper knowledge of pathological processes and providing better treatments. Furthermore, engineering a reliable computational method is promising approach for fabricating in vitro models which is essential for inventing generic medicines. A Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI)model was constructed to simulate CSF flow. An important problem in modeling the CSF flow is the diastolic back flow. In this article, using both rigid and flexible conditions for ventricular system allowed us to evaluate the effect of surrounding brain tissue. Our model assumed an elastic wall for the ventricles and a pulsatile CSF input as its boundary conditions. A comparison of the results and the experimental data was done. The flexible model gave better results because it could reproduce the diastolic back flow mentioned in clinical research studies. The previous rigid models have ignored the brain parenchyma interaction with CSF and so had not reported the back flow during the diastolic time. In this computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, the CSF pressure and flow velocity in different areas were concordant with the experimental data.
Masoumi, Nafiseh; Framanzad, F; Zamanian, Behnam; Seddighi, A S; Moosavi, M H; Najarian, S; Bastani, Dariush
2013-01-01
Many diseases are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. Therefore, understanding the hydrodynamics of CSF flow and intracranial pressure is helpful for obtaining deeper knowledge of pathological processes and providing better treatments. Furthermore, engineering a reliable computational method is promising approach for fabricating in vitro models which is essential for inventing generic medicines. A Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI)model was constructed to simulate CSF flow. An important problem in modeling the CSF flow is the diastolic back flow. In this article, using both rigid and flexible conditions for ventricular system allowed us to evaluate the effect of surrounding brain tissue. Our model assumed an elastic wall for the ventricles and a pulsatile CSF input as its boundary conditions. A comparison of the results and the experimental data was done. The flexible model gave better results because it could reproduce the diastolic back flow mentioned in clinical research studies. The previous rigid models have ignored the brain parenchyma interaction with CSF and so had not reported the back flow during the diastolic time. In this computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, the CSF pressure and flow velocity in different areas were concordant with the experimental data. PMID:25337330
Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, Anthony R.
2006-01-01
Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.
Compartmentalized Fluid Flow In The Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano Hydrothermal System(S)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuluaga, C. A.; Mejia, E.
2011-12-01
Combination of several extensive and compressive fault/fracture systems with different lithologic units compartmentalized the hydrothermal system(s) in the vicinity of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano. Three main fault/fracture systems are observed in the Ruiz volcano area, a N10°-20°E system (San Jerónimo and Palestina faults), a N40°-60°W system (Villamaría-Termales, San Ramón, Nereidas, Río Claro, San Eugenio and Campoalegrito faults), and a N60°-80°E system (Santa Rosa fault). The NW trend system act as the main path for fluid circulation, location of faults and fractures belonging to this system and their intersections with other fault systems and/or with lithologic contacts control hot springs location. The observed fault location and hot spring location pattern allow to subdivide the hydrothermal system(s) in at least five blocks. In the southernmost block, hot springs are mostly located in one of the four quadrants originated by fault intersections suggesting that there is a compartmentalization into higher and lower permeability quadrants. It is still unknown if all blocks belong to the same hydrothermal system or if there is more than one hydrothermal system.
Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, J. C.
1981-01-01
Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.
Laser beam manifold and particle photography system for use in fluid velocity measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owen, R. B.; Campbell, C. W.
1980-01-01
A laser beam manifold and particle photography system has been developed for use in fluid velocity measurements. The laser manifold is a device which transforms a single laser beam into several uniform parallel beams. By orienting two manifolds mutually perpendicular, an optical grid can be formed which acts as a reference for fluid velocity measurements. This optical grid is for all practical purposes totally nonperturbing to the flow. Tracer particles moving in the plane of the grid are then photographed to yield fluid velocities that can be measured relative to the optical grid. System construction and theory are presented.
Magnetohydrodynamic pump with a system for promoting flow of fluid in one direction
Lemoff, Asuncion V.; Lee, Abraham P.
2010-07-13
A magnetohydrodynamic pump for pumping a fluid. The pump includes a microfluidic channel for channeling the fluid, a MHD electrode/magnet system operatively connected to the microfluidic channel, and a system for promoting flow of the fluid in one direction in the microfluidic channel. The pump has uses in the medical and biotechnology industries for blood-cell-separation equipment, biochemical assays, chemical synthesis, genetic analysis, drug screening, an array of antigen-antibody reactions, combinatorial chemistry, drug testing, medical and biological diagnostics, and combinatorial chemistry. The pump also has uses in electrochromatography, surface micromachining, laser ablation, inkjet printers, and mechanical micromilling.
Development and Implementation of a Design Metric for Systems Containing Long-Term Fluid Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steele, John W.
2016-01-01
John Steele, a chemist and technical fellow from United Technologies Corporation, provided a water quality module to assist engineers and scientists with a metric tool to evaluate risks associated with the design of space systems with fluid loops. This design metric is a methodical, quantitative, lessons-learned based means to evaluate the robustness of a long-term fluid loop system design. The tool was developed by a cross-section of engineering disciplines who had decades of experience and problem resolution.
Method and apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid in a binary power system
Mohr, Charles M.; Mines, Gregory L.; Bloomfield, K. Kit
2002-01-01
Apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid utilized in a thermodynamic system comprises a membrane having an upstream side operatively connected to the thermodynamic system so that the upstream side of the membrane receives a portion of the working fluid. The first membrane separates the non-condensible gas from the working fluid. A pump operatively associated with the membrane causes the portion of the working fluid to contact the membrane and to be returned to the thermodynamic system.
A Cryogenic Fluid System Simulation in Support of Integrated Systems Health Management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barber, John P.; Johnston, Kyle B.; Daigle, Matthew
2013-01-01
Simulations serve as important tools throughout the design and operation of engineering systems. In the context of sys-tems health management, simulations serve many uses. For one, the underlying physical models can be used by model-based health management tools to develop diagnostic and prognostic models. These simulations should incorporate both nominal and faulty behavior with the ability to inject various faults into the system. Such simulations can there-fore be used for operator training, for both nominal and faulty situations, as well as for developing and prototyping health management algorithms. In this paper, we describe a methodology for building such simulations. We discuss the design decisions and tools used to build a simulation of a cryogenic fluid test bed, and how it serves as a core technology for systems health management development and maturation.
General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program, Turbine Engine System Element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
The goal of the General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program Turbine Engine System Elements is to conduct a shared resource project to develop an affordable gas turbine engine for use on 4 to 6 place, light aircraft that will lead to revitalization of the general aviation industry in the United States, creating many new, high-quality jobs.
46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.350... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.350 General requirements...
46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.350... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.350 General requirements...
46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.350... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.350 General requirements...
46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.350... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.350 General requirements...
46 CFR 28.350 - General requirements for electrical systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.350... requirements of 46 CFR part 111, subpart 111.105. (e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment..., 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.350 General requirements...
Hole-cleaning capabilities of an ester-based drilling fluid system
Kenny, P.; Hemphill, T.
1996-03-01
Well 33/9-C02, located in the Statfjord field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, held the world record in extended-reach drilling from 1993--95. To successfully drill a well of this type, an efficient drilling fluid is required to suspend the weighting material and provide good carrying capacity. The ester-based mud system used in the 12{1/4}- and 8{1/2}-in. hole sections of this well exhibited excellent hole-cleaning capabilities. This paper describes the fluid`s performance in the field and in the laboratory where the fluid was tested under down-hole conditions. Fluid rheological behavior is described with the more accurate yield-power law. (YPL) (Herschel-Bulkley) model.
Transcription of the Workshop on General Aviation Advanced Avionics Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tashker, M. (Editor)
1975-01-01
Papers are presented dealing with the design of reliable, low cost, advanced avionics systems applicable to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. Sensors, displays, integrated circuits, microprocessors, and minicomputers are among the topics discussed.
143. GENERAL DYNAMICS SPACE SYSTEMS DIVISION SCHEDULE BOARD IN LUNCH ...
143. GENERAL DYNAMICS SPACE SYSTEMS DIVISION SCHEDULE BOARD IN LUNCH ROOM (120), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA
3. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR ...
3. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR HANGING AND DRYING TOBACCO (NOTE HOGSHEAD AND TOBACCO PRESS IN LEFT FOREGROUND - The Cottage, Tobacco Barn, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD
The antioxidant system of seminal fluid during in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus sperm.
Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Dzyuba, Borys; Yamaner, Gunes; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar
2016-04-01
The role of the seminal fluid antioxidant system in protection against damage to spermatozoa during in vitro sperm storage is unclear. This study investigated the effect of in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa together with seminal fluid for 36 h at 4 °C on spermatozoon motility rate and curvilinear velocity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level, and components of enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and uric acid concentration) in seminal fluid. Spermatozoon motility parameters after sperm storage were significantly decreased, while the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and uric acid concentration did not change. Our findings suggest that the antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid is effective in preventing oxidative stress during short-term sperm storage and prompt future investigations of changes in spermatozoon homeostasis and in spermatozoon plasma membrane structure which are other possible reasons of spermatozoon motility deterioration upon sperm storage.
Mapping the petroleum system - An investigative technique to explore the hydrocarbon fluid system
Magoon, L.B.; Dow, W.G.
2000-01-01
Creating a petroleum system map includes a series of logical steps that require specific information to explain the origin in time and space of discovered hydrocarbon occurrences. If used creatively, this map provides a basis on which to develop complementary plays and prospects. The logical steps include the characterization of a petroleum system (that is, to identify, map, and name the hydrocarbon fluid system) and the summary of these results on a folio sheet. A petroleum system map is based on the understanding that there are several levels of certainty from "guessing" to "knowing" that specific oil and gas accumulations emanated from a particular pod of active source rock. Levels of certainty start with the close geographic proximity of two or more accumulations, continues with the close stratigraphic proximity, followed by the similarities in bulk properties, and then detailed geochemical properties. The highest level of certainty includes the positive geochemical correlation of the hydrocarbon fluid in the accumulations to the extract of the active source rock. A petroleum system map is created when the following logic is implemented. Implementation starts when the oil and gas accumulations of a petroleum province are grouped stratigraphically and geographically. Bulk and geochemical properties are used to further refine the groups through the determination of genetically related oil and gas types. To this basic map, surface seeps and well shows are added. Similarly, the active source rock responsible for these hydrocarbon occurrences are mapped to further define the extent of the system. A folio sheet constructed for a hypothetical case study of the Deer-Boar(.) petroleum system illustrates this methodology.
The simplest model for non-congruent fluid-fluid phase transition in Coulomb system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.
2015-11-01
The simplest model for non-congruent phase transition of gas-liquid type was developed in frames of modified model with no associations of a binary ionic mixture (BIM) on a homogeneous compressible ideal background (or non-ideal) electron gas /BIM(˜)/. The analytical approximation for equation of state equation of state of Potekhin and Chabrier of fully ionized electron-ionic plasma was used for description of the ion-ion correlations (Coulomb non-ideality) in combination with “linear mixture” (LM) approximation. Phase equilibrium for the charged species was calculated according to the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions. The presently considered BIM(˜) model allows to calculate full set of parameters for phase boundaries of non-congruent variant of phase equilibrium and to study all features for this non-congruent phase transition realization in Coulomb system in comparison with the simpler (standard) forced-congruent evaporation mode. In particular, in BIM(˜) there were reproduced two-dimensional remarkable (“banana-like”) structure of two-phase region P — T diagram and the characteristic non-monotonic shape of caloric phase enthalpy-temperature diagram, similar to the non-congruent evaporation of reactive plasma products in high-temperature heating with the uranium-oxygen system. The parameters of critical points (CP) line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of ions 0 < X < 1, including two reference values, when CP coincides with a point of extreme temperature and extreme pressure, XT and Xp. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated the low-temperature property of non-congruent gas-liquid transition — “distillation”, which is weak in chemically reactive plasmas.
Space transportation system disconnect. [replenishing fluids during orbital servicing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
The use of medium duty 300 psi fluid disconnects for orbital servicing was demonstrated to be both practical and technically feasible. A prototype disconnect was designed and tested, based on criteria formulated from a survey of expected usage requirements for orbital servicing concepts. Testing involved the comparison of three seal materials (EPR, Neoprene and Teflon), and two test media (helium and Freon 21), and was conducted over a temperature range of -150 F to +225 F. Results indicate low helium leakage (10 to the -4 power sccs) and extremely low engagement forces (56 lb sub f). Testing was also performed on a new seal design. Design concepts for a cryogenic disconnect and a high pressure disconnect were investigated. Results of an industry survey for usable orbital servicing disconnects and areas needing attention in future studies are discussed.
A fluid collection system for dermal wounds in clinical investigations.
Klopfer, Michael; Banyard, Derek; Li, G-P; Widgerow, Alan; Bachman, Mark
2016-03-01
In this work, we demonstrate the use of a thin, self adherent, and clinically durable patch device that can collect fluid from a wound site for analysis. This device is manufactured from laminated silicone layers using a novel all-silicone double-molding process. In vitro studies for flow and delivery were followed by a clinical demonstration for exudate collection efficiency from a clinically presented partial thickness burn. The demonstrated utility of this device lends itself for use as a research implement used to clinically sample wound exudate for analysis. This device can serve as a platform for future integration of wearable technology into wound monitoring and care. The demonstrated fabrication method can be used for devices requiring thin membrane construction.
Resolution of holograms produced by the fluid experiment system and the holography ground system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, Howard L.
1987-01-01
The Fluid Experiment System (FES) was developed to study low temperature crystal growth of triglycine sulfate from solution in a low gravity environment onboard Spacelab. The first flight of FES was in 1985. FES uses an optical system to take holograms of the growing crystal to be analyzed after the mission in the Holography Ground System (HGS) located in the Test Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center. Microscopic observation of the images formed by the reconstructed holograms is critical to determining crystal growth rate and particle velocity. FES and HGS were designed for a resolution of better than 20 micrometers, but initial observation of the flight holograms show a limit of 80 micrometers. The resolution of the FES holograms is investigated, as well as the role of beam intensity ratio and exposure time on the resolution of HGS produced holograms.
Fluid and deformation regime of an advancing subduction system at Marlborough, New Zealand.
Wannamaker, Philip E; Caldwell, T Grant; Jiracek, George R; Maris, Virginie; Hill, Graham J; Ogawa, Yasuo; Bibby, Hugh M; Bennie, Stewart L; Heise, Wiebke
2009-08-01
Newly forming subduction zones on Earth can provide insights into the evolution of major fault zone geometries from shallow levels to deep in the lithosphere and into the role of fluids in element transport and in promoting rock failure by several modes. The transpressional subduction regime of New Zealand, which is advancing laterally to the southwest below the Marlborough strike-slip fault system of the northern South Island, is an ideal setting in which to investigate these processes. Here we acquired a dense, high-quality transect of magnetotelluric soundings across the system, yielding an electrical resistivity cross-section to depths beyond 100 km. Our data imply three distinct processes connecting fluid generation along the upper mantle plate interface to rock deformation in the crust as the subduction zone develops. Massive fluid release just inland of the trench induces fault-fracture meshes through the crust above that undoubtedly weaken it as regional shear initiates. Narrow strike-slip faults in the shallow brittle regime of interior Marlborough diffuse in width upon entering the deeper ductile domain aided by fluids and do not project as narrow deformation zones. Deep subduction-generated fluids rise from 100 km or more and invade upper crustal seismogenic zones that have exhibited historic great earthquakes on high-angle thrusts that are poorly oriented for failure under dry conditions. The fluid-deformation connections described in our work emphasize the need to include metamorphic and fluid transport processes in geodynamic models. PMID:19661914
Fluid and deformation regime of an advancing subduction system at Marlborough, New Zealand.
Wannamaker, Philip E; Caldwell, T Grant; Jiracek, George R; Maris, Virginie; Hill, Graham J; Ogawa, Yasuo; Bibby, Hugh M; Bennie, Stewart L; Heise, Wiebke
2009-08-01
Newly forming subduction zones on Earth can provide insights into the evolution of major fault zone geometries from shallow levels to deep in the lithosphere and into the role of fluids in element transport and in promoting rock failure by several modes. The transpressional subduction regime of New Zealand, which is advancing laterally to the southwest below the Marlborough strike-slip fault system of the northern South Island, is an ideal setting in which to investigate these processes. Here we acquired a dense, high-quality transect of magnetotelluric soundings across the system, yielding an electrical resistivity cross-section to depths beyond 100 km. Our data imply three distinct processes connecting fluid generation along the upper mantle plate interface to rock deformation in the crust as the subduction zone develops. Massive fluid release just inland of the trench induces fault-fracture meshes through the crust above that undoubtedly weaken it as regional shear initiates. Narrow strike-slip faults in the shallow brittle regime of interior Marlborough diffuse in width upon entering the deeper ductile domain aided by fluids and do not project as narrow deformation zones. Deep subduction-generated fluids rise from 100 km or more and invade upper crustal seismogenic zones that have exhibited historic great earthquakes on high-angle thrusts that are poorly oriented for failure under dry conditions. The fluid-deformation connections described in our work emphasize the need to include metamorphic and fluid transport processes in geodynamic models.
Designing generalized conic concentrators for conventional optical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichhorn, W. L.
1985-01-01
Generalized nonimaging concentrators can be incorporated into conventional optical systems in situations where flux concentration rather than imaging is required. The parameters of the concentrator for maximum flux concentration depend on the design of the particular optical system under consideration. Rationale for determining the concentrator parameters is given for one particular optical system and the procedure used for calculation of these parameters is outlined. The calculations are done for three concentrators applicable to the optical system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleis, Stanley J.; Truong, Tuan; Goodwin, Thomas J,
2004-01-01
This report is a documentation of a fluid dynamic analysis of the proposed Automated Static Culture System (ASCS) cell module mixing protocol. The report consists of a review of some basic fluid dynamics principles appropriate for the mixing of a patch of high oxygen content media into the surrounding media which is initially depleted of oxygen, followed by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of this process for the proposed protocol over a range of the governing parameters. The time histories of oxygen concentration distributions and mechanical shear levels generated are used to characterize the mixing process for different parameter values.
Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure
Zhang, B.X.; Ganni, V.; Stifle, K.E.
1995-01-31
An apparatus is disclosed for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system. 8 figs.
Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure
Zhang, Burt X.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Stifle, Kirk E.
1995-01-01
An apparatus for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system.
46 CFR 58.30-50 - Requirements for miscellaneous fluid power and control systems.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...: (1) Diagrams of the system providing the information required by § 58.30-40(a)(1) through (4) must be submitted. These are not approved but are needed for records and for evaluation of the system in accordance with § 58.30-1(a)(14). (2) The hydraulic fluid used in the system must comply with § 58.30-10. (3)...
Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems
Cole, D.R.
1992-01-01
There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.
Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems
Cole, D.R.
1992-04-01
There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.
Development and functions of the choroid plexus–cerebrospinal fluid system
Lun, Melody P.; Monuki, Edwin S.; Lehtinen, Maria K.
2015-01-01
The choroid plexus (ChP) is the principal source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which has accepted roles as a fluid cushion and a sink for nervous system waste in vertebrates. Various animal models have provided insight into how the ChP–CSF system develops and matures. In addition, recent studies have uncovered new, active roles for this dynamic system in the regulation of neural stem cells, critical periods and the overall health of the nervous system. Together, these findings have brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of brain development and health, and have stimulated new initiatives for the treatment of neurological disease. PMID:26174708
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planert, L.; Klaeschen, D.; Berndt, C.; Hensen, C.; Brueckmann, W.
2010-12-01
Our analysis of 2D MCS seismic data from the Middle America margin provides an insight into the buildup and formation mechanisms of mound structures and the effects of fluid ascent on the gas hydrate system observed on the continental slope offshore Costa Rica. Our targets, Mounds 11&12, are the sites of IODP drilling proposal 633-Full2, which aims to enhance the general understanding of complex forearc dewatering processes of the erosive subduction system off Costa Rica. Major sites of dewatering planned for drilling are mounds, related to mud diapirism/volcanism and precipitation of authigenic carbonates, and large-scale slides related to the subduction of seamounts. Geochemical analysis of methane hydrate and chloride anomalies as well as heat flow modeling of the mounds indicate deeply sourced fluids discharged by clay dehydration at the decollement. Hence, the hydrogeological system at this margin appears to be dominated by the fracture porosity of faults which extend through the overriding plate and provide the paths for fluids liberated by early dehydration reactions from the plate boundary. In order to test the hypothesis of deeply sourced and fault-controlled dewatering sites and to better understand the interactions between gas hydrate formation and dissociation with the fluid ascent from the deep sources, new pre-site survey seismic profiles were acquired using the 36-gun, four-string linear gun array of R/V Marcus Langseth, and a 240 channel streamer with 3000 m of active length. The seismic lines were prestack depth migrated, in which the velocity model is iteratively improved using depth focusing analysis and residual moveout correction on common image point gathers. Improvement of the deep imaging involved multiple attenuation and detailed velocity analysis of the lower sedimentary portions and beneath the basement down to the plate boundary. Our results reveal an upward bending of the bottom simulating reflection (BSR) directly beneath the mounds
Numerical Modeling of Multiphase Fluid Flow in Ore-Forming Hydrothermal Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weis, P.; Driesner, T.; Coumou, D.; Heinrich, C. A.
2007-12-01
Two coexisting fluid phases - a variably saline liquid and a vapor phase - are ubiquitous in ore-forming and other hydrothermal systems. Understanding the dynamics of phase separation and the distinct physical and chemical evolution of the two fluids probably plays a key role in generating different ore deposit types, e.g. porphyry type, high and low sulfidation Cu-Mo-Au deposits. To this end, processes within hydrothermal systems have been studied with a refined numerical model describing fluid flow in transient porous media (CSP~5.0). The model is formulated on a mass, energy and momentum conserving finite-element-finite-volume (FEFV) scheme and is capable of simulating multiphase flow of NaCl-H20 fluids. Fluid properties are computed from an improved equation of state (SOWAT~2.0). It covers conditions with temperatures of up to 1000 degrees~C, pressures of up to 500 MPa, and fluid salinities of 0~to 100%~NaCl. In particular, the new set-up allows for a more accurate description of fluid phase separation during boiling of hydrothermal fluids into a vapor and a brine phase. The geometric flexibility of the FEFV-meshes allows for investigations of a large variety of geological settings, ranging from ore-forming processes in magmatic hydrothermal system to the dynamics of black smokers at mid-ocean ridges. Simulations demonstrated that hydrothermal convection patterns above cooling plutons are primarily controlled by the system-scale permeability structure. In porphyry systems, high fluid pressures develop in a stock rising from the magma chamber which can lead to rock failure and, eventually, an increase in permeability due to hydrofracturing. Comparisons of the thermal evolution as inferred from modeling studies with data from fluid inclusion studies of the Pb-Zn deposits of Madan, Bulgaria are in a strikingly good agreement. This indicates that cross-comparisons of field observations, analytical data and numerical simulations will become a powerful tool towards a
Concepts to Automate Fluid Transfer Capability of Low Impact Docking System (LIDS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miernik, Janie H.; Lukens, Scott; Robertson, Jeff
2005-01-01
The capability to transfer mass between spacecraft is necessary for many mission scenarios. Docking and berthing operations have enabled fluid, electrical, crew and equipment transfers to some degree on all manned space operations since the Gemini program. The Apollo program performed some sophisticated docking maneuvers to land men on the moon and return them safely to Earth. These programs primarily transferred crew, equipment, and pressurized atmosphere between docked spacecraft. The International Space Station (ISS) U.S. modules are connected by Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) portals. They provide many feed-through ports for electrical, and fluid transfer between modules, as well as a large diameter crew and equipment tunnel. Fluid and electrical jumpers are manually installed after the CBM sealing surfaces have been securely mated to maintain the pressurized cabin environment. CBM berthing and subsequent fluid transfer capability requires a lengthy manual process involving an active interface that mates with a passive half. The Androgynous Peripheral Attach System (MAS) a Russian technology that docked the Russian Zarya module to Unity, or Node 1, is a more complex system that also is capable of fuel transfer, enabling refueling of the Russian re-boost engines on ISS. For several years, a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) has been under development at Johnson Space Center (JSC). This docking technology has a requirement to be androgynous in order to allow the fabrication of a single configuration that can dock with all other LIDS units. It is desired to make electrical and fluid coupling mating an automated process to enable routine docking and undocking operations to support future exploration missions. It is envisioned that modular design and vehicle assembly will require an efficient LIDS for fuel, electrical, crew, and equipment transfer. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has joined the LIDS development effort and plans to employ fluid transfer concepts
Distributed Systems of Generalizing as the Basis of Workplace Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Virkkunen, Jaakko; Pihlaja, Juha
2004-01-01
This article proposes a new way of conceptualizing workplace learning as distributed systems of appropriation, development and the use of practice-relevant generalizations fixed within mediational artifacts. This article maintains that these systems change historically as technology and increasingly sophisticated forms of production develop.…
46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas carried... tanks, hold and interbarrier spaces, and insulation. (b) The boiling point and dewpoint at atmospheric pressure of the inert gas must be below the temperature of any surface in those spaces or −45 °C (−49...
General Entropic Approximations for Canonical Systems Described by Kinetic Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavan, V.
2011-02-01
In this paper we extend the general construction of entropic approximation for kinetic operators modelling canonical systems. More precisely, this paper aims at pursuing to thermalized systems the works of Levermore, Schneider and Junk on moments problems relying on entropy minimization in order to construct BGK approximations and moments based equations.
46 CFR 154.903 - Inert gas systems: General.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.903 Inert gas systems: General. (a) Inert gas carried... tanks, hold and interbarrier spaces, and insulation. (b) The boiling point and dewpoint at atmospheric pressure of the inert gas must be below the temperature of any surface in those spaces or −45 °C (−49...
State space approximation for general fractional order dynamic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Shu; Peng, Cheng; Liao, Zeng; Wang, Yong
2014-10-01
Approximations for general fractional order dynamic systems are of much theoretical and practical interest. In this paper, a new approximate method for fractional order integrator is proposed. The poles of the approximate model are unrelated to the order of integrator. This feature shows benefits on extending the algorithm to the systems containing various fractional orders. Then a unified approximate method is derived for general fractional order linear or nonlinear dynamic systems via combining the proposed new method with the distributed frequency model approach. Numerical examples are given to show the wide applicability of our method and to illustrate the acceptable accuracy for approximations as well.
General mechanism for amplitude death in coupled systems.
Resmi, V; Ambika, G; Amritkar, R E
2011-10-01
We introduce a general mechanism for amplitude death in coupled synchronizable dynamical systems. It is known that when two systems are coupled directly, they can synchronize under suitable conditions. When an indirect feedback coupling through an environment or an external system is introduced in them, it is found to induce a tendency for antisynchronization. We show that, for sufficient strengths, these two competing effects can lead to amplitude death. We provide a general stability analysis that gives the threshold values for onset of amplitude death. We study in detail the nature of the transition to death in several specific cases and find that the transitions can be of two types--continuous and discontinuous. By choosing a variety of dynamics, for example, periodic, chaotic, hyperchaotic, and time-delay systems, we illustrate that this mechanism is quite general and works for different types of direct coupling, such as diffusive, replacement, and synaptic couplings, and for different damped dynamics of the environment.
Apparatus and methods for testing, filling and purging closed fluid systems
DeRome, R.D.
1989-12-26
This patent describes an evacuation unit for testing the fluid tightness of a closed fluid system having an access port and for filing the system with fluid through the access port. It comprises: a first reservoir containing a first fluid; a second reservoir containing a second fluid; sequence valve means disposed between and communicating with the first and second reservoirs for selective positioning between a first position communicating the first reservoir with an outlet and a second position communicating the second reservoir with the outlet; vacuum pump means for producing a vacuum of a predetermined pressure less than atmospheric pressure, the vacuum pump means includes a source of air under pressure, a venturi, and conduit means interconnecting the pressurized air source and the venturi; connection means for releasable and sealable connection to an access port of a closed fluid system, the connection means includes a flexible hose having opposite ends, a filler head on one end of the hose for attachment to the access port, and coupling means on the other end of the hose; control valve means and; a separation tank.
Puibasset, Joël; Kierlik, Edouard; Tarjus, Gilles
2014-07-28
Hysteresis and discontinuities in the isotherms of a fluid adsorbed in a nanopore in general hamper the determination of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, even in computer simulations. A way around this has been to consider both a reservoir of small size and a pore of small extent in order to restrict the fluctuations of density and approach a classical van der Waals loop. We assess this suggestion by thoroughly studying through Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory the influence of system size on the equilibrium configurations of the adsorbed fluid and on the resulting isotherms. We stress the importance of pore-symmetry-breaking states that even for modest pore sizes lead to discontinuous isotherms and we discuss the physical relevance of these states and the methodological consequences for computing thermodynamic quantities.
Puibasset, Joël; Kierlik, Edouard Tarjus, Gilles
2014-07-28
Hysteresis and discontinuities in the isotherms of a fluid adsorbed in a nanopore in general hamper the determination of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, even in computer simulations. A way around this has been to consider both a reservoir of small size and a pore of small extent in order to restrict the fluctuations of density and approach a classical van der Waals loop. We assess this suggestion by thoroughly studying through Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory the influence of system size on the equilibrium configurations of the adsorbed fluid and on the resulting isotherms. We stress the importance of pore-symmetry-breaking states that even for modest pore sizes lead to discontinuous isotherms and we discuss the physical relevance of these states and the methodological consequences for computing thermodynamic quantities.
Accuracy and Acceptability of Oral Fluid HIV Self-Testing in a General Adult Population in Kenya.
Kurth, Ann E; Cleland, Charles M; Chhun, Nok; Sidle, John E; Were, Edwin; Naanyu, Violet; Emonyi, Wilfred; Macharia, Stephen M; Sang, Edwin; Siika, Abraham M
2016-04-01
We evaluated performance, accuracy, and acceptability parameters of unsupervised oral fluid (OF) HIV self-testing (HIVST) in a general population in western Kenya. In a prospective validation design, we enrolled 240 adults to perform rapid OF HIVST and compared results to staff administered OF and rapid fingerstick tests. All reactive, discrepant, and a proportion of negative results were confirmed with lab ELISA. Twenty participants were video-recorded conducting self-testing. All participants completed a staff administered survey before and after HIVST to assess attitudes towards OF HIVST acceptability. HIV prevalence was 14.6 %. Thirty-six of the 239 HIVSTs were invalid (15.1 %; 95 % CI 11.1-20.1 %), with males twice as likely to have invalid results as females. HIVST sensitivity was 89.7 % (95 % CI 73-98 %) and specificity was 98 % (95 % CI 89-99 %). Although sensitivity was somewhat lower than expected, there is clear interest in, and high acceptability (94 %) of OF HIV self-testing. PMID:26438487
Comparison of Rankine-cycle power systems: effects of seven working fluids
Marciniak, T.J.; Krazinski, J.L.; Bratis, J.C.; Bushby, H.M.; Buyco, E.H.
1981-06-01
This study investigates the safety, health, technical, and economic issues surrounding the prime working-fluid candidates for industrial Rankine-cycle power systems in the range of 600 to 2400 kW. These fluids are water, methanol, 2-methyl pyridine/H/sub 2/O, Fluorinol 85, toluene, Freon R 11, and Freon R 113. Rankine-cycle power systems using water as a working fluid and boilers burning coal, refuse, oil, or gas - or driven by nuclear energy - have been the mainstay of power generation for about a century. Interest in energy conservation in the industrial sector is now encouraging the development of small Rankine power systems that use heat from a variety of waste streams. The temperature range of interest for industrial applications is from 500/sup 0/F to 1100/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C to 593/sup 0/C) for gaseous streams and approximately 300/sup 0/F (149/sup 0/C) for condensing streams. At temperatures below about 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C), steam systems become less efficient and too expensive to be used. However, other working fluids, usually organic compounds, can be economically attractive at the lower temperatures. This study shows that, at current and projected energy costs, Rankine-cycle power systems using any of the seven working fluids investigated here can exceed the minimum return on investment (ROI) criteria of most industries. The highest ROIs occur for those systems using a 300/sup 0/F (149/sup 0/C) condensing stream as the heat source. There appear to be no significant health or safety problems that would prevent the use of any of the candidate working fluids. The only limitation of an organic fluid is its maximum stability temperature, which may prevent its use with high-temperature waste-heat streams.
Flow of Fluid and Particle Assemblages in Rotating Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kizito, John; Hiltner, David; Niederhaus, Charles; Kleis, Stanley; Hudson, Ed; Gonda, Steve
2004-01-01
NASA-designed bioreactors have been highly successful in growing three-dimensional tissue structures in a low shear environment both on earth and in space. The goal of the present study is to characterize the fluid flow environment within the HFB-S bioreactor and determine the spatial distribution of particles that mimic cellular tissue structures. The results will be used to obtain optimal operating conditions of rotation rates and media perfusehnfuse rates which are required for cell culture growth protocols. Two types of experiments have been performed so far. First, we have performed laser florescent dye visualization of the perfusion loop to determine the mixing times within the chamber. The second type of experiments involved particles which represent cellular tissue to determine the spatial distribution with the chamber. From these experiments we established that mixing times were largely dependant on the speed ratio and sign of the difference between the spinner and the dome. The shortest mixing times occurred when the spinner rotates faster than the dome and longest mixing times occurs with no relative motion between the dome and spinner. Also, we have determined the spatial and temporal distribution of particle assemblages within the chamber.
Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems
Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.
1997-06-17
Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.
Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems
Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy; Christiansen, Richard Lee; Lederhos, Joseph P.; Long, Jin Ping; Panchalingam, Vaithilingam; Du, Yahe; Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan
1997-01-01
Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muszynska, Agnes; Bently, Donald E.
1991-01-01
Perturbation techniques used for identification of rotating system dynamic characteristics are described. A comparison between two periodic frequency-swept perturbation methods applied in identification of fluid forces of rotating machines is presented. The description of the fluid force model identified by inputting circular periodic frequency-swept force is given. This model is based on the existence and strength of the circumferential flow, most often generated by the shaft rotation. The application of the fluid force model in rotor dynamic analysis is presented. It is shown that the rotor stability is an entire rotating system property. Some areas for further research are discussed.
A general analysis of anti-jam communication systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omura, J. K.; Levitt, B. K.
1981-01-01
A general error bound is derived for a general anti-jam communication system which will serve as the basis for evaluating the performance of all such complex communication systems. The two most common spread spectrum techniques, coherent DS/BPSK and noncoherent FH/MFSK, are analyzed. Pulse jamming represents the worst type of jammer for DS/BPSK systems, and several receiver structures against such a jammer are examined. It is found that for low values of chip energy-to-noise ratios of O dB or less there is little difference between having or not having jammer state knowledge with a hard decision receiver. Soft decision receivers are shown to be useless against very narrow pulses without jammer state knowledge. Partial band jammers are close to the worst case jammer for FH/MFSK systems. The conclusions found for these systems are similar to those for the DS/BPSK systems.