#### Sample records for generalized probability calculus

1. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

2015-10-01

A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

2. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

DOE PAGES

Wang, Yi -Nan

2015-07-22

We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

3. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

SciTech Connect

Wang, Yi -Nan

2015-07-22

We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups G = SL(2,R) × R+, SL(5,R) and SO(5,5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d=9,7,6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincar\\'e lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Lastly, we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

4. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

2015-06-01

In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

5. Generalized Laplace Transforms and Extended Heaviside Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deakin, Michael A. B.

2008-01-01

An extended Heaviside calculus proposed by Peraire in a recent paper is similar to a generalization of the Laplace transform proposed by the present author. This similarity will be illustrated by analysis of an example supplied by Peraire.

6. Variational calculus with constraints on general algebroids

Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

2008-05-01

Variational calculus on a vector bundle E equipped with a structure of a general algebroid is developed, together with the corresponding analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations. Constrained systems are introduced in the variational and geometrical settings. The constrained Euler-Lagrange equations are derived for analogs of holonomic, vakonomic and nonholonomic constraints. This general model covers the majority of first-order Lagrangian systems which are present in the literature and reduces to the standard variational calculus and the Euler-Lagrange equations in classical mechanics for E = TM.

7. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus

PubMed Central

Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.

2015-01-01

Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

8. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

PubMed

Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

2015-08-01

Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

9. On the origins of generalized fractional calculus

Kiryakova, Virginia

2015-11-01

In Fractional Calculus (FC), as in the (classical) Calculus, the notions of derivatives and integrals (of first, second, etc. or arbitrary, incl. non-integer order) are basic and co-related. One of the most frequent approach in FC is to define first the Riemann-Liouville (R-L) integral of fractional order, and then by means of suitable integer-order differentiation operation applied over it (or under its sign) a fractional derivative is defined - in the R-L sense (or in Caputo sense). The first mentioned (R-L type) is closer to the theoretical studies in analysis, but has some shortages - from the point of view of interpretation of the initial conditions for Cauchy problems for fractional differential equations (stated also by means of fractional order derivatives/ integrals), and also for the analysts' confusion that such a derivative of a constant is not zero in general. The Caputo (C-) derivative, arising first in geophysical studies, helps to overcome these problems and to describe models of applied problems with physically consistent initial conditions. The operators of the Generalized Fractional Calculus - GFC (integrals and derivatives) are based on commuting m-tuple (m = 1, 2, 3, …) compositions of operators of the classical FC with power weights (the so-called Erdélyi-Kober operators), but represented in compact and explicit form by means of integral, integro-differential (R-L type) or differential-integral (C-type) operators, where the kernels are special functions of most general hypergeometric kind. The foundations of this theory are given in Kiryakova 18. In this survey we present the genesis of the definitions of the GFC - the generalized fractional integrals and derivatives (of fractional multi-order) of R-L type and Caputo type, analyze their properties and applications. Their special cases are all the known operators of classical FC, their generalizations introduced by other authors, the hyper-Bessel differential operators of higher integer

10. A new proof of the generalized Hamiltonian–Real calculus

PubMed Central

Gao, Hua; Mandic, Danilo P.

2016-01-01

The recently introduced generalized Hamiltonian–Real (GHR) calculus comprises, for the first time, the product and chain rules that makes it a powerful tool for quaternion-based optimization and adaptive signal processing. In this paper, we introduce novel dual relationships between the GHR calculus and multivariate real calculus, in order to provide a new, simpler proof of the GHR derivative rules. This further reinforces the theoretical foundation of the GHR calculus and provides a convenient methodology for generic extensions of real- and complex-valued learning algorithms to the quaternion domain.

11. Initialization, conceptualization, and application in the generalized (fractional) calculus.

PubMed

Lorenzo, Carl F; Hartley, Tom T

2007-01-01

This paper provides a formalized basis for initialization in the fractional calculus. The intent is to make the fractional calculus readily accessible to engineering and the sciences. A modified set of definitions for the fractional calculus is provided which formally include the effects of initialization. Conceptualizations of fractional derivatives and integrals are shown. Physical examples of the basic elements from electronics are presented along with examples from dynamics, material science, viscoelasticity, filtering, instrumentation, and electrochemistry to indicate the broad application of the theory and to demonstrate the use of the mathematics. The fundamental criteria for a generalized calculus established by Ross (1974) are shown to hold for the generalized fractional calculus under appropriate conditions. A new generalized form for the Laplace transform of the generalized differintegral is derived. The concept of a variable structure (order) differintegral is presented along with initial efforts toward meaningful definitions.

12. Intitialization, Conceptualization, and Application in the Generalized Fractional Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

1998-01-01

This paper provides a formalized basis for initialization in the fractional calculus. The intent is to make the fractional calculus readily accessible to engineering and the sciences. A modified set of definitions for the fractional calculus is provided which formally include the effects of initialization. Conceptualizations of fractional derivatives and integrals are shown. Physical examples of the basic elements from electronics are presented along with examples from dynamics, material science, viscoelasticity, filtering, instrumentation, and electrochemistry to indicate the broad application of the theory and to demonstrate the use of the mathematics. The fundamental criteria for a generalized calculus established by Ross (1974) are shown to hold for the generalized fractional calculus under appropriate conditions. A new generalized form for the Laplace transform of the generalized differintegral is derived. The concept of a variable structure (order) differintegral is presented along with initial efforts toward meaningful definitions.

13. Generalized Functions for the Fractional Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

1999-01-01

Previous papers have used two important functions for the solution of fractional order differential equations, the Mittag-Leffler functionE(sub q)[at(exp q)](1903a, 1903b, 1905), and the F-function F(sub q)[a,t] of Hartley & Lorenzo (1998). These functions provided direct solution and important understanding for the fundamental linear fractional order differential equation and for the related initial value problem (Hartley and Lorenzo, 1999). This paper examines related functions and their Laplace transforms. Presented for consideration are two generalized functions, the R-function and the G-function, useful in analysis and as a basis for computation in the fractional calculus. The R-function is unique in that it contains all of the derivatives and integrals of the F-function. The R-function also returns itself on qth order differ-integration. An example application of the R-function is provided. A further generalization of the R-function, called the G-function brings in the effects of repeated and partially repeated fractional poles.

14. Fractional Calculus of the Generalized Mittag-Leffler Type Function.

PubMed

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil

2014-01-01

We introduce and study a new function called R-function, which is an extension of the generalized Mittag-Leffler function. We derive the relations that exist between the R-function and Saigo fractional calculus operators. Some results derived by Samko et al. (1993), Kilbas (2005), Kilbas and Saigo (1995), and Sharma and Jain (2009) are special cases of the main results derived in this paper.

15. Optimal Strategy in the "Price Is Right" Showcase Showdown: A Module for Students of Calculus and Probability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swenson, Daniel

2015-01-01

We walk through a module intended for undergraduates in mathematics, with the focus of finding the best strategies for competing in the Showcase Showdown on the game show "The Price Is Right." Students should have completed one semester of calculus, as well as some probability. We also give numerous suggestions for further questions that…

16. Optimal Strategy in the "Price Is Right" Showcase Showdown: A Module for Students of Calculus and Probability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swenson, Daniel

2015-01-01

We walk through a module intended for undergraduates in mathematics, with the focus of finding the best strategies for competing in the Showcase Showdown on the game show "The Price Is Right." Students should have completed one semester of calculus, as well as some probability. We also give numerous suggestions for further questions that…

17. Non-signalling Theories and Generalized Probability

Tylec, Tomasz I.; Kuś, Marek; Krajczok, Jacek

2016-09-01

We provide mathematically rigorous justification of using term probability in connection to the so called non-signalling theories, known also as Popescu's and Rohrlich's box worlds. No only do we prove correctness of these models (in the sense that they describe composite system of two independent subsystems) but we obtain new properties of non-signalling boxes and expose new tools for further investigation. Moreover, it allows strightforward generalization to more complicated systems.

18. Fractional calculus and application of generalized Struve function.

PubMed

Nisar, Kottakkaran Sooppy; Baleanu, Dumitru; Qurashi, Maysaa' Mohamed Al

2016-01-01

A new generalization of Struve function called generalized Galué type Struve function (GTSF) is defined and the integral operators involving Appell's functions, or Horn's function in the kernel is applied on it. The obtained results are expressed in terms of the Fox-Wright function. As an application of newly defined generalized GTSF, we aim at presenting solutions of certain general families of fractional kinetic equations associated with the Galué type generalization of Struve function. The generality of the GTSF will help to find several familiar and novel fractional kinetic equations. The obtained results are general in nature and it is useful to investigate many problems in applied mathematical science.

19. Multiple (multiindex) Mittag-Leffler functions and relations to generalized fractional calculus

Kiryakova, Virginia S.

2000-06-01

The classical Mittag-Leffler (M-L) functions have already proved their efficiency as solutions of fractional-order differential and integral equations and thus have become important elements of the fractional calculus' theory and applications. In this paper we introduce analogues of these functions, depending on two sets of multiple (m-tuple, m[greater-or-equal, slanted]2 is an integer) indices. The hint for this comes from a paper by Dzrbashjan (Izv. AN Arm. SSR 13 (3) (1960) 21-63) related to the case m=2. We study the basic properties and the relations of the multiindex M-L functions with the operators of the generalized fractional calculus. Corresponding generalized operators of integration and differention of the so-called Gelfond-Leontiev-type, as well as Borel-Laplace-type integral transforms, are also introduced and studied.

20. Classroom Research: Assessment of Student Understanding of Sampling Distributions of Means and the Central Limit Theorem in Post-Calculus Probability and Statistics Classes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lunsford, M. Leigh; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Goodson-Espy, Tracy

2006-01-01

We applied a classroom research model to investigate student understanding of sampling distributions of sample means and the Central Limit Theorem in post-calculus introductory probability and statistics courses. Using a quantitative assessment tool developed by previous researchers and a qualitative assessment tool developed by the authors, we…

1. Generalized variational calculus in terms of multi-parameters fractional derivatives

Agrawal, Om P.; Muslih, Sami I.; Baleanu, Dumitru

2011-12-01

In this paper, we briefly introduce two generalizations of work presented a few years ago on fractional variational formulations. In the first generalization, we consider the Hilfer's generalized fractional derivative that in some sense interpolates between Riemann-Liouville and Caputo fractional derivatives. In the second generalization, we develop a fractional variational formulation in terms of a three parameter fractional derivative. We develop integration by parts formulas for the generalized fractional derivatives which are key to developing fractional variational calculus. It is shown that many derivatives used recently and their variational formulations can be obtained by setting different parameters to different values. We also define fractional generalized momenta and provide fractional Hamiltonian formulations in terms of the new generalized derivatives. An example is presented to show applications of the formulations presented here. Some possible extensions of this research are also discussed.

2. Probability calculus for quantitative HREM. Part II: entropy and likelihood concepts.

PubMed

Möbus, G

2000-12-01

The technique of extracting atomic coordinates from HREM images by R-factor refinement via iterative simulation and global optimisation is described in the context of probability density estimations for unknown parameters. In the second part of this two-part paper we discuss in comparison maximum likelihood and maximum entropy techniques with respect to their suitability of application within HREM. We outline practical difficulties of likelihood estimation and present a synthesis of two point-cloud techniques as a recommendable solution. This R-factor refinement with independent Monte-Carlo error calibration is a highly versatile method which allows adaptation to the special needs of HREM. Unlike simple text-book estimation methods, there is no requirement here on the noise being additive, uncorrelated, or Gaussian. It also becomes possible to account for a subset of systematic errors.

3. The generalization of Plackett-Burman design based on fractional calculus of complex order

Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Jalab, Hamid A.

2014-12-01

Response surface attitude was working to optimize the degradation situations of Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) by Rhodococcus erythropolis in liquid culture. The interesting factors that influence the degradation, as identified by a Plackett-Burman design with six variables, were temperature, liquid volume, pH, inoculums size, agitation speed and incubation time. In this work, we generalize the Plackett-Burman design, based on fractional calculus of complex order, to describe correlation between the six variables and the degradation rate of AFB1. The experimental results show the influence of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the degradation efficiency of R. erythropolis could extent 99% in liquid culture.

4. Sculpture, general view looking to the seated lions, probably from ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Sculpture, general view looking to the seated lions, probably from the American Bungalow - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

5. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

6. Probability and Relative Frequency

Drieschner, Michael

2016-01-01

The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the `prediction interpretation' of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The "ladder"-structure of the probability calculus is analyzed. The expectation of the relative frequency is shown to be equal to the predicted relative frequency. Probability is shown to be the most general empirically testable prediction.

7. Continuation of probability density functions using a generalized Lyapunov approach

Baars, S.; Viebahn, J. P.; Mulder, T. E.; Kuehn, C.; Wubs, F. W.; Dijkstra, H. A.

2017-05-01

Techniques from numerical bifurcation theory are very useful to study transitions between steady fluid flow patterns and the instabilities involved. Here, we provide computational methodology to use parameter continuation in determining probability density functions of systems of stochastic partial differential equations near fixed points, under a small noise approximation. Key innovation is the efficient solution of a generalized Lyapunov equation using an iterative method involving low-rank approximations. We apply and illustrate the capabilities of the method using a problem in physical oceanography, i.e. the occurrence of multiple steady states of the Atlantic Ocean circulation.

8. Predicting the Probability of Lightning Occurrence with Generalized Additive Models

Fabsic, Peter; Mayr, Georg; Simon, Thorsten; Zeileis, Achim

2017-04-01

This study investigates the predictability of lightning in complex terrain. The main objective is to estimate the probability of lightning occurrence in the Alpine region during summertime afternoons (12-18 UTC) at a spatial resolution of 64 × 64 km2. Lightning observations are obtained from the ALDIS lightning detection network. The probability of lightning occurrence is estimated using generalized additive models (GAM). GAMs provide a flexible modelling framework to estimate the relationship between covariates and the observations. The covariates, besides spatial and temporal effects, include numerous meteorological fields from the ECMWF ensemble system. The optimal model is chosen based on a forward selection procedure with out-of-sample mean squared error as a performance criterion. Our investigation shows that convective precipitation and mid-layer stability are the most influential meteorological predictors. Both exhibit intuitive, non-linear trends: higher values of convective precipitation indicate higher probability of lightning, and large values of the mid-layer stability measure imply low lightning potential. The performance of the model was evaluated against a climatology model containing both spatial and temporal effects. Taking the climatology model as a reference forecast, our model attains a Brier Skill Score of approximately 46%. The model's performance can be further enhanced by incorporating the information about lightning activity from the previous time step, which yields a Brier Skill Score of 48%. These scores show that the method is able to extract valuable information from the ensemble to produce reliable spatial forecasts of the lightning potential in the Alps.

9. Generalizing Swendsen-Wang to sampling arbitrary posterior probabilities.

PubMed

2005-08-01

Many vision tasks can be formulated as graph partition problems that minimize energy functions. For such problems, the Gibbs sampler provides a general solution but is very slow, while other methods, such as Ncut and graph cuts are computationally effective but only work for specific energy forms and are not generally applicable. In this paper, we present a new inference algorithm that generalizes the Swendsen-Wang method to arbitrary probabilities defined on graph partitions. We begin by computing graph edge weights, based on local image features. Then, the algorithm iterates two steps. 1) Graph clustering: It forms connected components by cutting the edges probabilistically based on their weights. 2) Graph relabeling: It selects one connected component and flips probabilistically, the coloring of all vertices in the component simultaneously. Thus, it realizes the split, merge, and regrouping of a "chunk" of the graph, in contrast to Gibbs sampler that flips a single vertex. We prove that this algorithm simulates ergodic and reversible Markov chain jumps in the space of graph partitions and is applicable to arbitrary posterior probabilities or energy functions defined on graphs. We demonstrate the algorithm on two typical problems in computer vision--image segmentation and stereo vision. Experimentally, we show that it is 100-400 times faster in CPU time than the classical Gibbs sampler and 20-40 times faster then the DDMCMC segmentation algorithm. For stereo, we compare performance with graph cuts and belief propagation. We also show that our algorithm can automatically infer generative models and obtain satisfactory results (better than the graphic cuts or belief propagation) in the same amount of time.

10. An infinite-dimensional calculus for generalized connections on hypercubic lattices

SciTech Connect

Mendes, R. Vilela

2011-05-15

A space for gauge theories is defined, using projective limits as subsets of Cartesian products of homomorphisms from a lattice on the structure group. In this space, non-interacting and interacting measures are defined as well as functions and operators. From projective limits of test functions and distributions on products of compact groups, a projective gauge triplet is obtained, which provides a framework for the infinite-dimensional calculus in gauge theories. The gauge measure behavior on non-generic strata is also obtained.

11. Probable fenofibrate-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.

PubMed

Power, Anna E; Graudins, Linda V; McLean, Catriona A; Hopper, Ingrid

2015-12-01

The case of a patient who experienced a severe adverse reaction requiring emergency treatment after a single dose of fenofibrate is described. A 58-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes was hospitalized for treatment of an extensive blistering rash on the buttocks and trunk accompanied by fever, hypotension, tachycardia, neutrophilia, impaired renal function, and liver enzyme abnormalities. She reported that two days previously she had developed fever and vomiting four hours after taking her first dose of fenofibrate (145 mg). The patient required vasopressor support and was initially treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 3 days and a course of immune globulin. On hospital day 4, histopathology returned results consistent with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and the patient was subsequently treated with topical steroids. Gradual resolution of AGEP was noted at the time of her discharge from the hospital on day 7 and at one-week follow-up. Analysis of the case using the adverse drug reaction probability scale of Naranjo et al. yielded a score of 5, indicating a probable association between fenofibrate use and AGEP development. AGEP is a predominantly drug-induced condition but is not typically associated with fenofibrate use. Cutaneous eruptions in AGEP are often accompanied by systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, leukocytosis), and the disorder can also be associated with impaired creatinine clearance and elevated aminotransaminase levels. A woman with type 1 diabetes developed AGEP after taking a single dose of fenofibrate. Her cutaneous symptoms began to resolve within days of discontinuation of fenofibrate use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

12. Polynomial Calculus: Rethinking the Role of Calculus in High Schools

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grant, Melva R.; Crombie, William; Enderson, Mary; Cobb, Nell

2016-01-01

Access to advanced study in mathematics, in general, and to calculus, in particular, depends in part on the conceptual architecture of these knowledge domains. In this paper, we outline an alternative conceptual architecture for elementary calculus. Our general strategy is to separate basic concepts from the particular advanced techniques used in…

13. Polynomial Calculus: Rethinking the Role of Calculus in High Schools

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grant, Melva R.; Crombie, William; Enderson, Mary; Cobb, Nell

2016-01-01

Access to advanced study in mathematics, in general, and to calculus, in particular, depends in part on the conceptual architecture of these knowledge domains. In this paper, we outline an alternative conceptual architecture for elementary calculus. Our general strategy is to separate basic concepts from the particular advanced techniques used in…

14. A Logical Process Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

17. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

18. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

20. Polynomial calculus: rethinking the role of calculus in high schools

Grant, Melva R.; Crombie, William; Enderson, Mary; Cobb, Nell

2016-08-01

Access to advanced study in mathematics, in general, and to calculus, in particular, depends in part on the conceptual architecture of these knowledge domains. In this paper, we outline an alternative conceptual architecture for elementary calculus. Our general strategy is to separate basic concepts from the particular advanced techniques used in their definition and exposition. We develop the beginning concepts of differential and integral calculus using only concepts and skills found in secondary algebra and geometry. It is our underlining objective to strengthen students' knowledge of these topics in an effort to prepare them for advanced mathematics study. The purpose of this reconstruction is not to alter the teaching of limit-based calculus but rather to affect students' learning and understanding of mathematics in general by introducing key concepts during secondary mathematics courses. This approach holds the promise of strengthening more students' understanding of limit-based calculus and enhancing their potential for success in post-secondary mathematics.

1. Generalized calcinosis cutis associated with probable leptospirosis in a dog.

PubMed

Munday, John S; Bergen, David J; Roe, Wendi D

2005-12-01

A 6.5-year-old male German Shepherd acutely developed renal and hepatic disease. Serology revealed high concentrations of antibodies against Leptospira copenhageni, and a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis was made. The dog was successfully treated with antibiotics and supportive care over a 12-day period. Sixty-two days after the initial presentation, alopecia predominantly involving the dorsum and perineal areas developed. The skin lesions expanded over a 20-day period. Histology revealed generalized calcinosis cutis with follicular atrophy. An injection of 0.01 mg kg-1 dexamethasone suppressed serum cortisol concentrations. No treatment was given and lesions resolved over the following 30 days. This is the third case of generalized calcinosis cutis that has developed in an adult dog after severe systemic disease. Both previous cases developed calcinosis cutis in association with blastomycosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of generalized calcinosis cutis in an adult dog in association with a presumptive bacterial infection.

2. On modified Dunkl generalization of Szász operators via q-calculus.

PubMed

Mursaleen, M; Nasiruzzaman, Md; Alotaibi, Abdullah

2017-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modification of q-Dunkl generalization of exponential functions. These types of operators enable better error estimation on the interval [Formula: see text] than the classical ones. We obtain some approximation results via a well-known Korovkin-type theorem and a weighted Korovkin-type theorem. Further, we obtain the rate of convergence of the operators for functions belonging to the Lipschitz class.

3. Dynamic Visualizations of Calculus Ideas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embse, Charles Vonder

2001-01-01

Presents three fundamental ideas of calculus and explains using the coordinate plane geometrically. Uses Cabri Geometry II to show how computer geometry systems can facilitate student understanding of general conic objects and its dynamic algebraic equations. (KHR)

4. Humanizing Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cirillo, Michelle

2007-01-01

In this article, the author explores the history and the mathematics used by Newton and Leibniz in their invention of calculus. The exploration of this topic is intended to show students that mathematics is a human invention. Suggestions are made to help teachers incorporate the mathematics and the history into their own lessons. (Contains 3…

5. Flipping Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

2013-01-01

In this paper we discuss flipping pedagogy and how it can transform the teaching and learning of calculus by applying pedagogical practices that are steeped in our understanding of how students learn most effectively. In particular, we describe the results of an exploratory study we conducted to examine the benefits and challenges of flipping a…

6. Humanizing Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cirillo, Michelle

2007-01-01

In this article, the author explores the history and the mathematics used by Newton and Leibniz in their invention of calculus. The exploration of this topic is intended to show students that mathematics is a human invention. Suggestions are made to help teachers incorporate the mathematics and the history into their own lessons. (Contains 3…

7. Flipping Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

2013-01-01

In this paper we discuss flipping pedagogy and how it can transform the teaching and learning of calculus by applying pedagogical practices that are steeped in our understanding of how students learn most effectively. In particular, we describe the results of an exploratory study we conducted to examine the benefits and challenges of flipping a…

8. The Use of a PDP-11/20 Computer in a Non-Calculus General Physics Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yu, David U. L.

Computer-assisted instruction supplements traditional methods in a non-calculus physics course offered at Seattle Pacific College. Thirty-five science majors enrolled in the first quarter and 32 continued in the second term. The hardware for the course consists of a PDP-11/20 computer and eight teletype terminals; additional peripheral equipment…

9. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

PubMed

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

10. Testicular calculus: A rare case.

PubMed

Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demır, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

2015-01-01

Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.

11. On realizations of exterior calculus with dN = 0

Abramov, V.

1998-11-01

We study realizations of the q-exterior calculus with exterior differential d satisfying d N = 0, N > 2 on the free associative algebra with one generator and on the generalized Clifford algebras. Analogs of the notions of connection and curvature are discussed in the case of the q-exterior calculus on the generalized Clifford algebra. We show that the q-exterior calculus on the free associative algebra with one generator is related to q-calculus on the braided line.

12. Height probabilities in the Abelian sandpile model on the generalized finite Bethe lattice

Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuji

2013-08-01

In this paper, we study the sandpile model on the generalized finite Bethe lattice with a particular boundary condition. Using a combinatorial method, we give the exact expressions for all single-site probabilities and some two-site joint probabilities. As a by-product, we prove that the height probabilities of bulk vertices are all the same for the Bethe lattice with certain given boundary condition, which was found from numerical evidence by Grassberger and Manna ["Some more sandpiles," J. Phys. (France) 51, 1077-1098 (1990)], 10.1051/jphys:0199000510110107700 but without a proof.

13. Lattice Duality: The Origin of Probability and Entropy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knuth, Kevin H.

2004-01-01

Bayesian probability theory is an inference calculus, which originates from a generalization of inclusion on the Boolean lattice of logical assertions to a degree of inclusion represented by a real number. Dual to this lattice is the distributive lattice of questions constructed from the ordered set of down-sets of assertions, which forms the foundation of the calculus of inquiry-a generalization of information theory. In this paper we introduce this novel perspective on these spaces in which machine learning is performed and discuss the relationship between these results and several proposed generalizations of information theory in the literature.

14. Transition probabilities for general birth-death processes with applications in ecology, genetics, and evolution

PubMed Central

Crawford, Forrest W.; Suchard, Marc A.

2011-01-01

A birth-death process is a continuous-time Markov chain that counts the number of particles in a system over time. In the general process with n current particles, a new particle is born with instantaneous rate λn and a particle dies with instantaneous rate μn. Currently no robust and efficient method exists to evaluate the finite-time transition probabilities in a general birth-death process with arbitrary birth and death rates. In this paper, we first revisit the theory of continued fractions to obtain expressions for the Laplace transforms of these transition probabilities and make explicit an important derivation connecting transition probabilities and continued fractions. We then develop an efficient algorithm for computing these probabilities that analyzes the error associated with approximations in the method. We demonstrate that this error-controlled method agrees with known solutions and outperforms previous approaches to computing these probabilities. Finally, we apply our novel method to several important problems in ecology, evolution, and genetics. PMID:21984359

15. A Generalized Cosmological Reduced Void Probability Distribution Function and Levy Index

Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Andrew, K.; Baxley, J.; Smailhodzic, A.; Bolen, B.; Gary, J.; Taylor, L.; Barnaby, D.

2009-01-01

We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the DEEP2 survey and numerical runs of the Gadget II code to analyze the distribution of cosmological voids in the universe similar to the model proposed by Mekjian.1 The general form of the Void Probability Function focuses on a scaling model inspired from percolation theory that gives an analytical form for the distribution function. For large redshifts the early universe was smooth and the probability function has a simple mathematical form that mimics the two point correlation results leading to a Zipf's Law probability distribution indicating an ever decreasing probability of larger and larger voids, we determine the Zipf form of the scaling power law for void frequency. As various large scale galactic structures emerge in a given simulation a number of relatively empty regions are isolated and characterized as voids based upon number counts in the associated volume. The number density of these regions is such that the universe has a large scale "sponge-like” appearance with voids of all scales permeating the field of observation, hinting at the existence of an underlying scaling law. For these data sets we examine the range of critical void probability function parameters that give rise to the best fit to the numerical and observational data. The resulting void probability functions are then used to determine the Levy index and the Fisher critical exponent within the context of a grand canonical ensemble analysis viewed as a percolation effect. We wish to thank the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium for providing the NASA grant funding this research 1. Aram Z. Mekjian , Generalized statistical models of voids and hierarchical structure in cosmology, The Astrophysical Journal, 655: 1-10, 2007, arXiv:0712.1217

16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

17. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

18. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 35-37: Reflection and Refraction; Electric Fields and Potentials from Continuous Charge Distributions; and Maxwell's Predictions].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 27-30: Direct-Current Circuits; Magnetic Forces; Ampere's Law; and Faraday's Law].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules indlude study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

20. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 8-10: Conservation of Energy; Impulse and Momentum; and Rotational Motion].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 11-14: Collisions; Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies; Rotational Dynamics; and Fluid Mechanics].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

3. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 15-17: Gravitation; Simple Harmonic Motion; and Traveling Waves; plus a Partial Derivatives Review].

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

4. Calculus ABCs: A Gateway for Freshman Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fulton, Scott R.

2003-01-01

This paper describes a gateway testing program designed to ensure that students acquire basic skills in freshman calculus. Students must demonstrate they have mastered standards for "Absolutely Basic Competency"--the Calculus ABCs--in order to pass the course with a grade of C or better. We describe the background, standards, and testing program.…

5. Superpositions of probability distributions

Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen

2008-09-01

Probability distributions which can be obtained from superpositions of Gaussian distributions of different variances v=σ2 play a favored role in quantum theory and financial markets. Such superpositions need not necessarily obey the Chapman-Kolmogorov semigroup relation for Markovian processes because they may introduce memory effects. We derive the general form of the smearing distributions in v which do not destroy the semigroup property. The smearing technique has two immediate applications. It permits simplifying the system of Kramers-Moyal equations for smeared and unsmeared conditional probabilities, and can be conveniently implemented in the path integral calculus. In many cases, the superposition of path integrals can be evaluated much easier than the initial path integral. Three simple examples are presented, and it is shown how the technique is extended to quantum mechanics.

6. Estimation of capture probabilities using generalized estimating equations and mixed effects approaches

PubMed Central

Akanda, Md Abdus Salam; Alpizar-Jara, Russell

2014-01-01

Modeling individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities has been one of the most challenging tasks in capture–recapture studies. Heterogeneity in capture probabilities can be modeled as a function of individual covariates, but correlation structure among capture occasions should be taking into account. A proposed generalized estimating equations (GEE) and generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) approaches can be used to estimate capture probabilities and population size for capture–recapture closed population models. An example is used for an illustrative application and for comparison with currently used methodology. A simulation study is also conducted to show the performance of the estimation procedures. Our simulation results show that the proposed quasi-likelihood based on GEE approach provides lower SE than partial likelihood based on either generalized linear models (GLM) or GLMM approaches for estimating population size in a closed capture–recapture experiment. Estimator performance is good if a large proportion of individuals are captured. For cases where only a small proportion of individuals are captured, the estimates become unstable, but the GEE approach outperforms the other methods. PMID:24772290

7. Assessment regarding the use of the computer aided analytical models in the calculus of the general strength of a ship hull

Hreniuc, V.; Hreniuc, A.; Pescaru, A.

2017-08-01

Solving a general strength problem of a ship hull may be done using analytical approaches which are useful to deduce the buoyancy forces distribution, the weighting forces distribution along the hull and the geometrical characteristics of the sections. These data are used to draw the free body diagrams and to compute the stresses. The general strength problems require a large amount of calculi, therefore it is interesting how a computer may be used to solve such problems. Using computer programming an engineer may conceive software instruments based on analytical approaches. However, before developing the computer code the research topic must be thoroughly analysed, in this way being reached a meta-level of understanding of the problem. The following stage is to conceive an appropriate development strategy of the original software instruments useful for the rapid development of computer aided analytical models. The geometrical characteristics of the sections may be computed using a bool algebra that operates with ‘simple’ geometrical shapes. By ‘simple’ we mean that for the according shapes we have direct calculus relations. In the set of ‘simple’ shapes we also have geometrical entities bounded by curves approximated as spline functions or as polygons. To conclude, computer programming offers the necessary support to solve general strength ship hull problems using analytical methods.

8. Asymptotic forms for hard and soft edge general β conditional gap probabilities

Forrester, Peter J.; Witte, Nicholas S.

2012-06-01

An infinite log-gas formalism, due to Dyson, and independently Fogler and Shklovskii, is applied to the computation of conditioned gap probabilities at the hard and soft edges of random matrix β-ensembles. The conditioning is that there are n eigenvalues in the gap, with n≪|t|, t denoting the end point of the gap. It is found that the entropy term in the formalism must be replaced by a term involving the potential drop to obtain results consist with known asymptotic expansions in the case n=0. With this modification made for general n, the derived expansions — which are for the logarithm of the gap probabilities — are conjectured to be correct up to and including terms O(log|t|). They are shown to satisfy various consistency conditions, including an asymptotic duality formula relating β to 4/β.

9. Questions Revisited: A Close Examination of Calculus of Inference and Inquiry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knuth, Kevin H.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

In this paper I examine more closely the way in which probability theory, the calculus of inference, is derived from the Boolean lattice structure of logical assertions ordered by implication. I demonstrate how the duality between the logical conjunction and disjunction in Boolean algebra is lost when deriving the probability calculus. In addition, I look more closely at the other lattice identities to verify that they are satisfied by the probability calculus. Last, I look towards developing the calculus of inquiry demonstrating that there is a sum and product rule for the relevance measure as well as a Bayes theorem. Current difficulties in deriving the complete inquiry calculus will also be discussed.

10. Questions Revisited: A Close Examination of Calculus of Inference and Inquiry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knuth, Kevin H.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

In this paper I examine more closely the way in which probability theory, the calculus of inference, is derived from the Boolean lattice structure of logical assertions ordered by implication. I demonstrate how the duality between the logical conjunction and disjunction in Boolean algebra is lost when deriving the probability calculus. In addition, I look more closely at the other lattice identities to verify that they are satisfied by the probability calculus. Last, I look towards developing the calculus of inquiry demonstrating that there is a sum and product rule for the relevance measure as well as a Bayes theorem. Current difficulties in deriving the complete inquiry calculus will also be discussed.

11. Convexity of Ruin Probability and Optimal Dividend Strategies for a General Lévy Process

PubMed Central

Yin, Chuancun; Yuen, Kam Chuen; Shen, Ying

2015-01-01

We consider the optimal dividends problem for a company whose cash reserves follow a general Lévy process with certain positive jumps and arbitrary negative jumps. The objective is to find a policy which maximizes the expected discounted dividends until the time of ruin. Under appropriate conditions, we use some recent results in the theory of potential analysis of subordinators to obtain the convexity properties of probability of ruin. We present conditions under which the optimal dividend strategy, among all admissible ones, takes the form of a barrier strategy. PMID:26351655

12. Estimation of probable maximum precipitation for catchments in eastern India by a generalized method

Rakhecha, P. R.; Mandal, B. N.; Kulkarni, A. K.; Deshpande, N. R.

1995-03-01

A generalized method to estimate the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) has been developed for catchments in eastern India (80° E, 18° N) by pooling together all the major rainstorms that have occurred in this area. The areal raindepths of these storms are normalized for factors such as storm dew point temperature, distance of the storm from the coast, topographic effects and any intervening mountain barriers between the storm area and the moisture source. The normalized values are then applied, with appropriate adjustment factors in estimating PMP raindepths, to the Subarnarekha river catchment (upto the Chandil dam site) with an area of 5663 km2. The PMP rainfall for 1, 2 and 3 days were found to be roughly 53 cm, 78 cm and 98 cm, respectively. It is expected that the application of the generalized method proposed here will give more reliable estimates of PMP for different duration rainfall events.

13. Training General Practitioners to Detect Probable Mental Disorders in Young People During Health Risk Screening.

PubMed

Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle; Otjes, Christiaan P; Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Thuraisingam, Sharmala; English, Dallas R; Haller, Dagmar M; Sanci, Lena A

2017-09-01

The purpose of the study is to investigate whether a training intervention increases general practitioners' (GPs) detection sensitivity for probable mental disorders in young people. Forty general practices were randomized to an intervention (29 GPs) or comparison arm (49 GPs). Intervention GPs participated in 9 hours of interactive training on youth-friendly care, psychosocial health risk screening, and responding to risk-taking behavior with motivational interviewing approaches, followed by practice visits assisting with integration of screening processes and tools. Youth aged 14-24 years attending GPs underwent a computer-assisted telephone interview about their consultation and psychosocial health risks. Having a "probable mental disorder" was defined as either scoring high on Kessler's scale of psychological distress (K10) or self-perceived mental illness. Other definitions tested were high K10; self-perceived mental illness; and high K10 and self-perceived mental illness. Psychosocial health risk screening rates, detection sensitivity, and other accuracy parameters (specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) were estimated. GPs' detection sensitivity improved after the intervention if having probable mental disorder was defined as high K10 score and self-perceived mental illness (odds ratio: 2.81; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-6.42). There was no significant difference in sensitivity of GPs' detection for our preferred definition, high K10 or self-perceived mental illness (.37 in both; odds ratio: .93; 95% confidence interval: .47-1.83), and detection accuracy was comparable (specificity: .84 vs. .87, positive predictive values: .54 vs. .60, and negative predictive values: .72 vs. .72). Improving recognition of mental disorder among young people attending primary care is likely to require a multifaceted approach targeting young people and GPs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

14. Non-classical conditional probability and the quantum no-cloning theorem

Niestegge, Gerd

2015-09-01

The quantum mechanical no-cloning theorem for pure states is generalized and transfered to the quantum logics with a conditional probability calculus in a rather abstract, though simple and basic fashion without relying on a tensor product construction or finite dimension as required in other generalizations.

15. Decoupling of the reparametrization degree of freedom and a generalized probability in quantum cosmology

Dimakis, N.; Terzis, Petros A.; Zampeli, Adamantia; Christodoulakis, T.

2016-09-01

The high degree of symmetry renders the dynamics of cosmological as well as some black hole spacetimes describable by a system of finite degrees of freedom. These systems are generally known as minisuperspace models. One of their important key features is the invariance of the corresponding reduced actions under reparametrizations of the independent variable, a fact that can be seen as the remnant of the general covariance of the full theory. In the case of a system of n degrees of freedom, described by a Lagrangian quadratic in velocities, one can use the lapse by either gauge fixing it or letting it be defined by the constraint and subsequently substitute into the rest of the equations. In the first case, the system of the second-order equations of motion is solvable for all n accelerations and the constraint becomes a restriction among constants of integration. In the second case, the system can be solved for only n -1 accelerations and the "gauge" freedom is transferred to the choice of one of the scalar degrees of freedom. In this paper, we take the second path and express all n -1 scalar degrees of freedom in terms of the remaining one, say q . By considering these n -1 degrees of freedom as arbitrary but given functions of q , we manage to extract a two-dimensional pure gauge system consisting of the lapse N and the arbitrary q : in a way, we decouple the reparametrization invariance from the rest of the equations of motion, which are thus describing the "true" dynamics. The solution of the corresponding quantum two-dimensional system is used for the definition of a generalized probability for every configuration fi(q ), be it classical or not. The main result is that, interestingly enough, this probability attains its extrema on the classical solution of the initial n -dimensional system.

16. Solution of a torsional Schrödinger equation with a periodic potential of general form. The probability amplitude and probability density

Turovtsev, V. V.; Orlov, M. Yu.; Orlov, Yu. D.

2017-08-01

Analytic expressions for the probability density of states of a molecule with internal rotation and the probability of finding the state in the potential well are derived for the first time. Two methods are proposed for assigning conformers to potential wells. A quantitative measure of localization and delocalization of a state in the potential well is introduced. The rotational symmetry number is generalized to the case of asymmetric rotation. On the basis of the localization criterion, a model is developed for calculating the internal rotation contribution to thermodynamic properties of individual conformers with low rotational barriers and/or at a high temperature.

17. Influence of gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of LiClO4-gelatin solid polymer electrolytes: Modelling anomalous diffusion through generalized calculus

Basu, Tania; Tarafdar, Sujata

2016-08-01

Solid polymer electrolytes with gelatin as host polymer are subjected to gamma irradiation with dose varying from 0 to 100 kGy. Two sets of samples are studied, one with and one without addition of lithium perchlorate as ionic salt. The effect of varying plasticizer content, salt fraction and radiation dose on the impedance is measured. The dc (direct current) ion-conductivity is determined from impedance spectroscopy results. It is shown that relative to the unirradiated sample, the room temperature dc ion-conductivity decreases in general on irradiation, by an order of magnitude. However on comparing results for the irradiated samples, a dose of 60 kGy is seen to produce the highest ion-conductivity. Considering the variation of all parameters, the highest dc-conductivity of 6.06x10-2 S/m is obtained for the un-irradiated sample at room temperature, with 12.5 wt% LiClO4 and 35.71 wt% of glycerol as plasticizer. The samples are characterized in addition by XRD, SEM and FTIR respectively. Cyclic voltametry is performed for the confirmation of the electrolytic performance for pristine and gamma irradiated samples. To understand the experimental results, a model incorporating normal, as well as anomalous diffusion has been applied. Generalized calculus is used to model the anomalous diffusion. It is shown that this model successfully reproduces the experimental frequency dependence of the complex impedance for samples subjected to varying gamma dose. The physical interpretation of the model parameters and their variation with sample composition and irradiation dose is discussed.

18. Teaching the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2012-01-01

Methods of teaching the Calculus are presented in honour of Sir Isaac Newton, by discussing an extension of his original proofs and discoveries. The methods, requested by Newton to be used that reflect the historical sequence of the discovered Fundamental Theorems, allow first-time students to grasp quickly the basics of the Calculus from its…

19. Initialized Fractional Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

2000-01-01

This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

20. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

2002-01-01

The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

1. Teaching the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2012-01-01

Methods of teaching the Calculus are presented in honour of Sir Isaac Newton, by discussing an extension of his original proofs and discoveries. The methods, requested by Newton to be used that reflect the historical sequence of the discovered Fundamental Theorems, allow first-time students to grasp quickly the basics of the Calculus from its…

2. SAR amplitude probability density function estimation based on a generalized Gaussian model.

PubMed

Moser, Gabriele; Zerubia, Josiane; Serpico, Sebastiano B

2006-06-01

In the context of remotely sensed data analysis, an important problem is the development of accurate models for the statistics of the pixel intensities. Focusing on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, this modeling process turns out to be a crucial task, for instance, for classification or for denoising purposes. In this paper, an innovative parametric estimation methodology for SAR amplitude data is proposed that adopts a generalized Gaussian (GG) model for the complex SAR backscattered signal. A closed-form expression for the corresponding amplitude probability density function (PDF) is derived and a specific parameter estimation algorithm is developed in order to deal with the proposed model. Specifically, the recently proposed "method-of-log-cumulants" (MoLC) is applied, which stems from the adoption of the Mellin transform (instead of the usual Fourier transform) in the computation of characteristic functions and from the corresponding generalization of the concepts of moment and cumulant. For the developed GG-based amplitude model, the resulting MoLC estimates turn out to be numerically feasible and are also analytically proved to be consistent. The proposed parametric approach was validated by using several real ERS-1, XSAR, E-SAR, and NASA/JPL airborne SAR images, and the experimental results prove that the method models the amplitude PDF better than several previously proposed parametric models for backscattering phenomena.

3. Impact of Calculus Reform in a Liberal Arts Calculus Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brosnan, Patricia A.; Ralley, Thomas G.

This report describes the changes in a freshman-level calculus course that occurred as a consequence of adopting the Harvard Consortium Calculus text. The perspective is that of the lecturer. The course is intended as an introduction to calculus for liberal arts students, that is, students who will not be expected to use calculus as a mathematical…

4. Supercalculators and University Entrance Calculus Examinations.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hong, Ye Yoon; Thomas, Mike; Kiernan, Christine

2000-01-01

Investigates whether the use of computer algebra systems could provide a significant advantage to students taking standard university entrance calculus examinations. Indicates that supercalculators would probably provide a significant advantage, particularly for lower-achieving students. Demonstrates that it is possible to write questions in which…

5. Hermeneutic operative calculus

Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Isawasan, Pradeep; Mohanan, Vasuky

2014-07-01

The predicate calculus used currently by mathematical logic in computer science, philosophy and linguistic was found to be too restrictive and inadequate for describing the grammar of natural and artificial language. Therefore many higher order logics have been developed to overcome the limitation of predicate calculus. In this paper a new representation of logic using mathematical principles has been developed for the natural language called Hermeneutic Operative Calculus. This Hermeneutic Operative Calculus is a new language interpretive calculus developed to account for the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of natural language and allows removing the restrictions of any particular natural language in the semantic field its map out. The logic of Hermeneutic Operative Calculus capable of represent the syntactic and semantic of factual information of a natural language precisely in any language. The logic of this Hermeneutic Operative Calculus has two different forms of operations called object and meta-operations. The object operation allow for listing the various objects, picturing the various propositions and so forth. The meta-operation would specify what cannot be specified by the object operation like semantical stances of a proposition. The basic operative processes of linguistics and cognitive logic will be mathematically conceptualized and elaborated in this paper.

6. Overfitting, generalization, and MSE in class probability estimation with high-dimensional data.

PubMed

Kim, Kyung In; Simon, Richard

2014-03-01

Accurate class probability estimation is important for medical decision making but is challenging, particularly when the number of candidate features exceeds the number of cases. Special methods have been developed for nonprobabilistic classification, but relatively little attention has been given to class probability estimation with numerous candidate variables. In this paper, we investigate overfitting in the development of regularized class probability estimators. We investigate the relation between overfitting and accurate class probability estimation in terms of mean square error. Using simulation studies based on real datasets, we found that some degree of overfitting can be desirable for reducing mean square error. We also introduce a mean square error decomposition for class probability estimation that helps clarify the relationship between overfitting and prediction accuracy.

7. Studies in Mathematics, Volume XV. Calculus and Science.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twersky, Victor

This book is designed to illustrate how one general method of calculus is used in many different sciences and how different methods of calculus have furthered the development of essentially one field of science. The material is written so that it could serve as a math-science supplement for many courses. Chapters included are: (1) Introduction;…

8. Descartes' Calculus of Subnormals: What Might Have Been

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boudreaux, Gregory Mark; Walls, Jess E.

2013-01-01

Rene Descartes' method for finding tangents (equivalently, subnormals) depends on geometric and algebraic properties of a family of circles intersecting a given curve. It can be generalized to establish a calculus of subnormals, an alternative to the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Here we prove subnormal counterparts of the well-known…

9. Descartes' Calculus of Subnormals: What Might Have Been

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boudreaux, Gregory Mark; Walls, Jess E.

2013-01-01

Rene Descartes' method for finding tangents (equivalently, subnormals) depends on geometric and algebraic properties of a family of circles intersecting a given curve. It can be generalized to establish a calculus of subnormals, an alternative to the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Here we prove subnormal counterparts of the well-known…

10. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

SciTech Connect

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2008-11-15

The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.

11. On the error probability of general trellis codes with applications to sequential decoding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johannesson, R.

1977-01-01

An upper bound on the average probability of error for maximum-likelihood decoding of the ensemble of random L-branch binary trellis codes of rate R = 1/n with distinction between memory length and tail length is given. It is shown that the bound is independent of the length L of the information sequence if the memory length exceeds the tail length by a specified amount that depends on L. Sequential decoding simulations using the stack algorithm were conducted to test the dependence of the undetected error probability on tail length and memory length, and the results corroborated the theory.

12. Discrete Quantum Gravity in the Regge Calculus Formalism

SciTech Connect

Khatsymovsky, V.M.

2005-09-01

We discuss an approach to the discrete quantum gravity in the Regge calculus formalism that was developed in a number of our papers. The Regge calculus is general relativity for a subclass of general Riemannian manifolds called piecewise flat manifolds. The Regge calculus deals with a discrete set of variables, triangulation lengths, and contains continuous general relativity as a special limiting case where the lengths tend to zero. In our approach, the quantum length expectations are nonzero and of the order of the Plank scale, 10{sup -33} cm, implying a discrete spacetime structure on these scales.

13. Generalizations and Extensions of the Probability of Superiority Effect Size Estimator

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ruscio, John; Gera, Benjamin Lee

2013-01-01

Researchers are strongly encouraged to accompany the results of statistical tests with appropriate estimates of effect size. For 2-group comparisons, a probability-based effect size estimator ("A") has many appealing properties (e.g., it is easy to understand, robust to violations of parametric assumptions, insensitive to outliers). We review…

14. Generalizations and Extensions of the Probability of Superiority Effect Size Estimator

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ruscio, John; Gera, Benjamin Lee

2013-01-01

Researchers are strongly encouraged to accompany the results of statistical tests with appropriate estimates of effect size. For 2-group comparisons, a probability-based effect size estimator ("A") has many appealing properties (e.g., it is easy to understand, robust to violations of parametric assumptions, insensitive to outliers). We review…

15. Estimating the Probability of Being the Best System: A Generalized Method and Nonparametric Hypothesis Test

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-03-01

Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air...University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Operations ...to estimate these unknown multinomial success probabilities, , for each of the systems [17]. Bechhofer and Sobel [18] made use of multinomial

16. Putting Differentials Back into Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corrine A.

2010-01-01

We argue that the use of differentials in introductory calculus courses is useful and provides a unifying theme, leading to a coherent view of the calculus. Along the way, we meet several interpretations of differentials, some better than others.

17. Putting Differentials Back into Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corrine A.

2010-01-01

We argue that the use of differentials in introductory calculus courses is useful and provides a unifying theme, leading to a coherent view of the calculus. Along the way, we meet several interpretations of differentials, some better than others.

18. Cartan calculus on quantum Lie algebras

SciTech Connect

Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.

1993-12-09

A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions au into one big algebra, the ``Cartan Calculus.``

19. Using Discovery in the Calculus Class

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shilgalis, Thomas W.

1975-01-01

This article shows how two discoverable theorems from elementary calculus can be presented to students in a manner that assists them in making the generalizations themselves. The theorems are the mean value theorems for derivatives and for integrals. A conjecture is suggested by pictures and then refined. (Author/KM)

20. A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors

Penneys, David

2013-05-01

We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

1. Multiplicative Calculus and Student Projects.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campbell, Duff

1999-01-01

Multiplicative calculus is based on a multiplicative rate of change whereas the usual calculus is based on an additive rate of change. Describes some student investigations into multiplicative calculus, including an original student idea about multiplicative Euler's Method. (Author/ASK)

2. The History of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harding, Simon; Scott, Paul

2004-01-01

Calculus is a mathematical concept that is fundamental to how we understand the world around us. Whether it is in the world of technology, finance, astronomy, sociology, medicine, calculus in one form or another can be found. This brief article describes the origins of calculus in Greece, further developments by Newton and Leibniz, and the…

3. Why Do We Teach Calculus?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bressoud, David M.

1992-01-01

Discusses two answers to the question of why we teach calculus in the college mathematics curriculum: (1) calculus is used in real mathematical applications across a variety of disciplines; and (2) the historical development of calculus exposes students to the foundation of the scientific world view. (MDH)

4. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

PubMed

Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

2014-01-01

Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

5. PROBABILITY ESTIMATES OF THE CAPACITIES OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND SELECTED PHYSICAL SCIENCE GENERALIZATIONS. FINAL REPORT.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SMITH, GARY R.

THE CAPACITY OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND AND RETAIN GENERALIZATIONS RELATED TO SIMPLE MACHINES, ELECTRICAL ENERGY, AND HEAT ENERGY WAS INVESTIGATED. A STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLE OF APPROXIMATELY 1,200 FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADE PUPILS WAS SELECTED FROM THE METROPOLITAN DETROIT AREA. GENERALIZATIONS FOR THE THREE PHYSICAL SCIENCE AREAS…

6. Area Regge calculus and continuum limit [rapid communication

Khatsymovsky, V. M.

2002-11-01

Encountered in the literature generalisations of general relativity to independent area variables are considered, the discrete (generalised Regge calculus) and continuum ones. The generalised Regge calculus can be either with purely area variables or, as we suggest, with area tensor-connection variables. Just for the latter, in particular, we prove that in analogy with corresponding statement in ordinary Regge calculus (by Feinberg, Friedberg, Lee and Ren), passing to the (appropriately defined) continuum limit yields the generalised continuum area tensor-connection general relativity.

7. Fractional-calculus diffusion equation

PubMed Central

2010-01-01

Background Sequel to the work on the quantization of nonconservative systems using fractional calculus and quantization of a system with Brownian motion, which aims to consider the dissipation effects in quantum-mechanical description of microscale systems. Results The canonical quantization of a system represented classically by one-dimensional Fick's law, and the diffusion equation is carried out according to the Dirac method. A suitable Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian, describing the diffusive system, are constructed and the Hamiltonian is transformed to Schrodinger's equation which is solved. An application regarding implementation of the developed mathematical method to the analysis of diffusion, osmosis, which is a biological application of the diffusion process, is carried out. Schrödinger's equation is solved. Conclusions The plot of the probability function represents clearly the dissipative and drift forces and hence the osmosis, which agrees totally with the macro-scale view, or the classical-version osmosis. PMID:20492677

8. A general tumour control probability model for non-uniform dose distributions.

PubMed

González, Sara J; Carando, Daniel G

2008-06-01

Perfectly uniform dose distributions over target volumes are almost impossible to achieve in clinical practice, due to surrounding normal tissues dose constraints that are commonly imposed to treatment plans. This article introduces a new approach to compute tumour control probabilities (TCPs) under inhomogeneous dose conditions. The equivalent subvolume model presented here does not assume independence between cell responses and can be derived from any homogeneous dose TCP model. To check the consistency of this model, some natural properties are shown to hold, including the so-called uniform dose theorem. In the spirit of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) concept introduced by Niemierko (1997, Med. Phys., 24, 103-110), the probability-EUD is defined. This concept together with the methodology introduced to compute TCPs for inhomogeneous doses is applied to different uniform dose TCP models. As expected, the TCP takes into account the whole dose distribution over the target volume, but it is influenced more strongly by the low-dose regions. Finally, the proposed methodology and other approaches to the inhomogeneous dose scenario are compared.

9. General continuous-time Markov model of sequence evolution via insertions/deletions: are alignment probabilities factorable?

PubMed

Ezawa, Kiyoshi

2016-08-11

Insertions and deletions (indels) account for more nucleotide differences between two related DNA sequences than substitutions do, and thus it is imperative to develop a stochastic evolutionary model that enables us to reliably calculate the probability of the sequence evolution through indel processes. Recently, indel probabilistic models are mostly based on either hidden Markov models (HMMs) or transducer theories, both of which give the indel component of the probability of a given sequence alignment as a product of either probabilities of column-to-column transitions or block-wise contributions along the alignment. However, it is not a priori clear how these models are related with any genuine stochastic evolutionary model, which describes the stochastic evolution of an entire sequence along the time-axis. Moreover, currently none of these models can fully accommodate biologically realistic features, such as overlapping indels, power-law indel-length distributions, and indel rate variation across regions. Here, we theoretically dissect the ab initio calculation of the probability of a given sequence alignment under a genuine stochastic evolutionary model, more specifically, a general continuous-time Markov model of the evolution of an entire sequence via insertions and deletions. Our model is a simple extension of the general "substitution/insertion/deletion (SID) model". Using the operator representation of indels and the technique of time-dependent perturbation theory, we express the ab initio probability as a summation over all alignment-consistent indel histories. Exploiting the equivalence relations between different indel histories, we find a "sufficient and nearly necessary" set of conditions under which the probability can be factorized into the product of an overall factor and the contributions from regions separated by gapless columns of the alignment, thus providing a sort of generalized HMM. The conditions distinguish evolutionary models with

10. Calculus Courses' Assessment Data

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pauna, Matti

2017-01-01

In this paper we describe computer-aided assessment methods used in online Calculus courses and the data they produce. The online learning environment collects a lot of time-stamped data about every action a student makes. Assessment data can be harnessed into use as a feedback, predictor, and recommendation facility for students and instructors.…

11. From Calculating to Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steckroth, Jeffrey J.

2010-01-01

For nearly three decades, during which the author taught everything from basic algebra to advanced placement calculus, the author thought of himself as a secondary school mathematics teacher. The notion of teaching elementary school math never appealed to him because of its simplicity. The author stresses that anyone could teach children to count,…

12. A Calculus Game.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wigley, Neil M.

1984-01-01

Discusses a computer calculus game which follows the path of a parabola in stepwise progression. The educational value of the game is a simple example of nonlinearity, a subject which is just beginning to earn some attention in the mathematical community. The Applesoft program listing is included. (JN)

13. Tangent Lines without Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rabin, Jeffrey M.

2008-01-01

This article presents a problem that can help high school students develop the concept of instantaneous velocity and connect it with the slope of a tangent line to the graph of position versus time. It also gives a method for determining the tangent line to the graph of a polynomial function at any point without using calculus. (Contains 1 figure.)

14. From Calculating to Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steckroth, Jeffrey J.

2010-01-01

For nearly three decades, during which the author taught everything from basic algebra to advanced placement calculus, the author thought of himself as a secondary school mathematics teacher. The notion of teaching elementary school math never appealed to him because of its simplicity. The author stresses that anyone could teach children to count,…

15. The general theory of relativity - Why 'It is probably the most beautiful of all existing theories'

Chandrasekhar, S.

1984-03-01

An attempt is made to objectively evaluate the frequent judgment of Einstein's general theory of relativity, by such distinguished physicists as Pauli (1921), Dirac, Born, and Rutherford, as 'beautiful' and 'a work of art'. The criteria applied are that of Francis Bacon ('There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportions') and that of Heisenberg ('Beauty is the proper conformity of the parts to one another and to the whole'). The strangeness in the proportions of the theory of general relativity consists in its relating, through juxtaposition, the concepts of space and time and those of matter and motion; these had previously been considered entirely independent. The criterion of 'conformity' is illustrated through the directness with which the theory allows the description of black holes.

16. A Galerkin-based formulation of the probability density evolution method for general stochastic finite element systems

2016-05-01

The present paper proposes a Galerkin finite element projection scheme for the solution of the partial differential equations (pde's) involved in the probability density evolution method, for the linear and nonlinear static analysis of stochastic systems. According to the principle of preservation of probability, the probability density evolution of a stochastic system is expressed by its corresponding Fokker-Planck (FP) stochastic partial differential equation. Direct integration of the FP equation is feasible only for simple systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, due to analytical and/or numerical intractability. However, rewriting the FP equation conditioned to the random event description, a generalized density evolution equation (GDEE) can be obtained, which can be reduced to a one dimensional pde. Two Galerkin finite element method schemes are proposed for the numerical solution of the resulting pde's, namely a time-marching discontinuous Galerkin scheme and the StreamlineUpwind/Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) scheme. In addition, a reformulation of the classical GDEE is proposed, which implements the principle of probability preservation in space instead of time, making this approach suitable for the stochastic analysis of finite element systems. The advantages of the FE Galerkin methods and in particular the SUPG over finite difference schemes, like the modified Lax-Wendroff, which is the most frequently used method for the solution of the GDEE, are illustrated with numerical examples and explored further.

17. Finite-dimensional calculus

Feinsilver, Philip; Schott, René

2009-09-01

We discuss topics related to finite-dimensional calculus in the context of finite-dimensional quantum mechanics. The truncated Heisenberg-Weyl algebra is called a TAA algebra after Tekin, Aydin and Arik who formulated it in terms of orthofermions. It is shown how to use a matrix approach to implement analytic representations of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in univariate and multivariate settings. We provide examples for the univariate case. Krawtchouk polynomials are presented in detail, including a review of Krawtchouk polynomials that illustrates some curious properties of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as well as presenting an approach to computing Krawtchouk expansions. From a mathematical perspective, we are providing indications as to how to implement infinite terms Rota's 'finite operator calculus'.

18. On certain realizations of the q-deformed exterior differential calculus

Kerner, Richard; Abramov, Viktor

1999-04-01

We investigate two particular realizations of a q-deformed differential calculus at q being a primitive root of unity, qN = 1. Particular attention is paid to the Z3-graded case N = 3. First we construct an analogue of the exterior differential calculus on a manifold, then we introduce a discrete realization of such a calculus on generalized Clifford algebras. Finally, combining both constructions, we discuss a ZN-graded generalization of gauge theory.

19. Boolean integral calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne

1988-01-01

The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.

20. Boolean integral calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne

1988-01-01

The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.

1. A general formula for computing maximum proportion correct scores in various psychophysical paradigms with arbitrary probability distributions of stimulus observations.

PubMed

Dai, Huanping; Micheyl, Christophe

2015-05-01

Proportion correct (Pc) is a fundamental measure of task performance in psychophysics. The maximum Pc score that can be achieved by an optimal (maximum-likelihood) observer in a given task is of both theoretical and practical importance, because it sets an upper limit on human performance. Within the framework of signal detection theory, analytical solutions for computing the maximum Pc score have been established for several common experimental paradigms under the assumption of Gaussian additive internal noise. However, as the scope of applications of psychophysical signal detection theory expands, the need is growing for psychophysicists to compute maximum Pc scores for situations involving non-Gaussian (internal or stimulus-induced) noise. In this article, we provide a general formula for computing the maximum Pc in various psychophysical experimental paradigms for arbitrary probability distributions of sensory activity. Moreover, easy-to-use MATLAB code implementing the formula is provided. Practical applications of the formula are illustrated, and its accuracy is evaluated, for two paradigms and two types of probability distributions (uniform and Gaussian). The results demonstrate that Pc scores computed using the formula remain accurate even for continuous probability distributions, as long as the conversion from continuous probability density functions to discrete probability mass functions is supported by a sufficiently high sampling resolution. We hope that the exposition in this article, and the freely available MATLAB code, facilitates calculations of maximum performance for a wider range of experimental situations, as well as explorations of the impact of different assumptions concerning internal-noise distributions on maximum performance in psychophysical experiments.

2. Fisher information, Borges operators, and q-calculus

Pennini, F.; Plastino, A.; Ferri, G. L.

2008-10-01

We discuss applying the increasingly popular q-calculus, or deformed calculus, so as to suitably generalize Fisher’s information measure and the Cramer-Rao inequality. A q-deformation can be attained in multiple ways, and we show that most of them do not constitute legitimate procedures. Within such a context, the only completely acceptable q-deformation is that ensuing from using the so-called Borges derivative [E.P. Borges, Physica A 340 (2004) 95].

3. Multiplicative calculus and its applications

Bashirov, Agamirza E.; Kurpinar, Emine Misirli; Özyapici, Ali

2008-01-01

Two operations, differentiation and integration, are basic in calculus and analysis. In fact, they are the infinitesimal versions of the subtraction and addition operations on numbers, respectively. In the period from 1967 till 1970 Michael Grossman and Robert Katz gave definitions of a new kind of derivative and integral, moving the roles of subtraction and addition to division and multiplication, and thus established a new calculus, called multiplicative calculus. In the present paper our aim is to bring up this calculus to the attention of researchers and demonstrate its usefulness.

4. Astrophysical Applications of Fractional Calculus

Stanislavsky, Aleksander A.

The paradigm of fractional calculus occupies an important place for the macroscopic description of subdiffusion. Its advance in theoretical astrophysics is expected to be very attractive too. In this report we discuss a recent development of the idea to some astrophysical problems. One of them is connected with a random migration of bright points associated with magnetic fields at the solar photosphere. The transport of the bright points has subdiffusive features that require the fractional generalization of the Leighton's model. Another problem is related to the angular distribution of radio beams, being propagated through a medium with random inhomogeneities. The peculiarity of this medium is that radio beams are trapped because of random wave localization. This idea can be useful for the diagnostics of interplanetary and interstellar turbulent media.

5. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 3.

PubMed

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

6. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

SciTech Connect

Smith, D.L.

1988-12-01

Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

7. Using the History of Calculus to Teach Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Katz, Victor

1993-01-01

A historical approach to the teaching of calculus provides the students with a better understanding of the material than the standard approach and helps as well to introduce them to the relationship between mathematics and other aspects of our culture. Describes in some detail a course in calculus which is based on such an approach. (Author/PR)

8. Early Vector Calculus: A Path through Multivariable Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, Robert L.

2013-01-01

The divergence theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Green's theorem appear near the end of calculus texts. These are important results, but many instructors struggle to reach them. We describe a pathway through a standard calculus text that allows instructors to emphasize these theorems. (Contains 2 figures.)

9. Early Vector Calculus: A Path through Multivariable Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, Robert L.

2013-01-01

The divergence theorem, Stokes' theorem, and Green's theorem appear near the end of calculus texts. These are important results, but many instructors struggle to reach them. We describe a pathway through a standard calculus text that allows instructors to emphasize these theorems. (Contains 2 figures.)

10. Conditional Independence in Applied Probability.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pfeiffer, Paul E.

This material assumes the user has the background provided by a good undergraduate course in applied probability. It is felt that introductory courses in calculus, linear algebra, and perhaps some differential equations should provide the requisite experience and proficiency with mathematical concepts, notation, and argument. The document is…

11. The Calculus of a Vase

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scherger, Nicole

2012-01-01

Of the most universal applications in integral calculus are those involved with finding volumes of solids of revolution. These profound problems are typically taught with traditional approaches of the disk and shell methods, after which most calculus curriculums will additionally cover arc length and surfaces of revolution. Even in these visibly…

12. The Basic Principle of Calculus?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hardy, Michael

2011-01-01

A simple partial version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be presented on the first day of the first-year calculus course, and then relied upon repeatedly in assigned problems throughout the course. With that experience behind them, students can use the partial version to understand the full-fledged Fundamental Theorem, with further…

13. Calculus in the Middle School?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

2010-01-01

This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

14. Calculus in the Middle School?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

2010-01-01

This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

15. Calculus Reform: Catching the Wave?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peterson, Ivars

1987-01-01

Notes some of the concerns about calculus education that were expressed at a recent conference of the National Academy of Sciences. Lists problems with unwieldy textbooks, poor teaching, large classes, and low standards. Suggests that the increasing use of computers and advanced calculators can help reform calculus instruction. (TW)

16. The Calculus of a Vase

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scherger, Nicole

2012-01-01

Of the most universal applications in integral calculus are those involved with finding volumes of solids of revolution. These profound problems are typically taught with traditional approaches of the disk and shell methods, after which most calculus curriculums will additionally cover arc length and surfaces of revolution. Even in these visibly…

17. The impacts of gingivitis and calculus on Thai children's quality of life.

PubMed

2012-09-01

To assess associations of socio-demographic, behavioural and the extent of gingivitis and calculus with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in nationally representative samples of 12- and 15-year-old Thai children. In the Thailand National Oral Health Survey, 1,063 twelve-year olds and 811 fifteen-year olds were clinically examined and interviewed for OHRQoL using the Child-OIDP and OIDP indices, respectively, and completed a behavioural questionnaire. We assessed associations of condition-specific impacts (CS-impacts) with gingivitis and calculus, adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Gingivitis and calculus were highly prevalent: 79.3% in 12-year and 81.5% in 15-year olds. CS-impacts relating to calculus and/or gingivitis were reported by 26.0% of 12-year and 29.6% of 15-year olds. Except for calculus without gingivitis, calculus and/or gingivitis in any form was significantly related to any level of CS-impacts. At a moderate or higher level of CS-impacts, there were significant relationships with extensive calculus and/or gingivitis in 12-year olds and for extensive gingivitis and gingivitis without calculus in 15-year olds. Gingivitis was generally associated with any level of CS-impacts attributed to calculus and/or gingivitis. CS-impacts were related more to gingivitis than to calculus. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

18. Applications of fractional calculus to epidemiological models

Skwara, Urszula; Martins, José; Ghaffari, Peyman; Aguiar, Maíra; Boto, João; Stollenwerk, Nico

2012-09-01

Epidemiological spreading does not only happen from person to neighbouring person but often over wide distances, when infected but asymptomatic persons travel and carry infection to others over wide distances. Superdiffusion has been suggested to model such spreading in spatially restriced contact networks, i.e. there is still a notion of geographical distance, but spreading happens with high probability proportional to large distances. From fractional calculus several ways of describing superdiffusion are know. Here we investigate the representation in Fourier space and which is easily generalizable to higher dimensional space in order to compare with stochastic models of epidemiological spreading.

19. Trait mindfulness, reasons for living and general symptom severity as predictors of suicide probability in males with substance abuse or dependence.

PubMed

2015-01-01

The aim of this study was to evaluate suicide probability in Iranian males with substance abuse or dependence disorder and to investigate the predictors of suicide probability based on trait mindfulness, reasons for living and severity of general psychiatric symptoms. Participants were 324 individuals with substance abuse or dependence in an outpatient setting and prison. Reasons for living questionnaire, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Suicide probability Scale were used as instruments. Sample was selected based on convenience sampling method. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS. The life-time prevalence of suicide attempt in the outpatient setting was35% and it was 42% in the prison setting. Suicide probability in the prison setting was significantly higher than in the outpatient setting (p<0.001). The severity of general symptom strongly correlated with suicide probability. Trait mindfulness, not reasons for living beliefs, had a mediating effect in the relationship between the severity of general symptoms and suicide probability. Fear of social disapproval, survival and coping beliefs and child-related concerns significantly predicted suicide probability (p<0.001). It could be suggested that trait mindfulness was more effective in preventing suicide probability than beliefs about reasons for living in individuals with substance abuse or dependence disorders. The severity of general symptom should be regarded as an important risk factor of suicide probability.

20. Trait Mindfulness, Reasons For Living and General Symptom Severity as Predictors of Suicide Probability in Males with Substance Abuse or Dependence

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate suicide probability in Iranian males with substance abuse or dependence disorder and to investigate the predictors of suicide probability based on trait mindfulness, reasons for living and severity of general psychiatric symptoms. Method: Participants were 324 individuals with substance abuse or dependence in an outpatient setting and prison. Reasons for living questionnaire, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Suicide probability Scale were used as instruments. Sample was selected based on convenience sampling method. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS. Results: The life-time prevalence of suicide attempt in the outpatient setting was35% and it was 42% in the prison setting. Suicide probability in the prison setting was significantly higher than in the outpatient setting (p<0.001). The severity of general symptom strongly correlated with suicide probability. Trait mindfulness, not reasons for living beliefs, had a mediating effect in the relationship between the severity of general symptoms and suicide probability. Fear of social disapproval, survival and coping beliefs and child-related concerns significantly predicted suicide probability (p<0.001). Discussion: It could be suggested that trait mindfulness was more effective in preventing suicide probability than beliefs about reasons for living in individuals with substance abuse or dependence disorders. The severity of general symptom should be regarded as an important risk factor of suicide probability. PMID:26005482

1. A Simple Acronym for Doing Calculus: CAL

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hathaway, Richard J.

2008-01-01

An acronym is presented that provides students a potentially useful, unifying view of the major topics covered in an elementary calculus sequence. The acronym (CAL) is based on viewing the calculus procedure for solving a calculus problem P* in three steps: (1) recognizing that the problem cannot be solved using simple (non-calculus) techniques;…

2. A Simple Acronym for Doing Calculus: CAL

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hathaway, Richard J.

2008-01-01

An acronym is presented that provides students a potentially useful, unifying view of the major topics covered in an elementary calculus sequence. The acronym (CAL) is based on viewing the calculus procedure for solving a calculus problem P* in three steps: (1) recognizing that the problem cannot be solved using simple (non-calculus) techniques;…

3. Leveraging Prior Calculus Study with Embedded Review

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nikolov, Margaret C.; Withers, Wm. Douglas

2016-01-01

We propose a new course structure to address the needs of college students with previous calculus study but no course validations as an alternative to repeating the first year of calculus. Students are introduced directly to topics from Calculus III unpreceded by a formal review of topics from Calculus I or II, but with additional syllabus time…

4. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

2007-01-01

Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

5. Leveraging Prior Calculus Study with Embedded Review

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nikolov, Margaret C.; Withers, Wm. Douglas

2016-01-01

We propose a new course structure to address the needs of college students with previous calculus study but no course validations as an alternative to repeating the first year of calculus. Students are introduced directly to topics from Calculus III unpreceded by a formal review of topics from Calculus I or II, but with additional syllabus time…

6. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

2007-01-01

Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

7. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 2.

PubMed

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

8. Stochastic Calculus and Differential Equations for Physics and Finance

McCauley, Joseph L.

2013-02-01

1. Random variables and probability distributions; 2. Martingales, Markov, and nonstationarity; 3. Stochastic calculus; 4. Ito processes and Fokker-Planck equations; 5. Selfsimilar Ito processes; 6. Fractional Brownian motion; 7. Kolmogorov's PDEs and Chapman-Kolmogorov; 8. Non Markov Ito processes; 9. Black-Scholes, martingales, and Feynman-Katz; 10. Stochastic calculus with martingales; 11. Statistical physics and finance, a brief history of both; 12. Introduction to new financial economics; 13. Statistical ensembles and time series analysis; 14. Econometrics; 15. Semimartingales; References; Index.

9. Integral calculus problem solving: an fMRI investigation.

PubMed

Krueger, Frank; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Pardini, Matteo; Pajevic, Sinisa; Wood, Jacqueline N; Weiss, George H; Landgraf, Steffen; Grafman, Jordan

2008-07-16

Only a subset of adults acquires specific advanced mathematical skills, such as integral calculus. The representation of more sophisticated mathematical concepts probably evolved from basic number systems; however its neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural basis of integral calculus while healthy participants were engaged in an integration verification task. Solving integrals activated a left-lateralized cortical network including the horizontal intraparietal sulcus, posterior superior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that solving of more abstract and sophisticated mathematical facts, such as calculus integrals, elicits a pattern of brain activation similar to the cortical network engaged in basic numeric comparison, quantity manipulation, and arithmetic problem solving.

10. Regge calculus and observations. II. Further applications.

Williams, Ruth M.; Ellis, G. F. R.

1984-11-01

The method, developed in an earlier paper, for tracing geodesies of particles and light rays through Regge calculus space-times, is applied to a number of problems in the Schwarzschild geometry. It is possible to obtain accurate predictions of light bending by taking sufficiently small Regge blocks. Calculations of perihelion precession, Thomas precession, and the distortion of a ball of fluid moving on a geodesic can also show good agreement with the analytic solution. However difficulties arise in obtaining accurate predictions for general orbits in these space-times. Applications to other problems in general relativity are discussed briefly.

11. Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moseley, L. Jeneva

2014-01-01

This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.

12. Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moseley, L. Jeneva

2014-01-01

This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.

13. A White Noise Theory of Infinite Dimensional Calculus

DTIC Science & Technology

1989-10-01

a general theory; however it is his hope that this attempt would be the very first step towards the study of Gaussian random fields using variational ... calculus . Contents: White noise; Generalized functionals; Rotation group and harmonic analysis; Applications to Physics; Gaussian random fields. Keywords: Statistic processes.

14. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

PubMed Central

Bello, A.; Maitama, H. Y.; Mbibu, N. H.; Kalayi, G. D.; Ahmed, A.

2010-01-01

Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, and they are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with giant vesico-prostatic (collar-stud) urethral stone presenting with sepsis and bladder outlet obstruction. The clinical presentation, management, and outcome of the giant prostatic urethral calculus are reviewed. PMID:22091328

15. Affine connection form of Regge calculus

Khatsymovsky, V. M.

2016-12-01

Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the three-simplices which play the role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4, R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w.r.t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4, R) transformations in the four-simplices). Excluding GL(4, R) connection from this action via the equations of motion we have exactly the Regge action for the considered spacetime.

16. Naive Probability: A Mental Model Theory of Extensional Reasoning.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson-Laird, P. N.; Legrenzi, Paolo; Girotto, Vittorio; Legrenzi, Maria Sonino; Caverni, Jean-Paul

1999-01-01

Outlines a theory of naive probability in which individuals who are unfamiliar with the probability calculus can infer the probabilities of events in an "extensional" way. The theory accommodates reasoning based on numerical premises, and explains how naive reasoners can infer posterior probabilities without relying on Bayes's theorem.…

17. 76 FR 63570 - Agency Procedure Following the Submission of Probable Cause Briefs by the Office of General Counsel

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2011-10-13

..., pursuant to a procedural rule adopted by the Commission in 2007, a respondent may, as part of the Reply Brief, request a probable cause hearing (Probable Cause Hearing) before the Commission. See Procedural... approval. Where necessary, the Commission reserves the right to request from a Respondent an...

18. ``Riemann equations'' in bidifferential calculus

Chvartatskyi, O.; Müller-Hoissen, F.; Stoilov, N.

2015-10-01

We consider equations that formally resemble a matrix Riemann (or Hopf) equation in the framework of bidifferential calculus. With different choices of a first-order bidifferential calculus, we obtain a variety of equations, including a semi-discrete and a fully discrete version of the matrix Riemann equation. A corresponding universal solution-generating method then either yields a (continuous or discrete) Cole-Hopf transformation, or leaves us with the problem of solving Riemann equations (hence an application of the hodograph method). If the bidifferential calculus extends to second order, solutions of a system of "Riemann equations" are also solutions of an equation that arises, on the universal level of bidifferential calculus, as an integrability condition. Depending on the choice of bidifferential calculus, the latter can represent a number of prominent integrable equations, like self-dual Yang-Mills, as well as matrix versions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice, Hirota's bilinear difference equation, (2+1)-dimensional Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS), Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, and Davey-Stewartson equations. For all of them, a recent (non-isospectral) binary Darboux transformation result in bidifferential calculus applies, which can be specialized to generate solutions of the associated "Riemann equations." For the latter, we clarify the relation between these specialized binary Darboux transformations and the aforementioned solution-generating method. From (arbitrary size) matrix versions of the "Riemann equations" associated with an integrable equation, possessing a bidifferential calculus formulation, multi-soliton-type solutions of the latter can be generated. This includes "breaking" multi-soliton-type solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills and the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation, which are parametrized by solutions of Riemann equations.

19. Backpropagation and ordered derivatives in the time scales calculus.

PubMed

Seiffertt, John; Wunsch, Donald C

2010-08-01

Backpropagation is the most widely used neural network learning technique. It is based on the mathematical notion of an ordered derivative. In this paper, we present a formulation of ordered derivatives and the backpropagation training algorithm using the important emerging area of mathematics known as the time scales calculus. This calculus, with its potential for application to a wide variety of inter-disciplinary problems, is becoming a key area of mathematics. It is capable of unifying continuous and discrete analysis within one coherent theoretical framework. Using this calculus, we present here a generalization of backpropagation which is appropriate for cases beyond the specifically continuous or discrete. We develop a new multivariate chain rule of this calculus, define ordered derivatives on time scales, prove a key theorem about them, and derive the backpropagation weight update equations for a feedforward multilayer neural network architecture. By drawing together the time scales calculus and the area of neural network learning, we present the first connection of two major fields of research.

20. In favor of general probability distributions: lateral prefrontal and insular cortices respond to stimulus inherent, but irrelevant differences.

PubMed

Mestres-Missé, Anna; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert; Kotz, Sonja A

2016-04-01

A key aspect of optimal behavior is the ability to predict what will come next. To achieve this, we must have a fairly good idea of the probability of occurrence of possible outcomes. This is based both on prior knowledge about a particular or similar situation and on immediately relevant new information. One question that arises is: when considering converging prior probability and external evidence, is the most probable outcome selected or does the brain represent degrees of uncertainty, even highly improbable ones? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study explored these possibilities by contrasting words that differ in their probability of occurrence, namely, unbalanced ambiguous words and unambiguous words. Unbalanced ambiguous words have a strong frequency-based bias towards one meaning, while unambiguous words have only one meaning. The current results reveal larger activation in lateral prefrontal and insular cortices in response to dominant ambiguous compared to unambiguous words even when prior and contextual information biases one interpretation only. These results suggest a probability distribution, whereby all outcomes and their associated probabilities of occurrence--even if very low--are represented and maintained.

1. The development and nature of problem-solving among first-semester calculus students

Dawkins, Paul Christian; Mendoza Epperson, James A.

2014-08-01

This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We investigate this blended instruction as a local representative of the US calculus reform movements that helped foster it. These reform movements tended to emphasize problem-solving as well as multiple mathematical registers and quantitative modelling. Our statistical analysis reveals the influence of the blended traditional/reform calculus instruction on students' ability to solve calculus-related, non-routine problems through repeated measures over the semester. The calculus instruction in this study significantly improved students' performance on non-routine problems, though performance improved more regarding strategies and accuracy than it did for drawing conclusions and providing justifications. We identified problem-solving behaviours that characterized top performance or attrition in the course. Top-performing students displayed greater algebraic proficiency, calculus skills, and more general heuristics than their peers, but overused algebraic techniques even when they proved cumbersome or inappropriate. Students who subsequently withdrew from calculus often lacked algebraic fluency and understanding of the graphical register. The majority of participants, when given a choice, relied upon less sophisticated trial-and-error approaches in the numerical register and rarely used the graphical register, contrary to the goals of US calculus reform. We provide explanations for these patterns in students' problem-solving performance in view of both their preparation for university calculus and the courses' assessment structure, which preferentially rewarded algebraic reasoning. While instruction improved students' problem

2. A Tutorial Review on Fractal Spacetime and Fractional Calculus

He, Ji-Huan

2014-11-01

This tutorial review of fractal-Cantorian spacetime and fractional calculus begins with Leibniz's notation for derivative without limits which can be generalized to discontinuous media like fractal derivative and q-derivative of quantum calculus. Fractal spacetime is used to elucidate some basic properties of fractal which is the foundation of fractional calculus, and El Naschie's mass-energy equation for the dark energy. The variational iteration method is used to introduce the definition of fractional derivatives. Fractal derivative is explained geometrically and q-derivative is motivated by quantum mechanics. Some effective analytical approaches to fractional differential equations, e.g., the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method, the exp-function method, the fractional complex transform, and Yang-Laplace transform, are outlined and the main solution processes are given.

3. Geometric Demonstration of the Fundamental Theorems of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2010-01-01

After the monumental discovery of the fundamental theorems of the calculus nearly 350 years ago, it became possible to answer extremely complex questions regarding the natural world. Here, a straightforward yet profound demonstration, employing geometrically symmetric functions, describes the validity of the general power rules for integration and…

4. Making Implicit Multivariable Calculus Representations Explicit: A Clinical Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McGee, Daniel; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Martinez-Planell, Rafael

2015-01-01

Reviewing numerous textbooks, we found that in both differential and integral calculus textbooks the authors commonly assume that: (i) students can generalize associations between representations in two dimensions to associations between representations of the same mathematical concept in three dimensions on their own; and (ii) explicit…

5. Geometric Demonstration of the Fundamental Theorems of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2010-01-01

After the monumental discovery of the fundamental theorems of the calculus nearly 350 years ago, it became possible to answer extremely complex questions regarding the natural world. Here, a straightforward yet profound demonstration, employing geometrically symmetric functions, describes the validity of the general power rules for integration and…

6. Making Implicit Multivariable Calculus Representations Explicit: A Clinical Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McGee, Daniel; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Martinez-Planell, Rafael

2015-01-01

Reviewing numerous textbooks, we found that in both differential and integral calculus textbooks the authors commonly assume that: (i) students can generalize associations between representations in two dimensions to associations between representations of the same mathematical concept in three dimensions on their own; and (ii) explicit…

7. A Comprehensive Probability Project for the Upper Division One-Semester Probability Course Using Yahtzee

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilson, Jason; Lawman, Joshua; Murphy, Rachael; Nelson, Marissa

2011-01-01

This article describes a probability project used in an upper division, one-semester probability course with third-semester calculus and linear algebra prerequisites. The student learning outcome focused on developing the skills necessary for approaching project-sized math/stat application problems. These skills include appropriately defining…

8. A Comprehensive Probability Project for the Upper Division One-Semester Probability Course Using Yahtzee

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilson, Jason; Lawman, Joshua; Murphy, Rachael; Nelson, Marissa

2011-01-01

This article describes a probability project used in an upper division, one-semester probability course with third-semester calculus and linear algebra prerequisites. The student learning outcome focused on developing the skills necessary for approaching project-sized math/stat application problems. These skills include appropriately defining…

9. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ferguson, Sarah

2016-01-01

Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

10. The Power of Investigative Calculus Projects

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perrin, John Robert; Quinn, Robert J.

2008-01-01

This article describes investigative calculus projects in which students explore a question or problem of their own construction. Three exemplary pieces of student work are showcased. Investigative calculus projects are an excellent way to foster student understanding and interest in calculus. (Contains 4 figures.)

11. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ferguson, Sarah

2016-01-01

Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

12. Itô versus Stratonovich calculus in random population growth.

PubMed

Braumann, Carlos A

2007-03-01

The context is the general stochastic differential equation (SDE) model dN/dt=N(g(N)+sigmaepsilon(t)) for population growth in a randomly fluctuating environment. Here, N=N(t) is the population size at time t, g(N) is the 'average' per capita growth rate (we work with a general almost arbitrary function g), and sigmaepsilon(t) is the effect of environmental fluctuations (sigma>0, epsilon(t) standard white noise). There are two main stochastic calculus used to interpret the SDE, Itô calculus and Stratonovich calculus. They yield different solutions and even qualitatively different predictions (on extinction, for example). So, there is a controversy on which calculus one should use. We will resolve the controversy and show that the real issue is merely semantic. It is due to the informal interpretation of g(x) as being an (unspecified) 'average' per capita growth rate (when population size is x). The implicit assumption usually made in the literature is that the 'average' growth rate is the same for both calculi, when indeed this rate should be defined in terms of the observed process. We prove that, when using Itô calculus, g(N) is indeed the arithmetic average growth rate R(a)(x) and, when using Stratonovich calculus, g(N) is indeed the geometric average growth rate R(g)(x). Writing the solutions of the SDE in terms of a well-defined average, R(a)(x) or R(g)(x), instead of an undefined 'average' g(x), we prove that the two calculi yield exactly the same solution. The apparent difference was due to the semantic confusion of taking the informal term 'average growth rate' as meaning the same average.

13. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

Takata, Ken

2010-10-01

College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

14. Calculus with a quaternionic variable

Schwartz, Charles

2009-01-01

Most of theoretical physics is based on the mathematics of functions of a real or a complex variable; yet we frequently are drawn in trying to extend our reach to include quaternions. The noncommutativity of the quaternion algebra poses obstacles for the usual manipulations of calculus, but we show in this paper how many of those obstacles can be overcome. The surprising result is that the first order term in the expansion of F(x +δ) is a compact formula involving both F'(x) and [F(x )-F(x∗)]/(x -x∗). This advance in the differential calculus for quaternionic variables also leads us to some progress in studying integration.

15. Calculus Student Understanding of Continuity

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wangle, Jayleen Lillian

2013-01-01

Continuity is a central concept in calculus. Yet very few students seem to understand the nature of continuity. The research described was conducted in two stages. Students were asked questions in multiple choice and true/false format regarding function, limit and continuity. These results were used to identify participants as strong, weak or…

16. Reading the World with Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verzosa, Debbie

2015-01-01

It is now increasingly recognized that mathematics is not a neutral value-free subject. Rather, mathematics can challenge students' taken-for-granted realities and promote action. This article describes two issues, namely deforestation and income inequality. These were specifically chosen because they can be related to a range of calculus concepts…

17. Children, Additive Change, and Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nemirovsky, Ricardo; And Others

Students can learn to solve problems of qualitative integration and differentiation independently of their study of formal calculus or algebra. This exploratory study investigated the basic intuitions that elementary school children construct in their daily experience with physical and symbolic change. Elementary school children (n=18) were…

18. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kaplan, Samuel R.

2015-01-01

Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

19. The Pendulum and the Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sworder, Steven C.

A pair of experiments, appropriate for the lower division fourth semester calculus or differential equations course, are presented. The second order differential equation representing the equation of motion of a simple pendulum is derived. The period of oscillation for a particular pendulum can be predicted from the solution to this equation. As a…

20. Constructivized Calculus in College Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lawrence, Barbara Ann

2012-01-01

The purpose of this study is to present some of the classical concepts, definitions, and theorems of calculus from the constructivists' point of view in the spirit of the philosophies of L.E.J. Brouwer and Errett Bishop. This presentation will compare the classical statements to the constructivized statements. The method focuses on giving…

1. Mathematical Features of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2010-01-01

The fundamental theorems of the calculus describe the relationships between derivatives and integrals of functions. The value of any function at a particular location is the definite derivative of its integral and the definite integral of its derivative. Thus, any value is the magnitude of the slope of the tangent of its integral at that position,…

2. Constructivized Calculus in College Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lawrence, Barbara Ann

2012-01-01

The purpose of this study is to present some of the classical concepts, definitions, and theorems of calculus from the constructivists' point of view in the spirit of the philosophies of L.E.J. Brouwer and Errett Bishop. This presentation will compare the classical statements to the constructivized statements. The method focuses on giving…

3. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

2013-01-01

Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

4. Reading the World with Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verzosa, Debbie

2015-01-01

It is now increasingly recognized that mathematics is not a neutral value-free subject. Rather, mathematics can challenge students' taken-for-granted realities and promote action. This article describes two issues, namely deforestation and income inequality. These were specifically chosen because they can be related to a range of calculus concepts…

5. Conceptual Knowledge in Introductory Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael

1996-01-01

Responses to rate-of-change problems were collected during and after 24 hours of conceptual calculus instruction given to first-year university students. Analysis revealed three categories of error in which variables were treated as symbols to be manipulated rather than quantities to be related. Contains test questions. (Author/MKR)

6. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Takata, Ken

2010-01-01

College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

7. Mathematical Features of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2010-01-01

The fundamental theorems of the calculus describe the relationships between derivatives and integrals of functions. The value of any function at a particular location is the definite derivative of its integral and the definite integral of its derivative. Thus, any value is the magnitude of the slope of the tangent of its integral at that position,…

8. POGIL in the Calculus Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bénéteau, Catherine; Guadarrama, Zdenka; Guerra, Jill E.; Lenz, Laurie; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Straumanis, Andrei

2017-01-01

In this paper, we will describe the experience of the authors in using process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in calculus at four institutions across the USA. We will briefly examine how POGIL compares to and fits in with other kinds of inquiry-based learning approaches. In particular, we will first discuss the unique structure of a…

9. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kaplan, Samuel R.

2015-01-01

Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

10. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

2015-05-01

We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

11. Factors Associated with Success in College Calculus II

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rosasco, Margaret E.

2013-01-01

Students are entering college having earned credit for college Calculus 1 based on their scores on the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus AB exam. Despite being granted credit for college Calculus 1, it is unclear whether these students are adequately prepared for college Calculus 2. College calculus classes are often taught from a…

12. Factors Associated with Success in College Calculus II

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rosasco, Margaret E.

2013-01-01

Students are entering college having earned credit for college Calculus 1 based on their scores on the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus AB exam. Despite being granted credit for college Calculus 1, it is unclear whether these students are adequately prepared for college Calculus 2. College calculus classes are often taught from a…

13. Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Butler, Ricky W.

2004-01-01

The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safety-critical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht's classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.

14. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

PubMed Central

MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

2014-01-01

Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

15. Tempered fractional calculus

SciTech Connect

Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

2015-07-15

Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

16. Complete staghorn calculus in polycystic kidney disease: infection is still the cause.

PubMed

Mao, Zhiguo; Xu, Jing; Ye, Chaoyang; Chen, Dongping; Mei, Changlin

2013-08-01

Kidney stones in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are common, regarded as the consequence of the combination of anatomic abnormality and metabolic risk factors. However, complete staghorn calculus is rare in polycystic kidney disease and predicts a gloomy prognosis of kidney. For general population, recent data showed metabolic factors were the dominant causes for staghorn calculus, but for polycystic kidney disease patients, the cause for staghorn calculus remained elusive. We report a case of complete staghorm calculus in a polycystic kidney disease patient induced by repeatedly urinary tract infections. This 37-year-old autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease female with positive family history was admitted in this hospital for repeatedly upper urinary tract infection for 3 years. CT scan revealed the existence of a complete staghorn calculus in her right kidney, while there was no kidney stone 3 years before, and the urinary stone component analysis showed the composition of calculus was magnesium ammonium phosphate. UTI is an important complication for polycystic kidney disease and will facilitate the formation of staghorn calculi. As staghorn calculi are associated with kidney fibrosis and high long-term renal deterioration rate, prompt control of urinary tract infection in polycystic kidney disease patient will be beneficial in preventing staghorn calculus formation.

17. Complete staghorn calculus in polycystic kidney disease: infection is still the cause

PubMed Central

2013-01-01

Background Kidney stones in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are common, regarded as the consequence of the combination of anatomic abnormality and metabolic risk factors. However, complete staghorn calculus is rare in polycystic kidney disease and predicts a gloomy prognosis of kidney. For general population, recent data showed metabolic factors were the dominant causes for staghorn calculus, but for polycystic kidney disease patients, the cause for staghorn calculus remained elusive. Case presentation We report a case of complete staghorm calculus in a polycystic kidney disease patient induced by repeatedly urinary tract infections. This 37-year-old autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease female with positive family history was admitted in this hospital for repeatedly upper urinary tract infection for 3 years. CT scan revealed the existence of a complete staghorn calculus in her right kidney, while there was no kidney stone 3 years before, and the urinary stone component analysis showed the composition of calculus was magnesium ammonium phosphate. Conclusion UTI is an important complication for polycystic kidney disease and will facilitate the formation of staghorn calculi. As staghorn calculi are associated with kidney fibrosis and high long-term renal deterioration rate, prompt control of urinary tract infection in polycystic kidney disease patient will be beneficial in preventing staghorn calculus formation. PMID:24070202

18. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

SciTech Connect

J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

2013-03-12

We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

19. Staghorn calculus endotoxin expression in sepsis.

PubMed

McAleer, Irene M; Kaplan, George W; Bradley, John S; Carroll, Stephen F

2002-04-01

Staghorn calculi are infrequent and generally are infected stones. Struvite or apatite calculi are embedded with gram-negative bacteria, which can produce endotoxin. Sepsis syndrome may occur after surgical therapy or endoscopic manipulation of infected or staghorn calculi. Sepsis, which can occur despite perioperative antibiotic use, may be due to bacteremia or endotoxemia. We present a child with an infected staghorn calculus who developed overwhelming sepsis and died after percutaneous stone manipulation. Endotoxin assay of stone fragments demonstrated an extremely high level of endotoxin despite low colony bacterial culture growth. This is the first reported case in which endotoxin was demonstrated in stone fragments from a child who died of severe sepsis syndrome after percutaneous staghorn stone manipulation.

20. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

2014-01-01

We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

1. Thermodynamics in Fractional Calculus

Meilanov, R. P.; Magomedov, R. A.

2014-11-01

A generalization of thermodynamics in the formalism of fractional-order derivatives is given. Results of the traditional thermodynamics of Carnot, Clausius, and Helmholtz are obtained in the particular case where the exponent of a fractional-order derivative is equal to unity. A one-parametric "fractal" equation of state is obtained with account of the second virial coefficient. The application of the resulting equation of state in the case of the gas argon is considered.

2. R-function relationships for application in the fractional calculus.

PubMed

Lorenzo, Carl F; Hartley, Tom T

2008-01-01

The F-function, and its generalization the R-function, are of fundamental importance in the fractional calculus. It has been shown that the solution of the fundamental linear fractional differential equation may be expressed in terms of these functions. These functions serve as generalizations of the exponential function in the solution of fractional differential equations. Because of this central role in the fractional calculus, this paper explores various intrarelationships of the R-function, which will be useful in further analysis. Relationships of the R-function to the common exponential function, et, and its fractional derivatives are shown. From the relationships developed, some important approximations are observed. Further, the inverse relationships of the exponential function, et, in terms of the R-function are developed. Also, some approximations for the R-function are developed.

3. R-Function Relationships for Application in the Fractional Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

2000-01-01

The F-function, and its generalization the R-function, are of fundamental importance in the fractional calculus. It has been shown that the solution of the fundamental linear fractional differential equation may be expressed in terms of these functions. These functions serve as generalizations of the exponential function in the solution of fractional differential equations. Because of this central role in the fractional calculus, this paper explores various intrarelationships of the R-function, which will be useful in further analysis. Relationships of the R-function to the common exponential function, e(t), and its fractional derivatives are shown. From the relationships developed, some important approximations are observed. Further, the inverse relationships of the exponential function, el, in terms of the R-function are developed. Also, some approximations for the R-function are developed.

4. General aptitude and the assumption of truth in deductively rational reasoning about probable but false antecedent to consequent relations.

PubMed

Schroyens, Walter; Fleerackers, Lieve; Maes, Sunile

2010-12-15

Two experiments (N(1) = 117 and N(2) = 245) on reasoning with knowledge-rich conditionals showed a main effect of logical validity, which was due to the negative effect of counter-examples being smaller for valid than for invalid arguments. These findings support the thesis that some people tend to inhibit background inconsistent with the hypothetical truth of the premises, while others tend to abandon the implicit truth-assumption when they have factual evidence to the contrary. Findings show that adhering to the truth-assumption in the face of conflicting evidence to the contrary requires an investment of time and effort which people with a higher general aptitude are more likely to do.

5. General aptitude and the assumption of truth in deductively rational reasoning about probable but false antecedent to consequent relations

PubMed Central

Schroyens, Walter; Fleerackers, Lieve; Maes, Sunile

2010-01-01

Two experiments (N1 = 117 and N2 = 245) on reasoning with knowledge-rich conditionals showed a main effect of logical validity, which was due to the negative effect of counter-examples being smaller for valid than for invalid arguments. These findings support the thesis that some people tend to inhibit background inconsistent with the hypothetical truth of the premises, while others tend to abandon the implicit truth-assumption when they have factual evidence to the contrary. Findings show that adhering to the truth-assumption in the face of conflicting evidence to the contrary requires an investment of time and effort which people with a higher general aptitude are more likely to do. PMID:21228921

6. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

PubMed Central

Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

2016-01-01

Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

7. Study on bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis.

PubMed

Wan, Tien-Chun; Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

2009-12-01

The purpose of the study was to investigate bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis obtained as valuable by-products from animals used for meat production. The results showed that the components of natural Calculus Bovis were rich in bilirubin and biliverdin and had higher content of essential amino acids. The major amino acids of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis were identified as glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and those for natural Calculus Bovis were found to be glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, and arginine. The methionine and cysteine contents of precursors for glutathione in natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The mineral contents of zinc, iron and manganese of natural Calculus Bovis were significantly higher than those of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis. The major bile acids in both products were cholic acid and dehydrocholic acid, respectively. The chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acid content of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis was significantly higher than that of natural Calculus Bovis.

8. How Can Histograms Be Useful for Introducing Continuous Probability Distributions?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Derouet, Charlotte; Parzysz, Bernard

2016-01-01

The teaching of probability has changed a great deal since the end of the last century. The development of technologies is indeed part of this evolution. In France, continuous probability distributions began to be studied in 2002 by scientific 12th graders, but this subject was marginal and appeared only as an application of integral calculus.…

9. How Can Histograms Be Useful for Introducing Continuous Probability Distributions?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Derouet, Charlotte; Parzysz, Bernard

2016-01-01

The teaching of probability has changed a great deal since the end of the last century. The development of technologies is indeed part of this evolution. In France, continuous probability distributions began to be studied in 2002 by scientific 12th graders, but this subject was marginal and appeared only as an application of integral calculus.…

10. Calculus Instructors' Responses to Prior Knowledge Errors

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talley, Jana Renee

2009-01-01

This study investigates the responses to prior knowledge errors that Calculus I instructors make when assessing students. Prior knowledge is operationalized as any skill or understanding that a student needs to successfully navigate through a Calculus I course. A two part qualitative study consisting of student exams and instructor interviews was…

11. Attendance and Attainment in a Calculus Course

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

2013-01-01

In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75%…

12. Imagine Yourself in This Calculus Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bryan, Luajean

2007-01-01

The efforts to attract students to precalculus, trigonometry, and calculus classes became more successful at the author's school when projects-based classes were offered. Data collection from an untethered hot air balloon flight for calculus students was planned to maximize enrollment. The data were analyzed numerically, graphically, and…

13. Aspects of Calculus for Preservice Teachers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fothergill, Lee

2011-01-01

The purpose of this study was to compare the perspectives of faculty members who had experience teaching undergraduate calculus and preservice teachers who had recently completed student teaching in regards to a first semester undergraduate calculus course. An online survey was created and sent to recent student teachers and college mathematics…

14. Areas and Volumes in Pre-Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

2008-01-01

This article suggests the introduction of the concepts of areas bounded by plane curves and the volumes of solids of revolution in Pre-calculus. It builds on the basic knowledge that students bring to a pre-calculus class, derives a few more formulas, and gives examples of some problems on plane areas and the volumes of solids of revolution that…

15. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

2015-01-01

The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

16. Imagine Yourself in This Calculus Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bryan, Luajean

2007-01-01

The efforts to attract students to precalculus, trigonometry, and calculus classes became more successful at the author's school when projects-based classes were offered. Data collection from an untethered hot air balloon flight for calculus students was planned to maximize enrollment. The data were analyzed numerically, graphically, and…

17. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

2015-01-01

The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

18. Educating about Sustainability while Enhancing Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pfaff, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

We give an overview of why it is important to include sustainability in mathematics classes and provide specific examples of how to do this for a calculus class. We illustrate that when students use "Excel" to fit curves to real data, fundamentally important questions about sustainability become calculus questions about those curves. (Contains 5…

19. Attendance and Attainment in a Calculus Course

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

2013-01-01

In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75%…

20. Calculus: An Active Approach with Projects.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hilbert, Stephen; And Others

1993-01-01

Discusses a pedagogical approach to calculus based on the question: What kinds of problems should students be able to solve? Includes a discussion of types of problems and curriculum threads for such a course. Describes a projects-based calculus with examples of projects and classroom activities. (Author/MDH)

1. Raise Test Scores: Integrate Biology and Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lukens, Jeffrey D.; Feinstein, Sheryl

This paper presents the results of research that compared the academic achievement of high school students enrolled in an integrated Advanced Placement Biology/Advanced Placement Calculus course with students enrolled in traditional Advanced Placement Biology and Advanced Placement Calculus courses. Study subjects included high school students…

2. Calculus: An Active Approach with Projects.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hilbert, Steve; And Others

Ithaca College, in New York, has developed and tested a projects-based first-year calculus course over the last 3 years which uses the graphs of functions and physical phenomena to illustrate and motivate the major concepts of calculus and to introduce students to mathematical modeling. The course curriculum is designed to: (1) emphasize on the…

3. Improving student learning in calculus through applications

Young, C. Y.; Georgiopoulos, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Geiger, C. L.; Dagley-Falls, M. A.; Islas, A. L.; Ramsey, P. J.; Lancey, P. M.; Straney, R. A.; Forde, D. S.; Bradbury, E. E.

2011-07-01

Nationally only 40% of the incoming freshmen Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors are successful in earning a STEM degree. The University of Central Florida (UCF) EXCEL programme is a National Science Foundation funded STEM Talent Expansion Programme whose goal is to increase the number of UCF STEM graduates. One of the key requirements for STEM majors is a strong foundation in Calculus. To improve student learning in calculus, the EXCEL programme developed two special courses at the freshman level called Applications of Calculus I (Apps I) and Applications of Calculus II (Apps II). Apps I and II are one-credit classes that are co-requisites for Calculus I and II. These classes are teams taught by science and engineering professors whose goal is to demonstrate to students where the calculus topics they are learning appear in upper level science and engineering classes as well as how faculty use calculus in their STEM research programmes. This article outlines the process used in producing the educational materials for the Apps I and II courses, and it also discusses the assessment results pertaining to this specific EXCEL activity. Pre- and post-tests conducted with experimental and control groups indicate significant improvement in student learning in Calculus II as a direct result of the application courses.

4. Calculus and Success in a Business School

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kim, Dong-gook; Garcia, Fernando; Dey, Ishita

2012-01-01

Many business schools or colleges require calculus as a prerequisite for certain classes or for continuing to upper division courses. While there are many studies investigating the relationship between performance in calculus and performance in a single course, such as economics, statistics, and finance, there are very few studies investigating…

5. Educating about Sustainability while Enhancing Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pfaff, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

We give an overview of why it is important to include sustainability in mathematics classes and provide specific examples of how to do this for a calculus class. We illustrate that when students use "Excel" to fit curves to real data, fundamentally important questions about sustainability become calculus questions about those curves. (Contains 5…

6. Formal Modeling of Multi-Agent Systems using the Pi-Calculus and Epistemic Logic

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rorie, Toinette; Esterline, Albert

1998-01-01

Multi-agent systems have become important recently in computer science, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). We allow a broad sense of agent, but require at least that an agent has some measure of autonomy and interacts with other agents via some kind of agent communication language. We are concerned in this paper with formal modeling of multi-agent systems, with emphasis on communication. We propose for this purpose to use the pi-calculus, an extension of the process algebra CCS. Although the literature on the pi-calculus refers to agents, the term is used there in the sense of a process in general. It is our contention, however, that viewing agents in the AI sense as agents in the pi-calculus sense affords significant formal insight. One formalism that has been applied to agents in the AI sense is epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge. The success of epistemic logic in computer science in general has come in large part from its ability to handle concepts of knowledge that apply to groups. We maintain that the pi-calculus affords a natural yet rigorous means by which groups that are significant to epistemic logic may be identified, encapsulated, structured into hierarchies, and restructured in a principled way. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the pi-calculus; Section 3 takes a scenario from the classical paper on agent-oriented programming [Sh93] and translates it into a very simple subset of the n-calculus; Section 4 then shows how more sophisticated features of the pi-calculus may bc brought into play; Section 5 discusses how the pi-calculus may be used to define groups for epistemic logic; and Section 6 is the conclusion.

7. Formal Modeling of Multi-Agent Systems using the Pi-Calculus and Epistemic Logic

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rorie, Toinette; Esterline, Albert

1998-01-01

Multi-agent systems have become important recently in computer science, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). We allow a broad sense of agent, but require at least that an agent has some measure of autonomy and interacts with other agents via some kind of agent communication language. We are concerned in this paper with formal modeling of multi-agent systems, with emphasis on communication. We propose for this purpose to use the pi-calculus, an extension of the process algebra CCS. Although the literature on the pi-calculus refers to agents, the term is used there in the sense of a process in general. It is our contention, however, that viewing agents in the AI sense as agents in the pi-calculus sense affords significant formal insight. One formalism that has been applied to agents in the AI sense is epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge. The success of epistemic logic in computer science in general has come in large part from its ability to handle concepts of knowledge that apply to groups. We maintain that the pi-calculus affords a natural yet rigorous means by which groups that are significant to epistemic logic may be identified, encapsulated, structured into hierarchies, and restructured in a principled way. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the pi-calculus; Section 3 takes a scenario from the classical paper on agent-oriented programming [Sh93] and translates it into a very simple subset of the n-calculus; Section 4 then shows how more sophisticated features of the pi-calculus may bc brought into play; Section 5 discusses how the pi-calculus may be used to define groups for epistemic logic; and Section 6 is the conclusion.

8. Fractional calculus in hydrologic modeling: A numerical perspective

PubMed Central

Benson, David A.; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Revielle, Jordan

2013-01-01

Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as handy extensions of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Lévy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Lévy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus. PMID:23524449

9. Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises

SciTech Connect

Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.

2016-02-15

We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.

10. Fractional Calculus in Hydrologic Modeling: A Numerical Perspective

SciTech Connect

David A. Benson; Mark M. Meerschaert; Jordan Revielle

2012-01-01

Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as a handy extension of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Levy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Levy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.

11. Fractional calculus in hydrologic modeling: A numerical perspective.

PubMed

Benson, David A; Meerschaert, Mark M; Revielle, Jordan

2013-01-01

Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as handy extensions of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Lévy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Lévy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.

12. Quantum stochastic calculus associated with quadratic quantum noises

Ji, Un Cig; Sinha, Kalyan B.

2016-02-01

We first study a class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes induced by the generators of a six dimensional non-solvable Lie †-algebra consisting of all linear combinations of the generalized Gross Laplacian and its adjoint, annihilation operator, creation operator, conservation, and time, and then we study the quantum stochastic integrals associated with the class of fundamental quantum stochastic processes, and the quantum Itô formula is revisited. The existence and uniqueness of solution of a quantum stochastic differential equation is proved. The unitarity conditions of solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations associated with the fundamental processes are examined. The quantum stochastic calculus extends the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus.

13. Separation of noncommutative differential calculus on quantum Minkowski space

SciTech Connect

Bachmaier, Fabian; Blohmann, Christian

2006-02-15

Noncommutative differential calculus on quantum Minkowski space is not separated with respect to the standard generators, in the sense that partial derivatives of functions of a single generator can depend on all other generators. It is shown that this problem can be overcome by a separation of variables. We study the action of the universal L-matrix, appearing in the coproduct of partial derivatives, on generators. Powers of the resulting quantum Minkowski algebra valued matrices are calculated. This leads to a nonlinear coordinate transformation which essentially separates the calculus. A compact formula for general derivatives is obtained in form of a chain rule with partial Jackson derivatives. It is applied to the massive quantum Klein-Gordon equation by reducing it to an ordinary q-difference equation. The rest state solution can be expressed in terms of a product of q-exponential functions in the separated variables.

14. Using Dynamic Software to Address Common College Calculus Stumbling Blocks

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seneres, Alice W.; Kerrigan, John A.

2014-01-01

There are specific topics in college calculus that can be major stumbling blocks for students. Having taught college calculus for four years to over a thousand students, we observed that even the students who have already taken pre-calculus or calculus during their high school careers had common misunderstandings. Students may remember a technique…

15. Using Dynamic Software to Address Common College Calculus Stumbling Blocks

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seneres, Alice W.; Kerrigan, John A.

2014-01-01

There are specific topics in college calculus that can be major stumbling blocks for students. Having taught college calculus for four years to over a thousand students, we observed that even the students who have already taken pre-calculus or calculus during their high school careers had common misunderstandings. Students may remember a technique…

16. Calculus: The Dynamics of Change. MAA Notes Number 39.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roberts, A. Wayne, Ed.

This book discusses the calculus reform effort. The first essay captures the basic themes that should characterize a calculus course that is modern in its vision as well as its pedagogy and content. The next section contains essays on the vision of calculus reform: "Visions of Calculus" (Sharon Cutler Ross); "Nonalgebraic Approaches…

17. Calculus: The Dynamics of Change. MAA Notes Number 39.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roberts, A. Wayne, Ed.

This book discusses the calculus reform effort. The first essay captures the basic themes that should characterize a calculus course that is modern in its vision as well as its pedagogy and content. The next section contains essays on the vision of calculus reform: "Visions of Calculus" (Sharon Cutler Ross); "Nonalgebraic Approaches…

18. Assessment and quantification of patient set-up errors in nasopharyngeal cancer patients and their biological and dosimetric impact in terms of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD), tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)

PubMed Central

Marcie, S; Fellah, M; Chami, S; Mekki, F

2015-01-01

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess and quantify patients' set-up errors using an electronic portal imaging device and to evaluate their dosimetric and biological impact in terms of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) on predictive models, such as the tumour control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Methods: 20 patients treated for nasopharyngeal cancer were enrolled in the radiotherapy–oncology department of HCA. Systematic and random errors were quantified. The dosimetric and biological impact of these set-up errors on the target volume and the organ at risk (OARs) coverage were assessed using calculation of dose–volume histogram, gEUD, TCP and NTCP. For this purpose, an in-house software was developed and used. Results: The standard deviations (1SDs) of the systematic set-up and random set-up errors were calculated for the lateral and subclavicular fields and gave the following results: ∑ = 0.63 ± (0.42) mm and σ = 3.75 ± (0.79) mm, respectively. Thus a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) margin of 3 mm was defined around the OARs, and a 5-mm margin used around the clinical target volume. The gEUD, TCP and NTCP calculations obtained with and without set-up errors have shown increased values for tumour, where ΔgEUD (tumour) = 1.94% Gy (p = 0.00721) and ΔTCP = 2.03%. The toxicity of OARs was quantified using gEUD and NTCP. The values of ΔgEUD (OARs) vary from 0.78% to 5.95% in the case of the brainstem and the optic chiasm, respectively. The corresponding ΔNTCP varies from 0.15% to 0.53%, respectively. Conclusion: The quantification of set-up errors has a dosimetric and biological impact on the tumour and on the OARs. The developed in-house software using the concept of gEUD, TCP and NTCP biological models has been successfully used in this study. It can be used also to optimize the treatment plan established for our patients. Advances in knowledge: The g

19. Probability Theory

Jaynes, E. T.; Bretthorst, G. Larry

2003-04-01

Foreword; Preface; Part I. Principles and Elementary Applications: 1. Plausible reasoning; 2. The quantitative rules; 3. Elementary sampling theory; 4. Elementary hypothesis testing; 5. Queer uses for probability theory; 6. Elementary parameter estimation; 7. The central, Gaussian or normal distribution; 8. Sufficiency, ancillarity, and all that; 9. Repetitive experiments, probability and frequency; 10. Physics of 'random experiments'; Part II. Advanced Applications: 11. Discrete prior probabilities, the entropy principle; 12. Ignorance priors and transformation groups; 13. Decision theory: historical background; 14. Simple applications of decision theory; 15. Paradoxes of probability theory; 16. Orthodox methods: historical background; 17. Principles and pathology of orthodox statistics; 18. The Ap distribution and rule of succession; 19. Physical measurements; 20. Model comparison; 21. Outliers and robustness; 22. Introduction to communication theory; References; Appendix A. Other approaches to probability theory; Appendix B. Mathematical formalities and style; Appendix C. Convolutions and cumulants.

20. Endoscopic vs. tactile evaluation of subgingival calculus.

PubMed

Osborn, Joy B; Lenton, Patricia A; Lunos, Scott A; Blue, Christine M

2014-08-01

Endoscopic technology has been developed to facilitate imagery for use during diagnostic and therapeutic phases of periodontal care. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of subgingival calculus detection using a periodontal endoscope with that of conventional tactile explorer in periodontitis subjects. A convenience sample of 26 subjects with moderate periodontitis in at least 2 quadrants was recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry to undergo quadrant scaling and root planing. One quadrant from each subject was randomized for tactile calculus detection alone and the other quadrant for tactile detection plus the Perioscope ™ (Perioscopy Inc., Oakland, Cali). A calculus index on a 0 to 3 score was performed at baseline and at 2 post-scaling and root planing visits. Sites where calculus was detected at visit 1 were retreated. T-tests were used to determine within-subject differences between Perioscope™ and tactile measures, and changes in measures between visits. Significantly more calculus was detected using the Perioscope™ vs. tactile explorer for all 3 subject visits (p<0.005). Mean changes (reduction) in calculus detection from baseline to visit 1 were statistically significant for both the Perioscope™ and tactile quadrants (p<0.0001). However, further reductions in calculus detection from visit 1 to visit 2 was only significant for the Perioscope™ quadrant (p<0.025), indicating that this methodology was able to more precisely detect calculus at this visit. It was concluded that the addition of a visual component to calculus detection via the Perioscope™ was most helpful in the re-evaluation phase of periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

1. The Impact of Taking a College Pre-Calculus Course on Students' College Calculus Performance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2014-01-01

Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and…

2. The Impact of Taking a College Pre-Calculus Course on Students' College Calculus Performance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2014-01-01

Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and…

3. Motivation and Study Habits of College Calculus Students: Does Studying Calculus in High School Make a Difference?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gibson, Megan

2013-01-01

Due in part to the growing popularity of the Advanced Placement program, an increasingly large percentage of entering college students are enrolling in calculus courses having already taken calculus in high school. Many students do not score high enough on the AP calculus examination to place out of Calculus I, and many do not take the…

4. Motivation and Study Habits of College Calculus Students: Does Studying Calculus in High School Make a Difference?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gibson, Megan

2013-01-01

Due in part to the growing popularity of the Advanced Placement program, an increasingly large percentage of entering college students are enrolling in calculus courses having already taken calculus in high school. Many students do not score high enough on the AP calculus examination to place out of Calculus I, and many do not take the…

5. Recursive sequences in first-year calculus

Krainer, Thomas

2016-02-01

This article provides ready-to-use supplementary material on recursive sequences for a second-semester calculus class. It equips first-year calculus students with a basic methodical procedure based on which they can conduct a rigorous convergence or divergence analysis of many simple recursive sequences on their own without the need to invoke inductive arguments as is typically required in calculus textbooks. The sequences that are accessible to this kind of analysis are predominantly (eventually) monotonic, but also certain recursive sequences that alternate around their limit point as they converge can be considered.

6. Calculus fragmentation in laser lithotripsy.

PubMed

Welch, A J; Kang, H W; Lee, H; Teichman, J M H

2004-03-01

The intracorporeal treatment of urinary calculi with lasers is presented, which describes laser-calculus interactions associated with lithotripsy. Reliable fragmentation of calculi with diverse compositions and minimal collateral tissue damage are primarily contingent upon laser parameters (wavelength, pulse duration, and pulse energy) and physical properties of calculi (optical, mechanical, and chemical). The pulse duration governs the dominant mechanism in calculi fragmentation, which is either photothermal or photoacoustical/photomechanical. Lasers with long pulse durations (i.e. > tens of micros) induce a temperature rise in the laser-affected zone with minimal acoustic waves; material is removed by means of vaporization, melting, mechanical stress, and/or chemical decomposition. Short-pulsed laser ablation (i.e. < 10 micros), on the other hand, produces shock waves, and the resultant mechanical energy fragments calculi. Work continues throughout the world to evaluate the feasibility of advanced lasers in lithotripsy and to optimize laser parameters and light delivery systems pertinent to efficient fragmentation of calculi.

7. Fractional variational calculus in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives

Agrawal, O. P.

2007-06-01

This paper presents extensions of traditional calculus of variations for systems containing Riesz fractional derivatives (RFDs). Specifically, we present generalized Euler-Lagrange equations and the transversality conditions for fractional variational problems (FVPs) defined in terms of RFDs. We consider two problems, a simple FVP and an FVP of Lagrange. Results of the first problem are extended to problems containing multiple fractional derivatives, functions and parameters, and to unspecified boundary conditions. For the second problem, we present Lagrange-type multiplier rules. For both problems, we develop the Euler-Lagrange-type necessary conditions which must be satisfied for the given functional to be extremum. Problems are considered to demonstrate applications of the formulations. Explicitly, we introduce fractional momenta, fractional Hamiltonian, fractional Hamilton equations of motion, fractional field theory and fractional optimal control. The formulations presented and the resulting equations are similar to the formulations for FVPs given in Agrawal (2002 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272 368, 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 10375) and to those that appear in the field of classical calculus of variations. These formulations are simple and can be extended to other problems in the field of fractional calculus of variations.

8. Real-Time Exponential Curve Fits Using Discrete Calculus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rowe, Geoffrey

2010-01-01

An improved solution for curve fitting data to an exponential equation (y = Ae(exp Bt) + C) has been developed. This improvement is in four areas -- speed, stability, determinant processing time, and the removal of limits. The solution presented avoids iterative techniques and their stability errors by using three mathematical ideas: discrete calculus, a special relationship (be tween exponential curves and the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives), and a simple linear curve fit algorithm. This method can also be applied to fitting data to the general power law equation y = Ax(exp B) + C and the general geometric growth equation y = Ak(exp Bt) + C.

9. Modeling Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of a Discrete Probability Distribution: General Rate Equation for Maximal Entropy Generation in a Maximum-Entropy Landscape with Time-Dependent Constraints

Beretta, Gian P.

2008-09-01

A rate equation for a discrete probability distribution is discussed as a route to describe smooth relaxation towards the maximum entropy distribution compatible at all times with one or more linear constraints. The resulting dynamics follows the path of steepest entropy ascent compatible with the constraints. The rate equation is consistent with the Onsager theorem of reciprocity and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The mathematical formalism was originally developed to obtain a quantum theoretical unification of mechanics and thermodinamics. It is presented here in a general, non-quantal formulation as a part of an effort to develop tools for the phenomenological treatment of non-equilibrium problems with applications in engineering, biology, sociology, and economics. The rate equation is also extended to include the case of assigned time-dependences of the constraints and the entropy, such as for modeling non-equilibrium energy and entropy exchanges.

10. Applications of Monte Carlo Methods in Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.

1990-01-01

Discusses the application of probabilistic ideas, especially Monte Carlo simulation, to calculus. Describes some applications using the Monte Carlo method: Riemann sums; maximizing and minimizing a function; mean value theorems; and testing conjectures. (YP)

11. Applying Change of Variable to Calculus Problems

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

2011-01-01

This article describes the technique of introducing a new variable in some calculus problems to help students master the skills of integration and evaluation of limits. This technique is algorithmic and easy to apply.

12. Extending stochastic network calculus to loss analysis.

PubMed

Luo, Chao; Yu, Li; Zheng, Jun

2013-01-01

Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS). Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.

13. One Answer to "What Is Calculus?"

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shilgalis, Thomas W.

1979-01-01

A number of questions are posed that can be answered with the aid of calculus. These include best value problems, best shape problems, problems involving integration, and growth and decay problems. (MP)

14. Adapting machine learning techniques to censored time-to-event health record data: A general-purpose approach using inverse probability of censoring weighting.

PubMed

Vock, David M; Wolfson, Julian; Bandyopadhyay, Sunayan; Adomavicius, Gediminas; Johnson, Paul E; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; O'Connor, Patrick J

2016-06-01

15. Calculus in Elementary School: An Example of ICT-Based Curriculum Transformation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fluck, Andrew; Ranmuthugala, Dev; Chin, Chris; Penesis, Irene

2012-01-01

Integral calculus is generally regarded as a fundamental but advanced aspect of mathematics, and it is not generally studied until students are aged about fifteen or older. Understanding the transformative potential of information and communication technology, this project undertook an investigation in four Australian schools to train students…

16. Borel functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators

G, Ramesh; P, Santhosh Kumar

2017-05-01

In this article, we give an approach to Borel functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators, which are not necessarily bounded. First, we establish the definition of functional calculus for a subclass of quaternion valued Borel functions, and then we extend the same to the class of quaternion valued Borel functions as well as L∞-functions. We also prove spectral mapping theorem as a consequence.

17. Fractional Calculus Model of Electrical Impedance Applied to Human Skin

PubMed Central

Vosika, Zoran B.; Lazovic, Goran M.; Misevic, Gradimir N.; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B.

2013-01-01

Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

18. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

PubMed

Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B

2013-01-01

Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

19. Lexicographic Probability, Conditional Probability, and Nonstandard Probability

DTIC Science & Technology

2009-11-11

the following conditions: CP1. µ(U |U) = 1 if U ∈ F ′. CP2 . µ(V1 ∪ V2 |U) = µ(V1 |U) + µ(V2 |U) if V1 ∩ V2 = ∅, U ∈ F ′, and V1, V2 ∈ F . CP3. µ(V |U...µ(V |X)× µ(X |U) if V ⊆ X ⊆ U , U,X ∈ F ′, V ∈ F . Note that it follows from CP1 and CP2 that µ(· |U) is a probability measure on (W,F) (and, in... CP2 hold. This is easily seen to determine µ. Moreover, µ vaciously satisfies CP3, since there do not exist distinct sets U and X in F ′ such that U

20. Numerical operator calculus in higher dimensions.

PubMed

Beylkin, Gregory; Mohlenkamp, Martin J

2002-08-06

When an algorithm in dimension one is extended to dimension d, in nearly every case its computational cost is taken to the power d. This fundamental difficulty is the single greatest impediment to solving many important problems and has been dubbed the curse of dimensionality. For numerical analysis in dimension d, we propose to use a representation for vectors and matrices that generalizes separation of variables while allowing controlled accuracy. Basic linear algebra operations can be performed in this representation using one-dimensional operations, thus bypassing the exponential scaling with respect to the dimension. Although not all operators and algorithms may be compatible with this representation, we believe that many of the most important ones are. We prove that the multiparticle Schrödinger operator, as well as the inverse Laplacian, can be represented very efficiently in this form. We give numerical evidence to support the conjecture that eigenfunctions inherit this property by computing the ground-state eigenfunction for a simplified Schrödinger operator with 30 particles. We conjecture and provide numerical evidence that functions of operators inherit this property, in which case numerical operator calculus in higher dimensions becomes feasible.

1. On the Presentation of Pre-Calculus and Calculus Topics: An Alternate View

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Davydov, Aleksandr; Sturm-Beiss, Rachel

2008-01-01

The orders of presentation of pre-calculus and calculus topics, and the notation used, deserve careful study as they affect clarity and ultimately students' level of understanding. We introduce an alternate approach to some of the topics included in this sequence. The suggested alternative is based on years of teaching in colleges within and…

2. Resampling-Based Empirical Bayes Multiple Testing Procedures for Controlling Generalized Tail Probability and Expected Value Error Rates: Focus on the False Discovery Rate and Simulation Study

PubMed Central

Dudoit, Sandrine; Gilbert, Houston N.; van der Laan, Mark J.

2014-01-01

Summary This article proposes resampling-based empirical Bayes multiple testing procedures for controlling a broad class of Type I error rates, defined as generalized tail probability (gTP) error rates, gTP(q, g) = Pr(g(Vn, Sn) > q), and generalized expected value (gEV) error rates, gEV(g) = E[g(Vn, Sn)], for arbitrary functions g(Vn, Sn) of the numbers of false positives Vn and true positives Sn. Of particular interest are error rates based on the proportion g(Vn, Sn) = Vn/(Vn + Sn) of Type I errors among the rejected hypotheses, such as the false discovery rate (FDR), FDR = E[Vn/(Vn + Sn)]. The proposed procedures offer several advantages over existing methods. They provide Type I error control for general data generating distributions, with arbitrary dependence structures among variables. Gains in power are achieved by deriving rejection regions based on guessed sets of true null hypotheses and null test statistics randomly sampled from joint distributions that account for the dependence structure of the data. The Type I error and power properties of an FDR-controlling version of the resampling-based empirical Bayes approach are investigated and compared to those of widely-used FDR-controlling linear step-up procedures in a simulation study. The Type I error and power trade-off achieved by the empirical Bayes procedures under a variety of testing scenarios allows this approach to be competitive with or outperform the Storey and Tibshirani (2003) linear step-up procedure, as an alternative to the classical Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure. PMID:18932138

3. Confidence Probability versus Detection Probability

SciTech Connect

Axelrod, M

2005-08-18

In a discovery sampling activity the auditor seeks to vet an inventory by measuring (or inspecting) a random sample of items from the inventory. When the auditor finds every sample item in compliance, he must then make a confidence statement about the whole inventory. For example, the auditor might say: ''We believe that this inventory of 100 items contains no more than 5 defectives with 95% confidence.'' Note this is a retrospective statement in that it asserts something about the inventory after the sample was selected and measured. Contrast this to the prospective statement: ''We will detect the existence of more than 5 defective items in this inventory with 95% probability.'' The former uses confidence probability while the latter uses detection probability. For a given sample size, the two probabilities need not be equal, indeed they could differ significantly. Both these probabilities critically depend on the auditor's prior belief about the number of defectives in the inventory and how he defines non-compliance. In other words, the answer strongly depends on how the question is framed.

4. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy.

PubMed

Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chou, Yii-Her; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

2012-08-01

To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. • Unenhanced CT is now widely used to assess ureteric calculi. • The same CT protocol can provide measurements of abdominal fat distribution. • Ureteric calculi are usually treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). • Greater intra-abdominal fat stores are generally associated with poorer SWL results.

5. Functional calculus using wavelet transforms

Holschneider, Matthias

1994-07-01

It is shown how the wavelet transform may be used to compute for a function s the symbol s(A) for any (not necessarily) self-adjoint operator A whose spectrum is contained in the upper half plane. For self-adjoint operators it is shown that this functional calculus coincides with the usual one. In particular it is shown how the exponential eitA can be written in terms of the resolvent Rz=(A-z)-1 of A as follows: eitA=(1/c) ∫0∞da an-2∫-∞+∞ dbĝ¯ (at)eitbRb-ian(A), with c=-2iπ×∫0∞(dω/ω) (-iω)n-1ĝ¯(ω)e-ω, and n∈N, and the integral is understood as the Cesaro limit. This shows explicitly how the behavior for large t is determined by the behavior of Rz at Iz ≂1/t.

6. Teaching Special Relativity Without Calculus

Ruby, Lawrence

2009-04-01

I 2007 many AAPT members received a booklet that is the first chapter of a physics textbook available on a CD. This book espouses the new educational philosophy of teaching special relativity as the first item in the topic of mechanics. Traditionally, special relativity is part of one or more modern physics chapters at the end of the text,2 and very often this material is never utilized due to time constraints. From a logical standpoint, special relativity is important in satellite communications and in cosmology, as well as in modern physics applications such as atomic theory and high-energy physics. The purpose of this paper is to show that the new philosophy can be carried out in a noncalculus physics course, by demonstrating that all of the principal results of special relativity theory can be obtained by simple algebra. To accomplish this, we shall propose alternate derivations for two results that are usually obtained with calculus. Textbooks2 typically obtain the equations for time dilation and for length contraction from simple considerations based on Einstein's second postulate.3 We shall start from this point.

7. High levels of heavy metal accumulation in dental calculus of smokers: a pilot inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study.

PubMed

Yaprak, E; Yolcubal, I; Sinanoğlu, A; Doğrul-Demiray, A; Guzeldemir-Akcakanat, E; Marakoğlu, I

2017-02-01

Various trace elements, including toxic heavy metals, may exist in dental calculus. However, the effect of environmental factors on heavy metal composition of dental calculus is unknown. Smoking is a major environmental source for chronic toxic heavy metal exposition. The aim of this study is to compare toxic heavy metal accumulation levels in supragingival dental calculus of smokers and non-smokers. A total of 29 supragingival dental calculus samples were obtained from non-smoker (n = 14) and smoker (n = 15) individuals. Subjects with a probability of occupational exposure were excluded from the study. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in terms of 26 metals and metalloids, including toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals, arsenic (p < 0.05), cadmium (p < 0.05), lead (p < 0.01), manganese (p < 0.01) and vanadium (p < 0.01) levels were significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers. The levels of other examined elements were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the elementary composition of dental calculus may be affected by environmental factors such as tobacco smoke. Therefore, dental calculus may be utilized as a non-invasive diagnostic biological material for monitoring chronic oral heavy metal exposition. However, further studies are required to evaluate its diagnostic potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

8. Dynamical Correspondence in a Generalized Quantum Theory

Niestegge, Gerd

2015-05-01

In order to figure out why quantum physics needs the complex Hilbert space, many attempts have been made to distinguish the C*-algebras and von Neumann algebras in more general classes of abstractly defined Jordan algebras (JB- and JBW-algebras). One particularly important distinguishing property was identified by Alfsen and Shultz and is the existence of a dynamical correspondence. It reproduces the dual role of the selfadjoint operators as observables and generators of dynamical groups in quantum mechanics. In the paper, this concept is extended to another class of nonassociative algebras, arising from recent studies of the quantum logics with a conditional probability calculus and particularly of those that rule out third-order interference. The conditional probability calculus is a mathematical model of the Lüders-von Neumann quantum measurement process, and third-order interference is a property of the conditional probabilities which was discovered by Sorkin (Mod Phys Lett A 9:3119-3127, 1994) and which is ruled out by quantum mechanics. It is shown then that the postulates that a dynamical correspondence exists and that the square of any algebra element is positive still characterize, in the class considered, those algebras that emerge from the selfadjoint parts of C*-algebras equipped with the Jordan product. Within this class, the two postulates thus result in ordinary quantum mechanics using the complex Hilbert space or, vice versa, a genuine generalization of quantum theory must omit at least one of them.

9. Loop calculus in statistical physics and information science.

PubMed

2006-06-01

Considering a discrete and finite statistical model of a general position we introduce an exact expression for the partition function in terms of a finite series. The leading term in the series is the Bethe-Peierls (belief propagation) (BP) contribution; the rest are expressed as loop contributions on the factor graph and calculated directly using the BP solution. The series unveils a small parameter that often makes the BP approximation so successful. Applications of the loop calculus in statistical physics and information science are discussed.

10. 27% Probable: Estimating Whether or Not Large Numbers Are Prime.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bosse, Michael J.

2001-01-01

This brief investigation exemplifies such considerations by relating concepts from number theory, set theory, probability, logic, and calculus. Satisfying the call for students to acquire skills in estimation, the following technique allows one to "immediately estimate" whether or not a number is prime. (MM)

11. Anti-calculus and whitening toothpastes.

PubMed

van Loveren, Cor; Duckworth, Ralph M

2013-01-01

In terms of novel formulations, there seems to have been a shift in emphasis from anti-caries/anti-gingivitis to anti-calculus/whitening toothpastes in recent years. The anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes are to some extent based on the same active ingredients: compounds of high affinity for tooth mineral. Due to this affinity, crystal growth may be hindered (anti-calculus) and chromophores be displaced (whitening). Besides these common ingredients, both types of toothpaste may contain agents specifically aimed at each condition. Clinical studies have shown that these active ingredients can be successfully formulated in fluoride toothpastes to give significant reductions in supragingival calculus and stain formation and facilitate their removal. Some of the ingredients are formulated in toothpastes that additionally contain anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis ingredients, making these toothpastes (together with the fluoride) truly multi-functional. The development of these products is not straightforward because of interaction between formulation components and because the active ingredients must maintain their beneficial characteristics during the shelf life of the paste. Neither a therapeutic benefit (in terms of less gingivitis or less caries) nor a societal benefit (in terms of less treatment demand) has been demonstrated as a result of the anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes.

12. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

PubMed

Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

2015-02-01

Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

13. Calculus domains modelled using an original bool algebra based on polygons

Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Raicu, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Axinte, T.

2016-08-01

Analytical and numerical computer based models require analytical definitions of the calculus domains. The paper presents a method to model a calculus domain based on a bool algebra which uses solid and hollow polygons. The general calculus relations of the geometrical characteristics that are widely used in mechanical engineering are tested using several shapes of the calculus domain in order to draw conclusions regarding the most effective methods to discretize the domain. The paper also tests the results of several CAD commercial software applications which are able to compute the geometrical characteristics, being drawn interesting conclusions. The tests were also targeting the accuracy of the results vs. the number of nodes on the curved boundary of the cross section. The study required the development of an original software consisting of more than 1700 computer code lines. In comparison with other calculus methods, the discretization using convex polygons is a simpler approach. Moreover, this method doesn't lead to large numbers as the spline approximation did, in that case being required special software packages in order to offer multiple, arbitrary precision. The knowledge resulted from this study may be used to develop complex computer based models in engineering.

14. On Development of an Adaptive Tutoring System for Calculus Learning

Yokota, Hisashi

2010-06-01

One-on-one tutoring is known to be an effective model for learning calculus. Therefore, implementing one-on-one tutoring system into calculus learning software is a natural thing to do. The purpose of this article is to describe how to diagnose a students' knowledge structure about calculus without asking many questions and to show how an adaptive tutoring system is implemented into our calculus learning software JCALC.

15. Measuring Transducer Modelled by Means of Fractional Calculus

Luft, Mirosław; Szychta, Elżbieta; Cioć, Radosław; Pietruszczak, Daniel

The article is inspired by developments of the fractional calculus in different areas of science such as the control theory and electrical measurements. The current interest in mathematical analysis employing the fractional differential and integral calculus reflects the usefulness of this calculus in the development of more precise - closer to the actual observation - mathematical models of various phenomena. A model of a measuring transducer is presented, developed by means of fractional calculus. Tests are executed in the programming environment MATLAB-SIMULINK.

16. [Does carbonate originate from carbonate-calcium crystal component of the human urinary calculus?].

PubMed

Yuzawa, Masayuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Kumamaru, Takatoshi; Nukui, Akinori; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Minoru; Sugaya, Yasuhiro; Morita, Tatsuo

2008-09-01

It gives important information in selecting the appropriate treatment for urolithiasis to confirm the component of urinary calculus. Presently component analysis of the urinary calculus is generally performed by infrared spectroscopy which is employed by companies providing laboratory testing services in Japan. The infrared spectroscopy determines the molecular components from the absorption spectra in consequence of atomic vibrations. It has the drawback that an accurate crystal structure cannot be analyzed compared with the X-ray diffraction method which analyzes the crystal constituent based on the diffraction of X-rays on crystal lattice. The components of the urinary calculus including carbonate are carbonate apatite and calcium carbonate such as calcite. Although the latter is reported to be very rare component in human urinary calculus, the results by infrared spectroscopy often show that calcium carbonate is included in calculus. The infrared spectroscopy can confirm the existence of carbonate but cannot determine whether carbonate is originated from carbonate apatite or calcium carbonate. Thus, it is not clear whether calcium carbonate is included in human urinary calculus component in Japan. In this study, we examined human urinary calculus including carbonate by use of X-ray structural analysis in order to elucidate the origin of carbonate in human urinary calculus. We examined 17 human calculi which were reported to contain calcium carbonate by infrared spectroscopy performed in the clinical laboratory. Fifteen calculi were obtained from urinary tract, and two were from gall bladder. The stones were analyzed by X-ray powder method after crushed finely. The reports from the clinical laboratory showed that all urinary culculi consisted of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, while the gallstones consisted of calcium carbonate. But the components of all urinary calculi were revealed to be carbonate apatite by X-ray diffraction. The components of

17. Singular optimal control and the identically non-regular problem in the calculus of variations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Menon, P. K. A.; Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.

1985-01-01

A small but interesting class of optimal control problems featuring a scalar control appearing linearly is equivalent to the class of identically nonregular problems in the Calculus of Variations. It is shown that a condition due to Mancill (1950) is equivalent to the generalized Legendre-Clebsch condition for this narrow class of problems.

18. Singular optimal control and the identically non-regular problem in the calculus of variations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Menon, P. K. A.; Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.

1985-01-01

A small but interesting class of optimal control problems featuring a scalar control appearing linearly is equivalent to the class of identically nonregular problems in the Calculus of Variations. It is shown that a condition due to Mancill (1950) is equivalent to the generalized Legendre-Clebsch condition for this narrow class of problems.

19. Some Thoughts on Using Microcomputers to Teach Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norris, Donald O.

1983-01-01

Discusses personal experiences in using microcomputers to teach differential equations and calculus, including programs written for and activities in a year-long calculus sequence called Calculus and Computers. Suggests that computers and their graphics capabilities be used to provide a mathematical environment in which students can interact and…

20. Computer Managed Instruction Homework Modules for Calculus I.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goodman-Petrushka, Sharon; Roitberg, Yael

This booklet contains 11 modules (290 multiple-choice items) designed for use in the first course of a three-course calculus sequence using the textbook "Calculus with Analytic Geometry" (Dennis G. Zill). In each module, relevant sections of the textbook are identified for users. It can, however, be used in conjunction with any calculus textbook.…

1. Improving Calculus II and III through the Redistribution of Topics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

George, C. Yousuf; Koetz, Matt; Lewis, Heather A.

2016-01-01

Three years ago our mathematics department rearranged the topics in second and third semester calculus, moving multivariable calculus to the second semester and series to the third semester. This paper describes the new arrangement of topics, and how it could be adapted to calculus curricula at different schools. It also explains the benefits we…

2. A Transition Course from Advanced Placement to College Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lucas, Timothy A.; Spivey, Joseph

2011-01-01

In the Spring of 2007, a group of highly motivated mathematics graduate students conducted a review of Duke's Calculus curriculum. They focused on two main problems. The first problem is the result of a very positive trend: a growing number of students are earning AP credit for Calculus I in high school. However, this results in Calculus II…

3. A Historical Perspective on Teaching and Learning Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doorman, Michiel; van Maanen, Jan

2008-01-01

Calculus is one of those topics in mathematics where the algorithmic manipulation of symbols is easier than understanding the underlying concepts. Around 1680 Leibniz invented a symbol system for calculus that codifies and simplifies the essential elements of reasoning. The calculus of Leibniz brings within the reach of an ordinary student…

4. Computer Managed Instruction Homework Modules for Calculus I.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goodman-Petrushka, Sharon; Roitberg, Yael

This booklet contains 11 modules (290 multiple-choice items) designed for use in the first course of a three-course calculus sequence using the textbook "Calculus with Analytic Geometry" (Dennis G. Zill). In each module, relevant sections of the textbook are identified for users. It can, however, be used in conjunction with any calculus textbook.…

5. Science 101: How Do We Use Calculus in Science?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, Bill

2014-01-01

How is calculus used in science? That might seem like an odd question to answer in a magazine intended primarily for elementary school teachers. After all, how much calculus gets used in elementary science? Here the author guesses that quite a few readers of this column do not know a whole lot about calculus and have not taken a course in…

6. Improving Calculus II and III through the Redistribution of Topics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

George, C. Yousuf; Koetz, Matt; Lewis, Heather A.

2016-01-01

Three years ago our mathematics department rearranged the topics in second and third semester calculus, moving multivariable calculus to the second semester and series to the third semester. This paper describes the new arrangement of topics, and how it could be adapted to calculus curricula at different schools. It also explains the benefits we…

7. A Transition Course from Advanced Placement to College Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lucas, Timothy A.; Spivey, Joseph

2011-01-01

In the Spring of 2007, a group of highly motivated mathematics graduate students conducted a review of Duke's Calculus curriculum. They focused on two main problems. The first problem is the result of a very positive trend: a growing number of students are earning AP credit for Calculus I in high school. However, this results in Calculus II…

8. Science 101: How Do We Use Calculus in Science?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, Bill

2014-01-01

How is calculus used in science? That might seem like an odd question to answer in a magazine intended primarily for elementary school teachers. After all, how much calculus gets used in elementary science? Here the author guesses that quite a few readers of this column do not know a whole lot about calculus and have not taken a course in…

9. LOOP CALCULUS AND BELIEF PROPAGATION FOR Q-ARY ALPHABET: LOOP TOWER

SciTech Connect

2007-01-10

Loop calculus introduced in [1], [2] constitutes a new theoretical tool that explicitly expresses symbol Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) solution of a general statistical inference problem via a solution of the Belief Propagation (BP) equations. This finding brought a new significance to the BP concept, which in the past was thought of as just a loop-free approximation. In this paper they continue a discussion of the Loop Calculus, partitioning the results into three Sections. In Section 1 they introduce a new formulation of the Loop Calculus in terms of a set of transformations (gauges) that keeping the partition function of the problem invariant. The full expression contains two terms referred to as the 'ground state' and 'excited states' contributions. The BP equations are interpreted as a special (BP) gauge fixing condition that emerges as a special orthogonality constraint between the ground state and excited states, which also selects loop contributions as the only surviving ones among the excited states. In Section 2 they demonstrate how the invariant interpretation of the Loop Calculus, introduced in Section 1, allows a natural extension to the case of a general q-ary alphabet, this is achieved via a loop tower sequential construction. The ground level in the tower is exactly equivalent to assigning one color (out of q available) to the 'ground state' and considering all 'excited' states colored in the remaining (q-1) colors, according to the loop calculus rule. Sequentially, the second level in the tower corresponds to selecting a loop from the previous step, colored in (q-1) colors, and repeating the same ground vs excited states splitting procedure into one and (q-2) colors respectively. The construction proceeds till the full (q-1)-levels deep loop tower (and the corresponding contributions to the partition function) are established. In Section 3 they discuss an ultimate relation between the loop calculus and the Bethe-Free energy variational approach of [3].

10. An Executable Calculus for Service Choreography

The Lightweight Coordination Calculus (LCC) is a compact choreography language based on process calculus. LCC is a directly executable specification and can therefore be dynamically distributed to a group of peers for enactment at run-time; this offers flexibility and allows peers to coordinate in open systems without prior knowledge of an interaction. This paper contributes to the body of choreography research by proposing two extensions to LCC covering parallel composition and choreography abstraction. These language extensions are evaluated against a subset of the Service Interaction Patterns, a benchmark in the process modelling community.

11. Nonprobability Web Surveys to Measure Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes in the General Population: A Comparison With a Probability Sample Interview Survey

PubMed Central

Burkill, Sarah; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Phelps, Andrew; Datta, Jessica; Mercer, Catherine H; Sonnenberg, Pam; Prah, Philip; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Copas, Andrew J

2014-01-01

Background Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. Objective The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. Results For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. Conclusions Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web

12. Continuous Slice Functional Calculus in Quaternionic Hilbert Spaces

Ghiloni, Riccardo; Moretti, Valter; Perotti, Alessandro

2013-04-01

The aim of this work is to define a continuous functional calculus in quaternionic Hilbert spaces, starting from basic issues regarding the notion of spherical spectrum of a normal operator. As properties of the spherical spectrum suggest, the class of continuous functions to consider in this setting is the one of slice quaternionic functions. Slice functions generalize the concept of slice regular function, which comprises power series with quaternionic coefficients on one side and that can be seen as an effective generalization to quaternions of holomorphic functions of one complex variable. The notion of slice function allows to introduce suitable classes of real, complex and quaternionic C*-algebras and to define, on each of these C*-algebras, a functional calculus for quaternionic normal operators. In particular, we establish several versions of the spectral map theorem. Some of the results are proved also for unbounded operators. However, the mentioned continuous functional calculi are defined only for bounded normal operators. Some comments on the physical significance of our work are included.

13. A large primary vaginal calculus in a woman with paraplegia.

PubMed

Avsar, Ayse Filiz; Keskin, Huseyin Levent; Catma, Tuba; Kaya, Basak; Sivaslioglu, Ahmet Akın

2013-01-01

The study aimed to report a primary vaginal stone, an extremely rare entity, without vesicovaginal fistula in a woman with disability. We describe the case of a large primary vaginal calculus in a 22-year-old woman with paraplegia, which, surprisingly, was not diagnosed until she was examined under general anesthesia during a preparation for laparoscopy for an adnexal mass. The stone had not been identified by physical examination with the patient in a recumbent position or by transabdominal ultrasonography and pelvic tomography during the preoperative preparation. Vaginoscopy was not performed because the vagina was completely filled with the mass. As a result of its size and hard consistency, a right-sided episiotomy was performed and a 136-g stone was removed using ring forceps. A vesicovaginal fistula was excluded. There was no evidence of a foreign body or other nidus on the cut section of the stone, and it was determined to be composed of 100% struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate). Culture of urine obtained via catheter showed Escherichia coli. After the surgical removal of the calculus without complications, a program of intermittent catheterization was started. The follow-up period was uneventful, and the patient was symptom free at 6 months after the operation. We postulate that the calculus formed as a consequence of urinary contamination of the vagina in association with incontinence and prolonged maintenance in a recumbent posture. This report is important because it highlights that, although vaginal stones are very rare, their possibility should be considered in the differential diagnosis of individuals with long-term paraplegia.

14. Is Calculus Really That Different from Algebra? A More Logical Way To Understand and Teach Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elk, Seymour B.

1998-01-01

Discards the blinders that have hampered the traditional teaching of calculus and reexamines some of the intuitive ideas that underlie this subject matter. Analyzes the various indeterminate forms that arise through the blind application of algebraic operations. (Author/ASK)

15. Is Calculus Really That Different from Algebra? A More Logical Way To Understand and Teach Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elk, Seymour B.

1998-01-01

Discards the blinders that have hampered the traditional teaching of calculus and reexamines some of the intuitive ideas that underlie this subject matter. Analyzes the various indeterminate forms that arise through the blind application of algebraic operations. (Author/ASK)

16. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

PubMed Central

Kamath, Deepa G.; Umesh Nayak, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used to identify and remove calculus deposits present on the root surface. The purpose of this review was to compile the various methods and their advantages for the detection and removal of calculus. PMID:24526823

17. On the Equivalence of Probability Measures.

DTIC Science & Technology

1981-01-01

example Brownian motion) and for Y a process of the form V+ X, where V is of bounded variation . The privileged tool is then stochastic calculus. We...martingale by a process of bounded variation is again a martingale with the same local characteristics (in fact, in its generality, the theorem says that...the class of semimartingales, that is sums of martingales and processes of bounded variation , is invariant under absolutely continuous changes of

18. Predicting the temporal and spatial probability of orographic cloud cover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico using generalized linear (mixed) models.

Treesearch

Wei Wu; Charlesb Hall; Lianjun Zhang

2006-01-01

We predicted the spatial pattern of hourly probability of cloud cover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in North-Eastern Puerto Rico using four different models. The probability of cloud cover (defined as âthe percentage of the area covered by clouds in each pixel on the mapâ in this paper) at any hour and any place is a function of three topographic variables...

19. Exposing Calculus Students to Advanced Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Griffiths, Barry J.; Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

2014-01-01

To ensure the competitiveness of the USA in the global economy, and its role as a leader in science and engineering, it is important to cultivate the next generation of home grown mathematicians. However, while universities across the USA offer calculus classes to thousands of undergraduate students each year, very few of them go on to major in…

20. Dogs Don't Need Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bolt, Mike

2010-01-01

Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…

1. Is Calculus an Appropriate High School Course?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rash, Agnes M.

1977-01-01

Discusses some alternatives to calculus as an advanced high school course which will prepare students for college level work, improve their background in algebra, geometry and trigonometry, and introduce new and interesting material of a more advanced nature. (Author/RK)

2. Developing Flexible Procedural Knowledge in Undergraduate Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maciejewski, Wes; Star, Jon R.

2016-01-01

Mathematics experts often choose appropriate procedures to produce an efficient or elegant solution to a mathematical task. This "flexible procedural knowledge" distinguishes novice and expert procedural performances. This article reports on an intervention intended to aid the development of undergraduate calculus students' flexible use…

3. Dogs Don't Need Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bolt, Mike

2010-01-01

Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…

4. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

2015-01-01

Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

5. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

PubMed

De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

2006-09-01

Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

6. Using the Microcomputer to Enhance Calculus Teaching.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clayton, Debbie; And Others

1990-01-01

Discusses differences between computer-enhanced learning (CEL) and computer-aided learning (CAL), and describes a microcomputer-based graph-plotting program called Capgraph that was developed for use in a college calculus course. Results of a course evaluation are presented; student attitudes are described; and future considerations are discussed.…

7. Some Factors Effected Student's Calculus Learning Outcome

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rajagukguk, Wamington

2016-01-01

The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effected calculus learning outcome of the student. This study was conducted with 176 respondents, which were selected randomly. The data were obtained by questionnaire, and then analyzed by using multiple regressions, and correlation, at level of a = 0.05. The findings showed there is the…

8. Maple Graphing Tools for Calculus III

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cook, Darwyn

2006-01-01

For those instructors lacking artistic skills, teaching 3-dimensional calculus can be a challenge. Although some instructors spend a great deal of time working on their illustrations, trying to get them just right, students nevertheless often have a difficult time understanding some of them. To address this problem, the author has written a series…

9. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

2017-01-01

In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

10. Students' Understanding of Functions in Calculus Courses.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monk, G. S.

1994-01-01

Reports on a study of students' responses to two types of questions on final examinations in calculus. Concludes that the two kinds of understanding--pointwise and across time--are clearly distinguishable. Discusses the differences between these two types of understanding. (ASK)

11. Beliefs about Proof in Collegiate Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raman, Manya

The broad aim of this research is to characterize the views of proof held by college calculus students and their two types of teachers mathematics graduate students and professors. The analysis is based on an examination of the ways in which people in all three groups produce and evaluate different types of solutions to a proof-based problem from…

12. Sharks, Minnows, and Wheelbarrows: Calculus Modeling Projects

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Michael D.

2011-01-01

The purpose of this article is to present two very active applied modeling projects that were successfully implemented in a first semester calculus course at Hollins University. The first project uses a logistic equation to model the spread of a new disease such as swine flu. The second project is a human take on the popular article "Do Dogs Know…

13. Inverted Pedagogy in Second Semester Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kennedy, Ellie; Beaudrie, Brian; Ernst, Dana C.; St. Laurent, Roy

2015-01-01

This study investigates the effects of applying an inverted classroom model in a second-semester calculus course at a large regional university in the southwest during the Spring of 2013. The sample consisted of four class sections with the same instructor, with a total of 173 students; two class sections were in the experimental group, whereas…

14. [Report of a case of tonsillar calculus].

PubMed

García Rodríguez, M R; Cabanas López, A; García Calleja, J M; García Rodríguez, J F

1990-01-01

We describe the case of a patient with odynophagia without treatment response. The pharynx exploration shows a stony tumor in vertex of left palatine amygdala which was extirpated. The laboratory analysis signs calcium and oxalic calculus. The anatomopathological study of the amygdala bed biopsy informs like absent of malignancy images.

15. Are Homeschoolers Prepared for College Calculus?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2015-01-01

Homeschooling in the United States has grown considerably over the past several decades. This article presents findings from the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) survey, a national study of 10,492 students enrolled in tertiary calculus, including 190 students who reported homeschooling for a majority of their high…

16. Boolean integral calculus for digital systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.

1985-01-01

The concept of Boolean integration is introduced and developed. When the changes in a desired function are specified in terms of changes in its arguments, then ways of 'integrating' (i.e., realizing) the function, if it exists, are presented. Boolean integral calculus has applications in design of logic circuits.

17. I Teach Economics, Not Algebra and Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hey, John D.

2005-01-01

Most people learn to drive without knowing how the engine works. In a similar vein, the author believes that students can learn economics without knowing the algebra and calculus underlying the results. If instructors follow the philosophy of other economics courses in using graphs to illustrate the results, and draw the graphs accurately, then…

18. Exposing Calculus Students to Advanced Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Griffiths, Barry J.; Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

2014-01-01

To ensure the competitiveness of the USA in the global economy, and its role as a leader in science and engineering, it is important to cultivate the next generation of home grown mathematicians. However, while universities across the USA offer calculus classes to thousands of undergraduate students each year, very few of them go on to major in…

19. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

2010-01-01

This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

20. A symbol calculus for Toeplitz operators.

PubMed

Berger, C A; Coburn, L A

1986-05-01

We give a complete characterization of those functions on 2n-dimensional Euclidean space for which the Berezin-Toeplitz quantizations admit a symbol calculus modulo the compact operators. The functions in question are characterized by a condition of "small oscillation at infinity."

1. Flipping a Calculus Class: One Instructor's Experience

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Palmer, Katrina

2015-01-01

This paper describes one instructor's experiences during a year of flipping four calculus classes. The first exploration attempts to understand student expectations of a math class and their preference towards a flipped classroom. The second examines success of students from a flipped classroom, and the last investigates relationships with student…

2. Developing Flexible Procedural Knowledge in Undergraduate Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maciejewski, Wes; Star, Jon R.

2016-01-01

Mathematics experts often choose appropriate procedures to produce an efficient or elegant solution to a mathematical task. This "flexible procedural knowledge" distinguishes novice and expert procedural performances. This article reports on an intervention intended to aid the development of undergraduate calculus students' flexible use…

3. Sharks, Minnows, and Wheelbarrows: Calculus Modeling Projects

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Michael D.

2011-01-01

The purpose of this article is to present two very active applied modeling projects that were successfully implemented in a first semester calculus course at Hollins University. The first project uses a logistic equation to model the spread of a new disease such as swine flu. The second project is a human take on the popular article "Do Dogs Know…

4. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

2015-01-01

Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

5. Using Matlab in a Multivariable Calculus Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schlatter, Mark D.

The benefits of high-level mathematics packages such as Matlab include both a computer algebra system and the ability to provide students with concrete visual examples. This paper discusses how both capabilities of Matlab were used in a multivariate calculus class. Graphical user interfaces which display three-dimensional surfaces, contour plots,…

6. Boolean integral calculus for digital systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.

1985-01-01

The concept of Boolean integration is introduced and developed. When the changes in a desired function are specified in terms of changes in its arguments, then ways of 'integrating' (i.e., realizing) the function, if it exists, are presented. Boolean integral calculus has applications in design of logic circuits.

7. A Note on Discrete Mathematics and Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

O'Reilly, Thomas J.

1987-01-01

Much of the current literature on the topic of discrete mathematics and calculus during the first two years of an undergraduate mathematics curriculum is cited. A relationship between the recursive integration formulas and recursively defined polynomials is described. A Pascal program is included. (Author/RH)

8. Teaching Calculus Students How to Study.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boelkins, Matthew R.; Pfaff, Thomas J.

1998-01-01

Addresses the problem of poor study habits in calculus students and presents techniques to teach students how to study consistently and effectively. Concludes that many students greatly appreciate the added structure, work harder than in previous courses, and witness newfound success as a consequence. (Author/ASK)

9. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

2017-01-01

In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

10. Online Calculus: The Course and Survey Results.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allen, G. Donald

2001-01-01

Describes the development and implementation of a Web-based calculus course at Texas A & M University. Discusses the course design, layout of content and the contrast with textbook structure, results of course surveys that included student reactions, and how students learn form Web-based materials. (Author/LRW)

11. Flipping a Calculus Class: One Instructor's Experience

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Palmer, Katrina

2015-01-01

This paper describes one instructor's experiences during a year of flipping four calculus classes. The first exploration attempts to understand student expectations of a math class and their preference towards a flipped classroom. The second examines success of students from a flipped classroom, and the last investigates relationships with student…

12. A TENTATIVE GUIDE, DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BRANT, VINCENT; GERARDI, WILLIAM

THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO GO BEYOND THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN MATHEMATICS AS DESIGNED BY THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD. THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM CONSISTS OF A 1-YEAR COURSE COMBINING ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AND CALCULUS. PRESUPPOSED HERE ARE--A SEMESTER COURSE IN ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AND A THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF…

13. A Calculus Project that Really Makes Cents

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Green, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

This article describes a calculus project that exposes students to the concept of retirement annuities in both the saving and withdrawal phases, via revenue streams represented by integrals. Students use modeling skills to solve several related problems as the assumptions of the original problem are changed, and the project requires them to use a…

14. A symbol calculus for Toeplitz operators

PubMed Central

Berger, C. A.; Coburn, L. A.

1986-01-01

We give a complete characterization of those functions on 2n-dimensional Euclidean space for which the Berezin-Toeplitz quantizations admit a symbol calculus modulo the compact operators. The functions in question are characterized by a condition of “small oscillation at infinity.” PMID:16593695

15. Are Homeschoolers Prepared for College Calculus?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2015-01-01

Homeschooling in the United States has grown considerably over the past several decades. This article presents findings from the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) survey, a national study of 10,492 students enrolled in tertiary calculus, including 190 students who reported homeschooling for a majority of their high…

16. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

2012-01-01

In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

17. Characteristics of subgingival calculus detection by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy

Tung, Oi-Hong; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin; Chen, How-Foo

2011-06-01

Subgingival calculus has been recognized as a major cause of periodontitis, which is one of the main chronic infectious diseases of oral cavities and a principal cause of tooth loss in humans. Bacteria deposited in subgingival calculus or plaque cause gingival inflammation, function deterioration, and then periodontitis. However, subgingival calculus within the periodontal pocket is a complicated and potentially delicate structure to be detected with current dental armamentaria, namely dental x-rays and dental probes. Consequently, complete removal of subgingival calculus remains a challenge to periodontal therapies. In this study, the detection of subgingival calculus employing a multiphoton autofluorescence imaging method was characterized in comparison with a one-photon confocal fluorescence imaging technique. Feasibility of such a system was studied based on fluorescence response of gingiva, healthy teeth, and calculus with and without gingiva covered. The multiphoton fluorescence technology perceived the tissue-covered subgingival calculus that cannot be observed by the one-photon confocal fluorescence method.

18. Characteristics of subgingival calculus detection by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy.

PubMed

Tung, Oi-Hong; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin; Chen, How-Foo

2011-06-01

Subgingival calculus has been recognized as a major cause of periodontitis, which is one of the main chronic infectious diseases of oral cavities and a principal cause of tooth loss in humans. Bacteria deposited in subgingival calculus or plaque cause gingival inflammation, function deterioration, and then periodontitis. However, subgingival calculus within the periodontal pocket is a complicated and potentially delicate structure to be detected with current dental armamentaria, namely dental x-rays and dental probes. Consequently, complete removal of subgingival calculus remains a challenge to periodontal therapies. In this study, the detection of subgingival calculus employing a multiphoton autofluorescence imaging method was characterized in comparison with a one-photon confocal fluorescence imaging technique. Feasibility of such a system was studied based on fluorescence response of gingiva, healthy teeth, and calculus with and without gingiva covered. The multiphoton fluorescence technology perceived the tissue-covered subgingival calculus that cannot be observed by the one-photon confocal fluorescence method.

19. External validation of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk prediction tool in older community-dwelling people attending general practice: a prospective cohort study

PubMed Central

Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

2016-01-01

20. A probability theory for non-equilibrium gravitational systems

Peñarrubia, Jorge

2015-08-01

This paper uses dynamical invariants to describe the evolution of collisionless systems subject to time-dependent gravitational forces without resorting to maximum-entropy probabilities. We show that collisionless relaxation can be viewed as a special type of diffusion process in the integral-of-motion space. In time-varying potentials with a fixed spatial symmetry the diffusion coefficients are closely related to virial quantities, such as the specific moment of inertia, the virial factor and the mean kinetic and potential energy of microcanonical particle ensembles. The non-equilibrium distribution function is found by convolving the initial distribution function with the Green function that solves Einstein's equation for freely diffusing particles. Such a convolution also yields a natural solution to the Fokker-Planck equations in the energy space. Our mathematical formalism can be generalized to potentials with a time-varying symmetry, where diffusion extends over multiple dimensions of the integral-of-motion space. The new probability theory is in many ways analogous to stochastic calculus, with two significant differences: (i) the equations of motion that govern the trajectories of particles are fully deterministic, and (ii) the diffusion coefficients can be derived self-consistently from microcanonical phase-space averages without relying on ergodicity assumptions. For illustration we follow the cold collapse of N-body models in a time-dependent logarithmic potential. Comparison between the analytical and numerical results shows excellent agreement in regions where the potential evolution does not depart too strongly from the adiabatic regime.

1. People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise).

PubMed

Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

2016-09-01

A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noise-cancelling identities, but deviating from probability theory (in just the way predicted by the model) for other identities. This new model subsumes an earlier model of unconditional or 'direct' probability judgment which explains a number of systematic biases seen in direct probability judgment (Costello & Watts, 2014). This model may thus provide a fully general account of the mechanisms by which people estimate probabilities.

2. Fractal Physiology and the Fractional Calculus: A Perspective

PubMed Central

West, Bruce J.

2010-01-01

This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

3. Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

2015-12-01

Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics.

4. Attendance and attainment in a Calculus course

Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

2013-10-01

In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75% of the classes) is much higher than the pass rate of students attending fewer classes. We use a logistic model to investigate whether this correlation is significant. We will argue why we believe that this correlation between attendance and attainment is causal, i.e. why it is necessary for most students to attend classes in order to (improve their chances to) pass the exam.

5. Exposing calculus students to advanced mathematics

Griffiths, Barry J.; Selcuk Haciomeroglu, Erhan

2014-07-01

To ensure the competitiveness of the USA in the global economy, and its role as a leader in science and engineering, it is important to cultivate the next generation of home grown mathematicians. However, while universities across the USA offer calculus classes to thousands of undergraduate students each year, very few of them go on to major in mathematics. This paper posits that one of the main reasons is that the mathematical community does not expose calculus students to the beauty and complexity of upper-level mathematics, and that by doing so before they fully commit to their programme of study, the number of students with a qualification in mathematics can be increased. The results show a significant increase in the number of students planning to add a minor in mathematics, and an increased likelihood among freshmen and sophomores to change their major.

6. Application of unified array calculus to connect 4-D spacetime sensing with string theory and relativity

Rauhala, U. A.

2013-12-01

Array algebra of photogrammetry and geodesy unified multi-linear matrix and tensor operators in an expansion of Gaussian adjustment calculus to general matrix inverses and solutions of inverse problems to find all, or some optimal, parametric solutions that satisfy the available observables. By-products in expanding array and tensor calculus to handle redundant observables resulted in general theories of estimation in mathematical statistics and fast transform technology of signal processing. Their applications in gravity modeling and system automation of multi-ray digital image and terrain matching evolved into fast multi-nonlinear differential and integral array calculus. Work since 1980's also uncovered closed-form inverse Taylor and least squares Newton-Raphson-Gauss perturbation solutions of nonlinear systems of equations. Fast nonlinear integral matching of array wavelets enabled an expansion of the bundle adjustment to 4-D stereo imaging and range sensing where real-time stereo sequence and waveform phase matching enabled data-to-info conversion and compression on-board advanced sensors. The resulting unified array calculus of spacetime sensing is applicable in virtually any math and engineering science, including recent work in spacetime physics. The paper focuses on geometric spacetime reconstruction from its image projections inspired by unified relativity and string theories. The collinear imaging equations of active object space shutter of special relativity are expanded to 4-D Lorentz transform. However, regular passive imaging and shutter inside the sensor expands the law of special relativity by a quantum geometric explanation of 4-D photogrammetry. The collinear imaging equations provide common sense explanations to the 10 (and 26) dimensional hyperspace concepts of a purely geometric string theory. The 11-D geometric M-theory is interpreted as a bundle adjustment of spacetime images using 2-D or 5-D membrane observables of image, string and

7. Double dumb-bell calculus in childhood.

PubMed

Joshi, Prashant; Sarda, Dinesh; Ahmad, Ashraf; Kothari, Paras

2009-01-01

An eight-year old male was admitted with complaints of right scrotal swelling, dysuria and intermittent retention of urine for 10 days. On per-rectal examination, a hard mass was palpable in the posterior urethra. An X-ray (KUB) of the abdomen revealed a double dumb-bell calculus at the base of bladder, extending into the posterior urethra. A cystolithotomy via the suprapubic approach was successfully curative.

8. One model for an integrated math/physics course focusing on electricity and magnetism and related calculus topics

Dunn, Jason W.; Barbanel, Julius

2000-08-01

Over the last decade, there has been an increasing, widespread pedagogical interest in developing various types of integrated curricula for science and engineering programs. Over the last three years, a year-long Integrated Math/Physics course has been developed at Union College. This paper will focus on a model for a one-quarter integrated course organized around a traditional set of electricity and magnetism (E&M) physics topics, integrated with appropriate mathematical topics. Traditional, nonintegrated E&M physics students often struggle with challenging vector calculus ideas which may have been forgotten, not yet encountered, or introduced with different notation in different contexts. Likewise, traditional vector calculus mathematics students are often unable to gain intuitive insight, or fail to grasp the physical significance of many of the vector calculus ideas they are learning. Many of these frustrations are due to the fact that at many schools, the physics and calculus teachers teaching separate courses probably have little or no idea what their fellow educators are actually doing in these courses. Substantial differences in context, notation, and philosophy can cause breakdowns in the transfer of knowledge between mathematics and physics courses. We will discuss the methods, philosophy, and implementation of our course, and then go on to present what we feel were the substantial strengths and insights gained from a thoughtful integration of the two subjects. In addition, some problem areas and recommendations for probable student difficulties will be addressed.

9. Nonnumeric Computer Applications to Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoutemyer, David R.

1983-01-01

Described are computer program packages requiring little or no knowledge of computer programing for college algebra, calculus, and abstract algebra. Widely available computer algebra systems are listed. (MNS)

10. Renal vein thrombosis mimicking urinary calculus: a dilemma of diagnosis.

PubMed

Wang, Yimin; Chen, Shanwen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jianyong; Jin, Baiye

2015-07-02

Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) with flank pain, and hematuria, is often mistaken with renal colic originating from ureteric or renal calculus. Especially in young and otherwise healthy patients, clinicians are easily misled by clinical presentation and calcified RVT. A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound. She underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy that failed, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In preoperative view of the unusual shape of the calculus without hydronephrosis, noncontrast computed tomography was taken and demonstrated left ureteric calculus. However computed tomography angiography revealed, to our surprise, a calcified RVT that was initially thought to be a urinary calculus. This case shows that a calcified RVT might mimic a urinary calculus on conventional ultrasonography and ureteric calculus on noncontrast computed tomography. Subsequent computed tomography angiography disclosed that a calcified RVT caused the imaging findings, thus creating a potentially dangerous clinical pitfall. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a RVT needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever one detects an uncommon shape for a urinary calculus.

11. Path integral in area tensor Regge calculus and complex connections

Khatsymovsky, V. M.

2006-06-01

Euclidean quantum measure in Regge calculus with independent area tensors is considered using example of the Regge manifold of a simple structure. We go over to integrations along certain contours in the hyperplane of complex connection variables. Discrete connection and curvature on classical solutions of the equations of motion are not, strictly speaking, genuine connection and curvature, but more general quantities and, therefore, these do not appear as arguments of a function to be averaged, but are the integration (dummy) variables. We argue that upon integrating out the latter the resulting measure can be well-defined on physical hypersurface (for the area tensors corresponding to certain edge vectors, i.e. to certain metric) as positive and having exponential cutoff at large areas on condition that we confine ourselves to configurations which do not pass through degenerate metrics.

12. Relativistic differential-difference momentum operators and noncommutative differential calculus

SciTech Connect

Mir-Kasimov, R. M.

2013-09-15

The relativistic kinetic momentum operators are introduced in the framework of the Quantum Mechanics (QM) in the Relativistic Configuration Space (RCS). These operators correspond to the half of the non-Euclidean distance in the Lobachevsky momentum space. In terms of kinetic momentum operators the relativistic kinetic energy is separated as the independent term of the total Hamiltonian. This relativistic kinetic energy term is not distinguishing in form from its nonrelativistic counterpart. The role of the plane wave (wave function of the motion with definite value of momentum and energy) plays the generating function for the matrix elements of the unitary irreps of Lorentz group (generalized Jacobi polynomials). The kinetic momentum operators are the interior derivatives in the framework of the noncommutative differential calculus over the commutative algebra generated by the coordinate functions over the RCS.

13. Using an advanced graphing calculator in the teaching and learning of calculus

Leng, Ng Wee

2011-10-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate how the use of TI-Nspire™ could enhance the teaching and learning of calculus. A conceptual framework for the use of TI-Nspire™ for learning calculus in a mathematics classroom is proposed that describes the interactions among the students, TI-Nspire™, and the learning tasks, and how they lead to the learning of calculus. A design experiment was conducted in a class of 35 students from a secondary school in Singapore. Use of TI-Nspire™ was integrated into the teaching and learning of calculus concepts in the classroom with the aid of TI-Nspire™ Navigator, a wireless classroom network system that enables instant and active interaction between students and teachers. It was found that the appropriate use of graphical, numerical and algebraic representations of calculus concepts using TI-Nspire™ enabled students to better visualize the concepts and make generalizations about relevant mathematical properties. In addition, the students were able to link multiple representations, especially algebraic and graphical representations, to improve their conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Six roles of TI-Nspire™ in classroom mathematical practice were identified from the findings of the experiment; TI-Nspire™ was used as an exploratory tool, graphing tool, confirmatory tool, problem-solving tool, visualization tool and calculation tool. This suggests that TI-Nspire™ is a multi-dimensional tool that supports mathematics learning. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that TI-Nspire™ is an effective tool to develop mathematical concepts and promote learning and problem solving.

14. On the consideration of scaling properties of extreme rainfall in Madrid (Spain) for developing a generalized intensity-duration-frequency equation and assessing probable maximum precipitation estimates

Casas-Castillo, M. Carmen; Rodríguez-Solà, Raúl; Navarro, Xavier; Russo, Beniamino; Lastra, Antonio; González, Paula; Redaño, Angel

2016-11-01

The fractal behavior of extreme rainfall intensities registered between 1940 and 2012 by the Retiro Observatory of Madrid (Spain) has been examined, and a simple scaling regime ranging from 25 min to 3 days of duration has been identified. Thus, an intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) master equation of the location has been constructed in terms of the simple scaling formulation. The scaling behavior of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for durations between 5 min and 24 h has also been verified. For the statistical estimation of the PMP, an envelope curve of the frequency factor (k m ) based on a total of 10,194 station-years of annual maximum rainfall from 258 stations in Spain has been developed. This curve could be useful to estimate suitable values of PMP at any point of the Iberian Peninsula from basic statistical parameters (mean and standard deviation) of its rainfall series.

15. Success in Introductory Calculus: The Role of High School and Pre-Calculus Preparation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ayebo, Abraham; Ukkelberg, Sarah; Assuah, Charles

2017-01-01

Calculus at the college level has significant potential to serve as a pump for increasing the number of students majoring in STEM fields. It is a foundation course for all STEM majors and, if mastered well, should provide students with a positive and successful first-year experience and gateway into more advanced courses. Studies have shown that a…

16. Improving Student Success in Calculus I Using a Co-Requisite Calculus I Lab

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vestal, Sharon Schaffer; Brandenburger, Thomas; Furth, Alfred

2015-01-01

This paper describes how one university mathematics department was able to improve student success in Calculus I by requiring a co-requisite lab for certain groups of students. The groups of students required to take the co-requisite lab were identified by analyzing student data, including Math ACT scores, ACT Compass Trigonometry scores, and…

17. Improving Student Success in Calculus I Using a Co-Requisite Calculus I Lab

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vestal, Sharon Schaffer; Brandenburger, Thomas; Furth, Alfred

2015-01-01

This paper describes how one university mathematics department was able to improve student success in Calculus I by requiring a co-requisite lab for certain groups of students. The groups of students required to take the co-requisite lab were identified by analyzing student data, including Math ACT scores, ACT Compass Trigonometry scores, and…

18. An Evaluative Calculus Project: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy to the Calculus Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Karaali, Gizem

2011-01-01

In education theory, Bloom's taxonomy is a well-known paradigm to describe domains of learning and levels of competency. In this article I propose a calculus capstone project that is meant to utilize the sixth and arguably the highest level in the cognitive domain, according to Bloom et al.: evaluation. Although one may assume that mathematics is…

19. A Concepts for Calculus Intervention: Measuring Student Attitudes toward Mathematics and Achievement in Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pilgrim, Mary E.

2010-01-01

Data indicate that about 40 percent of students initially enrolled in MATH 160: Calculus for Physical Scientists I finish the course with a grade of D or F, dropped, or withdrew from the course (Reinholz, 2009). The high failure rate let to an intervention course (MATH 180) for students at risk of failing MATH 160. At-risk students were…

20. An Evaluative Calculus Project: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy to the Calculus Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Karaali, Gizem

2011-01-01

In education theory, Bloom's taxonomy is a well-known paradigm to describe domains of learning and levels of competency. In this article I propose a calculus capstone project that is meant to utilize the sixth and arguably the highest level in the cognitive domain, according to Bloom et al.: evaluation. Although one may assume that mathematics is…

1. Instanton calculus of Lifshitz tails

Yaida, Sho

2016-02-01

Some degree of quenched disorder is present in nearly all solids, and can have a marked impact on their macroscopic properties. A manifestation of this effect is the Lifshitz tail of localized states that then gets attached to the energy spectrum, resulting in the nonzero density of states in the band gap. We present here a systematic approach for deriving the asymptotic behavior of the density of states and of the typical shape of the disorder potentials in the Lifshitz tail. The analysis is carried out first for the well-controlled case of noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential and then for a broad class of disordered scale-invariant models—pertinent to a variety of systems ranging from semiconductors to semimetals to quantum critical systems. For relevant Gaussian disorder, we obtain the general expression for the density of states deep in the tail, with the rate of exponential suppression governed by the dynamical exponent and spatial dimensions. For marginally relevant disorder, however, we would expect a power-law scaling. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding conduction in disordered materials.

2. On flipping the classroom in large first year calculus courses

Jungić, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

2015-05-01

Over the course of two years, 2012--2014, we have implemented a 'flipping' the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of both instructors and students.

3. Student Created Calculus Movies Using Computers and the TI-92.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sher, Lawrence; Wilkinson, Patricia

The Mathematics Department at Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) (New York) has been actively involved since 1988 in a serious and successful program to improve instruction, understanding, and retention for women and minority students in calculus courses. One result of this work has been students creating calculus animations using…

4. Modelling the landing of a plane in a calculus lab

Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, José A.

2012-10-01

We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics.

5. Partial Fractions in Calculus, Number Theory, and Algebra

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yackel, C. A.; Denny, J. K.

2007-01-01

This paper explores the development of the method of partial fraction decomposition from elementary number theory through calculus to its abstraction in modern algebra. This unusual perspective makes the topic accessible and relevant to readers from high school through seasoned calculus instructors.

6. Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

2015-01-01

The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

7. Experimental Design: Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

2015-01-01

The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

8. Calculus Instructors' and Students' Discourses on the Derivative

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Park, Jungeun

2011-01-01

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in collegiate mathematics education, especially teaching and learning calculus (e.g., Oehrtman, Carlson, & Thompson, 2008; Speer, Smith, & Horvath, 2010). Of many calculus concepts, the derivative is known as a difficult concept for students to understand because it involves various concepts…

9. An Exploration of Definition and Procedural Fluency in Integral Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grundmeier, Todd A.; Hansen, Jennifer; Sousa, Emily

2006-01-01

A survey was administered to calculus students who had previously been exposed to a course on integral calculus. The purpose of the survey was to explore students' understanding of the definition of a definite integral, their abilities to evaluate definite integrals, and their graphical interpretations of definite integrals. The analysis of…

10. Interrater Agreement on Subgingival Calculus Detection Following Scaling.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pippin, David J.; Feil, Philip

1992-01-01

Two studies investigated interrater agreement among 10 clinical dental examiners who scored residual subgingival calculus after student scaling on 4,160 real and 92 manikin tooth surfaces. Interrater reliability was low. Results suggest a need in periodontics for effective examiner calibration methods and objective subgingival calculus detection…

11. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

2012-01-01

We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

12. Improving Student Success in Calculus at Seattle University

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carter, J. D.; Helliwell, D.; Henrich, Allison; Principe, M.; Sloughter, J. M.

2016-01-01

Finding ways to improve student success in calculus is a critically important step on the path to supporting students who are pursuing degrees in STEM fields. Far too many students fail calculus 1 and are pushed to drop their majors in technical fields. One way of addressing this issue is by following a program that was pioneered at University of…

13. Calculus, Part 3, Student's Text, Unit No. 70. Revised Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beck, A.; And Others

This is part three of a three-part SMSG calculus text for high school students. One of the goals of the text is to present calculus as a mathematical discipline as well as presenting its practical uses. The authors emphasize the importance of being able to interpret the concepts and theory in terms of models to which they apply. The text…

14. Calculus: A Computer Oriented Presentation, Part 1 [and] Part 2.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stenberg, Warren; Walker, Robert J.

Parts one and two of a one-year computer-oriented calculus course (without analytic geometry) are presented. The ideas of calculus are introduced and motivated through computer (i.e., algorithmic) concepts. An introduction to computing via algorithms and a simple flow chart language allows the book to be self-contained, except that material on…

15. Visualization and Students' Performance in Technology-Based Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Galindo, Enrique

The relationship between college students' preferred mode of processing mathematical information--visual or nonvisual--and their performance in calculus classes with and without technology was investigated. Students elected one of three different versions of an introductory differential calculus course: using graphing calculators, using the…

16. Online Homework in Calculus I: Friend or Foe?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Halcrow, Cheryl; Dunnigan, Gerri

2012-01-01

This article describes a quantitative and qualitative assessment from a study done on the possible effectiveness of including an online homework component in first-semester calculus. Two instructors, each teaching two sections of Calculus I, agreed to treat one of their sections as an experimental group and the other as a control group. Students…

17. Restricted diversity of dental calculus methanogens over five centuries, France

PubMed Central

Huynh, Hong T. T.; Nkamga, Vanessa D.; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Pinguet, Romuald; Audoly, Gilles; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

2016-01-01

Methanogens are acknowledged archaeal members of modern dental calculus microbiota and dental pathogen complexes. Their repertoire in ancient dental calculus is poorly known. We therefore investigated archaea in one hundred dental calculus specimens collected from individuals recovered from six archaeological sites in France dated from the 14th to 19th centuries AD. Dental calculus was demonstrated by macroscopic and cone-beam observations. In 56 calculus specimens free of PCR inhibition, PCR sequencing identified Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 in 44.6%, Methanobrevibacter oralis in 19.6%, a new Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis-like methanogen in 12.5%, a Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis-like in one and Methanoculleus bourgensis in one specimen, respectively. One Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 dental calculus was further documented by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The prevalence of dental calculus M. oralis was significantly lower in past populations than in modern populations (P = 0.03, Chi-square test). This investigation revealed a previously unknown repertoire of archaea found in the oral cavity of past French populations as reflected in preserved dental calculus. PMID:27166431

18. Our Experiences with Using Visualization Tools in Teaching Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kowalczyk, Robert E.; Hausknecht, Adam O.

This paper describes two uses of the software package TEMATH (Tools for Exploring Mathematics) with calculus students: (1) as a demonstration tool in the classroom to visually explore with students the many mathematical models introduced in a first year calculus course; and (2) as a part of a lab where students use a set of laboratory explorations…

19. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects for Improving Calculus Readiness

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kay, Robin; Kletskin, Ilona

2010-01-01

Pre-calculus concepts such as working with functions and solving equations are essential for students to explore limits, rates of change, and integrals. Yet many students have a weak understanding of these key concepts which impedes performance in their first year university Calculus course. A series of online learning objects was developed to…

20. Transitioning from Introductory Calculus to Formal Limit Conceptions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nagle, Courtney

2013-01-01

The limit concept is a fundamental mathematical notion both for its practical applications and its importance as a prerequisite for later calculus topics. Past research suggests that limit conceptualizations promoted in introductory calculus are far removed from the formal epsilon-delta definition of limit. In this article, I provide an overview…

1. On Flipping the Classroom in Large First Year Calculus Courses

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

2015-01-01

Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…

2. Effects of Clicker Use on Calculus Students' Mathematics Anxiety

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Batchelor, John

2015-01-01

This paper reports the results of a survey study of clicker use and mathematics anxiety among students enrolled in an undergraduate calculus course during the Fall 2013 semester. Students in two large lecture sections of calculus completed surveys at the beginning and end of the course. One class used clickers, whereas the other class was taught…

3. Improving Student Success in Calculus at Seattle University

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carter, J. D.; Helliwell, D.; Henrich, Allison; Principe, M.; Sloughter, J. M.

2016-01-01

Finding ways to improve student success in calculus is a critically important step on the path to supporting students who are pursuing degrees in STEM fields. Far too many students fail calculus 1 and are pushed to drop their majors in technical fields. One way of addressing this issue is by following a program that was pioneered at University of…

4. Modelling the Landing of a Plane in a Calculus Lab

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morante, Antonio; Vallejo, Jose A.

2012-01-01

We exhibit a simple model of a plane landing that involves only basic concepts of differential calculus, so it is suitable for a first-year calculus lab. We use the computer algebra system Maxima and the interactive geometry software GeoGebra to do the computations and graphics. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

5. Reflections on Our First Calculus Undergraduate Teaching Assistant

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deshler, Jessica M.

2016-01-01

This article describes some reflections from the first Calculus I undergraduate teaching assistant in our department as she explored the various ways in which she was able to support both novice and experienced Calculus teachers and the effect of her experience on her academic and career plans.

6. On Flipping the Classroom in Large First Year Calculus Courses

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

2015-01-01

Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…

7. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

2015-01-01

Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

8. Visual Thinking and Gender Differences in High School Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Chicken, Eric

2012-01-01

This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were…

9. Restricted diversity of dental calculus methanogens over five centuries, France.

PubMed

Huynh, Hong T T; Nkamga, Vanessa D; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Pinguet, Romuald; Audoly, Gilles; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

2016-05-11

Methanogens are acknowledged archaeal members of modern dental calculus microbiota and dental pathogen complexes. Their repertoire in ancient dental calculus is poorly known. We therefore investigated archaea in one hundred dental calculus specimens collected from individuals recovered from six archaeological sites in France dated from the 14(th) to 19(th) centuries AD. Dental calculus was demonstrated by macroscopic and cone-beam observations. In 56 calculus specimens free of PCR inhibition, PCR sequencing identified Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 in 44.6%, Methanobrevibacter oralis in 19.6%, a new Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis-like methanogen in 12.5%, a Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis-like in one and Methanoculleus bourgensis in one specimen, respectively. One Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 dental calculus was further documented by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The prevalence of dental calculus M. oralis was significantly lower in past populations than in modern populations (P = 0.03, Chi-square test). This investigation revealed a previously unknown repertoire of archaea found in the oral cavity of past French populations as reflected in preserved dental calculus.

10. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects for Improving Calculus Readiness

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kay, Robin; Kletskin, Ilona

2010-01-01

Pre-calculus concepts such as working with functions and solving equations are essential for students to explore limits, rates of change, and integrals. Yet many students have a weak understanding of these key concepts which impedes performance in their first year university Calculus course. A series of online learning objects was developed to…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marrongelle, Karen A.

2004-01-01

The present research study investigates how undergraduate students in an integrated calculus and physics class use physics to help them solve calculus problems. Using Zandieh's (2000) framework for analyzing student understanding of derivative as a starting point, this study adds detail to her "paradigmatic physical" context and begins to address…

12. The Use of Technology and Visualization in Calculus Instruction

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samuels, Jason

2010-01-01

This study was inspired by a history of student difficulties in calculus, and innovation in response to those difficulties. The goals of the study were fourfold. First, to design a mathlet for students to explore local linearity. Second, to redesign the curriculum of first semester calculus around the use of technology, an emphasis on…

13. Partial Fractions in Calculus, Number Theory, and Algebra

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yackel, C. A.; Denny, J. K.

2007-01-01

This paper explores the development of the method of partial fraction decomposition from elementary number theory through calculus to its abstraction in modern algebra. This unusual perspective makes the topic accessible and relevant to readers from high school through seasoned calculus instructors.

14. Calculus Students' Early Concept Images of Tangent Lines

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

2015-01-01

This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and…

15. An Evaluation of Reform in the Teaching of Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cadena, Juan; Travis, Betty; Norman, Sandy

2003-01-01

Addresses the assertion that the teaching of calculus using reform techniques puts students at a disadvantage when they must take subsequent math or science courses that are not instructed using the reform techniques. Answers the question of whether one method of instruction in calculus is better than another with regard to students' grades in…

16. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

2016-01-01

Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

17. Calculus Students' Early Concept Images of Tangent Lines

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

2015-01-01

This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and…

18. Calculus detection for ultrasonography using decorrelation of forward scattered wave.

PubMed

Taki, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Toru

2010-07-01

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel strategy to detect small calculi efficiently. The proposed calculus detection strategy focuses on decorrelation of forward scattered waves caused by the failure of Born's approximation. A calculus causes waveform changes of transmit pulses, resulting in a decrease in the cross-correlation coefficients calculated from IQ signals scattered near the calculus position. Therefore, we can detect calculi from the appearance of dips in correlation coefficients. When a calculus exists in a digital tissue map, sharp and deep dips in cross-correlation coefficients between acoustic IQ signals appear around the calculus. By contrast, no apparent dip exists when a tissue map contains no calculus. A scan line interval of 0.2 mm or less is appropriate for the conditions simulated in this paper, and the proper transmit focal range for the proposed method is at a calculus range. These results imply that the proposed strategy can improve the efficiency of US devices for small calculus detection.

19. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS. A TENTATIVE CURRICULUM GUIDE.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BRANT, VINCENT; GERARDI, WILLIAM

A GUIDE FOR A 1-YEAR COURSE IN DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS PREREQUISITED KNOWLEDGE IN ALGEBRA, ANALYTIC TRIGONOMETRY, AND ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS. EACH ASSIGNMENT CONTAINED BOTH NEW AND REVIEW WORK TO REINFORCE THE NEW WORK. THERE WERE ELEVEN UNITS OF STUDY USING THE FOLLOWING FOUR BOOKS--"CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY, THIRD…

20. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

2016-01-01

Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

1. Calculus Reform and Graphing Calculators: A University View.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stick, Marvin E.

1997-01-01

Describes the results of a teacher's exploration of the effects of using graphing calculators in calculus instruction in sections other than those that are experimental. Two experimental and two traditional sections of Calculus I and II participated in the study. (DDR)

2. Visual Thinking and Gender Differences in High School Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk; Chicken, Eric

2012-01-01

This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were…

3. Effects of Clicker Use on Calculus Students' Mathematics Anxiety

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Batchelor, John

2015-01-01

This paper reports the results of a survey study of clicker use and mathematics anxiety among students enrolled in an undergraduate calculus course during the Fall 2013 semester. Students in two large lecture sections of calculus completed surveys at the beginning and end of the course. One class used clickers, whereas the other class was taught…

4. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

2015-01-01

Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

5. An Exploration of Definition and Procedural Fluency in Integral Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grundmeier, Todd A.; Hansen, Jennifer; Sousa, Emily

2006-01-01

A survey was administered to calculus students who had previously been exposed to a course on integral calculus. The purpose of the survey was to explore students' understanding of the definition of a definite integral, their abilities to evaluate definite integrals, and their graphical interpretations of definite integrals. The analysis of…

6. Denoising Medical Images using Calculus of Variations.

PubMed

Kohan, Mahdi Nakhaie; Behnam, Hamid

2011-07-01

We propose a method for medical image denoising using calculus of variations and local variance estimation by shaped windows. This method reduces any additive noise and preserves small patterns and edges of images. A pyramid structure-texture decomposition of images is used to separate noise and texture components based on local variance measures. The experimental results show that the proposed method has visual improvement as well as a better SNR, RMSE and PSNR than common medical image denoising methods. Experimental results in denoising a sample Magnetic Resonance image show that SNR, PSNR and RMSE have been improved by 19, 9 and 21 percents respectively.

7. Operator calculus for information field theory

Leike, Reimar H.; Enßlin, Torsten A.

2016-11-01

Signal inference problems with non-Gaussian posteriors can be hard to tackle. Through using the concept of Gibbs free energy these posteriors are rephrased as Gaussian posteriors for the price of computing various expectation values with respect to a Gaussian distribution. We present a way of translating these expectation values to a language of operators which is similar to that in quantum mechanics. This simplifies many calculations, for instance such as those involving log-normal priors. The operator calculus is illustrated by deriving a self-calibrating algorithm which is tested with mock data.

8. Operator calculus for information field theory.

PubMed

Leike, Reimar H; Enßlin, Torsten A

2016-11-01

Signal inference problems with non-Gaussian posteriors can be hard to tackle. Through using the concept of Gibbs free energy these posteriors are rephrased as Gaussian posteriors for the price of computing various expectation values with respect to a Gaussian distribution. We present a way of translating these expectation values to a language of operators which is similar to that in quantum mechanics. This simplifies many calculations, for instance such as those involving log-normal priors. The operator calculus is illustrated by deriving a self-calibrating algorithm which is tested with mock data.

9. The Calculus of Responsibility and Commitment

Pollard, Carl

Ever since Montague (1974 [1970]) laid the foundations for formally precise analysis of natural language (hereafter NL) semantics in the late 1960's, the typed lambda calculus (hereafter TLC) and certain of its extensions have been the linguists' tool of choice for representing the meanings of NL expressions. But starting around the turn of the millenium, motivated by a range of linguistic phenomena collectively known as covert movement phenomena, logical grammarians of various persuasions have proposed the use of other semantic term calculi that embody, directly or indirectly, some notion or other of continuation.

10. Algorithmic Differentiation for Calculus-based Optimization

Walther, Andrea

2010-10-01

For numerous applications, the computation and provision of exact derivative information plays an important role for optimizing the considered system but quite often also for its simulation. This presentation introduces the technique of Algorithmic Differentiation (AD), a method to compute derivatives of arbitrary order within working precision. Quite often an additional structure exploitation is indispensable for a successful coupling of these derivatives with state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. The talk will discuss two important situations where the problem-inherent structure allows a calculus-based optimization. Examples from aerodynamics and nano optics illustrate these advanced optimization approaches.

11. Perception, knowledge, and use by general practitioners of Belgium of a new WHO tool (FRAX) to assess the 10-year probability of fracture.

PubMed

Bruyère, O; Nicolet, D; Compère, S; Rabenda, V; Jeholet, P; Zegels, B; Maassen, P; Pire, G; Reginster, J Y

2013-04-01

The FRAX tool that calculates the 10-year probability of having a fracture has recently been validated for Belgium. Little is known about the perception and knowledge that GPs have about this tool in their daily practice. A survey has been conducted as part of a screening campaign for various diseases. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the perception and the knowledge of the FRAX tool by GPs. The secondary objective was to assess the impact of an information brochure about the FRAX tool on these outcomes. The survey was sent to a sample of 700 GPs after only half of them had received the information brochure. The survey results show that, out of the 193 doctors who responded to the survey, one-third know the FRAX tool but less than 20 % use it in their daily clinical practice. Among those who use it, the FRAX tool is largely seen as a complementary but not as an essential tool in the diagnosis or in the management of osteoporosis. It appears that the brochure could improve the knowledge of the FRAX tool but it would not be more efficient on its use in daily practice than the other sources of information. At present, the use of the FRAX tool in Belgium is limited but an information brochure could have a positive impact on the knowledge of the FRAX tool.

12. The calculus of committee composition.

PubMed

Libby, Eric; Glass, Leon

2010-09-17

Modern institutions face the recurring dilemma of designing accurate evaluation procedures in settings as diverse as academic selection committees, social policies, elections, and figure skating competitions. In particular, it is essential to determine both the number of evaluators and the method for combining their judgments. Previous work has focused on the latter issue, uncovering paradoxes that underscore the inherent difficulties. Yet the number of judges is an important consideration that is intimately connected with the methodology and the success of the evaluation. We address the question of the number of judges through a cost analysis that incorporates the accuracy of the evaluation method, the cost per judge, and the cost of an error in decision. We associate the optimal number of judges with the lowest cost and determine the optimal number of judges in several different scenarios. Through analytical and numerical studies, we show how the optimal number depends on the evaluation rule, the accuracy of the judges, the (cost per judge)/(cost per error) ratio. Paradoxically, we find that for a panel of judges of equal accuracy, the optimal panel size may be greater for judges with higher accuracy than for judges with lower accuracy. The development of any evaluation procedure requires knowledge about the accuracy of evaluation methods, the costs of judges, and the costs of errors. By determining the optimal number of judges, we highlight important connections between these quantities and uncover a paradox that we show to be a general feature of evaluation procedures. Ultimately, our work provides policy-makers with a simple and novel method to optimize evaluation procedures.

13. Linear positivity and virtual probability

Hartle, James B.

2004-08-01

We investigate the quantum theory of closed systems based on the linear positivity decoherence condition of Goldstein and Page. The objective of any quantum theory of a closed system, most generally the universe, is the prediction of probabilities for the individual members of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories of the system. Quantum interference between members of a set of alternative histories is an obstacle to assigning probabilities that are consistent with the rules of probability theory. A quantum theory of closed systems therefore requires two elements: (1) a condition specifying which sets of histories may be assigned probabilities and (2) a rule for those probabilities. The linear positivity condition of Goldstein and Page is the weakest of the general conditions proposed so far. Its general properties relating to exact probability sum rules, time neutrality, and conservation laws are explored. Its inconsistency with the usual notion of independent subsystems in quantum mechanics is reviewed. Its relation to the stronger condition of medium decoherence necessary for classicality is discussed. The linear positivity of histories in a number of simple model systems is investigated with the aim of exhibiting linearly positive sets of histories that are not decoherent. The utility of extending the notion of probability to include values outside the range of 0-1 is described. Alternatives with such virtual probabilities cannot be measured or recorded, but can be used in the intermediate steps of calculations of real probabilities. Extended probabilities give a simple and general way of formulating quantum theory. The various decoherence conditions are compared in terms of their utility for characterizing classicality and the role they might play in further generalizations of quantum mechanics.

14. The ZX-calculus is complete for stabilizer quantum mechanics

Backens, Miriam

2014-09-01

The ZX-calculus is a graphical calculus for reasoning about quantum systems and processes. It is known to be universal for pure state qubit quantum mechanics (QM), meaning any pure state, unitary operation and post-selected pure projective measurement can be expressed in the ZX-calculus. The calculus is also sound, i.e. any equality that can be derived graphically can also be derived using matrix mechanics. Here, we show that the ZX-calculus is complete for pure qubit stabilizer QM, meaning any equality that can be derived using matrices can also be derived pictorially. The proof relies on bringing diagrams into a normal form based on graph states and local Clifford operations.

15. Calculus detection technologies: where do we stand now?

PubMed

Archana, V

2014-01-01

Epidemiological studies have implicated dental calculus as an ideal substrate for subgingival microbial colonization. Therefore, the main objective of periodontal therapy is to eliminate the microbial biofilm along with the calculus deposits from the root surface by root surface debridement. Over the past years, a large number of clinical and laboratory studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calculus removal by various methods. None of these conventional methods or devices was effective in completely eliminating all the calculus from the diseased root surfaces. In this context, a number of newer technologies have been developed to identify and selectively remove the dental calculus. Regarding this fact, the present article highlights a critical review of these devices based on published clinical and experimental data.

16. Calculus detection technologies: where do we stand now?

PubMed Central

Archana, V

2014-01-01

Epidemiological studies have implicated dental calculus as an ideal substrate for subgingival microbial colonization. Therefore, the main objective of periodontal therapy is to eliminate the microbial biofilm along with the calculus deposits from the root surface by root surface debridement. Over the past years, a large number of clinical and laboratory studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calculus removal by various methods. None of these conventional methods or devices was effective in completely eliminating all the calculus from the diseased root surfaces. In this context, a number of newer technologies have been developed to identify and selectively remove the dental calculus. Regarding this fact, the present article highlights a critical review of these devices based on published clinical and experimental data. PMID:25870667

17. A comparison of entropy balance and probability weighting methods to generalize observational cohorts to a population: a simulation and empirical example.

PubMed

Harvey, Raymond A; Hayden, Jennifer D; Kamble, Pravin S; Bouchard, Jonathan R; Huang, Joanna C

2017-04-01

We compared methods to control bias and confounding in observational studies including inverse probability weighting (IPW) and stabilized IPW (sIPW). These methods often require iteration and post-calibration to achieve covariate balance. In comparison, entropy balance (EB) optimizes covariate balance a priori by calibrating weights using the target's moments as constraints. We measured covariate balance empirically and by simulation by using absolute standardized mean difference (ASMD), absolute bias (AB), and root mean square error (RMSE), investigating two scenarios: the size of the observed (exposed) cohort exceeds the target (unexposed) cohort and vice versa. The empirical application weighted a commercial health plan cohort to a nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey target on the same covariates and compared average total health care cost estimates across methods. Entropy balance alone achieved balance (ASMD ≤ 0.10) on all covariates in simulation and empirically. In simulation scenario I, EB achieved the lowest AB and RMSE (13.64, 31.19) compared with IPW (263.05, 263.99) and sIPW (319.91, 320.71). In scenario II, EB outperformed IPW and sIPW with smaller AB and RMSE. In scenarios I and II, EB achieved the lowest mean estimate difference from the simulated population outcome (\$490.05, \$487.62) compared with IPW and sIPW, respectively. Empirically, only EB differed from the unweighted mean cost indicating IPW, and sIPW weighting was ineffective. Entropy balance demonstrated the bias-variance tradeoff achieving higher estimate accuracy, yet lower estimate precision, compared with IPW methods. EB weighting required no post-processing and effectively mitigated observed bias and confounding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

18. Canonical differential calculus on quantum general linear groups and supergroups

Sudbery, A.

1992-06-01

We specify a set of relations between non-commuting matrix elements and their differentials, defined in terms of an R-matrix satisfying the braid relation, which are uniquely determined by the requirements of consistency with the relations between non-commuting coordinates and their differentials. We also give a necessary condition for the existence of a matrix inverse (antipode) in the form of an additional equation to be satisfied by the R-matrix.

19. Understanding Calculus beyond Computations: A Descriptive Study of the Parallel Meanings and Expectations of Teachers and Users of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ferguson, Leann J.

2012-01-01

Calculus is an important tool for building mathematical models of the world around us and is thus used in a variety of disciplines, such as physics and engineering. These disciplines rely on calculus courses to provide the mathematical foundation needed for success in their courses. Unfortunately, due to the basal conceptions of what it means to…

20. The Problem of University Courses on Infinitesimal Calculus and Their Demarcation from Infinitesimal Calculus in High Schools - ERRATUM.

PubMed

Toeplitz, Otto

2016-12-01

In the above mentioned article [1] unfortunately the names of the translators of Toeplitz's lecture were omitted. The correct title is: The Problem of University Courses on Infinitesimal Calculus and Their Demarcation from Infinitesimal Calculus in High Schools Otto Toeplitz Translated into English by Michael N. Fried and Hans Niels Jahnke.

1. Understanding Calculus beyond Computations: A Descriptive Study of the Parallel Meanings and Expectations of Teachers and Users of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ferguson, Leann J.

2012-01-01

Calculus is an important tool for building mathematical models of the world around us and is thus used in a variety of disciplines, such as physics and engineering. These disciplines rely on calculus courses to provide the mathematical foundation needed for success in their courses. Unfortunately, due to the basal conceptions of what it means to…

2. Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states

SciTech Connect

Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van

2011-04-15

We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.

3. A Calculus for Boxes and Traits in a Java-Like Setting

Bettini, Lorenzo; Damiani, Ferruccio; de Luca, Marco; Geilmann, Kathrin; Schäfer, Jan

The box model is a component model for the object-oriented paradigm, that defines components (the boxes) with clear encapsulation boundaries. Having well-defined boundaries is crucial in component-based software development, because it enables to argue about the interference and interaction between a component and its context. In general, boxes contain several objects and inner boxes, of which some are local to the box and cannot be accessed from other boxes and some can be accessible by other boxes. A trait is a set of methods divorced from any class hierarchy. Traits can be composed together to form classes or other traits. We present a calculus for boxes and traits. Traits are units of fine-grained reuse, whereas boxes can be seen as units of coarse-grained reuse. The calculus is equipped with an ownership type system and allows us to combine coarse- and fine-grained reuse of code by maintaining encapsulation of components.

4. Approximate inference on planar graphs using loop calculus and belief progagation

SciTech Connect

Chertkov, Michael; Gomez, Vicenc; Kappen, Hilbert

2009-01-01

We introduce novel results for approximate inference on planar graphical models using the loop calculus framework. The loop calculus (Chertkov and Chernyak, 2006b) allows to express the exact partition function Z of a graphical model as a finite sum of terms that can be evaluated once the belief propagation (BP) solution is known. In general, full summation over all correction terms is intractable. We develop an algorithm for the approach presented in Chertkov et al. (2008) which represents an efficient truncation scheme on planar graphs and a new representation of the series in terms of Pfaffians of matrices. We analyze in detail both the loop series and the Pfaffian series for models with binary variables and pairwise interactions, and show that the first term of the Pfaffian series can provide very accurate approximations. The algorithm outperforms previous truncation schemes of the loop series and is competitive with other state-of-the-art methods for approximate inference.

5. Vortex Images, q-Calculus and Entangled Coherent States

Pashaev, Oktay K.

2012-02-01

The two circles theorem for hydrodynamic flow in annular domain bounded by two concentric circles is derived. Complex potential and velocity of the flow are represented as q-periodic functions and rewritten in terms of the Jackson q-integral. This theorem generalizes the Milne-Thomson one circle theorem and reduces to the last on in the limit q → ∞. By this theorem problem of vortex images in annular domain between coaxial cylinders is solved in terms of q-elementary functions. An infinite set of images, as symmetric points under two circles, is determined completely by poles of the q-logarithmic function, where dimensionless parameter q = r22/r21 is given by square ratio of the cylinder radii. Motivated by Möbius transformation for symmetrical points under generalized circle in complex plain, the system of symmetric spin coherent states corresponding to antipodal qubit states is introduced. By these states we construct the maximally entangled orthonormal two qubit spin coherent state basis, in the limiting case reducible to the Bell basis. Average energy of XYZ model in these states, describing finite localized structure with characteristic extremum points, appears as an energy surface in maximally entangled two qubit space. Generalizations to three and higher multiple qubits are found. We show that our entangled N qubit states are determined by set of complex Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials and corresponding Binet-Fibonacci q-calculus.

6. A random matrix/transition state theory for the probability distribution of state-specific unimolecular decay rates: Generalization to include total angular momentum conservation and other dynamical symmetries

SciTech Connect

Hernandez, R.; Miller, W.H.; Moore, C.B. ); Polik, W.F. )

1993-07-15

A previously developed random matrix/transition state theory (RM/TST) model for the probability distribution of state-specific unimolecular decay rates has been generalized to incorporate total angular momentum conservation and other dynamical symmetries. The model is made into a predictive theory by using a semiclassical method to determine the transmission probabilities of a nonseparable rovibrational Hamiltonian at the transition state. The overall theory gives a good description of the state-specific rates for the D[sub 2]CO[r arrow]D[sub 2]+CO unimolecular decay; in particular, it describes the dependence of the distribution of rates on total angular momentum [ital J]. Comparison of the experimental values with results of the RM/TST theory suggests that there is mixing among the rovibrational states.

7. Effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on dental calculus formation in dogs.

PubMed

Stookey, G K; Warrick, J M; Miller, L L

1995-07-01

A series of studies was conducted to identify a practical measure for preventing dental calculus formation in dogs. The studies involved a colony of 27 Beagles that received an initial dental prophylaxis. The dogs were then stratified on the basis of their normal rate of calculus formation and randomly assigned to parallel groups within each strata. During 4-week test periods, a variety of experimental regimens were instituted, followed by clinical assessments of calculus. Major observations were that a crystal growth inhibitor, soluble pyrophosphate, incorporated into a dry dog food modestly reduced calculus formation when used at high concentration; anticalculus effects attributable to this agent were significant (P < 0.05) only when it was used as a surface coating; the coating of dry dog chow or plain biscuits with a calcium sequestrant, sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP), provided the greatest benefit and resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reductions in calculus formation of about 60 to 80%, depending on the dosage regimen; and the feeding of a single daily snack of 2 HMP-coated plain biscuits (0.6% HMP) decreased calculus formation by nearly 80%. We concluded that the coating of dry dog chow or plain dog biscuits with HMP is an effective means of reducing calculus formation in dogs.

8. Pulsed laser ablation of dental calculus in the near ultraviolet.

PubMed

Schoenly, Joshua E; Seka, Wolf; Rechmann, Peter

2014-02-01

Pulsed lasers emitting wavelengths near 400 nm can selectively ablate dental calculus without damaging underlying and surrounding sound dental hard tissue. Our results indicate that calculus ablation at this wavelength relies on the absorption of porphyrins endogenous to oral bacteria commonly found in calculus. Sub- and supragingival calculus on extracted human teeth, irradiated with 400-nm, 60-ns laser pulses at ≤8  J/cm2, exhibits a photobleached surface layer. Blue-light microscopy indicates this layer highly scatters 400-nm photons, whereas fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that bacterial porphyrins are permanently photobleached. A modified blow-off model for ablation is proposed that is based upon these observations and also reproduces our calculus ablation rates measured from laser profilometry. Tissue scattering and a stratified layering of absorbers within the calculus medium explain the gradual decrease in ablation rate from successive pulses. Depending on the calculus thickness, ablation stalling may occur at <5  J/cm2 but has not been observed above this fluence.

9. Miniature endoscopic optical coherence tomography for calculus detection.

PubMed

Kao, Meng-Chun; Lin, Chun-Li; Kung, Che-Yen; Huang, Yi-Fung; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

2015-08-20

The effective treatment of periodontitis involves the detection and removal of subgingival dental calculus. However, subgingival calculus is more difficult to detect than supragingival calculus because it is firmly attached to root surfaces within periodontal pockets. To achieve a smooth root surface, clinicians often remove excessive amounts of root structure because of decreased visibility. In addition, enamel pearl, a rare type of ectopic enamel formation on the root surface, can easily be confused with dental calculus in the subgingival environment. In this study, we developed a fiber-probe swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) technique and combined it with the quantitative measurement of an optical parameter [standard deviation (SD) of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity] to differentiate subgingival calculus from sound enamel, including enamel pearl. Two-dimensional circumferential images were constructed by rotating the miniprobe (0.9 mm diameter) while acquiring image lines, and the adjacent lines in each rotation were stacked to generate a three-dimensional volume. In OCT images, compared to sound enamel and enamel pearls, dental calculus showed significant differences (P<0.001) in SD values. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curve had a high capacity (area under the curve=0.934) for discriminating between healthy regions (including enamel pearl) and dental calculus.

10. Visual thinking and gender differences in high school calculus

Selcuk Haciomeroglu, Erhan; Chicken, Eric

2012-04-01

This study sought to examine calculus students' mathematical performances and preferences for visual or analytic thinking regarding derivative and antiderivative tasks presented graphically. It extends previous studies by investigating factors mediating calculus students' mathematical performances and their preferred modes of thinking. Data were collected from 183 Advanced Placement calculus students in five high schools. Students' visual preferences were not influenced by gender. Statistically significant differences in visual preference scores were found among high- and low-performing students. Thus, the results suggest that stronger preference for visual thinking was associated with higher mathematical performances.

11. Regge calculus models of closed lattice universes

Liu, Rex G.; Williams, Ruth M.

2016-01-01

This paper examines the behavior of closed "lattice universes" wherein masses are distributed in a regular lattice on the Cauchy surfaces of closed vacuum universes. Such universes are approximated using a form of Regge calculus originally developed by Collins and Williams to model closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes. We consider two types of lattice universes, one where all masses are identical to each other and another where one mass gets perturbed in magnitude. In the unperturbed universe, we consider the possible arrangements of the masses in the Regge Cauchy surfaces and demonstrate that the model will only be stable if each mass lies within some spherical region of convergence. We also briefly discuss the existence of Regge models that are dual to the ones we have considered. We then model a perturbed lattice universe and demonstrate that the model's evolution is well behaved, with the expansion increasing in magnitude as the perturbation is increased.

12. Emphysematous pyelonephritis with calculus: Management strategies

PubMed Central

Goel, Tanmaya; Reddy, Sreedhar; Thomas, Joseph

2007-01-01

Objective: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) with calculus is well recognized but with very few reports on its treatment. Our aim is to elucidate our experience in its successful management. Materials and Methods: Over four years, we diagnosed seven cases (eight renal units) of EPN, out of which two patients (three renal units) had EPN with urinary calculi. After the initial conservative management of EPN, the stones were tackled appropriately. Results: EPN was initially managed effectively with antibiotics and supportive care. Once the patient was stable, the stones were cleared in a step-wise fashion. The associated postoperative complications were also tackled efficiently with preservation of renal function. Conclusion: In EPN with stones, nephrectomy is not the sole option available and they can be effectively managed with open / endoscopic measures. PMID:19718324

13. Probability 1/e

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.

2011-01-01

Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

14. Probability 1/e

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.

2011-01-01

Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

15. Improving Student Success in Calculus: A Comparison of Four College Calculus Classes

Bagley, Spencer Franklin

The quality of education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is an issue of particular educational and economic importance, and Calculus I is a linchpin course in STEM major tracks. A national study is currently being conducted examining the characteristics of successful programs in college calculus (CSPCC, 2012). In work related to the CSPCC program, this study examines the effects on student outcomes of four different teaching strategies used at a single institution. The four classes were a traditional lecture, a lecture with discussion, a lecture incorporating both discussion and technology, and an inverted model. This dissertation was guided by three questions: (1) What impact do these four instructional approaches have on students' persistence, beliefs about mathematics, and conceptual and procedural achievement in calculus? (2) How do students at the local institution compare to students in the national database? And (3) How do the similarities and differences in opportunities for learning presented in the four classes contribute to the similarities and differences in student outcomes? Quantitative analysis of surveys and exams revealed few statistically significant differences in outcomes, and students in the inverted classroom often had poorer outcomes than those in other classes. Students in the technology-enhanced class scored higher on conceptual items on the final exam than those in other classes. Comparing to the national database, local students had similar switching rates but less expert-like attitudes and beliefs about mathematics than the national average. Qualitative analysis of focus group interviews, classroom observations, and student course evaluations showed that several implementation issues, some the result of pragmatic constraints, others the result of design choice, weakened affordances provided by innovative features and shrunk the differences between classes. There were substantial differences between the

16. Subjective pain perception during calculus detection with use of a periodontal endoscope.

PubMed

Poppe, Kjersta; Blue, Christine

2014-04-01

Periodontal endoscopes are relatively new to the dental field. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of pain reported by subjects with periodontal disease after experiencing the use of a periodontal endoscope compared with the use of a periodontal probe during calculus detection. A total of 30 subjects with at least 4 sites of 5 to 8 mm pocket depths were treated with scaling and root planing therapy in a split-mouth design. The 2 quadrants were randomly assigned to either S/RP with tactile determination of calculus using an 11/12 explorer, or S/RP treatment with endoscopic detection of calculus. Each subject's pain experience was determined by via a Heft-Parker Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), which measured perceived pain level during periodontal probing and during subgingival visualization via endoscopy. Since subjects expressing some level of dental anxiety generally express increased levels of pain, a pre-treatment survey was also given to determine each subject's level of dental anxiety in order to eliminate dental anxiety as a confounding factor in determining the expressed level of pain. The level of perceived pain was significantly lower with the periodontal endoscope versus the probe (mean VAS 33.0 mm versus 60.2 mm, p<0.0001). Subjects who indicated some level of dental anxiety did express increased pain levels, but these levels were not statistically significant. Subjects did not find the periodontal endoscope to elicit significant anxiety or pain during subgingival visualization.

17. Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zobitz, John

2013-01-01

Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.

18. A transition calculus for Boolean functions. [logic circuit analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, J. H.; Bennett, A. W.

1974-01-01

A transition calculus is presented for analyzing the effect of input changes on the output of logic circuits. The method is closely related to the Boolean difference, but it is more powerful. Both differentiation and integration are considered.

19. Spontaneous bladder rupture caused by a giant vesical calculus.

PubMed

Kaur, Navneet; Attam, Amit; Gupta, Ashish; Amratash

2006-01-01

Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder is an uncommon occurrence. A 36-year-old man had complaints of pain and progressive distension of abdomen and anuria for 2 days. His abdomen was tense, tender and distended with free fluid. Blood urea was 340 mg% and ascitic fluid urea was 337 mg%. An USG showed massive ascitis, a large vesical calculus and a left renal calculus. The urinary bladder could not be catheterized. Patient underwent hemodialysis and placement of abdominal drains. About 2 l of yellow turbid fluid was drained. Cystolithotomy showed a 6 cm size impacted calculus with a rent in the dome of the bladder, which was repaired. Subsequently patient underwent percutaneous nephrolithotrypsy for left staghorn renal calculus and nephrectomy for right non-functioning kidney.

20. A transition calculus for Boolean functions. [logic circuit analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, J. H.; Bennett, A. W.

1974-01-01

A transition calculus is presented for analyzing the effect of input changes on the output of logic circuits. The method is closely related to the Boolean difference, but it is more powerful. Both differentiation and integration are considered.

1. Teacher-Controlled Programs for Demonstrating Concepts in Calculus.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hativa, Nira; Barall, Michael

1984-01-01

Describes the principles underlying computer programs designed to improve undergraduate calculus instruction. The programs were produced for teacher use on a single microcomputer for when there are not enough microcomputers available to allow students to have access to them. (JN)

2. Student understanding of calculus within physics and mathematics classrooms

Christensen, Warren; Thompson, John

2010-03-01

The earliest results in Physics Education Research demonstrated the challenges facing students in understanding the graphical interpretations of slope, derivative, and area under curves in the context of kinematics. As part of ongoing research on mathematical challenges that may underlie documented physics difficulties, we developed and administered a brief survey on single- and multivariable calculus concepts to students within physics and mathematics classrooms at both the introductory and advanced levels. Initial findings among students in multivariable calculus show that as many as one in five students encounter some type of difficulty when asked to rank the slopes at five different points along a single path. We will present further data on the extent to which students in a first semester calculus course and an introductory calculus-based physics course encounter similar challenges.

3. Ants, Tunnels, and Calculus: An Exercise in Mathematical Modeling.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winkel, Brian J.

1994-01-01

Discusses an activity which models the building of a tunnel by ants using the definitions of derivative and indefinite integral from calculus. Includes a discussion of reasonableness and interpretation of the problem. (MKR)

4. Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zobitz, John

2013-01-01

Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.

5. Using `min' and `max' functions in calculus teaching

Satianov, Pavel; Dagan, Miriam; Amram, Meirav

2015-08-01

In this paper, we discuss the use of the min and max functions in teaching calculus to engineering students. Our experience illustrates that such functions have great possibilities in the development of a student's analytical thinking. The types of problems we present here are not common in most instructional texts, which lead us to suggest that the paper will be interesting and useful to calculus lecturers.

6. Dental Calculus and the Evolution of the Human Oral Microbiome.

PubMed

Warinner, Christina

2016-07-01

Characterizing the evolution of the oral microbiome is a challenging, but increasingly feasible, task. Recently, dental calculus has been shown to preserve ancient biomolecules from the oral microbiota, host tissues and diet for tens of thousands of years. As such, it provides a unique window into the ancestral oral microbiome. This article reviews recent advancements in ancient dental calculus research and emerging insights into the evolution and ecology of the human oral microbiome.

7. Geometric constrained variational calculus. II: The second variation (Part I)

Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

2016-10-01

Within the geometrical framework developed in [Geometric constrained variational calculus. I: Piecewise smooth extremals, Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12 (2015) 1550061], the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional, based on a suitable gauge transformation of the Lagrangian, is explicitly worked out. Both necessary and sufficient conditions for minimality are proved, and reinterpreted in terms of Jacobi fields.

8. College Readiness: The Evaluation of Students Participating in the Historically Black College and University Program in Pre-Calculus and the Calculus Sequence

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hall, Angela Renee

2011-01-01

This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…

9. College Readiness: The Evaluation of Students Participating in the Historically Black College and University Program in Pre-Calculus and the Calculus Sequence

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hall, Angela Renee

2011-01-01

This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…

10. The relationship between species detection probability and local extinction probability

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alpizar-Jara, R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Rosenberry, C.S.

2004-01-01

In community-level ecological studies, generally not all species present in sampled areas are detected. Many authors have proposed the use of estimation methods that allow detection probabilities that are <1 and that are heterogeneous among species. These methods can also be used to estimate community-dynamic parameters such as species local extinction probability and turnover rates (Nichols et al. Ecol Appl 8:1213-1225; Conserv Biol 12:1390-1398). Here, we present an ad hoc approach to estimating community-level vital rates in the presence of joint heterogeneity of detection probabilities and vital rates. The method consists of partitioning the number of species into two groups using the detection frequencies and then estimating vital rates (e.g., local extinction probabilities) for each group. Estimators from each group are combined in a weighted estimator of vital rates that accounts for the effect of heterogeneity. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we computed such estimates and tested the hypothesis that detection probabilities and local extinction probabilities were negatively related. Our analyses support the hypothesis that species detection probability covaries negatively with local probability of extinction and turnover rates. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of vital parameter estimators as well as other estimators relevant to questions about heterogeneity, such as coefficient of variation of detection probabilities and proportion of species in each group. Both the weighted estimator suggested in this paper and the original unweighted estimator for local extinction probability performed fairly well and provided no basis for preferring one to the other.

11. The relationship between species detection probability and local extinction probability

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alpizar-Jara, R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Rosenberry, C.S.

2004-01-01

In community-level ecological studies, generally not all species present in sampled areas are detected. Many authors have proposed the use of estimation methods that allow detection probabilities that are < 1 and that are heterogeneous among species. These methods can also be used to estimate community-dynamic parameters such as species local extinction probability and turnover rates (Nichols et al. Ecol Appl 8:1213-1225; Conserv Biol 12:1390-1398). Here, we present an ad hoc approach to estimating community-level vital rates in the presence of joint heterogeneity of detection probabilities and vital rates. The method consists of partitioning the number of species into two groups using the detection frequencies and then estimating vital rates (e.g., local extinction probabilities) for each group. Estimators from each group are combined in a weighted estimator of vital rates that accounts for the effect of heterogeneity. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we computed such estimates and tested the hypothesis that detection probabilities and local extinction probabilities were negatively related. Our analyses support the hypothesis that species detection probability covaries negatively with local probability of extinction and turnover rates. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of vital parameter estimators as well as other estimators relevant to questions about heterogeneity, such as coefficient of variation of detection probabilities and proportion of species in each group. Both the weighted estimator suggested in this paper and the original unweighted estimator for local extinction probability performed fairly well and provided no basis for preferring one to the other.

12. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.

PubMed

Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

2015-01-01

Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

13. Definition of the Neutrosophic Probability

Smarandache, Florentin

2014-03-01

Neutrosophic probability (or likelihood) [1995] is a particular case of the neutrosophic measure. It is an estimation of an event (different from indeterminacy) to occur, together with an estimation that some indeterminacy may occur, and the estimation that the event does not occur. The classical probability deals with fair dice, coins, roulettes, spinners, decks of cards, random works, while neutrosophic probability deals with unfair, imperfect such objects and processes. For example, if we toss a regular die on an irregular surface which has cracks, then it is possible to get the die stuck on one of its edges or vertices in a crack (indeterminate outcome). The sample space is in this case: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, indeterminacy}. So, the probability of getting, for example 1, is less than 1/6. Since there are seven outcomes. The neutrosophic probability is a generalization of the classical probability because, when the chance of determinacy of a stochastic process is zero, these two probabilities coincide. The Neutrosophic Probability that of an event A occurs is NP (A) = (ch (A) , ch (indetA) , ch (A ̲)) = (T , I , F) , where T , I , F are subsets of [0,1], and T is the chance that A occurs, denoted ch(A); I is the indeterminate chance related to A, ch(indetermA) ; and F is the chance that A does not occur, ch (A ̲) . So, NP is a generalization of the Imprecise Probability as well. If T, I, and F are crisp numbers then: - 0 <= T + I + F <=3+ . We used the same notations (T,I,F) as in neutrosophic logic and set.

14. Canonical linearized Regge calculus: Counting lattice gravitons with Pachner moves

Höhn, Philipp A.

2015-06-01

We afford a systematic and comprehensive account of the canonical dynamics of 4D Regge calculus perturbatively expanded to linear order around a flat background. To this end, we consider the Pachner moves which generate the most basic and general simplicial evolution scheme. The linearized regime features a vertex displacement (diffeomorphism) symmetry for which we derive an Abelian constraint algebra. This permits us to identify gauge invariant lattice "gravitons" as propagating curvature degrees of freedom. The Pachner moves admit a simple method to explicitly count the gauge and graviton degrees of freedom on an evolving triangulated hypersurface, and we clarify the distinct role of each move in the dynamics. It is shown that the 1-4 move generates four "lapse and shift" variables and four conjugate vertex displacement generators; the 2-3 move generates a graviton; the 3-2 move removes one graviton and produces the only non-trivial equation of motion; and the 4-1 move removes four lapse and shift variables and trivializes the four conjugate symmetry generators. It is further shown that the Pachner moves preserve the vertex displacement generators. These results may provide new impetus for exploring `graviton dynamics' in discrete quantum gravity models.

15. Geometric constrained variational calculus I: Piecewise smooth extremals

Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico

2015-05-01

A geometric setup for constrained variational calculus is presented. The analysis deals with the study of the extremals of an action functional defined on piecewise differentiable curves, subject to differentiable, non-holonomic constraints. Special attention is paid to the tensorial aspects of the theory. As far as the kinematical foundations are concerned, a fully covariant scheme is developed through the introduction of the concept of infinitesimal control. The standard classification of the extremals into normal and abnormal ones is discussed, pointing out the existence of an algebraic algorithm assigning to each admissible curve a corresponding abnormality index, related to the co-rank of a suitable linear map. Attention is then shifted to the study of the first variation of the action functional. The analysis includes a revisitation of Pontryagin's equations and of the Lagrange multipliers method, as well as a reformulation of Pontryagin's algorithm in Hamiltonian terms. The analysis is completed by a general result, concerning the existence of finite deformations with fixed endpoints.

16. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

Kirkaldy, J. S.

1985-05-01

The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

17. Noninvasive control of dental calculus removal: qualification of two fluorescence methods

Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.

2013-02-01

The main condition of periodontitis prevention is the full calculus removal from the teeth surface. This procedure should be fulfilled without harming adjacent unaffected tooth tissues. Nevertheless the problem of sensitive and precise estimating of tooth-calculus interface exists and potential risk of hard tissue damage remains. In this work it was shown that fluorescence diagnostics during calculus removal can be successfully used for precise noninvasive detection of calculus-tooth interface. In so doing the simple implementation of this method free from the necessity of spectrometer using can be employed. Such a simple implementation of calculus detection set-up can be aggregated with the devices of calculus removing.

18. Role of saliva in the caries experience and calculus formation of young patients undergoing hemodialysis.

PubMed

Andrade, Marcia Rejane Thomas Canabarro; Salazar, Sabrina Loren Almeida; de Sá, Leandro Figueira Reis; Portela, Maristela; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Soares, Rosangela Maria Araújo; Leão, Anna Thereza Thomé; Primo, Laura Guimarães

2015-11-01

The aims of this study were to investigate the caries experience, periodontal status, oral hygiene habits, and salivary parameters of children and adolescents undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and to compare them with their healthy counterparts. Fifty-two HD patients were matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and social class with 52 healthy subjects for analysis of the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth, plaque and gingival index, dental calculus accumulation, measurements of pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession, and bleeding on probing. Stimulated saliva samples were collected to assess salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity, and salivary concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and urea by colorimetric method. HD patients had lower dental caries (p = 0.004), greater plaque and calculus accumulation (p = 0.001), and reported flossing less often than the controls (p = 0.013). Regarding salivary analysis, HD patients showed significantly higher values of pH, buffer capacity, and salivary urea concentration when compared to the controls (p = 0.001). HD patients had lower caries experience, higher accumulation of dental plaque, and calculus deposition than their healthy counterparts, probably due to the differences found in their salivary biochemical parameters. A significant number of children and adolescents undergoing hemodialysis are candidates for kidney transplantation and should receive complete pre-transplant dental exams and dental treatment. Our results open the way for the development of an individualized dental protocol for these patients with preventive measures and treatment of the poor oral health in HD patients.

19. The Calculus of Relativistic Temporal Geometry

Mayer, Alexander

2009-05-01

Richard Feynman's unpublished 1965 gedanken experiment, discussed on pages 60-62 of A. F. Mayer, On the Geometry of Time in Physics and Cosmology (April 2009), demonstrates that the principles of relativity destroy both Newton's concept of absolute time and the concept of a Newtonian gravitational equipotential surface. According to logic arising from experience, it has long been falsely assumed that no energy cost is incurred for translation over an ideally frictionless level surface in the presence of a vertical acceleration. However, that the speed of light is a limiting velocity implies that while two distinct points on such a surface can be considered to be at the same potential relative to a third point that is not on that surface, a particle translated between two such points must incur energy transfer to the accelerating field. Typically, this manifests as a redshift of electromagnetic radiation as demonstrated by ``Feynman's rocket.'' Accurate calculation of this relativistic transverse gravitational redshift (TGR) for observable phenomena in a real-world astrophysical gravitational field requires the calculus of relativistic temporal geometry. Calculations using this technique accurately predict the following empirically observed but heretofore unexplained natural phenomena: the center-to-limb variation of solar wavelength (˜1 km/ s), the K-effect for massive main sequence stars (˜2-3 km/s), and the excess redshift of white dwarf stars (˜10-15 km/s).

20. What Are Probability Surveys?

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

1. Evolution and Probability.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bailey, David H.

2000-01-01

Some of the most impressive-sounding criticisms of the conventional theory of biological evolution involve probability. Presents a few examples of how probability should and should not be used in discussing evolution. (ASK)

2. Dependent Probability Spaces

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

2008-01-01

The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

3. On the History of Quantity Calculus and the International System

de Boer, J.

1995-01-01

A brief presentation is given of the most important developments in the history of quantity calculus. Starting with the early introduction of the concept "physical quantity" by Maxwell in his work on electricity and magnetism, attention is focused in particular on the foundations of the calculus with physical quantities given by Wallot in the 1920s. For illustration and better understanding of the praxis of quantity calculus, special attention is paid to the three- and four-dimensional systems of physical quantities used for theoretical description in the fields of electricity and magnetism. Special emphasis is placed on understanding controversies and confusion caused by differences in interpretation of the concepts "quantity" and "unit" in physical language and in the mathematical description of physical phenomena. A short presentation is given of the further development of various studies on the algebraic structure and the axiomatic foundation of the calculus with physical quantities developed by Landolt, Stille, Fleischmann and others. Quantity calculus constituted the basis for obtaining consensus on the introduction of the International System of Units (SI) and allowed the formulation of international standards on definitions and symbols for quantities and units by the various international scientific and standardizing organizations.

4. On flipping first-semester calculus: a case study

Petrillo, Joseph

2016-05-01

High failure rates in calculus have plagued students, teachers, and administrators for decades, while science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programmes continue to suffer from low enrollments and high attrition. In an effort to affect this reality, some educators are 'flipping' (or inverting) their classrooms. By flipping, we mean administering course content outside of the classroom and replacing the traditional in-class lectures with discussion, practice, group work, and other elements of active learning. This paper presents the major results from a three-year study of a flipped, first-semester calculus course at a small, comprehensive, American university with a well-known engineering programme. The data we have collected help quantify the positive and substantial effects of our flipped calculus course on failure rates, scores on the common final exam, student opinion of calculus, teacher impact on measurable outcomes, and success in second-semester calculus. While flipping may not be suitable for every teacher, every student, and in every situation, this report provides some evidence that it may be a viable option for those seeking an alternative to the traditional lecture model.

5. Colloquium: Fractional calculus view of complexity: A tutorial

West, Bruce J.

2014-10-01

The fractional calculus has been part of the mathematics and science literature for 310 years. However, it is only in the past decade or so that it has drawn the attention of mainstream science as a way to describe the dynamics of complex phenomena with long-term memory, spatial heterogeneity, along with nonstationary and nonergodic statistics. The most recent application encompasses complex networks, which require new ways of thinking about the world. Part of the new cognition is provided by the fractional calculus description of temporal and topological complexity. Consequently, this Colloquium is not so much a tutorial on the mathematics of the fractional calculus as it is an exploration of how complex phenomena in the physical, social, and life sciences that have eluded traditional mathematical modeling become less mysterious when certain historical assumptions such as differentiability are discarded and the ordinary calculus is replaced with the fractional calculus. Exemplars considered include the fractional differential equations describing the dynamics of viscoelastic materials, turbulence, foraging, and phase transitions in complex social networks.

6. Two-parameter asymptotics in magnetic Weyl calculus

Lein, Max

2010-12-01

This paper is concerned with small parameter asymptotics of magnetic quantum systems. In addition to a semiclassical parameter ɛ, the case of small coupling λ to the magnetic vector potential naturally occurs in this context. Magnetic Weyl calculus is adapted to incorporate both parameters, at least one of which needs to be small. Of particular interest is the expansion of the Weyl product which can be used to expand the product of operators in a small parameter, a technique which is prominent to obtain perturbation expansions. Three asymptotic expansions for the magnetic Weyl product of two Hörmander class symbols are proven as (i) ɛ ≪ 1 and λ ≪ 1, (ii) ɛ ≪ 1 and λ = 1, as well as (iii) ɛ = 1 and λ ≪ 1. Expansions (i) and (iii) are impossible to obtain with ordinary Weyl calculus. Furthermore, I relate the results derived by ordinary Weyl calculus with those obtained with magnetic Weyl calculus by one- and two-parameter expansions. To show the power and versatility of magnetic Weyl calculus, I derive the semirelativistic Pauli equation as a scaling limit from the Dirac equation up to errors of fourth order in 1/c.

7. Two-parameter asymptotics in magnetic Weyl calculus

SciTech Connect

Lein, Max

2010-12-15

This paper is concerned with small parameter asymptotics of magnetic quantum systems. In addition to a semiclassical parameter {epsilon}, the case of small coupling {lambda} to the magnetic vector potential naturally occurs in this context. Magnetic Weyl calculus is adapted to incorporate both parameters, at least one of which needs to be small. Of particular interest is the expansion of the Weyl product which can be used to expand the product of operators in a small parameter, a technique which is prominent to obtain perturbation expansions. Three asymptotic expansions for the magnetic Weyl product of two Hoermander class symbols are proven as (i) {epsilon}<< 1 and {lambda}<< 1, (ii) {epsilon}<< 1 and {lambda}= 1, as well as (iii) {epsilon}= 1 and {lambda}<< 1. Expansions (i) and (iii) are impossible to obtain with ordinary Weyl calculus. Furthermore, I relate the results derived by ordinary Weyl calculus with those obtained with magnetic Weyl calculus by one- and two-parameter expansions. To show the power and versatility of magnetic Weyl calculus, I derive the semirelativistic Pauli equation as a scaling limit from the Dirac equation up to errors of fourth order in 1/c.

8. Laboratory-Tutorial Activities for Teaching Probability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wittmann, Michael C.; Morgan, Jeffrey T.; Feeley, Roger E.

2006-01-01

We report on the development of students' ideas of probability and probability density in a University of Maine laboratory-based general education physics course called "Intuitive Quantum Physics". Students in the course are generally math phobic with unfavorable expectations about the nature of physics and their ability to do it. We…

9. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall be computed to no less than...

10. Laboratory-Tutorial Activities for Teaching Probability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wittmann, Michael C.; Morgan, Jeffrey T.; Feeley, Roger E.

2006-01-01

We report on the development of students' ideas of probability and probability density in a University of Maine laboratory-based general education physics course called "Intuitive Quantum Physics". Students in the course are generally math phobic with unfavorable expectations about the nature of physics and their ability to do it. We…

11. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All...

12. Dynamical Simulation of Probabilities

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zak, Michail

1996-01-01

It has been demonstrated that classical probabilities, and in particular, probabilistic Turing machine, can be simulated by combining chaos and non-Lipschitz dynamics, without utilization of any man-made devices(such as random number generators). Self-orgainizing properties of systems coupling simulated and calculated probabilities and their link to quantum computations are discussed. Special attention was focused upon coupled stochastic processes, defined in terms of conditional probabilities, for which joint probability does not exist. Simulations of quantum probabilities are also discussed.

13. Dynamical Simulation of Probabilities

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zak, Michail

1996-01-01

It has been demonstrated that classical probabilities, and in particular, probabilistic Turing machine, can be simulated by combining chaos and non-Lipschitz dynamics, without utilization of any man-made devices(such as random number generators). Self-orgainizing properties of systems coupling simulated and calculated probabilities and their link to quantum computations are discussed. Special attention was focused upon coupled stochastic processes, defined in terms of conditional probabilities, for which joint probability does not exist. Simulations of quantum probabilities are also discussed.

14. Today's Calculus Courses Are Too Watered Down and Outdated to Capture the Interest of Students.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Douglas, Ronald G.

1988-01-01

Calculus provides the language for expressing the differential equations that govern change and also the methods for solving them. In order to insure that more Americans qualify for science-related careers, the way calculus is taught must change. (MLW)

15. Minimal entropy probability paths between genome families.

PubMed

Ahlbrandt, Calvin; Benson, Gary; Casey, William

2004-05-01

We develop a metric for probability distributions with applications to biological sequence analysis. Our distance metric is obtained by minimizing a functional defined on the class of paths over probability measures on N categories. The underlying mathematical theory is connected to a constrained problem in the calculus of variations. The solution presented is a numerical solution, which approximates the true solution in a set of cases called rich paths where none of the components of the path is zero. The functional to be minimized is motivated by entropy considerations, reflecting the idea that nature might efficiently carry out mutations of genome sequences in such a way that the increase in entropy involved in transformation is as small as possible. We characterize sequences by frequency profiles or probability vectors, in the case of DNA where N is 4 and the components of the probability vector are the frequency of occurrence of each of the bases A, C, G and T. Given two probability vectors a and b, we define a distance function based as the infimum of path integrals of the entropy function H( p) over all admissible paths p(t), 0 < or = t< or =1, with p(t) a probability vector such that p(0)=a and p(1)=b. If the probability paths p(t) are parameterized as y(s) in terms of arc length s and the optimal path is smooth with arc length L, then smooth and "rich" optimal probability paths may be numerically estimated by a hybrid method of iterating Newton's method on solutions of a two point boundary value problem, with unknown distance L between the abscissas, for the Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from a multiplier rule for the constrained optimization problem together with linear regression to improve the arc length estimate L. Matlab code for these numerical methods is provided which works only for "rich" optimal probability vectors. These methods motivate a definition of an elementary distance function which is easier and faster to calculate, works on non

16. Super quantum probabilities and three-slit experiments—Wright's pentagon state and the Popescu-Rohrlich box require third-order interference

Niestegge, Gerd

2014-04-01

Quantum probabilities differ from classical ones in many ways, e.g. by violating the well-known Bell and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities or another simple inequality due to R Wright. The latter has recently regained attention because of its equivalence to a novel noncontextual inequality by Klyachko et al. On the other hand, quantum probabilities still obey many limitations which need not hold in more general probabilistic theories (super quantum probabilities). Wright, Popescu and Rohrlich identified states which are included in such theories, but impossible in quantum mechanics, and they showed this using the Hilbert space formalism. Recently, Fritz et al and Cabello detected that the impossibility of these states can be derived from very general principles (local orthogonality and global exclusive disjunction, respectively) without using Hilbert space techniques. In the paper, an alternative derivation from rather different physical principles will be presented. These are a reasonable calculus of conditional probability (i.e. a model for the quantum measurement process) and the absence of third-order interference. The concept of third-order interference was introduced by Sorkin, who also recognized its impossibility in quantum mechanics.

17. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

PubMed

Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

2014-01-01

A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

18. Quantum Stratonovich calculus and the quantum Wong-Zakai theorem

Gough, John

2006-11-01

We extend the Itō-to-Stratonovich analysis or quantum stochastic differential equations, introduced by Gardiner and Collett for emission (creation), absorption (annihilation) processes, to include scattering (conservation) processes. Working within the framework of quantum stochastic calculus, we define Stratonovich calculus as an algebraic modification of the Itō one and give conditions for the existence of Stratonovich time-ordered exponentials. We show that conversion formula for the coefficients has a striking resemblance to Green's function formulas from standard perturbation theory. We show that the calculus conveniently describes the Markov limit of regular open quantum dynamical systems in much the same way as in the Wong-Zakai approximation theorems of classical stochastic analysis. We extend previous limit results to multiple-dimensions with a proof that makes use of diagrammatic conventions.

19. The Very Lazy λ-Calculus and the STEC Machine

Rochel, Jan

Current implementations of non-strict functional languages rely on call-by-name reduction to implement the λ-calculus. An interesting alternative is head occurrence reduction, a reduction strategy specifically designed for the implementation of non-strict, purely functional languages. This work introduces the very lazy λ -calculus, which allows a systematic description of this approach. It is not based on regular β-reduction but a generalised rewriting rule called γ-reduction that requires fewer reductions to obtain useful results from a term. It therefore promises more efficient program execution than conventional execution models. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach, an adaptation of the Pointer Abstract Machine (PAM) is specified that implements the very lazy λ-calculus and constitutes a foundation for a new class of efficient functional language implementations.

20. Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus

Pashaev, Oktay K.; Nalci, Sengul

2012-01-01

The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = φ and Q = -1/φ, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels is found to be the Golden sequence, and for asymptotic states in the limit n → ∞ it appears as the Golden ratio. We call this oscillator the Golden oscillator. Using double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived. Relations of Fibonacci calculus with a q-deformed fermion oscillator and entangled N-qubit states are indicated.

1. Quantum Stratonovich calculus and the quantum Wong-Zakai theorem

SciTech Connect

Gough, John

2006-11-15

We extend the Ito(bar sign)-to-Stratonovich analysis or quantum stochastic differential equations, introduced by Gardiner and Collett for emission (creation), absorption (annihilation) processes, to include scattering (conservation) processes. Working within the framework of quantum stochastic calculus, we define Stratonovich calculus as an algebraic modification of the Ito(bar sign) one and give conditions for the existence of Stratonovich time-ordered exponentials. We show that conversion formula for the coefficients has a striking resemblance to Green's function formulas from standard perturbation theory. We show that the calculus conveniently describes the Markov limit of regular open quantum dynamical systems in much the same way as in the Wong-Zakai approximation theorems of classical stochastic analysis. We extend previous limit results to multiple-dimensions with a proof that makes use of diagrammatic conventions.

2. Bacteria and archaea paleomicrobiology of the dental calculus: a review.

PubMed

Huynh, H T T; Verneau, J; Levasseur, A; Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G

2016-06-01

Dental calculus, a material observed in the majority of adults worldwide, emerged as a source for correlating paleomicrobiology with human health and diet. This mini review of 48 articles on the paleomicrobiology of dental calculus over 7550 years discloses a secular core microbiota comprising nine bacterial phyla - Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, TM7, Synergistetes, Chloroflexi, Fusobacteria, Spirochetes - and one archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota; and some accessory microbiota that appear and disappear according to time frame. The diet residues and oral microbes, including bacteria, archaea, viruses and fungi, consisting of harmless organisms and pathogens associated with local and systemic infections have been found trapped in ancient dental calculus by morphological approaches, immunolabeling techniques, isotope analyses, fluorescent in situ hybridization, DNA-based approaches, and protein-based approaches. These observations led to correlation of paleomicrobiology, particularly Streptococcus mutans and archaea, with past human health and diet. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

3. Analysis-based arguments for abstract data type calculus.

SciTech Connect

Rouson, Damian W. I.

2008-10-01

Increasing demands on the complexity of scientific models coupled with increasing demands for their scalability are placing programming models on equal footing with the numerical methods they implement in terms of significance. A recurring theme across several major scientific software development projects involves defining abstract data types (ADTs) that closely mimic mathematical abstractions such as scalar, vector, and tensor fields. In languages that support user-defined operators and/or overloading of intrinsic operators, coupling ADTs with a set of algebraic and/or integro-differential operators results in an ADT calculus. This talk will analyze ADT calculus using three tool sets: object-oriented design metrics, computational complexity theory, and information theory. It will be demonstrated that ADT calculus leads to highly cohesive, loosely coupled abstractions with code-size-invariant data dependencies and minimal information entropy. The talk will also discuss how these results relate to software flexibility and robustness.

4. Probability state modeling theory.

PubMed

Bagwell, C Bruce; Hunsberger, Benjamin C; Herbert, Donald J; Munson, Mark E; Hill, Beth L; Bray, Chris M; Preffer, Frederic I

2015-07-01

As the technology of cytometry matures, there is mounting pressure to address two major issues with data analyses. The first issue is to develop new analysis methods for high-dimensional data that can directly reveal and quantify important characteristics associated with complex cellular biology. The other issue is to replace subjective and inaccurate gating with automated methods that objectively define subpopulations and account for population overlap due to measurement uncertainty. Probability state modeling (PSM) is a technique that addresses both of these issues. The theory and important algorithms associated with PSM are presented along with simple examples and general strategies for autonomous analyses. PSM is leveraged to better understand B-cell ontogeny in bone marrow in a companion Cytometry Part B manuscript. Three short relevant videos are available in the online supporting information for both of these papers. PSM avoids the dimensionality barrier normally associated with high-dimensionality modeling by using broadened quantile functions instead of frequency functions to represent the modulation of cellular epitopes as cells differentiate. Since modeling programs ultimately minimize or maximize one or more objective functions, they are particularly amenable to automation and, therefore, represent a viable alternative to subjective and inaccurate gating approaches.

5. An Analysis of College Mathematics Departments' Credit Granting Policies for Students with High School Calculus Experience

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laurent, Theresa A.

2009-01-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate higher education mathematics departments' credit granting policies for students with high school calculus experience. The number of students taking calculus in high school has more than doubled since 1982 (NCES, 2007) and it is estimated that approximately 530,000 students took a calculus course in high…

6. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mokry, Jeanette

2016-01-01

This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

7. The Development and Nature of Problem-Solving among First-Semester Calculus Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dawkins, Paul Christian; Epperson, James A. Mendoza

2014-01-01

This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We investigate…

8. An Analysis of College Mathematics Departments' Credit Granting Policies for Students with High School Calculus Experience

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laurent, Theresa A.

2009-01-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate higher education mathematics departments' credit granting policies for students with high school calculus experience. The number of students taking calculus in high school has more than doubled since 1982 (NCES, 2007) and it is estimated that approximately 530,000 students took a calculus course in high…

9. Recalling Prerequisite Material in a Calculus II Course to Improve Student Success

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mokry, Jeanette

2016-01-01

This article discusses preparation assignments used in a Calculus II course that cover material from prerequisite courses. Prior to learning new material, students work on problems outside of class involving concepts from algebra, trigonometry, and Calculus I. These problems are directly built upon in order to answer Calculus II questions,…

10. Gender Differences in Classroom Participation and Achievement: An Experiment Involving Advanced Placement Calculus Classes.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subotnik, Rena F.; Strauss, Shiela M.

1995-01-01

Despite scoring lower on the mathematics Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT-M) prior to taking an advanced placement calculus course, female students (n=85) scored as well as males (n=51) on the Advanced Placement BC level calculus test. Predictors of AP scores were: first, scores on the Calculus Readiness Test; second, scores on the SAT-M; and…

11. The Development and Nature of Problem-Solving among First-Semester Calculus Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dawkins, Paul Christian; Epperson, James A. Mendoza

2014-01-01

This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We investigate…

12. The relationships between malocclusion, gingival inflammation, plaque and calculus.

PubMed

Buckley, L A

1981-01-01

Certain features of malocclusion considered important in relation to periodontal health were analyzed in a study of 300 subjects. It was found that plaque and gingival inflammation were not related to vertical incisor overbite, horizontal incisor overjet or posterior cuspal interdigitation. Individual tooth irregularity measured as tilting, rotation, displacement and crowding had a low but statistically significant correlation with plaque, calculus and gingival inflammation. However, the study showed that these features of malocclusion are far less important than the extent of plaque and calculus deposits in the development of gingival inflammation.

13. An operator calculus for surface and volume modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gordon, W. J.

1984-01-01

The mathematical techniques which form the foundation for most of the surface and volume modeling techniques used in practice are briefly described. An outline of what may be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable is presented. By considering the linear operators associated with bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes, it is shown how they can be compounded by operator multiplication and Boolean addition to obtain a distributive lattice of approximation operators. It is then demonstrated via specific examples how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling.

14. Applications of the Mellin transform in quantum calculus

Fitouhi, Ahmed; Bettaibi, Neji

2007-04-01

In this paper, we study in quantum calculus the correspondence between poles of the q-Mellin transform (see [A. Fitouhi, N. Bettaibi, K. Brahim, The Mellin transform in Quantum Calculus, Constr. Approx. 23 (3) (2006) 305-323]) and the asymptotic behaviour of the original function at 0 and [infinity]. As applications, we give a new technique (in q-analysis) to derive the asymptotic expansion of some functions defined by q-integrals or by q-harmonic sums. Finally, a q-analogue of the Mellin-Perron formula is given.

15. An operator calculus for surface and volume modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gordon, W. J.

1984-01-01

The mathematical techniques which form the foundation for most of the surface and volume modeling techniques used in practice are briefly described. An outline of what may be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable is presented. By considering the linear operators associated with bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes, it is shown how they can be compounded by operator multiplication and Boolean addition to obtain a distributive lattice of approximation operators. It is then demonstrated via specific examples how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling.

PubMed Central

Espinosa, James M.

1992-01-01

The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforcement and extinction, respectively. PMID:22478114

17. Probability of satellite collision

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mccarter, J. W.

1972-01-01

A method is presented for computing the probability of a collision between a particular artificial earth satellite and any one of the total population of earth satellites. The collision hazard incurred by the proposed modular Space Station is assessed using the technique presented. The results of a parametric study to determine what type of satellite orbits produce the greatest contribution to the total collision probability are presented. Collision probability for the Space Station is given as a function of Space Station altitude and inclination. Collision probability was also parameterized over miss distance and mission duration.

18. Statistics and Probability

2010-04-01

This ourse constitutes a brief introduction to probability applications in high energy physis. First the mathematical tools related to the diferent probability conepts are introduced. The probability distributions which are commonly used in high energy physics and their characteristics are then shown and commented. The central limit theorem and its consequences are analysed. Finally some numerical methods used to produce diferent kinds of probability distribution are presented. The full article (17 p.) corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

19. PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS.

DTIC Science & Technology

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, REPORTS), (*PROBABILITY, REPORTS), INFORMATION THEORY, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, STATISTICAL PROCESSES, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , DECISION THEORY, MEASURE THEORY, OPTIMIZATION

20. The calculus of differences: Effects of a psychosocial, cultural, and pedagogical intervention in an all women's university calculus class