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Sample records for generally covariant quantum

  1. General covariance in quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point

    SciTech Connect

    Horava, Petr; Melby-Thompson, Charles M.

    2010-09-15

    In the minimal formulation of gravity with Lifshitz-type anisotropic scaling, the gauge symmetries of the system are foliation-preserving diffeomorphisms of spacetime. Consequently, compared to general relativity, the spectrum contains an extra scalar graviton polarization. Here we investigate the possibility of extending the gauge group by a local U(1) symmetry to 'nonrelativistic general covariance'. This extended gauge symmetry eliminates the scalar graviton, and forces the coupling constant {lambda} in the kinetic term of the minimal formulation to take its relativistic value, {lambda}=1. The resulting theory exhibits anisotropic scaling at short distances, and reproduces many features of general relativity at long distances.

  2. Generalized asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloning within a nonextensive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjema, R.; Hamici, A.-H.; Hachemane, M.; Smida, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized transformation of the optimal asymmetric 1longrightarrow 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning. This generalization is based on the deformed forms of the exponential that emerge from nonextensive statistical mechanics. In particular, two distinct definitions of the q-exponential are discussed. The case where the cloning is symmetric is also studied. In order to highlight the influence of nonextensive treatment on the perfection of clones and entanglement, the effect of the q-index has been clearly illustrated in figures depicting the fidelities in terms of the entanglement parameter θ for different values of q. Our study shows that due to the intrinsic properties of the system, the entanglement is not preserved. Thus, entanglement can be controlled by the nonextensive parameter. As an illustration, the incoherent attack on the BB84 protocol has also been considered in the economical case.

  3. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into "solve-for" and "consider" parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the "variance sandpile" and the "sensitivity mosaic," and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  4. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  5. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2008-01-01

    We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work on generalized covariance analysis methods. This prior work allowed for partitioning of the state space into "solve-for" and "consider" parameters, allowed for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator s anchor time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the "variance sandpile" and the "sensitivity mosaic," and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  6. Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Foundations: 1. Spacetime as a quantum object; 2. Physics without time; 3. Gravity; 4. Classical discretization; Part II. The 3D Theory: 5. 3D Euclidean theory; 6. Bubbles and cosmological constant; Part III. The Real World: 7. The real world: 4D Lorentzian theory; 8. Classical limit; 9. Matter; Part IV. Physical Applications: 10. Black holes; 11. Cosmology; 12. Scattering; 13. Final remarks; References; Index.

  7. Phase-covariant quantum benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calsamiglia, J.; Aspachs, M.; Muñoz-Tapia, R.; Bagan, E.

    2009-05-01

    We give a quantum benchmark for teleportation and quantum storage experiments suited for pure and mixed test states. The benchmark is based on the average fidelity over a family of phase-covariant states and certifies that an experiment cannot be emulated by a classical setup, i.e., by a measure-and-prepare scheme. We give an analytical solution for qubits, which shows important differences with standard state estimation approach, and compute the value of the benchmark for coherent and squeezed states, both pure and mixed.

  8. Phase-covariant quantum benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Calsamiglia, J.; Aspachs, M.; Munoz-Tapia, R.; Bagan, E.

    2009-05-15

    We give a quantum benchmark for teleportation and quantum storage experiments suited for pure and mixed test states. The benchmark is based on the average fidelity over a family of phase-covariant states and certifies that an experiment cannot be emulated by a classical setup, i.e., by a measure-and-prepare scheme. We give an analytical solution for qubits, which shows important differences with standard state estimation approach, and compute the value of the benchmark for coherent and squeezed states, both pure and mixed.

  9. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-02-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation.

  10. Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.

    2002-11-01

    It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs.

  11. Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    We construct perturbative quantum gravity in a generally covariant way. In particular our construction is background independent. It is based on the locally covariant approach to quantum field theory and the renormalized Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We do not touch the problem of nonrenormalizability and interpret the theory as an effective theory at large length scales.

  12. Supergeometry in Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Thomas-Paul; Hanisch, Florian; Schenkel, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we analyze supergeometric locally covariant quantum field theories. We develop suitable categories SLoc of super-Cartan supermanifolds, which generalize Lorentz manifolds in ordinary quantum field theory, and show that, starting from a few representation theoretic and geometric data, one can construct a functor A : SLoc to S* Alg to the category of super-*-algebras, which can be interpreted as a non-interacting super-quantum field theory. This construction turns out to disregard supersymmetry transformations as the morphism sets in the above categories are too small. We then solve this problem by using techniques from enriched category theory, which allows us to replace the morphism sets by suitable morphism supersets that contain supersymmetry transformations as their higher superpoints. We construct super-quantum field theories in terms of enriched functors eA : eSLoc to eS* Alg between the enriched categories and show that supersymmetry transformations are appropriately described within the enriched framework. As examples we analyze the superparticle in 1|1-dimensions and the free Wess-Zumino model in 3|2-dimensions.

  13. Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra.

    PubMed

    Vinayak; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2016-03-01

    We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated.

  14. Bilinear covariants and spinor fields duality in quantum Clifford algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Abłamowicz, Rafał; Gonçalves, Icaro; Rocha, Roldão da

    2014-10-15

    Classification of quantum spinor fields according to quantum bilinear covariants is introduced in a context of quantum Clifford algebras on Minkowski spacetime. Once the bilinear covariants are expressed in terms of algebraic spinor fields, the duality between spinor and quantum spinor fields can be discussed. Thus, by endowing the underlying spacetime with an arbitrary bilinear form with an antisymmetric part in addition to a symmetric spacetime metric, quantum algebraic spinor fields and deformed bilinear covariants can be constructed. They are thus compared to the classical (non quantum) ones. Classes of quantum spinor fields classes are introduced and compared with Lounesto's spinor field classification. A physical interpretation of the deformed parts and the underlying Z-grading is proposed. The existence of an arbitrary bilinear form endowing the spacetime already has been explored in the literature in the context of quantum gravity [S. W. Hawking, “The unpredictability of quantum gravity,” Commun. Math. Phys. 87, 395 (1982)]. Here, it is shown further to play a prominent role in the structure of Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana spinor fields, besides the most general flagpoles and flag-dipoles. We introduce a new duality between the standard and the quantum spinor fields, by showing that when Clifford algebras over vector spaces endowed with an arbitrary bilinear form are taken into account, a mixture among the classes does occur. Consequently, novel features regarding the spinor fields can be derived.

  15. Quantization of Generally Covariant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sforza, Daniel M.

    2000-12-01

    Finite dimensional models that mimic the constraint structure of Einstein's General Relativity are quantized in the framework of BRST and Dirac's canonical formalisms. The first system to be studied is one featuring a constraint quadratic in the momenta (the "super-Hamiltonian") and a set of constraints linear in the momenta (the "supermomentum" constraints). The starting point is to realize that the ghost contributions to the supermomentum constraint operators can be read in terms of the natural volume induced by the constraints in the orbits. This volume plays a fundamental role in the construction of the quadratic sector of the nilpotent BRST charge. It is shown that the quantum theory is invariant under scaling of the super-Hamiltonian. As long as the system has an intrinsic time, this property translates in a contribution of the potential to the kinetic term. In this aspect, the results substantially differ from other works where the scaling invariance is forced by introducing a coupling to the curvature. The contribution of the potential, far from being unnatural, is beautifully justified in the light of the Jacobi's principle. Then, it is shown that the obtained results can be extended to systems with extrinsic time. In this case, if the metric has a conformal temporal Killing vector and the potential exhibits a suitable behavior with respect to it, the role played by the potential in the case of intrinsic time is now played by the norm of the Killing vector. Finally, the results for the previous cases are extended to a system featuring two super-Hamiltonian constraints. This step is extremely important due to the fact that General Relativity features an infinite number of such constraints satisfying a non trivial algebra among themselves.

  16. κ-deformed covariant quantum phase spaces as Hopf algebroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukierski, Jerzy; Škoda, Zoran; Woronowicz, Mariusz

    2015-11-01

    We consider the general D = 4 (10 + 10)-dimensional κ-deformed quantum phase space as given by Heisenberg double H of D = 4κ-deformed Poincaré-Hopf algebra H. The standard (4 + 4)-dimensional κ-deformed covariant quantum phase space spanned by κ-deformed Minkowski coordinates and commuting momenta generators (xˆμ ,pˆμ) is obtained as the subalgebra of H. We study further the property that Heisenberg double defines particular quantum spaces with Hopf algebroid structure. We calculate by using purely algebraic methods the explicit Hopf algebroid structure of standard κ-deformed quantum covariant phase space in Majid-Ruegg bicrossproduct basis. The coproducts for Hopf algebroids are not unique, determined modulo the coproduct gauge freedom. Finally we consider the interpretation of the algebraic description of quantum phase spaces as Hopf algebroids.

  17. Realization of the optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2005-12-15

    In several quantum information (QI) phenomena of large technological importance the information is carried by the phase of the quantum superposition states, or qubits. The phase-covariant cloning machine (PQCM) addresses precisely the problem of optimally copying these qubits with the largest attainable 'fidelity'. We present a general scheme which realizes the 1{yields}3 phase covariant cloning process by a combination of three different QI processes: the universal cloning, the NOT gate, and the projection over the symmetric subspace of the output qubits. The experimental implementation of a PQCM for polarization encoded qubits, the first ever realized with photons, is reported.

  18. Realization of the optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarrino, Fabio; de Martini, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In several quantum information (QI) phenomena of large technological importance the information is carried by the phase of the quantum superposition states, or qubits. The phase-covariant cloning machine (PQCM) addresses precisely the problem of optimally copying these qubits with the largest attainable “fidelity.” We present a general scheme which realizes the 1→3 phase covariant cloning process by a combination of three different QI processes: the universal cloning, the NOT gate, and the projection over the symmetric subspace of the output qubits. The experimental implementation of a PQCM for polarization encoded qubits, the first ever realized with photons, is reported.

  19. Lorentz covariance of loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo; Speziale, Simone

    2011-05-01

    The kinematics of loop gravity can be given a manifestly Lorentz-covariant formulation: the conventional SU(2)-spin-network Hilbert space can be mapped to a space K of SL(2,C) functions, where Lorentz covariance is manifest. K can be described in terms of a certain subset of the projected spin networks studied by Livine, Alexandrov and Dupuis. It is formed by SL(2,C) functions completely determined by their restriction on SU(2). These are square-integrable in the SU(2) scalar product, but not in the SL(2,C) one. Thus, SU(2)-spin-network states can be represented by Lorentz-covariant SL(2,C) functions, as two-component photons can be described in the Lorentz-covariant Gupta-Bleuler formalism. As shown by Wolfgang Wieland in a related paper, this manifestly Lorentz-covariant formulation can also be directly obtained from canonical quantization. We show that the spinfoam dynamics of loop quantum gravity is locally SL(2,C)-invariant in the bulk, and yields states that are precisely in K on the boundary. This clarifies how the SL(2,C) spinfoam formalism yields an SU(2) theory on the boundary. These structures define a tidy Lorentz-covariant formalism for loop gravity.

  20. Covariant theory with a confined quantum

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; Pastrana, G.

    1983-06-01

    It has been shown by Lindesay, Noyes and Lindesay, and by Lindesay and Markevich that by using a simple unitary two particle driving term in covariant Faddeev equations a rich covariant and unitary three particle dynamics can be generated, including single quantum exchange and production. The basic observation on which this paper rests is that if the two particle input amplitudes used as driving terms in a three particle Faddeev equation are assumed to be simply bound state poles with no elastic scattering cut, they generate rearrangement collisions, but breakup is impossible.

  1. Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2008-09-15

    We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.

  2. Covariant quantum mechanics applied to noncommutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    We here report a result obtained in collaboration with Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, first shown in the paper [1]. Applying the manifestly covariant formalism of quantum mechanics to the much studied Snyder spacetime [2] we show how it is trivial in every physical observables, this meaning that every measure in this spacetime gives the same results that would be obtained in the flat Minkowski spacetime.

  3. Quantum energy inequalities and local covariance II: categorical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2007-11-01

    We formulate quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) in the framework of locally covariant quantum field theory developed by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and Verch, which is based on notions taken from category theory. This leads to a new viewpoint on the QEIs, and also to the identification of a new structural property of locally covariant quantum field theory, which we call local physical equivalence. Covariant formulations of the numerical range and spectrum of locally covariant fields are given and investigated, and a new algebra of fields is identified, in which fields are treated independently of their realisation on particular spacetimes and manifestly covariant versions of the functional calculus may be formulated.

  4. Gauge covariant fermion propagator in quenched, chirally symmetric quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Dong, Z.; Munczek, H.J.

    1995-08-01

    The chirally symmetric solution of the massless, quenched, Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) for the fermion propagator in three- and four-dimensional quantum electrodynamics was obtained. The DSEs are a valuable nonperturbative tool for studying field theories. In recent years a good deal of progress was made in addressing the limitations of the DSE approach in the study of Abelian gauge theories. Key to this progress is an understanding of the role of the dressed fermion/gauge-boson vertex in ensuring gauge covariance and multiplicative renormalizability of the solution of the fermion DSE. The solutions we obtain are manifestly gauge covariant and a general gauge covariance constraint on the fermion/gauge-boson vertex is presented, which motivates a vertex Ansatz that, for the first time, both satisfies the Ward identity when the fermion self-mass is zero and ensures gauge covariance of the fermion propagator. This research facilitates gauge-invariant, nonperturbative studies of continuum quantum electrodynamics and has already been used by others in studies of the chiral phase transition.

  5. Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulas which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulas. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and the correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulas are also useful in this case. By applying the formulas, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this phenomena is broken, the area shows rapid increase which suggests the phase transition from quantum to classical area.

  6. Inflation in general covariant theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongqing; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we study inflation in the framework of the nonrelativistic general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity with the projectability condition and an arbitrary coupling constant λ. We find that the Friedmann-Robterson-Walker (FRW) universe is necessarily flat in such a setup. We work out explicitly the linear perturbations of the flat FRW universe without specifying to a particular gauge, and find that the perturbations are different from those obtained in general relativity, because of the presence of the high-order spatial derivative terms. Applying the general formulas to a single scalar field, we show that in the sub-horizon regions, the metric and scalar field are tightly coupled and have the same oscillating frequencies. In the super-horizon regions, the perturbations become adiabatic, and the comoving curvature perturbation is constant. We also calculate the power spectra and indices of both the scalar and tensor perturbations, and express them explicitly in terms of the slow roll parameters and the coupling constants of the high-order spatial derivative terms. In particular, we find that the perturbations, of both scalar and tensor, are almost scale-invariant, and, with some reasonable assumptions on the coupling coefficients, the spectrum index of the tensor perturbation is the same as that given in the minimum scenario in general relativity (GR), whereas the index for scalar perturbation in general depends on λ and is different from the standard GR value. The ratio of the scalar and tensor power spectra depends on the high-order spatial derivative terms, and can be different from that of GR significantly.

  7. Generalized Covariant Gyrokinetic Dynamics of Magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cremaschini, C.; Tessarotto, M.; Nicolini, P.; Beklemishev, A.

    2008-12-31

    A basic prerequisite for the investigation of relativistic astrophysical magnetoplasmas, occurring typically in the vicinity of massive stellar objects (black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, etc.), is the accurate description of single-particle covariant dynamics, based on gyrokinetic theory (Beklemishev et al., 1999-2005). Provided radiation-reaction effects are negligible, this is usually based on the assumption that both the space-time metric and the EM fields (in particular the magnetic field) are suitably prescribed and are considered independent of single-particle dynamics, while allowing for the possible presence of gravitational/EM perturbations driven by plasma collective interactions which may naturally arise in such systems. The purpose of this work is the formulation of a generalized gyrokinetic theory based on the synchronous variational principle recently pointed out (Tessarotto et al., 2007) which permits to satisfy exactly the physical realizability condition for the four-velocity. The theory here developed includes the treatment of nonlinear perturbations (gravitational and/or EM) characterized locally, i.e., in the rest frame of a test particle, by short wavelength and high frequency. Basic feature of the approach is to ensure the validity of the theory both for large and vanishing parallel electric field. It is shown that the correct treatment of EM perturbations occurring in the presence of an intense background magnetic field generally implies the appearance of appropriate four-velocity corrections, which are essential for the description of single-particle gyrokinetic dynamics.

  8. Covariant effective action for loop quantum cosmology a la Palatini

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Singh, Parampreet E-mail: psingh@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2009-01-15

    In loop quantum cosmology, non-perturbative quantum gravity effects lead to the resolution of the big bang singularity by a quantum bounce without introducing any new degrees of freedom. Though fundamentally discrete, the theory admits a continuum description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian. Here we provide an algorithm to obtain the corresponding effective action, establishing in this way the covariance of the theory for the first time. This result provides new insights on the continuum properties of the discrete structure of quantum geometry and opens new avenues to extract physical predictions such as those related to gauge invariant cosmological perturbations.

  9. Generalized Covariance Analysis For Remote Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boone, Jack N.

    1991-01-01

    Technique developed to predict true covariance of stochastic process at remote location when control applied to process both by autonomous (local-estimator) control subsystem and remote (non-local-estimator) control subsystem. Intended orginally for design and evaluation of ground-based schemes for estimation of gyro parameters of Magellan spacecraft. Applications include variety of remote-control systems with and without delays. Potential terrestrial applications include navigation and control of industrial processes.

  10. Resilience to decoherence of the macroscopic quantum superpositions generated by universally covariant optimal quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, Nicolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2010-09-15

    We show that the quantum states generated by universal optimal quantum cloning of a single photon represent a universal set of quantum superpositions resilient to decoherence. We adopt the Bures distance as a tool to investigate the persistence of quantum coherence of these quantum states. According to this analysis, the process of universal cloning realizes a class of quantum superpositions that exhibits a covariance property in lossy configuration over the complete set of polarization states in the Bloch sphere.

  11. Covariant generalization of cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Hoegdahl, Janne; Nurmi, Sami; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2007-01-15

    We present an approach to cosmological perturbations based on a covariant perturbative expansion between two worldlines in the real inhomogeneous universe. As an application, at an arbitrary order we define an exact scalar quantity which describes the inhomogeneities in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and which is conserved on all scales for a barotropic ideal fluid. We derive a compact form for its conservation equation at all orders and assign it a simple physical interpretation. To make a comparison with the standard perturbation theory, we develop a method to construct gauge-invariant quantities in a coordinate system at arbitrary order, which we apply to derive the form of the nth order perturbation in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and its exact evolution equation. On large scales, this provides the gauge-invariant expression for the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces and its evolution equation at any order.

  12. Scale covariant physics: a 'quantum deformation' of classical electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Yehonatan; Yavneh, Irad

    2010-02-01

    We present a deformation of classical electrodynamics, continuously depending on a 'quantum parameter', featuring manifest gauge, Poincaré and scale covariance. The theory, dubbed extended charge dynamics (ECD), associates a certain length scale with each charge which, due to scale covariance, is an attribute of a solution, not a parameter of the theory. When the EM field experienced by an ECD charge is slowly varying over that length scale, the dynamics of the charge reduces to classical dynamics, its emitted radiation reduces to the familiar Liénard-Wiechert potential and the above length scale is identified as the charge's Compton length. It is conjectured that quantum mechanics describes statistical aspects of ensembles of ECD solutions, much like classical thermodynamics describes statistical aspects of ensembles of classical solutions. A unique 'remote sensing' feature of ECD, supporting that conjecture, is presented, along with an explanation for the illusion of a photon within a classical treatment of the EM field. Finally, a novel conservation law associated with the scale covariance of ECD is derived, indicating that the scale of a solution may 'drift' with time at a constant rate, much like translation covariance implies a uniform drift of the (average) position.

  13. Covariance in models of loop quantum gravity: Gowdy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2015-09-01

    Recent results in the construction of anomaly-free models of loop quantum gravity have shown obstacles when local physical degrees of freedom are present. Here, a set of no-go properties is derived in polarized Gowdy models, raising the question of whether these systems can be covariant beyond a background treatment. As a side product, it is shown that normal deformations in classical polarized Gowdy models can be Abelianized.

  14. First integrals of motion in a gauge covariant framework, Killing-Maxwell system and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, M.

    2012-10-15

    Hidden symmetries in a covariant Hamiltonian framework are investigated. The special role of the Stackel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. The covariant phase-space is extended to include external gauge fields and scalar potentials. We investigate the possibility for a higher-order symmetry to survive when the electromagnetic interactions are taken into account. Aconcrete realization of this possibility is given by the Killing-Maxwell system. The classical conserved quantities do not generally transfer to the quantized systems producing quantum gravitational anomalies. As a rule the conformal extension of the Killing vectors and tensors does not produce symmetry operators for the Klein-Gordon operator.

  15. Covariance in models of loop quantum gravity: Spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Reyes, Juan D.

    2015-08-01

    Spherically symmetric models of loop quantum gravity have been studied recently by different methods that aim to deal with structure functions in the usual constraint algebra of gravitational systems. As noticed by Gambini and Pullin, a linear redefinition of the constraints (with phase-space dependent coefficients) can be used to eliminate structure functions, even Abelianizing the more difficult part of the constraint algebra. The Abelianized constraints can then easily be quantized or modified by putative quantum effects. As pointed out here, however, the method does not automatically provide a covariant quantization, defined as an anomaly-free quantum theory with a classical limit in which the usual (off-shell) gauge structure of hypersurface deformations in space-time appears. The holonomy-modified vacuum theory based on Abelianization is covariant in this sense, but matter theories with local degrees of freedom are not. Detailed demonstrations of these statements show complete agreement with results of canonical effective methods applied earlier to the same systems (including signature change).

  16. Covariant effective action for a Galilean invariant quantum Hall system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.

    2016-09-01

    We construct effective field theories for gapped quantum Hall systems coupled to background geometries with local Galilean invariance i.e. Bargmann spacetimes. Along with an electromagnetic field, these backgrounds include the effects of curved Galilean spacetimes, including torsion and a gravitational field, allowing us to study charge, energy, stress and mass currents within a unified framework. A shift symmetry specific to single constituent theories constraints the effective action to couple to an effective background gauge field and spin connection that is solved for by a self-consistent equation, providing a manifestly covariant extension of Hoyos and Son's improvement terms to arbitrary order in m.

  17. Vector order parameter in general relativity: Covariant equations

    SciTech Connect

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    2010-07-15

    Phase transitions with spontaneous symmetry breaking and vector order parameter are considered in multidimensional theory of general relativity. Covariant equations, describing the gravitational properties of topological defects, are derived. The topological defects are classified in accordance with the symmetry of the covariant derivative of the vector order parameter. The abilities of the derived equations are demonstrated in application to the braneworld concept. New solutions of the Einstein equations with a transverse vector order parameter are presented. In the vicinity of phase transition, the solutions are found analytically.

  18. Implementing phase-covariant cloning in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Zheng; Ye, Liu

    2016-10-01

    An efficient scheme is proposed to implement phase-covariant quantum cloning by using a superconducting transmon qubit coupled to a microwave cavity resonator in the strong dispersive limit of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). By solving the master equation numerically, we plot the Wigner function and Poisson distribution of the cavity mode after each operation in the cloning transformation sequence according to two logic circuits proposed. The visualizations of the quasi-probability distribution in phase-space for the cavity mode and the occupation probability distribution in the Fock basis enable us to penetrate the evolution process of cavity mode during the phase-covariant cloning (PCC) transformation. With the help of numerical simulation method, we find out that the present cloning machine is not the isotropic model because its output fidelity depends on the polar angle and the azimuthal angle of the initial input state on the Bloch sphere. The fidelity for the actual output clone of the present scheme is slightly smaller than one in the theoretical case. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical ones. This further corroborates our scheme based on circuit QED can implement efficiently PCC transformation.

  19. Generalized covariance analysis for partially autonomous deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boone, Jack N.

    1991-01-01

    A new covariance analysis method is presented that is suitable for the evaluation of multiple impulsive controllers acting on some stochastic process x. The method accommodates batch and sequential estimators with equal ease and accounts for time-delay effects in a natural manner. The formalism is developed in terms of a generalized state vector that is formed from the system state vector x, augmented by various fixed epoch estimates, and a data vector formed from discrete time observations of the system. Recursions are developed for time transition, measurement incorporation, and impulsive control updating of the generalized covariance matrix. Means of limiting the dimensional growth of the generalized state vector via the processes of estimator epoch adjustment and measurement vector deflation are described and the application of numerically stable matrix factorization methods to the generalized covariance recursions is outlined. The method is applied to the Magellan spacecraft to demonstrate the capability of ground-based optimal estimation and control of gyro/star scanner misalignment.

  20. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions

  1. Realization of a universal and phase-covariant quantum cloning machine in separate cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Baolong; Song Qingming; Ye Liu

    2011-04-15

    We present a scheme to realize a special quantum cloning machine in separate cavities. The quantum cloning machine can copy the quantum information from a photon pulse to two distant atoms. Choosing the different parameters, the method can perform optimal symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning and optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning.

  2. Effective quantum gravity observables and locally covariant QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejzner, Kasia

    2016-03-01

    Perturbative algebraic quantum field theory (pAQFT) is a mathematically rigorous framework that allows to construct models of quantum field theories (QFTs) on a general class of Lorentzian manifolds. Recently, this idea has been applied also to perturbative quantum gravity (QG), treated as an effective theory. The difficulty was to find the right notion of observables that would in an appropriate sense be diffeomorphism invariant. In this paper, I will outline a general framework that allows to quantize theories with local symmetries (this includes infinitesimal diffeomorphism transformations) with the use of the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism. This approach has been successfully applied to effective QG in a recent paper by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and myself. In the same paper, we also proved perturbative background independence of the quantized theory, which is going to be discussed in the present work as well.

  3. Generalized Multiphoton Quantum Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Max; Tan, Si-Hui; Stoeckl, Sarah E.; Sanders, Barry C.; de Guise, Hubert; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Walther, Philip

    2015-10-01

    Nonclassical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. Here, we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multiphoton nonclassical interference. We investigate this in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis that decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.

  4. On kaonic hydrogen. Quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Cargnelli, M.; Faber, M.; Marton, J.; Troitskaya, N. I.; Zmeskal, J.

    2004-07-01

    We study kaonic hydrogen, the bound K - p state A K p . Within a quantum field theoretic and relativistic covariant approach we derive the energy level displacement of the ground state of kaonic hydrogen in terms of the amplitude of K - p scattering for arbitrary relative momenta. The amplitude of low-energy K - p scattering near threshold is defined by the contributions of three resonances Λ(1405), Λ(1800) and Σ^0(1750) and a smooth elastic background. The amplitudes of inelastic channels of low-energy K - p scattering fit experimental data on the near-threshold behaviour of the cross-sections and the experimental data by the DEAR Collaboration. We use the soft-pion technique (leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory) for the calculation of the partial width of the radiative decay of pionic hydrogen A_{π p} to n + γ and the Panofsky ratio. The theoretical prediction for the Panofsky ratio agrees well with experimental data. We apply the soft-kaon technique (leading order in Chiral Perturbation Theory) to the calculation of the partial widths of radiative decays of kaonic hydrogen A_{Kp} to Λ^0 + γ and A_{K p} to Σ^0 + γ. We show that the contribution of these decays to the width of the energy level of the ground state of kaonic hydrogen is less than 1%.

  5. Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes.

    PubMed

    Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John

    2015-03-01

    Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics. PMID:25871066

  6. GENERALIZED PARTIALLY LINEAR MIXED-EFFECTS MODELS INCORPORATING MISMEASURED COVARIATES

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hua

    2009-01-01

    In this article we consider a semiparametric generalized mixed-effects model, and propose combining local linear regression, and penalized quasilikelihood and local quasilikelihood techniques to estimate both population and individual parameters and nonparametric curves. The proposed estimators take into account the local correlation structure of the longitudinal data. We establish normality for the estimators of the parameter and asymptotic expansion for the estimators of the nonparametric part. For practical implementation, we propose an appropriate algorithm. We also consider the measurement error problem in covariates in our model, and suggest a strategy for adjusting the effects of measurement errors. We apply the proposed models and methods to study the relation between virologic and immunologic responses in AIDS clinical trials, in which virologic response is classified into binary variables. A dataset from an AIDS clinical study is analyzed. PMID:20160899

  7. Diagnostic Measures for Generalized Linear Models with Missing Covariates

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, HONGTU; IBRAHIM, JOSEPH G.; SHI, XIAOYAN

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out an in-depth investigation of diagnostic measures for assessing the influence of observations and model misspecification in the presence of missing covariate data for generalized linear models. Our diagnostic measures include case-deletion measures and conditional residuals. We use the conditional residuals to construct goodness-of-fit statistics for testing possible misspecifications in model assumptions, including the sampling distribution. We develop specific strategies for incorporating missing data into goodness-of-fit statistics in order to increase the power of detecting model misspecification. A resampling method is proposed to approximate the p-value of the goodness-of-fit statistics. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate our methods and a real data set is analysed to illustrate the use of our various diagnostic measures. PMID:20037674

  8. Realizing a partial general quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices in a cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Baolong; Yang Zhen; Ye Liu

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for implementing a partial general quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices coupled to a nonresonant cavity. By regulating the time parameters, our system can perform optimal symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning, and optimal symmetric economical phase-covariant cloning. In the scheme the cavity is only virtually excited, thus, the cavity decay is suppressed during the cloning operations.

  9. Local conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Sijie; Lemos, José P.

    2005-04-01

    A set of sufficient conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound given by Strominger and Thompson is as follows: Suppose that the entropy of matter can be described by an entropy current sa. Let ka be any null vector along L and s≡-kasa. Then the generalized bound can be derived from the following conditions: (i) s'≤2πTabkakb, where s'=ka∇as and Tab is the stress-energy tensor; (ii) on the initial 2-surface B, s(0)≤-1/4θ(0), where θ is the expansion of ka. We prove that condition (ii) alone can be used to divide a spacetime into two regions: The generalized entropy bound holds for all light sheets residing in the region where s<-1/4θ and fails for those in the region where s>-1/4θ. We check the validity of these conditions in FRW flat universe and a scalar field spacetime. Some apparent violations of the entropy bounds in the two spacetimes are discussed. These holographic bounds are important in the formulation of the holographic principle.

  10. Optimal universal asymmetric covariant quantum cloning circuits for qubit entanglement manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Levente; Koniorczyk, Matyas; Adam, Peter; Janszky, Jozsef

    2010-03-15

    We consider the entanglement manipulation capabilities of the universal covariant quantum cloner or quantum processor circuit for quantum bits. We investigate its use for cloning a member of a bipartite or a genuine tripartite entangled state of quantum bits. We find that for bipartite pure entangled states a nontrivial behavior of concurrence appears, while for GHZ entangled states a possibility of the partial extraction of bipartite entanglement can be achieved.

  11. Optical Implementation of the Optimal Universal and Phase-Covariant Quantum Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liu; Song, Xue-Ke; Yang, Jie; Yang, Qun; Ma, Yang-Cheng

    Quantum cloning relates to the security of quantum computation and quantum communication. In this paper, firstly we propose a feasible unified scheme to implement optimal 1 → 2 universal, 1 → 2 asymmetric and symmetric phase-covariant cloning, and 1 → 2 economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machines only via a beam splitter. Then 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machines also can be realized by adding another beam splitter in context of linear optics. The scheme is based on the interference of two photons on a beam splitter with different splitting ratios for vertical and horizontal polarization components. It is shown that under certain condition, the scheme is feasible by current experimental technology.

  12. General covariant gauge fixing for massless spin-two fields

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, F. T.; Frenkel, J.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2007-11-15

    The most general covariant gauge fixing Lagrangian is considered for a spin-two gauge theory in the context of the Faddeev-Popov procedure. In general, five parameters characterize this gauge fixing. Certain limiting values for these parameters give rise to a spin-two propagator that is either traceless or transverse, but for no values of these parameters is this propagator simultaneously traceless and transverse. Having a traceless-transverse propagator ensures that only the physical degrees of freedom associated with the tensor field propagate, and hence it is analogous to the Landau gauge in electrodynamics. To obtain such a traceless-transverse propagator, a gauge fixing Lagrangian which is not quadratic must be employed; this sort of gauge fixing Lagrangian is not encountered in the usual Faddeev-Popov procedure. It is shown that when this nonquadratic gauge fixing Lagrangian is used, two fermionic and one bosonic ghosts arise. As a simple application we discuss the energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field at finite temperature.

  13. Linear optical scheme for implementing the universal and phase-covariant quantum cloning machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xubo; Li, Ke; Guo, Guangcan

    2007-06-01

    We propose a unified linear optical scheme for implementing the 1→2 optimal universal and ancilla-free 1→3 optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machines of the polarization state of the single photon. The scheme requires linear optical elements and three-photon coincidence detection, and is feasible with current experimental technology.

  14. FBST for covariance structures of generalized Gompertz models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranhão, Viviane Teles de Lucca; Lauretto, Marcelo De Souza; Stern, Julio Michael

    2012-10-01

    The Gompertz distribution is commonly used in biology for modeling fatigue and mortality. This paper studies a class of models proposed by Adham and Walker, featuring a Gompertz type distribution where the dependence structure is modeled by a lognormal distribution, and develops a new multivariate formulation that facilitates several numerical and computational aspects. This paper also implements the FBST, the Full Bayesian Significance Test for pertinent sharp (precise) hypotheses on the lognormal covariance structure. The FBST's e-value, ev(H), gives the epistemic value of hypothesis, H, or the value of evidence in the observed in support of H.

  15. Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Introduction; Part I. Classical Foundations, Interpretation and the Canonical Quantisation Programme: 1. Classical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; 2. The problem of time, locality and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; 3. The programme of canonical quantisation; 4. The new canonical variables of Ashtekar for general relativity; Part II. Foundations of Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity: 5. Introduction; 6. Step I: the holonomy-flux algebra [P]; 7. Step II: quantum-algebra; 8. Step III: representation theory of [A]; 9. Step IV: 1. Implementation and solution of the kinematical constraints; 10. Step V: 2. Implementation and solution of the Hamiltonian constraint; 11. Step VI: semiclassical analysis; Part III. Physical Applications: 12. Extension to standard matter; 13. Kinematical geometrical operators; 14. Spin foam models; 15. Quantum black hole physics; 16. Applications to particle physics and quantum cosmology; 17. Loop quantum gravity phenomenology; Part IV. Mathematical Tools and their Connection to Physics: 18. Tools from general topology; 19. Differential, Riemannian, symplectic and complex geometry; 20. Semianalytical category; 21. Elements of fibre bundle theory; 22. Holonomies on non-trivial fibre bundles; 23. Geometric quantisation; 24. The Dirac algorithm for field theories with constraints; 25. Tools from measure theory; 26. Elementary introduction to Gel'fand theory for Abelean C* algebras; 27. Bohr compactification of the real line; 28. Operatir -algebras and spectral theorem; 29. Refined algebraic quantisation (RAQ) and direct integral decomposition (DID); 30. Basics of harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups; 31. Spin network functions for SU(2); 32. + Functional analytical description of classical connection dynamics; Bibliography; Index.

  16. Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Introduction; Part I. Classical Foundations, Interpretation and the Canonical Quantisation Programme: 1. Classical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; 2. The problem of time, locality and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; 3. The programme of canonical quantisation; 4. The new canonical variables of Ashtekar for general relativity; Part II. Foundations of Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity: 5. Introduction; 6. Step I: the holonomy-flux algebra [P]; 7. Step II: quantum-algebra; 8. Step III: representation theory of [A]; 9. Step IV: 1. Implementation and solution of the kinematical constraints; 10. Step V: 2. Implementation and solution of the Hamiltonian constraint; 11. Step VI: semiclassical analysis; Part III. Physical Applications: 12. Extension to standard matter; 13. Kinematical geometrical operators; 14. Spin foam models; 15. Quantum black hole physics; 16. Applications to particle physics and quantum cosmology; 17. Loop quantum gravity phenomenology; Part IV. Mathematical Tools and their Connection to Physics: 18. Tools from general topology; 19. Differential, Riemannian, symplectic and complex geometry; 20. Semianalytical category; 21. Elements of fibre bundle theory; 22. Holonomies on non-trivial fibre bundles; 23. Geometric quantisation; 24. The Dirac algorithm for field theories with constraints; 25. Tools from measure theory; 26. Elementary introduction to Gel'fand theory for Abelean C* algebras; 27. Bohr compactification of the real line; 28. Operatir -algebras and spectral theorem; 29. Refined algebraic quantisation (RAQ) and direct integral decomposition (DID); 30. Basics of harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups; 31. Spin network functions for SU(2); 32. + Functional analytical description of classical connection dynamics; Bibliography; Index.

  17. Validity of tests under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization and generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jun; Yu, Xinxin

    2013-12-01

    Some covariate-adaptive randomization methods have been used in clinical trials for a long time, but little theoretical work has been done about testing hypotheses under covariate-adaptive randomization until Shao et al. (2010) who provided a theory with detailed discussion for responses under linear models. In this article, we establish some asymptotic results for covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization under generalized linear models with possibly unknown link functions. We show that the simple t-test without using any covariate is conservative under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization in terms of its Type I error rate, and that a valid test using the bootstrap can be constructed. This bootstrap test, utilizing covariates in the randomization scheme, is shown to be asymptotically as efficient as Wald's test correctly using covariates in the analysis. Thus, the efficiency loss due to not using covariates in the analysis can be recovered by utilizing covariates in covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization. Our theory is illustrated with two most popular types of discrete outcomes, binary responses and event counts under the Poisson model, and exponentially distributed continuous responses. We also show that an alternative simple test without using any covariate under the Poisson model has an inflated Type I error rate under simple randomization, but is valid under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization. Effects on the validity of tests due to model misspecification is also discussed. Simulation studies about the Type I errors and powers of several tests are presented for both discrete and continuous responses. PMID:23848580

  18. Optical realization of optimal symmetric universal and phase-covariant quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qing-Min; Fang, Bao-Long; Wu, Tao; Ye, Liu

    2011-01-01

    We propose an experimentally unified linear optical scheme to implement the optimal symmetric one to two (1 → 2) universal, optimal symmetric 1 → 2 phase-covariant and optimal symmetric economical one to three (1 → 3) phase-covariant quantum cloning machines of the polarization state of the single photon. This scheme requires single-photon sources as the input state. Here, we use a laser beam attenuated to the single-photon level as the input source. The scheme relies on one polarized qubit and two location qubits and it also involves linear optical elements. It is shown that under certain conditions, the scheme is feasible by current experimental technology.

  19. A generalized spatiotemporal covariance model for stationary background in analysis of MEG data.

    PubMed

    Plis, S M; Schmidt, D M; Jun, S C; Ranken, D M

    2006-01-01

    Using a noise covariance model based on a single Kronecker product of spatial and temporal covariance in the spatiotemporal analysis of MEG data was demonstrated to provide improvement in the results over that of the commonly used diagonal noise covariance model. In this paper we present a model that is a generalization of all of the above models. It describes models based on a single Kronecker product of spatial and temporal covariance as well as more complicated multi-pair models together with any intermediate form expressed as a sum of Kronecker products of spatial component matrices of reduced rank and their corresponding temporal covariance matrices. The model provides a framework for controlling the tradeoff between the described complexity of the background and computational demand for the analysis using this model. Ways to estimate the value of the parameter controlling this tradeoff are also discussed.

  20. Misspecification of the covariance structure in generalized linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Chavance, M; Escolano, S

    2016-04-01

    When fitting marginal models to correlated outcomes, the so-called sandwich variance is commonly used. However, this is not the case when fitting mixed models. Using two data sets, we illustrate the problems that can be encountered. We show that the differences or the ratios between the naive and sandwich standard deviations of the fixed effects estimators provide convenient means of assessing the fit of the model, as both are consistent when the covariance structure is correctly specified, but only the latter is when that structure is misspecified. When the number of statistical units is not too small, the sandwich formula correctly estimates the variance of the fixed effects estimator even if the random effects are misspecified, and it can be used in a diagnostic tool for assessing the misspecification of the random effects. A simple comparison with the naive variance is sufficient and we propose considering a ratio of the naive and sandwich standard deviation out of the [3/4; 4/3] interval as signaling a risk of erroneous inference due to a model misspecification. We strongly advocate broader use of the sandwich variance for statistical inference about the fixed effects in mixed models.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2008-06-01

    The open problem of constructing a consistent and experimentally tested quantum theory of the gravitational field has its place at the heart of fundamental physics. The main approaches can be roughly divided into two classes: either one seeks a unified quantum framework of all interactions or one starts with a direct quantization of general relativity. In the first class, string theory (M-theory) is the only known example. In the second class, one can make an additional methodological distinction: while covariant approaches such as path-integral quantization use the four-dimensional metric as an essential ingredient of their formalism, canonical approaches start with a foliation of spacetime into spacelike hypersurfaces in order to arrive at a Hamiltonian formulation. The present book is devoted to one of the canonical approaches—loop quantum gravity. It is named modern canonical quantum general relativity by the author because it uses connections and holonomies as central variables, which are analogous to the variables used in Yang Mills theories. In fact, the canonically conjugate variables are a holonomy of a connection and the flux of a non-Abelian electric field. This has to be contrasted with the older geometrodynamical approach in which the metric of three-dimensional space and the second fundamental form are the fundamental entities, an approach which is still actively being pursued. It is the author's ambition to present loop quantum gravity in a way in which every step is formulated in a mathematically rigorous form. In his own words: 'loop quantum gravity is an attempt to construct a mathematically rigorous, background-independent, non-perturbative quantum field theory of Lorentzian general relativity and all known matter in four spacetime dimensions, not more and not less'. The formal Leitmotiv of loop quantum gravity is background independence. Non-gravitational theories are usually quantized on a given non-dynamical background. In contrast, due to

  2. A robust scheme for implementing optimal economical phase-covariant quantum cloning with quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhao; Ji, Yan-Qiang; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2014-03-01

    We present a scheme to implement an optimal symmetric 1→2 economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (EPCCM) with quantum dot (QD) spins in optical microcavities by using a photon as a data bus. The EPCCM copies deterministically the quantum states on southern or northern Bloch hemisphere from one QD spin to two with an optimal fidelity. By analyzing the fidelity of quantum cloning we confirm that it is robust against the dissipation caused by cavity decay, side leakage and dipole decay. For a strong coupling regime, the cloning fidelity approaches a stable optimal bound. Even in a weak coupling regime, it can also achieve a satisfactory high value close to the optimal bound.

  3. The fermionic covariant prolongation structure of the super generalized Hirota equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaowen; Yao, Shaokui; Zhang, Chunhong; Gegenhasi

    2016-07-01

    The integrability of a super generalized Hirota equation (GHE) is investigated by means of the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We construct the su(2/1) × R(λ) prolongation structure for the super GHE and derive the corresponding Lax representation and the Bäcklund transformation. In addition, a solution of the super integrable equation is presented.

  4. Quantum mechanics and the generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Jang Young; Berger, Micheal S.

    2006-12-15

    The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

  5. General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2012-06-01

    Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.

  6. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  7. The generalized quadratic covariation for fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index less than 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Litan; Liu, Junfeng; Chen, Chao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the generalized quadratic covariation of f(BH) and BH defined by $ [f(BH),BH](H)t:=\\lim_\\varepsilon\\downarrow 0}(1)/(\\varepsilon2H)\\int 0t{f(BHs+\\varepsilon) -f(BHs)}(BHs+\\varepsilon-BH_s)ds2H in probability, where f is a Borel function and BH is a fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index 0 < H < 1/2. We construct a Banach space {H} of measurable functions such that the generalized quadratic covariation exists in L2(Ω) and the Bouleau-Yor identity takes the form [f(BH),BH]t(H)=-\\int_ {R}}f(x){L}H(dx,t) provided f\\in {H}, where {L}^{H}(x, t) is the weighted local time of BH. These are also extended to the time-dependent case, and as an application we give the identity between the generalized quadratic covariation and the 4-covariation [g(BH), BH, BH, BH] when H = 1/4.

  8. New Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation Not Requiring Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, David

    2009-05-01

    We introduce a new pde (σμκμμγμψ/xμ-φψ=0) with spherically symmetric diagonalized κ00 = 1-rH =1/κrr giving it general covariance. If rH =2e^2/mec^2 this new pde reduces to the standard Dirac equation as r->∞. Next we solve this equation directly using separation of variables (e.g., 2P, 2S, 1S terms). Note metric time component κoo=0 at r=rH and so clocks slow down with baryon stability the result. Note also that near rH the 2P3/2 state for this new Dirac equation gives a azimuthal trifolium, 3 lobe shape; so this ONE charge e (so don't need color to guarantee this) spends 1/3 of its time in each lobe (fractionally charged lobes), the lobe structure is locked into the center of mass (asymptotic freedom), there are six 2P states (corresponding to the 6 flavors); the P wave scattering gives the jets, all these properties together constituting the main properties of quarks! without invoking the many free parameters, gauge conditions of QCD. Also the 2S1/2 is the tauon and the 1S.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 is the muon here. The S matrix of this new pde gives the W and Z as resonances and does not require renormalization counterterms or free parameters. Thus we get nuclear, weak and E&M phenomenology as one step solutions of this new pde, not requiring the standard method's pathology of adhoc assumptions such as gauges and counterterms, 19 free parameters (you can vary any way you want) that have confused, blocked the progress of theoretical physics for the past 30 years.

  9. New Generally Covariant Generalization of the Dirac Equation Not Requiring Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, David

    2009-03-01

    We introduce a new pde (σμκμμγμψ/xμ-φψ=0) with spherically symmetric diagonalized κ00 = 1-rH =1/κrr giving it general covariance. If rH =2e^2/mec^2 this new pde reduces to the standard Dirac equation as r->∞. Next we solve this equation directly using separation of variables (e.g., 2P, 2S, 1S terms). Note metric time component κoo=0 at r=rH and so clocks slow down with baryon stability the result. Note also that near rH the 2P3/2 state for this new Dirac equation gives a azimuthal trifolium, 3 lobe shape; so this ONE charge e (so don't need color to guarantee this) spends 1/3 of its time in each lobe (fractionally charged lobes), the lobe structure is locked into the center of mass (asymptotic freedom), there are six 2P states (corresponding to the 6 flavors); the P wave scattering gives the jets, all these properties together constituting the main properties of quarks! without invoking the many free parameters, gauge conditions of QCD. Also the 2S1/2 is the tauon and the 1S.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 is the muon here. The S matrix of this new pde gives the W and Z as resonances and does not require renormalization counterterms or free parameters. Thus we get nuclear, weak and E&M phenomenology as one step solutions of this new pde, not requiring the standard method's pathology of adhoc assumptions such as gauges and counterterms, 19 free parameters (you can vary any way you want) that have confused, blocked the progress of theoretical physics for the past 30 years.

  10. Generalized Clustered Quantum Hall States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Steven H.; Cooper, Nigel R.; Rezayi, Ed

    2005-03-01

    The Read-Rezayi (parafermion) quantum Hall states[1] for bosons can be defined as states where the wavefunction does not vanish when g bosons come together to the same point, but does vanish as z^2 as a g+1st particle approaches that point. These states can equivalently be defined as the unique ground state of a point contact g+1 particle interaction Hamiltonian. Interestingly, the series of Read-Rezayi states appears to describe well the groundstates of rotating Bose condensates with point-contact two body interactions at a series of filling fractions [2]. If one attaches a Jastrow factor to such bose wavefunctions, one obtains fermion wavefunctions that may occur in electronic quantum Hall systems including the (g=2) Pfaffian [3] and the (g=3) ν=13/5 Read-Rezayi state [1]. In this work, we consider generalized cluster wavefunctions defined by the algebraic manner in which a wavefunction vanishes as g+1 particles coalesce. We find Hamiltonians that generate these wavefunctions as their exact ground state. Among this series of states is the previously studied Haffnian wavefunction[4] and a host of states not previously discussed. We catalogue and study the new states and discuss whether any of them might occur in actual physical systems. [1] N. Read and E. Rezayi, PRB59, 8084 (1999). [2] N. R. Cooper, N. K. Wilkin, and J. M. F. Gunn, PRL87, 120405 (2001) [3] G. Moore and N. Read, Nuc. Phys. B360, 362 (1991). [4] D. Green, PhD Thesis.

  11. Four dimensional quantum gravity: The covariant path integral and quantization of the conformal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.

    1993-03-01

    After first reviewing the issue of vacuum energy (the cosmological constant problem) in the Einstein theory, the covariant path integral for gravity in four dimensions is constructed. The problem of vacuum energy requires determining the correct ground state of the quantum theory of gravity, and as such is an infrared problem, arising prior to and independently of the physics of the Planck scale. It is addressed in these lectures by studying the infrared fixed point of the low energy effective action of the conformal factor generated by the quantum trace anomaly in four dimensions. The infrared fixed point of this effective theory describes a conformally invariant phase of gravity with a vanishing effective cosmological term.

  12. Four dimensional quantum gravity: The covariant path integral and quantization of the conformal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.

    1993-01-01

    After first reviewing the issue of vacuum energy (the cosmological constant problem) in the Einstein theory, the covariant path integral for gravity in four dimensions is constructed. The problem of vacuum energy requires determining the correct ground state of the quantum theory of gravity, and as such is an infrared problem, arising prior to and independently of the physics of the Planck scale. It is addressed in these lectures by studying the infrared fixed point of the low energy effective action of the conformal factor generated by the quantum trace anomaly in four dimensions. The infrared fixed point of this effective theory describes a conformally invariant phase of gravity with a vanishing effective cosmological term.

  13. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gui-Lu

    2006-05-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  14. Accelerated optimization and automated discovery with covariance matrix adaptation for experimental quantum control

    SciTech Connect

    Roslund, Jonathan; Shir, Ofer M.; Rabitz, Herschel; Baeck, Thomas

    2009-10-15

    Optimization of quantum systems by closed-loop adaptive pulse shaping offers a rich domain for the development and application of specialized evolutionary algorithms. Derandomized evolution strategies (DESs) are presented here as a robust class of optimizers for experimental quantum control. The combination of stochastic and quasi-local search embodied by these algorithms is especially amenable to the inherent topology of quantum control landscapes. Implementation of DES in the laboratory results in efficiency gains of up to {approx}9 times that of the standard genetic algorithm, and thus is a promising tool for optimization of unstable or fragile systems. The statistical learning upon which these algorithms are predicated also provide the means for obtaining a control problem's Hessian matrix with no additional experimental overhead. The forced optimal covariance adaptive learning (FOCAL) method is introduced to enable retrieval of the Hessian matrix, which can reveal information about the landscape's local structure and dynamic mechanism. Exploitation of such algorithms in quantum control experiments should enhance their efficiency and provide additional fundamental insights.

  15. Covariant second-order perturbations in generalized two-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Tzavara, Eleftheria; Tent, Bartjan van; Mizuno, Shuntaro E-mail: Shuntaro.Mizuno@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-07-01

    We examine the covariant properties of generalized models of two-field inflation, with non-canonical kinetic terms and a possibly non-trivial field metric. We demonstrate that kinetic-term derivatives and covariant field derivatives do commute in a proper covariant framework, which was not realized before in the literature. We also define a set of generalized slow-roll parameters, using a unified notation. Within this framework, we study the most general class of models that allows for well-defined adiabatic and entropic sound speeds, which we identify as the models with parallel momentum and field velocity vectors. For these models we write the exact cubic action in terms of the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. We thus provide the tool to calculate the exact non-Gaussianity beyond slow-roll and at any scale for these generalized models. We illustrate our general results by considering their long-wavelength limit, as well as with the example of two-field DBI inflation.

  16. Nonparametric Covariate-Adjusted Association Tests Based on the Generalized Kendall’s Tau*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wensheng; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors for comorbidity is important in psychiatric research. Empirically, studies have shown that testing multiple, correlated traits simultaneously is more powerful than testing a single trait at a time in association analysis. Furthermore, for complex diseases, especially mental illnesses and behavioral disorders, the traits are often recorded in different scales such as dichotomous, ordinal and quantitative. In the absence of covariates, nonparametric association tests have been developed for multiple complex traits to study comorbidity. However, genetic studies generally contain measurements of some covariates that may affect the relationship between the risk factors of major interest (such as genes) and the outcomes. While it is relatively easy to adjust these covariates in a parametric model for quantitative traits, it is challenging for multiple complex traits with possibly different scales. In this article, we propose a nonparametric test for multiple complex traits that can adjust for covariate effects. The test aims to achieve an optimal scheme of adjustment by using a maximum statistic calculated from multiple adjusted test statistics. We derive the asymptotic null distribution of the maximum test statistic, and also propose a resampling approach, both of which can be used to assess the significance of our test. Simulations are conducted to compare the type I error and power of the nonparametric adjusted test to the unadjusted test and other existing adjusted tests. The empirical results suggest that our proposed test increases the power through adjustment for covariates when there exist environmental effects, and is more robust to model misspecifications than some existing parametric adjusted tests. We further demonstrate the advantage of our test by analyzing a data set on genetics of alcoholism. PMID:22745516

  17. Control of the quantum open system via quantum generalized measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ming; Zhu Xiaocai; Li Xingwei; Hu Dewen; Dai Hongyi

    2006-03-15

    For any specified pure state of quantum open system, we can construct a kind of quantum generalized measurement (QGM) that the state of the system after measurement will be deterministically collapsed into the specified pure state from any initial state. In other words, any pure state of quantum open system is reachable by QGM. Subsequently, whether the qubit is density matrix controllable is discussed in the case of pure dephasing. Our results reveal that combining QGM with coherent control will enhance the ability of controlling the quantum open system. Furthermore, it is found that the ability to perform QGM on the quantum open system, combined with the ability of coherence control and conditions of decoherence-free subspace, allows us to suppress quantum decoherence.

  18. Scheme for realizing ancilla-free 1→M economic phase-covariant quantum cloning of qubits and qutrits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xubo; Dong, Yuli; Guo, Guangcan

    2006-12-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to realize the ancilla-free 1→M economic phase-covariant quantum cloning of the equatorial qubit and qutrit. The cloning is implemented by the resonant interaction of the atoms with cavity field of a high-Q cavity. The scheme is deterministic and basic quantum operations to realize schemes may be realized with the current experimental technology.

  19. A numerical algorithm to propagate navigation error covariance matrices associated with generalized strapdown inertial measurement units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Kent A.; Wells, Eugene M.

    1990-01-01

    The design and operation of a Strapdown Navigation Analysis Program (SNAP) developed to perform covariance analysis on spacecraft inertial-measurement-unit (IMU) navigation errors are described and demonstrated. Consideration is given to the IMU modeling subroutine (with user-specified sensor characteristics), the data input procedures, state updates and the simulation of instrument failures, the determination of the nominal trajectory, the mapping-matrix and Monte Carlo covariance-matrix propagation methods, and aided-navigation simulation. Numerical results are presented in tables for sample applications involving (1) the Galileo/IUS spacecraft from its deployment from the Space Shuttle to a point 10 to the 8th ft from the center of the earth and (2) the TDRS-C/IUS spacecraft from Space Shuttle liftoff to a point about 2 h before IUS deployment. SNAP is shown to give reliable results for both cases, with good general agreement between the mapping-matrix and Monte Carlo predictions.

  20. Generalized quantum Hall projection Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Steven H.; Rezayi, E. H.; Cooper, Nigel R.

    2007-02-01

    Certain well known quantum Hall states—including the Laughlin states, the Moore-Read Pfaffian, and the Read-Rezayi Parafermion states—can be defined as the unique lowest degree symmetric analytic function that vanishes as at least p powers as some number (g+1) of particles approach the same point. Analogously, these same quantum Hall states can be generated as the exact highest density zero energy state of simple angular momentum projection operators. Following this theme we determine the highest density zero energy state for many other values of p and g .

  1. A Standardized Generalized Dimensionality Discrepancy Measure and a Standardized Model-Based Covariance for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…

  2. Scheme for the implementation of 1 → 3 optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning in ion-trap systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rong-Can; Li, Hong-Cai; Lin, Xiu; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Xie, Hong

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for the implementation of 1 → 3 optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning with trapped ions. In the present protocol, the required time for the whole procedure is short due to the resonant interaction, which is important in view of decoherence. Furthermore, the scheme is feasible based on current technologies.

  3. Scheme for Implementation of Ancillary-Free 1 → 3 Optimal Phase-Covariant Quantum Cloning with Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rong-Can; Li, Hong-Cai; Lin, Xiu; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Xie, Hong

    2008-06-01

    We propose a simple scheme for the implementation of the ancillary-free 1 → 3 optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning for x-y equatorial qubits in ion-trap system. In the scheme, the vibrational mode is only virtually excited, which is very important in view of decoherence. The present proposal can be realized based on current available technologies.

  4. Work Measurement as a Generalized Quantum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-01

    We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P (w ). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P (w ). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.

  5. Work measurement as a generalized quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia, Augusto J; Cerisola, Federico; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2014-12-19

    We present a new method to measure the work w performed on a driven quantum system and to sample its probability distribution P(w). The method is based on a simple fact that remained unnoticed until now: Work on a quantum system can be measured by performing a generalized quantum measurement at a single time. Such measurement, which technically speaking is denoted as a positive operator valued measure reduces to an ordinary projective measurement on an enlarged system. This observation not only demystifies work measurement but also suggests a new quantum algorithm to efficiently sample the distribution P(w). This can be used, in combination with fluctuation theorems, to estimate free energies of quantum states on a quantum computer.

  6. Numerical model for macroscopic quantum superpositions based on phase-covariant quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraczewski, A.; Stobińska, M.

    2012-10-01

    Macroscopically populated quantum superpositions pose a question to what extent the macroscopic world obeys quantum mechanical laws. Recently, such superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have been demonstrated. They are of fundamental and technological interest. We present numerical methods useful for modeling of these states. Their properties are governed by a Gaussian hypergeometric function, which cannot be reduced to either elementary or easily tractable functions. We discuss the method of efficient computation of this function for half-integer parameters and a moderate value of its argument. We show how to dynamically estimate a cutoff for infinite sums involving this function performed over its parameters. Our algorithm exceeds double precision and is parallelizable. Depending on the experimental parameters it chooses one of the several ways of summation to achieve the best efficiency. The methods presented here can be adjusted for analysis of similar experimental schemes. Program summary Program title: MQSVIS Catalogue identifier: AEMR_ v1_ 0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1643 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13212 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C with OpenMP extensions (main numerical program), Python (helper scripts). Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD and Intel processors), HP BL2x220. Operating system: Unix/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes (OpenMP). RAM: 200 MB for single run for 1000×1000 tile Classification: 4.15, 18. External routines: OpenMP Nature of problem: Recently, macroscopically populated quantum superpositions for light, generated by an optimal quantum cloner, have

  7. Generalized effective description of loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2015-10-01

    The effective description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has proved to be a convenient platform to study phenomenological implications of the quantum bounce that resolves the classical big bang singularity. Originally, this description was derived using Gaussian quantum states with small dispersions. In this paper we present a generalization to incorporate states with large dispersions. Specifically, we derive the generalized effective Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and propose a generalized effective Hamiltonian which are being used in an ongoing study of the phenomenological consequences of a broad class of quantum geometries. We also discuss an interesting interplay between the physics of states with larger dispersions in standard LQC, and of sharply peaked states in (hypothetical) LQC theories with larger area gap.

  8. Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2009-02-01

    Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise-coordinate transformation (GTT). It is shown in general that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on time and angle. Further, we find that the chemical potential in the thermal-radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative-energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.

  9. Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  10. Random walk in generalized quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Xavier; O'Connor, Denjoe; Sorkin, Rafael D.

    2005-01-15

    One can view quantum mechanics as a generalization of classical probability theory that provides for pairwise interference among alternatives. Adopting this perspective, we 'quantize' the classical random walk by finding, subject to a certain condition of 'strong positivity', the most general Markovian, translationally invariant 'decoherence functional' with nearest neighbor transitions.

  11. Dynamical Correspondence in a Generalized Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2015-05-01

    In order to figure out why quantum physics needs the complex Hilbert space, many attempts have been made to distinguish the C*-algebras and von Neumann algebras in more general classes of abstractly defined Jordan algebras (JB- and JBW-algebras). One particularly important distinguishing property was identified by Alfsen and Shultz and is the existence of a dynamical correspondence. It reproduces the dual role of the selfadjoint operators as observables and generators of dynamical groups in quantum mechanics. In the paper, this concept is extended to another class of nonassociative algebras, arising from recent studies of the quantum logics with a conditional probability calculus and particularly of those that rule out third-order interference. The conditional probability calculus is a mathematical model of the Lüders-von Neumann quantum measurement process, and third-order interference is a property of the conditional probabilities which was discovered by Sorkin (Mod Phys Lett A 9:3119-3127, 1994) and which is ruled out by quantum mechanics. It is shown then that the postulates that a dynamical correspondence exists and that the square of any algebra element is positive still characterize, in the class considered, those algebras that emerge from the selfadjoint parts of C*-algebras equipped with the Jordan product. Within this class, the two postulates thus result in ordinary quantum mechanics using the complex Hilbert space or, vice versa, a genuine generalization of quantum theory must omit at least one of them.

  12. Generalized Ramsey numbers through adiabatic quantum optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, Mani; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Ramsey theory is an active research area in combinatorics whose central theme is the emergence of order in large disordered structures, with Ramsey numbers marking the threshold at which this order first appears. For generalized Ramsey numbers r( G, H), the emergent order is characterized by graphs G and H. In this paper we: (i) present a quantum algorithm for computing generalized Ramsey numbers by reformulating the computation as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using adiabatic quantum optimization; and (ii) determine the Ramsey numbers r({{T}}m,{{T}}n) for trees of order m,n = 6,7,8, most of which were previously unknown.

  13. Improvement of structural models using covariance analysis and nonlinear generalized least squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. J.; Kuo, C. P.; Wada, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    The next generation of large, flexible space structures will be too light to support their own weight, requiring a system of structural supports for ground testing. The authors have proposed multiple boundary-condition testing (MBCT), using more than one support condition to reduce uncertainties associated with the supports. MBCT would revise the mass and stiffness matrix, analytically qualifying the structure for operation in space. The same procedure is applicable to other common test conditions, such as empty/loaded tanks and subsystem/system level tests. This paper examines three techniques for constructing the covariance matrix required by nonlinear generalized least squares (NGLS) to update structural models based on modal test data. The methods range from a complicated approach used to generate the simulation data (i.e., the correct answer) to a diagonal matrix based on only two constants. The results show that NGLS is very insensitive to assumptions about the covariance matrix, suggesting that a workable NGLS procedure is possible. The examples also indicate that the multiple boundary condition procedure more accurately reduces errors than individual boundary condition tests alone.

  14. Linear optical implementation of ancilla-free 1→3 optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machines for the equatorial qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xubo; Mathis, W.

    2005-08-01

    We propose experimental schemes to implement ancilla-free 1→3 optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machines for x-y and x-z equatorial qubits by interfering a polarized photon, which we wish to clone, with different light resources at a six-port symmetric beam splitter. The scheme requires linear optical elements and three-photon coincidence detection, and is feasible with current experimental technology.

  15. Linear optical implementation of ancilla-free 1{yields}3 optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machines for the equatorial qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Xubo; Mathis, W.

    2005-08-15

    We propose experimental schemes to implement ancilla-free 1{yields}3 optimal phase covariant quantum cloning machines for x-y and x-z equatorial qubits by interfering a polarized photon, which we wish to clone, with different light resources at a six-port symmetric beam splitter. The scheme requires linear optical elements and three-photon coincidence detection, and is feasible with current experimental technology.

  16. Multi-atom entanglement engineering and phase-covariant quantum cloning with a single resonant interaction assisted by external driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2014-12-01

    We propose a scheme to realize multi-atom entanglement and phase-covariant quantum cloning in a short-time manner possessing the advantage of its robustness with respect to parameter fluctuations. The process is achieved by externally driving the atoms to resonantly couple to the cavity mode. Compared to other strategies, such as the adiabatic or virtual-photon techniques, it provides a method which allows the relatively fast coherent manipulation.

  17. Generalized Quantum Theory and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroun, Michael Anthony

    This dissertation is divided into two main topics. The first is the generalization of quantum dynamics when the Schrodinger partial differential equation is not defined even in the weak mathematical sense because the potential function itself is a distribution in the spatial variable, the same variable that is used to define the kinetic energy operator, i.e. the Laplace operator. The procedure is an extension and broadening of the distributional calculus and offers spectral results as an alternative to the only other two known methods to date, namely a) the functional calculi; and b) non-standard analysis. Furthermore, the generalizations of quantum dynamics presented within give a resolution to the time asymmetry paradox created by multi-particle quantum mechanics due to the time evolution still being unitary. A consequence is the randomization of phases needed for the fundamental justification Pauli master equation. The second topic is foundations of the quantum theory of fields. The title is phrased as ``foundations'' to emphasize that there is no claim of uniqueness but rather a proposal is put forth, which is markedly different than that of constructive or axiomatic field theory. In particular, the space of fields is defined as a space of generalized functions with involutive symmetry maps (the CPT invariance) that affect the topology of the field space. The space of quantum fields is then endowed the Frechet property and interactions change the topology in such a way as to cause some field spaces to be incompatible with others. This is seen in the consequences of the Haag theorem. Various examples and discussions are given that elucidate a new view of the quantum theory of fields and its (lack of) mathematical structure.

  18. A quantum logic network for implementing optimal symmetric universal and phase-covariant telecloning of a bipartite entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanyu; Zhu, Aidong

    2008-10-01

    A quantum logic network to implement quantum telecloning is presented in this paper. The network includes two parts: the first part is used to create the telecloning channel and the second part to teleport the state. It can be used not only to implement universal telecloning for a bipartite entangled state which is completely unknown, but also to implement the phase-covariant telecloning for one that is partially known. Furthermore, the network can also be used to construct a tele-triplicator. It can easily be implemented in experiment because only single- and two-qubit operations are used in the network.

  19. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation and General Relativity Compared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, Ronald

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 18 proofs and indications with a reasonable, non-fallacious explanation stating Gravity and Gravitation are electromagnetic and alternating, functioning in nuclei and alternating electromagnetic coupling between nuclei and other nuclei in other masses. This is according to Maxwell, Quantum, and Newtonian Laws. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation passes the Cavendish test. With the 18 proofs and indications of NQG it is clear that Gravity and Gravitation are electromagnetic and thoroughly explained by the Nuclear Quantum Gravitation theory. In comparison, General Relativity pictures mass somehow effects ``Time-Space'' about the mass, producing gravity about that mass. This is not described as an electromagnetic effect, but as a geometric function; the changing of geometry about mass. GR lists as a proof the bending of light in the area near the Sun. However, recently it was observed that the temperature of the Sun's corona is in the millions of degrees, and thus the bending of light and other electromagnetic radiation is caused by the refraction effects of the corona and heliosphere; NOT GR. The other ``proofs'' of GR are not definitive, and no one has yet explained the ``somehow'' of GR. General Relativity fails the Cavendish experiment and cannot account for the attractions between masses. It should be realized that Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a coherent, factual, scientific and direct physical explanation of Gravity and Gravitation thus Unifying the Physical Forces.

  20. Generalized Squashing Factors for Covariant Description of Magnetic Connectivity in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titov, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study of magnetic connectivity in the solar corona reveals a need to generalize the field line mapping technique to arbitrary geometry of the boundaries and systems of coordinates. Indeed, the global description of the connectivity in the corona requires the use of the photospheric and solar wind boundaries. Both are closed surfaces and therefore do not admit a global regular system of coordinates. At least two overlapping regular systems of coordinates for each of the boundaries are necessary in this case to avoid spherical-pole-like singularities in the coordinates of the footpoints. This implies that the basic characteristic of magnetic connectivity-the squashing degree or factor Q of elemental flux tubes, according to Titov and coworkers-must be rewritten in covariant form. Such a covariant expression of Q is derived in this work. The derived expression is very flexible and highly efficient for describing the global magnetic connectivity in the solar corona. In addition, a general expression for a new characteristic Q1, which defines a squashing of the flux tubes in the directions perpendicular to the field lines, is determined. This new quantity makes it possible to filter out the quasi-separatrix layers whose large values of Q are caused by a projection effect at the field lines nearly touching the photosphere. Thus, the value Q1 provides a much more precise description of the volumetric properties of the magnetic field structure. The difference between Q and Q1 is illustrated by comparing their distributions for two configurations, one of which is the Titov-Demoulin model of a twisted magnetic field.

  1. Eddy covariance carbonyl sulfide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdel, Katharina; Spielmann, Felix M.; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur containing trace gas present in the troposphere at concentrations of around 500 ppt. Recent interest in COS by the ecosystem-physiological community has been sparked by the fact that COS co-diffuses into plant leaves pretty much the same way as carbon dioxide (CO2) does, but in contrast to CO2, COS is not known to be emitted by plants. Thus uptake of COS by vegetation has the potential to be used as a tracer for canopy gross photosynthesis, which cannot be measured directly, however represents a key term in the global carbon cycle. Since a few years, quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometers (QCLAS) are commercially available with the precision, sensitivity and time response suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. While there exist a handful of published reports on EC flux measurements in the recent literature, no rigorous investigation of the applicability of QCLAS for EC COS flux measurements has been carried out so far, nor have been EC processing and QA/QC steps developed for carbon dioxide and water vapor flux measurements within FLUXNET been assessed for COS. The aim of this study is to close this knowledge gap, to discuss critical steps in the post-processing chain of COS EC flux measurements and to devise best-practice guidelines for COS EC flux data processing. To this end we collected EC COS (and CO2, H2O and CO) flux measurements above a temperate mountain grassland in Austria over the vegetation period 2015 with a commercially available QCLAS. We discuss various aspects of EC data post-processing, in particular issues with the time-lag estimation between sonic anemometer and QCLAS signals and QCLAS time series detrending, as well as QA/QC, in particular flux detection limits, random flux uncertainty, the interaction of various processing steps with common EC QA/QC filters (e.g. detrending and stationarity tests), u*-filtering, etc.

  2. Covariance estimators for generalized estimating equations (GEE) in longitudinal analysis with small samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Kong, Lan; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Lijun

    2016-05-10

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) is a general statistical method to fit marginal models for longitudinal data in biomedical studies. The variance-covariance matrix of the regression parameter coefficients is usually estimated by a robust "sandwich" variance estimator, which does not perform satisfactorily when the sample size is small. To reduce the downward bias and improve the efficiency, several modified variance estimators have been proposed for bias-correction or efficiency improvement. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on recent developments of modified variance estimators and compare their small-sample performance theoretically and numerically through simulation and real data examples. In particular, Wald tests and t-tests based on different variance estimators are used for hypothesis testing, and the guideline on appropriate sample sizes for each estimator is provided for preserving type I error in general cases based on numerical results. Moreover, we develop a user-friendly R package "geesmv" incorporating all of these variance estimators for public usage in practice. PMID:26585756

  3. Locally covariant quantum field theory and the problem of formulating the same physics in all space-times.

    PubMed

    Fewster, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    The framework of locally covariant quantum field theory is discussed, motivated in part using 'ignorance principles'. It is shown how theories can be represented by suitable functors, so that physical equivalence of theories may be expressed via natural isomorphisms between the corresponding functors. The inhomogeneous scalar field is used to illustrate the ideas. It is argued that there are two reasonable definitions of the local physical content associated with a locally covariant theory; when these coincide, the theory is said to be dynamically local. The status of the dynamical locality condition is reviewed, as are its applications in relation to (i) the foundational question of what it means for a theory to represent the same physics in different space-times and (ii) a no-go result on the existence of natural states.

  4. Evidence for maximal acceleration and singularity resolution in covariant loop quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2013-08-30

    A simple argument indicates that covariant loop gravity (spin foam theory) predicts a maximal acceleration and hence forbids the development of curvature singularities. This supports the results obtained for cosmology and black holes using canonical methods.

  5. Estimation and Inference in Generalized Additive Coefficient Models for Nonlinear Interactions with High-Dimensional Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Shujie, MA; Carroll, Raymond J.; Liang, Hua; Xu, Shizhong

    2015-01-01

    In the low-dimensional case, the generalized additive coefficient model (GACM) proposed by Xue and Yang [Statist. Sinica 16 (2006) 1423–1446] has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying nonlinear interaction effects of variables. In this paper, we propose estimation and inference procedures for the GACM when the dimension of the variables is high. Specifically, we propose a groupwise penalization based procedure to distinguish significant covariates for the “large p small n” setting. The procedure is shown to be consistent for model structure identification. Further, we construct simultaneous confidence bands for the coefficient functions in the selected model based on a refined two-step spline estimator. We also discuss how to choose the tuning parameters. To estimate the standard deviation of the functional estimator, we adopt the smoothed bootstrap method. We conduct simulation experiments to evaluate the numerical performance of the proposed methods and analyze an obesity data set from a genome-wide association study as an illustration. PMID:26412908

  6. Phase-space-Lagrangian action principle and the generalized K-X theorem. [in covariant coupled equations for plasma dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Allan N.

    1987-01-01

    The covariant coupled equations for plasma dynamics and the Maxwell field are expressed as a phase-space-Lagrangian action principle. The linear interaction is transformed to the bilinear beat Hamiltonian by a gauge-invariant Lagrangian Lie transform. The result yields the generalized linear susceptibility directly.

  7. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  8. Quantum physics reimagined for the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobroff, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined

  9. Scheme for implementing 1 → M symmetric economical phase-covariant telecloning based on quantum logic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan-Hui; Wang, Lei

    2012-04-01

    The quantum logic network to implement 1 → M symmetric economical phase-covariant telecloning is presented. The scheme includes two parts: the first part is used to create the telecloning channel and the second part to teleport the input state. The telecloning channel which works without ancilla is constructed by two kinds of elementary unitary transformations, single-qubit rotation and multiple-qubit controlled operation. The probability of success is 50%, which is the same with the scheme in [Meng, F.Y.; Zhu, A.D. J. Mod. Opt. 2009, 56, 1255-1259].

  10. Covariant loop quantum gravity, low-energy perturbation theory, and Einstein gravity with high-curvature UV corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Muxin

    2014-06-01

    A low-energy perturbation theory is developed from the nonperturbative framework of covariant loop quantum gravity (LQG) by employing the background-field method. The resulting perturbation theory is a two-parameter expansion in the semiclassical and low-energy regime. The two expansion parameters are the large spin and small curvature. The leading-order effective action coincides with the Regge action, which well approximates the Einstein-Hilbert action in the regime. The subleading corrections organized by the two expansion parameters give the modifications of the Regge action in the quantum and high-energy regime from LQG. The perturbation theory developed here shows for the first time that covariant LQG produces the high-curvature corrections to Einstein-Regge gravity. This result means that LQG is not a naive quantization of Einstein gravity; rather, it provides the UV modification. The result of the paper may be viewed as the first step toward understanding the UV completeness of LQG.

  11. A Generalized Information Theoretical Model for Quantum Secret Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chen-Ming; Li, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Ting-Ting; Li, Yong-Ming

    2016-07-01

    An information theoretical model for quantum secret sharing was introduced by H. Imai et al. (Quantum Inf. Comput. 5(1), 69-80 2005), which was analyzed by quantum information theory. In this paper, we analyze this information theoretical model using the properties of the quantum access structure. By the analysis we propose a generalized model definition for the quantum secret sharing schemes. In our model, there are more quantum access structures which can be realized by our generalized quantum secret sharing schemes than those of the previous one. In addition, we also analyse two kinds of important quantum access structures to illustrate the existence and rationality for the generalized quantum secret sharing schemes and consider the security of the scheme by simple examples.

  12. A comparison of bias-corrected covariance estimators for generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunpeng; Zhang, Donghui; Zhang, Cun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Although asymptotically the sandwich covariance estimator is consistent and robust with respect to the selection of the working correlation matrix, when the sample size is small, its bias may not be negligible. This article compares the small sample corrections for the sandwich covariance estimator as well as the inferential procedures proposed by Mancl and DeRouen ( 2001 ), Kauermann and Carroll ( 2001 ), Fay and Graubard ( 2001 ), and Fan et al. ( 2012 ). Simulation studies show that when using a maximum likelihood method to estimate the covariance parameters and using the between-within method for the denominator degrees of freedom when making inference, the Kauermann and Carroll method is preferred in the investigated balanced logistic regression and the Mancl and DeRouen and Fan et al. methods are preferred in the investigated proportional odds model. A collagen-induced arthritis study is employed to demonstrate the application of the methods.

  13. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  14. Generalized Gibbs ensembles for quantum field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, F. H. L.; Mussardo, G.; Panfil, M.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the nonequilibrium dynamics in quantum field theories (QFTs). After being prepared in a density matrix that is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian, such systems are expected to relax locally to a stationary state. In the presence of local conservation laws, these stationary states are believed to be described by appropriate generalized Gibbs ensembles. Here we demonstrate that in order to obtain a correct description of the stationary state, it is necessary to take into account conservation laws that are not (ultra)local in the usual sense of QFTs, but fulfill a significantly weaker form of locality. We discuss the implications of our results for integrable QFTs in one spatial dimension.

  15. General conditions for quantum adiabatic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Comparat, Daniel

    2009-07-15

    Adiabaticity occurs when, during its evolution, a physical system remains in the instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, existing results, such as the quantum adiabatic theorem based on a slow down evolution [H({epsilon}t),{epsilon}{yields}0], are insufficient to describe an evolution driven by the Hamiltonian H(t) itself. Here we derive general criteria and exact bounds, for the state and its phase, ensuring an adiabatic evolution for any Hamiltonian H(t). As a corollary, we demonstrate that the commonly used condition of a slow Hamiltonian variation rate, compared to the spectral gap, is indeed sufficient to ensure adiabaticity but only when the Hamiltonian is real and nonoscillating (for instance, containing exponential or polynomial but no sinusoidal functions)

  16. General impossible operations in quantum information

    SciTech Connect

    Pati, Arun K.

    2002-12-01

    We prove a general limitation in quantum information that unifies the impossibility principles such as no-cloning and no-anticloning. Further, we show that for an unknown qubit one cannot design a universal Hadamard gate for creating equal superposition of the original and its complement state. Surprisingly, we find that Hadamard transformations exist for an unknown qubit chosen either from the polar or equatorial great circles. Also, we show that for an unknown qubit one cannot design a universal unitary gate for creating unequal superpositions of the original and its complement state. We discuss why it is impossible to design a controlled-NOT gate for two unknown qubits and discuss the implications of these limitations. 03.67.Hk, 03.65.Ta.

  17. A family of generalized quantum entropies: definition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Zozor, S.; Holik, F.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a quantum version of the generalized (h,φ )-entropies, introduced by Salicrú et al. for the study of classical probability distributions. We establish their basic properties and show that already known quantum entropies such as von Neumann, and quantum versions of Rényi, Tsallis, and unified entropies, constitute particular classes of the present general quantum Salicrú form. We exhibit that majorization plays a key role in explaining most of their common features. We give a characterization of the quantum (h,φ )-entropies under the action of quantum operations and study their properties for composite systems. We apply these generalized entropies to the problem of detection of quantum entanglement and introduce a discussion on possible generalized conditional entropies as well.

  18. Optical implementations of the optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2003-05-01

    We propose two simple implementations of the optimal symmetric 1{yields}2 phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits. The first scheme is designed for qubits encoded into polarization states of photons and it involves a mixing of two photons on an unbalanced beam splitter. This scheme is probabilistic and the cloning succeeds with the probability 1/3. In the second setup, the qubits are represented by the states of Rydberg atoms and the cloning is accomplished by the resonant interaction of the atoms with a microwave field confined in a high-Q cavity. This latter approach allows for deterministic implementation of the optimal cloning transformation.

  19. Several experimental realizations of symmetric phase-covariant quantum cloners of single-photon qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, Lucie; Černoch, Antonín; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Dušek, Miloslav

    2007-10-01

    We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by a special unbalanced beam splitter or by a balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber-based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.

  20. Several experimental realizations of symmetric phase-covariant quantum cloners of single-photon qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Soubusta, Jan; Cernoch, Antonin; Bartuskova, Lucie; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Dusek, Miloslav

    2007-10-15

    We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by a special unbalanced beam splitter or by a balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber-based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.

  1. The linear co-variance between joint muscle torques is not a generalized principle.

    PubMed

    Sande de Souza, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci; Dionísio, Valdeci Carlos; Lerena, Mario Adrian Misailidis; Marconi, Nadia Fernanda; Almeida, Gil Lúcio

    2009-06-01

    In 1996, Gottlieb et al. [Gottlieb GL, Song Q, Hong D, Almeida GL, Corcos DM. Coordinating movement at two joints: A principle of linear covariance. J Neurophysiol 1996;75(4):1760-4] identified a linear co-variance between the joint muscle torques generated at two connected joints. The joint muscle torques changed directions and magnitudes in a synchronized and linear fashion and called it the principle of linear co-variance. Here we showed that this principle cannot hold for some class of movements. Neurologically normal subjects performed multijoint movements involving elbow and shoulder with reversal towards three targets in the sagittal plane without any constraints. The movement kinematics was calculated using the X and Y coordinates of the markers positioned over the joints. Inverse dynamics was used to calculate the joint muscle, interaction and net torques. We found that for the class of voluntary movements analyzed, the joint muscle torques of the elbow and the shoulder were not linearly correlated. The same was observed for the interaction torques. But, the net torques at both joints, i.e., the sum of the interaction and the joint muscle torques were linearly correlated. We showed that by decoupling the joint muscle torques, but keeping the net torques linearly correlated, the CNS was able to generate fast and accurate movements with straight fingertip paths. The movement paths were typical of the ones in which the joint muscle torques were linearly correlated.

  2. Hybrid quantum computing: semicloning for general database retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2005-05-01

    Quantum computing (QC) has become an important area of research in computer science because of its potential to provide more efficient algorithmic solutions to certain problems than are possible with classical computing (CC). In particular, QC is able to exploit the special properties of quantum superposition to achieve computational parallelism beyond what can be achieved with parallel CC computers. However, these special properties are not applicable for general computation. Therefore, we propose the use of "hybrid quantum computers" (HQCs) that combine both classical and quantum computing architectures in order to leverage the benefits of both. We demonstrate how an HQC can exploit quantum search to support general database operations more efficiently than is possible with CC. Our solution is based on new quantum results that are of independent significance to the field of quantum computing. More specifically, we demonstrate that the most restrictive implications of the quantum No-Cloning Theorem can be avoided through the use of semiclones.

  3. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James D.; Rodríguez-Rosario, César A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-02-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of a generalized quantum-mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical, and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line and the glued tree of depth three to observe the behavior of the QW-to-CRW transition.

  4. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, James D.; Rodriguez-Rosario, Cesar A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-02-15

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of a generalized quantum-mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical, and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line and the glued tree of depth three to observe the behavior of the QW-to-CRW transition.

  5. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Rosario, Cesar A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Whitfield, James D.

    2010-02-23

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of a generalized quantum-mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical, and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line and the glued tree of depth three to observe the behavior of the QW-to-CRW transition.

  6. Geometric Phase for Adiabatic Evolutions of General Quantum States

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Biao; Liu, Jie; Niu, Qian; Singh, David J

    2005-01-01

    The concept of a geometric phase (Berry's phase) is generalized to the case of noneigenstates, which is applicable to both linear and nonlinear quantum systems. This is particularly important to nonlinear quantum systems, where, due to the lack of the superposition principle, the adiabatic evolution of a general state cannot be described in terms of eigenstates. For linear quantum systems, our new geometric phase reduces to a statistical average of Berry's phases. Our results are demonstrated with a nonlinear two-level model.

  7. Manufacturing time operators: Covariance, selection criteria, and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Hegerfeldt, G. C.; Muga, J. G.; Munoz, J.

    2010-07-15

    We provide the most general forms of covariant and normalized time operators and their probability densities, with applications to quantum clocks, the time of arrival, and Lyapunov quantum operators. Examples are discussed of the profusion of possible operators and their physical meaning. Criteria to define unique, optimal operators for specific cases are given.

  8. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  9. Quantum stochastic walks: A generalization of classical random walks and quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2010-03-01

    We introduce the quantum stochastic walk (QSW), which determines the evolution of generalized quantum mechanical walk on a graph that obeys a quantum stochastic equation of motion. Using an axiomatic approach, we specify the rules for all possible quantum, classical and quantum-stochastic transitions from a vertex as defined by its connectivity. We show how the family of possible QSWs encompasses both the classical random walk (CRW) and the quantum walk (QW) as special cases, but also includes more general probability distributions. As an example, we study the QSW on a line, the QW to CRW transition and transitions to genearlized QSWs that go beyond the CRW and QW. QSWs provide a new framework to the study of quantum algorithms as well as of quantum walks with environmental effects.

  10. Generalized Roe and Metz receiver operating characteristic model: analytic link between simulated decision scores and empirical AUC variances and covariances.

    PubMed

    Gallas, Brandon D; Hillis, Stephen L

    2014-10-01

    Modeling and simulation are often used to understand and investigate random quantities and estimators. In 1997, Roe and Metz introduced a simulation model to validate analysis methods for the popular endpoint in reader studies to evaluate medical imaging devices, the reader-averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Here, we generalize the notation of the model to allow more flexibility in recognition that variances of ROC ratings depend on modality and truth state. We also derive and validate equations for computing population variances and covariances for reader-averaged empirical AUC estimates under the generalized model. The equations are one-dimensional integrals that can be calculated using standard numerical integration techniques. This work provides the theoretical foundation and validation for a Java application called iRoeMetz that can simulate multireader multicase ROC studies and numerically calculate the corresponding variances and covariances of the empirical AUC. The iRoeMetz application and source code can be found at the "iMRMC" project on the google code project hosting site. These results and the application can be used by investigators to investigate ROC endpoints, validate analysis methods, and plan future studies.

  11. Generalized Roe and Metz receiver operating characteristic model: analytic link between simulated decision scores and empirical AUC variances and covariances

    PubMed Central

    Gallas, Brandon D.; Hillis, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Modeling and simulation are often used to understand and investigate random quantities and estimators. In 1997, Roe and Metz introduced a simulation model to validate analysis methods for the popular endpoint in reader studies to evaluate medical imaging devices, the reader-averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Here, we generalize the notation of the model to allow more flexibility in recognition that variances of ROC ratings depend on modality and truth state. We also derive and validate equations for computing population variances and covariances for reader-averaged empirical AUC estimates under the generalized model. The equations are one-dimensional integrals that can be calculated using standard numerical integration techniques. This work provides the theoretical foundation and validation for a Java application called iRoeMetz that can simulate multireader multicase ROC studies and numerically calculate the corresponding variances and covariances of the empirical AUC. The iRoeMetz application and source code can be found at the “iMRMC” project on the google code project hosting site. These results and the application can be used by investigators to investigate ROC endpoints, validate analysis methods, and plan future studies. PMID:26158048

  12. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zehui; Guo, Juan; Gao, Jiangrui

    2006-05-01

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  13. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  14. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  15. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  16. Quantum Random Walks with General Particle States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, Alexander C. R.

    2014-06-01

    A convergence theorem is obtained for quantum random walks with particles in an arbitrary normal state. This unifies and extends previous work on repeated-interactions models, including that of Attal and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré 7:59-104 2006) and Belton (J Lond Math Soc 81:412-434, 2010; Commun Math Phys 300:317-329, 2010). When the random-walk generator acts by ampliation and either multiplication or conjugation by a unitary operator, it is shown that the quantum stochastic cocycle which arises in the limit is driven by a unitary process.

  17. Use of Generalized Extreme Value Covariates to Improve Estimation of Trends and Return Frequencies for Lake Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paynter, S.; Nachabe, M.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most important tools in water management is the accurate forecast of both long-term and short- term extreme values for both flood and drought conditions. Traditional methods of trend detection, such as ordinary least squares (OLS) or the Mann-Kendall test, are not aptly suited for hydrologic systems while traditional methods of predicting extreme flood and drought frequencies, such as distribution fitting without parameter covariates, may be highly inaccurate in lake-type systems, especially in the short-term. In the case of lakes, traditional frequency return estimates assume extremes are independent of trend or starting lake stages. However, due to the significant autocorrelation of lake levels, the initial stage can have a significant influence on the severity of a given event. The aim of this research was to accurately identify the direction and magnitude of trends in flood and drought stages and provide more accurate predictions of both long-term and short-term flood and drought stage return frequencies utilizing the generalized extreme value distribution with time and starting stage covariates. All of the lakes researched evidenced either no trend or very small trends unlikely to significantly alter prediction of future flood or drought return levels. However, for all of the lakes significant improvement in the prediction of extremes was obtained with the inclusion of starting lake stage as a covariate. Traditional methods of predicting flood or drought stages significantly overpredict stages when starting lake stages are low and underpredict stages when starting stages are high. The difference between these predictions can be nearly two meters, a significant amount in urbanized watersheds in areas of the world with flat topography. Differences of near two meters can mean significant alterations in evacuation or other water management decisions. In addition to improving prediction of extreme events, utilizing GEV with time or starting stage

  18. Static electromagnetic fields and charged black holes in general covariant theory of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Borzou, Ahmad; Lin, Kai; Wang, Anzhong E-mail: k_lin@baylor.edu

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we study electromeganetic static spacetimes in the nonrelativisitc general covariant theory of the Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity, proposed recently by Hořava and Melby-Thompson, and present all the electric static solutions, which represent the generalization of the Reissner-Nordström solution found in Einstein's general relativity (GR). The global/local structures of spacetimes in the HL theory in general are different from those given in GR, because the dispersion relations of test particles now contain high-order momentum terms, so the speeds of these particles are unbounded in the ultraviolet (UV). As a result, the conception of light-cones defined in GR becomes invalid and test particles do not follow geodesics. To study black holes in the HL theory, we adopt the geometrical optical approximations, and define a horizon as a (two-closed) surface that is free of spacetime singularities and on which massless test particles are infinitely redshifted. With such a definition, we show that some of our solutions give rise to (charged) black holes, although the radii of their horizons in general depend on the energies of the test particles.

  19. Covariant energy–momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Dupre, M.J.

    2013-12-15

    We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy–momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum. -- Highlights: •We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. •Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energy–momentum. •Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. •New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. •Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum in strong gravity extreme.

  20. Generalized uncertainty principle in Bianchi type I quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, B.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2007-07-01

    We study a quantum Bianchi type I model in which the dynamical variables of the corresponding minisuperspace obey the generalized Heisenberg algebra. Such a generalized uncertainty principle has its origin in the existence of a minimal length suggested by quantum gravity and sting theory. We present approximate analytical solutions to the corresponding Wheeler DeWitt equation in the limit where the scale factor of the universe is small and compare the results with the standard commutative and noncommutative quantum cosmology. Similarities and differences of these solutions are also discussed.

  1. Structural Modeling of Measurement Error in Generalized Linear Models with Rasch Measures as Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a structural analysis for generalized linear models when some explanatory variables are measured with error and the measurement error variance is a function of the true variables. The focus is on latent variables investigated on the basis of questionnaires and estimated using item response theory models. Latent variable…

  2. Black holes, compact objects and solar system tests in non-relativistic general covariant theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, Jared; Satheeshkumar, V.H.; Wang, Anzhong E-mail: VHSatheeshkumar@baylor.edu

    2010-12-01

    We study spherically symmetric static spacetimes generally filled with an anisotropic fluid in the nonrelativistic general covariant theory of gravity. In particular, we find that the vacuum solutions are not unique, and can be expressed in terms of the U(1) gauge field A. When solar system tests are considered, severe constraints on A are obtained, which seemingly pick up the Schwarzschild solution uniquely. In contrast to other versions of the Horava-Lifshitz theory, non-singular static stars made of a perfect fluid without heat flow can be constructed, due to the coupling of the fluid with the gauge field. These include the solutions with a constant pressure. We also study the general junction conditions across the surface of a star. In general, the conditions allow the existence of a thin matter shell on the surface. When applying these conditions to the perfect fluid solutions with the vacuum ones as describing their external spacetimes, we find explicitly the matching conditions in terms of the parameters appearing in the solutions. Such matching is possible even without the presence of a thin matter shell.

  3. Covariance of floral and vegetative traits in four species of Ranunculaceae: a comparison between specialized and generalized pollination systems.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jin-Liu; Zhou, Xian-Hui; Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2008-09-01

    Theory predicts that tighter correlation between floral traits and weaker relationship between floral and vegetative traits more likely occur in specialized flowers than generalized flowers, favoring by precise fit with pollinators. However, traits and trait correlations frequently vary under different environments. Through detecting spatiotemporal variation in phenotypic traits (floral organ size and vegetative size) and trait correlations in four Ranunculaceae species, we examined four predictions. Overall, our results supported these predictions to a certain degree. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of floral traits in two specialized species (Delphinium kamaonense and Aconitum gymnandrum) was marginally significantly lower than that of another two generalized species (Trollius ranunculoides and Anemone obtusiloba). The two specialized species also showed marginally significantly smaller CV in floral traits than vegetative size across the two species. The absolute mean correlation between floral and vegetative traits, or that between floral traits in species with specialized flowers was not significantly lower, or higher than that in generalized plants, weakly supporting the predictions. Furthermore, we documented a large variation in trait correlations of four species among different seasons and populations. Study of covariance of floral and vegetative traits will benefit from the contrast of results obtained from generalized and specialized pollination systems.

  4. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Zehui; Guo Juan; Gao Jiangrui

    2006-05-15

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  5. General relativistic effects in quantum interference of “clocks”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, M.; Pikovski, I.; Costa, F.; Brukner, Č.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics and general relativity have been each successfully tested in numerous experiments. However, the regime where both theories are jointly required to explain physical phenomena remains untested by laboratory experiments, and is also not fully understood by theory. This contribution reviews recent ideas for a new type of experiments: quantum interference of “clocks”, which aim to test novel quantum effects that arise from time dilation. “Clock” interference experiments could be realised with atoms or photons in near future laboratory experiments.

  6. Positive spaces, generalized semi-densities, and quantum interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canarutto, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The basics of quantum particle physics on a curved Lorentzian background are expressed in a formulation which has original aspects and exploits some non-standard mathematical notions. In particular, positive spaces and generalized semi-densities (in a distributional sense) are shown to link, in a natural way, discrete multi-particle spaces to distributional bundles of quantum states. The treatment of spinor and boson fields is partly original also from an algebraic point of view and suggests a non-standard approach to quantum interactions. The case of electroweak interactions provides examples.

  7. Generalized Limits for Single-Parameter Quantum Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Boixo, Sergio; Flammia, Steven T.; Caves, Carlton M.; Geremia, JM

    2007-03-02

    We develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multisystem interactions. For a Hamiltonian with k-system parameter-sensitive terms, the quantum limit scales as 1/N{sup k}, where N is the number of systems. These quantum limits remain valid when the Hamiltonian is augmented by any parameter-independent interaction among the systems and when adaptive measurements via parameter-independent coupling to ancillas are allowed.

  8. Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hellmann, Frank; Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-04-15

    We discuss the definition of quantum probability in the context of 'timeless' general-relativistic quantum mechanics. In particular, we study the probability of sequences of events, or multievent probability. In conventional quantum mechanics this can be obtained by means of the 'wave function collapse' algorithm. We first point out certain difficulties of some natural definitions of multievent probability, including the conditional probability widely considered in the literature. We then observe that multievent probability can be reduced to single-event probability, by taking into account the quantum nature of the measuring apparatus. In fact, by exploiting the von-Neumann freedom of moving the quantum/classical boundary, one can always trade a sequence of noncommuting quantum measurements at different times, with an ensemble of simultaneous commuting measurements on the joint system+apparatus system. This observation permits a formulation of quantum theory based only on single-event probability, where the results of the wave function collapse algorithm can nevertheless be recovered. The discussion also bears on the nature of the quantum collapse.

  9. Some generalizations of fuzzy structures in quantum computational logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Paoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computational logics provide a fertile common ground for a unified treatment of vagueness and uncertainty. In this paper, we describe an approach to the logic of quantum computation that has been recently taken up and developed. After reporting on the state of the art, we explore some future research perspectives in the light of some recent limitative results whose general significance will be duly assessed.

  10. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Donald; Renn, Jürgen; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic space-time curvature-based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semiclassical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler’s geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which 3-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kuchař multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schrödinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian. We also reinterpret and rectify significant work by Dittrich on the construction of “Dirac observables.”

  11. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Scholak, Torsten Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-28

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a “coherent control interferometer” as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of “quantum delayed-choice” in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.

  12. Generalized quantum gravity condensates for homogeneous geometries and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Ryan, James P.; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    We construct a generalized class of quantum gravity condensate states that allows the description of continuum homogeneous quantum geometries within the full theory. They are based on similar ideas already applied to extract effective cosmological dynamics from the group field theory formalism, and thus also from loop quantum gravity. However, they represent an improvement over the simplest condensates used in the literature, in that they are defined by an infinite superposition of graph-based states encoding in a precise way the topology of the spatial manifold. The construction is based on the definition of refinement operators on spin network states, written in a second quantized language. The construction also lends itself easily to application to the case of spherically symmetric quantum geometries.

  13. Generalized coherent states under deformed quantum mechanics with maximum momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2013-10-01

    Following the Gazeau-Klauder approach, we construct generalized coherent states (GCS) as the quantum simulator to examine the deformed quantum mechanics, which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum. We study deformed harmonic oscillators and compute their probability distribution and entropy of states exactly. Also, a particle in an infinite potential box is studied perturbatively. In particular, unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case increases the entropy of the Planck scale quantum optical system. Furthermore, for simplicity, we obtain the modified uncertainty principle (MUP) with the perturbative treatment up to leading order. MUP turns out to increase generally. However, for certain values of γ (a parameter of GCS), it is possible that the MUP will vanish and hence will exhibit the classical characteristic. This is interpreted as the manifestation of the intrinsic high-momentum cutoff at lower momentum in a perturbative treatment. Although the GCS saturates the minimal uncertainty in a simultaneous measurement of physical position and momentum operators, thus constituting the squeezed states, complete coherency is impossible in quantum gravitational physics. The Mandel Q number is calculated, and it is shown that the statistics can be Poissonian and super-/sub-Poissonian depending on γ. The equation of motion is studied, and both Ehrenfest’s theorem and the correspondence principle are recovered. Fractional revival times are obtained through the autocorrelation, and they indicate that the superposition of a classical-like subwave packet is natural in GCS. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated (Snyder) type of deformed quantum mechanics, which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum. With the advances of quantum optics technology, it might be possible to realize some of these distinguishing quantum-gravitational features within the domain of future experiments.

  14. Generalized quantum statistics and Lie (super)algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, N. I.

    2016-03-01

    Generalized quantum statistics, such as paraboson and parafermion statistics, are characterized by triple relations which are related to Lie (super)algebras of type B. The correspondence of the Fock spaces of parabosons, parafermions as well as the Fock space of a system of parafermions and parabosons to irreducible representations of (super)algebras of type B will be pointed out. Example of generalized quantum statistics connected to the basic classical Lie superalgebra B(1|1) ≡ osp(3|2) with interesting physical properties, such as noncommutative coordinates, will be given. Therefore the article focuses on the question, addressed already in 1950 by Wigner: do the equation of motion determine the quantum mechanical commutation relation?

  15. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  16. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  17. Faddeev-Popov-ghost propagators for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, Mir; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2008-09-15

    The propagators of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, however, that the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. Therefore, we propose that the IR-divergent FP-ghost propagator should be regularized by a small mass term that is sent to zero in the end of any perturbative calculations. This proposal is equivalent to using the effective FP-ghost propagators, which we present in an explicit form, obtained by removing the modes responsible for the IR divergences. We also make some comments on the corresponding propagators in anti-de Sitter spacetime.

  18. Experimental realization of generalized qubit measurements based on quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan-yuan; Yu, Neng-kun; Kurzyński, Paweł; Xiang, Guo-yong; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental implementation of a single-qubit generalized measurement scenario, the positive-operator valued measure (POVM), based on a quantum walk model. The qubit is encoded in a single-photon polarization. The photon performs a quantum walk on an array of optical elements, where the polarization-dependent translation is performed via birefringent beam displacers and a change of the polarization is implemented with the help of wave plates. We implement: (i) trine POVM, i.e., the POVM elements uniformly distributed on an equatorial plane of the Bloch sphere; (ii) symmetric-informationally-complete (SIC) POVM; and (iii) unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal qubit states.

  19. Generalized Jaynes-Cummings model as a quantum search algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, A.

    2009-07-15

    We propose a continuous time quantum search algorithm using a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model. In this model the states of the atom are the elements among which the algorithm realizes the search, exciting resonances between the initial and the searched states. This algorithm behaves like Grover's algorithm; the optimal search time is proportional to the square root of the size of the search set and the probability to find the searched state oscillates periodically in time. In this frame, it is possible to reinterpret the usual Jaynes-Cummings model as a trivial case of the quantum search algorithm.

  20. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2014-09-01

    The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

  1. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-18

    In this study, we briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  2. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices. PMID:27188691

  3. Quantum black hole in the generalized uncertainty principle framework

    SciTech Connect

    Bina, A.; Moslehi, A.; Jalalzadeh, S.

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we study the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on canonical quantum gravity of black holes. Through the use of modified partition function that involves the effects of the GUP, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of the Schwarzschild black hole. We also calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy for the modification of the Schwarzschild black hole in the presence of the GUP.

  4. The Nature of Covariation between Autistic Traits and Clumsiness: A Twin Study in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moruzzi, Sara; Ogliari, Anna; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Battaglia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    While social impairment, difficulties with communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors are central features of Autism Spectrum Disorders, physical clumsiness is a commonly co-occurring feature. In a sample of 398 twin pairs (aged 8-17 years) from the Italian Twin Registry we investigated the nature of the co-variation between a psychometric…

  5. Equations of motion in general relativity and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Paul

    2011-12-01

    In a previous article a relationship was established between the linearized metrics of General Relativity associated with geodesics and the Dirac Equation of quantum mechanics. In this paper the extension of that result to arbitrary curves is investigated. A generalized Dirac equation is derived and shown to be related to the Lie derivative of the momentum along the curve. In addition,the equations of motion are derived from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation associated with the metric and the wave equation associated with the Hamiltonian is then shown not to commute with the Dirac operator. Finally, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is shown to be a consequence of geodesic motion.

  6. Lorentz-covariant quantum 4-potential and orbital angular momentum for the transverse confinement of matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, R.; da Paz, I. G.

    2016-08-01

    In two recent papers exact Hermite-Gaussian solutions to relativistic wave equations were obtained for both electromagnetic and particle beams. The solutions for particle beams correspond to those of the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit. Here, it will be shown that each beam particle has additional 4-momentum resulting from transverse localization compared to a free particle traveling in the same direction as the beam with the same speed. This will be referred to as the quantum 4-potential term since it will be shown to play an analogous role in relativistic Hamiltonian quantum mechanics as the Bohm potential in the nonrelativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Low-order localization effects include orbital angular momentum, Gouy phase, and beam spreading. Toward a more systematic approach for calculating localization effects at all orders, it will be shown that both the electromagnetic and quantum 4-potentials couple into the canonical 4-momentum of a particle in a similar way. This offers the prospect that traditional methods used to calculate the affect of an electromagnetic field on a particle can now be adapted to take localization effects into account. The prospects for measuring higher order quantum 4-potential related effects experimentally are also discussed alongside some questions to challenge the quantum information and quantum field theorists.

  7. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  8. The generalized second law implies a quantum singularity theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Aron C.

    2013-08-01

    The generalized second law can be used to prove a singularity theorem, by generalizing the notion of a trapped surface to quantum situations. Like Penrose’s original singularity theorem, it implies that spacetime is null-geodesically incomplete inside black holes, and to the past of spatially infinite Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. If space is finite instead, the generalized second law requires that there only be a finite amount of entropy producing processes in the past, unless there is a reversal of the arrow of time. In asymptotically flat spacetime, the generalized second law also rules out traversable wormholes, negative masses, and other forms of faster-than-light travel between asymptotic regions, as well as closed timelike curves. Furthermore it is impossible to form baby universes which eventually become independent of the mother universe, or to restart inflation. Since the semiclassical approximation is used only in regions with low curvature, it is argued that the results may hold in full quantum gravity. The introduction describes the second law and its time-reverse, in ordinary and generalized thermodynamics, using either the fine-grained or the coarse-grained entropy. (The fine-grained version is used in all results except those relating to the arrow of time.)

  9. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin–Meshkov–Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  10. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  11. General monogamy property of global quantum discord and the application

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Zhao, Li-Ming; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2014-09-15

    We provide a family of general monogamy inequalities for global quantum discord (GQD), which can be considered as an extension of the usual discord monogamy inequality. It can be shown that those inequalities are satisfied under the similar condition for the holding of usual monogamy relation. We find that there is an intrinsic connection among them. Furthermore, we present a different type of monogamy inequality and prove that it holds under the condition that the bipartite GQDs do not increase when tracing out some subsystems. We also study the residual GQD based on the second type of monogamy inequality. As applications of those quantities, we investigate the GQDs and residual GQD in characterizing the quantum phase transition in the transverse field Ising model.

  12. Nonadiabatic Dynamics in Atomistic Environments: Harnessing Quantum-Classical Theory with Generalized Quantum Master Equations.

    PubMed

    Pfalzgraff, William C; Kelly, Aaron; Markland, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    The development of methods that can efficiently and accurately treat nonadiabatic dynamics in quantum systems coupled to arbitrary atomistic environments remains a significant challenge in problems ranging from exciton transport in photovoltaic materials to electron and proton transfer in catalysis. Here we show that our recently introduced MF-GQME approach, which combines Ehrenfest mean field theory with the generalized quantum master equation framework, is able to yield quantitative accuracy over a wide range of charge-transfer regimes in fully atomistic environments. This is accompanied by computational speed-ups of up to 3 orders of magnitude over a direct application of Ehrenfest theory. This development offers the opportunity to efficiently investigate the atomistic details of nonadiabatic quantum relaxation processes in regimes where obtaining accurate results has previously been elusive.

  13. Quantum Bayesianism as the basis of general theory of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-05-28

    We discuss the subjective probability interpretation of the quantum-like approach to decision making and more generally to cognition. Our aim is to adopt the subjective probability interpretation of quantum mechanics, quantum Bayesianism (QBism), to serve quantum-like modelling and applications of quantum probability outside of physics. We analyse the classical and quantum probabilistic schemes of probability update, learning and decision-making and emphasize the role of Jeffrey conditioning and its quantum generalizations. Classically, this type of conditioning and corresponding probability update is based on the formula of total probability-one the basic laws of classical probability theory. PMID:27091160

  14. Quantum Bayesianism as the basis of general theory of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-05-28

    We discuss the subjective probability interpretation of the quantum-like approach to decision making and more generally to cognition. Our aim is to adopt the subjective probability interpretation of quantum mechanics, quantum Bayesianism (QBism), to serve quantum-like modelling and applications of quantum probability outside of physics. We analyse the classical and quantum probabilistic schemes of probability update, learning and decision-making and emphasize the role of Jeffrey conditioning and its quantum generalizations. Classically, this type of conditioning and corresponding probability update is based on the formula of total probability-one the basic laws of classical probability theory.

  15. Position-dependent mass quantum Hamiltonians: general approach and duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego-Monteiro, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S.; Curado, E. M. F.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze a general family of position-dependent mass (PDM) quantum Hamiltonians which are not self-adjoint and include, as particular cases, some Hamiltonians obtained in phenomenological approaches to condensed matter physics. We build a general family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians which are quantum mechanically equivalent to the non-self-adjoint proposed ones. Inspired by the probability density of the problem, we construct an ansatz for the solutions of the family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians. We use this ansatz to map the solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equations generated by the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians into the Hilbert space of the solutions of the respective dual self-adjoint Hamiltonians. This mapping depends on both the PDM and on a function of position satisfying a condition that assures the existence of a consistent continuity equation. We identify the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians here studied with a very general family of Hamiltonians proposed in a seminal article of Harrison (1961 Phys. Rev. 123 85) to describe varying band structures in different types of metals. Therefore, we have self-adjoint Hamiltonians that correspond to the non-self-adjoint ones found in Harrison’s article.

  16. Generalized Uncertainty Relation in the Non-commutative Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) with the generalized uncertainty relations {Δ } x1 {Δ } x2 ≥ {θ}/{2}, {Δ} p1 {Δ } p2 ≥ {bar{θ}}/{2}, {Δ } xi {Δ } pi ≥ {hbar _{eff}}/{2} is discussed. Four each uncertainty relation, wave functions saturating each uncertainty relation are explicitly constructed. The unitary operators relating the non-commutative position and momentum operators to the commutative position and momentum operators are also investigated. We also discuss the uncertainty relation related to the harmonic oscillator.

  17. Minimum length from quantum mechanics and classical general relativity.

    PubMed

    Calmet, Xavier; Graesser, Michael; Hsu, Stephen D H

    2004-11-19

    We derive fundamental limits on measurements of position, arising from quantum mechanics and classical general relativity. First, we show that any primitive probe or target used in an experiment must be larger than the Planck length lP. This suggests a Planck-size minimum ball of uncertainty in any measurement. Next, we study interferometers (such as LIGO) whose precision is much finer than the size of any individual components and hence are not obviously limited by the minimum ball. Nevertheless, we deduce a fundamental limit on their accuracy of order lP. Our results imply a device independent limit on possible position measurements.

  18. Quantum dot charge stability diagram from a generalized Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Shuo; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2011-03-01

    We develop a theory for the charge stability diagram in solid state quantum dot spin qubits using a general form of the Hubbard model. We argue that the extended Hubbard model (with both on-site and inter-site Coulomb repulsion) is the minimal model to describe the system. The appropriate parameters of the Hubbard model can be read off by comparing our theoretically derived results with the experimental charge stability plots. We make predictions on how the charge stability diagram depends on various parameters of the Hubbard model, especially the spin-exchange and hopping energies. This work is supported by IARPA, LPS-CMTC, and CNAM.

  19. Transport in molecular states language: Generalized quantum master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Galperin, Michael

    2009-05-01

    A simple scheme, capable of treating transport in molecular junctions in the language of many-body states, is presented. By introducing an ansatz in Liouville space, similar to the generalized Kadanoff-Baym approximation, a quantum master equation (QME)-like expression is derived starting from the exact equation of motion for Hubbard operators. Using an effective Liouville space propagation, a dressing similar to the standard diagrammatic one is proposed. The scheme is compared to the standard QME approach and its applicability to transport calculations is discussed.

  20. A general method for selecting quantum channel for bidirectional controlled state teleportation and other schemes of controlled quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a large number of protocols for bidirectional controlled state teleportation (BCST) have been proposed using n-qubit entangled states (nin {5,6,7}) as quantum channel. Here, we propose a general method of selecting multiqubit (n>4) quantum channels suitable for BCST and show that all the channels used in the existing protocols of BCST can be obtained using the proposed method. Further, it is shown that the quantum channels used in the existing protocols of BCST form only a negligibly small subset of the set of all the quantum channels that can be constructed using the proposed method to implement BCST. It is also noted that all these quantum channels are also suitable for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Following the same logic, methods for selecting quantum channels for other controlled quantum communication tasks, such as controlled bidirectional joint remote state preparation and controlled quantum dialogue, are also provided.

  1. Some Properties of Generalized Connections in Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velhinho, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Theories of connections play an important role in fundamental interactions, including Yang-Mills theories and gravity in the Ashtekar formulation. Typically in such cases, the classical configuration space {A}/ {G} of connections modulo gauge transformations is an infinite dimensional non-linear space of great complexity. Having in mind a rigorous quantization procedure, methods of functional calculus in an extension of {A}/ {G} have been developed. For a compact gauge group G, the compact space /line { {A}{ {/}} {G}} ( ⊃ {A}/ {G}) introduced by Ashtekar and Isham using C*-algebraic methods is a natural candidate to replace {A}/ {G} in the quantum context, 1 allowing the construction of diffeomorphism invariant measures. 2,3,4 Equally important is the space of generalized connections bar {A} introduced in a similar way by Baez. 5 bar {A} is particularly useful for the definition of vector fields in /line { {A}{ {/}} {G}} , fundamental in the construction of quantum observables. 6 These works crucially depend on the use of (generalized) Wilson variables associated to certain types of curves. We will consider the case of piecewise analytic curves, 1,2,5 althought most of the arguments apply equally to the piecewise smooth case. 7,8...

  2. Quantum description of light propagation in generalized media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani

    2016-02-01

    Linear quantum input-output relation based models are widely applied to describe the light propagation in a lossy medium. The details of the interaction and the associated added noise depend on whether the device is configured to operate as an amplifier or an attenuator. Using the traveling wave (TW) approach, we generalize the linear material model to simultaneously account for both the emission and absorption processes and to have point-wise defined noise field statistics and intensity dependent interaction strengths. Thus, our approach describes the quantum input-output relations of linear media with net attenuation, amplification or transparency without pre-selection of the operation point. The TW approach is then applied to investigate materials at thermal equilibrium, inverted materials, the transparency limit where losses are compensated, and the saturating amplifiers. We also apply the approach to investigate media in nonuniform states which can be e.g. consequences of a temperature gradient over the medium or a position dependent inversion of the amplifier. Furthermore, by using the generalized model we investigate devices with intensity dependent interactions and show how an initial thermal field transforms to a field having coherent statistics due to gain saturation.

  3. Covariant Closed String Coherent States

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.

  4. Covariant closed string coherent states.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops. PMID:21405564

  5. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport—Generalized correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  6. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport--generalized correlation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-04-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  7. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport--generalized correlation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-04-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  8. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport—Generalized correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-04-01

    As a key process of many biological reactions such as biological energy transduction or human sensory systems, proton transport has attracted much research attention in biological, biophysical, and mathematical fields. A quantum dynamics in continuum framework has been proposed to study proton permeation through membrane proteins in our earlier work and the present work focuses on the generalized correlation of protons with their environment. Being complementary to electrostatic potentials, generalized correlations consist of proton-proton, proton-ion, proton-protein, and proton-water interactions. In our approach, protons are treated as quantum particles while other components of generalized correlations are described classically and in different levels of approximations upon simulation feasibility and difficulty. Specifically, the membrane protein is modeled as a group of discrete atoms, while ion densities are approximated by Boltzmann distributions, and water molecules are represented as a dielectric continuum. These proton-environment interactions are formulated as convolutions between number densities of species and their corresponding interaction kernels, in which parameters are obtained from experimental data. In the present formulation, generalized correlations are important components in the total Hamiltonian of protons, and thus is seamlessly embedded in the multiscale/multiphysics total variational model of the system. It takes care of non-electrostatic interactions, including the finite size effect, the geometry confinement induced channel barriers, dehydration and hydrogen bond effects, etc. The variational principle or the Euler-Lagrange equation is utilized to minimize the total energy functional, which includes the total Hamiltonian of protons, and obtain a new version of generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and generalized Kohn-Sham equation. A set of numerical algorithms, such as the matched interface and

  9. Spatial prediction of Soil Organic Carbon contents in croplands, grasslands and forests using environmental covariates and Generalized Additive Models (Southern Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Stevens, Antoine; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Providing spatially continuous Soil Organic Carbon data (SOC) is needed to support decisions regarding soil management, and inform the political debate with quantified estimates of the status and change of the soil resource. Digital Soil Mapping techniques are based on relations existing between a soil parameter (measured at different locations in space at a defined period) and relevant covariates (spatially continuous data) that are factors controlling soil formation and explaining the spatial variability of the target variable. This study aimed at apply DSM techniques to recent SOC content measurements (2005-2013) in three different landuses, i.e. cropland, grassland, and forest, in the Walloon region (Southern Belgium). For this purpose, SOC databases of two regional Soil Monitoring Networks (CARBOSOL for croplands and grasslands, and IPRFW for forests) were first harmonized, totalising about 1,220 observations. Median values of SOC content for croplands, grasslands, and forests, are respectively of 12.8, 29.0, and 43.1 g C kg-1. Then, a set of spatial layers were prepared with a resolution of 40 meters and with the same grid topology, containing environmental covariates such as, landuses, Digital Elevation Model and its derivatives, soil texture, C factor, carbon inputs by manure, and climate. Here, in addition to the three classical texture classes (clays, silt, and sand), we tested the use of clays + fine silt content (particles < 20 µm and related to stable carbon fraction) as soil covariate explaining SOC variations. For each of the three land uses (cropland, grassland and forest), a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was calibrated on two thirds of respective dataset. The remaining samples were assigned to a test set to assess model performance. A backward stepwise procedure was followed to select the relevant environmental covariates using their approximate p-values (the level of significance was set at p < 0.05). Standard errors were estimated for each of

  10. Quantum indistinguishability from general representations of SU(2n)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. M.; Robbins, J. M.

    2004-04-01

    A treatment of the spin-statistics relation in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics due to Berry and Robbins [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 453, 1771-1790 (1997)] is generalized within a group-theoretical framework. The construction of Berry and Robbins is reformulated in terms of certain locally flat vector bundles over n-particle configuration space. It is shown how families of such bundles can be constructed from irreducible representations of the group SU(2n). The construction of Berry and Robbins, which leads to a definite connection between spin and statistics (the physically correct connection), is shown to correspond to the completely symmetric representations. The spin-statistics connection is typically broken for general SU(2n) representations, which may admit, for a given value of spin, both Bose and Fermi statistics, as well as parastatistics. The determination of the allowed values of the spin and statistics reduces to the decomposition of certain zero-weight representations of a (generalized) Weyl group of SU(2n). A formula for this decomposition is obtained using the Littlewood-Richardson theorem for the decomposition of representations of U(m+n) into representations of U(m)×U(n).

  11. Decoupling of the reparametrization degree of freedom and a generalized probability in quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, N.; Terzis, Petros A.; Zampeli, Adamantia; Christodoulakis, T.

    2016-09-01

    The high degree of symmetry renders the dynamics of cosmological as well as some black hole spacetimes describable by a system of finite degrees of freedom. These systems are generally known as minisuperspace models. One of their important key features is the invariance of the corresponding reduced actions under reparametrizations of the independent variable, a fact that can be seen as the remnant of the general covariance of the full theory. In the case of a system of n degrees of freedom, described by a Lagrangian quadratic in velocities, one can use the lapse by either gauge fixing it or letting it be defined by the constraint and subsequently substitute into the rest of the equations. In the first case, the system of the second-order equations of motion is solvable for all n accelerations and the constraint becomes a restriction among constants of integration. In the second case, the system can be solved for only n -1 accelerations and the "gauge" freedom is transferred to the choice of one of the scalar degrees of freedom. In this paper, we take the second path and express all n -1 scalar degrees of freedom in terms of the remaining one, say q . By considering these n -1 degrees of freedom as arbitrary but given functions of q , we manage to extract a two-dimensional pure gauge system consisting of the lapse N and the arbitrary q : in a way, we decouple the reparametrization invariance from the rest of the equations of motion, which are thus describing the "true" dynamics. The solution of the corresponding quantum two-dimensional system is used for the definition of a generalized probability for every configuration fi(q ), be it classical or not. The main result is that, interestingly enough, this probability attains its extrema on the classical solution of the initial n -dimensional system.

  12. The nontriviality of trivial general covariance: How electrons restrict 'time' coordinates, spinors (almost) fit into tensor calculus, and 7/16 of a tetrad is surplus structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian Pitts, J.

    2012-02-01

    It is a commonplace in the philosophy of physics that any local physical theory can be represented using arbitrary coordinates, simply by using tensor calculus. On the other hand, the physics literature often claims that spinors as such cannot be represented in coordinates in a curved space-time. These commonplaces are inconsistent. What general covariance means for theories with fermions, such as electrons, is thus unclear. In fact both commonplaces are wrong. Though it is not widely known, Ogievetsky and Polubarinov constructed spinors in coordinates in 1965, enhancing the unity of physics and helping to spawn particle physicists' concept of nonlinear group representations. Roughly and locally, these spinors resemble the orthonormal basis or "tetrad" formalism in the symmetric gauge, but they are conceptually self-sufficient and more economical. The typical tetrad formalism is de-Ockhamized, with six extra field components and six compensating gauge symmetries to cancel them out. The Ogievetsky-Polubarinov formalism, by contrast, is (nearly) Ockhamized, with most of the fluff removed. As developed nonperturbatively by Bilyalov, it admits any coordinates at a point, but "time" must be listed first. Here "time" is defined in terms of an eigenvalue problem involving the metric components and the matrix diag(-1,1,1,1), the product of which must have no negative eigenvalues in order to yield a real symmetric square root that is a function of the metric. Thus even formal general covariance requires reconsideration; the atlas of admissible coordinate charts should be sensitive to the types and values of the fields involved. Apart from coordinate order and the usual spinorial two-valuedness, (densitized) Ogievetsky-Polubarinov spinors form, with the (conformal part of the) metric, a nonlinear geometric object, for which important results on Lie and covariant differentiation are recalled. Such spinors avoid a spurious absolute object in the Anderson-Friedman analysis of

  13. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1 /2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1 /2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s ), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  14. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  15. High resolution kinetic beam schemes in generalized coordinates for ideal quantum gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yu-Hsin; Huang, J.C.; Yang, J.Y. . E-mail: yangjy@iam.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-03-20

    A class of high resolution kinetic beam schemes in multiple space dimensions in general coordinates system for the ideal quantum gas is presented for the computation of quantum gas dynamical flows. The kinetic Boltzmann equation approach is adopted and the local equilibrium quantum statistics distribution is assumed. High-order accurate methods using essentially non-oscillatory interpolation concept are constructed. Computations of shock wave diffraction by a circular cylinder in an ideal quantum gas are conducted to illustrate the present method. The present method provides a viable means to explore various practical ideal quantum gas flows.

  16. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  17. Stability, ghost, and strong coupling in nonrelativistic general covariant theory of gravity with {lambda}{ne}1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yongqing; Wang Anzhong

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate three important issues: stability, ghost, and strong coupling, in the Horava-Melby-Thompson setup of the Horava-Lifshitz theory with {lambda}{ne}1, generalized recently by da Silva. We first develop the general linear scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe with arbitrary spatial curvature and find that an immediate by-product of the setup is that, in all the inflationary models described by a scalar field, the FRW universe is necessarily flat. Applying them to the case of the Minkowski background, we find that it is stable, and, similar to the case {lambda}=1, the spin-0 graviton is eliminated. The vector perturbations vanish identically in the Minkowski background. Thus, similar to general relativity, a free gravitational field in this setup is completely described by a spin-2 massless graviton, even with {lambda}{ne}1. We also study the ghost problem in the FRW background and find explicitly the ghost-free conditions. To study the strong coupling problem, we consider two different kinds of spacetimes, all with the presence of matter: one is cosmological, and the other is static. We find that the coupling becomes strong for a process with energy higher than M{sub pl}|c{sub {psi}|}{sup 5/2} in the flat FRW background and M{sub pl}|c{sub {psi}|}{sup 3} in a static weak gravitational field, where |c{sub {psi}|{identical_to}}|(1-{lambda})/(3{lambda}-1)|{sup 1/2}.

  18. The Measurement Process in the Generalized Contexts Formalism for Quantum Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    In the interpretations of quantum mechanics involving quantum histories there is no collapse postulate and the measurement is considered as a quantum interaction between the measured system and the measured instrument. For two consecutive non ideal measurements on the same system, we prove that both pointer indications at the end of each measurement are compatible properties in our generalized context formalism for quantum histories. Inmediately after the first measurement an effective state for the measured system is deduced from the formalism, generalizing the state that would be obtained by applying the state collapse postulate.

  19. GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

  20. Quantum image encryption based on generalized affine transform and logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hao-Ran; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Quantum circuits of the generalized affine transform are devised based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm combining the generalized affine transform with logistic map is suggested. The gray-level information of the quantum image is encrypted by the XOR operation with a key generator controlled by the logistic map, while the position information of the quantum image is encoded by the generalized affine transform. The encryption keys include the independent control parameters used in the generalized affine transform and the logistic map. Thus, the key space is large enough to frustrate the possible brute-force attack. Numerical simulations and analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm is realizable, robust and has a better performance than its classical counterpart in terms of computational complexity.

  1. Solutions to Master equations of quantum Brownian motion in a general environment with external force

    SciTech Connect

    Roura, Albert; Fleming, C H; Hu, B L

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the model of a system made up of a Brownian quantum oscillator linearly coupled to an environment made up of many quantum oscillators at finite temperature. We show that the HPZ master equation for the reduced density matrix derived earlier [B.L. Hu, J.P. Paz, Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. D 45, 2843 (1992)] has incorrectly specified coefficients for the case of nonlocal dissipation. We rederive the QBM master equation, correctly specifying all coefficients, and determine the position uncertainty to be free of excessive cutoff sensitivity. Our coefficients and solutions are reduced entirely to contour integration for analytic spectra at arbitrary temperature, coupling strength, and cut-off. As an illustration we calculate the master equation coefficients and solve the master equation for ohmic coupling (with finite cutoff) and example supra-ohmic and sub-ohmic spectral densities. We determine the effect of an external force on the quantum oscillator and also show that our representation of the master equation and solutions naturally extends to a system of multiple oscillators bilinearly coupled to themselves and the bath in arbitrary fashion. This produces a formula for investigating the standard quantum limit which is central to addressing many theoretical issues in macroscopic quantum phenomena and experimental concerns related to low temperature precision measurements. We find that in a dissipative environment, all initial states settle down to a Gaussian density matrix whose covariance is determined by the thermal reservoir and whose mean is determined by the external force. We specify the thermal covariance for the spectral densities we explore.

  2. Quantum mechanics: The Bayesian theory generalized to the space of Hermitian matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavoli, Alessio; Facchini, Alessandro; Zaffalon, Marco

    2016-10-01

    We consider the problem of gambling on a quantum experiment and enforce rational behavior by a few rules. These rules yield, in the classical case, the Bayesian theory of probability via duality theorems. In our quantum setting, they yield the Bayesian theory generalized to the space of Hermitian matrices. This very theory is quantum mechanics: in fact, we derive all its four postulates from the generalized Bayesian theory. This implies that quantum mechanics is self-consistent. It also leads us to reinterpret the main operations in quantum mechanics as probability rules: Bayes' rule (measurement), marginalization (partial tracing), independence (tensor product). To say it with a slogan, we obtain that quantum mechanics is the Bayesian theory in the complex numbers.

  3. Covariant magnetic connection hypersurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, F.

    2016-04-01

    > In the single fluid, non-relativistic, ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma description, magnetic field lines play a fundamental role by defining dynamically preserved `magnetic connections' between plasma elements. Here we show how the concept of magnetic connection needs to be generalized in the case of a relativistic MHD description where we require covariance under arbitrary Lorentz transformations. This is performed by defining 2-D magnetic connection hypersurfaces in the 4-D Minkowski space. This generalization accounts for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events in different frames and is expected to provide a powerful insight into the 4-D geometry of electromagnetic fields when .

  4. Optical field-strength generalized polarization of non-stationary quantum states in waveguiding photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, David; Liñares, Jesús; Nistal, María C.

    2013-07-01

    A quantum analysis of the generalized polarization properties of multimode non-stationary states based on their optical field-strength probability distributions is presented. The quantum generalized polarization is understood as a significant confinement of the probability distribution along certain regions of a multidimensional optical field-strength space. The analysis is addressed to quantum states generated in multimode linear and nonlinear waveguiding (integrated) photonic devices, such as multimode waveguiding directional couplers and waveguiding parametric amplifiers, whose modes fulfill a spatial modal orthogonality. In particular, the generalized polarization degree of coherent, squeezed and Schrödinger's cat states is analyzed.

  5. Ultraprecise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits with generalized directional couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Heilmann, R.; Keil, R.; Gräfe, M.; Nolte, S.; Szameit, A.

    2014-08-11

    We present an innovative approach for ultra-precise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits. To this end, we employ generalized directional couplers that utilize a detuning of the propagation constant in optical waveguides by the overlap of adjacent waveguide modes. We demonstrate our findings in experiments with classical as well as quantum light.

  6. The incredible shrinking covariance estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiler, James

    2012-05-01

    Covariance estimation is a key step in many target detection algorithms. To distinguish target from background requires that the background be well-characterized. This applies to targets ranging from the precisely known chemical signatures of gaseous plumes to the wholly unspecified signals that are sought by anomaly detectors. When the background is modelled by a (global or local) Gaussian or other elliptically contoured distribution (such as Laplacian or multivariate-t), a covariance matrix must be estimated. The standard sample covariance overfits the data, and when the training sample size is small, the target detection performance suffers. Shrinkage addresses the problem of overfitting that inevitably arises when a high-dimensional model is fit from a small dataset. In place of the (overfit) sample covariance matrix, a linear combination of that covariance with a fixed matrix is employed. The fixed matrix might be the identity, the diagonal elements of the sample covariance, or some other underfit estimator. The idea is that the combination of an overfit with an underfit estimator can lead to a well-fit estimator. The coefficient that does this combining, called the shrinkage parameter, is generally estimated by some kind of cross-validation approach, but direct cross-validation can be computationally expensive. This paper extends an approach suggested by Hoffbeck and Landgrebe, and presents efficient approximations of the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOC) estimate of the shrinkage parameter used in estimating the covariance matrix from a limited sample of data.

  7. Eddy covariance measurements of NH3 fluxes over a natural grass land with an open-path quantum cascade laser-based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, D.; Benedict, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Prenni, A. J.; Schichtel, B. A.; Collett, J. L., Jr.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    NH3 is an important component of the bio-atmospheric N cycle with implications for regional air quality, human and ecosystem health degradation, and global climate change. However, measuring NH3 flux is challenging, requiring a sensor with high sensitivity (sub-ppbv), fast response time and the capability to account for NH3 adsorption effects. In this study, we address these issues with an open-path quantum-cascade-based sensor for eddy covariance (EC) measurements. Previously, our EC NH3 sensor was deployed over a feedlot in Colorado in 2013 and 2014, and the results showed the potential of the sensor to measure NH3 emissions from agricultural sources. In the summer of 2015, the sensor was installed at a remote monitoring site in Rocky Mountain National Park to measure NH3 flux over a natural grass land. During the deployment, the precision of the sensor was about 0.15 ppbv at 10 Hz, and the detection limit of the flux was estimated to be 0.7±0.5 ng NH3/s/m2. The cospectra of the NH3 flux closely resembled those of CO2 flux and sensible heat flux measured by a LI-7500 CO2 analyzer and a CSAT3 sonic anemometer. The ogive analyses indicated that the loss of NH3 fluxes due to various damping effects was about 15%. Examining initial results from a few days of measurement, the measured NH3 fluxes appear to have a strong diurnal pattern with local emissions during afternoon, a pattern not previously reported for remote grass land. The pattern is consistent with background NH3 concentration measured by PICARRO NH3 analyzer, although summertime afternoon concentration increases at the site have previously been associated with upslope transport from urban and agricultural regions to the east. The results demonstrate the sensor's capability to measure NH3 flux in low NH3 conditions and also show that more measurements are needed to investigate spatial and temporal variability of NH3 flux.

  8. Generalized guidance equation for peaked quantum solitons and effective gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durt, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Bouncing oil droplets have been shown to follow de Broglie-Bohm–like trajectories and at the same time they exhibit attractive and repulsive pseudo-gravitation. We propose a model aimed at rendering account of these phenomenological observations. It inspires, in a more speculative approach, a toy model for quantum gravity.

  9. Decoherence in generalized measurement and the quantum Zeno paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Gerhard; Wallentowitz, Sascha; Toschek, Peter E.

    2014-07-01

    In the development of quantum mechanics, the evolution of a quantum system was a controversial item. The duality of unitary evolution and state reduction as proposed by John von Neumann was widely felt unsatisfactory. Among the various attempts to reconcile the two incompatible modes of dynamics, the model of decoherence has turned out rather convincing. While the debate has been going on mainly by reasoning the consequences of gedanken experiments, the technical progress has made available techniques of addressing real experiments, even on an individual quantum object. In particular, the impeded evolution of an atom under continuous or reiterated measurement, predicted long ago, has been proven. The procedure of such an experiment-as with many a more conventional one-includes sequences of alternating time intervals of preparation and detection, known as “pump-probe”, or “drive-probe” measurements. We discuss this procedure in the context of the decoherence model. The emergence of pointer states of the meter is outlined. We show compatibility of this approach with photon counting, and emphasize the importance of information transfer in the course of measurement. Qualitative conditions having been considered so far necessary and sufficient criteria for meeting the “quantum Zeno paradox” are being quantified.

  10. Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. I. General considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    This article, as the first of three, aims at establishing the (time-dependent) Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the sense of space adiabatic perturbation theory, for quantum systems constructed by techniques of the loop quantum gravity framework, especially the canonical formulation of the latter. The analysis presented here fits into a rather general framework and offers a solution to the problem of applying the usual Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for molecular (or structurally analogous) systems to more general quantum systems (e.g., spin-orbit models) by means of space adiabatic perturbation theory. The proposed solution is applied to a simple, finite dimensional model of interacting spin systems, which serves as a non-trivial, minimal model of the aforesaid problem. Furthermore, it is explained how the content of this article and its companion affect the possible extraction of quantum field theory on curved spacetime from loop quantum gravity (including matter fields).

  11. Covariant Galileon

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Esposito-Farese, G.; Vikman, A.

    2009-04-15

    We consider the recently introduced 'Galileon' field in a dynamical spacetime. When the Galileon is assumed to be minimally coupled to the metric, we underline that both field equations of the Galileon and the metric involve up to third-order derivatives. We show that a unique nonminimal coupling of the Galileon to curvature eliminates all higher derivatives in all field equations, hence yielding second-order equations, without any extra propagating degree of freedom. The resulting theory breaks the generalized 'Galilean' invariance of the original model.

  12. Implementation of optimal phase-covariant cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2007-07-15

    The optimal phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (PQCM) broadcasts the information associated to an input qubit into a multiqubit system, exploiting a partial a priori knowledge of the input state. This additional a priori information leads to a higher fidelity than for the universal cloning. The present article first analyzes different innovative schemes to implement the 1{yields}3 PQCM. The method is then generalized to any 1{yields}M machine for an odd value of M by a theoretical approach based on the general angular momentum formalism. Finally different experimental schemes based either on linear or nonlinear methods and valid for single photon polarization encoded qubits are discussed.

  13. The quantum mechanics of cosmology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James B.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * POST-EVERETT QUANTUM MECHANICS * Probability * Probabilities in general * Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics * Decoherent Histories * Fine and Coarse Grained Histories * Decohering Sets of Coarse Grained Histories * No Moment by Moment Definition of Decoherence * Prediction, Retrodiction, and History * Prediction and Retrodiction * The Reconstruction of History * Branches (Illustrated by a Pure ρ) * Sets of Histories with the Same Probabilities * The Origins of Decoherence in Our Universe * On What Does Decoherence Depend? * Two Slit Model * The Caldeira-Leggett Oscillator Model * The Evolution of Reduced Density Matrices * Towards a Classical Domain * The Branch Dependence of Decoherence * Measurement * The Ideal Measurement Model and the Copenhagen Approximation to Quantum Mechanics * Approximate Probabilities Again * Complex Adaptive Systems * Open Questions * GENERALIZED QUANTUM MECHANICS * General Features * Hamiltonian Quantum Mechanics * Sum-Over-Histories Quantum Mechanics for Theories with a Time * Differences and Equivalences between Hamiltonian and Sum-Over-Histories Quantum Mechanics for Theories with a Time * Classical Physics and the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics * Generalizations of Hamiltonian Quantum Mechanics * TIME IN QUANTUM MECHANICS * Observables on Spacetime Regions * The Arrow of Time in Quantum Mechanics * Topology in Time * The Generality of Sum Over Histories Quantum Mechanics * THE QUANTUM MECHANICS OF SPACETIME * The Problem of Time * General Covariance and Time in Hamiltonian Quantum Mechanics * The "Marvelous Moment" * A Quantum Mechanics for Spacetime * What we Need * Sum-Over-Histories Quantum Mechanics for Theories Without a Time * Sum-Over-Spacetime-Histories Quantum Mechanics * Extensions and Contractions * The Construction of Sums Over Spacetime Histories * Some Open Questions * PRACTICAL QUANTUM COSMOLOGY * The Semiclassical Regime * The Semiclassical Approximation

  14. The interface between quantum mechanics and general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao, R. Y.

    The generation, as well as the detection, of gravitational radiation by means of charged superfluids is considered. One example of such a “charged superfluid” consists of a pair of Planck-mass-scale, ultracold “Millikan oil drops”, each with a single electron on its surface in a strong magnetic field, in which the oil of the drop is replaced by superfluid helium. When levitated in a magnetic trap, and subjected to microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation, a pair of such “Millikan oil drops” separated by a microwave wavelength can become an efficient quantum transducer between quadrupolar electromagnetic and gravitational radiation. This leads to the possibility of a Hertz-like experiment, in which the source of microwave-frequency gravitational radiation consists of one pair of “Millikan oil drops” driven by microwaves, and the receiver of such radiation consists of another pair of “Millikan oil drops” in the far field driven by the gravitational radiation generated by the first pair. The second pair then back-converts the gravitational radiation into detectable microwaves. The enormous enhancement of the conversion efficiency for these quantum transducers over that for electrons arises from the fact that there exists macroscopic quantum phase coherence in these charged superfluid systems.

  15. On quantum Rényi entropies: A new generalization and some properties

    SciTech Connect

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupuis, Frédéric; Szehr, Oleg; Fehr, Serge; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-12-15

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data-processing inequalities, a duality relation, and an entropic uncertainty relation.

  16. Generalized trace-distance measure connecting quantum and classical non-Markovianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wißmann, Steffen; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Vacchini, Bassano

    2015-10-01

    We establish a direct connection of quantum Markovianity of an open system to its classical counterpart by generalizing the criterion based on the information flow. Here the flow is characterized by the time evolution of Helstrom matrices, given by the weighted difference of statistical operators, under the action of the quantum dynamical map. It turns out that the introduced criterion is equivalent to P divisibility of a quantum process, namely, divisibility in terms of positive maps, which provides a direct connection to classical Markovian stochastic processes. Moreover, it is shown that mathematical representations similar to those found for the original trace-distance-based measure hold true for the associated generalized measure for quantum non-Markovianity. That is, we prove orthogonality of optimal states showing a maximal information backflow and establish a local and universal representation of the measure. We illustrate some properties of the generalized criterion by means of examples.

  17. On quantum Rényi entropies: A new generalization and some properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupuis, Frédéric; Szehr, Oleg; Fehr, Serge; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-12-01

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data-processing inequalities, a duality relation, and an entropic uncertainty relation.

  18. High-order kinetic flux vector splitting schemes in general coordinates for ideal quantum gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.-Y. Hsieh, T.-Y.; Shi, Y.-H.; Xu Kun

    2007-12-10

    A class of high-order kinetic flux vector splitting schemes are presented for solving ideal quantum gas dynamics based on quantum statistical mechanics. The collisionless quantum Boltzmann equation approach is adopted and both Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases are considered. The formulas for the split flux vectors are derived based on the general three-dimensional distribution function in velocity space and formulas for lower dimensions can be directly deduced. General curvilinear coordinates are introduced to treat practical problems with general geometry. High-order accurate schemes using weighted essentially non-oscillatory methods are implemented. The resulting high resolution kinetic flux splitting schemes are tested for 1D shock tube flows and shock wave diffraction by a 2D wedge and by a circular cylinder in ideal quantum gases. Excellent results have been obtained for all examples computed.

  19. Covariant chronogeometry and extreme distances: Elementary particles

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I. E.; Jakobsen, H. P.; Ørsted, B.; Paneitz, S. M.; Speh, B.

    1981-01-01

    We study a variant of elementary particle theory in which Minkowski space, M0, is replaced by a natural alternative, the unique four-dimensional manifold ¯M with comparable properties of causality and symmetry. Free particles are considered to be associated (i) with positive-energy representations in bundles of prescribed spin over ¯M of the group of causality-preserving transformations on ¯M (or its mass-conserving subgroup) and (ii) with corresponding wave equations. In this study these bundles, representations, and equations are detailed, and some of their basic features are developed in the cases of spins 0 and ½. Preliminaries to a general study are included; issues of covariance, unitarity, and positivity of the energy are treated; appropriate quantum numbers are indicated; and possible physical applications are discussed. PMID:16593075

  20. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Holten, J.-W. van; Horvathy, P. A.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2014-12-15

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six.

  1. Entanglement model of homeopathy as an example of generalized entanglement predicted by weak quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Walach, H

    2003-08-01

    Homeopathy is scientifically banned, both for lack of consistent empirical findings, but more so for lack of a sound theoretical model to explain its purported effects. This paper makes an attempt to introduce an explanatory idea based on a generalized version of quantum mechanics (QM), the weak quantum theory (WQT). WQT uses the algebraic formalism of QM proper, but drops some restrictions and definitions typical for QM. This results in a general axiomatic framework similar to QM, but more generalized and applicable to all possible systems. Most notably, WQT predicts entanglement, which in QM is known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlatedness within quantum systems. According to WQT, this entanglement is not only tied to quantum systems, but is to be expected whenever a global and a local variable describing a system are complementary. This idea is used here to reconstruct homeopathy as an exemplification of generalized entanglement as predicted by WQT. It transpires that homeopathy uses two instances of generalized entanglement: one between the remedy and the original substance (potentiation principle) and one between the individual symptoms of a patient and the general symptoms of a remedy picture (similarity principle). By bringing these two elements together, double entanglement ensues, which is reminiscent of cryptographic and teleportation applications of entanglement in QM proper. Homeopathy could be a macroscopic analogue to quantum teleportation. This model is exemplified and some predictions are derived, which make it possible to test the model. PMID:12972724

  2. Macrostates Thermodynamics and Its Stable Classical Limit in Global One-Dimensional Quantum General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinka, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    Global One-Dimensional Quantum General Relativity is the toy model with nontrivial field theoretical content, describing classical one-dimensional massive bosonic fields related to any 3 + 1 metric, where the dimension is a volume of threedimensional embedding. In fact it constitutes the midisuperspatial Quantum Gravity model. We use one-particle density operator method in order to building macrostates thermodynamics related with any 3 + 1 metric. Taking the Boltzmann gas limit, which is given by the energy equipartition law for the Bose-Einstein gas of space quantum states generated from the Bogoliubov vacuum, we receive consistent with General Relativity thermodynamical degrees of freedom number. It confirm that the proposed Quantum Gravity toy model has well-defined classical limit in accordance with classical gravity theory.

  3. Quantum states and generalized observables: a simple proof of Gleason's theorem.

    PubMed

    Busch, P

    2003-09-19

    A quantum state can be understood in a loose sense as a map that assigns a value to every observable. Formalizing this characterization of states in terms of generalized probability distributions on the set of effects, we obtain a simple proof of the result, analogous to Gleason's theorem, that any quantum state is given by a density operator. As a corollary we obtain a von Neumann-type argument against noncontextual hidden variables. It follows that on an individual interpretation of quantum mechanics the values of effects are appropriately understood as propensities.

  4. General approach to quantum-classical hybrid systems and geometric forces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2006-11-10

    We present a general theoretical framework for a hybrid system that is composed of a quantum subsystem and a classical subsystem. We approach such a system with a simple canonical transformation which is particularly effective when the quantum subsystem is dynamically much faster than the classical counterpart, which is commonly the case in hybrid systems. Moreover, this canonical transformation generates a vector potential which, on one hand, gives rise to the familiar Berry phase in the fast quantum dynamics and, on the other hand, yields a Lorentz-like geometric force in the slow classical dynamics. PMID:17155596

  5. Outline of a Generalization and a Reinterpretation of Quantum Mechanics Recovering Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garola, Claudio; Sozzo, Sandro; Wu, Junde

    2016-05-01

    The ESR model has been recently proposed in several papers to offer a possible solution to the problems raising from the nonobjectivity of physical properties in quantum mechanics (QM) (mainly the objectification problem of the quantum theory of measurement). This solution is obtained by embodying the mathematical formalism of QM into a broader mathematical framework and reinterpreting quantum probabilities as conditional on detection rather than absolute. We provide a new and more general formulation of the ESR model and discuss time evolution according to it, pointing out in particular that both linear and nonlinear evolution may occur, depending on the physical environment.

  6. Quantum Fields Obtained from Convoluted Generalized White Noise Never Have Positive Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Gottschalk, Hanno

    2016-05-01

    It is proven that the relativistic quantum fields obtained from analytic continuation of convoluted generalized (Lévy type) noise fields have positive metric, if and only if the noise is Gaussian. This follows as an easy observation from a criterion by Baumann, based on the Dell'Antonio-Robinson-Greenberg theorem, for a relativistic quantum field in positive metric to be a free field.

  7. Quantum Anomalies for Generalized Euclidean Taub-Newman Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai; Visinescu, Anca

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the gravitational and axial anomalies with regard to quadratic constants of motion for the Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino (Taub-NUT) space and its generalizations as was done by Iwai and Katayama. The generalized Taub-NUT metrics exhibit in general gravitational anomalies. This is in contrast with the fact that the standard Taub-NUT metric does not exhibit gravitational anomalies, which is a consequence of the fact that it admits Killing-Yano tensors forming Stäckel-Killing tensors as products. For the axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, the role of Killing-Yano tensors is irrelevant. We compute the index of the Dirac operator for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics with the APS boundary conditions and find these metrics do not contribute to the axial anomaly for not too large deformations of the standard Taub-NUT metric.

  8. Hopf-algebraic renormalization of QED in the linear covariant gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kißler, Henry

    2016-09-01

    In the context of massless quantum electrodynamics (QED) with a linear covariant gauge fixing, the connection between the counterterm and the Hopf-algebraic approach to renormalization is examined. The coproduct formula of Green's functions contains two invariant charges, which give rise to different renormalization group functions. All formulas are tested by explicit computations to third loop order. The possibility of a finite electron self-energy by fixing a generalized linear covariant gauge is discussed. An analysis of subdivergences leads to the conclusion that such a gauge only exists in quenched QED.

  9. On the covariant formalism of the effective field theory of gravity and leading order corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-11-01

    We construct the covariant effective field theory of gravity as an expansion in inverse powers of the Planck mass, identifying the leading and next-to-leading quantum corrections. We determine the form of the effective action for the cases of pure gravity with cosmological constant as well as gravity coupled to matter. By means of heat kernel methods we renormalize and compute the leading quantum corrections to quadratic order in a curvature expansion. The final effective action in our covariant formalism is generally non-local and can be readily used to understand the phenomenology on different spacetimes. In particular, we point out that on curved backgrounds the observable leading quantum gravitational effects are less suppressed than on Minkowski spacetime.

  10. Diagonalisation of quantum observables on regular lattices and general graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Niall; Kells, Graham; Vala, Jiri

    2011-04-01

    In the study of quantum mechanical systems, exact diagonalisation (ED) methods play an extremely important role. We have developed an ED code named DoQO (Diagonalisation of Quantum Observables). This code is capable of constructing and diagonalising the observables for spin 1/2 > and spinless fermionic particles with many body interactions on arbitrary graphs using massively parallel distributed memory machines. At the same time, the code can exploit physical symmetries to reduce the size of the relevant basis set and provide useful physical information about each eigenstate. DoQO has been employed successfully to directly diagonalise systems with basis sets containing a billion elements. By exploiting symmetries it has been possible to perform calculations on systems with 36 spin 1/2 > particles. Here we present essential background details, the structure and usage of DoQO, and a study of the performance characteristics of DoQO on different machines. Program summaryProgram title: DoQO Catalogue identifier: AEII_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEII_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 81 845 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 495 379 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (dependencies require Fortran) Computer: Standard workstations and distributed memory machines Operating system: Any operating system with C++, Fortran, MPI, PETSc and SLEPc (code developed and tested on OS X and Linux) Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes code uses MPI for interprocess communication. One to thousands of processors may be used RAM: Depends on problem size. Ranges from MBs to TBs Classification: 7.8 External routines: PETSc, SLEPc, LAPACK, BLAS, MPI, BOOST, tinyxml Nature of problem: To

  11. Networks of dissipative quantum harmonic oscillators: A general treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ponte, M. A. de; Mizrahi, S. S.; Moussa, M. H. Y.

    2007-09-15

    We present a general treatment of a bosonic dissipative network: a chain of coupled dissipative harmonic oscillators whatever its topology--i.e., whichever the way the oscillators are coupled together, the strength of their couplings, and their natural frequencies. Starting with a general more realistic scenario where each oscillator is coupled to its own reservoir, we also discuss the case where all the network oscillators are coupled to a common reservoir. We obtain the master equation governing the dynamic of the network states and the associated evolution equation of the Glauber-Sudarshan P function. With these instruments we briefly show how to analyze the decoherence and the evolution of the linear entropy of general states of the network. We also show how to obtain the master equation for the case of distinct reservoirs from that of a common one.

  12. Are Eddy Covariance series stationary?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral analysis via a discrete Fourier transform is used often to examine eddy covariance series for cycles (eddies) of interest. Generally the analysis is performed on hourly or half-hourly data sets collected at 10 or 20 Hz. Each original series is often assumed to be stationary. Also automated ...

  13. General form of genuine multipartite entanglement quantum channels for teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Zhu Shiyao; Guo, Guangcan

    2006-09-15

    Recently Yeo and Chua [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)] presented an explicit protocol for faithfully teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state via a genuine four-qubit entanglement channel. Here we generalize completely their results to teleporting an arbitrary N-qubit state via genuine N-qubit entanglement channels. And we present the general form of the genuine multipartite entanglement channels, namely, the sufficient and necessary condition the genuine N-qubit entanglement channels must satisfy to teleport an arbitrary N-qubit state.

  14. Ignorance is bliss: general and robust cancellation of decoherence via no-knowledge quantum feedback.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, Stuart S; Carvalho, Andre R R; Morley, James G; Hush, Michael R

    2014-07-11

    A "no-knowledge" measurement of an open quantum system yields no information about any system observable; it only returns noise input from the environment. Surprisingly, performing such a no-knowledge measurement can be advantageous. We prove that a system undergoing no-knowledge monitoring has reversible noise, which can be canceled by directly feeding back the measurement signal. We show how no-knowledge feedback control can be used to cancel decoherence in an arbitrary quantum system coupled to a Markovian reservoir that is being monitored. Since no-knowledge feedback does not depend on the system state or Hamiltonian, such decoherence cancellation is guaranteed to be general and robust, and can operate in conjunction with any other quantum control protocol. As an application, we show that no-knowledge feedback could be used to improve the performance of dissipative quantum computers subjected to local loss.

  15. Generalized model and optimum performance of an irreversible quantum Brayton engine with spin systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Chih; Li, Qing

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish a model of an irreversible quantum Brayton engine using many noninteracting spin systems as the working substance and consisting of two irreversible adiabatic and two isomagnetic field processes. The time evolution of the total magnetic moment M is determined by solving the generalized quantum master equation of an open system in the Heisenberg picture. The time of two irreversible adiabatic processes is considered based on finite-rate evolution. The relationship between the power output P and the efficiency eta for the irreversible quantum Brayton engine with spin systems is derived. The optimally operating region (or criteria) for the engine is determined. The influences of these important parameters on the performances (P and eta) of the engine are discussed. The results obtained herein will be useful for the further understanding and the selection of the optimal operating conditions for an irreversible quantum Brayton engine with spin systems.

  16. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Bruno G. da

    2014-06-15

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  17. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Bruno G.; Borges, Ernesto P.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator hat{p}_q, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator hat{x}_q. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  18. A general framework for the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2016-07-01

    Repeated measurements can slow down (the quantum Zeno effect) or speed up (the quantum anti-Zeno effect) the temporal evolution of a quantum system. In this paper, a general treatment of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects is presented which is valid for an arbitrary system-environment model in the weak system-environment coupling regime. It is shown that the effective lifetime of a quantum state that is subjected to repeated projective measurements depends on the overlap of the spectral density of the environment and a generalized ‘filter function’. This filter function depends on the system-environment Hamiltonian, the state of the environment, and the measurement being performed. Our general framework is then used to study explicitly the Zeno to anti-Zeno crossover behaviour for the spin-boson model where a single two-level system is coupled to a bosonic environment. It is possible to not only reproduce results for the usual population decay case as well as for the pure dephasing model, but to also study the regime where both decay and dephasing take place. These results are then extended to many two-level systems coupled collectively to the bosonic environment to further illustrate the importance of the correct evaluation of the effective decay rate.

  19. A general framework for the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Repeated measurements can slow down (the quantum Zeno effect) or speed up (the quantum anti-Zeno effect) the temporal evolution of a quantum system. In this paper, a general treatment of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects is presented which is valid for an arbitrary system-environment model in the weak system-environment coupling regime. It is shown that the effective lifetime of a quantum state that is subjected to repeated projective measurements depends on the overlap of the spectral density of the environment and a generalized ‘filter function’. This filter function depends on the system-environment Hamiltonian, the state of the environment, and the measurement being performed. Our general framework is then used to study explicitly the Zeno to anti-Zeno crossover behaviour for the spin-boson model where a single two-level system is coupled to a bosonic environment. It is possible to not only reproduce results for the usual population decay case as well as for the pure dephasing model, but to also study the regime where both decay and dephasing take place. These results are then extended to many two-level systems coupled collectively to the bosonic environment to further illustrate the importance of the correct evaluation of the effective decay rate. PMID:27405268

  20. Generalized monotonically convergent algorithms for solving quantum optimal control problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi; Turinici, Gabriel; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-03-01

    A wide range of cost functionals that describe the criteria for designing optimal pulses can be reduced to two basic functionals by the introduction of product spaces. We extend previous monotonically convergent algorithms to solve the generalized pulse design equations derived from those basic functionals. The new algorithms are proved to exhibit monotonic convergence. Numerical tests are implemented in four-level model systems employing stationary and/or nonstationary targets in the absence and/or presence of relaxation. Trajectory plots that conveniently present the global nature of the convergence behavior show that slow convergence may often be attributed to "trapping" and that relaxation processes may remove such unfavorable behavior.

  1. Generalized monotonically convergent algorithms for solving quantum optimal control problems.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi; Turinici, Gabriel; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-03-22

    A wide range of cost functionals that describe the criteria for designing optimal pulses can be reduced to two basic functionals by the introduction of product spaces. We extend previous monotonically convergent algorithms to solve the generalized pulse design equations derived from those basic functionals. The new algorithms are proved to exhibit monotonic convergence. Numerical tests are implemented in four-level model systems employing stationary and/or nonstationary targets in the absence and/or presence of relaxation. Trajectory plots that conveniently present the global nature of the convergence behavior show that slow convergence may often be attributed to "trapping" and that relaxation processes may remove such unfavorable behavior. PMID:15267426

  2. A Generalization of Schur-Weyl Duality with Applications in Quantum Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2014-10-01

    Schur-Weyl duality is a powerful tool in representation theory which has many applications to quantum information theory. We provide a generalization of this duality and demonstrate some of its applications. In particular, we use it to develop a general framework for the study of a family of quantum estimation problems wherein one is given n copies of an unknown quantum state according to some prior and the goal is to estimate certain parameters of the given state. In particular, we are interested to know whether collective measurements are useful and if so to find an upper bound on the amount of entanglement which is required to achieve the optimal estimation. In the case of pure states, we show that commutativity of the set of observables that define the estimation problem implies the sufficiency of unentangled measurements.

  3. Quantum-field-theoretical approach to phase-space techniques: Generalizing the positive-P representation

    SciTech Connect

    Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.; Collett, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (S{delta}E). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or S{delta}E's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space.

  4. Quantum interferometric visibility as a witness of general relativistic proper time

    PubMed Central

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Pikovski, Igor; Brukner, Časlav

    2011-01-01

    Current attempts to probe general relativistic effects in quantum mechanics focus on precision measurements of phase shifts in matter–wave interferometry. Yet, phase shifts can always be explained as arising because of an Aharonov–Bohm effect, where a particle in a flat space–time is subject to an effective potential. Here we propose a quantum effect that cannot be explained without the general relativistic notion of proper time. We consider interference of a 'clock'—a particle with evolving internal degrees of freedom—that will not only display a phase shift, but also reduce the visibility of the interference pattern. According to general relativity, proper time flows at different rates in different regions of space–time. Therefore, because of quantum complementarity, the visibility will drop to the extent to which the path information becomes available from reading out the proper time from the 'clock'. Such a gravitationally induced decoherence would provide the first test of the genuine general relativistic notion of proper time in quantum mechanics. PMID:22009037

  5. Generalized state spaces and nonlocality in fault-tolerant quantum-computing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanje, N.; Virmani, S.

    2011-03-01

    We develop connections between generalized notions of entanglement and quantum computational devices where the measurements available are restricted, either because they are noisy and/or because by design they are only along Pauli directions. By considering restricted measurements one can (by considering the dual positive operators) construct single-particle-state spaces that are different to the usual quantum-state space. This leads to a modified notion of entanglement that can be very different to the quantum version (for example, Bell states can become separable). We use this approach to develop alternative methods of classical simulation that have strong connections to the study of nonlocal correlations: we construct noisy quantum computers that admit operations outside the Clifford set and can generate some forms of multiparty quantum entanglement, but are otherwise classical in that they can be efficiently simulated classically and cannot generate nonlocal statistics. Although the approach provides new regimes of noisy quantum evolution that can be efficiently simulated classically, it does not appear to lead to significant reductions of existing upper bounds to fault tolerance thresholds for common noise models.

  6. Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes

    SciTech Connect

    Houshmand, Monireh; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied

    2011-02-15

    Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a ''pearl-necklace'' encoder. Despite their algorithm's theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, it is not well suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm to find a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work is an extension of our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encoder for a general (non-CSS) quantum convolutional code into a realizable quantum convolutional encoder. We show that a minimal-memory realization depends on the commutativity relations between the gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder. We find a realization by means of a weighted graph which details the noncommutative paths through the pearl necklace. The weight of the longest path in this graph is equal to the minimal amount of memory needed to implement the encoder. The algorithm has a polynomial-time complexity in the number of gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder.

  7. Generalized purity and quantum phase transition for Bose-Einstein condensates in a symmetric double well

    SciTech Connect

    Viscondi, T. F.; Furuya, K.; Oliveira, M. C. de

    2009-07-15

    The generalized purity is employed for investigating the process of coherence loss and delocalization of the Q function in the Bloch sphere of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate in a symmetrical double well with cross collision. Quantum phase transition of the model is signaled by the generalized purity as a function of an appropriate parameter of the Hamiltonian and the number of particles (N). A power-law dependence of the critical parameter with N is derived.

  8. Generalized Lagrangian-Path Representation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper a new trajectory-based representation to non-relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated. This is ahieved by generalizing the notion of Lagrangian path (LP) which lies at the heart of the deBroglie-Bohm " pilot-wave" interpretation. In particular, it is shown that each LP can be replaced with a statistical ensemble formed by an infinite family of stochastic curves, referred to as generalized Lagrangian paths (GLP). This permits the introduction of a new parametric representation of the Schrödinger equation, denoted as GLP-parametrization, and of the associated quantum hydrodynamic equations. The remarkable aspect of the GLP approach presented here is that it realizes at the same time also a new solution method for the N-body Schrödinger equation. As an application, Gaussian-like particular solutions for the quantum probability density function (PDF) are considered, which are proved to be dynamically consistent. For them, the Schrödinger equation is reduced to a single Hamilton-Jacobi evolution equation. Particular solutions of this type are explicitly constructed, which include the case of free particles occurring in 1- or N-body quantum systems as well as the dynamics in the presence of suitable potential forces. In all these cases the initial Gaussian PDFs are shown to be free of the spreading behavior usually ascribed to quantum wave-packets, in that they exhibit the characteristic feature of remaining at all times spatially-localized.

  9. Auto covariance computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, T. E.; Meyers, J. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A laser velocimeter covariance processor which calculates the auto covariance and cross covariance functions for a turbulent flow field based on Poisson sampled measurements in time from a laser velocimeter is described. The device will process a block of data that is up to 4096 data points in length and return a 512 point covariance function with 48-bit resolution along with a 512 point histogram of the interarrival times which is used to normalize the covariance function. The device is designed to interface and be controlled by a minicomputer from which the data is received and the results returned. A typical 4096 point computation takes approximately 1.5 seconds to receive the data, compute the covariance function, and return the results to the computer.

  10. Economical phase-covariant cloning of qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Buscemi, Francesco; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2005-04-01

    We derive the optimal N{yields}M phase-covariant quantum cloning for equatorial states in dimension d with M=kd+N, k integer. The cloning maps are optimal for both global and single-qudit fidelity. The map is achieved by an 'economical' cloning machine, which works without ancilla.

  11. Generalized universal cloning and purification in quantum information by multistep state symmetrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masullo, L.; Ricci, M.; de Martini, F.

    2005-12-01

    A general multistep linear state symmetrization device for photonic qubits is presented together with the experimental realizations of the 1→3 and 2→3 universal optimal quantum cloning machines and of a 3-qubit purification procedure. Since the present method exploits the bosonic nature of the photons, it can be applied to any particle obeying to the Bose statistics. On a technological perspective, the present protocol is expected to find relevant applications as a multiqubit symmetrization device to be used in modern quantum-information networks.

  12. Simulating of the measurement-device independent quantum key distribution with phase randomized general sources

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    We present a model on the simulation of the measurement-device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with phase randomized general sources. It can be used to predict experimental observations of a MDI-QKD with linear channel loss, simulating corresponding values for the gains, the error rates in different basis, and also the final key rates. Our model can be applicable to the MDI-QKDs with arbitrary probabilistic mixture of different photon states or using any coding schemes. Therefore, it is useful in characterizing and evaluating the performance of the MDI-QKD protocol, making it a valuable tool in studying the quantum key distributions. PMID:24728000

  13. Cluster-state quantum computing enhanced by high-fidelity generalized measurements.

    PubMed

    Biggerstaff, D N; Kaltenbaek, R; Hamel, D R; Weihs, G; Rudolph, T; Resch, K J

    2009-12-11

    We introduce and implement a technique to extend the quantum computational power of cluster states by replacing some projective measurements with generalized quantum measurements (POVMs). As an experimental demonstration we fully realize an arbitrary three-qubit cluster computation by implementing a tunable linear-optical POVM, as well as fast active feedforward, on a two-qubit photonic cluster state. Over 206 different computations, the average output fidelity is 0.9832+/-0.0002; furthermore the error contribution from our POVM device and feedforward is only of O(10(-3)), less than some recent thresholds for fault-tolerant cluster computing.

  14. The generalized ambiguity function: a bridgework between classical and quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, John E.; Parks, Allen D.

    2016-05-01

    We provide a common framework for the measurement problem for radar, sonar, and quantum mechanics by casting them in the common language of quantum mechanics as a Rigged Hilbert Space. This language reveals a more detailed understanding of the underlying interactions of a return signal that are not usually brought out by standard signal processing design techniques. It also provides a means to "post-select" the return signal so the receiver design for radars can be optimized for either a single or multiple operators. Thus, detector design can be optimized for signal interaction with objects, so the algorithm provides a solution to receiver design for general types of interactions.

  15. A Covariance NMR Toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David

    2011-03-01

    The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE.

  16. A covariance NMR toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE.

    PubMed

    Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David

    2011-03-01

    The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE. PMID:21215669

  17. Relating different quantum generalizations of the conditional Rényi entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tomamichel, Marco; Berta, Mario; Hayashi, Masahito

    2014-08-15

    Recently a new quantum generalization of the Rényi divergence and the corresponding conditional Rényi entropies was proposed. Here, we report on a surprising relation between conditional Rényi entropies based on this new generalization and conditional Rényi entropies based on the quantum relative Rényi entropy that was used in previous literature. Our result generalizes the well-known duality relation H(A|B) + H(A|C) = 0 of the conditional von Neumann entropy for tripartite pure states to Rényi entropies of two different kinds. As a direct application, we prove a collection of inequalities that relate different conditional Rényi entropies and derive a new entropic uncertainty relation.

  18. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ{sup 2}=(θ-bar){sup 2}=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  19. General theory of measurement with two copies of a quantum state.

    PubMed

    Bendersky, Ariel; Paz, Juan Pablo; Cunha, Marcelo Terra

    2009-07-24

    We analyze the results of the most general measurement on two copies of a quantum state. We show that by using two copies of a quantum state it is possible to achieve an exponential improvement with respect to known methods for quantum state tomography. We demonstrate that mu can label a set of outcomes of a measurement on two copies if and only if there is a family of maps C_{micro} such that the probability Prob(micro) is the fidelity of each map, i.e., Prob(micro) = Tr[rhoC_{micro}(rho)]. Here, the map C_{micro} must be completely positive after being composed with the transposition (these are called completely copositive, or CCP, maps) and must add up to the fully depolarizing map. This implies that a positive operator valued measure on two copies induces a measure on the set of CCP maps (i.e., a CCP map valued measure).

  20. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, L. |

    1993-06-23

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.

  1. Certifying quantumness: Benchmarks for the optimal processing of generalized coherent and squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.

  2. Minimal unitary (covariant) scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindesay, J.V.; Markevich, A.

    1983-06-01

    In the minimal three particle equations developed by Lindesay the two body input amplitude was an on shell relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic scattering model characterized by a single mass parameter ..mu.. which in the two body (m + m) system looks like an s-channel bound state (..mu.. < 2m) or virtual state (..mu.. > 2m). Using this driving term in covariant Faddeev equations generates a rich covariant and unitary three particle dynamics. However, the simplest way of writing the relativisitic generalization of the Faddeev equations can take the on shell Mandelstam parameter s = 4(q/sup 2/ + m/sup 2/), in terms of which the two particle input is expressed, to negative values in the range of integration required by the dynamics. This problem was met in the original treatment by multiplying the two particle input amplitude by THETA(s). This paper provides what we hope to be a more direct way of meeting the problem.

  3. Exact analytical solutions to the master equation of quantum Brownian motion for a general environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, C.H.; Roura, Albert; Hu, B.L.

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > We study the model of a quantum oscillator linearly coupled to a bath of oscillators. > We derive the master equation and solutions for general spectra and temperatures. > We generalize to cases with an external force and arbitrary number of oscillators. > Other derivations have incorrect diffusion and force response for nonlocal damping. > We give exact results for ohmic, sub-ohmic and supra-ohmic environments. - Abstract: We revisit the model of a quantum Brownian oscillator linearly coupled to an environment of quantum oscillators at finite temperature. By introducing a compact and particularly well-suited formulation, we give a rather quick and direct derivation of the master equation and its solutions for general spectral functions and arbitrary temperatures. The flexibility of our approach allows for an immediate generalization to cases with an external force and with an arbitrary number of Brownian oscillators. More importantly, we point out an important mathematical subtlety concerning boundary-value problems for integro-differential equations which led to incorrect master equation coefficients and impacts on the description of nonlocal dissipation effects in all earlier derivations. Furthermore, we provide explicit, exact analytical results for the master equation coefficients and its solutions in a wide variety of cases, including ohmic, sub-ohmic and supra-ohmic environments with a finite cut-off.

  4. Generalized Galilean transformations and the measurement problem in the entropic dynamics approach to quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David T.

    Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful and accurate physical theory, yet since its inception, it has been afflicted with numerous conceptual difficulties. The primary subject of this thesis is the theory of entropic quantum dynamics (EQD), which seeks to avoid these conceptual problems by interpreting quantum theory from an informational perspective. We begin by reviewing Cox's work in describing probability theory as a means of rationally and consistently quantifying uncertainties. We then discuss how probabilities can be updated according to either Bayes' theorem or the extended method of maximum entropy (ME). After that discussion, we review the work of Caticha and Giffin that shows that Bayes' theorem is a special case of ME. This important result demonstrates that the ME method is the general method for updating probabilities. We then review some motivating difficulties in quantum mechanics before discussing Caticha's work in deriving quantum theory from the approach of entropic dynamics, which concludes our review. After entropic dynamics is introduced, we develop the concepts of symmetries and transformations from an informational perspective. The primary result is the formulation of a symmetry condition that any transformation must satisfy in order to qualify as a symmetry in EQD. We then proceed to apply this condition to the extended Galilean transformation. This transformation is of interest as it exhibits features of both special and general relativity. The transformation yields a gravitational potential that arises from an equivalence of information. We conclude the thesis with a discussion of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We discuss the difficulties that arise in the standard quantum mechanical approach to measurement before developing our theory of entropic measurement. In entropic dynamics, position is the only observable. We show how a theory built on this one observable can account for the multitude of measurements present in

  5. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  6. Controlled quantum secure direct communication by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian

    2016-05-01

    We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.

  7. Energy eigenvalues and squeezing properties of general systems of coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.

    2007-09-15

    We have generalized the two-step approach to the solution of systems of N coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators. By using the squeezed vacuum state of each individual oscillator, we construct the tensor product state, and obtain the optimal squeezed vacuum product state through energy minimization. We then employ this optimal state and its associated bosonic operators to define a basis set to construct the Heisenberg matrix. The diagonalization of the matrix enables us to obtain the energy eigenvalues of the coupled oscillators. In particular, we have applied our formalism to determine the eigenenergies of systems of two coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators perturbed by a general polynomial potential, as well as three and four coupled systems. Furthermore, by performing a first-order perturbation analysis about the optimal squeezed vacuum product state, we have also examined into the squeezing properties of two coupled oscillator systems.

  8. Many-Body Generalization of the Z2 Topological Invariant for the Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik; Ryu, Shinsei

    2008-05-01

    We propose a many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall insulator, which does not rely on single-particle band structures. The invariant is derived as a topological obstruction that distinguishes topologically distinct many-body ground states on a torus. It is also expressed as a Wilson loop of the SU(2) Berry gauge field, which is quantized due to time-reversal symmetry.

  9. Heavy pair production currents with general quantum numbers in dimensionally regularized nonrelativistic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    We discuss the form and construction of general color singlet heavy particle-antiparticle pair production currents for arbitrary quantum numbers, and issues related to evanescent spin operators and scheme dependences in nonrelativistic QCD in n=3-2{epsilon} dimensions. The anomalous dimensions of the leading interpolating currents for heavy quark and colored scalar pairs in arbitrary {sup 2S+1}L{sub J} angular-spin states are determined at next-to-leading order in the nonrelativistic power counting.

  10. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.

  11. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.

  12. Analysis of entanglement measures and LOCC maximized quantum Fisher information of general two qubit systems.

    PubMed

    Erol, Volkan; Ozaydin, Fatih; Altintas, Azmi Ali

    2014-06-24

    Entanglement has been studied extensively for unveiling the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known measures for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. It was found that for sets of non-maximally entangled states of two qubits, comparing these entanglement measures may lead to different entanglement orderings of the states. On the other hand, although it is not an entanglement measure and not monotonic under local operations, due to its ability of detecting multipartite entanglement, quantum Fisher information (QFI) has recently received an intense attraction generally with entanglement in the focus. In this work, we revisit the state ordering problem of general two qubit states. Generating a thousand random quantum states and performing an optimization based on local general rotations of each qubit, we calculate the maximal QFI for each state. We analyze the maximized QFI in comparison with concurrence, REE and negativity and obtain new state orderings. We show that there are pairs of states having equal maximized QFI but different values for concurrence, REE and negativity and vice versa.

  13. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks. PMID:26928053

  14. General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks. PMID:26928053

  15. Interacting functionally graded quantum wires/quantum dots with arbitrary shapes and general anisotropy within a distinct piezoelectric matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shodja, Hossein M.; Rashidinejad, Ehsan

    2014-05-01

    An accurate determination of the two- and three-dimensional electro-elastic fields of periodically as well as arbitrarily distributed interacting quantum wires (QWRs) and interacting quantum dots (QDs) of arbitrary shapes within a piezoelectric matrix is of particular interest. Both the QWR/QD and the barrier may be made of materials with distinct general rectilinear anisotropy in elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants. The lattice mismatch between the QWR/QD and the barrier is accounted by prescribing an initial misfit strain field within the QWR/QD. Previous analytical treatments have neglected the distinction between the electro-mechanical properties of the QWR/QD and those of the barrier. This simplifying assumption is circumvented in the present work by using a novel electro-mechanical equivalent inclusion method in Fourier space (FEMEIM). Moreover, the theory can readily treat cases where the QWRs/QDs are multiphase or functionally graded (FG). It was proven that for two-dimensional problems of either a periodic or an arbitrary distribution of FG QWRs in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric barrier, the elastic and electric fields are electrically and elastically impotent, respectively, and no electric field would be induced in the medium provided that the rotational symmetry and polarization axes coincide. Some numerical examples of more frequent shapes and different distributions of indium nitride QDs/QWRs within transversely isotropic aluminum nitride barrier are solved.

  16. Application of generalized operator representation in the time evolution of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Liu, Xiangyuan; Song, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We have systematically explored the application of generalized operator representation including P-, W-, and Husimi representation in the time evolution of quantum systems. In particular, by using the method of differentiation within an ordered product of operators, we give the normally and antinormally ordered forms of the integral kernels of Husimi operator representations and its corresponding formulations. By making use of the generalized operator representation, we transform exponentially complex operator equations into tractable phase-space equations. As a simple application, the time evolution equation of Husimi function in the amplitude dissipative channel is clearly obtained.

  17. Application of generalized operator representation in the time evolution of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Liu, Xiangyuan; Song, Jun

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically explored the application of generalized operator representation including P-, W-, and Husimi representation in the time evolution of quantum systems. In particular, by using the method of differentiation within an ordered product of operators, we give the normally and antinormally ordered forms of the integral kernels of Husimi operator representations and its corresponding formulations. By making use of the generalized operator representation, we transform exponentially complex operator equations into tractable phase-space equations. As a simple application, the time evolution equation of Husimi function in the amplitude dissipative channel is clearly obtained.

  18. General response formula and application to topological insulator in quantum open system.

    PubMed

    Shen, H Z; Qin, M; Shao, X Q; Yi, X X

    2015-11-01

    It is well-known that the quantum linear response theory is based on the first-order perturbation theory for a system in thermal equilibrium. Hence, this theory breaks down when the system is in a steady state far from thermal equilibrium and the response up to higher order in perturbation is not negligible. In this paper, we develop a nonlinear response theory for such quantum open system. We first formulate this theory in terms of general susceptibility, after which we apply it to the derivation of Hall conductance for open system at finite temperature. As an example, the Hall conductance of the two-band model is derived. Then we calculate the Hall conductance for a two-dimensional ferromagnetic electron gas and a two-dimensional lattice model. The calculations show that the transition points of topological phase are robust against the environment. Our results provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation of the nonlinear response in quantum open system, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and statistical physics. PMID:26651662

  19. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N - 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN-1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N - 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N - 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement.

  20. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication

    PubMed Central

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N − 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN−1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N − 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N − 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement. PMID:26577473

  1. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N - 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN-1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N - 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N - 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement.

  2. Covariance Spectroscopy for Fissile Material Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rusty Trainham, Jim Tinsley, Paul Hurley, Ray Keegan

    2009-06-02

    Nuclear fission produces multiple prompt neutrons and gammas at each fission event. The resulting daughter nuclei continue to emit delayed radiation as neutrons boil off, beta decay occurs, etc. All of the radiations are causally connected, and therefore correlated. The correlations are generally positive, but when different decay channels compete, so that some radiations tend to exclude others, negative correlations could also be observed. A similar problem of reduced complexity is that of cascades radiation, whereby a simple radioactive decay produces two or more correlated gamma rays at each decay. Covariance is the usual means for measuring correlation, and techniques of covariance mapping may be useful to produce distinct signatures of special nuclear materials (SNM). A covariance measurement can also be used to filter data streams because uncorrelated signals are largely rejected. The technique is generally more effective than a coincidence measurement. In this poster, we concentrate on cascades and the covariance filtering problem.

  3. Construction of Covariance Functions with Variable Length Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspari, Gregory; Cohn, Stephen E.; Guo, Jing; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on construction, directly in physical space, of three-dimensional covariance functions parametrized by a tunable length field, and on an application of this theory to reproduce the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 4 (GEOS-4) data assimilation system. These Covariance models are referred to as multi-level or nonseparable, to associate them with the application where a multi-level covariance with a large troposphere to stratosphere length field gradient is used to reproduce the QBO from sparse radiosonde observations in the tropical lower stratosphere. The multi-level covariance functions extend well-known single level covariance functions depending only on a length scale. Generalizations of the first- and third-order autoregressive covariances in three dimensions are given, providing multi-level covariances with zero and three derivatives at zero separation, respectively. Multi-level piecewise rational covariances with two continuous derivatives at zero separation are also provided. Multi-level powerlaw covariances are constructed with continuous derivatives of all orders. Additional multi-level covariance functions are constructed using the Schur product of single and multi-level covariance functions. A multi-level powerlaw covariance used to reproduce the QBO in GEOS-4 is described along with details of the assimilation experiments. The new covariance model is shown to represent the vertical wind shear associated with the QBO much more effectively than in the baseline GEOS-4 system.

  4. Covariant mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The connection between maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space and finite phase-space geometries is well known. In this article, we classify MUBs according to their degree of covariance with respect to the natural symmetries of a finite phase-space, which are the group of its affine symplectic transformations. We prove that there exist maximal sets of MUBs that are covariant with respect to the full group only in odd prime-power dimensional spaces, and in this case, their equivalence class is actually unique. Despite this limitation, we show that in dimension 2r covariance can still be achieved by restricting to proper subgroups of the symplectic group, that constitute the finite analogues of the oscillator group. For these subgroups, we explicitly construct the unitary operators yielding the covariance.

  5. Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-07-02

    The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.

  6. Quantum groups: Geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.S.

    1996-05-13

    The main theme of this thesis is a study of the geometry of quantum groups and quantum spaces, with the hope that they will be useful for the construction of quantum field theory with quantum group symmetry. The main tool used is the Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan description of quantum groups. A few content-rich examples of quantum complex spaces with quantum group symmetry are treated in details. In chapter 1, the author reviews some of the basic concepts and notions for Hopf algebras and other background materials. In chapter 2, he studies the vector fields of quantum groups. A compact realization of these vector fields as pseudodifferential operators acting on the linear quantum spaces is given. In chapter 3, he describes the quantum sphere as a complex quantum manifold by means of a quantum stereographic projection. A covariant calculus is introduced. An interesting property of this calculus is the existence of a one-form realization of the exterior differential operator. The concept of a braided comodule is introduced and a braided algebra of quantum spheres is constructed. In chapter 4, the author considers the more general higher dimensional quantum complex projective spaces and the quantum Grassman manifolds. Differential calculus, integration and braiding can be introduced as in the one dimensional case. Finally, in chapter 5, he studies the framework of quantum principal bundle and construct the q-deformed Dirac monopole as a quantum principal bundle with a quantum sphere as the base and a U(1) with non-commutative calculus as the fiber. The first Chern class can be introduced and integrated to give the monopole charge.

  7. General quantum-mechanical setting for field–antifield formalism as a hyper-gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    A general quantum-mechanical setting is proposed for the field-antifield formalism as a unique hyper-gauge theory in the field-antifield space. We formulate a Schr\\"odinger-type equation to describe the quantum evolution in a "current time" purely formal in its nature. The corresponding Hamiltonian is defined in the form of a supercommutator of the delta-operator with a hyper-gauge Fermion. The initial wave function is restricted to be annihilated with the delta-operator. The Schr\\"odinger's equation is resolved in a closed form of the path integral, whose action contains the symmetric Weyl's symbol of the Hamiltonian. We take the path integral explicitly in the case of being a hyper-gauge Fermion an arbitrary function rather than an operator.

  8. The covariate-adjusted frequency plot.

    PubMed

    Holling, Heinz; Böhning, Walailuck; Böhning, Dankmar; Formann, Anton K

    2016-04-01

    Count data arise in numerous fields of interest. Analysis of these data frequently require distributional assumptions. Although the graphical display of a fitted model is straightforward in the univariate scenario, this becomes more complex if covariate information needs to be included into the model. Stratification is one way to proceed, but has its limitations if the covariate has many levels or the number of covariates is large. The article suggests a marginal method which works even in the case that all possible covariate combinations are different (i.e. no covariate combination occurs more than once). For each covariate combination the fitted model value is computed and then summed over the entire data set. The technique is quite general and works with all count distributional models as well as with all forms of covariate modelling. The article provides illustrations of the method for various situations and also shows that the proposed estimator as well as the empirical count frequency are consistent with respect to the same parameter.

  9. Making classical and quantum canonical general relativity computable through a power series expansion in the inverse cosmological constant.

    PubMed

    Gambini, R; Pullin, J

    2000-12-18

    We consider general relativity with a cosmological constant as a perturbative expansion around a completely solvable diffeomorphism invariant field theory. This theory is the lambda --> infinity limit of general relativity. This allows an explicit perturbative computational setup in which the quantum states of the theory and the classical observables can be explicitly computed. An unexpected relationship arises at a quantum level between the discrete spectrum of the volume operator and the allowed values of the cosmological constant.

  10. Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory (see D'Ariano et al. in Found Phys, 2015), the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles (linearity, unitarity, locality, homogeneity, isotropy, and minimality of dimension), the automata theory is quantum ab-initio, and does not assume Lorentz covariance and mechanical notions. Being discrete it can describe localized states and measurements (unmanageable by quantum field theory), solving all the issues plaguing field theory originated from the continuum. These features make the theory an ideal framework for quantum gravity, with relativistic covariance and space-time emergent solely from the interactions, and not assumed a priori. The paper presents a synthetic derivation of the automata theory, showing how the principles lead to a description in terms of a quantum automaton over a Cayley graph of a group. Restricting to Abelian groups we show how the automata recover the Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some new routes about the more general scenario of non-Abelian Cayley graphs. The phenomenology arising from the automata theory in the ultra-relativistic domain and the analysis of corresponding distorted Lorentz covariance is reviewed in Bisio et al. (Found Phys 2015, in this same issue).

  11. Covariant jump conditions in electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itin, Yakov

    2012-02-01

    A generally covariant four-dimensional representation of Maxwell's electrodynamics in a generic material medium can be achieved straightforwardly in the metric-free formulation of electromagnetism. In this setup, the electromagnetic phenomena are described by two tensor fields, which satisfy Maxwell's equations. A generic tensorial constitutive relation between these fields is an independent ingredient of the theory. By use of different constitutive relations (local and non-local, linear and non-linear, etc.), a wide area of applications can be covered. In the current paper, we present the jump conditions for the fields and for the energy-momentum tensor on an arbitrarily moving surface between two media. From the differential and integral Maxwell equations, we derive the covariant boundary conditions, which are independent of any metric and connection. These conditions include the covariantly defined surface current and are applicable to an arbitrarily moving smooth curved boundary surface. As an application of the presented jump formulas, we derive a Lorentzian type metric as a condition for existence of the wave front in isotropic media. This result holds for ordinary materials as well as for metamaterials with negative material constants.

  12. Implementing general quantum measurements on linear optical and solid-state qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2013-03-01

    We show a systematic construction for implementing general measurements on a single qubit, including both strong (or projection) and weak measurements. We mainly focus on linear optical qubits. The present approach is composed of simple and feasible elements, i.e., beam splitters, wave plates, and polarizing beam splitters. We show how the parameters characterizing the measurement operators are controlled by the linear optical elements. We also propose a method for the implementation of general measurements in solid-state qubits. Furthermore, we show an interesting application of the general measurements, i.e., entanglement amplification. YO is partially supported by the SPDR Program, RIKEN. SA and FN acknowledge ARO, NSF grant No. 0726909, JSPS-RFBR contract No. 12-02-92100, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), MEXT Kakenhi on Quantum Cybernetics, and the JSPS via its FIRST program.

  13. Covariance mapping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  14. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  15. Low-dimensional Representation of Error Covariance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo; Marchesin, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble and reduced-rank approaches to prediction and assimilation rely on low-dimensional approximations of the estimation error covariances. Here stability properties of the forecast/analysis cycle for linear, time-independent systems are used to identify factors that cause the steady-state analysis error covariance to admit a low-dimensional representation. A useful measure of forecast/analysis cycle stability is the bound matrix, a function of the dynamics, observation operator and assimilation method. Upper and lower estimates for the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix eigenvalues are derived from the bound matrix. The estimates generalize to time-dependent systems. If much of the steady-state analysis error variance is due to a few dominant modes, the leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix approximate those of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix. The analytical results are illustrated in two numerical examples where the Kalman filter is carried to steady state. The first example uses the dynamics of a generalized advection equation exhibiting nonmodal transient growth. Failure to observe growing modes leads to increased steady-state analysis error variances. Leading eigenvectors of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix are well approximated by leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix. The second example uses the dynamics of a damped baroclinic wave model. The leading eigenvectors of a lowest-order approximation of the bound matrix are shown to approximate well the leading eigenvectors of the steady-state analysis error covariance matrix.

  16. Generalized quantum master equations in and out of equilibrium: When can one win?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aaron; Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-05-14

    Generalized quantum master equations (GQMEs) are an important tool in modeling chemical and physical processes. For a large number of problems, it has been shown that exact and approximate quantum dynamics methods can be made dramatically more efficient, and in the latter case more accurate, by proceeding via the GQME formalism. However, there are many situations where utilizing the GQME approach with an approximate method has been observed to return the same dynamics as using that method directly. Here, for systems both in and out of equilibrium, we provide a more detailed understanding of the conditions under which using an approximate method can yield benefits when combined with the GQME formalism. In particular, we demonstrate the necessary manipulations, which are satisfied by exact quantum dynamics, that are required to recast the memory kernel in a form that can be analytically shown to yield the same result as a direct application of the dynamics regardless of the approximation used. By considering the connections between these forms of the kernel, we derive the conditions that approximate methods must satisfy if they are to offer different results when used in conjunction with the GQME formalism. These analytical results thus provide new insights as to when proceeding via the GQME approach can be used to improve the accuracy of simulations.

  17. Generalized quantum master equations in and out of equilibrium: When can one win?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Aaron; Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E.

    2016-05-01

    Generalized quantum master equations (GQMEs) are an important tool in modeling chemical and physical processes. For a large number of problems, it has been shown that exact and approximate quantum dynamics methods can be made dramatically more efficient, and in the latter case more accurate, by proceeding via the GQME formalism. However, there are many situations where utilizing the GQME approach with an approximate method has been observed to return the same dynamics as using that method directly. Here, for systems both in and out of equilibrium, we provide a more detailed understanding of the conditions under which using an approximate method can yield benefits when combined with the GQME formalism. In particular, we demonstrate the necessary manipulations, which are satisfied by exact quantum dynamics, that are required to recast the memory kernel in a form that can be analytically shown to yield the same result as a direct application of the dynamics regardless of the approximation used. By considering the connections between these forms of the kernel, we derive the conditions that approximate methods must satisfy if they are to offer different results when used in conjunction with the GQME formalism. These analytical results thus provide new insights as to when proceeding via the GQME approach can be used to improve the accuracy of simulations.

  18. General Formalism of Decision Making Based on Theory of Open Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, M.; Ohya, M.; Basieva, I.; Khrennikov, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the general formalism of decision making which is based on the theory of open quantum systems. A person (decision maker), say Alice, is considered as a quantum-like system, i.e., a system which information processing follows the laws of quantum information theory. To make decision, Alice interacts with a huge mental bath. Depending on context of decision making this bath can include her social environment, mass media (TV, newspapers, INTERNET), and memory. Dynamics of an ensemble of such Alices is described by Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation. We speculate that in the processes of evolution biosystems (especially human beings) designed such "mental Hamiltonians" and GKSL-operators that any solution of the corresponding GKSL-equation stabilizes to a diagonal density operator (In the basis of decision making.) This limiting density operator describes population in which all superpositions of possible decisions has already been resolved. In principle, this approach can be used for the prediction of the distribution of possible decisions in human populations.

  19. Implications of the general constraints for single-qubit quantum process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas

    We revisit the general constraints of single qubit quantum process tomography and derive simplified forms in the Pauli basis. These forms give insight into the structure of the process matrix, which we examine in light of several examples. Specifically, we study some qubit leakage error models and show how different error models are manifest in the process matrix. NAP's research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  20. Algebraic calculation of the resolvent of a generalized quantum oscillator in a space of dimension D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, K. S.; Pismak, Yu. M.

    2015-10-01

    We consider the formalism based on using the sl(2) algebra instead of the conventional Heisenberg algebra for isotropic models of quantum mechanics. The operators of the squared momentum p 2 and squared coordinates q 2 and also the dilation operator H = i( pq + qp) are used as its generators. This allows calculating with the space dimension D as an arbitrary, not necessarily integer parameter. We obtain integral representations for the resolvent and its trace for a generalized harmonic oscillator with the Hamiltonian H( a, b, c) = ap 2+ bq 2+ cH and any D and study their analytic properties for different model parameter values.

  1. Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.

  2. Quantum-information distributors: Quantum network for symmetric and asymmetric cloning in arbitrary dimension and continuous limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, Samuel L.; Bužek, Vladimír; Hillery, Mark

    2001-05-01

    We show that for any Hilbert-space dimension, the optimal 1-->2 universal quantum cloner can be constructed from essentially the same quantum circuit, i.e., we find a universal design for universal cloners. In the case of infinite dimensions (which includes continuous variable quantum systems) the universal cloner reduces to an essentially classical device. More generally, we construct a universal quantum circuit for distributing qudits in any dimension which acts covariantly under generalized displacements and momentum kicks. The behavior of this covariant distributor is controlled by its initial state. We show that suitable choices for this initial state yield both universal cloners and optimized cloners for limited alphabets of states related by generalized phase-space displacements.

  3. The covariant chiral ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan

    2016-03-01

    We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N = (4 , 4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T 4, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.

  4. Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold

    2005-05-01

    Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics.

  5. Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Higher-order corrections to multichromophoric Förster theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jianlan Gong, Zhihao; Tang, Zhoufei

    2015-08-21

    For a general two-cluster energy transfer network, a new methodology of the generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) method is developed, which predicts an exact time-convolution equation for the cluster population evolution under the initial condition of the local cluster equilibrium state. The cluster-to-cluster rate kernel is expanded over the inter-cluster couplings. The lowest second-order GQKE rate recovers the multichromophoric Förster theory (MCFT) rate. The higher-order corrections to the MCFT rate are systematically included using the continued fraction resummation form, resulting in the resummed GQKE method. The reliability of the GQKE methodology is verified in two model systems, revealing the relevance of higher-order corrections.

  6. Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Time scale separation between intra-cluster and inter-cluster kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhoufei; Gong, Zhihao; Wu, Jianlan

    2015-09-14

    For a general two-cluster network, a new methodology of the cluster-based generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) is developed in the matrix formalism under two initial conditions: the local cluster equilibrium and system-bath factorized states. For each initial condition, the site population evolution follows exactly a distinct closed equation, where all the four terms involved are systematically expanded over inter-cluster couplings. For the system-bath factorized initial state, the numerical investigation of the two models, a biased (2, 1)-site system and an unbiased (2, 2)-site system, verifies the reliability of the GQKE and the relevance of higher-order corrections. The time-integrated site-to-site rates and the time evolution of site population reveal the time scale separation between intra-cluster and inter-cluster kinetics. The population evolution of aggregated clusters can be quantitatively described by the approximate cluster Markovian kinetics.

  7. Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Higher-order corrections to multichromophoric Förster theory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianlan; Gong, Zhihao; Tang, Zhoufei

    2015-08-21

    For a general two-cluster energy transfer network, a new methodology of the generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) method is developed, which predicts an exact time-convolution equation for the cluster population evolution under the initial condition of the local cluster equilibrium state. The cluster-to-cluster rate kernel is expanded over the inter-cluster couplings. The lowest second-order GQKE rate recovers the multichromophoric Förster theory (MCFT) rate. The higher-order corrections to the MCFT rate are systematically included using the continued fraction resummation form, resulting in the resummed GQKE method. The reliability of the GQKE methodology is verified in two model systems, revealing the relevance of higher-order corrections.

  8. Classical and quantum chaos in the generalized parabolic lemon-shaped billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopac, V.; Mrkonjić, I.; Radić, D.

    1999-01-01

    Two-dimensional billiards of a generalized parabolic lemonlike shape are investigated classically and quantum mechanically depending on the shape parameter δ. Quantal spectra are analyzed by means of the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution method. Calculated results are well accounted for by the proposed new two-parameter distribution function P(s), which is a generalization of Brody and Berry-Robnik distributions. Classically, Poincaré diagrams are shown and interpreted in terms of the lowest periodic orbits. For δ=2, the billiard has some unique characteristics resulting from the focusing property of the parabolic mirror. Comparison of the classical and quantal results shows an accordance with the Bohigas, Giannoni, and Schmit conjecture and confirms the relevance of the new distribution for the analysis of realistic spectral data.

  9. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdian, H. Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  10. Covariant calculation of strange decays of baryon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Sengl, B.; Melde, T.; Plessas, W.

    2007-09-01

    We present results for kaon decay widths of baryon resonances from a relativistic study with constituent quark models. The calculations are done in the point form of Poincare-invariant quantum mechanics with a spectator-model decay operator. We obtain covariant predictions of the Goldstone-boson-exchange and a variant of the one-gluon-exchange constituent quark models for all kaon decay widths of established baryon resonances. They are generally characterized by underestimating the available experimental data. In particular, the widths of kaon decays with decreasing strangeness in the baryon turn out to be extremely small. We also consider the nonrelativistic limit, leading to the familiar elementary emission model, and demonstrate the importance of relativistic effects. It is found that the nonrelativistic approach evidently misses sensible influences from Lorentz boosts and some essential spin-coupling terms.

  11. From quantum mechanics to classical statistical physics: Generalized Rokhsar-Kivelson Hamiltonians and the 'Stochastic Matrix Form' decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Castelnovo, Claudio . E-mail: castel@buphy.bu.edu; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher; Pujol, Pierre

    2005-08-01

    Quantum Hamiltonians that are fine-tuned to their so-called Rokhsar-Kivelson (RK) points, first presented in the context of quantum dimer models, are defined by their representations in preferred bases in which their ground state wave functions are intimately related to the partition functions of combinatorial problems of classical statistical physics. We show that all the known examples of quantum Hamiltonians, when fine-tuned to their RK points, belong to a larger class of real, symmetric, and irreducible matrices that admit what we dub a Stochastic Matrix Form (SMF) decomposition. Matrices that are SMF decomposable are shown to be in one-to-one correspondence with stochastic classical systems described by a Master equation of the matrix type, hence their name. It then follows that the equilibrium partition function of the stochastic classical system partly controls the zero-temperature quantum phase diagram, while the relaxation rates of the stochastic classical system coincide with the excitation spectrum of the quantum problem. Given a generic quantum Hamiltonian construed as an abstract operator defined on some Hilbert space, we prove that there exists a continuous manifold of bases in which the representation of the quantum Hamiltonian is SMF decomposable, i.e., there is a (continuous) manifold of distinct stochastic classical systems related to the same quantum problem. Finally, we illustrate with three examples of Hamiltonians fine-tuned to their RK points, the triangular quantum dimer model, the quantum eight-vertex model, and the quantum three-coloring model on the honeycomb lattice, how they can be understood within our framework, and how this allows for immediate generalizations, e.g., by adding non-trivial interactions to these models.

  12. Unequal Covariate Group Means and the Analysis of Covariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Tse-Chi; Sebatane, E. Molapi

    1979-01-01

    A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the effect of the differences in covariate means among treatment groups on the significance level and the power of the F-test of the analysis of covariance. (Author/GDC)

  13. Impact of the 235U Covariance Data in Benchmark Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Luiz C; Mueller, Don; Arbanas, Goran; Wiarda, Dorothea; Derrien, Herve

    2008-01-01

    The error estimation for calculated quantities relies on nuclear data uncertainty information available in the basic nuclear data libraries such as the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B). The uncertainty files (covariance matrices) in the ENDF/B library are generally obtained from analysis of experimental data. In the resonance region, the computer code SAMMY is used for analyses of experimental data and generation of resonance parameters. In addition to resonance parameters evaluation, SAMMY also generates resonance parameter covariance matrices (RPCM). SAMMY uses the generalized least-squares formalism (Bayes method) together with the resonance formalism (R-matrix theory) for analysis of experimental data. Two approaches are available for creation of resonance-parameter covariance data. (1) During the data-evaluation process, SAMMY generates both a set of resonance parameters that fit the experimental data and the associated resonance-parameter covariance matrix. (2) For existing resonance-parameter evaluations for which no resonance-parameter covariance data are available, SAMMY can retroactively create a resonance-parameter covariance matrix. The retroactive method was used to generate covariance data for 235U. The resulting 235U covariance matrix was then used as input to the PUFF-IV code, which processed the covariance data into multigroup form, and to the TSUNAMI code, which calculated the uncertainty in the multiplication factor due to uncertainty in the experimental cross sections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of the 235U covariance data in calculations of critical benchmark systems.

  14. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-01

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  15. Generalized Modal Analysis of Electromagnetic - and Quantum-Waveguide Structures and Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisshaar, Andreas

    Generalized modal analysis techniques for the characterization and modeling of dissipationless planar waveguide structures and discontinuities encountered in microwave and optical integrated circuits, as well as of quantum waveguide structures and devices, are presented. The frequency-dependent transmission properties of the curved microstrip bend are derived by utilizing a second-order perturbation analysis of the equivalent modified curved waveguide model and a mode-matching method which includes the higher order modes. An extension of the mode-matching method for characterization of microstrip right-angle bends and T junctions having a rectangular notch is formulated. The modal solutions for an arbitrary graded-index dielectric slab waveguide are derived by applying the generalized telegraphist's equations to the equivalent inhomogeneous parallel-plate waveguide model with electric or magnetic walls. These modal solutions are employed in a mode-matching procedure to calculate the transmission properties of a step discontinuity in typical diffused optical dielectric slab waveguides. Power loss calculations for an abrupt offset in a diffused optical waveguide show a smooth increase in radiation loss whereas a sharp transition from almost zero to nearly total radiation loss is found for an abrupt change in diffusion depth. In the analysis of quantum waveguide structures, the modal expansions of the wave function together with a mode-matching technique are utilized. The computed generalized scattering matrices (GSMs) of junctions and uniform waveguide sections are combined via an extended GSM technique to obtain the scattering parameters of composite quantum waveguide structures. Results for cascaded right-angle bends and periodic multi-waveguide structures in a split-gate configuration are presented assuming hard wall confinement. For the multisection structures, strong resonant behavior similar to that in resonant tunneling diodes is found. Calculated current

  16. Using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with Fallible Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Steven Andrew; Aguinis, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is used widely in psychological research implementing nonexperimental designs. However, when covariates are fallible (i.e., measured with error), which is the norm, researchers must choose from among 3 inadequate courses of action: (a) know that the assumption that covariates are perfectly reliable is violated but…

  17. Moving Beyond Quantum Mechanics in Search for a Generalized Theory of Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpojotor, Godfrey; Animalu, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Though there are infinite number of theories currently in the literature in the search for a generalized theory of superconductivity (SC), there may be three domineering mechanisms for the Cooper pair formation (CPF) and their emergent theories of SC. Two of these mechanisms, electron-phonon interactions and electron-electron correlations which are based on the quantum theory axiom of action-at-a distance, may be only an approximation of the third mechanism which is contact interaction of the wavepackets of the two electrons forming the Cooper pair as envisaged in hadronic mechanics to be responsible for natural bonding of elements. The application of this hydronic --type interaction to the superconducting cuprates, iron based compounds and heavy fermions leads to interesting results. It is therefore suggested that the future of the search for the theory of SC may be considered from this natural possible bonding that at short distances, the CPF is by a nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian strong hadronic-type interactions due to deep wave-overlapping of spinning particles leading to Hulthen potential that is attractive between two electrons in singlet couplings while at large distances the CPF is by superexchange interaction which is purely a quantum mechanical affairs.

  18. Capacity of optical communication in loss and noise with general quantum Gaussian receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeoka, Masahiro; Guha, Saikat

    2014-04-01

    Laser-light (coherent-state) modulation is sufficient to achieve the ultimate (Holevo) capacity of classical communication over a lossy and noisy optical channel, but requires a receiver that jointly detects long modulated code words with highly nonlinear quantum operations, which are near-impossible to realize using current technology. We analyze the capacity of the lossy-noisy optical channel when the transmitter uses coherent-state modulation but the receiver is restricted to a general quantum-limited Gaussian receiver, i.e., one that may involve arbitrary combinations of Gaussian operations [passive linear optics: beam splitters and phase shifters; second-order nonlinear optics (or active linear optics): squeezers, along with homodyne or heterodyne detection measurements] and any amount of classical feedforward within the receiver. Under these assumptions, we show that the Gaussian receiver that attains the maximum mutual information is either homodyne detection, heterodyne detection, or time sharing between the two, depending upon the received power level. In other words, our result shows that to exceed the theoretical limit of conventional coherent optical communication, one has to incorporate non-Gaussian, i.e., third- or higher-order nonlinear operations in the receiver. Finally we compare our Gaussian receiver limit with experimentally feasible non-Gaussian receivers and show that in the regime of low received photon flux, it is possible to overcome the Gaussian receiver limit by relatively simple non-Gaussian receivers based on photon counting.

  19. Canonical Naimark extension for generalized measurements involving sets of Pauli quantum observables chosen at random

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparaciari, Carlo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2013-01-01

    We address measurement schemes where certain observables Xk are chosen at random within a set of nondegenerate isospectral observables and then measured on repeated preparations of a physical system. Each observable has a probability zk to be measured, with ∑kzk=1, and the statistics of this generalized measurement is described by a positive operator-valued measure. This kind of scheme is referred to as quantum roulettes, since each observable Xk is chosen at random, e.g., according to the fluctuating value of an external parameter. Here we focus on quantum roulettes for qubits involving the measurements of Pauli matrices, and we explicitly evaluate their canonical Naimark extensions, i.e., their implementation as indirect measurements involving an interaction scheme with a probe system. We thus provide a concrete model to realize the roulette without destroying the signal state, which can be measured again after the measurement or can be transmitted. Finally, we apply our results to the description of Stern-Gerlach-like experiments on a two-level system.

  20. Quantum cosmology: a review.

    PubMed

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.

  1. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-07-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  2. Analytic Dependence is an Unnecessary Requirement in Renormalization of Locally Covariant QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khavkine, Igor; Moretti, Valter

    2016-06-01

    Finite renormalization freedom in locally covariant quantum field theories on curved spacetime is known to be tightly constrained, under certain standard hypotheses, to the same terms as in flat spacetime up to finitely many curvature dependent terms. These hypotheses include, in particular, locality, covariance, scaling, microlocal regularity and continuous and analytic dependence on the metric and coupling parameters. The analytic dependence hypothesis is somewhat unnatural, because it requires that locally covariant observables (which are simultaneously defined on all spacetimes) depend continuously on an arbitrary metric, with the dependence strengthened to analytic on analytic metrics. Moreover the fact that analytic metrics are globally rigid makes the implementation of this requirement at the level of local {*}-algebras of observables rather technically cumbersome. We show that the conditions of locality, covariance, scaling and a naturally strengthened microlocal spectral condition, are actually sufficient to constrain the allowed finite renormalizations equally strongly, thus eliminating both the continuity and the somewhat unnatural analyticity hypotheses. The key step in the proof uses the Peetre-Slovák theorem on the characterization of (in general non-linear) differential operators by their locality and regularity properties.

  3. Generalized uncertainty relations and entanglement dynamics in quantum Brownian motion models

    SciTech Connect

    Anastopoulos, C.; Kechribaris, S.; Mylonas, D.

    2010-10-15

    We study entanglement dynamics in quantum Brownian motion (QBM) models. Our main tool is the Wigner function propagator. Time evolution in the Wigner picture is physically intuitive and it leads to a simple derivation of a master equation for any number of system harmonic oscillators and spectral density of the environment. It also provides generalized uncertainty relations, valid for any initial state, that allow a characterization of the environment in terms of the modifications it causes to the system's dynamics. In particular, the uncertainty relations are very informative about the entanglement dynamics of Gaussian states, and to a lesser extent for other families of states. For concreteness, we apply these techniques to a bipartite QBM model, describing the processes of entanglement creation, disentanglement, and decoherence at all temperatures and time scales.

  4. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D L

    2016-01-01

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four. PMID:27272401

  5. Unifying the Geometry of General Relativity with the Virtual Particle Nature of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John

    2007-03-01

    General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) utilize different underlying assumptions regarding the nature of vacuum and space-time. GR requires the actual geometry of space-time to change in the presence of mass resulting in gravitation. QED operates within flat space-time and propagates forces through the exchange of virtual photons. Efforts to unify these theories are -- despite their mathematical elegance -- complex, cumbersome and incomplete. The inability to achieve unification may suggest a need to re-think basic conceptual models. The IWPD Research Center has found evidence suggesting that time -- as a unique degree of freedom -- may be illusionary. Our research suggests that time may be ``embedded'' within a spatial dimension through a geometric manipulation of the light cone in Minkowski space-time. This interpretation of space-time provides predictions that are experimentally verifiable and suggests a conceptual path for the unification of GR and QED.

  6. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four. PMID:27272401

  7. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D L

    2016-06-07

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four.

  8. Equilibration of isolated many-body quantum systems with respect to general distinguishability measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balz, Ben N.; Reimann, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate equilibration of isolated many-body systems in the sense that, after initial transients have died out, the system behaves practically indistinguishable from a time-independent steady state, i.e., non-negligible deviations are unimaginably rare in time. Measuring the distinguishability in terms of quantum mechanical expectation values, results of this type have been previously established under increasingly weak assumptions about the initial disequilibrium, the many-body Hamiltonian, and the considered observables. Here, we further extend these results with respect to generalized distinguishability measures which fully take into account the fact that the actually observed, primary data are not expectation values but rather the probabilistic occurrence of different possible measurement outcomes.

  9. Spatiotemporal noise covariance estimation from limited empirical magnetoencephalographic data.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sung C; Plis, Sergey M; Ranken, Doug M; Schmidt, David M

    2006-11-01

    The performance of parametric magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) source localization approaches can be degraded by the use of poor background noise covariance estimates. In general, estimation of the noise covariance for spatiotemporal analysis is difficult mainly due to the limited noise information available. Furthermore, its estimation requires a large amount of storage and a one-time but very large (and sometimes intractable) calculation or its inverse. To overcome these difficulties, noise covariance models consisting of one pair or a sum of multi-pairs of Kronecker products of spatial covariance and temporal covariance have been proposed. However, these approaches cannot be applied when the noise information is very limited, i.e., the amount of noise information is less than the degrees of freedom of the noise covariance models. A common example of this is when only averaged noise data are available for a limited prestimulus region (typically at most a few hundred milliseconds duration). For such cases, a diagonal spatiotemporal noise covariance model consisting of sensor variances with no spatial or temporal correlation has been the common choice for spatiotemporal analysis. In this work, we propose a different noise covariance model which consists of diagonal spatial noise covariance and Toeplitz temporal noise covariance. It can easily be estimated from limited noise information, and no time-consuming optimization and data-processing are required. Thus, it can be used as an alternative choice when one-pair or multi-pair noise covariance models cannot be estimated due to lack of noise information. To verify its capability we used Bayesian inference dipole analysis and a number of simulated and empirical datasets. We compared this covariance model with other existing covariance models such as conventional diagonal covariance, one-pair and multi-pair noise covariance models, when noise information is sufficient to estimate them. We

  10. Generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction method in coherent medium theory for quantum transport simulation of disordered nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiawei; Ke, Youqi

    2016-07-01

    Electron transport properties of nanoelectronics can be significantly influenced by the inevitable and randomly distributed impurities/defects. For theoretical simulation of disordered nanoscale electronics, one is interested in both the configurationally averaged transport property and its statistical fluctuation that tells device-to-device variability induced by disorder. However, due to the lack of an effective method to do disorder averaging under the nonequilibrium condition, the important effects of disorders on electron transport remain largely unexplored or poorly understood. In this work, we report a general formalism of Green's function based nonequilibrium effective medium theory to calculate the disordered nanoelectronics. In this method, based on a generalized coherent potential approximation for the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function, we developed a generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction method to calculate the average of a two-Keldysh-Green's-function correlator. We obtain nine nonequilibrium vertex correction terms, as a complete family, to express the average of any two-Green's-function correlator and find they can be solved by a set of linear equations. As an important result, the averaged nonequilibrium density matrix, averaged current, disorder-induced current fluctuation, and averaged shot noise, which involve different two-Green's-function correlators, can all be derived and computed in an effective and unified way. To test the general applicability of this method, we applied it to compute the transmission coefficient and its fluctuation with a square-lattice tight-binding model and compared with the exact results and other previously proposed approximations. Our results show very good agreement with the exact results for a wide range of disorder concentrations and energies. In addition, to incorporate with density functional theory to realize first-principles quantum transport simulation, we have also derived a general form of

  11. Explicit formulas for generalized harmonic perturbations of the infinite quantum well with an application to Mathieu equations

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Ravelo, J.; Trujillo, A. L.; Schulze-Halberg, A.

    2012-10-15

    We obtain explicit formulas for perturbative corrections of the infinite quantum well model. The formulas we obtain are based on a class of matrix elements that we construct by means of two-parameter ladder operators associated with the infinite quantum well system. Our approach can be used to construct solutions to Schroedinger-type equations that involve generalized harmonic perturbations of their potentials, such as cosine powers, Fourier series, and more general functions. As a particular case, we obtain characteristic values for odd periodic solutions of the Mathieu equation.

  12. Wave-Packet Collapse Based on Weak Repeatability or Covariant Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhao-Qi; Zhu, Chuan-Xi; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The conflict between the dynamics postulate (unitary evolution) and the measurement postulate (wave-packet collapse) of quantum mechanics has been reconciled by Zurek from an information transfer perspective [Phys. Rev. A 76 (2007) 052110], and has further been extended to a more general scenario [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 052111]. In this paper, we reconsider Zurek's new derivation by using weak repeatability postulate or covariant condition instead of repeatability postulate. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11461045, 11326099, 11361042, 11265010, and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province of China under Grant Nos. 20142BAB211016, 20132BAB201001, 20132BAB212009

  13. Strong subadditivity for log-determinant of covariance matrices and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Simon, R.

    2016-08-01

    We prove that the log-determinant of the covariance matrix obeys the strong subadditivity inequality for arbitrary tripartite states of multimode continuous variable quantum systems. This establishes general limitations on the distribution of information encoded in the second moments of canonically conjugate operators. The inequality is shown to be stronger than the conventional strong subadditivity inequality for von Neumann entropy in a class of pure tripartite Gaussian states. We finally show that such an inequality implies a strict monogamy-type constraint for joint Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steerability of single modes by Gaussian measurements performed on multiple groups of modes.

  14. Covariance analysis of gamma ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R.; Tinsley, J.

    2013-01-15

    The covariance method exploits fluctuations in signals to recover information encoded in correlations which are usually lost when signal averaging occurs. In nuclear spectroscopy it can be regarded as a generalization of the coincidence technique. The method can be used to extract signal from uncorrelated noise, to separate overlapping spectral peaks, to identify escape peaks, to reconstruct spectra from Compton continua, and to generate secondary spectral fingerprints. We discuss a few statistical considerations of the covariance method and present experimental examples of its use in gamma spectroscopy.

  15. Covariance Analysis of Gamma Ray Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R.; Tinsley, J.

    2013-01-01

    The covariance method exploits fluctuations in signals to recover information encoded in correlations which are usually lost when signal averaging occurs. In nuclear spectroscopy it can be regarded as a generalization of the coincidence technique. The method can be used to extract signal from uncorrelated noise, to separate overlapping spectral peaks, to identify escape peaks, to reconstruct spectra from Compton continua, and to generate secondary spectral fingerprints. We discuss a few statistical considerations of the covariance method and present experimental examples of its use in gamma spectroscopy.

  16. Electromagnetism, Local Covariance, the Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Gauss' Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Ko; Dappiaggi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2014-06-01

    We quantise the massless vector potential A of electromagnetism in the presence of a classical electromagnetic (background) current, j, in a generally covariant way on arbitrary globally hyperbolic spacetimes M. By carefully following general principles and procedures we clarify a number of topological issues. First we combine the interpretation of A as a connection on a principal U(1)-bundle with the perspective of general covariance to deduce a physical gauge equivalence relation, which is intimately related to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. By Peierls' method we subsequently find a Poisson bracket on the space of local, affine observables of the theory. This Poisson bracket is in general degenerate, leading to a quantum theory with non-local behaviour. We show that this non-local behaviour can be fully explained in terms of Gauss' law. Thus our analysis establishes a relationship, via the Poisson bracket, between the Aharonov-Bohm effect and Gauss' law - a relationship which seems to have gone unnoticed so far. Furthermore, we find a formula for the space of electric monopole charges in terms of the topology of the underlying spacetime. Because it costs little extra effort, we emphasise the cohomological perspective and derive our results for general p-form fields A ( p < dim( M)), modulo exact fields, for the Lagrangian density . In conclusion we note that the theory is not locally covariant, in the sense of Brunetti-Fredenhagen-Verch. It is not possible to obtain such a theory by dividing out the centre of the algebras, nor is it physically desirable to do so. Instead we argue that electromagnetism forces us to weaken the axioms of the framework of local covariance, because the failure of locality is physically well-understood and should be accommodated.

  17. Recent advances toward a general purpose linear-scaling quantum force field.

    PubMed

    Giese, Timothy J; Huang, Ming; Chen, Haoyuan; York, Darrin M

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus There is need in the molecular simulation community to develop new quantum mechanical (QM) methods that can be routinely applied to the simulation of large molecular systems in complex, heterogeneous condensed phase environments. Although conventional methods, such as the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method, are adequate for many problems, there remain other applications that demand a fully quantum mechanical approach. QM methods are generally required in applications that involve changes in electronic structure, such as when chemical bond formation or cleavage occurs, when molecules respond to one another through polarization or charge transfer, or when matter interacts with electromagnetic fields. A full QM treatment, rather than QM/MM, is necessary when these features present themselves over a wide spatial range that, in some cases, may span the entire system. Specific examples include the study of catalytic events that involve delocalized changes in chemical bonds, charge transfer, or extensive polarization of the macromolecular environment; drug discovery applications, where the wide range of nonstandard residues and protonation states are challenging to model with purely empirical MM force fields; and the interpretation of spectroscopic observables. Unfortunately, the enormous computational cost of conventional QM methods limit their practical application to small systems. Linear-scaling electronic structure methods (LSQMs) make possible the calculation of large systems but are still too computationally intensive to be applied with the degree of configurational sampling often required to make meaningful comparison with experiment. In this work, we present advances in the development of a quantum mechanical force field (QMFF) suitable for application to biological macromolecules and condensed phase simulations. QMFFs leverage the benefits provided by the LSQM and QM/MM approaches to produce a fully QM method that is able to

  18. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of covariance realism is to properly size a primary object's covariance in order to add validity to the calculation of the probability of collision. The covariance realism technique in this paper consists of three parts: collection/calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics. An empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) Goodness-of-Fit (GOF) method is employed to determine if a covariance is properly sized by comparing the empirical distribution of Mahalanobis distance calculations to the hypothesized parent 3-DoF chi-squared distribution. To realistically size a covariance for collision probability calculations, this study uses a state noise compensation algorithm that adds process noise to the definitive epoch covariance to account for uncertainty in the force model. Process noise is added until the GOF tests pass a group significance level threshold. The results of this study indicate that when outliers attributed to persistently high or extreme levels of solar activity are removed, the aforementioned covariance realism compensation method produces a tuned covariance with up to 80 to 90% of the covariance propagation timespan passing (against a 60% minimum passing threshold) the GOF tests-a quite satisfactory and useful result.

  19. The geometrical structure of quantum theory as a natural generalization of information geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reginatto, Marcel

    2015-01-13

    Quantum mechanics has a rich geometrical structure which allows for a geometrical formulation of the theory. This formalism was introduced by Kibble and later developed by a number of other authors. The usual approach has been to start from the standard description of quantum mechanics and identify the relevant geometrical features that can be used for the reformulation of the theory. Here this procedure is inverted: the geometrical structure of quantum theory is derived from information geometry, a geometrical structure that may be considered more fundamental, and the Hilbert space of the standard formulation of quantum mechanics is constructed using geometrical quantities. This suggests that quantum theory has its roots in information geometry.

  20. Universal and phase-covariant superbroadcasting for mixed qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Buscemi, Francesco; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Macchiavello, Chiara; Perinotti, Paolo

    2006-10-15

    We describe a general framework to study covariant symmetric broadcasting maps for mixed qubit states. We explicitly derive the optimal N{yields}M superbroadcasting maps, achieving optimal purification of the single-site output copy, in both the universal and phase-covariant cases. We also study the bipartite entanglement properties of the superbroadcast states.

  1. Interacting quantum fields and the chronometric principle

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I. E.

    1976-01-01

    A form of interaction in quantum field theory is described that is physically intrinsic rather than superimposed via a postulated nonlinearity on a hypothetical free field. It derives from the extension to general symmetries of the distinction basic for the chronometric cosmology between the physical (driving) and the observed energies, together with general precepts of quantum field theory applicable to nonunitary representations. The resulting interacting field is covariant, causal, involves real particle production, and is devoid of nontrivial ultraviolet divergences. Possible physical applications are discussed. PMID:16592353

  2. Local realism versus quantum theory: Violation of the generalized spin- s Bell inequalities for a set of three distinct axes

    SciTech Connect

    Ardehali, M. )

    1990-06-15

    Some simple inequalities which demonstrate the incompatibility of local realism with quantum theory are derived. They establish, for the first time, necessary conditions for violation of the generalized spin-{ital s} Bell inequalities for a set of three distinct {ital noncoplanar} axes. For {ital s}=1/2, however, these inequalities are equivalent to Wigner's results, thus giving necessary and {ital sufficient} conditions.

  3. Experience in using the covariances of some ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections: proposed improvements and addition of cross-reaction covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent ratio data, with carefully evaluated covariances, were combined with eleven of the ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections using the generalized least-squares method. The purpose was to improve these evaluated cross sections and covariances, as well as to generate values for the cross-reaction covariances. The results represent improved cross sections as well as realistic and usable covariances. The latter are necessary for meaningful intergral-differential comparisons and for spectrum unfolding.

  4. Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitelboim, Claudio

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION OF GAUGE THEORIES (PRE-BRST) * BRST HAMILTONIAN FORMULATION OF GAUGE THEORIES * DYNAMICS OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD * DOES THE HAMILTONIAN VANISH? GENERAL COVARIANCE AS AN "ORDINARY" GAUGE INVARIANCE * GENERALLY COVARIANT SYSTEMS * TIME AS A CANONICAL VARIABLE. ZERO HAMILTONIAN * Parametrized Systems * Zero Hamiltonian * Parametrization and Explicit Time Dependence * TIME REPARAMETRIZATION INVARIANCE * Form of Gauge Transformations * Must the Hamiltonian be Zero for a Generally Covariant System? * Simple Example of a Generally Covariant System with a Nonzero Hamiltonian * "TRUE DYNAMICS" VERSUS GAUGE TRANSFORMATIONS * Interpretation of the Formalism * Reduced Phase Space * MUST TIME FLOW? * GAUGE INDEPENDENCE OF PATH INTEGRAL FOR A PARAMETRIZED SYSTEM ILLUSTRATED. EQUIVALENCE OF THE GAUGES t = τ AND t = 0 * Reduced Phase Space Transition Amplitude as a Reduced Phase Space Path Integral * Canonical Gauge Conditions * Gauge t = 0 * Gauge t α τ * BRST CHARGE OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD * ELEMENTS OF BRST THEORY * THE GHOST, YOU'VE COME A LONG WAY BABY * Introduction * Quantum mechanics, the art of finding and combining simple elementary processes * Ghosts necessary to keep elementary processes simple * BRST symmetry: ghosts and matter become different components of single geometrical object * BRST SYMMETRY IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS * Ghosts have role in classical mechanics * Gauge invariance and constraints * Classical mechanics over Grassmann algebra necessary * Higher order structure functions * Rank defined. Open algebras * Ghosts. Ghost number. BRST generator as generating function for structure functions * A belianization of constraints. Existence of Ω * Uniqueness of Ω * Classical BRST cohomology * QUANTUM BRST THEORY * States and operators * Ghost number * BRST invariant states * Quantum BRST cohomology * Equivalence of the BRST physical subspace with the conventional gauge

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusler, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The main focus of the second, enlarged edition of the book Mathematica for Theoretical Physics is on computational examples using the computer program Mathematica in various areas in physics. It is a notebook rather than a textbook. Indeed, the book is just a printout of the Mathematica notebooks included on the CD. The second edition is divided into two volumes, the first covering classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, the second dealing with examples in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, general relativity and fractal geometry. The second volume is not suited for newcomers because basic and simple physical ideas which lead to complex formulas are not explained in detail. Instead, the computer technology makes it possible to write down and manipulate formulas of practically any length. For researchers with experience in computing, the book contains a lot of interesting and non-trivial examples. Most of the examples discussed are standard textbook problems, but the power of Mathematica opens the path to more sophisticated solutions. For example, the exact solution for the perihelion shift of Mercury within general relativity is worked out in detail using elliptic functions. The virial equation of state for molecules' interaction with Lennard-Jones-like potentials is discussed, including both classical and quantum corrections to the second virial coefficient. Interestingly, closed solutions become available using sophisticated computing methods within Mathematica. In my opinion, the textbook should not show formulas in detail which cover three or more pages—these technical data should just be contained on the CD. Instead, the textbook should focus on more detailed explanation of the physical concepts behind the technicalities. The discussion of the virial equation would benefit much from replacing 15 pages of Mathematica output with 15 pages of further explanation and motivation. In this combination, the power of computing merged with physical intuition

  6. Diffeomorphism invariant cosmological symmetry in full quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beetle, Christopher; Engle, Jonathan S.; Hogan, Matthew E.; Mendonça, Phillip

    2016-06-01

    This paper summarizes a new proposal to define rigorously a sector of loop quantum gravity at the diffeomorphism invariant level corresponding to homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies, thereby enabling a detailed comparison of results in loop quantum gravity and loop quantum cosmology. The key technical steps we have completed are (a) to formulate conditions for homogeneity and isotropy in a diffeomorphism covariant way on the classical phase-space of general relativity, and (b) to translate these conditions consistently using well-understood techniques to loop quantum gravity. Some additional steps, such as constructing a specific embedding of the Hilbert space of loop quantum cosmology into a space of (distributional) states in the full theory, remain incomplete. However, we also describe, as a proof of concept, a complete analysis of an analogous embedding of homogeneous and isotropic loop quantum cosmology into the quantum Bianchi I model of Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing. Details will appear in a pair of forthcoming papers.

  7. A general strategy for label-free sensitive DNA detection based on quantum dot doping.

    PubMed

    He, Xuewen; Ma, Nan

    2014-04-01

    Development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective DNA detection is of great significance to meet the growing demand of disease diagnostics. Herein, we report a new general strategy for label-free sensitive in-solution DNA detection using quantum dot (QD) doping-induced photoluminescence as a fluorogenic reporter system. The dopant mercury (Hg(II)) ions are initially sequestered in the hairpin-structured probe through T-Hg(2+)-T mismatch formation. Upon hybridization with the DNA target, the hairpin is disrupted and Hg(2+) ions are released and incorporated into ZnSe QDs, leading to a dopant-specific emission peak at 560 nm for DNA detection. Unlike the other methods, this method does not require any chemical modification of the DNA probe. It could provide high signal-to-noise ratio, robust single-base mismatch discrimination capability, and 3 orders of magnitude lower limit of detection (LOD) than the traditional molecular beacon (MB)-based fluorescence spectroscopy without any type of amplification. The method could be used for the detection of a variety of clinical significant DNA targets containing single mutations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on applying chemical transformation of inorganic nanostructures to sensitive DNA detection.

  8. Covariant Lyapunov vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginelli, Francesco; Chaté, Hugues; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) which span local intrinsic directions in the phase space of chaotic systems. Here, we review the basic results of ergodic theory, with a specific reference to the implications of Oseledets’ theorem for the properties of the CLVs. We then present a detailed description of a ‘dynamical’ algorithm to compute the CLVs and show that it generically converges exponentially in time. We also discuss its numerical performance and compare it with other algorithms presented in the literature. We finally illustrate how CLVs can be used to quantify deviations from hyperbolicity with reference to a dissipative system (a chain of Hénon maps) and a Hamiltonian model (a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

  9. Stardust Navigation Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Premkumar R.

    2000-01-01

    The Stardust spacecraft was launched on February 7, 1999 aboard a Boeing Delta-II rocket. Mission participants include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) and the University of Washington. The primary objective of the mission is to collect in-situ samples of the coma of comet Wild-2 and return those samples to the Earth for analysis. Mission design and operational navigation for Stardust is performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This paper will describe the extensive JPL effort in support of the Stardust pre-launch analysis of the orbit determination component of the mission covariance study. A description of the mission and it's trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the covariance procedure and models. Predicted accuracy's will be examined as they relate to navigation delivery requirements for specific critical events during the mission. Stardust was launched into a heliocentric trajectory in early 1999. It will perform an Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) on January 15, 2001 to acquire an orbit for the eventual rendezvous with comet Wild-2. The spacecraft will fly through the coma (atmosphere) on the dayside of Wild-2 on January 2, 2004. At that time samples will be obtained using an aerogel collector. After the comet encounter Stardust will return to Earth when the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) will separate and land at the Utah Test Site (UTTR) on January 15, 2006. The spacecraft will however be deflected off into a heliocentric orbit. The mission is divided into three phases for the covariance analysis. They are 1) Launch to EGA, 2) EGA to Wild-2 encounter and 3) Wild-2 encounter to Earth reentry. Orbit determination assumptions for each phase are provided. These include estimated and consider parameters and their associated a-priori uncertainties. Major perturbations to the trajectory include 19 deterministic and statistical maneuvers

  10. Device-independent quantum key distribution with generalized two-mode Schrödinger cat states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Curtis J.; Marshall, Kevin; Weedbrook, Christian; Howell, John C.

    2015-11-01

    We show how weak nonlinearities can be used in a device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol using generalized two-mode Schrödinger cat states. The QKD protocol is therefore shown to be secure against collective attacks and for some coherent attacks. We derive analytical formulas for the optimal values of the Bell parameter, the quantum bit error rate, and the device-independent secret key rate in the noiseless lossy bosonic channel. Additionally, we give the filters and measurements which achieve these optimal values. We find that, over any distance in this channel, the quantum bit error rate is identically zero, in principle, and the states in the protocol are always able to violate a Bell inequality. The protocol is found to be superior in some regimes to a device-independent QKD protocol based on polarization entangled states in a depolarizing channel. Finally, we propose an implementation for the optimal filters and measurements.

  11. Some asymptotic properties of kriging when the covariance function is misspecified

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, M.L.; Handcock, M.S.

    1989-02-01

    The impact of using an incorrect covariance function of kriging predictors is investigated. Results of Stein (1988) show that the impact on the kriging predictor from not using the correct covariance function is asymptotically negligible as the number of observations increases if the covariance function used is compatible with the actual covariance function on the region of interest R. The definition and some properties of compatibility of covariance functions are given. The compatibility of generalized covariances also is defined. Compatibility supports the intuitively sensible concept that usually only the behavior near the origin of the covariance function is critical for purposes of kriging. However, the commonly used spherical covariance function is an exception: observations at a distance near the range of a spherical covariance function can have a nonnegligible effect on kriging predictors for three-dimensional processes. Finally, a comparison is made with the perturbation approach of Diamond and Armstrong (1984) and some observations of Warnes (1986) are clarified.

  12. Inelastic light and electron scattering in parabolic quantum dots in magnetic field: Implications of generalized Kohn's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a one-component, quasi-zero-dimensional, quantum plasma exposed to a parabolic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. If the size of such a system as can be realized in the semiconducting quantum dots is on the order of the de Broglie wavelength, the electronic and optical properties become highly tunable. Then the quantum size effects challenge the observation of many-particle phenomena such as the magneto-optical absorption, Raman intensity, and electron energy loss spectrum. An exact analytical solution of the problem leads us to infer that these many-particle phenomena are, in fact, dictated by the generalized Kohn's theorem in the long-wavelength limit. Maneuvering the confinement and/or the magnetic field furnishes the resonance energy capable of being explored with the FIR, Raman, or electron energy loss spectroscopy. This implies that either of these probes should be competent in observing the localized magnetoplasmons in the system. A deeper insight into the physics of quantum dots is paving the way for their implementation in diverse fields such as quantum computing and medical imaging.

  13. Wave function formalism in quantum optics and generalized Huygens-Fresnel principle for N-photon states: derivation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainis, E.; Emplit, Ph.

    2010-06-01

    Few-photon systems are best described by their wave function rather than by the usual quantum field formalism. In this work, we develop a photon wave function (PWF) formalism suitable for analyzing a wide variety of quantum optical problems related to propagation, diffraction and imaging with quantum states of light. We establish a generalized Huygens-Fresnel (GH-F) principle that describes the propagation of any paraxial N-photon state. This tool is very helpful for predicting photo-detection correlations in space and time due to an initial N-particle entanglement, even in complex situation. The effect of lenses, beam splitters, filters ... on the photon paths can be easily taken into account. We apply the PWF formalism and the GH-F principle to three specific problems in quantum optics. First, we revisit the Hong-Ou-Mandel two-photon interference effect and analyze the effect of photon shape mismatch in space, time and polarization using the PWF formalism. Second, we show how to use the GH-F principle to analyze "ghost" imaging and diffraction experiments with entangled photon pairs such as those realized by Strekalov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3600 (1995)] and Pittman et al. [Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995)] in the nineties. Finally, we use the GH-F principle to analyze the resolution enhancement in a recent quantum imaging proposal based on N incoherent single-photon sources [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 133603 (2007) and Phys. Rev. A 80, 013820 (2009)].

  14. Quantum Numbers of Eigenstates of Generalized de Broglie-Bargmann- Wigner Equations for Fermions with Partonic Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, H.

    2003-01-01

    Generalized de Broglie-Bargmann-Wigner (BBW) equations are relativistically invariant quantum mechanical many body equations with nontrivial interaction, selfregularization and probability interpretation. Owing to these properties these equations are a suitable means for describing relativistic bound states of fermions. In accordance with de Broglie's fusion theory and modern assumptions about the partonic substructure of elementary fermions, i.e., leptons and quarks, the three-body generalized BBW-equations are investigated. The transformation properties and quantum numbers of the three-parton equations under the relevant group actions are elaborated in detail. Section 3 deals with the action of the isospin group SU(2), a U(1) global gauge group for the fermion number, the hypercharge and charge generators. The resulting quantum numbers of the composite partonic systems can be adapted to those of the phenomenological particles to be described. The space-time transformations and in particular rotations generated by angular momentum operators are considered in Section 4. Based on the compatibility of the BBW-equations and the group theoretical constraints, in Sect. 5 integral equations are formulated in a representation with diagonal energy and total angular momentum variables. The paper provides new insight into the solution space and quantum labels of resulting integral equations for three parton states and prepares the ground for representing leptons and quarks as composite systems.

  15. Turaev-Viro amplitudes from 2+1 loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranzetti, Daniele

    2014-04-01

    The Turaev-Viro state sum model provides a covariant spin foam quantization of three-dimensional Riemannian gravity with a positive cosmological constant Λ. We complete the program to canonically quantize the theory in the BF formulation using the formalism of loop quantum gravity. In particular, we show first how quantum group structures arise from the requirement of the constraint algebra to be anomaly free. This allows us to generalize the construction of the physical scalar product, from the Λ=0 case, in the presence of a positive Λ. We prove the equivalence between the covariant and canonical quantizations by recovering the spin foam amplitudes.

  16. Radiance Covariance and Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, R.; Goody, R.; Chen, L.

    1998-01-01

    Spectral Empirical Orhtogonal Functions (EOFs) derived from the covariance of satellite radiance spectra may be interpreted in terms of the vertical distribution of the covariance of temperature, water vapor, and clouds. The purpose of the investigation is to demonstrate the important constraints that resolved spectral radiances can place upon climate models.

  17. Covariant harmonic oscillators: 1973 revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noz, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Using the relativistic harmonic oscillator, a physical basis is given to the phenomenological wave function of Yukawa which is covariant and normalizable. It is shown that this wave function can be interpreted in terms of the unitary irreducible representations of the Poincare group. The transformation properties of these covariant wave functions are also demonstrated.

  18. Low-Fidelity Covariances: Neutron Cross Section Covariance Estimates for 387 Materials

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Low-fidelity Covariance Project (Low-Fi) was funded in FY07-08 by DOEÆs Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). The project was a collaboration among ANL, BNL, LANL, and ORNL. The motivation for the Low-Fi project stemmed from an imbalance in supply and demand of covariance data. The interest in, and demand for, covariance data has been in a continual uptrend over the past few years. Requirements to understand application-dependent uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest have led to the development of sensitivity / uncertainty and data adjustment software such as TSUNAMI [1] at Oak Ridge. To take full advantage of the capabilities of TSUNAMI requires general availability of covariance data. However, the supply of covariance data has not been able to keep up with the demand. This fact is highlighted by the observation that the recent release of the much-heralded ENDF/B-VII.0 included covariance data for only 26 of the 393 neutron evaluations (which is, in fact, considerably less covariance data than was included in the final ENDF/B-VI release).[Copied from R.C. Little et al., "Low-Fidelity Covariance Project", Nuclear Data Sheets 109 (2008) 2828-2833] The Low-Fi covariance data are now available at the National Nuclear Data Center. They are separate from ENDF/B-VII.0 and the NNDC warns that this information is not approved by CSEWG. NNDC describes the contents of this collection as: "Covariance data are provided for radiative capture (or (n,ch.p.) for light nuclei), elastic scattering (or total for some actinides), inelastic scattering, (n,2n) reactions, fission and nubars over the energy range from 10(-5{super}) eV to 20 MeV. The library contains 387 files including almost all (383 out of 393) materials of the ENDF/B-VII.0. Absent are data for (7{super})Li, (232{super})Th, (233,235,238{super})U and (239{super})Pu as well as (223,224,225,226{super})Ra, while (nat{super})Zn is replaced by (64,66,67,68,70{super})Zn

  19. General Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Homogeneous Immunoassay for Small Molecules Based on Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuezhi; Wen, Kai; Wang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Xiya; Li, Chenglong; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe a general bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) homogeneous immunoassay based on quantum dots (QDs) as the acceptor and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) as the donor (QD-BRET) for the determination of small molecules. The ratio of the donor-acceptor that could produce energy transfer varied in the presence of different concentrations of free enrofloxacin (ENR), an important small molecule in food safety. The calculated Förster distance (R0) was 7.86 nm. Under optimized conditions, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for ENR was less than 1 ng/mL and the linear range covered 4 orders of magnitude (0.023 to 25.60 ng/mL). The cross-reactivities (CRs) of seven representative fluoroquinolones (FQs) were similar to the data obtained by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The average intra- and interassay recoveries from spiked milk of were 79.8-118.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%, meeting the requirement of residue detection, which was a satisfactory result. Furthermore, we compared the influence of different luciferase substrates on the performance of the assay. Considering sensitivity and stability, coelenterazine-h was the most appropriate substrate. The results from this study will enable better-informed decisions on the choice of Rluc substrate for QD-BRET systems. For the future, the QD-BRET immunosensor could easily be extended to other small molecules and thus represents a versatile strategy in food safety, the environment, clinical diagnosis, and other fields.

  20. Information-preserving structures: A general framework for quantum zero-error information

    SciTech Connect

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Ng, Hui Khoon; Poulin, David; Viola, Lorenza

    2010-12-15

    Quantum systems carry information. Quantum theory supports at least two distinct kinds of information (classical and quantum), and a variety of different ways to encode and preserve information in physical systems. A system's ability to carry information is constrained and defined by the noise in its dynamics. This paper introduces an operational framework, using information-preserving structures, to classify all the kinds of information that can be perfectly (i.e., with zero error) preserved by quantum dynamics. We prove that every perfectly preserved code has the same structure as a matrix algebra, and that preserved information can always be corrected. We also classify distinct operational criteria for preservation (e.g., 'noiseless','unitarily correctible', etc.) and introduce two natural criteria for measurement-stabilized and unconditionally preserved codes. Finally, for several of these operational criteria, we present efficient (polynomial in the state-space dimension) algorithms to find all of a channel's information-preserving structures.

  1. A many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Sik; Ryu, Shinsei

    2008-03-01

    We propose a many-body generalization of the Z2 topological invariant for the quantum spin Hall insulator, which does not rely on single-particle band structures. The invariant is derived as a topological obstruction that distinguishes topologically distinct many-body ground states on a torus. It is also expressed as a Wilson-loop of the SU(2) Berry gauge field, which is quantized due to the time-reversal symmetry.

  2. Quantum stochastic processes for maps on Hilbert C*-modules

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Jaeseong; Ji, Un Cig

    2011-05-15

    We discuss pairs ({phi}, {Phi}) of maps, where {phi} is a map between C*-algebras and {Phi} is a {phi}-module map between Hilbert C*-modules, which are generalization of representations of Hilbert C*-modules. A covariant version of Stinespring's theorem for such a pair ({phi}, {Phi}) is established, and quantum stochastic processes constructed from pairs ({l_brace}{phi}{sub t{r_brace}}, {l_brace}{Phi}{sub t{r_brace}}) of families of such maps are studied. We prove that the quantum stochastic process J={l_brace}J{sub t{r_brace}} constructed from a {phi}-quantum dynamical semigroup {Phi}={l_brace}{Phi}{sub t{r_brace}} is a j-map for the quantum stochastic process j={l_brace}j{sub t{r_brace}} constructed from the given quantum dynamical semigroup {phi}={l_brace}{phi}{sub t{r_brace}}, and that J is covariant if the {phi}-quantum dynamical semigroup {Phi} is covariant.

  3. Quantum theory of open systems based on stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are "locked" inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.

  4. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  5. Covariance and gauge invariance in relativistic theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Giorgio

    2014-04-01

    Any metric theory of gravity whose interaction with quantum particles is described by a covariant wave equation is equivalent to a vector theory that satisfies Maxwell-type equations identically. This result does not depend on any particular set of field equations for the metric tensor, but only on covariance. It is derived in the linear case, but can be extended to any order of approximation in the metric deviation. In this formulation of the interaction of gravity with matter, angular momentum and momentum are conserved locally.

  6. Lie transformation method on quantum state evolution of a general time-dependent driven and damped parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    A variety of dynamics in nature and society can be approximately treated as a driven and damped parametric oscillator. An intensive investigation of this time-dependent model from an algebraic point of view provides a consistent method to resolve the classical dynamics and the quantum evolution in order to understand the time-dependent phenomena that occur not only in the macroscopic classical scale for the synchronized behaviors but also in the microscopic quantum scale for a coherent state evolution. By using a Floquet U-transformation on a general time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian, we exactly solve the dynamic behaviors of a driven and damped parametric oscillator to obtain the optimal solutions by means of invariant parameters of Ks to combine with Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant method. This approach can discriminate the external dynamics from the internal evolution of a wave packet by producing independent parametric equations that dramatically facilitate the parametric control on the quantum state evolution in a dissipative system. In order to show the advantages of this method, several time-dependent models proposed in the quantum control field are analyzed in detail.

  7. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-15

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  8. GENERAL: Continuous-Time Classical and Quantum Random Walk on Direct Product of Cayley Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, S.; Jafarizadeh, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we define direct product of graphs and give a recipe for obtaining probability of observing particle on vertices in the continuous-time classical and quantum random walk. In the recipe, the probability of observing particle on direct product of graph is obtained by multiplication of probability on the corresponding to sub-graphs, where this method is useful to determining probability of walk on complicated graphs. Using this method, we calculate the probability of continuous-time classical and quantum random walks on many of finite direct product Cayley graphs (complete cycle, complete Kn, charter and n-cube). Also, we inquire that the classical state the stationary uniform distribution is reached as t → ∞ but for quantum state is not always satisfied.

  9. Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2012-05-01

    A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed. By modulating the parameters of the system, the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine, 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine, and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed. The present scheme, which is attainable with current technology, saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines.

  10. Covariance Spectroscopy Applied to Nuclear Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R., Tinsley, J., Keegan, R., Quam, W.

    2011-09-01

    Covariance spectroscopy is a method of processing second order moments of data to obtain information that is usually absent from average spectra. In nuclear radiation detection it represents a generalization of nuclear coincidence techniques. Correlations and fluctuations in data encode valuable information about radiation sources, transport media, and detection systems. Gaining access to the extra information can help to untangle complicated spectra, uncover overlapping peaks, accelerate source identification, and even sense directionality. Correlations existing at the source level are particularly valuable since many radioactive isotopes emit correlated gammas and neutrons. Correlations also arise from interactions within detector systems, and from scattering in the environment. In particular, correlations from Compton scattering and pair production within a detector array can be usefully exploited in scenarios where direct measurement of source correlations would be unfeasible. We present a covariance analysis of a few experimental data sets to illustrate the utility of the concept.

  11. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  12. Covariation neglect among novice investors.

    PubMed

    Hedesström, Ted Martin; Svedsäter, Henrik; Gärling, Tommy

    2006-09-01

    In 4 experiments, undergraduates made hypothetical investment choices. In Experiment 1, participants paid more attention to the volatility of individual assets than to the volatility of aggregated portfolios. The results of Experiment 2 show that most participants diversified even when this increased risk because of covariation between the returns of individual assets. In Experiment 3, nearly half of those who seemingly attempted to minimize risk diversified even when this increased risk. These results indicate that novice investors neglect covariation when diversifying across investment alternatives. Experiment 4 established that naive diversification follows from motivation to minimize risk and showed that covariation neglect was not significantly reduced by informing participants about how covariation affects portfolio risk but was reduced by making participants systematically calculate aggregate returns for diversified portfolios. In order to counteract naive diversification, novice investors need to be better informed about the rationale underlying recommendations to diversify.

  13. Relative-Error-Covariance Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierman, Gerald J.; Wolff, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    Two algorithms compute error covariance of difference between optimal estimates, based on data acquired during overlapping or disjoint intervals, of state of discrete linear system. Provides quantitative measure of mutual consistency or inconsistency of estimates of states. Relative-error-covariance concept applied, to determine degree of correlation between trajectories calculated from two overlapping sets of measurements and construct real-time test of consistency of state estimates based upon recently acquired data.

  14. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: general implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy.

    PubMed

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Frisch, Michael J; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute. PMID:25399133

  15. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  16. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Frisch, Michael J.; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-01

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  17. Covariance expressions for eigenvalue and eigenvector problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liounis, Andrew J.

    There are a number of important scientific and engineering problems whose solutions take the form of an eigenvalue--eigenvector problem. Some notable examples include solutions to linear systems of ordinary differential equations, controllability of linear systems, finite element analysis, chemical kinetics, fitting ellipses to noisy data, and optimal estimation of attitude from unit vectors. In many of these problems, having knowledge of the eigenvalue and eigenvector Jacobians is either necessary or is nearly as important as having the solution itself. For instance, Jacobians are necessary to find the uncertainty in a computed eigenvalue or eigenvector estimate. This uncertainty, which is usually represented as a covariance matrix, has been well studied for problems similar to the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem, such as singular value decomposition. There has been substantially less research on the covariance of an optimal estimate originating from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. In this thesis we develop two general expressions for the Jacobians of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to the elements of their parent matrix. The expressions developed make use of only the parent matrix and the eigenvalue and eigenvector pair under consideration. In addition, they are applicable to any general matrix (including complex valued matrices, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors) as long as the eigenvalues are simple. Alongside this, we develop expressions that determine the uncertainty in a vector estimate obtained from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem given the uncertainty of the terms of the matrix. The Jacobian expressions developed are numerically validated with forward finite, differencing and the covariance expressions are validated using Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, the results from this work are used to determine covariance expressions for a variety of estimation problem examples and are also applied to the design of a dynamical system.

  18. A framework for assessing inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics using virtual human populations and integrating general knowledge of physical chemistry, biology, anatomy, physiology and genetics: A tale of 'bottom-up' vs 'top-down' recognition of covariates.

    PubMed

    Jamei, Masoud; Dickinson, Gemma L; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of failures in clinical stages of drug development have been related to the effects of candidate drugs in a sub-group of patients rather than the 'average' person. Expectation of extreme effects or lack of therapeutic effects in some subgroups following administration of similar doses requires a full understanding of the issue of variability and the importance of identifying covariates that determine the exposure to the drug candidates in each individual. In any drug development program the earlier these covariates are known the better. An important component of the drive to decrease this failure rate in drug development involves attempts to use physiologically-based pharmacokinetics 'bottom-up' modeling and simulation to optimize molecular features with respect to the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) processes. The key element of this approach is the separation of information on the system (i.e. human body) from that of the drug (e.g. physicochemical characteristics determining permeability through membranes, partitioning to tissues, binding to plasma proteins or affinities toward certain enzymes and transporter proteins) and the study design (e.g. dose, route and frequency of administration, concomitant drugs and food). In this review, the classical 'top-down' approach in covariate recognition is compared with the 'bottom-up' paradigm. The determinants and sources of inter-individual variability in different stages of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion are discussed in detail. Further, the commonly known tools for simulating ADME properties are introduced.

  19. Efficient tree tensor network states (TTNS) for quantum chemistry: Generalizations of the density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2013-04-01

    We investigate tree tensor network states for quantum chemistry. Tree tensor network states represent one of the simplest generalizations of matrix product states and the density matrix renormalization group. While matrix product states encode a one-dimensional entanglement structure, tree tensor network states encode a tree entanglement structure, allowing for a more flexible description of general molecules. We describe an optimal tree tensor network state algorithm for quantum chemistry. We introduce the concept of half-renormalization which greatly improves the efficiency of the calculations. Using our efficient formulation we demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of tree tensor network states versus matrix product states. We carry out benchmark calculations both on tree systems (hydrogen trees and π-conjugated dendrimers) as well as non-tree molecules (hydrogen chains, nitrogen dimer, and chromium dimer). In general, tree tensor network states require much fewer renormalized states to achieve the same accuracy as matrix product states. In non-tree molecules, whether this translates into a computational savings is system dependent, due to the higher prefactor and computational scaling associated with tree algorithms. In tree like molecules, tree network states are easily superior to matrix product states. As an illustration, our largest dendrimer calculation with tree tensor network states correlates 110 electrons in 110 active orbitals.

  20. Efficient tree tensor network states (TTNS) for quantum chemistry: generalizations of the density matrix renormalization group algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Naoki; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2013-04-01

    We investigate tree tensor network states for quantum chemistry. Tree tensor network states represent one of the simplest generalizations of matrix product states and the density matrix renormalization group. While matrix product states encode a one-dimensional entanglement structure, tree tensor network states encode a tree entanglement structure, allowing for a more flexible description of general molecules. We describe an optimal tree tensor network state algorithm for quantum chemistry. We introduce the concept of half-renormalization which greatly improves the efficiency of the calculations. Using our efficient formulation we demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of tree tensor network states versus matrix product states. We carry out benchmark calculations both on tree systems (hydrogen trees and π-conjugated dendrimers) as well as non-tree molecules (hydrogen chains, nitrogen dimer, and chromium dimer). In general, tree tensor network states require much fewer renormalized states to achieve the same accuracy as matrix product states. In non-tree molecules, whether this translates into a computational savings is system dependent, due to the higher prefactor and computational scaling associated with tree algorithms. In tree like molecules, tree network states are easily superior to matrix product states. As an illustration, our largest dendrimer calculation with tree tensor network states correlates 110 electrons in 110 active orbitals.

  1. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig and Renner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)). This work was supported by the SNF through the National Centre of Competence in Research ``Quantum Science and Technology'' and through Grant No. 200020-135048, the ERC (grant No. 258932), the Humbolt foundation and the F.R.S.-FNRS under project HIPERCOM.

  2. Water properties from first principles: Simulations by a general-purpose quantum mechanical polarizable force field

    PubMed Central

    Donchev, A. G.; Galkin, N. G.; Illarionov, A. A.; Khoruzhii, O. V.; Olevanov, M. A.; Ozrin, V. D.; Subbotin, M. V.; Tarasov, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    We have recently introduced a quantum mechanical polarizable force field (QMPFF) fitted solely to high-level quantum mechanical data for simulations of biomolecular systems. Here, we present an improved form of the force field, QMPFF2, and apply it to simulations of liquid water. The results of the simulations show excellent agreement with a variety of experimental thermodynamic and structural data, as good or better than that provided by specialized water potentials. In particular, QMPFF2 is the only ab initio force field to accurately reproduce the anomalous temperature dependence of water density to our knowledge. The ability of the same force field to successfully simulate the properties of both organic molecules and water suggests it will be useful for simulations of proteins and protein–ligand interactions in the aqueous environment. PMID:16723394

  3. Development of Covariance Capabilities in EMPIRE Code

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M. Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.

    2008-12-15

    The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.

  4. Development of covariance capabilities in EMPIRE code

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.

    2008-06-24

    The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.

  5. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties in Spherical Quantum Dots: Generalized Hulthén Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyeaju, M. C.; Idiodi, J. O. A.; Ikot, A. N.; Solaimani, M.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we studied the optical properties of spherical quantum dots confined in Hulthén potential with the appropriate centrifugal term included. The approximate solution of the bound state and wave functions were obtained from the Schrödinger wave equation by applying the factorization method. Also, we have used the density matrix formalism to investigate the linear and third-order nonlinear absorption coefficient and refractive index changes.

  6. Levy Matrices and Financial Covariances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Zdzislaw; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy; Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail

    2003-10-01

    In a given market, financial covariances capture the intra-stock correlations and can be used to address statistically the bulk nature of the market as a complex system. We provide a statistical analysis of three SP500 covariances with evidence for raw tail distributions. We study the stability of these tails against reshuffling for the SP500 data and show that the covariance with the strongest tails is robust, with a spectral density in remarkable agreement with random Lévy matrix theory. We study the inverse participation ratio for the three covariances. The strong localization observed at both ends of the spectral density is analogous to the localization exhibited in the random Lévy matrix ensemble. We discuss two competitive mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of an extensive and delocalized eigenvalue at the edge of the spectrum: (a) the Lévy character of the entries of the correlation matrix and (b) a sort of off-diagonal order induced by underlying inter-stock correlations. (b) can be destroyed by reshuffling, while (a) cannot. We show that the stocks with the largest scattering are the least susceptible to correlations, and likely candidates for the localized states. We introduce a simple model for price fluctuations which captures behavior of the SP500 covariances. It may be of importance for assets diversification.

  7. Covariance Matrix Evaluations for Independent Mass Fission Yields

    SciTech Connect

    Terranova, N.; Serot, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.

    2015-01-15

    Recent needs for more accurate fission product yields include covariance information to allow improved uncertainty estimations of the parameters used by design codes. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility to generate more reliable and complete uncertainty information on independent mass fission yields. Mass yields covariances are estimated through a convolution between the multi-Gaussian empirical model based on Brosa's fission modes, which describe the pre-neutron mass yields, and the average prompt neutron multiplicity curve. The covariance generation task has been approached using the Bayesian generalized least squared method through the CONRAD code. Preliminary results on mass yields variance-covariance matrix will be presented and discussed from physical grounds in the case of {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f) reactions.

  8. Covariance Matrix Evaluations for Independent Mass Fission Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, N.; Serot, O.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Sumini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent needs for more accurate fission product yields include covariance information to allow improved uncertainty estimations of the parameters used by design codes. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility to generate more reliable and complete uncertainty information on independent mass fission yields. Mass yields covariances are estimated through a convolution between the multi-Gaussian empirical model based on Brosa's fission modes, which describe the pre-neutron mass yields, and the average prompt neutron multiplicity curve. The covariance generation task has been approached using the Bayesian generalized least squared method through the CONRAD code. Preliminary results on mass yields variance-covariance matrix will be presented and discussed from physical grounds in the case of 235U(nth, f) and 239Pu(nth, f) reactions.

  9. Covariant transport theory

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Yang |

    1997-09-22

    Many phenomenological models for relativistic heavy ion collisions share a common framework - the relativistic Boltzmann equations. Within this framework, a nucleus-nucleus collision is described by the evolution of phase-space distributions of several species of particles. The equations can be effectively solved with the cascade algorithm by sampling each phase-space distribution with points, i.e. {delta}-functions, and by treating the interaction terms as collisions of these points. In between collisions, each point travels on a straight line trajectory. In most implementations of the cascade algorithm, each physical particle, e.g. a hadron or a quark, is often represented by one point. Thus, the cross-section for a collision of two points is just the cross-section of the physical particles, which can be quite large compared to the local density of the system. For an ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision, this could lead to a large violation of the Lorentz invariance. By using the invariance property of the Boltzmann equation under a scale transformation, a Lorentz invariant cascade algorithm can be obtained. The General Cascade Program - GCP - is a tool for solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation with any number of particle species and very general interactions with the cascade algorithm.

  10. Covariance evaluation work at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Young, Phillip; Hale, Gerald; Chadwick, M B; Little, R C

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos evaluates covariances for nuclear data library, mainly for actinides above the resonance regions and light elements in the enUre energy range. We also develop techniques to evaluate the covariance data, like Bayesian and least-squares fitting methods, which are important to explore the uncertainty information on different types of physical quantities such as elastic scattering angular distribution, or prompt neutron fission spectra. This paper summarizes our current activities of the covariance evaluation work at LANL, including the actinide and light element data mainly for the criticality safety study and transmutation technology. The Bayesian method based on the Kalman filter technique, which combines uncertainties in the theoretical model and experimental data, is discussed.

  11. Linear Covariance Analysis and Epoch State Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends in two directions the results of prior work on generalized linear covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. The first is an improved treatment of process noise in the batch, or epoch state, estimator with an epoch time that may be later than some or all of the measurements in the batch. The second is to account for process noise in specifying the gains in the epoch state estimator. We establish the conditions under which the latter estimator is equivalent to the Kalman filter.

  12. Linear Covariance Analysis and Epoch State Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends in two directions the results of prior work on generalized linear covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. The first is an improved treatment of process noise in the batch, or epoch state, estimator with an epoch time that may be later than some or all of the measurements in the batch. The second is to account for process noise in specifying the gains in the epoch state estimator. We establish the conditions under which the latter estimator is equivalent to the Kalman filter.

  13. The Analysis of Eigenstates of a Few Generalized Quantum Baker’s Maps Using Hadamard and Related Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakshisundaram, N.

    Application of the Hadamard and related transforms on a few generalized quantum baker’s maps have been studied. Effectiveness of the Hadamard transform and a new transform which combines the Fourier and the Hadamard transforms, for simplifying the eigenstates or resonances of the quantization of a few generalized baker’s map namely tetradic baker and lazy baker’s map when the Hilbert space dimension is power of 2 has been done by comparing the participation ratios in the transformed basis with respect to the position basis. Several special family of states based on their maximal compression in either Hadamard transform or the new transform are identified and they are related to the ubiquitous Thue-Morse and allied sequences. Evidence is provided that these special family of states as well as average over all eigenstates exhibits multifractal nature.

  14. Posterior covariance versus analysis error covariance in variational data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutyaev, Victor; Gejadze, Igor; Le Dimet, Francois-Xavier

    2013-04-01

    The problem of variational data assimilation for a nonlinear evolution model is formulated as an optimal control problem to find the initial condition function (analysis) [1]. The data contain errors (observation and background errors), hence there is an error in the analysis. For mildly nonlinear dynamics, the analysis error covariance can be approximated by the inverse Hessian of the cost functional in the auxiliary data assimilation problem [2], whereas for stronger nonlinearity - by the 'effective' inverse Hessian [3, 4]. However, it has been noticed that the analysis error covariance is not the posterior covariance from the Bayesian perspective. While these two are equivalent in the linear case, the difference may become significant in practical terms with the nonlinearity level rising. For the proper Bayesian posterior covariance a new approximation via the Hessian of the original cost functional is derived and its 'effective' counterpart is introduced. An approach for computing the mentioned estimates in the matrix-free environment using Lanczos method with preconditioning is suggested. Numerical examples which validate the developed theory are presented for the model governed by the Burgers equation with a nonlinear viscous term. The authors acknowledge the funding through the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC grant NE/J018201/1), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 12-01-00322), the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia, the MOISE project (CNRS, INRIA, UJF, INPG) and Région Rhône-Alpes. References: 1. Le Dimet F.X., Talagrand O. Variational algorithms for analysis and assimilation of meteorological observations: theoretical aspects. Tellus, 1986, v.38A, pp.97-110. 2. Gejadze I., Le Dimet F.-X., Shutyaev V. On analysis error covariances in variational data assimilation. SIAM J. Sci. Computing, 2008, v.30, no.4, pp.184-1874. 3. Gejadze I.Yu., Copeland G.J.M., Le Dimet F.-X., Shutyaev V. Computation of the analysis error

  15. Covariant constitutive relations and relativistic inhomogeneous plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gratus, J.; Tucker, R. W.

    2011-04-15

    The notion of a 2-point susceptibility kernel used to describe linear electromagnetic responses of dispersive continuous media in nonrelativistic phenomena is generalized to accommodate the constraints required of a causal formulation in spacetimes with background gravitational fields. In particular the concepts of spatial material inhomogeneity and temporal nonstationarity are formulated within a fully covariant spacetime framework. This framework is illustrated by recasting the Maxwell-Vlasov equations for a collisionless plasma in a form that exposes a 2-point electromagnetic susceptibility kernel in spacetime. This permits the establishment of a perturbative scheme for nonstationary inhomogeneous plasma configurations. Explicit formulae for the perturbed kernel are derived in both the presence and absence of gravitation using the general solution to the relativistic equations of motion of the plasma constituents. In the absence of gravitation this permits an analysis of collisionless damping in terms of a system of integral equations that reduce to standard Landau damping of Langmuir modes when the perturbation refers to a homogeneous stationary plasma configuration. It is concluded that constitutive modeling in terms of a 2-point susceptibility kernel in a covariant spacetime framework offers a natural extension of standard nonrelativistic descriptions of simple media and that its use for describing linear responses of more general dispersive media has wide applicability in relativistic plasma modeling.

  16. Exact, E = 0, classical and quantum solutions for general power-law oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Daboul, Jamil

    1995-01-01

    For zero energy, E = 0, we derive exact, classical and quantum solutions for all power-law oscillators with potentials V(r) = -gamma/r(exp nu), gamma greater than 0 and -infinity less than nu less than infinity. When the angular momentum is non-zero, these solutions lead to the classical orbits (p(t) = (cos mu(phi(t) - phi(sub 0)t))(exp 1/mu) with mu = nu/2 - 1 does not equal 0. For nu greater than 2, the orbits are bound and go through the origin. We calculate the periods and precessions of these bound orbits, and graph a number of specific examples. The unbound orbits are also discussed in detail. Quantum mechanically, this system is also exactly solvable. We find that when nu is greater than 2 the solutions are normalizable (bound), as in the classical case. Further, there are normalizable discrete, yet unbound, states. They correspond to unbound classical particles which reach infinity in a finite time. Finally, the number of space dimensions of the system can determine whether or not an E = 0 state is bound. These and other interesting comparisons to the classical system will be discussed.

  17. Exact, E = 0, classical and quantum solutions for general power-law oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M.; Daboul, J.

    1994-07-01

    For zero energy, E = 0, we derive exact, classical and quantum solutions for all power-law oscillators with potentials V(r) = {minus}{gamma}/r{sup {nu}}, {gamma} > 0 and {minus}{infinity} < {nu} < {infinity}. When the angular momentum is non-zero, these solutions lead to the classical orbits {rho}(t) = [cos {mu}({var_phi}(t) {minus} {var_phi}{sub 0}(t))]{sup 1/{mu}}, with {mu} = {nu}/2 {minus} 1 {ne} 0. For {nu} > 2, the orbits are bound and go through the origin. We calculate the periods and precessions of these bound orbits, and graph a number of specific examples. The unbound orbits are also discussed in detail. Quantum mechanically, this system is also exactly solvable. We find that when {nu} > 2 the solutions are normalizable (bound), as in the classical case. Also, there are normalizable discrete, yet unbound, state which correspond to unbound classical particles which reach infinity in a finite time. These and other interesting comparisons to the classical system will be discussed.

  18. Scattering in constraint relativistic quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, L. P.; Rohrlich, F.

    1982-12-01

    A relativistic scattering theory is developed for a covariant constraint dynamics with direct interparticle interactions. Both time-dependent and time-independent formulations are presented, the latter being a generalization of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. For the two-body problem, we study the simple case of maximal symmetry which, equivalently, admits both single- and two-time formulations. The two-time formalism illustrates the main features of the general case of N>=3 particles. Perturbation expansions are given for the wave function and for the S matrix. Their structure is similar to those in quantum field theory corresponding to skeleton diagrams.

  19. Quantum Tunneling of the Non-stationary Kerr-Newman Black Hole via a New Type of General Tortoise Coordinate Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhong-Wen; Deng, Juan; Li, Guo-Ping; Yang, Shu-Zheng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the quantum tunneling of the non-stationary Kerr-Newman black hole is investigated via Hamilton-Jacobi equation and two types of general tortoise coordinate transformations. The tunneling rates, the Hawking temperatures and radiation spectrums are derived respectively. Our result shows that the new type of general tortoise coordinate transformation is more reasonable.

  20. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  1. Covariation Neglect among Novice Investors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedesstrom, Ted Martin; Svedsater, Henrik; Garling, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    In 4 experiments, undergraduates made hypothetical investment choices. In Experiment 1, participants paid more attention to the volatility of individual assets than to the volatility of aggregated portfolios. The results of Experiment 2 show that most participants diversified even when this increased risk because of covariation between the returns…

  2. General properties of CePd1-xRhx at quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaginyan, V. R.; Popov, K. G.

    2009-10-01

    The heavy-fermion metal CePd1-xRhx evolves from ferromagnetism at x=0 to a non-magnetic state at some critical concentration xc. Utilizing the quasiparticle picture and the concept of fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT), we address the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior of ferromagnet CePd1-xRhx and show that it coincides with that of antiferromagnets YbRh2(Si0.95Ge0.05)2 and CeCoIn 5, paramagnets CeRu 2Si 2 and CeNi 2Ge 2 and 2D 3He. We show that the NFL behavior is independent of the peculiarities of specific alloy and universal. Our study of the NFL behavior allows us to calculate the magnetoresistance of CeCoIn 5. Obtained results are in good agreement with facts and reveal a new scaling behavior of magnetoresistance.

  3. Measuring our changing Earth by means of General Relativity and quantum sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Jakob

    2016-07-01

    Breakthroughs in quantum metrology and advanced laser metrology enable new methods for extremely accurate and precise measurements of time, ranging, inertial forces and gravity, in sensor setups that can be very compact. This is relevant for satellite geodesy and geodetic ground networks, which together provide the geometric and gravimetric reference frames and the basis for monitoring processes of global and regional change involving deformation and mass re-distribution. Ultraprecise optical atomic clocks and optical frequency transfer allow measuring the relativistic gravitational frequency redshift and open the perspective of tying height differences and height systems to atomic standards. Satellite gravimetry with laser interferometric ranging, which is demonstrated on LISA Pathfinder and the upcoming GRACE Follow-On, will allow recovering the Earth's large-scale mass redistribution in its water cycle and due to climatic change with better resolution. Interferometry with clouds of cold atoms is the basis for very sensitive and compact gravimeters to monitor local and regional geophysical processes.

  4. General tracking control of arbitrary N-level quantum systems using piecewise time-independent potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delben, G. J.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2016-05-01

    Here we propose a tracking quantum control protocol for arbitrary N-level systems. The goal is to make the expected value of an observable O to follow a predetermined trajectory S( t). For so, we drive the quantum state |\\varPsi (t) rangle evolution through an external potential V which depends on M_V tunable parameters (e.g., the amplitude and phase (thus M_V = 2) of a laser field in the dipolar condition). At instants t_n, these parameters can be rapidly switched to specific values and then kept constant during time intervals Δ t. The method determines which sets of parameters values can result in < \\varPsi (t) | O |\\varPsi (t) rangle = S(t). It is numerically robust (no intrinsic divergences) and relatively fast since we need to solve only nonlinear algebraic (instead of a system of coupled nonlinear differential) equations to obtain the parameters at the successive Δ t's. For a given S( t), the required minimum M_V = M_min 'degrees of freedom' of V attaining the control is a good figure of merit of the problem difficulty. For instance, the control cannot be unconditionally realizable if M_{min } > 2 and V is due to a laser field (the usual context in real applications). As it is discussed and exemplified, in these cases a possible procedure is to relax the control in certain problematic (but short) time intervals. Finally, when existing the approach can systematically access distinct possible solutions, thereby allowing a relatively simple way to search for the best implementation conditions. Illustrations for 3-, 4-, and 5-level systems and some comparisons with calculations in the literature are presented.

  5. [Clinical research XIX. From clinical judgment to analysis of covariance].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Moreno, Jorge; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is based on the general linear models. This technique involves a regression model, often multiple, in which the outcome is presented as a continuous variable, the independent variables are qualitative or are introduced into the model as dummy or dichotomous variables, and factors for which adjustment is required (covariates) can be in any measurement level (i.e. nominal, ordinal or continuous). The maneuvers can be entered into the model as 1) fixed effects, or 2) random effects. The difference between fixed effects and random effects depends on the type of information we want from the analysis of the effects. ANCOVA effect separates the independent variables from the effect of co-variables, i.e., corrects the dependent variable eliminating the influence of covariates, given that these variables change in conjunction with maneuvers or treatments, affecting the outcome variable. ANCOVA should be done only if it meets three assumptions: 1) the relationship between the covariate and the outcome is linear, 2) there is homogeneity of slopes, and 3) the covariate and the independent variable are independent from each other.

  6. The Performance Analysis Based on SAR Sample Covariance Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Erten, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Multi-channel systems appear in several fields of application in science. In the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) context, multi-channel systems may refer to different domains, as multi-polarization, multi-interferometric or multi-temporal data, or even a combination of them. Due to the inherent speckle phenomenon present in SAR images, the statistical description of the data is almost mandatory for its utilization. The complex images acquired over natural media present in general zero-mean circular Gaussian characteristics. In this case, second order statistics as the multi-channel covariance matrix fully describe the data. For practical situations however, the covariance matrix has to be estimated using a limited number of samples, and this sample covariance matrix follow the complex Wishart distribution. In this context, the eigendecomposition of the multi-channel covariance matrix has been shown in different areas of high relevance regarding the physical properties of the imaged scene. Specifically, the maximum eigenvalue of the covariance matrix has been frequently used in different applications as target or change detection, estimation of the dominant scattering mechanism in polarimetric data, moving target indication, etc. In this paper, the statistical behavior of the maximum eigenvalue derived from the eigendecomposition of the sample multi-channel covariance matrix in terms of multi-channel SAR images is simplified for SAR community. Validation is performed against simulated data and examples of estimation and detection problems using the analytical expressions are as well given. PMID:22736976

  7. Quantum computers and reality: Deutsch's anti-positivist campaign for explanations-in-general, apart from his Many Worlds Interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Thomas W.

    2002-04-01

    David Deutsch (Oxford University) is known for ``Deutsch's algorithmm"---for going beyond the initial ideas about quantum computing (QC) of Benioff, Bennett and Feynman, to describe a quantum Turing machine, and sparking today's widespread experimental research to actually build one. Deutsch does not accept the standard Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) of quantum mechanics (QM); he supports the Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI) and credits it for his insights. In his book, The Fabric of Reality, and numerous articles and talks, he argues that the the adoption of the MWI is phnecessary for making the advances required for quantum computing. His argues that physicists must resolutely take a ``realistic" viewpoint to its logical conclusions, and, that the MWI is phthe realistic theory. In response to ubiquitous assertions by the majority of physicists that ``both systems give the same numbers," and ``all physics does (or can do) is to predict the outcome of experiments," he argues strenuously for the importance of explanations in quantum physics, and to scientific progress in general. Hence, I argue that there are two, reasonably separable, layers here: (i) opposition to positivist and instrumentalist arguments against the validity and/or value of phany explanation(s) phas such, and (ii) an argument about just what is the correct explanation: the MWI over the CI. While establishing the validity of (i) may possibly undermine CI's spirit, nevertheless (i) can be strongly validated independent from complicatons of an overlap with issues of the interpretation of QM. I develop some simple, historical contradictions regarding point (i), (without passing judgement on Deutsch's MWI or involving the CI). For example, the majority viewpoint identifies its seemingly ``non- philosophical" and non-``methaphysical" mindset as archtypically ``scientific", while seemingly quite unaware of the theoretical difficuties with positivist notions of truth, such as the fact that the foundations

  8. Group field theory as the second quantization of loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    We construct a second quantized reformulation of canonical loop quantum gravity (LQG) at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the group field theory (GFT) formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.

  9. Two-sided estimates of minimum-error distinguishability of mixed quantum states via generalized Holevo-Curlander bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, Jon

    2009-03-15

    We prove a concise factor-of-2 estimate for the failure rate of optimally distinguishing an arbitrary ensemble of mixed quantum states, generalizing work of Holevo [Theor. Probab. Appl. 23, 411 (1978)] and Curlander [Ph.D. Thesis, MIT, 1979]. A modification to the minimal principle of Cocha and Poor [Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement, and Computing (Rinton, Princeton, NJ, 2003)] is used to derive a suboptimal measurement which has an error rate within a factor of 2 of the optimal by construction. This measurement is quadratically weighted and has appeared as the first iterate of a sequence of measurements proposed by Jezek et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 060301 (2002)]. Unlike the so-called pretty good measurement, it coincides with Holevo's asymptotically optimal measurement in the case of nonequiprobable pure states. A quadratically weighted version of the measurement bound by Barnum and Knill [J. Math. Phys. 43, 2097 (2002)] is proven. Bounds on the distinguishability of syndromes in the sense of Schumacher and Westmoreland [Phys. Rev. A 56, 131 (1997)] appear as a corollary. An appendix relates our bounds to the trace-Jensen inequality.

  10. Two-sided estimates of minimum-error distinguishability of mixed quantum states via generalized Holevo-Curlander bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Jon

    2009-03-01

    We prove a concise factor-of-2 estimate for the failure rate of optimally distinguishing an arbitrary ensemble of mixed quantum states, generalizing work of Holevo [Theor. Probab. Appl. 23, 411 (1978)] and Curlander [Ph.D. Thesis, MIT, 1979]. A modification to the minimal principle of Cocha and Poor [Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement, and Computing (Rinton, Princeton, NJ, 2003)] is used to derive a suboptimal measurement which has an error rate within a factor of 2 of the optimal by construction. This measurement is quadratically weighted and has appeared as the first iterate of a sequence of measurements proposed by Ježek et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 060301 (2002)]. Unlike the so-called pretty good measurement, it coincides with Holevo's asymptotically optimal measurement in the case of nonequiprobable pure states. A quadratically weighted version of the measurement bound by Barnum and Knill [J. Math. Phys. 43, 2097 (2002)] is proven. Bounds on the distinguishability of syndromes in the sense of Schumacher and Westmoreland [Phys. Rev. A 56, 131 (1997)] appear as a corollary. An appendix relates our bounds to the trace-Jensen inequality.

  11. Two-loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Ven, Anton E. M.

    1992-07-01

    We prove the existence of a nonrenormalizable infinity in the two-loop effective action of perturbative quantum gravity by means of an explicit calculation. Our final result agrees with that obtained by earlier authors. We use the background-field method in coordinate space, combined with dimensional regularization and a heat kernel representation for the propagators. General covariance is manifestly preserved. Only vacuum graphs in the presence of an on-shell background metric need to be calculated. We extend the background covariant harmonic gauge to include terms nonlinear in the quantum gravitational fields and allow for general reparametrizations of those fields. For a particular gauge choice and field parametrization only two three-graviton and six four-graviton vertices are present in the action. Calculational labor is further reduced by restricting to backgrounds, which are not only Ricci-flat, but satisfy an additional constraint bilinear in the Weyl tensor. To handle the still formidable amount of algebra, we use the symbolic manipulation program FORM. We checked that the on-shell two-loop effective action is in fact independent of all gauge and field redefinition parameters. A two-loop analysis for Yang-Mills fields is included as well, since in that case we can give full details as well as simplify earlier analyses.

  12. Lévy flights and nonlocal quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Garbaczewski, Piotr; Stephanovich, Vladimir

    2013-07-15

    We develop a fully fledged theory of quantum dynamical patterns of behavior that are nonlocally induced. To this end we generalize the standard Laplacian-based framework of the Schrödinger picture quantum evolution to that employing nonlocal (pseudodifferential) operators. Special attention is paid to the Salpeter (here, m⩾ 0) quasirelativistic equation and the evolution of various wave packets, in particular to their radial expansion in 3D. Foldy's synthesis of “covariant particle equations” is extended to encompass free Maxwell theory, which however is devoid of any “particle” content. Links with the photon wave mechanics are explored.

  13. Quantum statistical entropy and minimal length of 5D Ricci-flat black string with generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Molin; Gui Yuanxing; Liu Hongya

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cutoff and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position {delta}x, which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.

  14. General route for the decomposition of InAs quantum dots during the capping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D.; Reyes, D. F.; Utrilla, A. D.; Ben, T.; Braza, V.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.; Ulloa, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of the capping process on the morphology of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) by using different GaAs-based capping layers (CLs), ranging from strain reduction layers to strain compensating layers, has been studied by transmission microscopic techniques. For this, we have measured simultaneously the height and diameter in buried and uncapped QDs covering populations of hundreds of QDs that are statistically reliable. First, the uncapped QD population evolves in all cases from a pyramidal shape into a more homogenous distribution of buried QDs with a spherical-dome shape, despite the different mechanisms implicated in the QD capping. Second, the shape of the buried QDs depends only on the final QD size, where the radius of curvature is function of the base diameter independently of the CL composition and growth conditions. An asymmetric evolution of the QDs’ morphology takes place, in which the QD height and base diameter are modified in the amount required to adopt a similar stable shape characterized by a averaged aspect ratio of 0.21. Our results contradict the traditional model of QD material redistribution from the apex to the base and point to a different universal behavior of the overgrowth processes in self-organized InAs QDs.

  15. Quantum phase diagram of the generalized ionic Hubbard model for ABn chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torio, M. E.; Aligia, A. A.; Japaridze, G. I.; Normand, B.

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the ground-state phase diagram of the Hubbard model for the ABN-1 chain with filling 1/N , where N is the number of atoms per unit cell. In the strong-coupling limit, a charge transition takes place from a band insulator (BI) to a correlated insulator for increasing on-site repulsion U and positive on-site energy difference Δ (energy at A sites lower than at B sites). In the weak-coupling limit, a bosonization analysis suggests that for N>2 the physics is qualitatively similar to the case N=2 which has already been studied: an intermediate phase emerges, which corresponds to a bond-ordered ferroelectric insulator (FI) with spontaneously broken inversion symmetry. We have determined the quantum phase diagram for the cases N=3 and N=4 from the crossings of energy levels of appropriate excited states, which correspond to jumps in the charge and spin Berry phases, and from the change of sign of the localization parameter zLc . From these techniques we find that, quantitatively, the BI and FI phases are broader for N>2 than when N=2 , in agreement with the bosonization analysis. Calculations of the Drude weight and zLc indicate that the system is insulating for all parameters, with the possible exception of the boundary between the BI and FI phases.

  16. New Frontiers at the Interface of General Relativity and Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiler, C.; Buser, M.; Kajari, E.; Schleich, W. P.; Rasel, E. M.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper we follow three major themes: (i) concepts of rotation in general relativity, (ii) effects induced by these generalized rotations, and (iii) their measurement using interferometry. Our journey takes us from the Foucault pendulum via the Sagnac interferometer to manifestations of gravito-magnetism in double binary pulsars and in Gödel’s Universe. Throughout our article we emphasize the emerging role of matter wave interferometry based on cold atoms or Bose-Einstein condensates leading to superior inertial sensors. In particular, we advertise recent activities directed towards the operation of a coherent matter wave interferometer in an extended free fall.

  17. Picture this: The value of multiple visual representations for student learning of quantum concepts in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Emily Christine

    Mental models for scientific learning are often defined as, "cognitive tools situated between experiments and theories" (Duschl & Grandy, 2012). In learning, these cognitive tools are used to not only take in new information, but to help problem solve in new contexts. Nancy Nersessian (2008) describes a mental model as being "[loosely] characterized as a representation of a system with interactive parts with representations of those interactions. Models can be qualitative, quantitative, and/or simulative (mental, physical, computational)" (p. 63). If conceptual parts used by the students in science education are inaccurate, then the resulting model will not be useful. Students in college general chemistry courses are presented with multiple abstract topics and often struggle to fit these parts into complete models. This is especially true for topics that are founded on quantum concepts, such as atomic structure and molecular bonding taught in college general chemistry. The objectives of this study were focused on how students use visual tools introduced during instruction to reason with atomic and molecular structure, what misconceptions may be associated with these visual tools, and how visual modeling skills may be taught to support students' use of visual tools for reasoning. The research questions for this study follow from Gilbert's (2008) theory that experts use multiple representations when reasoning and modeling a system, and Kozma and Russell's (2005) theory of representational competence levels. This study finds that as students developed greater command of their understanding of abstract quantum concepts, they spontaneously provided additional representations to describe their more sophisticated models of atomic and molecular structure during interviews. This suggests that when visual modeling with multiple representations is taught, along with the limitations of the representations, it can assist students in the development of models for reasoning about

  18. Spin filter effects in an Aharonov-Bohm ring with double quantum dots under general Rashba spin-orbit interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have reported on spin filters using linear Rashba spin-orbit interactions (SOI). However, spin filters using square and cubic Rashba SOIs have not yet been reported. We consider that this is because the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs are ambiguous. In this study, we try to derive the AC phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs from the viewpoint of non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theory. These AC phases can be derived successfully from the non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theory without the completing square methods. Using the results, we investigate the spin filtering in a double quantum dot (QD) Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring under linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. This AB ring consists of elongated QDs and quasi-one-dimensional quantum nanowires under an external magnetic field. The spin transport is investigated from the left nanowire to the right nanowire in the above structure within the tight-binding approximation. In particular, we focus on the difference of spin filtering among linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. The calculation is performed for the spin polarization by changing the penetrating magnetic flux for the AB ring subject to linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. It is found that perfect spin filtering is achieved for all of the Rashba SOIs. This result indicates that this AB ring under general Rashba SOIs can be a promising device for spin current generation. Moreover, the AB rings under general Rashba SOIs behave in totally different ways in response to penetrating magnetic flux, which is attributed to linear, square, and cubic behaviors in the in-plane momentum. This result enables us to make a clear distinction between linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs according to the peak position of the perfect spin filtering.

  19. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra

    PubMed Central

    Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail. PMID:24225900

  20. Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra.

    PubMed

    Betrouche, Malika; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2013-11-14

    We investigate the Lorentz-covariant deformed algebra for Dirac oscillator problem, which is a generalization of Kempf deformed algebra in 3 + 1 dimension of space-time, where Lorentz symmetry are preserved. The energy spectrum of the system is analyzed by taking advantage of the corresponding wave functions with explicit spin state. We obtained entirely new results from our development based on Kempf algebra in comparison to the studies carried out with the non-Lorentz-covariant deformed one. A novel result of this research is that the quantized relativistic energy of the system in the presence of minimal length cannot grow indefinitely as quantum number n increases, but converges to a finite value, where c is the speed of light and β is a parameter that determines the scale of noncommutativity in space. If we consider the fact that the energy levels of ordinary oscillator is equally spaced, which leads to monotonic growth of quantized energy with the increment of n, this result is very interesting. The physical meaning of this consequence is discussed in detail.

  1. Understanding covariate shift in model performance

    PubMed Central

    McGaughey, Georgia; Walters, W. Patrick; Goldman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Three (3) different methods (logistic regression, covariate shift and k-NN) were applied to five (5) internal datasets and one (1) external, publically available dataset where covariate shift existed. In all cases, k-NN’s performance was inferior to either logistic regression or covariate shift. Surprisingly, there was no obvious advantage for using covariate shift to reweight the training data in the examined datasets. PMID:27803797

  2. A General Quantum Mechanically Derived Force Field (QMDFF) for Molecules and Condensed Phase Simulations.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Stefan

    2014-10-14

    A black-box type procedure is presented for the generation of molecule-specific, classical potential energy functions (force-field, FF) solely from quantum mechanically (QM) computed input data. The approach can treat covalently bound molecules and noncovalent complexes with almost arbitrary structure. The necessary QM information consists of the equilibrium structure and the corresponding Hessian matrix, atomic partial charges, and covalent bond orders. The FF fit is performed automatically without any further input and yields a specific (nontransferable) potential which very closely resembles the QM reference potential near the equilibrium. The resulting atomistic, fully flexible FF is anharmonic and allows smooth dissociation of covalent bonds into atoms. A newly proposed force-constant-bond-energy relation with little empiricism provides reasonably accurate (about 5-10% error) atomization energies for almost arbitrary diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Intra- and intermolecular noncovalent interactions are treated by using well established and accurate D3 dispersion coefficients, CM5 charges from small basis set QM calculations, and a new interatomic repulsion potential. Particular attention has been paid to the construction of the torsion potentials which are partially obtained from automatic QM-tight-binding calculations for model systems. Detailed benchmarks are presented for conformational energies, atomization energies, vibrational frequencies, gas phase structures of organic molecules, and transition metal complexes. Comparisons to results from standard FF or semiempirical methods reveal very good accuracy of the new potential. While further studies are necessary to validate the approach, the initial results suggest QMDFF as a routine tool for the computation of a wide range of properties and systems (e.g., for molecular dynamics of isolated molecules, explicit solvation, self-solvation (melting) or even for molecular crystals) in particular when standard

  3. A General Quantum Mechanically Derived Force Field (QMDFF) for Molecules and Condensed Phase Simulations.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Stefan

    2014-10-14

    A black-box type procedure is presented for the generation of molecule-specific, classical potential energy functions (force-field, FF) solely from quantum mechanically (QM) computed input data. The approach can treat covalently bound molecules and noncovalent complexes with almost arbitrary structure. The necessary QM information consists of the equilibrium structure and the corresponding Hessian matrix, atomic partial charges, and covalent bond orders. The FF fit is performed automatically without any further input and yields a specific (nontransferable) potential which very closely resembles the QM reference potential near the equilibrium. The resulting atomistic, fully flexible FF is anharmonic and allows smooth dissociation of covalent bonds into atoms. A newly proposed force-constant-bond-energy relation with little empiricism provides reasonably accurate (about 5-10% error) atomization energies for almost arbitrary diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Intra- and intermolecular noncovalent interactions are treated by using well established and accurate D3 dispersion coefficients, CM5 charges from small basis set QM calculations, and a new interatomic repulsion potential. Particular attention has been paid to the construction of the torsion potentials which are partially obtained from automatic QM-tight-binding calculations for model systems. Detailed benchmarks are presented for conformational energies, atomization energies, vibrational frequencies, gas phase structures of organic molecules, and transition metal complexes. Comparisons to results from standard FF or semiempirical methods reveal very good accuracy of the new potential. While further studies are necessary to validate the approach, the initial results suggest QMDFF as a routine tool for the computation of a wide range of properties and systems (e.g., for molecular dynamics of isolated molecules, explicit solvation, self-solvation (melting) or even for molecular crystals) in particular when standard

  4. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, Martin

    2010-10-15

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  5. Lorentz-covariant dissipative Lagrangian systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of dissipative Hamiltonian system is converted to Lorentz-covariant form, with evolution generated jointly by two scalar functionals, the Lagrangian action and the global entropy. A bracket formulation yields the local covariant laws of energy-momentum conservation and of entropy production. The formalism is illustrated by a derivation of the covariant Landau kinetic equation.

  6. Covariance control of discrete stochastic bilinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. E.; Kherat, S. M.; Yaz, E.

    1991-01-01

    The covariances that certain bilinear stochastic discrete time systems may possess are characterized. An explicit parameterization of all controllers that assign such covariances is given. The state feedback assignability and robustness of the system are discussed from a deterministic point of view. This work extends the theory of covariance control for continuous time bilinear systems to a discrete time setting.

  7. Relative error covariance analysis techniques and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Peter, J.; Williams, Bobby G.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for computing the error covariance of the difference between two estimators derived from different (possibly overlapping) data arcs is presented. The relative error covariance is useful for predicting the achievable consistency between Kalman-Bucy filtered estimates generated from two (not necessarily disjoint) data sets. The relative error covariance analysis technique is then applied to a Venus Orbiter simulation.

  8. General properties of quantum optical systems in a strong field limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chumakov, S. M.; Klimov, Andrei B.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atoms or many n-level atoms) interacting with a resonant quantized mode of an em field. If the initial field state is a coherent state with a large photon number then the system dynamics possesses some general features, independently of the particular structure of the atomic system. Namely, trapping states, factorization of the wave function, collapses and revivals of the atomic energy oscillations are discussed.

  9. Alternative Test Criteria in Covariance Structure Analysis: A Unified Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satorra, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Within covariance structural analysis, a unified approach to asymptotic theory of alternative test criteria for testing parametric restrictions is provided. More general statistics for addressing the case where the discrepancy function is not asymptotically optimal, and issues concerning power analysis and the asymptotic theory of testing-related…

  10. A Review of Nonparametric Alternatives to Analysis of Covariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; Algina, James

    1985-01-01

    Five distribution-free alternatives to parametric analysis of covariance are presented and demonstrated: Quade's distribution-free test, Puri and Sen's solution, McSweeney and Porter's rank transformation, Burnett and Barr's rank difference scores, and Shirley's general linear model solution. The results of simulation studies regarding Type I…

  11. A covariant approach to the gravitational refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaciu, I.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.

    A covariant formulation of the Maxwell's field equations in a gravitational field, based on the bimetric interpretation of general relativity Theory, is given. The purpose of the work is in adequate definition of the gravitational refractive index in agreement with both wave equations propagation and a relationship between refractive index and the Minkovskian tensor of gravitational permitivity.

  12. Methods for estimation of covariance matrices and covariance components for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate class. Each batch of plant feed material must meet certain requirements related to plant performance, and the resulting class must meet requirements imposed by the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. Properties of a process batch and the resultlng glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values from data on feed composition. Methods for checking and documenting compliance with feed and glass requirements must account for various types of uncertainties. This document focuses on the estimation. manipulation, and consequences of composition uncertainty, i.e., the uncertainty inherent in estimates of feed or glass composition. Three components of composition uncertainty will play a role in estimating and checking feed and glass properties: batch-to-batch variability, within-batch uncertainty, and analytical uncertainty. In this document, composition uncertainty and its components are treated in terms of variances and variance components or univariate situations, covariance matrices and covariance components for multivariate situations. The importance of variance and covariance components stems from their crucial role in properly estimating uncertainty In values calculated from a set of observations on a process batch. Two general types of methods for estimating uncertainty are discussed: (1) methods based on data, and (2) methods based on knowledge, assumptions, and opinions about the vitrification process. Data-based methods for estimating variances and covariance matrices are well known. Several types of data-based methods exist for estimation of variance components; those based on the statistical method analysis of variance are discussed, as are the strengths and weaknesses of this approach.

  13. Generalized isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models: ground state entanglement and quantum entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, José A.; Finkel, Federico; González-López, Artemio; Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a new class of generalized isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models with \\text{su}(m+1) spin and long-range non-constant interactions, whose non-degenerate ground state is a Dicke state of \\text{su}(m+1) type. We evaluate in closed form the reduced density matrix of a block of L spins when the whole system is in its ground state, and study the corresponding von Neumann and Rényi entanglement entropies in the thermodynamic limit. We show that both of these entropies scale as alog L when L tends to infinity, where the coefficient a is equal to (m  -  k)/2 in the ground state phase with k vanishing \\text{su}(m+1) magnon densities. In particular, our results show that none of these generalized Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models are critical, since when L\\to ∞ their Rényi entropy R q becomes independent of the parameter q. We have also computed the Tsallis entanglement entropy of the ground state of these generalized \\text{su}(m+1) Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models, finding that it can be made extensive by an appropriate choice of its parameter only when m-k≥slant 3 . Finally, in the \\text{su}(3) case we construct in detail the phase diagram of the ground state in parameter space, showing that it is determined in a simple way by the weights of the fundamental representation of \\text{su}(3) . This is also true in the \\text{su}(m+1) case; for instance, we prove that the region for which all the magnon densities are non-vanishing is an (m  +  1)-simplex in {{{R}}m} whose vertices are the weights of the fundamental representation of \\text{su}(m+1) .

  14. Quasilocal conserved charges in a covariant theory of gravity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wontae; Kulkarni, Shailesh; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2013-08-23

    In any generally covariant theory of gravity, we show the relationship between the linearized asymptotically conserved current and its nonlinear completion through the identically conserved current. Our formulation for conserved charges is based on the Lagrangian description, and so completely covariant. By using this result, we give a prescription to define quasilocal conserved charges in any higher derivative gravity. As applications of our approach, we demonstrate the angular momentum invariance along the radial direction of black holes and reproduce more efficiently the linearized potential on the asymptotic anti-de Sitter space.

  15. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  16. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  17. Entropy of a vacuum: What does the covariant entropy count?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Weinberg, Sean J.

    2014-11-01

    We argue that a unitary description of the formation and evaporation of a black hole implies that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the "entropy of a vacuum": the logarithm of the number of possible independent ways in which quantum field theory on a fixed classical spacetime background can emerge in a full quantum theory of gravity. In many cases, the covariant entropy counts this entropy—the degeneracy of emergent quantum field theories in full quantum gravity—with the entropy of particle excitations in each quantum field theory giving only a tiny perturbation. In the Rindler description of a (black hole) horizon, the relevant vacuum degrees of freedom manifest themselves as an extra hidden quantum number carried by the states representing the second exterior region; this quantum number is invisible in the emergent quantum field theory. In a distant picture, these states arise as exponentially degenerate ground and excited states of the intrinsically quantum gravitational degrees of freedom on the stretched horizon. The formation and evaporation of a black hole involve processes in which the entropy of collapsing matter is transformed into that of a vacuum and then to that of final-state Hawking radiation. In the intermediate stage of this evolution, entanglement between the vacuum and (early) Hawking radiation develops, which is transferred to the entanglement among final-state Hawking quanta through the evaporation process. The horizon is kept smooth throughout the evolution; in particular, no firewall develops. Similar considerations also apply for cosmological horizons, for example for the horizon of a metastable de Sitter space.

  18. Simulation-Extrapolation for Estimating Means and Causal Effects with Mismeasured Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Regression, weighting and related approaches to estimating a population mean from a sample with nonrandom missing data often rely on the assumption that conditional on covariates, observed samples can be treated as random. Standard methods using this assumption generally will fail to yield consistent estimators when covariates are measured with…

  19. Implications of Indeterminate Factor-Error Covariances for Factor Construction, Prediction, and Determinacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krijnen, Wim P.

    2006-01-01

    The assumptions of the model for factor analysis do not exclude a class of indeterminate covariances between factors and error variables (Grayson, 2003). The construction of all factors of the model for factor analysis is generalized to incorporate indeterminate factor-error covariances. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for…

  20. Symmetry groups, density-matrix equations and covariant Wigner functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, A. E.; Neto, A. Matos; Vianna, J. D. M.; Khanna, F. C.

    2000-06-01

    A representation theory for Lie groups is developed taking the Hilbert space, say Hw, of the w∗-algebra standard representation as the representation space. In this context the states describing physical systems are amplitude wave functions but closely connected with the notion of the density matrix. Then, based on symmetry properties, a general physical interpretation for the dual variables of thermal theories, in particular the thermofield dynamics (TFD) formalism, is introduced. The kinematic symmetries, Galilei and Poincaré, are studied and (density) amplitude matrix equations are derived for both of these cases. In the same context of group theory, the notion of phase space in quantum theory is analysed. Thus, in the non-relativistic situation, the concept of density amplitude is introduced, and as an example, a spin-half system is algebraically studied; Wigner function representations for the amplitude density matrices are derived and the connection of TFD and the usual Wigner-function methods are analysed. For the Poincaré symmetries the relativistic density matrix equations are studied for the scalar and spinorial fields. The relativistic phase space is built following the lines of the non-relativistic case. So, for the scalar field, the kinetic theory is introduced via the Klein-Gordon density-matrix equation, and a derivation of the Jüttiner distribution is presented as an example, thus making it possible to compare with the standard approaches. The analysis of the phase space for the Dirac field is carried out in connection with the dual spinor structure induced by the Dirac-field density-matrix equation, with the physical content relying on the symmetry groups. Gauge invariance is considered and, as a basic result, it is shown that the Heinz density operator (which has been used to develope a gauge covariant kinetic theory) is a particular solution for the (Klein-Gordon and Dirac) density-matrix equation.

  1. Complex generalized minimal residual algorithm for iterative solution of quantum-mechanical reactive scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, David C.; Reeves, Melissa S.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Duneczky, Csilla; Schwenke, David W.

    1992-12-01

    Complex dense matrices corresponding to the D + H2 and O + HD reactions were solved using a complex generalized minimal residual (GMRes) algorithm described by Saad and Schultz (1986) and Saad (1990). To provide a test case with a different structure, the H + H2 system was also considered. It is shown that the computational effort for solutions with the GMRes algorithm depends on the dimension of the linear system, the total energy of the scattering problem, and the accuracy criterion. In several cases with dimensions in the range 1110-5632, the GMRes algorithm outperformed the LAPACK direct solver, with speedups for the linear equation solution as large as a factor of 23.

  2. Complex generalized minimal residual algorithm for iterative solution of quantum-mechanical reactive scattering equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, David C.; Reeves, Melissa S.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Duneczky, Csilla; Schwenke, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Complex dense matrices corresponding to the D + H2 and O + HD reactions were solved using a complex generalized minimal residual (GMRes) algorithm described by Saad and Schultz (1986) and Saad (1990). To provide a test case with a different structure, the H + H2 system was also considered. It is shown that the computational effort for solutions with the GMRes algorithm depends on the dimension of the linear system, the total energy of the scattering problem, and the accuracy criterion. In several cases with dimensions in the range 1110-5632, the GMRes algorithm outperformed the LAPACK direct solver, with speedups for the linear equation solution as large as a factor of 23.

  3. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs: General framework and canonical perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a general framework for solving the stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on a network of one-dimensional wires modeled by a metric graph with suitable matching conditions at the vertices. A formal solution is given that expresses the wave function and its derivative at one end of an edge (wire) nonlinearly in terms of the values at the other end. For the cubic NLSE this nonlinear transfer operation can be expressed explicitly in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Its application reduces the problem of solving the corresponding set of coupled ordinary nonlinear differential equations to a finite set of nonlinear algebraic equations. For sufficiently small amplitudes we use canonical perturbation theory, which makes it possible to extract the leading nonlinear corrections over large distances.

  4. Quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. W.; Li, H. L.; Zu, X. T.; Yang, S. Z.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The corrections to the Hawking temperature, entropy and the heat capacity are obtained via the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These modifications show that the GUP changes the evolution of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. Specially, the GUP effect becomes susceptible when the radius or mass of the black hole approaches the order of Planck scale, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. Meanwhile, the Planck scale remnant can be confirmed through the analysis of the heat capacity. Those phenomena imply that the GUP may give a way to solve the information paradox. Besides, we also investigate the possibilities to observe the black hole at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the results demonstrate that the black hole cannot be produced in the recent LHC.

  5. Data Covariances from R-Matrix Analyses of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.M. Paris, M.W.

    2015-01-15

    After first reviewing the parametric description of light-element reactions in multichannel systems using R-matrix theory and features of the general LANL R-matrix analysis code EDA, we describe how its chi-square minimization procedure gives parameter covariances. This information is used, together with analytically calculated sensitivity derivatives, to obtain cross section covariances for all reactions included in the analysis by first-order error propagation. Examples are given of the covariances obtained for systems with few resonances ({sup 5}He) and with many resonances ({sup 13}C ). We discuss the prevalent problem of this method leading to cross section uncertainty estimates that are unreasonably small for large data sets. The answer to this problem appears to be using parameter confidence intervals in place of standard errors.

  6. Teleportation of a general two-mode coherent-state superposition via attenuated quantum channels with ideal and/or threshold detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Nguyen Ba

    2009-04-01

    Three novel probabilistic yet conclusive schemes are proposed to teleport a general two-mode coherent-state superposition via attenuated quantum channels with ideal and/or threshold detectors. The calculated total success probability is highest (lowest) when only ideal (threshold) detectors are used.

  7. Loop-quantum-gravity vertex amplitude.

    PubMed

    Engle, Jonathan; Pereira, Roberto; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-10-19

    Spin foam models are hoped to provide the dynamics of loop-quantum gravity. However, the most popular of these, the Barrett-Crane model, does not have the good boundary state space and there are indications that it fails to yield good low-energy n-point functions. We present an alternative dynamics that can be derived as a quantization of a Regge discretization of Euclidean general relativity, where second class constraints are imposed weakly. Its state space matches the SO(3) loop gravity one and it yields an SO(4)-covariant vertex amplitude for Euclidean loop gravity.

  8. Electromagnetics: from Covariance to Cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, M. W.

    2008-10-01

    An overview of some topical themes in electromagnetism is presented. Recent interest in metamaterials research has enabled earlier theoretical speculations concerning electromagnetic media displaying a negative refractive index to be experimentally realized. Such media can act as perfect lenses. The mathematical criterion of what signals such unusual electromagnetic behavior is discussed, showing that a covariant (or coordinate free) perspective is essential. Coordinate transformations have also become significant in the theme of transformation optics, where the interplay between a coordinate transformation and metamaterial behavior has led to the concept of an electromagnetic cloak.

  9. Generalized quantum measurements on a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphree, Joseph D.; Hansen, Azure; Schultz, Justin T.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate two applications of generalized measurements on a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The first involves preparing the BEC in one of two non-orthogonal states constructed from a superposition of two atomic spin states. A positive-operator valued measure (POVM) for this system can be defined by three vectors in the 2D spin space. A two-photon Raman process rotates these vectors into a higher-dimensional space associating each with its own spin state, whose relative populations are measured using Stern-Gerlach imaging. This allows the possibility of unambiguously determining in which state the system was prepared. For the second application, a superposition of two spin states is used to put the BEC into one of three non-orthogonal states in the trine state configuration and measured using a POVM as before. Here an unambiguous measurement is impossible, but the POVM minimizes the error probability, improving upon the error probability associated with a traditional projective von Neumann measurement. Finally, incorporating orbital angular momentum states of the BEC allows for the possibility of extending these techniques into higher dimensions.

  10. Quantum gate decomposition algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Slepoy, Alexander

    2006-07-01

    Quantum computing algorithms can be conveniently expressed in a format of a quantum logical circuits. Such circuits consist of sequential coupled operations, termed ''quantum gates'', or quantum analogs of bits called qubits. We review a recently proposed method [1] for constructing general ''quantum gates'' operating on an qubits, as composed of a sequence of generic elementary ''gates''.

  11. Fitting direct covariance structures by the MSTRUCT modeling language of the CALIS procedure.

    PubMed

    Yung, Yiu-Fai; Browne, Michael W; Zhang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness and flexibility of the general structural equation modelling (SEM) approach to fitting direct covariance patterns or structures (as opposed to fitting implied covariance structures from functional relationships among variables). In particular, the MSTRUCT modelling language (or syntax) of the CALIS procedure (SAS/STAT version 9.22 or later: SAS Institute, 2010) is used to illustrate the SEM approach. The MSTRUCT modelling language supports a direct covariance pattern specification of each covariance element. It also supports the input of additional independent and dependent parameters. Model tests, fit statistics, estimates, and their standard errors are then produced under the general SEM framework. By using numerical and computational examples, the following tests of basic covariance patterns are illustrated: sphericity, compound symmetry, and multiple-group covariance patterns. Specification and testing of two complex correlation structures, the circumplex pattern and the composite direct product models with or without composite errors and scales, are also illustrated by the MSTRUCT syntax. It is concluded that the SEM approach offers a general and flexible modelling of direct covariance and correlation patterns. In conjunction with the use of SAS macros, the MSTRUCT syntax provides an easy-to-use interface for specifying and fitting complex covariance and correlation structures, even when the number of variables or parameters becomes large.

  12. Generalized analysis of quantum noise and dynamic backaction in signal-recycled Michelson-type laser interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Farid Ya.; Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Hammerer, Klemens; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the radiation-pressure-induced interaction of mirror motion and light fields in Michelson-type interferometers used for the detection of gravitational waves and for fundamental research in tabletop quantum optomechanical experiments, focusing on the asymmetric regime with a (slightly) unbalanced beam splitter and a (small) offset from the dark port. This regime, as it was shown recently, provides new interesting features, in particular a stable optical spring and optical cooling on cavity resonance. We show that, generally, the nature of optomechanical coupling in Michelson-type interferometers does not fit into the standard dispersive-dissipative dichotomy. In particular, a symmetric Michelson interferometer with signal-recycling but without power-recycling cavity is characterized by a purely dissipative optomechanical coupling; only in the presence of asymmetry, additional dispersive coupling arises. In gravitational waves detectors possessing signal- and power-recycling cavities, yet another coherent type of optomechanical coupling takes place. We develop here a generalized framework for the analysis of asymmetric Michelson-type interferometers, which also covers the possibility of the injection of carrier light into both ports of the interferometer. Using this framework, we analyze in depth the anomalous features of the Michelson-Sagnac interferometer, which have been discussed and observed experimentally previously [A. Xuereb et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213604 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.213604; S. P. Tarabrin et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 023809 (2013);, 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023809 A. Sawadsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 043601 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.043601].

  13. Quantum Permanents and Hafnians via Pfaffians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Quantum determinants and Pfaffians or permanents and Hafnians are introduced on the two-parameter quantum general linear group. Fundamental identities among quantum Pf, Hf, and det are proved in the general setting. We show that there are two special quantum algebras among the quantum groups, where the quantum Pfaffians have integral Laurent polynomials as coefficients. As a consequence, the quantum Hafnian is computed by a closely related quantum permanent and identical to the quantum Pfaffian on this special quantum algebra.

  14. Covariance matrices for use in criticality safety predictability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-09-01

    Criticality predictability applications require as input the best available information on fissile and other nuclides. In recent years important work has been performed in the analysis of neutron transmission and cross-section data for fissile nuclei in the resonance region by using the computer code SAMMY. The code uses Bayes method (a form of generalized least squares) for sequential analyses of several sets of experimental data. Values for Reich-Moore resonance parameters, their covariances, and the derivatives with respect to the adjusted parameters (data sensitivities) are obtained. In general, the parameter file contains several thousand values and the dimension of the covariance matrices is correspondingly large. These matrices are not reported in the current evaluated data files due to their large dimensions and to the inadequacy of the file formats. The present work has two goals: the first is to calculate the covariances of group-averaged cross sections from the covariance files generated by SAMMY, because these can be more readily utilized in criticality predictability calculations. The second goal is to propose a more practical interface between SAMMY and the evaluated files. Examples are given for {sup 235}U in the popular 199- and 238-group structures, using the latest ORNL evaluation of the {sup 235}U resonance parameters.

  15. Proportional Hazards Model with Covariate Measurement Error and Instrumental Variables

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao; Wang, Ching-Yun

    2014-01-01

    In biomedical studies, covariates with measurement error may occur in survival data. Existing approaches mostly require certain replications on the error-contaminated covariates, which may not be available in the data. In this paper, we develop a simple nonparametric correction approach for estimation of the regression parameters in the proportional hazards model using a subset of the sample where instrumental variables are observed. The instrumental variables are related to the covariates through a general nonparametric model, and no distributional assumptions are placed on the error and the underlying true covariates. We further propose a novel generalized methods of moments nonparametric correction estimator to improve the efficiency over the simple correction approach. The efficiency gain can be substantial when the calibration subsample is small compared to the whole sample. The estimators are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. Performance of the estimators is evaluated via simulation studies and by an application to data from an HIV clinical trial. Estimation of the baseline hazard function is not addressed. PMID:25663724

  16. Realization schemes for quantum instruments in finite dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, Giulio; Perinotti, Paolo; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2009-04-15

    We present a general dilation scheme for quantum instruments with continuous outcome space in finite dimensions, in terms of a measurement on a finite-dimensional ancilla, described by a positive operator valued measure (POVM). The general result is then applied to a large class of instruments generated by operator frames, which contains group-covariant instruments as a particular case and allows one to construct dilation schemes based on a measurement on the ancilla followed by a conditional feed-forward operation on the output. In the case of tight operator frames, our construction generalizes quantum teleportation and telecloning, producing a whole family of generalized teleportation schemes in which the instrument is realized via a joint POVM at the sender combined with a conditional feed-forward operation at the receiver.

  17. Spin Foam Models for Quantum Gravity and semi-classical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Maité

    2011-04-01

    The spinfoam framework is a proposal for a regularized path integral for quantum gravity. Spinfoams define quantum space-time structures describing the evolution in time of the spin network states for quantum geometry derived from Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). The construction of this covariant approach is based on the formulation of General Relativity as a topological theory plus the so-called simplicity constraints which introduce local degrees of freedom. The simplicity constraints are essential in turning the non-physical topological theory into 4d gravity. In this PhD manuscript, an original way to impose the simplicity constraints in 4d Euclidean gravity using harmonic oscillators is proposed and new coherent states, solutions of the constraints, are given. Moreover, a consistent spinfoam model for quantum gravity has to be connected to LQG and must have the right semi-classical limit. An explicit map between the spin network states of LQG and the boundary states of spinfoam models is given connecting the canonical and the covariant approaches. Finally, new techniques to compute semiclassical asymptotic expressions for the transition amplitudes of 3d quantum gravity and to extract semi-classical information from a spinfoam model are introduced. Explicit computations based on approximation methods and on the use of recurrence relations on spinfoam amplitudes have been performed. The results are relevant to derive quantum corrections to the dynamics of the gravitational field.

  18. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  19. Quantum roulette: an extended quantum strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Bin; Kwek, L. C.; Oh, C. H.

    2000-12-01

    In a recent paper, Meyer demonstrated that with a quantum computer, an analogous zero-sum classically strategic game played with quantum strategy essentially become a bias game under a mixture of quantum and classical strategy. To illustrate his point, Meyer used a quantum coin tossing event. In this Letter, we generalize Meyer's argument to an N-state game.

  20. Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)

  1. Discrete symmetries and the propagator approach to coupled fermions in Quantum Field Theory. Generalities: The case of a single fermion-antifermion pair

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, Q.

    2010-10-15

    Starting from Wigner's symmetry representation theorem, we give a general account of discrete symmetries (parity P, charge conjugation C, time-reversal T), focusing on fermions in Quantum Field Theory. We provide the rules of transformation of Weyl spinors, both at the classical level (grassmanian wave functions) and quantum level (operators). Making use of Wightman's definition of invariance, we outline ambiguities linked to the notion of classical fermionic Lagrangian. We then present the general constraints cast by these transformations and their products on the propagator of the simplest among coupled fermionic system, the one made with one fermion and its antifermion. Last, we put in correspondence the propagation of C eigenstates (Majorana fermions) and the criteria cast on their propagator by C and CP invariance.

  2. A comparative study of concurrence and negativity of general three-level quantum systems of two particles

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, V.

    2015-03-30

    Quantum entanglement is at the heart of quantum information processing. Ordering the quantum systems due to their entanglement is a popular problem of the field. For two level (qubit) systems of two particles, state ordering has been studied with respect to well-known entanglement measures such as Concurrence, Negativity and Relative Entropy of Entanglement (REE) [1-5]. In this work, we study the state ordering of the three-level quantum systems of two particles with respect to Concurrence and Negativity. In particular, constructing 10K random states and calculating their Concurrences and Negativities, we obtain the orderings of the states and present our results which are interesting when compared to that of two-level systems.

  3. Group Theory of Covariant Harmonic Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple and concrete example for illustrating the properties of noncompact groups is presented. The example is based on the covariant harmonic-oscillator formalism in which the relativistic wave functions carry a covariant-probability interpretation. This can be used in a group theory course for graduate students who have some background in…

  4. Eddy Covariance Measurements of the Sea-Spray Aerosol Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.; Yelland, M. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Prytherch, J.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, almost all estimates of the sea-spray aerosol source flux have been inferred through various indirect methods. Direct estimates via eddy covariance have been attempted by only a handful of studies, most of which measured only the total number flux, or achieved rather coarse size segregation. Applying eddy covariance to the measurement of sea-spray fluxes is challenging: most instrumentation must be located in a laboratory space requiring long sample lines to an inlet collocated with a sonic anemometer; however, larger particles are easily lost to the walls of the sample line. Marine particle concentrations are generally low, requiring a high sample volume to achieve adequate statistics. The highly hygroscopic nature of sea salt means particles change size rapidly with fluctuations in relative humidity; this introduces an apparent bias in flux measurements if particles are sized at ambient humidity. The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) was developed specifically to make high rate measurements of aerosol size distributions for use in eddy covariance measurements, and the instrument and data processing and analysis techniques have been refined over the course of several projects. Here we will review some of the issues and limitations related to making eddy covariance measurements of the sea spray source flux over the open ocean, summarise some key results from the last decade, and present new results from a 3-year long ship-based measurement campaign as part of the WAGES project. Finally we will consider requirements for future progress.

  5. Phenotypic Covariation and Morphological Diversification in the Ruminant Skull.

    PubMed

    Haber, Annat

    2016-05-01

    Differences among clades in their diversification patterns result from a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. In this study, I examined the role of intrinsic factors in the morphological diversification of ruminants, in general, and in the differences between bovids and cervids, in particular. Using skull morphology, which embodies many of the adaptations that distinguish bovids and cervids, I examined 132 of the 200 extant ruminant species. As a proxy for intrinsic constraints, I quantified different aspects of the phenotypic covariation structure within species and compared them with the among-species divergence patterns, using phylogenetic comparative methods. My results show that for most species, divergence is well aligned with their phenotypic covariance matrix and that those that are better aligned have diverged further away from their ancestor. Bovids have dispersed into a wider range of directions in morphospace than cervids, and their overall disparity is higher. This difference is best explained by the lower eccentricity of bovids' within-species covariance matrices. These results are consistent with the role of intrinsic constraints in determining amount, range, and direction of dispersion and demonstrate that intrinsic constraints can influence macroevolutionary patterns even as the covariance structure evolves. PMID:27104991

  6. Simulated scaling method for localized enhanced sampling and simultaneous "alchemical" free energy simulations: a general method for molecular mechanical, quantum mechanical, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhi; Fajer, Mikolai; Yang, Wei

    2007-01-14

    A potential scaling version of simulated tempering is presented to efficiently sample configuration space in a localized region. The present "simulated scaling" method is developed with a Wang-Landau type of updating scheme in order to quickly flatten the distributions in the scaling parameter lambdam space. This proposal is meaningful for a broad range of biophysical problems, in which localized sampling is required. Besides its superior capability and robustness in localized conformational sampling, this simulated scaling method can also naturally lead to efficient "alchemical" free energy predictions when dual-topology alchemical hybrid potential is applied; thereby simultaneously, both of the chemically and conformationally distinct portions of two end point chemical states can be efficiently sampled. As demonstrated in this work, the present method is also feasible for the quantum mechanical and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations.

  7. Comment on “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation” [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, Niklas Hänninen, Risto

    2014-11-15

    Van Gorder considers a formulation of the local induction approximation, which allows the vortex to move in the direction of the reference axis [“General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)]. However, in his analytical and numerical study he does not use it. A mistake in the torsion of a helical vortex is also corrected.

  8. Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.

  9. Tonic and phasic co-variation of peripheral arousal indices in infants

    PubMed Central

    Wass, S.V.; de Barbaro, K.; Clackson, K.

    2015-01-01

    Tonic and phasic differences in peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) indicators strongly predict differences in attention and emotion regulation in developmental populations. However, virtually all previous research has been based on individual ANS measures, which poses a variety of conceptual and methodlogical challenges to comparing results across studies. Here we recorded heart rate, electrodermal activity (EDA), pupil size, head movement velocity and peripheral accelerometry concurrently while a cohort of 37 typical 12-month-old infants completed a mixed assessment battery lasting approximately 20 min per participant. We analysed covariation of these autonomic indices in three ways: first, tonic (baseline) arousal; second, co-variation in spontaneous (phasic) changes during testing; third, phasic co-variation relative to an external stimulus event. We found that heart rate, head velocity and peripheral accelerometry showed strong positive co-variation across all three analyses. EDA showed no co-variation in tonic activity levels but did show phasic positive co-variation with other measures, that appeared limited to sections of high but not low general arousal. Tonic pupil size showed significant positive covariation, but phasic pupil changes were inconsistent. We conclude that: (i) there is high covariation between autonomic indices in infants, but that EDA may only be sensitive at extreme arousal levels, (ii) that tonic pupil size covaries with other indices, but does not show predicted patterns of phasic change and (iii) that motor activity appears to be a good proxy measure of ANS activity. The strongest patterns of covariation were observed using epoch durations of 40 s per epoch, although significant covariation between indices was also observed using shorter epochs (1 and 5 s). PMID:26316360

  10. The fitting of radioactive decay data by covariance methods

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Osadebe, F.A.N.

    1994-04-01

    The fitting of radioactive decay data is examined when radiations from two or more processes are indistinguishable. The model is a nonlinear sum of exponentials which cannot be linearized by transformations. Simple and generalized least-squares procedures utilizing covariance matrices are applied. The validity of the midpoint approximation is demonstrated. Guidelines for acquiring adequate radioactive decay data are suggested. The relevance to activation cross section determination is discussed.

  11. Quantum control limited by quantum decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Fei; Sun, C. P.; Yu, S. X.

    2006-01-15

    We describe quantum controllability under the influences of the quantum decoherence induced by the quantum control itself. It is shown that, when the controller is considered as a quantum system, it will entangle with its controlled system and then cause quantum decoherence in the controlled system. In competition with this induced decoherence, the controllability will be limited by some uncertainty relation in a well-armed quantum control process. In association with the phase uncertainty and the standard quantum limit, a general model is studied to demonstrate the possibility of realizing a decoherence-free quantum control with a finite energy within a finite time. It is also shown that if the operations of quantum control are to be determined by the initial state of the controller, then due to the decoherence which results from the quantum control itself, there exists a low bound for quantum controllability.

  12. Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell Quantum Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances on quantum foundations achieved the derivation of free quantum field theory from general principles, without referring to mechanical notions and relativistic invariance. From the aforementioned principles a quantum cellular automata (QCA) theory follows, whose relativistic limit of small wave-vector provides the free dynamics of quantum field theory. The QCA theory can be regarded as an extended quantum field theory that describes in a unified way all scales ranging from an hypothetical discrete Planck scale up to the usual Fermi scale. The present paper reviews the automaton theory for the Weyl field, and the composite automata for Dirac and Maxwell fields. We then give a simple analysis of the dynamics in the momentum space in terms of a dispersive differential equation for narrowband wave-packets. We then review the phenomenology of the free-field automaton and consider possible visible effects arising from the discreteness of the framework. We conclude introducing the consequences of the automaton dispersion relation, leading to a deformed Lorentz covariance and to possible effects on the thermodynamics of ideal gases.

  13. Quantum strategies of quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2001-03-01

    In the classical Monty Hall problem, one player can always win with probability 2/3. We generalize the problem to the quantum domain and show that a fair two-party zero-sum game can be carried out if the other player is permitted to adopt quantum measurement strategy.

  14. A New General Tortoise Coordinate Transformation and Quantum Tunneling Effect of the Non-Stationary Higher Dimensional Vaidya-de Sitter Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhong-wen; Li, Guo-ping; Zhang, Yan; Zu, Xiao-tao

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we combine the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with a new general tortoise coordinate transformation to study quantum tunneling of scalar particles and fermions from the non-stationary higher dimensional Vaidya-de Sitter black hole. The results show that Hamilton-Jacobi equation is a semi-classical foundation equation which can easily derived from the particles' dynamic equations, it can helps us understand the origin of Hawking radiation. Besides, based on the dimensional analysis, we believed that the new general tortoise coordinate transformation is more reasonable than old ones.

  15. Quantum flywheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Amikam; Diósi, Lajos; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present the concept of a quantum flywheel coupled to a quantum heat engine. The flywheel stores useful work in its energy levels, while additional power is extracted continuously from the device. Generally, the energy exchange between a quantum engine and a quantized work repository is accompanied by heat, which degrades the charging efficiency. Specifically when the quantum harmonic oscillator acts as a work repository, quantum and thermal fluctuations dominate the dynamics. Quantum monitoring and feedback control are applied to the flywheel in order to reach steady state and regulate its operation. To maximize the charging efficiency one needs a balance between the information gained by measuring the system and the information fed back to the system. The dynamics of the flywheel are described by a stochastic master equation that accounts for the engine, the external driving, the measurement, and the feedback operations.

  16. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  17. Epigenetic Contribution to Covariance Between Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Omri; Kisdi, Eva; Jablonka, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has pointed to the ubiquity and abundance of between-generation epigenetic inheritance. This research has implications for assessing disease risk and the responses to ecological stresses and also for understanding evolutionary dynamics. An important step toward a general evaluation of these implications is the identification and estimation of the amount of heritable, epigenetic variation in populations. While methods for modeling the phenotypic heritable variance contributed by culture have already been developed, there are no comparable methods for nonbehavioral epigenetic inheritance systems. By introducing a model that takes epigenetic transmissibility (the probability of transmission of ancestral phenotypes) and environmental induction into account, we provide novel expressions for covariances between relatives. We have combined a classical quantitative genetics approach with information about the number of opportunities for epigenetic reset between generations and assumptions about environmental induction to estimate the heritable epigenetic variance and epigenetic transmissibility for both asexual and sexual populations. This assists us in the identification of phenotypes and populations in which epigenetic transmission occurs and enables a preliminary quantification of their transmissibility, which could then be followed by genomewide association and QTL studies. PMID:20100941

  18. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-04-01

    Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.

  19. Signal-to-noise issues in measuring nitrous oxide fluxes by the eddy covariance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicholas; Levy, Peter; Langford, Ben; Skiba, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Recently-developed fast-response gas analysers capable of measuring atmospheric N2O with high precision (< 50 ppt) at a rate of 10 Hz are becoming more widely available. These instruments are capable of measuring N2O fluxes using the eddy covariance method, with significantly less effort and uncertainty than previous instruments have allowed. However, there are still many issues to overcome in order to obtain accurate and reliable flux data. The signal-to-noise ratio of N2O measured using these instruments is still two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of CO2. The low signal-to-noise ratio can lead to systematic uncertainties, in the eddy covariance method, the most significant being in the calculation of the time lag between gas analyser and anemometer by maximisation of covariance (Langford et al., 2015). When signal-to-noise ratio is relatively low, as it is with many N2O measurements, the maximisation of covariance method can systematically overestimate fluxes. However, if constant time lags are assumed, then fluxes will be underestimated. This presents a major issue for N2O eddy covariance measurements. In this presentation we will focus on the signal to noise ratio for an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL). Eddy covariance flux measurements from multiple agricultural sites across the UK were investigated for potential uncertainties. Our presentation highlights some of these uncertainties when analysing eddy covariance data and offers suggestions as to how these issues may be minimised. Langford, B., Acton, W., Ammann, C., Valach, A. and Nemitz, E.: Eddy-covariance data with low signal-to-noise ratio: time-lag determination, uncertainties and limit of detection, Atmos Meas Tech, 8(10), 4197-4213, doi:10.5194/amt-8-4197-2015, 2015.

  20. Chemical Potential for the Interacting Classical Gas and the Ideal Quantum Gas Obeying a Generalized Exclusion Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevilla, F. J.; Olivares-Quiroz, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential [mu] in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state [mu] = [mu](n, T) where n is the particle density and "T" the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are…

  1. Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shi-Jie; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-03-01

    Duality quantum computing is a new mode of a quantum computer to simulate a moving quantum computer passing through a multi-slit. It exploits the particle wave duality property for computing. A quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit simulates a moving quantum computer with n qubits passing through a d-slit. Duality quantum computing can realize an arbitrary sum of unitaries and therefore a general quantum operator, which is called a generalized quantum gate. All linear bounded operators can be realized by the generalized quantum gates, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. Duality quantum computing provides flexibility and a clear physical picture in designing quantum algorithms, and serves as a powerful bridge between quantum and classical algorithms. In this paper, after a brief review of the theory of duality quantum computing, we will concentrate on the applications of duality quantum computing in simulations of Hamiltonian systems. We will show that duality quantum computing can efficiently simulate quantum systems by providing descriptions of the recent efficient quantum simulation algorithm of Childs and Wiebe (Quantum Inf Comput 12(11-12):901-924, 2012) for the fast simulation of quantum systems with a sparse Hamiltonian, and the quantum simulation algorithm by Berry et al. (Phys Rev Lett 114:090502, 2015), which provides exponential improvement in precision for simulating systems with a sparse Hamiltonian.

  2. Markov modulated Poisson process models incorporating covariates for rainfall intensity.

    PubMed

    Thayakaran, R; Ramesh, N I

    2013-01-01

    Time series of rainfall bucket tip times at the Beaufort Park station, Bracknell, in the UK are modelled by a class of Markov modulated Poisson processes (MMPP) which may be thought of as a generalization of the Poisson process. Our main focus in this paper is to investigate the effects of including covariate information into the MMPP model framework on statistical properties. In particular, we look at three types of time-varying covariates namely temperature, sea level pressure, and relative humidity that are thought to be affecting the rainfall arrival process. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to obtain the parameter estimates, and likelihood ratio tests are employed in model comparison. Simulated data from the fitted model are used to make statistical inferences about the accumulated rainfall in the discrete time interval. Variability of the daily Poisson arrival rates is studied.

  3. An efficient algorithm for estimating noise covariances in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D. P.; Cohn, S. E.; Ghil, M.; Dalcher, A.

    1985-01-01

    An efficient computational algorithm for estimating the noise covariance matrices of large linear discrete stochatic-dynamic systems is presented. Such systems arise typically by discretizing distributed-parameter systems, and their size renders computational efficiency a major consideration. The proposed adaptive filtering algorithm is based on the ideas of Belanger, and is algebraically equivalent to his algorithm. The earlier algorithm, however, has computational complexity proportional to p to the 6th, where p is the number of observations of the system state, while the new algorithm has complexity proportional to only p-cubed. Further, the formulation of noise covariance estimation as a secondary filter, analogous to state estimation as a primary filter, suggests several generalizations of the earlier algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated for a distributed system arising in numerical weather prediction.

  4. Scale-covariant theory of gravitation and astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Adams, P. J.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Tsiang, E.

    1977-01-01

    A scale-covariant theory of gravitation is presented which is characterized by a set of equations that are complete only after a choice of the scale function is made. Special attention is given to gauge conditions and units which allow gravitational phenomena to be described in atomic units. The generalized gravitational-field equations are derived by performing a direct scale transformation, by extending Riemannian geometry to Weyl geometry through the introduction of the notion of cotensors, and from a variation principle. Modified conservation laws are provided, a set of dynamical equations is obtained, and astrophysical consequences are considered. The theory is applied to examine certain homogeneous cosmological solutions, perihelion shifts, light deflections, secular variations of planetary orbital elements, stellar structure equations for a star in quasi-static equilibrium, and the past thermal history of earth. The possible relation of the scale-covariant theory to gauge field theories and their predictions of cosmological constants is discussed.

  5. Quantum error correction for quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terhal, Barbara M.

    2015-04-01

    Active quantum error correction using qubit stabilizer codes has emerged as a promising, but experimentally challenging, engineering program for building a universal quantum computer. In this review the formalism of qubit stabilizer and subsystem stabilizer codes and their possible use in protecting quantum information in a quantum memory are considered. The theory of fault tolerance and quantum error correction is reviewed, and examples of various codes and code constructions, the general quantum error-correction conditions, the noise threshold, the special role played by Clifford gates, and the route toward fault-tolerant universal quantum computation are discussed. The second part of the review is focused on providing an overview of quantum error correction using two-dimensional (topological) codes, in particular, the surface code architecture. The complexity of decoding and the notion of passive or self-correcting quantum memories are discussed. The review does not focus on a particular technology but discusses topics that will be relevant for various quantum technologies.

  6. Covariate analysis of bivariate survival data

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The methods developed are used to analyze the effects of covariates on bivariate survival data when censoring and ties are present. The proposed method provides models for bivariate survival data that include differential covariate effects and censored observations. The proposed models are based on an extension of the univariate Buckley-James estimators which replace censored data points by their expected values, conditional on the censoring time and the covariates. For the bivariate situation, it is necessary to determine the expectation of the failure times for one component conditional on the failure or censoring time of the other component. Two different methods have been developed to estimate these expectations. In the semiparametric approach these expectations are determined from a modification of Burke's estimate of the bivariate empirical survival function. In the parametric approach censored data points are also replaced by their conditional expected values where the expected values are determined from a specified parametric distribution. The model estimation will be based on the revised data set, comprised of uncensored components and expected values for the censored components. The variance-covariance matrix for the estimated covariate parameters has also been derived for both the semiparametric and parametric methods. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey was analyzed by these methods. The two outcome variables are post-partum amenorrhea and breastfeeding; education and parity were used as the covariates. Both the covariate parameter estimates and the variance-covariance estimates for the semiparametric and parametric models will be compared. In addition, a multivariate test statistic was used in the semiparametric model to examine contrasts. The significance of the statistic was determined from a bootstrap distribution of the test statistic.

  7. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  8. Noncommutative Gauge Theory with Covariant Star Product

    SciTech Connect

    Zet, G.

    2010-08-04

    We present a noncommutative gauge theory with covariant star product on a space-time with torsion. In order to obtain the covariant star product one imposes some restrictions on the connection of the space-time. Then, a noncommutative gauge theory is developed applying this product to the case of differential forms. Some comments on the advantages of using a space-time with torsion to describe the gravitational field are also given.

  9. The Principle of General Tovariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  10. Coincidence and covariance data acquisition in photoelectron and -ion spectroscopy. I. Formal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikosch, Jochen; Patchkovskii, Serguei

    2013-10-01

    We derive a formal theory of noisy Poisson processes with multiple outcomes. We obtain simple, compact expressions for the probability distribution function of arbitrarily complex composite events and its moments. We illustrate the utility of the theory by analyzing properties of coincidence and covariance photoelectron-photoion detection involving single-ionization events. The results and techniques introduced in this work are directly applicable to more general coincidence and covariance experiments, including multiple ionization and multiple-ion fragmentation pathways.

  11. Implementing of Quantum Cloning with Spatially Separated Quantum Dot Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Du, Xin; Lv, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-07-01

    We propose some schemes for implementing optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning and optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical real state cloning with spatially separated quantum dot spins by choosing the single-qubit rotation angles appropriately. The decoherences of the spontaneous emission of QDs, cavity decay and fiber loss are suppressed since the effective long-distance off-resonant interaction between two distant QDs is mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity, and during the whole process no system is excited.

  12. Standing Waves in the Lorentz-Covariant World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    2005-07-01

    When Einstein formulated his special relativity, he developed his dynamics for point particles. Of course, many valiant efforts have been made to extend his relativity to rigid bodies, but this subject is forgotten in history. This is largely because of the emergence of quantum mechanics with wave-particle duality. Instead of Lorentz-boosting rigid bodies, we now boost waves and have to deal with Lorentz transformations of waves. We now have some nderstanding of plane waves or running waves in the covariant picture, but we do not yet have a clear picture of standing waves. In this report, we show that there is one set of standing waves which can be Lorentz-transformed while being consistent with all physical principle of quantum mechanics and relativity. It is possible to construct a representation of the Poincaré group using harmonic oscillator wave functions satisfying space-time boundary conditions. This set of wave functions is capable of explaining the quantum bound state for both slow and fast hadrons. In particular it can explain the quark model for hadrons at rest, and Feynman’s parton model hadrons moving with a speed close to that of light.

  13. Hawking radiation from a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole via covariant anomalies and effective action

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2008-08-15

    We adopt the covariant anomaly cancellation method as well as the effective action approach to obtain the Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem blackhole with a global monopole falling in the class of the most general spherically symmetric charged blackhole ({radical}(-g){ne}1), using only covariant boundary conditions at the event horizon.

  14. Quantum κ-deformed differential geometry and field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercati, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    I introduce in κ-Minkowski noncommutative spacetime the basic tools of quantum differential geometry, namely bicovariant differential calculus, Lie and inner derivatives, the integral, the Hodge-∗ and the metric. I show the relevance of these tools for field theory with an application to complex scalar field, for which I am able to identify a vector-valued four-form which generalizes the energy-momentum tensor. Its closedness is proved, expressing in a covariant form the conservation of energy-momentum.

  15. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  16. U-duality covariant gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Samtleben, Henning

    2013-09-01

    We extend the techniques of double field theory to more general gravity theories and U-duality symmetries, having in mind applications to the complete D = 11 supergravity. In this paper we work out a (3 + 3)-dimensional `U-duality covariantization' of D = 4 Einstein gravity, in which the Ehlers group SL(2, ) is realized geometrically, acting in the 3 representation on half of the coordinates. We include the full (2 + 1)-dimensional metric, while the `internal vielbein' is a coset representative of SL(2, )/SO(2) and transforms under gauge transformations via generalized Lie derivatives. In addition, we introduce a gauge connection of the `C-bracket', and a gauge connection of SL(2, ), albeit subject to constraints. The action takes the form of (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity coupled to a Chern-Simons-matter theory but encodes the complete D = 4 Einstein gravity. We comment on generalizations, such as an ` E 8(8) covariantization' of M-theory.

  17. Breaking generalized covariance, classical renormalization, and boundary conditions from superpotentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshits, Gideon I.

    2014-02-01

    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum, and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBL superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either the original Lagrangian must be effectively renormalized, or that boundary conditions must be imposed, so that space-time be asymptotically maximally symmetric. Non-metricity is central to this paradox, and we show how quadratic non-metricity in the bulk of space-time contributes to the conserved charges on the boundary, where it vanishes identically. This is a realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism, proposed by Percacci, where the non-metricity is the analogue of the Goldstone boson.

  18. BRST operator quantization of generally covariant gauge systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Sforza, Daniel M.

    1997-04-01

    The BRST generator is realized as a Hermitian nilpotent operator for a finite-dimensional gauge system featuring a quadratic super-Hamiltonian and linear supermomentum constraints. As a result, the emerging ordering for the Hamiltonian constraint is not trivial, because the potential must enter the kinetic term in order to obtain a quantization invariant under scaling. Namely, BRST quantization does not lead to the curvature term used in the literature as a means to get that invariance. The inclusion of the potential in the kinetic term, far from being unnatural, is beautifully justified in light of the Jacobi's principle.

  19. Generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation induced from position-dependent effective mass quantum models and mass-deformed soliton solution through inverse scattering transform

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, A. E-mail: aganguly@maths.iitkgp.ernet.in; Das, A.

    2014-11-15

    We consider one-dimensional stationary position-dependent effective mass quantum model and derive a generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in (1+1) dimension through Lax pair formulation, one being the effective mass Schrödinger operator and the other being the time-evolution of wave functions. We obtain an infinite number of conserved quantities for the generated nonlinear equation and explicitly show that the new generalized KdV equation is an integrable system. Inverse scattering transform method is applied to obtain general solution of the nonlinear equation, and then N-soliton solution is derived for reflectionless potentials. Finally, a special choice has been made for the variable mass function to get mass-deformed soliton solution. The influence of position and time-dependence of mass and also of the different representations of kinetic energy operator on the nature of such solitons is investigated in detail. The remarkable features of such solitons are demonstrated in several interesting figures and are contrasted with the conventional KdV-soliton associated with constant-mass quantum model.

  20. Background field quantization in non-covariant gauges: renormalization and WTST identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckeon, G.; Phillips, S. B.; Samant, S. S.; Sherry, T. N.

    1986-04-01

    Background field quantization of pure YM theories in non-covariant gauges is treated with particular emphasis on renormalization. Gauge fixing terms of the form ( {1}/{2α})n · Q aƒ abn · Q b are considered where ƒ ab can assume the forms ƒ ( i) ab = -δ ab (the axial gauge), ƒ ( ii) ab = (n · D(A)) 2ab/n 4 and ƒ ( iii) ab = D 2(A) ab/n 2 (the planar gauge). For the cases where ƒ ab depends explicitly on the background field Aμa the ghost sector is enlarged by the addition of appropriate Nielsen-Kallosh ghost fields. The BRS identities for these gauge choices are derived and solved. The quantum-corrected versions of both the bare background field gauge transformations and the bare quantum field gauge transformations are obtained from the BRS analysis. It is also shown that, to one loop, all the counter terms are determined by the background field independent part of the theory and this result is used, in cases (ii) and (iii), to derive all the counter terms and to show that Kallosh's theorem is verified. The result is also used to demonstrate the pathological nature of case (i) for α ≠ 0, in particular the result that Kallosh's theorem is not applicable. The result that the generating functional of Green functions is independent of the background field Aμa in the absence of all external sources is generalized to the case of non-covariant gauges. The equality established by Abbott between the 1PI generating functionals overlineΓ[A, 0] and Γ c[ overlineQ; A] overlineQ = A , where Γ c is a conventional generating functional in an A-dependent gauge, is analysed. We show that the WTST identities satisfied by Γc reduce, when overlineQ is set equal to A, to the naive Ward-identity satisfied by overlineΓ[A, 0] .