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Sample records for generate reparative dentin

  1. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. PMID:24698687

  2. In vitro reparative dentin: a biochemical and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Teti, G; Salvatore, V; Ruggeri, A; Manzoli, L; Gesi, M; Orsini, G; Falconi, M

    2013-08-06

    In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP), as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization.

  3. Porcine enamel matrix derivative enhances the formation of reparative dentine and dentine bridges during wound healing of amputated rat molars.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Rie; Sahara, Takako; Shimizu-Ishiura, Miho; Sasaki, Takahisa

    2003-01-01

    We examined the biological effects of porcine enamel matrix derivative (EMD; Emdogain) on the formation of reparative dentine and dentine bridges in rat molars after pulp amputation. The pulp chambers of upper molars of Wistar rats were perforated and the amputated pulp surfaces were directly capped with either EMD or its carrier propylene glycol alginate (PGA) as control. The cavities were then restored with glass-ionomer cement. On post-amputation days 4-30, the dissected maxillae were examined by light and electron microscopy. In PGA-capped pulp, reparative dentine had been formed over the dentine walls under the prepared cavity on day 7 post-amputation and its thickness extended until day 30. On day 30, as well as reparative dentine formation, diffuse calcification had occurred beneath the amputated wound surfaces. Dentine bridge formation under the amputated coronal pulp surface was observed in 18.2% of amputated pulp on day 30. In EMD-capped pulp, reparative dentine had already been formed by odontoblast-like cells over the dentine walls, already on day 4 post-amputation, and its thickness extended until day 30. The Ca and P weight % and Ca/P ratio of reparative dentine matrix were similar to those of pre-existing dentine matrix, and these values were not different between PGA and EMD-capped pulp. Dentine bridge formation was observed in 27.3% of EMD-capped pulp on day 30. Our results suggest that EMD enhances the formation of both reparative dentine and dentine bridges during wound healing of amputated rat molar pulp. PMID:12868593

  4. Osteopontin Is Essential for Type I Collagen Secretion in Reparative Dentin.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Nakatomi, M; Ida-Yonemochi, H; Ohshima, H

    2016-08-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated glycoprotein that is a prominent component of the mineralized extracellular matrix of bone. The secretion of OPN by immunocompetent cells plays a role in the differentiation of odontoblast-like cells during pulpal healing following tooth transplantation. This study aimed to clarify the role of OPN during reparative dentinogenesis. A groove-shaped cavity was prepared on the mesial surface of the upper first molars of wild-type (WT) and Opn knockout (KO) mice, and the samples were collected at intervals of 1 to 14 d. The demineralized sections were processed for immunohistochemistry for Ki67, nestin, OPN, dentin sialoprotein (DSP), integrin αvβ3, and type I collagen; in situ hybridization for Opn, col1a1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp); and apoptosis assay. For the loss and gain of function experiments, an in vitro culture assay for evaluating dentin-pulp complex regeneration was performed. On day 1 in WT mice, odontoblasts beneath the affected dentin lost nestin immunoreactivity. On day 3, the expression of Opn was recognized at the mesial dental pulp, and OPN was deposited along the predentin-dentin border. Nestin-positive newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells expressed both Dspp and col1a1 and showed positive immunoreactivity for integrin αvβ3, DSP, and type I collagen. Until day 14, reparative dentin formation continued next to the preexisting dentin at the mesial coronal pulp. In contrast, there was no reparative dentin in the Opn KO mice where nestin- and DSP-positive newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells lacked immunoreaction for type I collagen. The in vitro organ culture demonstrated that the administration of recombinant OPN rescued the type I collagen secretion by odontoblast-like cells in the Opn KO mice. The results suggested that the deposition of OPN at the calcification front is essential for the type I collagen secretion by newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells to form

  5. Effects of human vascular endothelial growth factor on reparative dentin formation

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JUAN; LIU, XIA; YU, WEIXIAN; ZHANG, YINGLI; SHI, CE; NI, SHILEI; LIU, QILIN; LI, XIANGWEI; SUN, YINGJIAN; ZHENG, CHANGYU; SUN, HONGCHEN

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge for dentists to save dental pulp in patients with pulp disease without resorting to root canal therapy. Formation of tertiary dentin to maintain pulp vitality is a key odontoblast response to dental pulp injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most potent angiogenic and vasculogenic factor involved in tertiary dentin formation. It was hypothesized that VEGF may be used to treat pulp diseases such as pulpitis. To explore this hypothesis, the first step was to assess whether VEGF affects dental pulp cells to promote reparative dentin formation. In the current study, an AdCMV-hVEGF vector was constructed to deliver hVEGF into dental pulp cells of exfoliated deciduous teeth (hDPCs) in vitro and dental pulp cells in a rat model in vivo. The collected data clearly demonstrated that hVEGF increased alkaline phosphatase and mineralization by enzymatic activity. RT-qPCR data demonstrated that hVEGF significantly increased the expression levels of genes commonly involved in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. Data from the in vivo assays indicated that hVEGF enhanced pulp cell proliferation and neovascularization, and markedly increased formation of reparative dentin in dental pulp. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that hVEGF may have potential clinical applications, thus may aid in the development of novel treatment strategies for dental pulpitis. PMID:26647730

  6. Evaluation of reparative dentin formation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine and BioAggregate using micro-CT and immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jia; Song, Young-Sang; Min, Kyung-San; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of two new calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials (Biodentine and BioAggregate) to induce healing in a rat pulp injury model and to compare them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods Eighteen rats were anesthetized, cavities were prepared and the pulp was capped with either of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or BioAggregate. The specimens were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system and were prepared and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically using dentin sialoprotein (DSP). Results On micro-CT analysis, the ProRoot MTA and Biodentine groups showed significantly thicker hard tissue formation (p < 0.05). On H&E staining, ProRoot MTA showed complete dentin bridge formation with normal pulpal histology. In the Biodentine and BioAggregate groups, a thick, homogeneous hard tissue barrier was observed. The ProRoot MTA specimens showed strong immunopositive reaction for DSP. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials induce favorable effects on reparative processes during vital pulp therapy and that both Biodentine and BioAggregate could be considered as alternatives to ProRoot MTA. PMID:26877988

  7. Direct pulp capping effect with experimentally developed adhesive resin systems containing reparative dentin-promoting agents on rat pulp: mixed amounts of additives and their effect on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Taira, Yoshihisa; Shinkai, Koichi; Suzuki, Masaya; Kato, Chikage; Katoh, Yoshiroh

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the wound-healing process of exposed rat pulp when treated with experimental adhesive resin systems. The experimental direct pulp capping adhesive resin systems were composed of primer-I, primer-II and an experimental bonding agent. Primer-I was Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) primer containing 1.0 or 5.0 wt% CaCl(2), and primer-II was CSE primer containing 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 wt% compound of equal mole of pA and pB with synthetic peptides derived from dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1). Primer-I containing 1.0 and 5.0 wt% CaCl(2) was assigned to the experimental groups 1-3 and 4-6, respectively. Primer-II containing 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 wt% compound of pA and pB was assigned to the experimental groups 1 and 4, 2 and 5, and 3 and 6, respectively. In all experimental groups, CSE bond containing 10 wt% hydroxyapatite powder was used as the experimental bonding agent. The positive control teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide preparation (Dycal), and the negative control teeth were capped with CSE. The specimens were alternately stained with Mayer's H&E and the enhanced polymer one-step staining methods. Experimental groups 1, 4, 5 and 6 showed a higher level of reparative dentin formation compared to the negative control 14 days postoperatively. At 28 days postoperatively, all experimental groups showed the formation of extensive reparative dentin, and experimental groups 4, 5 and 6 demonstrated similar dentin bridge formation as that of the positive control. How quickly reparative dentin formation occurs may depend on the concentration of CaCl(2) and the compound of pA and pB in the experimental primer.

  8. Tertiary Dentin Formation after Indirect Pulp Capping Using Protein CPNE7.

    PubMed

    Choung, H W; Lee, D S; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Shon, W J; Lee, Jong-Ho; Ku, Y; Park, J C

    2016-07-01

    If there is a partial loss of dentin, the exposed dentinal surface should be protected by an indirect pulp capping (IPC) procedure to preserve pulp vitality and prevent symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity. In our previous study, copine7 (CPNE7) induced odontoblast differentiation in vitro and promoted dentin formation in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of IPC therapy using the CPNE7 protein at the exposed dentinal surface and the resulting effects on tertiary dentin formation in a beagle model. CPNE7 promoted mineralization of odontoblasts and had high calcium ion-binding capacity. The in vivo IPC model with canine teeth showed that regeneration of physiologic reactionary dentin with dentinal tubule structures was clearly observed beneath the remaining dentin in the CPNE7 group, whereas irregular features of reparative dentin were generated in the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) group. The CPNE7+MTA group also showed typical reactionary dentin without reparative dentin, showing synergistic effects of CPNE7 with MTA. A scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that dentinal tubules beneath the original dentin were occluded by the deposition of peritubular dentin in the CPNE7 and CPNE7+MTA groups, whereas those in the control group were opened. Therefore, CPNE7 may be able to serve as a novel IPC material and improve symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity. PMID:27013639

  9. Reparative Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Aparna Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Supporting learners' public engagement with traumatic histories of mass human violence can develop and sustain reparative relations across and between strained social collectives. In this article I theorize the intrapersonal and inter-political dynamics of psychical and social reparation through a classroom case of reparative learning. I analyze…

  10. Astacin proteases cleave dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) to generate dentin phosphoprotein (Dpp).

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Shuhei; Simmer, James P; Hu, Jan C-C; Richardson, Amelia S; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Yamakoshi, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is critical for proper dentin biomineralization because genetic defects in DSPP cause dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III. Dspp is processed by proteases into smaller subunits; the initial cleavage releases dentin phosphoprotein (Dpp). We incubated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides containing the amino acid context of the Dpp cleavage site (YEFDGKSMQGDDPN, designated Dspp-FRET) or a mutant version of that context (YEFDGKSIEGDDPN, designated mutDspp-FRET) with BMP-1, MEP1A, MEP1B, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, MT3-MMP, Klk4, MMP-20, plasmin, or porcine Dpp and characterized the peptide cleavage products. Only BMP-1, MEP1A, and MEP1B cleaved Dspp-FRET at the G-D peptide bond that releases Dpp from Dspp in vivo. We isolated Dspp proteoglycan from dentin power and incubated it with the three enzymes that cleaved Dspp-FRET at the G-D bond. In each case, the released Dpp domain was isolated, and its N-terminus was characterized by Edman degradation. BMP-1 and MEP1A both cleaved native Dspp at the correct site to generate Dpp, making both these enzymes prime candidates for the protease that cleaves Dspp in vivo. MEP1B was able to degrade Dpp when the Dpp was at sufficiently high concentration to deplete free calcium ion concentration. Immunohistochemistry of developing porcine molars demonstrated that astacins are expressed by odontoblasts, a result that is consistent with RT-PCR analyses. We conclude that during odontogenesis, astacins in the predentin matrix cleave Dspp before the DDPN sequence at the N-terminus of Dpp to release Dpp from the parent Dspp protein.

  11. Comparative biomorphologic analysis about three dentinal adhesives of last generations.

    PubMed

    Carini, F; Varia, P; Valenza, V

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work consists in a comparative biomorphological analysis of the properties of infiltration and of adhesion to dental tissues of three among the more used enamel dentinal adhesives of the last generation known with the commercial name of Syntac, Excite and Prompt. The results have given evidence that Syntac has got short adhesion, Excite has got good capacity of infiltration and moderate adhesion, Prompt seems to possess a capacity of infiltration equal to Excite's one, but a better adhesion besides an easier modality of use.

  12. Comparative evaluation of self-etching primers with fourth and fifth generation dentin-bonding systems on carious and normal dentin substrates: An in vitro shear bond strength analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giriyappa, Ramesh H; Chandra, B Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin would yield strengths that are lower than bond strengths achievable when bonded to normal dentin. Dentin-bonding systems used in this study were fourth and fifth generation as well as self-etching primers. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary molars were selected of which 24 were caries-affected teeth and the remaining were noncarious teeth. Random sampling was done with eight teeth in each group based on the bonding system used. In caries-affected teeth, the soft, stainable, caries-infected dentin was excavated using a caries detector dye whereas the hard, caries-affected, nonstainable dentin was retained. All the teeth were subsequently mounted in a suitable acrylic mould. Prepared teeth were restored with a single composite resin, using three different dentin bonding systems. These prepared specimens were transferred to a Hounsfield tensometer to measure the shear bond strength. The results obtained were analyzed using Anova, Student's unpaired t-test, and Student Neuman Keulis test. Results: The results showed that the self-etching primer required the highest mean shear load compared to the fifth and fourth generation dentin-bonding systems in both normal dentin and caries-affected dentin. Conclusion: Bond strength to dentin depends on whether the dentinal tubule is open or occluded. Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that bond strength to caries-affected dentin was low compared to normal dentin. PMID:20351973

  13. Influence of the light curing unit and thickness of residual dentin on generation of heat during composite photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo D; Consani, Simonides; Lympius, Thais; Schneider, Luis F J; Sinhoreti, Mario A C; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different types of composites (Filtek Z250, Esthet X and Filtek Supreme) and dentin thicknesses (0.5 or 1.0 mm) on the generation of heat during photoactivation by QTH (conventional halogen light), LED (light emitting diode), and PAC (xenon plasma light) light-curing units. Temperature changes were recorded with a thermocouple type K connected to a digital thermometer. Twenty chemically polymerized acrylic resin bases were prepared in order to guide the thermocouple and to support the dentin disks. On the acrylic resin base, elastomer molds of 2.0-mm thickness were adapted. The temperature increase was measured after composite photoactivation and the matrix was stored at 37 degrees C. After 24 hours, photoactivation was performed again and the temperature increase was measured. Obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha= 0.05). The mean temperature increase produced by QTH was significantly lower than that of the other photoactivating units (P < 0.05), due to its low radiant exposure. There were no significant differences among the samples with regard to dentin thickness and type of composites (P > 0.05). The immediate temperature rise was statistically higher when compared to the increase after additional polymerization (24 h), in all groups (P < 0.05). Light intensity and exposure time appeared to be the most important factors causing temperature change.

  14. Dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein have distinct roles in dentin mineralization.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Sreenath, Taduru; Haruyama, Naoto; Honeycutt, Cherlita; Terse, Anita; Cho, Andrew; Kohler, Thomas; Müller, Ralph; Goldberg, Michel; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2009-05-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), a major non-collagenous matrix protein of odontoblasts, is proteolytically cleaved into dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). Our previous studies revealed that DSPP null mice display a phenotype similar to human autosomal dominant dentinogenesis imperfecta, in which teeth have widened predentin and irregular dentin mineralization resulting in sporadic unmineralized areas in dentin and frequent pulp exposure. Earlier in vitro studies suggested that DPP, but not DSP, plays a significant role in initiation and maturation of dentin mineralization. However, the precise in vivo roles of DSP and DPP are far from clear. Here we report the generation of DPPcKO mice, in which only DSP is expressed in a DSPP null background, resulting in a conditional DPP knockout. DPPcKO teeth show a partial rescue of the DSPP null phenotype with the restored predentin width, an absence of irregular unmineralized areas in dentin, and less frequent pulp exposure. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of DPPcKO molars further confirmed this partial rescue with a significant recovery in the dentin volume, but not in the dentin mineral density. These results indicate distinct roles of DSP and DPP in dentin mineralization, with DSP regulating initiation of dentin mineralization, and DPP being involved in the maturation of mineralized dentin.

  15. Shear bond strength of seventh generation bonding agents on dentin of primary teeth--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Geoffrey; Rich, Alfred P; Finkelman, Matthew D; Defuria, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This controlled, randomized, in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of several seventh generation bonding agents on the dentin of primary teeth. Six different adhesives were used: Xeno IV, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt-L-Pop, AdheSE One, Bond Force, and Optibond (control). Ninety primary teeth were prepared by wet grinding with a 320-grit silicon carbide paper on a polishing wheel running at 110 RPM. After 24 hours of storage in water, shear bond strengths of each group were determined. The mean shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin was 12.27 MPa. One-way ANOVA testing showed a statistically significant difference between adhesive products (P < 0.001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to assess which means were significantly different from one another. There was no statistically significant difference between the fifth generation adhesive system (Optibond) and the two seventh generation systems (Xeno IV and Bond Force), with Optibond exhibiting a lower mean shear bond strength compared to Bond Force. Within the limitations of this study, there is a significant difference between seventh generation bonding materials. Bond Force and Optibond appear to exhibit higher shear bond strengths than the other products.

  16. Shear bond strength of seventh generation bonding agents on dentin of primary teeth--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Geoffrey; Rich, Alfred P; Finkelman, Matthew D; Defuria, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This controlled, randomized, in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of several seventh generation bonding agents on the dentin of primary teeth. Six different adhesives were used: Xeno IV, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt-L-Pop, AdheSE One, Bond Force, and Optibond (control). Ninety primary teeth were prepared by wet grinding with a 320-grit silicon carbide paper on a polishing wheel running at 110 RPM. After 24 hours of storage in water, shear bond strengths of each group were determined. The mean shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin was 12.27 MPa. One-way ANOVA testing showed a statistically significant difference between adhesive products (P < 0.001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to assess which means were significantly different from one another. There was no statistically significant difference between the fifth generation adhesive system (Optibond) and the two seventh generation systems (Xeno IV and Bond Force), with Optibond exhibiting a lower mean shear bond strength compared to Bond Force. Within the limitations of this study, there is a significant difference between seventh generation bonding materials. Bond Force and Optibond appear to exhibit higher shear bond strengths than the other products. PMID:22313979

  17. Biomaterials and scaffolds in reparative medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaikof, Elliot L.; Matthew, Howard; Kohn, Joachim; Mikos, Antonios G.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Yip, Christopher M.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Most approaches currently pursued or contemplated within the framework of reparative medicine, including cell-based therapies, artificial organs, and engineered living tissues, are dependent on our ability to synthesize or otherwise generate novel materials, fabricate or assemble materials into appropriate 2-D and 3-D forms, and precisely tailor material-related physical and biological properties so as to achieve a desired clinical response. This paper summarizes the scientific and technological opportunities within the fields of biomaterials science and molecular engineering that will likely establish new enabling technologies for cellular and molecular therapies directed at the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of diseased or damaged organs and tissues.

  18. Influence of salivary contamination on the dentin bond strength of two different seventh generation adhesive systems: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Taranjeet Kaur; Asrani, Hemant; Banga, Harpreet; Jain, Aditi; Rawlani, Sudhir S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of salivary contamination on the bond strength of two different seventh generation adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty caries-free human premolars with flat dentin surfaces were randomly divided into six groups of 10 teeth each and bonding was done using seventh-generation bonding agents Adper Easy One (3M ESPE) and Xeno V (Dentsply). Following the bonding procedure, resin composite was bonded to the surfaces using a plastic mould. The prepared specimen with composite cylinders attached were placed in 37°C distilled water for 24 h and then subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) with 0 h universal testing machine and the data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and unpaired t-test. Results: Statistical significant difference between the Groups I, II and III in which Adper Easy One was used and similarly for Groups IV, V, and VI in which Xeno V was used. When an intergroup comparison was made using unpaired t-test Group II and Group V showed the nonsignificant difference. Conclusion: Salivary contamination significantly affects the SBS of both the seventh generation dentin bonding agents. However, 2-hydroxyethyl methacryate based adhesive has higher bond strength. PMID:26752841

  19. Shear Bond Strength of Superficial, Intermediate and Deep Dentin In Vitro with Recent Generation Self-etching Primers and Single Nano Composite Resin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kulshrest; Naik, Rajaram; Hegde, Srinidhi; Damda, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background: This in vitro study is intended to compare the shear bond strength of recent self-etching primers to superficial, intermediate, and deep dentin levels. Materials and Methods: All teeth were sectioned at various levels and grouped randomly into two experimental groups and two control groups having three subgroups. The experimental groups consisted of two different dentin bonding system. The positive control group consisted of All Bond 2 and the negative control group was without the bonding agent. Finally, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength study under Instron machine. The maximum shear bond strengths were noted at the time of fracture. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: Comparing the shear bond strength values, All Bond 2 (Group III) demonstrated fairly higher bond strength values at different levels of dentin. Generally comparing All Bond 2 with the other two experimental groups revealed highly significant statistical results. Conclusion: In the present investigation with the fourth generation, higher mean shear bond strength values were recorded compared with the self-etching primers. When intermediate dentin shear bond strength was compared with deep dentin shear bond strength statistically significant results were found with Clearfil Liner Bond 2V, All Bond 2 and the negative control. There was a statistically significant difference in shear bond strength values both with self-etching primers and control groups (fourth generation bonding system and without bonding system) at superficial, intermediate, and deep dentin. There was a significant fall in bond strength values as one reaches deeper levels of dentin from superficial to intermediate to deep. PMID:26225101

  20. Tissue engineering and reparative medicine.

    PubMed

    Sipe, Jean D

    2002-06-01

    Reparative medicine is a critical frontier in biomedical and clinical research. The National Institutes of Health Bioengineering Consortium (BECON) convened a symposium titled "Reparative Medicine: Growing Tissues and Organs," which was held on June 25 and 26, 2001 in Bethesda, Maryland. The relevant realms of cells, molecular signaling, extracellular matrix, engineering design principles, vascular assembly, bioreactors, storage and translation, and host remodeling and the immune response that are essential to tissue engineering were discussed. This overview of the scientific program summarizes the plenary talks, extended poster presentations and breakout session reports with an emphasis on scientific and technical hurdles that must be overcome to achieve the promise of restoring, replacing, or enhancing tissue and organ function that tissue engineering offers.

  1. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of carious dentin from transparent zone to normal zone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Yao, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that caries invasion leads to the differentiation of dentin into zones with altered composition, collagen integrity and mineral identity. However, understanding of these changes from the fundamental perspective of molecular structure has been lacking so far. In light of this, the present work aims to utilize Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to directly extract molecular information regarding collagen's and hydroxyapatite's structural changes as dentin transitions from the transparent zone (TZ) into the normal zone (NZ). Unembedded ultrathin dentin films were sectioned from carious teeth, and an FTIR imaging system was used to obtain spatially resolved FTIR spectra. According to the mineral-to-matrix ratio image generated from large-area low-spectral-resolution scan, the TZ, the NZ and the intermediate subtransparent zone (STZ) were identified. High-spectral-resolution spectra were taken from each zone and subsequently examined with regard to mineral content, carbonate distribution, collagen denaturation and carbonate substitution patterns. The integrity of collagen's triple helical structure was also evaluated based on spectra collected from demineralized dentin films of selected teeth. The results support the argument that STZ is the real sclerotic layer, and they corroborate the established knowledge that collagen in TZ is hardly altered and therefore should be reserved for reparative purposes. Moreover, the close resemblance between the STZ and the NZ in terms of carbonate content, and that between the STZ and the TZ in terms of being A-type carbonate-rich, suggest that the mineral that initially occludes dentin tubules is hydroxyapatite newly generated from odontoblastic activities, which is then transformed into whitlockite in the demineralization/remineralization process as caries progresses.

  2. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Carious Dentin from Transparent Zone to Normal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Yao, X.; Liu, Y.W.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that caries invasion leads to the differentiation of dentin into zones with altered composition, collagen integrity and mineral identity. However, understanding of these changes from the fundamental perspective of molecular structure has been lacking so far. In light of this, the present work aims to utilize Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to directly extract molecular information regarding collagen's and hydroxyapatite's structural changes as dentin transitions from the transparent zone (TZ) into the normal zone (NZ). Unembedded ultrathin dentin films were sectioned from carious teeth, and an FTIR imaging system was used to obtain spatially resolved FTIR spectra. According to the mineral-to-matrix ratio image generated from large-area low-spectral-resolution scan, the TZ, the NZ and the intermediate subtransparent zone (STZ) were identified. High-spectral-resolution spectra were taken from each zone and subsequently examined with regard to mineral content, carbonate distribution, collagen denaturation and carbonate substitution patterns. The integrity of collagen's triple helical structure was also evaluated based on spectra collected from demineralized dentin films of selected teeth. The results support the argument that STZ is the real sclerotic layer, and they corroborate the established knowledge that collagen in TZ is hardly altered and therefore should be reserved for reparative purposes. Moreover, the close resemblance between the STZ and the NZ in terms of carbonate content, and that between the STZ and the TZ in terms of being A-type carbonate-rich, suggest that the mineral that initially occludes dentin tubules is hydroxyapatite newly generated from odontoblastic activities, which is then transformed into whitlockite in the demineralization/remineralization process as caries progresses. PMID:24556607

  3. Bone sialoprotein-induced reparative dentinogenesis in the pulp of rat's molar.

    PubMed

    Decup, F; Six, N; Palmier, B; Buch, D; Lasfargues, J J; Salih, E; Goldberg, M

    2000-06-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP), an osteogenic protein (OP), mixed with a carrier, was implanted in the pulp of rat first upper molars (OP group). Cavities were prepared with dental burs and pulp perforation was carried out by pressure with the tip of a steel probe. After 8, 14, and 30 days, the rats were killed and the pulps of the OP group were compared with (1) a sham group (S group), (2) a group where the carrier was implanted alone (C group), and (3) capping with calcium hydroxide (Ca group). After 8 days, a few inflammatory cells were seen, mostly located at the pulp surface near the perforation. In the Ca group, a dentin bridge started to form, in contrast to the other groups. After 15 days, globular structures were seen in the pulps of the S and C groups. A reparative osteodentin bridge isolated the pulp from the cavity in the Ca group. Variable reactions were seen in the OP group, with some evidence of cell and matrix alignments or plugs of osteodentin in continuity with an inner layer of reparative dentin. After 30 days, irregular osteodentin formation was observed in the pulps of the S and C groups, with a tendency for globular structures to merge, but with interglobular spaces filled by pulp remnants. In the Ca group, osteodentin was observed in the mesial part of the pulp chamber. In the BSP-implanted group, the osteogenic protein stimulated the formation of a homogeneous dentin-like deposit occupying most of the mesial part of the pulp. Apparently, BSP stimulates the differentiation of cells which secrete an organized extracellular matrix more efficiently than any other capping material used so far. Altogether, the results reported here support that bone sialoprotein displays novel bioactive properties and is capable of stimulating in 1 month's time the development of a thick reparative dentinal tissue in the pulp, occluding the perforation and filling the mesial third of the pulp chamber. PMID:11218498

  4. Dentine hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    West, Nicola; Seong, Joon; Davies, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a common oral pain condition affecting many individuals. The aetiology is multifactorial; however, over recent years the importance of erosion has become more evident. For dentine hypersensitivity to occur, the lesion must first be localised on the tooth surface and then initiated to exposed dentine tubules which are patent to the pulp. The short, sharp pain symptom is thought to be derived from the hydrodynamic pain theory and, although transient, is arresting, affecting quality of life. This episodic pain condition is likely to become a more frequent dental complaint in the future due to the increase in longevity of the dentition and the rise in tooth wear, particularly amongst young adults. Many efficacious treatment regimens are now available, in particular a number of over-the-counter home use products. The basic principles of treatment are altering fluid flow in the dentinal tubules with tubule occlusion or modifying or chemically blocking the pulpal nerve. PMID:24993261

  5. [The level of DNA damage and DNA reparation rate in cells of earthworms sampled from natural populations for numerous generations inhabited territories with anthropogenically enhanced levels of radionuclides in soil].

    PubMed

    Kaneva, A V; Belykh, E S; Maystrenko, T A; Shadrin, D M; Pylina, Ya I; Velegzhaninov, I O

    2015-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation and chemical toxic agent effects on biological systems on different organization levels have been studied by numerous researchers. But there is a clear lack of experimental data that allow one to reveal molecular and cellular adaptations of plants and animals from natural populations to adverse effects of environmental factors. The present study was aimed to assess genotoxic effects in earthworms Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister sampled from the populations that during numerous generations inhabited the territories with a technogeneously enhanced content of natural origin radionuclides and heavy metals in soil. The levels ofthe DNA damage detected with alkaline and neutral versions of Comet-assay in invertebrates from contaminated territories were established not to differ from the spontaneous level found in the animals from the reference population. At the same time the rate of the DNA damage reparation induced in A. caliginosa sampled from the contaminated sites with additional acute γ-irradiation (4 Gy) was found to be considerably higher as compared with earthworms from the reference population.

  6. [Dentinal hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Steinkeller-Dekel, M; Smidt, A; Pilo, R

    2010-01-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity is defined as short and transient painful response of exposed dentin, usually cervical, to different stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical osmotic or chemical. The etiology of dentinal hypersensitivity is open tubules (because of enamel loss or gingival recession), allowing painful stimulus to reach the pulp. The hydrodynamic theory explains the mechanism through which pain is aroused. When treating dentinal hypersensitivity, dentists always have to rule out other pathologies, such as carries, leakage, postoperative sensitivity, cracked tooth etc., and only then assess pain intensity and treat the tooth. Treatment always starts with prevention of both stimulus and exposure of dentin, and reducing predisposing factors. The treatment options include OTC products, such as fluoride and/or potassium enriched mouth washes and dentifrices, or in-office treatments, such as high content fluoride varnishes and gels, potassium oxalate chelating agents, Glutaraldehyde containing tissue fixating agents, bonding materials, low viscosity glass ionomers and even non-conservative treatments such as root canal therapy or mucogingival surgical interventions.

  7. [Dentinal hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Steinkeller-Dekel, M; Smidt, A; Pilo, R

    2010-01-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity is defined as short and transient painful response of exposed dentin, usually cervical, to different stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical osmotic or chemical. The etiology of dentinal hypersensitivity is open tubules (because of enamel loss or gingival recession), allowing painful stimulus to reach the pulp. The hydrodynamic theory explains the mechanism through which pain is aroused. When treating dentinal hypersensitivity, dentists always have to rule out other pathologies, such as carries, leakage, postoperative sensitivity, cracked tooth etc., and only then assess pain intensity and treat the tooth. Treatment always starts with prevention of both stimulus and exposure of dentin, and reducing predisposing factors. The treatment options include OTC products, such as fluoride and/or potassium enriched mouth washes and dentifrices, or in-office treatments, such as high content fluoride varnishes and gels, potassium oxalate chelating agents, Glutaraldehyde containing tissue fixating agents, bonding materials, low viscosity glass ionomers and even non-conservative treatments such as root canal therapy or mucogingival surgical interventions. PMID:20597258

  8. Formation of dentin-like particles in dentin defects above exposed pulp by controlled release of fibroblast growth factor 2 from gelatin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Kitamura, Chiaki; Morotomi, Takahiko; Inuyama, Yoshio; Ishimatsu, Hirotaka; Tabata, Yashuhiko; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Terashita, Masamichi

    2007-10-01

    The induction of dentin formation on exposed dental pulp is a major challenge in research on the regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which was delivered in either a collagen sponge (noncontrolled release) or incorporated into gelatin hydrogels (controlled release), on the formation of dentin in exposed rat molar pulps. During the early phase of pulp wound healing, pulp cell proliferation and invasion of vessels into dentin defects above exposed pulp were induced in both groups. In the late phase, the induction of dentin formation was distinctly different between the 2 types of FGF2 release. The noncontrolled release of free FGF2 from collagen sponge induced excessive reparative dentin formation in the residual dental pulp, although dentin defects were not noted. In contrast, controlled release of FGF2 from gelatin hydrogels induced the formation of dentin-like particles with dentin defects above exposed pulp. These results suggest the possibility of a novel therapeutic approach for dentin-pulp complex by controlled release of bioactive FGF2.

  9. 46 CFR 502.251 - Proof on award of reparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... decision the issues as to violations, injury to complainant, and right to reparation. If complainant is... reparation is entered. In such cases, freight bills and other exhibits bearing on the details of...

  10. 46 CFR 502.251 - Proof on award of reparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... decision the issues as to violations, injury to complainant, and right to reparation. If complainant is... reparation is entered. In such cases, freight bills and other exhibits bearing on the details of...

  11. 46 CFR 502.253 - Interest in reparation proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interest in reparation proceedings. 502.253 Section 502.253 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Reparation § 502.253 Interest in reparation proceedings. Except as to applications for refund...

  12. Evaluation of the Morphological Characteristics of Laser-Irradiated Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Lilaj, Bledar; Franz, Alexander; Degendorfer, Daniela; Moritz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different energy settings of Er:YAG laser irradiation on dentin surface morphology with respect to the number of opened dentinal tubules. Background data: An ideally prepared dentin surface with opened dentinal tubules is a prerequisite for adhesive fixation. No study, however, has yet compared the numbers of opened dentinal tubules with regard to statistical differences. Methods: Conventional preparations using a bur with or without additional acid etching acted as control groups. Dentin specimens were prepared from human third molars and randomly divided into eight groups according to the energy settings of the laser (1, 1.5, 4, 6, 7.5, and 8 W) and two controls (bur and bur plus acid etching). After surface preparation, dentin surfaces were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope, and the number of opened dentinal tubules in a defined area was counted. Results: The control groups showed smooth surfaces with (bur plus acid etching) and without opened dentinal tubules (bur), whereas all laser-irradiated surfaces showed rough surfaces. Using the energy setting of 4 W resulted in significantly more opened dentinal tubules than the conventional preparation technique using the bur with additional acid etching. In contrast, the energy setting of 8 W showed significantly fewer opened dentinal tubules, and also exhibited signs of thermal damage. Conclusions: The Er:YAG laser with an energy setting of 4 W generates a dentin surface with opened dentinal tubules, a prerequisite for adhesive fixation. PMID:26389986

  13. Dentinal permeation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunina, Natalia; Derbov, Vladimir; Tuchin, Valery; Altshuler, Gregory

    2008-06-01

    Dentinal permeation is of interest in a wide context of tooth care and treatment, in particular, tooth color improvement using combination of chemical whitening agents and light activation. A simple model of dentinal permeation accounting for the morphology of human tooth dentine and including dentinal tubules, more dense and homogeneous peritubular dentine, and less dense and less homogeneous intertubular dentin is proposed. Calculation of permeability of dentine layer is carried out for H IIO and H IIO II versus the tubule diameter and tubule density taken from the microphotograph analysis. This opens the possibility to calculate the distribution of permeability over the tooth surface taking into account the variations of tubule diameter and density as well as those of the diffusion coefficients and layer thickness

  14. MMP2-CLEAVAGE OF DMP1 GENERATES A BIOACTIVE PEPTIDE PROMOTING DIFFERENTIATION OF DENTAL PULP STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Chaussain, Catherine; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Huet, Eric; Floris, Caroline; Ravindran, Sriram; Hao, Jianjun; Menashi, Suzanne; George, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) plays a regulatory role in dentin mineralization and can also function as a signaling molecule. MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) is a predominant protease in the dentin matrix that plays a prominent role in tooth formation and a potential role during the carious process. The possibility that MMP-2 can cleave DMP1 to release biologically active peptides was investigated in this study. DMP1, both in the recombinant form and in its native state within the dentin matrix, was shown to be a substrate for MMP-2. Proteolytic processing of DMP1 by MMP-2 produced two major peptides, one that contains the C-terminal region of the protein known to carry both the ASARM (aspartic acid and serine rich domain) domain involved in biomineralization and the DNA binding site of DMP1. In vitro experiments with recombinant N- and C-terminal polypeptides mimicking the MMP-2 cleavage products of DMP1 demonstrated an effect of the C-polypeptide on the differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells to a putative odontoblast phenotype. In vivo implantation of this peptide in a rat injured pulp model induced a rapid formation of a homogeneous dentin bridge covered by a palisade of orientated cells expressing dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and DMP1, attesting an efficient repair process. These data suggest that a peptide generated through the proteolytic processing of DMP1 by MMP-2 can regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal cells during dentinogenesis and thus sustain reparative dentin formation in pathological situations such as carious decay. In addition, these data open a new therapeutic possibility of using this peptide to regenerate dentin after an injury. PMID:19908197

  15. Use of Poly (Amidoamine) Dendrimer for Dentinal Tubule Occlusion: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianda; Yang, Sheng; Wang, Lei; Feng, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    The occlusion of dentinal tubules is an effective method to alleviate the symptoms caused by dentin hypersensitivity, a significant health problem in dentistry and daily life. The in situ mineralization within dentinal tubules is a promising treatment for dentin hypersensitivity as it induces the formation of mineral on the sensitive regions and occludes the dentinal tubules. This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of a whole generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer (G3.0) on dentinal tubule occlusion by inducing mineralization within dentinal tubules. Dentin discs were treated with PAMAM dendrimers using two methods, followed by the in vitro characterization using Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). These results showed that G3.0 PAMAM dendrimers coated on dentin surface and infiltrated in dentinal tubules could induce hydroxyapatite formation and resulted in effective dentinal tubule occlusion. Moreover, crosslinked PAMAM dendrimers could induce the remineralization of demineralized dentin and thus had the potential in dentinal tubule occlusion. In this in vitro study, dentinal tubules occlusion could be achieved by using PAMAM dendrimers. This could lead to the development of a new therapeutic technique for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. PMID:25885090

  16. Use of poly (amidoamine) dendrimer for dentinal tubule occlusion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianda; Yang, Sheng; Wang, Lei; Feng, Hailan

    2015-01-01

    The occlusion of dentinal tubules is an effective method to alleviate the symptoms caused by dentin hypersensitivity, a significant health problem in dentistry and daily life. The in situ mineralization within dentinal tubules is a promising treatment for dentin hypersensitivity as it induces the formation of mineral on the sensitive regions and occludes the dentinal tubules. This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of a whole generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer (G3.0) on dentinal tubule occlusion by inducing mineralization within dentinal tubules. Dentin discs were treated with PAMAM dendrimers using two methods, followed by the in vitro characterization using Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). These results showed that G3.0 PAMAM dendrimers coated on dentin surface and infiltrated in dentinal tubules could induce hydroxyapatite formation and resulted in effective dentinal tubule occlusion. Moreover, crosslinked PAMAM dendrimers could induce the remineralization of demineralized dentin and thus had the potential in dentinal tubule occlusion. In this in vitro study, dentinal tubules occlusion could be achieved by using PAMAM dendrimers. This could lead to the development of a new therapeutic technique for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. PMID:25885090

  17. 46 CFR 502.63 - Statute of limitations for reparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statute of limitations for reparations. 502.63 Section 502.63 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE.... (a) Complaints seeking reparation pursuant to section 11 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C....

  18. Biomimetic remineralization of dentin

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li-na; Zhang, Wei; Pashley, David H.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mao, Jing; Chen, Ji-hua; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Remineralization of demineralized dentin is important for improving dentin bonding stability and controlling primary and secondary caries. Nevertheless, conventional dentin remineralization strategy is not suitable for remineralizing completely-demineralized dentin within hybrid layers created by etch-and-rinse and moderately aggressive self-etch adhesive systems, or the superficial part of a caries-affected dentin lesion left behind after minimally invasive caries removal. Biomimetic remineralization represents a different approach to this problem by attempting to backfill the demineralized dentin collagen with liquid-like amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursor particles that are stabilized by biomimetic analogs of noncollagenous proteins. Methods This paper reviewed the changing concepts in calcium phosphate mineralization of fibrillar collagen, including the recently discovered, non-classical particle-based crystallization concept, formation of polymer-induced liquid- precursors (PILP), experimental collagen models for mineralization, and the need for using phosphate-containing biomimetic analogs for biomimetic mineralization of collagen. Published work on the remineralization of resin-dentin bonds and artificial caries-like lesions by various research groups was then reviewed. Finally, the problems and progress associated with the translation of a scientifically-sound concept into a clinically-applicable approach are discussed. Results and Significance The particle-based biomimetic remineralization strategy based on the PILP process demonstrates great potential in remineralizing faulty hybrid layers or caries-like dentin. Based on this concept, research in the development of more clinically feasible dentin remineralization strategy, such as incorporating poly(anionic) acid-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursor-containing mesoporous silica nanofillers in dentin adhesives, may provide a promising strategy for increasing of the

  19. Disorders of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Hart, P Suzanne; Hart, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    Dentin, the most abundant tissue in teeth, is produced by odontoblasts, which differentiate from mesenchymal cells of the dental papilla. Dentinogenesis is a highly controlled process that results in the conversion of unmineralized predentin to mineralized dentin. By weight, 70% of the dentin matrix is mineralized, while the organic phase accounts for 20% and water constitutes the remaining 10%. Type I collagen is the primary component (>85%) of the organic portion of dentin. The non-collagenous part of the organic matrix is composed of various proteins, with dentin phosphoprotein predominating, accounting for about 50% of the non-collagenous part. Dentin defects are broadly classified into two major types: dentinogenesis imperfectas (DIs, types I-III) and dentin dysplasias (DDs, types I and II). To date, mutations in DSPP have been found to underlie the dentin disorders DI types II and III and DD type II. With the elucidation of the underlying genetic mechanisms has come the realization that the clinical characteristics associated with DSPP mutations appear to represent a continuum of phenotypes. Thus, these disorders should likely be called DSPP-associated dentin defects, with DD type II representing the mild end of the phenotypic spectrum and DI type III representing the severe end.

  20. Imaging analysis of early DMP1 mediated dentin remineralization

    PubMed Central

    Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the micro-morphological changes in demineralized dentin scaffold following incubation with recombinant dentin matrix protein 1 (rDMP1). Design Extracted human molar crowns were sectioned into 6 beams (dimensions: 0.50 × 1.70 × 6.0 mm), demineralized and incubated overnight in 3 different media (n = 4): rDMP1 in bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA and distilled water. Samples were placed in a chamber with simulated physiological concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions at constant pH 7.4. Samples were immediately processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) after 1 and 2 weeks. Results Analysis of the scaffold showed that decalcification process retained the majority of endogenous proteoglycans and phosphoproteins. rDMP1 treated samples promoted deposition of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursors and needle shaped hydroxyapatite crystals surrounding collagen fibrils. The BSA group presented ACP bound to collagen with no needle-like apatite crystals. Samples kept in distilled water showed no evidence of ACP and crystal apatite. Results from rDMP1 immobilized on dentin matrix suggests that the acidic protein was able to bind to collagen fibrils and control formation of amorphous calcium phosphate and its subsequent transformation into hydroxyapatite crystals after 2 weeks. Conclusion These findings suggest a possible bio-inspired strategy to promote remineralization of dentin for reparative and regenerative purposes. PMID:23107046

  1. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation

    PubMed Central

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states’ obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

  2. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    PubMed

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals.

  3. The therapeutic nature of art in self reparation.

    PubMed

    Hymer, S M

    1983-01-01

    While psychoanalysts have extensively explored the interplay between art and artist, few have examined the functions of art for the patient-participant observer or patient-producer. Art references made by patients during therapy can be reparative to the damaged self. Klein's concept of reparation to the object is expanded upon in order to understand the ways in which the patient makes reparation to his self. This paper focuses on two specific reparative functions (Oxford Dictionary, 1926) that the art source brings to bear on the patient's self: (1) "the restoration or renewal of a thing or part." As the patient reparatively integrates repressed impulses and/or the grandiose self, he comes to experience himself in a renewed way as a whole object who is better able to regulate his self-esteem. (2) "the restoration of a person." Once the patient develops the capacity to maintain a more-or-less stable self and object representation, he may then be ready to reparatively adapt to higher order transformations of self involved in creativity. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the analyst, sensitized to the reparative possibilities inherent in art sources, can therapeutically utilize this material both to facilitate the removal of resistances and to help the patient developmentally attain and maintain a well-regulated, adaptive self. PMID:6192457

  4. The therapeutic nature of art in self reparation.

    PubMed

    Hymer, S M

    1983-01-01

    While psychoanalysts have extensively explored the interplay between art and artist, few have examined the functions of art for the patient-participant observer or patient-producer. Art references made by patients during therapy can be reparative to the damaged self. Klein's concept of reparation to the object is expanded upon in order to understand the ways in which the patient makes reparation to his self. This paper focuses on two specific reparative functions (Oxford Dictionary, 1926) that the art source brings to bear on the patient's self: (1) "the restoration or renewal of a thing or part." As the patient reparatively integrates repressed impulses and/or the grandiose self, he comes to experience himself in a renewed way as a whole object who is better able to regulate his self-esteem. (2) "the restoration of a person." Once the patient develops the capacity to maintain a more-or-less stable self and object representation, he may then be ready to reparatively adapt to higher order transformations of self involved in creativity. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the analyst, sensitized to the reparative possibilities inherent in art sources, can therapeutically utilize this material both to facilitate the removal of resistances and to help the patient developmentally attain and maintain a well-regulated, adaptive self.

  5. A novel type of developmental dentin defect.

    PubMed

    Lukinmaa, P L; Waltimo, J; Hölttä, P; Risteli, L; Risteli, J; Alaluusua, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a developmental dentin disorder distinct from dentin defects characterized thus far. The proband was a 9-year-old boy who was the only family member known to be affected in five generations. The dental defect was not associated with any general disease or developmental disorder. The teeth appeared normal with the exception of the pink hue seen in some primary teeth. Radiographs showed pathological resorption of primary teeth and abnormally shaped pulp chambers and denticles in permanent teeth. Root canals were wide in developing teeth, but appeared thin in erupted teeth. Histological examination of two primary molars revealed canal-like defects in dentin. In the crown, the canals appeared as clusters, which alternated with columns of normal tubular dentin, and in the virtually atubular root dentin they were haphazardly distributed. Scanning electron microscopic examination confirmed the distribution pattern of the canals. In transmission electron microscopy, the defects were found to contain symmetrically banded, segmental collagenous structures. The canal contents immunostained with antibodies to the N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, suggesting retention of the propeptide extension in type I collagen. Whereas type III collagen reactivity was barely detectable in the canal region, staining for type V collagen and the non-fibril-forming type VI collagen was strong. The findings imply that the pathogenesis of the defect could be related to a local failure of odontoblasts to produce normal dentin matrix.

  6. Dentin sialophosphoprotein in biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Monica; Butler, William T; Qin, Chunlin

    2010-10-01

    Two of the proteins found in significant quantity in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of dentin are dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP). DPP, the most abundant of the noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) in dentin is an unusually polyanionic protein, containing a large number of aspartic acids (Asp) and phosphoserines (Pse) in the repeating sequences of (Asp-Pse)(n). and (Asp-Pse-Pse)(n). The many negatively charged regions of DPP are thought to promote mineralization by binding calcium and presenting it to collagen fibers at the mineralization front during the formation of dentin. This purported role of DPP is supported by a sizeable pool of in vitro mineralization data showing that DPP is an important initiator and modulator for the formation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals. Quite differently, DSP is a glycoprotein, with little or no phosphate. DPP and DSP are the cleavage products of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). Human and mouse genetic studies have demonstrated that mutations in, or knockout of, the Dspp gene result in mineralization defects in dentin and/or bone. The discoveries in the past 40 years with regard to DPP, DSP, and DSPP have greatly enhanced our understanding of biomineralization and set a new stage for future studies. In this review, we summarize the important and new developments made in the past four decades regarding the structure and regulation of the Dspp gene, the biochemical characteristics of DSPP, DPP, and DSP as well as the cell/tissue localizations and functions of these molecules.

  7. Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, Richard D; Oquendo, Anabella

    2011-07-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity is exemplified by brief, sharp, well-localized pain in response to thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical stimuli that cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology. Pulpal pain is usually more prolonged, dull, aching, and poorly localized and lasts longer than the applied stimulus. Up to 30% of adults have dentinal hypersensitivity at some time. Current techniques for treatment may be only transient in nature and results are not always predictable. Two methods of treatment of dentin hypersensitivity are tubular occlusion and blockage of nerve activity. A differential diagnosis needs to be accomplished before any treatment. PMID:21726693

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 23 overexpression impacts negatively on dentin mineralization and dentinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Liu, Hong; Sun, Wen; Bai, Xiuying; Karaplis, Andrew C; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-06-01

    1. Though previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) mRNA expression localizes in ameloblasts and odontoblasts in teeth, it is unclear what effect FGF23 overexpression has on dentin mineralization and dentinogenesis. Toward this end, the phenotypes of mandibles and teeth were compared between 6-week-old FGF23 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates by radiography, microcomputed tomography scanning, histology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. 2. The mineral density was reduced in all teeth, including molars and incisors, and in the mandible, and the mineralized tooth volume in incisor and molars, and the mineralized cortical and alveolar bone volume in mandibles were decreased in FGF23 transgenic mice compared with their wild-type littermates. The dental volume, reparative dentin area, the expression of dentin sialoprotein in dentin, and the deposition of type I collagen and osteocalcin in the dental matrix were significantly reduced. However, the predentin volume and the expression of biglycan in dentin were increased in FGF23 transgenic mice compared with their wild-type littermates. 3. The results of the present study show that FGF23 overexpression plays a negative regulatory role on dentin mineralization and dentinogenesis.

  9. Effects of industrial noise on circumpulpar dentin--a field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Tavares, Vitor; Oliveira, Maria João; Oliveira, Pedro; Sezinando, Ana; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to Industrial Noise (IN), rich in Low Frequency Noise (LFN), causes systemic fibrotic transformation and sustained stress. Dental wear, significantly increased with exposure to LFN, affects the teeth particularly through the circumpulpar dentin. Our goal is to understand the consequences of IN exposure on the circumpulpar dentin of Wistar rats. 10 Wistar rats were exposed to IN for 4 months, according to an occupationally simulated time schedule and 10 animals were used as age-matched controls. The first and the second upper and lower molars of each animal were processed for observation by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was performed. In exposed animals FESEM showed a 2.0 to 6.0 μm-dense mineral band between dentin and the pulp with no regular continuity with the tubules. This structure had a few tubules where the odontoblasts processes could be observed embedded within the band and collagen fibers were trapped inside. EDS analysis revealed that it was hydroxyapatite similar to dentin, with a higher carbon content. FESEM results show that the band may be tertiary reparative dentin formed by odontoblast-like cells, but the increased amount of carbon (EDS) could mean that it is sclerotic dentin. IN should be acknowledge as a strong stimulus, able to cause an injury to odontoblasts and to the formation of reparative tertiary dentin, in a process that may accelerate the aging of the teeth, either by direct impact of acoustic pressure pulsations or by increased stress and dental wear.

  10. Effects of industrial noise on circumpulpar dentin - a field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Tavares, Vitor; Oliveira, Maria João; Oliveira, Pedro; Sezinando, Ana; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to Industrial Noise (IN), rich in Low Frequency Noise (LFN), causes systemic fibrotic transformation and sustained stress. Dental wear, significantly increased with exposure to LFN, affects the teeth particularly through the circumpulpar dentin. Our goal is to understand the consequences of IN exposure on the circumpulpar dentin of Wistar rats. 10 Wistar rats were exposed to IN for 4 months, according to an occupationally simulated time schedule and 10 animals were used as age-matched controls. The first and the second upper and lower molars of each animal were processed for observation by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was performed. In exposed animals FESEM showed a 2.0 to 6.0 μm-dense mineral band between dentin and the pulp with no regular continuity with the tubules. This structure had a few tubules where the odontoblasts processes could be observed embedded within the band and collagen fibers were trapped inside. EDS analysis revealed that it was hydroxyapatite similar to dentin, with a higher carbon content. FESEM results show that the band may be tertiary reparative dentin formed by odontoblast-like cells, but the increased amount of carbon (EDS) could mean that it is sclerotic dentin. IN should be acknowledge as a strong stimulus, able to cause an injury to odontoblasts and to the formation of reparative tertiary dentin, in a process that may accelerate the aging of the teeth, either by direct impact of acoustic pressure pulsations or by increased stress and dental wear. PMID:24294356

  11. Dentin Caries Zones

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral. PMID:19131321

  12. Infected Dentine Revisited.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Edwina; Fejerskov, Ole; Nyvad, Bente

    2015-11-01

    Dentine becomes infected as a result of caries lesion formation on root surfaces and when lesions progress following cavitation of enamel lesions. However, this infection is unimportant because the driving force for lesion formation and progression is the overlying biofilm. This explains why root surface caries can be controlled by mechanical plaque control and fluoride, and restorations are not needed to arrest these lesions. Similarly, the infected dentine in cavitated coronal lesions does not have to be removed to arrest the lesion. If the lesion is either accessible or opened for cleaning by the patient or parent, the lesion can be arrested. Sealing of infected dentine within the tooth, either by a Hall crown in the primary dentition or by partial caries removal prior to placing a well-sealed filling, will also arrest the lesion. When restoring deep lesions in symptomless, vital teeth, vigorous excavation of infected dentine is likely to expose the pulp and make root canal treatment necessary. Thus complete excavation'is not needed and should be avoided. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Root surface caries can be arrested by cleaning and fluoride application. Restorations are not essential. Vigorous excavation of softened dentine in deep cavities of symptomless, vital teeth is contra-indicated. It is not needed and increases the risk of pulp exposure. PMID:26749788

  13. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Newer Bonding Systems on Superficial and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Siddaraju, Kishore; Nagaraj, Hema; Poluri, Ramya Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to superficial dentin and deep dentin using two different dentin bonding systems. Materials and Methods: All teeth were sectioned at various levels (superficial dentin: Dentin within 0.5-1 mm of dentinoenamel junction; deep dentin: Dentin within 0.5 mm of the highest pulp horn) using a Carborundum Disc and embedded in acrylic block of specific size. Selected specimens (60 premolar teeth) were grouped randomly into three groups, the groups were differentiated into superficial dentin, deep dentin, and control group which were further divided into sub Group A and Subgroup B containing 10 teeth each, depending on the bonding agents used. In Subgroup A, Tetric N Bond, and in Subgroup B Single Bond Universal were used. In the control group no bonding agent was used. The specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5°C and 55°C water bath for 40 s. Finally, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength study under INSTRON machine (Universal Testing Machine). The maximum shear bond strengths were noted at the time of fracture (de-bonding) of the restorative material. Results were analyzed using ANOVA test, Bonferroni test, and paired t-test. Results: Bond strength values of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) showed higher mean shear bond strength compared to seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). There was a significant fall in bond strength values as one reaches deeper levels of dentin from superficial to deep dentin. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) and seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). Decrease in the bond strength values is seen for the deeper level of dentin as compared to superficial dentin. PMID:26435613

  14. 17 CFR 12.407 - Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Satisfaction of reparation... Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions. (a) Satisfaction of reparation award—(1) Where... satisfaction of an award (as prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section) expires, file with...

  15. 17 CFR 12.407 - Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfaction of reparation... Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions. (a) Satisfaction of reparation award—(1) Where... satisfaction of an award (as prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section) expires, file with...

  16. What's Next?: Japanese American Redress and African American Reparations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Eric K.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the commitment of Japanese Americans to support other groups seeking redress for historic injustice, and considers the lessons that might be drawn from the process of Japanese American redress. Offers a view of reparations as "repair" rather than compensation. (SLD)

  17. Reparable, high-density microelectronic module provides effective heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, K. J.; Maytone, F. F.

    1967-01-01

    Reparable modular system is used for packaging microelectronic flat packs and miniature discrete components. This three-dimensional compartmented structure incorporates etched phosphor bronze sheets and frames with etched wire conductors. It provides an effective heat sink for electric power dissipation in the absence of convective cooling means.

  18. Dentin sialophosphoprotein knockout mouse teeth display widened predentin zone and develop defective dentin mineralization similar to human dentinogenesis imperfecta type III.

    PubMed

    Sreenath, Taduru; Thyagarajan, Tamizchelvi; Hall, Bradford; Longenecker, Glenn; D'Souza, Rena; Hong, Sung; Wright, J Tim; MacDougall, Mary; Sauk, John; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2003-07-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is mainly expressed in teeth by the odontoblasts and preameloblasts. The Dspp mRNA is translated into a single protein, Dspp, and cleaved into two peptides, dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein, that are localized within the dentin matrix. Recently, mutations in this gene were identified in human dentinogenesis imperfecta II (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) accession number 125490) and in dentin dysplasia II (OMIM accession number 125420) syndromes. Herein, we report the generation of Dspp-null mice that develop tooth defects similar to human dentinogenesis imperfecta III with enlarged pulp chambers, increased width of predentin zone, hypomineralization, and pulp exposure. Electron microscopy revealed an irregular mineralization front and a lack of calcospherites coalescence in the dentin. Interestingly, the levels of biglycan and decorin, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, were increased in the widened predentin zone and in void spaces among the calcospherites in the dentin of null teeth. These enhanced levels correlate well with the defective regions in mineralization and further indicate that these molecules may adversely affect the dentin mineralization process by interfering with coalescence of calcospherites. Overall, our results identify a crucial role for Dspp in orchestrating the events essential during dentin mineralization, including potential regulation of proteoglycan levels.

  19. Dentin Hypersensitivity and Oxalates

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Cruz, J.; Stout, J.R.; Heaton, L.J.; Wataha, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity with oxalates is common, but oxalate efficacy remains unclear. Our objective was to systematically review clinical trials reporting an oxalate treatment compared with no treatment or placebo with a dentin hypersensitivity outcome. Risk-of-bias assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were estimated by random-effects meta-analysis. Of 677 unique citations, 12 studies with high risk-of-bias were included. The summary SMD for 3% monohydrogen-monopotassium oxalate (n = 8 studies) was -0.71 [95% Confidence Interval: -1.48, 0.06]. Other treatments, including 30% dipotassium oxalate (n = 1), 30% dipotassium oxalate plus 3% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate (n = 3), 6% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate (n = 1), 6.8% ferric oxalate (n = 1), and oxalate-containing resin (n = 1), also were not statistically significantly different from placebo treatments. With the possible exception of 3% monohydrogen monopotassium oxalate, available evidence currently does not support the recommendation of dentin hypersensitivity treatment with oxalates. PMID:21191127

  20. Massive trauma and the healing role of reparative justice.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael

    2009-10-01

    In this article, the author focuses on victims/survivors' experiences of justice processes after massive trauma. Reparative justice insists that every step throughout the justice experience--from the first moment of the court's encounter with a potential witness, to the follow-up of witnesses after their return home, to the aftermath of the completion of the case--presents an opportunity for redress and healing. Conversely, this experience may present a risk of missing opportunities for healing and reintegrating victims into their societies, or, worse, (re)victimizing and (re)traumatizing them. Although restitution, rehabilitation, or compensation may come only after this process has concluded, opportunities exist throughout. Although not sufficient in itself, reparative justice is a necessary component among the healing processes after massive trauma.

  1. Effects of permafrost microorganisms on skin wound reparation.

    PubMed

    Kalenova, L F; Novikova, M A; Subbotin, A M

    2015-02-01

    Local application of ointment with Bacillus spp. strain MG8 (15,000-20,000 living bacterial cells), isolated from permafrost specimens, on the skin wound of about 60 mm(2) stimulated the reparation processes in experimental mice. A possible mechanism stimulating the regeneration of the damaged tissues under the effect of MG8 could be modulation of the immune system reactivity with more rapid switchover to humoral immunity anti-inflammatory mechanisms aimed at de novo synthesis of protein. PMID:25708330

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of dentin matrix protein 1 in human dentin.

    PubMed

    Orsini, G; Ruggeri, A; Mazzoni, A; Nato, F; Falconi, M; Putignano, A; Di Lenarda, R; Nanci, A; Breschi, L

    2008-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a non-collagenous matrix protein with a recognized role in the formation of mineralized tissues such as dentin. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of DMP1 in human dentin by means of immunofluorescence and high-resolution immunogold labeling. Fully developed, sound human dentin specimens were submitted to fluorescence labeling and post-embedding immunolabeling techniques with a rabbit polyclonal antihuman DMP1 antibody followed by corresponding fluorochrome-conjugated or gold-conjugated secondary antibodies. Both immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling showed an intense labeling associated with the peritubular dentin. In addition, at the ultrastructural level, there was also a moderate and diffuse immunoreaction over intertubular dentin, and a weak labeling within predentin which increased in density towards the mineralization front. This study suggests that in adult human teeth, like in rodents, DMP1 is prevalently concentrated at the level of peritubular dentin and this feature is preserved also in fully developed-teeth. These data are consistent with what has been observed in rodents and suggest that DMP1 plays a role in maintenance of the dentin tubular space.

  3. Reparative giant cell granuloma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Duarte Ruiz, Blanca; Riba García, Francisco de Asís; Navarro Cuéllar, Carlos; Bucci, Tommaso; Cuesta Gil, Matías; Navarro Vila, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Reparative giant cell granulomas are benign, infrequent tumors, of non-odontogenic origin, that develop at central or peripheral level. Peripherally located lesions are frequently denominated "giant cell epulis", and never correspond to true neoplasia, but rather to inflammatory reactions secondary to another lesion (hemorrhage, etc.). It should be taken into account, that in general, head and neck tumors of infancy usually demonstrate an atypical biological behaviour. Furthermore, the anatomicopathologic diagnosis is often compromised in this type of lesion. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy, who, three weeks after suffering a slight facial trauma, developed a painless, exophytic swelling of approximately 4 cm, with bleeding on palpation, in the ipsilateral hemimaxilla. The lesion demonstrated rapid, progressive and continuous growth. The facial CT and incisional biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of reparative giant cell granuloma. The patient was surgically treated, carrying out a left marginal maxillectomy associated with the extirpation of the soft-tissue lesion. The resultant defect was reconstructed with a Bichat fat-pad providing the patient with optimal esthetic and functional results. The definitive anatomicopathologic report of the surgical piece is compatible with reparative giant cell granuloma.

  4. Resin–Dentin Bonding Interface After Photochemical Surface Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazunobu; Ichinose, Shizuko; Araki, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study is to elucidate the structure of the resin–dentin interface formed by photochemical dentin treatment using an argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser. Background data The ArF excimer laser processes material by photochemical reaction without generating heat, while also providing surface conditioning that enhances material adhesion. In the case of bonding between resin and dentin, we demonstrated in a previous study that laser etching using an ArF excimer laser produced bonding strength comparable to that of the traditional bonding process; however, conditions of the bonding interface have not been fully investigated. Methods A dentin surface was irradiated in air with an ArF excimer laser followed by bonding treatment. Cross sections were observed under light microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope, then analyzed using an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS): EDS line profiles of the elements C, O, Si, Cl, P, and Ca at the resin–dentin interface were obtained. Results The density of C in resin decreased as it approached the interface, reaching its lowest level within the dentin at a depth of 2 μm from the resin–dentin interface on EDS. There was no hybrid layer observed at the interface on TEM. Therefore, it was suggested that the resin monomer infiltrated into the microspaces produced on the dentin surface by laser abrasion. Conclusions The monomer infiltration without hybrid layer is thought to be the adhesion mechanism after laser etching. Therefore, the photochemical processes at the bonding interface achieved using the ArF excimer laser has great potential to be developed into a new bonding system in dentistry. PMID:25555032

  5. Abnormal presence of the matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein-derived acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptide in human hypophosphatemic dentin.

    PubMed

    Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Gaucher, Celine; Léger, Thibaut; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Faouder, Julie; Willig, Cyril; Rowe, Peter S; Garabédian, Michèle; Meilhac, Olivier; Chaussain, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Severe dental troubles are associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and are mainly related to impaired dentin mineralization. In dentin matrix, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) may be protected from proteolysis by a specific interaction with PHEX (phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome). The objective of our work was to determine whether PHEX impairment induces MEPE cleavage in dentin and the subsequent release of the C-terminal acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) peptide, which is known to inhibit mineralization. By Western blot analysis, we explored dentin extracts from seven hypophosphatemic patients with mutations of the PHEX gene. A proteomic approach combining immunoprecipitation, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis of the samples completed this exploration. This study shows a 4.1-kDa peptide containing the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide in hypophosphatemic samples. The presence of ASARM was less marked in patients treated with 1-hydroxylated vitamin D and phosphate during growth. Moreover, recombinant ASARM implanted in a rat pulp injury model disturbed the formation of the reparative dentin bridge. These results suggest that abnormal MEPE cleavage occurs when PHEX activity is deficient in humans, the ASARM peptide may be involved in the mineralization defects and the PHEX-MEPE interaction may be indirect, as ensuring a better phosphate and vitamin D environment to the mineralizing dentin prevents MEPE cleavage.

  6. Application of laser irradiation for stimulation of gun wound reparation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosachev, I. D.; Varzin, S. A.

    2006-03-01

    We carried out a study of action of helium-neon laser irradiation on the course of the wound process. For this purpose we used helium-neon optic quantum generator with the emission wavelength of 0.6328 μm. The cytological study has shown that the laser irradiation activates processes of phagocytosis and reparation and reduces microbial insemination of wounds. The histological, histochemical, and electron microscopic studies of the dynamics of gun wound healing have shown that under effect of laser irradiation, duration of the inflammatory reaction and the associated incidence of infectious complications were reduced; the initial signs of cell proliferation appeared sooner. Further, acceleration of differentiation of fibroblasts and an increase of their collagen-synthetic activity were noticed.

  7. Functional remineralization of carious dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugach, Megan Kardon

    A primary goal of dental tissue engineering is the biological reconstruction of tooth substrate destroyed by caries or other diseases affecting tooth mineralization. Traditionally, dentists treat caries by using invasive techniques to remove the diseased dental tissue and restore the lesion, ideally preventing further progression of decay. Success in strategies associated with remineralization of enamel and root caries have contributed to the less invasive prospect of remineralization of dentinal carious lesions. The central hypothesis of this dissertation is that carious dentin lesions can be remineralized if the lesions contain residual mineral. Caries Detector (CD) stained zones (pink, light pink, transparent and normal) of arrested carious dentin lesions were characterized according to microstructure by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, mineral content by digital transverse microradiography, and nanomechanical properties by AFM-based nanoindentation. CD-stained and unstained zones had significantly different microstructure, mineral content and nanomechanical properties. Furthermore, the most demineralized carious zone contained residual mineral. To obtain reproducible, standardized dentin caries lesions, we characterized the lesions from an artificial carious dentin lesion model using a 0.05M acetate demineralization buffer. The artificial caries-like lesions produced by the buffer had similar mineral content and nanomechanical properties in the stained and unstained zones as natural dentin lesions. Both natural and artificial lesions had significant correlations between mineral content and nanomechanical properties. Mineral crystallite size and shape was examined by small angle x-ray scattering. Both natural and artificial carious dentin had different mineral sizes than normal dentin. Collagen in natural and artificial carious dentin lesions was examined by trichrome stain, AFM high-resolution imaging, and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy, to determine if

  8. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors.

  9. Giant Cell Reparative Granuloma of the Petrous Temporal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joy C.; Thorell, William E.; Treves, John S.; Fidler, Mary E.; Moore, Gary F.; Leibrock, Lyal G.

    2000-01-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is an unusual, benign bone lesion that most commonly affects the maxilla and mandible; skull involvement is rare. The etiology is uncertain but may be related to trauma. GCRG is difficult to distinguish from giant cell tumor of the bone and has a lower recurrence rate. Thirteen reports of temporal bone GCRG in 11 patients have been reported. One report of a petrous GCRG in a 3-year-old girl has been identified. A 38-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of fullness in his left ear, ipsilateral hearing loss, and intermittent cacosmia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large left-sided anterior temporal extradural mass. The patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy and resection of a left temporal fossa tumor that involved the petrous and squamous parts of the temporal bone. The patient's post-operative course was uneventful, except for increased hearing loss secondary to opening of the epitympanum. Follow-up at one month revealed no other problems. Histopathology of the specimen was consistent with a giant cell reparative granuloma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2p91-aFigure 3 PMID:17171108

  10. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-17

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors.

  11. Polymer nanocarriers for dentin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R; Osorio, E; Medina-Castillo, A L; Toledano, M

    2014-12-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP- N : Active nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days' immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be

  12. If a Tree Falls in the Wilderness: Reparations, Academic Silences, and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The history and dynamics of reparations for African Americans are explored. The lack of current research and writing on the subject in sociology and political sciences journals is contended to be a conspiracy of silence in academia on the subject of restitution for 500 years of oppression. A program of reparations of three kinds is suggested: 1)…

  13. How Finnish Upper Secondary Students Conceive Transgenerational Responsibility and Historical Reparations: Implications for the History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses how Finnish upper secondary school students ponder upon the questions of transgenerational responsibility and historical reparation. These questions have got a prominent place in the history culture in many societies in the last 20 years. The philosophical and political dimensions of reparations for historical injustices have…

  14. Making human enamel and dentin surfaces superwetting for enhanced adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2011-11-01

    Good wettability of enamel and dentin surfaces is an important factor in enhancing adhesion of restorative materials in dentistry. In this study, we developed a femtosecond laser surface texturing approach that makes both the enamel and dentine surfaces superwetting. In contrast to the traditional chemical etching that yields random surface structures, this approach produces engineered surface structures. The surface structure engineered and tested here is an array of parallel microgrooves that generates a strong capillary force. Due to the powerful capillary action, water is rapidly sucked into this engineered surface structure and spreads even on a vertical surface.

  15. A galloylated dimeric proanthocyanidin from grape seed exhibits dentin biomodification potential

    PubMed Central

    Phansalkar, Rasika S.; Nam, Joo-Won; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, José G.; Leme, Ariene; Vidal, Cristina M. P.; Aguiar, Thaiane; Bedran Russo, Ana K.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds are a rich source of polyphenols, especially proanthocyanidins (PACs), and are also known for the presence of galloylated oligomeric PACs (OPACs). The present study focuses on phytochemical methodology for grape seed (O)PACs and their potential role as dentin bio-modifiers to be used in restorative and reparative dentistry. A new method using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was developed for the preparative separation of the grape seed (O)PACs. Orthogonal phytochemical profiling of the resulting CPC fractions was performed using C18 and diol HPLC, normal phase HPTLC, and IT-TOF MS analysis. A galloylated procyanidin dimer (1) was isolated from a CPC fraction in order to evaluate its potential to enhance dentin bio-mechanical properties. Moreover, it helped to evaluate the impact of the galloyl moiety on the observed bioactivity. Structure elucidation was performed using ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses. For the first time, 1H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA) was performed on this type of molecule, enabling a detailed proton chemical shift and coupling constant assignment. The CPC fractions as well as 1 showed promising results in the dentin stiffness bioassay and indicate that it may be used as dental intervention material. PMID:25542682

  16. Requirement of Smad4-mediated signaling in odontoblast differentiation and dentin matrix formation

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Chi-Young; Choi, Hwajung; You, Young-Jae; Yang, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Dentin is the major part of tooth and formed by odontoblasts. Under the influence of the inner enamel epithelium, odontoblasts differentiate from ectomesenchymal cells of the dental papilla and secrete pre-dentin which then undergo mineralization into dentin. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for dentinogenesis; however, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To understand the role of TGF-β/BMP signaling in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation, we generated mice with conditional ablation of Smad4, a key intracellular mediator of TGF-β/BMP signaling, using Osr2 or OC-Cre mice. Here we found the molars of Osr2CreSmad4 mutant mice exhibited impaired odontoblast differentiation, and normal dentin was replaced by ectopic bone-like structure. In Osr2CreSmad4 mutant mice, cell polarity of odontoblast was lost, and the thickness of crown dentin was decreased in later stage compared to wild type. Moreover, the root dentin was also impaired and showed ectopic bone-like structure similar to Osr2CreSmad4 mutant mice. Taken together, our results suggest that Smad4-dependent TGF-β/BMP signaling plays a critical role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation during tooth development. PMID:27722013

  17. Sodium hypochlorite alterations of dentin and dentin collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, G. W.; Yücel, N.; Balooch, M.; Kinney, J. H.; Habelitz, S.; Marshall, S. J.

    2001-10-01

    NaOCl aq is used as a cleansing and non-specific deproteinizing agent in endodontic treatment, as a component of new chemomechanical caries treatment, and is under study for its alterations of dentin bonding characteristics. We sought to determine the microstructural and nanomechanical changes with such treatments and to test if NaOCl aq removed dentin collagen without microstructural or nanomechanical alteration of underlying mineralized dentin. Polished human dentin disks were prepared with a double reference technique that allowed changes to be determined following 10% citric acid etching for 15 s and subsequent treatment of the etched and unetched portions of the sample with 6.5% NaOCl aq, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Nanoscope III, Digital Instruments, Santa Barbara, CA). Images and measurements were made at intervals up to 1800 s. A Triboscope (Hysitron, Minneapolis, MN) on the AFM was used to measure nanohardness and the reduced elastic modulus. The double reference method allowed measurements immediately following etching and at intervals during deproteinization. Etching caused deep peritubular dentin removal and a small depth change of hydrated intertubular dentin as mineral was removed and left a remnant collagen matrix. NaOCl aq removed collagen over time, during which individual fibrils could be resolved; the underlying mineralized dentin was left with a unique porous surface containing numerous channels that are not normally observed in etched or fractured dentin. This could provide an attractive bonding substrate because of the increased surface area and high mineral content, if toughness is not reduced too much. Nanomechanical measurements showed that the reduced elastic modulus and hardness were 75% of original values after removal of the exposed collagen. Current dentin bonding systems rely on hybrid layer formation in which hydrophilic primers/polymers penetrate the opened collagen matrix exposed by etching. However some research suggests

  18. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    PubMed

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue. PMID:24566021

  19. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the hallux following enchondroma

    PubMed Central

    Kamoun, Khaled; Sellami, Tarak; Jlailia, Zied; Abid, Layla; Jenzri, Mourad; Bouaziz, Mouna; Zouar, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a rare, benign intra osseous lytic lesion occurring especially in gnathis bone but also seen in feet and hands. It has similar clinical and radiological presentations than giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, and hyperparathyroidism brown tumors but with specific histological findings We report a case of a GCRG of hallux phalanx in 18 years old patient appearing many years after enchondroma curettage and grafting. Radiographs showed a multiloculated osteolytic lesions involving whole phalanx with cortical thinning and without fluid-fluid levels in CT view. Expected to be an enchondroma recurrence, second biopsy confirmed diagnosis of GCRG with specific histological findings. Although if aetiopathogeny remains unknown, GCRG is reported to be a local non neoplasic reaction to an intraosseous hemorrhage. Our exceptional case claims that this tumor can appear in reaction to cellular disturbance primary or secondary. PMID:26985281

  20. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the hallux following enchondroma.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Khaled; Sellami, Tarak; Jlailia, Zied; Abid, Layla; Jenzri, Mourad; Bouaziz, Mouna; Zouar, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a rare, benign intra osseous lytic lesion occurring especially in gnathis bone but also seen in feet and hands. It has similar clinical and radiological presentations than giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, and hyperparathyroidism brown tumors but with specific histological findings We report a case of a GCRG of hallux phalanx in 18 years old patient appearing many years after enchondroma curettage and grafting. Radiographs showed a multiloculated osteolytic lesions involving whole phalanx with cortical thinning and without fluid-fluid levels in CT view. Expected to be an enchondroma recurrence, second biopsy confirmed diagnosis of GCRG with specific histological findings. Although if aetiopathogeny remains unknown, GCRG is reported to be a local non neoplasic reaction to an intraosseous hemorrhage. Our exceptional case claims that this tumor can appear in reaction to cellular disturbance primary or secondary. PMID:26985281

  1. Raising the dead: war, reparation, and the politics of memory.

    PubMed Central

    Summerfield, D.

    1995-01-01

    All societies attach a different range of meanings to war than to natural disasters, and questions of societal recognition, reparation, and justice are generally central. Most modern conflict has been grounded in the use of terror to control and silence whole populations. Those abusing power typically refuse to acknowledge their dead victims, as if they had never existed and were mere wraiths in the memories of those left behind. This denial, and the impunity of those who maintain it, must be challenged if survivors are to make sense of their losses and the social fabric is to mend. For the names and fate of the dead to be properly lodged in the public record of their times also illuminates the costs that may flow from the philosophies and practices of the Western led world order, ones which health workers should be in a position to influence. Images p495-a p496-a p496-b PMID:7647648

  2. Ultrastructural organization of dentin in mice lacking dentin sialo-phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ping-An; Verdelis, Kostas; Yang, Xu; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Beniash, Elia

    2014-08-01

    Dentin Sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is the major non-collagenous protein of dentin and plays a significant role in dentin mineralization. Recently, animal models lacking DSPP have been developed and the DSPP KO phenotype has been characterized at the histological level. Little is known, however, about the DSPP KO dentin at nano- and meso-scale. Dentin is a hierarchical material spanning from nano- to macroscale, hence information on the effects of DSPP deficiency at the submicron scale is essential for understanding of its role in dentin biomineralization. To bridge this gap, we have conducted ultrastructural studies of dentin from DSPP KO animals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of DSPP KO dentin revealed that although the overall ultrastructural organization was similar to the WT, the mineral particles were less organized. Scanning electron microscopy in the back-scattered mode (BS-SEM) of the DSPP KO dentin revealed that circumpulpal dentin comprises large areas of non-mineralized matrix, with numerous spherulitic mineralized inclusions, while the mantle dentin appeared largely unaffected. Analysis of the mineral distribution in the circumpulpal dentin of the DSPP KO mice suggests a reduction in the number of mineral nucleation sites and an increase in the nucleation barrier in DSPP KO dentin. These preliminary results indicate that in addition to the reduction of mineralized and total dentin volume in DSPP KO animals significant changes in the ultrastructural organization exist. These changes are likely related to the role of DSPP in the regulation of mineral formation and organization in dentin.

  3. Dentin hypersensitivity and its management.

    PubMed

    Chu, C H; Lam, Anty; Lo, Edward C M

    2011-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common patient complaint that is more prevalent than the profession realizes. It is important for dentists to diagnose dentin hypersensitivity by exclusion and provide appropriate treatment recommendations for patients. Various treatment methods have been proposed but no universally accepted desensitizing agent or treatment has been identified. When a patient has symptoms that can be attributed to dentin hypersensitivity, a thorough clinical examination should be carried out to rule out other likely causes prior to diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the identified cause, a combination of individualized instructions on proper oral health behaviors, use of at-home products, and professional treatment may be required to manage the problem. PMID:21903521

  4. Main concepts of dentin adhesion (review).

    PubMed

    Mamaladze, M; Sanodze, L; Vadachkoria, D

    2009-03-01

    This review examines fundamental concepts in bonding to dentin. Emphasis is placed on the structure and permeability characteristics of dentin and how they may influence its interaction with adhesive resin. Several new techniques to examine the interfaces between resin and dentin are reviewed along with some of their limitations. The advantages and disadvantages of acid etchants/conditioners versus self-etching conditioners/primers are discussed. The problems of matching the surface tension of resin bonding systems to the surface energy of the substrate are reviewed in terms of wetting the various components of dentin. The problems associated with matching the permeability of intertubular dentin to the diffusibility of bonding reagents are explored. Speculation is advanced on how to ensure polymerization and wetting of dentinal collagen. Theoretical problems associated with dentin bonding and with bond testing are reviewed in order to encourage future research in this rapidly developing area. PMID:19359716

  5. Case report 207: Giant cell reparative granuloma of left femur arising in polyostatic fibrous dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Travers, H.; Neff, J.R.

    1982-08-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lytic lesions in the femur are discussed. Roentgenograms, a tomogram and pathological studies of a giant cell reparative granuloma of left femur arising in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia are presented.

  6. Cementum and dentin in hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, T; Handoko, G; Niehof, A; Ryan, L M; Coburn, S P; Whyte, M P; Beertsen, W

    2005-11-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) often leads to premature loss of deciduous teeth, due to disturbed cementum formation. We addressed the question to what extent cementum and dentin are similarly affected. To this end, we compared teeth from children with HPP with those from matched controls and analyzed them microscopically and chemically. It was observed that both acellular and cellular cementum formation was affected. For dentin, however, no differences in mineral content were recorded. To explain the dissimilar effects on cementum and dentin in HPP, we assessed pyrophosphate (an inhibitor of mineralization) and the expression/activity of enzymes related to pyrophosphate metabolism in both the periodontal ligament and the pulp of normal teeth. Expression of nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) in pulp proved to be significantly lower than in the periodontal ligament. Also, the activity of NPP1 was less in pulp, as was the concentration of pyrophosphate. Our findings suggest that mineralization of dentin is less likely to be under the influence of the inhibitory action of pyrophosphate than mineralization of cementum. PMID:16246934

  7. Role of the NH2 -terminal fragment of dentin sialophosphoprotein in dentinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Monica P; Liu, Qilin; Zhu, Qinglin; Lu, Yongbo; Jani, Priyam; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Ying; Paine, Michael L; Snead, Malcolm L; Feng, Jian Q; Qin, Chunlin

    2013-04-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is a large precursor protein that is proteolytically processed into a NH2 -terminal fragment [composed of dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a proteoglycan form (DSP-PG)] and a COOH-terminal fragment [dentin phosphoprotein (DPP)]. In vitro studies indicate that DPP is a strong initiator and regulator of hydroxyapatite crystal formation and growth, but the role(s) of the NH2 -terminal fragment of DSPP (i.e., DSP and DSP-PG) in dentinogenesis remain unclear. This study focuses on the function of the NH2 -terminal fragment of DSPP in dentinogenesis. Here, transgenic (Tg) mouse lines expressing the NH2 -terminal fragment of DSPP driven by a 3.6-kb type I collagen promoter (Col 1a1) were generated and cross-bred with Dspp null mice to obtain mice that express the transgene but lack the endogenous Dspp (Dspp KO/DSP Tg). We found that dentin from the Dspp KO/DSP Tg mice was much thinner, more poorly mineralized, and remarkably disorganized compared with dentin from the Dspp KO mice. The fact that Dspp KO/DSP Tg mice exhibited more severe dentin defects than did the Dspp null mice indicates that the NH2 -terminal fragment of DSPP may inhibit dentin mineralization or may serve as an antagonist against the accelerating action of DPP and serve to prevent predentin from being mineralized too rapidly during dentinogenesis.

  8. The use of dentin matrix scaffold and dental follicle cells for dentin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihua; He, Yong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lu, Wei; Wang, Chunmei; Yu, Hua; Liu, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Yalei; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Manjing; Deng, Zhihong; Jin, Yan

    2009-12-01

    Scaffold and inductive microenvironment are the two most important factors for dentin regeneration. They have been addressed with hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, polyglycolic acid, calcined bovine bone, and collagen, among other things. However, as of yet, no scaffold and inductive microenvironment combination has been shown to contribute to the regeneration of complete and prefabricated-shaped dentin tissues that include dentin, predentin and odontoblasts. To test the supporting and inductive effects of treated dentin matrix (TDM) on complete and prefabricated-shaped dentin regeneration, dental follicle cells (DFCs) were seeded onto TDM and further incubated for 1 and 2 weeks in vitro and for 2 and 4 weeks in vivo. The results show that in vitro, in addition to dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) (regarded as identifying markers of odontoblasts), DFCs induced by TDM expressed osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein, type I collagen, osteopontin, osteonectin and alkaline phosphatase (all expressed by odontoblasts), and that complete and prefabricated-shaped dentin was successfully regenerated. Most importantly, it was found that in vivo TDM supports and induces regeneration of complete and prefabricated-shaped dentin, and regenerated dentin expresses DSP and DMP1, which are identifying dentin markers. Taken together, these results suggest that, for dentin regeneration, TDM is a suitable scaffold and inductive microenvironment and DFCs are a suitable cell type. The combination of TDM and DFCs may constitute a promising approach for future clinical dentin regeneration.

  9. Reparable Cell Sonoporation in Suspension: Theranostic Potential of Microbubble

    PubMed Central

    Nejad, S. Moosavi; Hosseini, Hamid; Akiyama, Hidenori; Tachibana, Katsuro

    2016-01-01

    The conjunction of low intensity ultrasound and encapsulated microbubbles can alter the permeability of cell membrane, offering a promising theranostic technique for non-invasive gene/drug delivery. Despite its great potential, the biophysical mechanisms of the delivery at the cellular level remains poorly understood. Here, the first direct high-speed micro-photographic images of human lymphoma cell and microbubble interaction dynamics are provided in a completely free suspension environment without any boundary parameter defect. Our real-time images and theoretical analyses prove that the negative divergence side of the microbubble's dipole microstreaming locally pulls the cell membrane, causing transient local protrusion of 2.5 µm in the cell membrane. The linear oscillation of microbubble caused microstreaming well below the inertial cavitation threshold, and imposed 35.3 Pa shear stress on the membrane, promoting an area strain of 0.12%, less than the membrane critical areal strain to cause cell rupture. Positive transfected cells with pEGFP-N1 confirm that the interaction causes membrane poration without cell disruption. The results show that the overstretched cell membrane causes reparable submicron pore formation, providing primary evidence of low amplitude (0.12 MPa at 0.834 MHz) ultrasound sonoporation mechanism. PMID:26941839

  10. Performance evaluation of the croissant production line with reparable machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouhas, Panagiotis H.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the analytical probability models for an automated serial production system, bufferless that consists of n-machines in series with common transfer mechanism and control system was developed. Both time to failure and time to repair a failure are assumed to follow exponential distribution. Applying those models, the effect of system parameters on system performance in actual croissant production line was studied. The production line consists of six workstations with different numbers of reparable machines in series. Mathematical models of the croissant production line have been developed using Markov process. The strength of this study is in the classification of the whole system in states, representing failures of different machines. Failure and repair data from the actual production environment have been used to estimate reliability and maintainability for each machine, workstation, and the entire line is based on analytical models. The analysis provides a useful insight into the system's behaviour, helps to find design inherent faults and suggests optimal modifications to upgrade the system and improve its performance.

  11. Performance evaluation of the croissant production line with reparable machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouhas, Panagiotis H.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the analytical probability models for an automated serial production system, bufferless that consists of n-machines in series with common transfer mechanism and control system was developed. Both time to failure and time to repair a failure are assumed to follow exponential distribution. Applying those models, the effect of system parameters on system performance in actual croissant production line was studied. The production line consists of six workstations with different numbers of reparable machines in series. Mathematical models of the croissant production line have been developed using Markov process. The strength of this study is in the classification of the whole system in states, representing failures of different machines. Failure and repair data from the actual production environment have been used to estimate reliability and maintainability for each machine, workstation, and the entire line is based on analytical models. The analysis provides a useful insight into the system's behaviour, helps to find design inherent faults and suggests optimal modifications to upgrade the system and improve its performance.

  12. Transgenic Expression of Dentin Phosphoprotein Inhibits Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Liu, P.; Wang, S.; Liu, C.; Jani, P.; Lu, Y.; Qin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is proteolytically processed into an NH2-terminal fragment called dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a COOH-terminal fragment known as dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in formation of bone and dentin. To investigate the functions of DPP in skeletal development, we generated transgenic mice to overexpress hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged DPP under the control of a 3.6 kb type I collagen (Col1a1) promoter (designated as Col1a1-HA-DPP). The Col1a1-HA-DPP transgenic mice were significantly smaller by weight, had smaller skeletons and shorter long bones than their wild type littermates, as demonstrated by X-ray radiography. They displayed reduced trabecular bone formation and narrower zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the long bones. Histological analyses showed that the transgenic mice had reduced cell proliferation in the proliferating zone, but lacked obvious defects in the chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, the transgenic mice with a high level of transgene expression developed spontaneous long bone fractures. In conclusion, overexpressing DPP inhibited skeletal development, suggesting that the balanced actions between the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of DSPP may be required for normal skeletal development. PMID:26972716

  13. Contraction stress in dentin adhesives bonded to dentin.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, M; de Gee, A J; Kaga, M; Feilzer, A J

    2006-08-01

    Adhesives cured under constrained conditions develop contraction stresses. We hypothesized that, with dentin as a bonding substrate, the stress would reach a maximum, followed by a continuous decline. Stress development was determined with a tensilometer for two total-etch systems and two systems with self-etching primers. The adhesives were placed in a thin layer between a glass plate and a flat dentin surface pretreated with phosphoric acid or self-etching primer. After an initial maximum shortly after light-curing, the stress decreased dramatically for the total-etch systems (70%) and, to a lesser extent, for the adhesives with self-etching primers (30%). The greater stress decrease for the total-etch systems was ascribed to water and/or solvents released into the adhesives from the fully opened dentinal tubules by the pulling/sucking action of the contraction stress. This happened less with the adhesives with self-etching primers, where the tubules remained mainly closed.

  14. Hereditary dentine disorders: dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentine dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Barron, Martin J; McDonnell, Sinead T; Mackie, Iain; Dixon, Michael J

    2008-11-20

    The hereditary dentine disorders, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and dentine dysplasia (DD), comprise a group of autosomal dominant genetic conditions characterised by abnormal dentine structure affecting either the primary or both the primary and secondary dentitions. DGI is reported to have an incidence of 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 8,000, whereas that of DD type 1 is 1 in 100,000. Clinically, the teeth are discoloured and show structural defects such as bulbous crowns and small pulp chambers radiographically. The underlying defect of mineralisation often results in shearing of the overlying enamel leaving exposed weakened dentine which is prone to wear. Currently, three sub-types of DGI and two sub-types of DD are recognised but this categorisation may change when other causative mutations are found. DGI type I is inherited with osteogenesis imperfecta and recent genetic studies have shown that mutations in the genes encoding collagen type 1, COL1A1 and COL1A2, underlie this condition. All other forms of DGI and DD, except DD-1, appear to result from mutations in the gene encoding dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), suggesting that these conditions are allelic. Diagnosis is based on family history, pedigree construction and detailed clinical examination, while genetic diagnosis may become useful in the future once sufficient disease-causing mutations have been discovered. Differential diagnoses include hypocalcified forms of amelogenesis imperfecta, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, conditions leading to early tooth loss (Kostmann's disease, cyclic neutropenia, Chediak-Hegashi syndrome, histiocytosis X, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome), permanent teeth discolouration due to tetracyclines, Vitamin D-dependent and vitamin D-resistant rickets. Treatment involves removal of sources of infection or pain, improvement of aesthetics and protection of the posterior teeth from wear. Beginning in infancy, treatment usually continues into adulthood with a number of options including

  15. Hereditary dentine disorders: dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentine dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Martin J; McDonnell, Sinead T; MacKie, Iain; Dixon, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The hereditary dentine disorders, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and dentine dysplasia (DD), comprise a group of autosomal dominant genetic conditions characterised by abnormal dentine structure affecting either the primary or both the primary and secondary dentitions. DGI is reported to have an incidence of 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 8,000, whereas that of DD type 1 is 1 in 100,000. Clinically, the teeth are discoloured and show structural defects such as bulbous crowns and small pulp chambers radiographically. The underlying defect of mineralisation often results in shearing of the overlying enamel leaving exposed weakened dentine which is prone to wear. Currently, three sub-types of DGI and two sub-types of DD are recognised but this categorisation may change when other causative mutations are found. DGI type I is inherited with osteogenesis imperfecta and recent genetic studies have shown that mutations in the genes encoding collagen type 1, COL1A1 and COL1A2, underlie this condition. All other forms of DGI and DD, except DD-1, appear to result from mutations in the gene encoding dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), suggesting that these conditions are allelic. Diagnosis is based on family history, pedigree construction and detailed clinical examination, while genetic diagnosis may become useful in the future once sufficient disease-causing mutations have been discovered. Differential diagnoses include hypocalcified forms of amelogenesis imperfecta, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, conditions leading to early tooth loss (Kostmann's disease, cyclic neutropenia, Chediak-Hegashi syndrome, histiocytosis X, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome), permanent teeth discolouration due to tetracyclines, Vitamin D-dependent and vitamin D-resistant rickets. Treatment involves removal of sources of infection or pain, improvement of aesthetics and protection of the posterior teeth from wear. Beginning in infancy, treatment usually continues into adulthood with a number of options including

  16. Central giant cell reparative granuloma of the ethmoids with bilateral proptosis and intracranial extension.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subhash C; Jain, Sachin; Mehrotra, Ravi; Singh, Himanshu P

    2013-02-01

    Central giant cell reparative granuloma is an infrequent, benign, proliferating lesion affecting the maxilla, mandible and, rarely, cranial bones. A 16-year-old girl presented with a 6-month history of recurrent nasal bleeding, a mass in the nose, difficulty in nasal breathing, a change in voice, and bilateral proptosis. Radiologically, an extensive ethmoidal mass was seen. Histologic examination revealed a central giant cell reparative granuloma. After endoscopic removal, the patient was symptom-free at the 12-month follow-up. The clinical picture of central giant cell reparative granuloma of the ethmoids is discussed, along with the differential diagnosis, histologic evaluation, appearance on computed tomography, and endoscopic management of this lesion. PMID:23460226

  17. The charisma and deception of reparative therapies: when medical science beds religion.

    PubMed

    Grace, André P

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the history and resurgence of interest in sexual reorientation or reparative therapies. I begin with a critique of the contemporary "ex-gay" movement, interrogating Exodus as the prototype of a politico-religious transformational ministry that works to "cure" homosexuals, and examine how Exodus utilizes ex-gay testimony to deceive harried homosexuals looking for escape from the effects of internalized and cultural homophobia. Next, I investigate how reparative therapies function as orthodox treatments that charismatically meld conservative religious perspectives with medical science to produce a pseudoscience promising to treat homosexuality effectively. In this regard, I assess the ongoing debate regarding gay-affirming versus reparative therapies by first looking at the history of medicalizing homosexuality and then surveying the debate spurred by Robert L. Spitzer's research. I conclude with a consideration of research needed to measure whether efficacious change in sexual orientation is possible.

  18. Hydration and dynamic fatigue of dentin.

    PubMed

    Arola, D; Zheng, W

    2006-04-01

    An experimental investigation on the dynamic fatigue response of dentin was conducted to examine the influence of stress rate on the strength and energy to fracture. Rectangular beams were prepared from the coronal dentin of bovine maxillary molars and subjected to four-point flexure to failure. The dentin beams were examined in the fully hydrated and dehydrated condition at stress rates (sigma) ranging from 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. Results for the hydrated dentin showed that the flexure strength, energy to fracture, and flexure modulus all increased with increasing stress rate; the flexure strength increased from 100 MPa ((sigma) = 0.01 MPa/s) to 250 MPa ((sigma) = 100 MPa/s). In contrast, the elastic modulus and strength of the dehydrated dentin decreased with increasing stress rate; the flexural strength of the dehydrated dentin deceased from 170 MPa ((sigma) = 0.01 MPa/s) to 100 MPa ((sigma) = 100 MPa/s). While the hydrated dentin behaved more like a brittle material at low stress rates, the strain to fracture was found to be nearly independent of (sigma). According to the experimental results, restorative conditions that cause development of static stresses within the tooth could promote a decrease in the damage tolerance of dentin.

  19. Management of dentinal hypersensitivity: a review.

    PubMed

    Parolia, Abhishek; Kundabala, M; Mohan, Mandakini

    2011-03-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity is a very common clinical finding that can cause considerable concern for the patient. Clinicians must understand the various etiological factors, their complexities, and numerous treatment options available. This article reviews the etiology, management, and prevention of dentinal hypersensitivity. PMID:21563596

  20. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth.

  1. Dentine caries: take it or leave it?

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Watson, T F; Kidd, E A

    2001-04-01

    In modern dentistry the primary aim when excavating carious dentine is to eradicate only the highly infected, irreversibly demineralised and denatured biomass in order to allow effective restoration of the cavity, restoration of the surface anatomy of the tooth and to prevent disease progression. However, the boundary between this superficial zone of dentine requiring excavation and the deeper, affected but repairable tissue is not always obvious either in the clinic or in the research laboratory. The inherent subjectivity in detecting this excavation boundary can result in clinically significant differences in the quality and quantity of dentine removed by different operators and makes the in vitro comparison of newer excavation techniques more difficult. This article discusses the rationale behind carious dentine excavation and the criteria available to the dentist, both clinical and laboratory, to help identify the dentine requiring removal. PMID:11436234

  2. Dentine caries: take it or leave it?

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Watson, T F; Kidd, E A

    2000-01-01

    In modern dentistry the primary aim when excavating carious dentine is to eradicate only the highly infected, irreversibly demineralized and denatured biomass in order to allow effective restoration of the cavity, restoration of the surface anatomy of the tooth and to prevent disease progression. However, the boundary between this superficial zone of dentine requiring excavation and the deeper, affected but repairable tissue is not always obvious either in the clinic or in the research laboratory. The inherent subjectivity in detecting this excavation boundary can result in clinically significant differences in the quality and quantity of dentine removed by different operators and makes the in vitro comparison of newer excavation techniques more difficult. This article discusses the rationale behind carious dentine excavation and the criteria available to the dentist, both clinical and laboratory, to help identify the dentine requiring removal. PMID:11218463

  3. [The effect of the biopolymer chondroitin sulfate on reparative regeneration of connective tissue].

    PubMed

    Belova, S V; Norkin, I A; Puchinyan, D M

    2015-01-01

    The research objective is a study of an intra-articular method of introduction of the preparation "mukosat" for stimulation of reparative regeneration of connective tissue of knee joints in rabbits with an experimental arthritis. It is ascertained that intra-articular maintenance of chondroitin sulfate (the preparation "mukosat") acts as a stimulus for reparative regeneration of connective tissue thus showing up positive changes in the status of connective tissue elements of joints: decrease in glycosaminoglycan content in blood serum and normalization of the composition of glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate component. It probably depends on stimulation of biosynthesis of autologous normal glycosaminoglycans in tissues of animal knee joints.

  4. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart O... - Reparation Statement To Be Filed Pursuant to Rule 252

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reparation Statement To Be Filed Pursuant to Rule 252 No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart O of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Reparation Pt. 502, Subpt O, Exh. 1 Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart O...

  5. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart O... - Reparation Statement To Be Filed Pursuant to Rule 252

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reparation Statement To Be Filed Pursuant to Rule 252 No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart O of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Reparation Pt. 502, Subpt O, Exh. 1 Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart O...

  6. Invasion of dentinal tubules by oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Love, R M; Jenkinson, H F

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules commonly occurs when dentin is exposed following a breach in the integrity of the overlying enamel or cementum. Bacterial products diffuse through the dentinal tubule toward the pulp and evoke inflammatory changes in the pulpo-dentin complex. These may eliminate the bacterial insult and block the route of infection. Unchecked, invasion results in pulpitis and pulp necrosis, infection of the root canal system, and periapical disease. While several hundred bacterial species are known to inhabit the oral cavity, a relatively small and select group of bacteria is involved in the invasion of dentinal tubules and subsequent infection of the root canal space. Gram-positive organisms dominate the tubule microflora in both carious and non-carious dentin. The relatively high numbers of obligate anaerobes present-such as Eubacterium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, and Veillonella spp.-suggest that the environment favors growth of these bacteria. Gram-negative obligate anaerobic rods, e.g., Porphyromonas spp., are less frequently recovered. Streptococci are among the most commonly identified bacteria that invade dentin. Recent evidence suggests that streptococci may recognize components present within dentinal tubules, such as collagen type I, which stimulate bacterial adhesion and intra-tubular growth. Specific interactions of other oral bacteria with invading streptococci may then facilitate the invasion of dentin by select bacterial groupings. An understanding the mechanisms involved in dentinal tubule invasion by bacteria should allow for the development of new control strategies, such as inhibitory compounds incorporated into oral health care products or dental materials, which would assist in the practice of endodontics. PMID:12097359

  7. Nanoleakage of dentin adhesive systems bonded to Carisolv-treated dentin.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shisei; Li, Heping; Burrow, Michael F; Tyas, Martin J

    2002-01-01

    The hybrid layer created in caries-affected dentin has not been fully elucidated and may influence bond durability. This study investigated the nanoleakage patterns of caries-affected dentin after excavation with Carisolv or conventional instruments treated with one of three adhesive systems. Flat occlusal dentin surfaces, including carious lesions, were prepared from extracted human molars and finished with wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Carious dentin was removed with Carisolv or round steel burs in conjunction with Caries Detector. PermaQuik, Single Bond or One-Up Bond F was bonded to the excavated dentin surfaces and adjacent flat occlusal surfaces and it was covered with Silux Plus resin-based composite. After 24-hour storage in 37 degrees C water, the bonded interfaces were polished to remove flash, and the surrounding tooth surfaces were coated with nail varnish. Specimens were immersed in 50% (w/v) silver nitrate solution for 24 hours, exposed to photo developing solution for eight hours, then sectioned longitudinally through the bonded, excavated dentin or "normal" dentin surfaces. The sectioned surfaces were polished, carbon coated and observed in a Field Emission-SEM using back scattered electrons. Silver deposition occurred along the base of the hybrid layer for all specimens. However, Single Bond showed a greater density of silver deposition in the caries-affected dentin compared with normal dentin. PermaQuik had a thicker hybrid layer in caries-affected dentin than normal dentin. One-Up Bond F exhibited a thin hybrid layer in normal dentin, but the hybrid layer was often difficult to detect in caries-affected dentin.

  8. Nanoleakage of dentin adhesive systems bonded to Carisolv-treated dentin.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shisei; Li, Heping; Burrow, Michael F; Tyas, Martin J

    2002-01-01

    The hybrid layer created in caries-affected dentin has not been fully elucidated and may influence bond durability. This study investigated the nanoleakage patterns of caries-affected dentin after excavation with Carisolv or conventional instruments treated with one of three adhesive systems. Flat occlusal dentin surfaces, including carious lesions, were prepared from extracted human molars and finished with wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Carious dentin was removed with Carisolv or round steel burs in conjunction with Caries Detector. PermaQuik, Single Bond or One-Up Bond F was bonded to the excavated dentin surfaces and adjacent flat occlusal surfaces and it was covered with Silux Plus resin-based composite. After 24-hour storage in 37 degrees C water, the bonded interfaces were polished to remove flash, and the surrounding tooth surfaces were coated with nail varnish. Specimens were immersed in 50% (w/v) silver nitrate solution for 24 hours, exposed to photo developing solution for eight hours, then sectioned longitudinally through the bonded, excavated dentin or "normal" dentin surfaces. The sectioned surfaces were polished, carbon coated and observed in a Field Emission-SEM using back scattered electrons. Silver deposition occurred along the base of the hybrid layer for all specimens. However, Single Bond showed a greater density of silver deposition in the caries-affected dentin compared with normal dentin. PermaQuik had a thicker hybrid layer in caries-affected dentin than normal dentin. One-Up Bond F exhibited a thin hybrid layer in normal dentin, but the hybrid layer was often difficult to detect in caries-affected dentin. PMID:12120777

  9. Ecological Hypothesis of Dentin and Root Caries.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Nyvad, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances regarding the caries process indicate that ecological phenomena induced by bacterial acid production tilt the de- and remineralization balance of the dental hard tissues towards demineralization through bacterial acid-induced adaptation and selection within the microbiota - from the dynamic stability stage to the aciduric stage via the acidogenic stage [Takahashi and Nyvad, 2008]. Dentin and root caries can also be partly explained by this hypothesis; however, the fact that these tissues contain a considerable amount of organic material suggests that protein degradation is involved in caries formation. In this review, we compiled relevant histological, biochemical, and microbiological information about dentin/root caries and refined the hypothesis by adding degradation of the organic matrix (the proteolytic stage) to the abovementioned stages. Bacterial acidification not only induces demineralization and exposure of the organic matrix in dentin/root surfaces but also activation of dentin-embedded and salivary matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins. These phenomena initiate degradation of the demineralized organic matrix in dentin/root surfaces. While a bacterial involvement has never been confirmed in the initial degradation of organic material, the detection of proteolytic/amino acid-degrading bacteria and bacterial metabolites in dentin and root caries suggests a bacterial digestion and metabolism of partly degraded matrix. Moreover, bacterial metabolites might induce pulpitis as an inflammatory/immunomodulatory factor. Root and dentin surfaces are always at risk of becoming demineralized in the oral cavity, and exposed organic materials can be degraded by host-derived proteases contained in saliva and dentin itself. New approaches to the prevention and treatment of root/dentin caries are required. PMID:27458979

  10. Selective excavation of human carious dentin using the nanosecond pulsed laser in 5.8-μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tetsuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    Less-invasive treatment of caries has been needed in laser dentistry. Based on the absorption property of dentin substrates, 6 μm wavelength range shows specific absorptions and promising characteristics for the excavation. In our previous study, 5.8 μm wavelength range was found to be effective for selective excavation of carious dentin and restoration treatment using composite resin from the irradiation experiment with bovine sound and demineralized dentin. In this study, the availability of 5.8 μm wavelength range for selective excavation of human carious dentin was investigated for clinical application. A mid-infrared tunable nanosecond pulsed laser by difference-frequency generation was used for revealing the ablation property of human carious dentin. Irradiation experiments indicated that the wavelength of 5.85 μm and the average power density of 30 W/cm2 realized the selective excavation of human carious dentin, but ablation property was different with respect to each sample because of the different caries progression. In conclusion, 5.8 μm wavelength range was found to be effective for selective excavation of human carious dentin.

  11. Promotion of adhesive penetration and resin bond strength to dentin using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Chang-Keun; Oh, Kyu-Hwan; Chung, Sung-No; Chun, Bae-Hyeock; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas (NT-APPs) have been shown to improve the bond strength of resin composites to demineralized dentin surfaces. Based on a wet-bonding philosophy, it is believed that a rewetting procedure is necessary after treatment with NT-APP because of its air-drying effect. This study investigated the effect of 'plasma-drying' on the bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive to dentin by comparison with the wet-bonding technique. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were acid-etched and divided into four groups according to the adhesion procedure: wet bonding, plasma-drying, plasma-drying/rewetting, and dry bonding. In plasma treatment groups, the demineralized dentin surfaces were treated with a plasma plume generated using a pencil-type low-power plasma torch. After the adhesion procedures, resin composite/dentin-bonded specimens were subjected to a microtensile bond-strength test. The hybrid layer formation was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The plasma-drying group presented significantly higher bond strength than the wet-bonding and dry-bonding groups. Micro-Raman spectral analysis indicated that plasma-drying improved the penetration and polymerization efficacy of the adhesive. Plasma-drying could be a promising method to control the moisture of demineralized dentin surfaces and improve the penetration of adhesive and the mechanical property of the adhesive/dentin interface. PMID:26714586

  12. Dentin hypersensitivity: differential diagnosis, tests, and etiology.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, Richard D; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2014-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DHS) is a painful condition that affects up to 57 percent of the adult population. It occurs as a result of exposure of dentin to the oral environment. Ensuring the correct diagnosis of this condition is based on history and examination. An oral screening for DHS should encompass such elements as patient history, clinical examination that includes radiographs, a variety of tests, identification of risk factors, and a differential diagnosis. An understanding of dentinal fluid and odontoblasts is also beneficial for diagnosis. PMID:24571559

  13. Optical Spectroscopy Study of Transparent Non-Carious Human Dentin and Dentin-Enamel Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.; Gallagher, R.R.; Demos, S.

    1999-12-14

    Improving our knowledge of the morphology, composition and properties of the dentin, enamel, and the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is vital for the development of improved restorative materials and clinical placement techniques. Most studies of dental tissues have used light microscopy for characterization. In our investigation, the spectroscopic properties of normal and non-carious transparent human root dentin, and the dentin-enamel junction were investigated using emission imaging microscopy, and micro-spectroscopy. Experimental results reveal new information on the structural and biochemical characteristics of these dental tissues.

  14. Bacterial penetration and proliferation in root canal dentinal tubules after applying dentin adhesives in vitro.

    PubMed

    Assouline, L S; Fuss, Z; Mazor, Y; Weiss, E I

    2001-06-01

    Endodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating infection and preventing bacterial regrowth in the root canal and dentinal tubules. In the present study the ability of two dentin adhesives to prevent bacterial penetration and subsequent proliferation in dentinal tubules was evaluated. Cylindrical root specimens prepared from freshly extracted bovine teeth were used in an in vitro model of dentinal tubule infection. After removal of the smear layer the intracanal dentinal tubules of the specimens were acid-etched and treated with either Gluma or EBS. Untreated specimens served as controls. Specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated in Brain Heart Infusion for 21 days. Powder dentin samples obtained from within the canal lumina, using ISO 025 to 033 burs, were examined for the presence of vital bacteria by inoculating on agar plates and counting colony-forming units. A significant difference was found between the experimental groups and the untreated group. After application with Gluma specimens showed the least viable bacteria in dentinal tubules. Data suggested that dentin adhesives reduced bacterial invasion into dentin and therefore have a potential role in endodontic treatment.

  15. DENTINE CARIES: ACID-TOLERANT MICROORGANISMS AND ASPECTS ON COLLAGEN DEGRADATION.

    PubMed

    Lager, Anders Hedenbjörk

    2014-01-01

    . Key findings: Each investigated lesion harbored a unique microbiota in terms of both species composition and numbers of microorganisms. This indicates that various combinations of aciduric microorganisms can colonize, survive in and probably also propagate dentine carious lesions. We also found that solid pH-selective agars can be used successfully to select acid-tolerant microorganisms in caries lesions. This would preserve their phenotypic traits for further study. In Paper III, the relation between salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), salivary levels of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1), and the presence of manifest caries lesions in a large number of subjects was investigated. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein using immunofluorometric assays, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and Bradford assays, respectively. Key findings: Subjects with manifest caries lesions had significantly elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 compared to subjects without caries lesions. TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. In Paper IV, a new method for generating bioactive demineralized dentine matrix substrate (DDM) was developed using a dialysis system and two different demineralization approaches (acetic acid or EDTA). The generated DDM was subsequently analyzed for the presence of type 1 collagen, active MMP-8 and hydroxyproline (HYP) levels using SDS-PAGE, ELISA or immunofluorescence assay. Key findings: Both demineralization methods produced a substrate rich in collagen and with preserved MMP-8 activity. This report presents new knowledge on the composition of the acid tolerant dentine caries microbiota from three levels in dentine carious lesions and on the efficacy of operative caries removal on the numbers of viable microorganisms in the caries free cavity using two operative methods. Moreover, the basic mechanisms behind collagen degradation in the dentine caries process are studied from both a

  16. Isolated dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentin dysplasia: revision of the classification.

    PubMed

    de La Dure-Molla, Muriel; Philippe Fournier, Benjamin; Berdal, Ariane

    2015-04-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by severe hypomineralization of dentin and altered dentin structure. Dentin extra cellular matrix is composed of 90% of collagen type I and 10% of non-collagenous proteins among which dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin glycoprotein (DGP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) are crucial in dentinogenesis. These proteins are encoded by a single gene: dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and undergo several post-translational modifications such as glycosylation and phosphorylation to contribute and to control mineralization. Human mutations of this DSPP gene are responsible for three isolated dentinal diseases classified by Shield in 1973: type II and III dentinogenesis imperfecta and type II dentin dysplasia. Shield classification was based on clinical phenotypes observed in patient. Genetics results show now that these three diseases are a severity variation of the same pathology. So this review aims to revise and to propose a new classification of the isolated forms of DI to simplify diagnosis for practitioners.

  17. Identification of the microbiota in carious dentin lesions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Obata, Junko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Yamanaka, Wataru; Unemori, Masako; Akamine, Akifumi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4-76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating. PMID:25083880

  18. Identification of the Microbiota in Carious Dentin Lesions Using 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Junko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Yamanaka, Wataru; Unemori, Masako; Akamine, Akifumi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4–76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating. PMID:25083880

  19. Dspp-independent Effects of Transgenic Trps1 Overexpression on Dentin Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, C.G.; Kuzynski, M.; Zhang, H.; Jani, P.; Qin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Trps1 transcription factor is highly expressed in dental mesenchyme and preodontoblasts, while in mature, secretory odontoblasts, it is expressed at low levels. Previously, we have shown that high Trps1 levels in mature odontoblasts impair their function in vitro and in vivo. Col1a1-Trps1 transgenic (Trps1-Tg) mice demonstrate defective dentin secretion and mineralization, which are associated with significantly decreased Dspp expression due to direct repression of the Dspp gene by Trps1. Here, by crossing Trps1-Tg and Col1a1-Dspp transgenic (Dspp-Tg) mice, we generated Col1a1-Trps1;Col1a1-Dspp double transgenic (double-Tg) mice in which Dspp was restored in odontoblasts overexpressing Trps1. Comparative micro–computed tomography analyses revealed partial correction of the dentin volume and no improvement of dentin mineralization in double transgenic mice in comparison with Trps1-Tg and wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, dentin of double-Tg mice has an irregular mineralization pattern characteristic for dentin in hypophosphatemic rickets. Consistent with this phenotype, decreased levels of Phex, Vdr, and Fam20c proteins are detected in both Trps1-Tg and double-Tg odontoblasts in comparison with WT and Dspp-Tg odontoblasts. This suggests that the Dspp-independent dentin mineralization defects in Trps1-Tg mice are a result of downregulation of a group of proteins critical for mineral deposition within the dentin matrix. In summary, by demonstrating that Trps1 functions as a repressor of later stages of dentinogenesis, we provide functional significance of the dynamic Trps1 expression pattern during dentinogenesis. PMID:25999324

  20. Dspp-independent Effects of Transgenic Trps1 Overexpression on Dentin Formation.

    PubMed

    Mobley, C G; Kuzynski, M; Zhang, H; Jani, P; Qin, C; Napierala, D

    2015-08-01

    The Trps1 transcription factor is highly expressed in dental mesenchyme and preodontoblasts, while in mature, secretory odontoblasts, it is expressed at low levels. Previously, we have shown that high Trps1 levels in mature odontoblasts impair their function in vitro and in vivo. Col1a1-Trps1 transgenic (Trps1-Tg) mice demonstrate defective dentin secretion and mineralization, which are associated with significantly decreased Dspp expression due to direct repression of the Dspp gene by Trps1. Here, by crossing Trps1-Tg and Col1a1-Dspp transgenic (Dspp-Tg) mice, we generated Col1a1-Trps1;Col1a1-Dspp double transgenic (double-Tg) mice in which Dspp was restored in odontoblasts overexpressing Trps1. Comparative micro-computed tomography analyses revealed partial correction of the dentin volume and no improvement of dentin mineralization in double transgenic mice in comparison with Trps1-Tg and wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, dentin of double-Tg mice has an irregular mineralization pattern characteristic for dentin in hypophosphatemic rickets. Consistent with this phenotype, decreased levels of Phex, Vdr, and Fam20c proteins are detected in both Trps1-Tg and double-Tg odontoblasts in comparison with WT and Dspp-Tg odontoblasts. This suggests that the Dspp-independent dentin mineralization defects in Trps1-Tg mice are a result of downregulation of a group of proteins critical for mineral deposition within the dentin matrix. In summary, by demonstrating that Trps1 functions as a repressor of later stages of dentinogenesis, we provide functional significance of the dynamic Trps1 expression pattern during dentinogenesis.

  1. Biomechanical Perspective on the Remineralization of Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Bertassoni, L.E.; Habelitz, S.; Kinney, J.H.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to critically evaluate the methods that are used to assess outcomes of remineralization of dentin. Currently, the most used assessment methods fall either into quantitative analysis of the mineral content of the remineralized structures or dry measurements of their mechanical properties. Properties obtained from the dehydrated organic dentin matrix may not reflect the true mechanical behavior of the remineralized tissue under physiological and hydrated conditions. Here we seek to clarify the biomechanical aspects of remineralization of dentin, pointing out the effects of hydration and dehydration on the mechanical properties of treated tissues. We also emphasize that a more appropriate endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness of remineralization in dentin should be associated with the recovery of the mechanical properties of the hydrated tissue, which is presumed to correlate well with its overall functionality. PMID:19208991

  2. Substantivity of Chlorhexidine to Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, Marcela R.; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Sousa, Ethan N.; Nicolau, José; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tay, Franklin R.; Agee, Kelli; Pashley, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To better comprehend the role of CHX in the preservation of resin-dentin bonds, this study investigated the substantivity of CHX to human dentin. Material and Methods Dentin disks (n= 45) were obtained from the mid-coronal portion of human third molars. One-third of dentin disks were kept mineralized (MD), while the other two-thirds had one of the surfaces partially demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s (PDD) or they were totally demineralized with 10% phosphoric acid (TDD). Disks of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also prepared. Specimens were treated with: 1) 10 μL of distilled water (controls), 2) 10 μL of 0.2% chlorhexidine diacetate (0.2% CHX) or 3) 10 μL of 2% chlorhexidine diacetate (2% CHX). Then, they were incubated in 1 mL of PBS (pH 7.4, 37 °C). Substantivity was evaluated as a function of the CHX-applied dose after: 0.5h, 1h, 3h, 6h, 24h, 168h (1wk), 672h (4wks) and 1344h (8wks) of incubation. CHX concentration in eluates was spectrophotometrically analyzed at 260 nm. Results Significant amounts of CHX remained retained in dentin substrates (MD, PPD or TDD), independent on the CHX-applied dose or time of incubation (p<0.05). High amounts of retained CHX onto HA were observed only for specimens treated with the highest concentration of CHX (2%) (p<0.05). Conclusion The outstanding substantivity of CHX to dentin and its reported effect on the inhibition of dentinal proteases may explain why CHX can prolong the durability of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:20472282

  3. Power toothbrushes, gender, and dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hefti, A F; Stone, C

    2000-06-01

    Power toothbrushes require less force for plaque removal than manual brushes. In addition, in vitro studies have indicated that brushing with low force could occlude patent dentin tubules by formation of a smear layer. Hence, lessening the force necessary to remove plaque may reduce dentin hypersensitivity. However, it was recently suggested that the use of an oscillating/rotating power toothbrush could decrease tooth sensitivity as compared to a sonic power toothbrush. Therefore, the objective of the present research was to compare the effect on dentin hypersensitivity of two different types of power brushes, the Optiva Sonicare and the Braun Oral B Ultra Plaque Remover. The null hypothesis was tested in an 8-week, randomized, parallel group, examiner-blind clinical trial. Fifty-nine subjects with a history of dentin hypersensitivity participated. Dentin hypersensitivity-associated pain was elicited using tactile and evaporative stimuli and assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) instrument. Clinical examinations were carried out at screening and baseline and repeated after 8 weeks of twice daily use of the power brushes. Data analysis was performed on VAS scores obtained at the final visit following adjustment for group differences at baseline. A 35% to 40% reduction in pain as compared to baseline was observed in both treatment groups. Treatment-related differences were not statistically significant. A gender-related effect on dentin hypersensitivity was observed using the tactile stimulus and may merit further investigation.

  4. Odontoblasts: Specialized hard-tissue-forming cells in the dentin-pulp complex.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Okiji, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Odontoblasts are specialized cells that produce dentin and exhibit unique morphological characteristics; i.e., they extend cytoplasmic processes into dentinal tubules. While osteoblasts, which are typical hard-tissue-forming cells, are generated from mesenchymal stem cells during normal and pathological bone metabolism, the induction of odontoblasts only occurs once during tooth development, and odontoblasts survive throughout the lives of healthy teeth. During the differentiation of odontoblasts, signaling molecules from the inner enamel epithelium are considered necessary for the differentiation of odontoblast precursors, i.e., peripheral dental papilla cells. If odontoblasts are destroyed by severe external stimuli, such as deep caries, the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells into odontoblast-like cells is induced. Various bioactive molecules, such as non-collagenous proteins, might be involved in this process, although the precise mechanisms responsible for odontoblast differentiation have not been fully elucidated. Recently, our knowledge about the other functional activities of odontoblasts (apart from dentin formation) has increased. For example, it has been suggested that odontoblasts might act as nociceptive receptors, and surveillance cells that detect the invasion of exogenous pathogens. The regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex has recently gained much attention as a promising future treatment modality that could increase the longevity of pulpless teeth. Finally, congenital dentin anomalies, which are concerned with the disturbance of odontoblast functions, are summarized. PMID:27131345

  5. The Role of Host-derived Dentinal Matrix Metalloproteinases in Reducing Dentin Bonding of Resin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shan-chuan; Kern, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteolytic enzymes trapped within mineralized dentin matrix, which have the ability to hydrolyze the organic matrix of demineralized dentin. After bonding with resins to dentin there are usually some exposed collagen fibrils at the bottom of the hybrid layer owing to imperfect resin impregnation of the demineralized dentin matrix. Exposed collagen fibrils might be affected by MMPs inducing hydrolytic degradation, which might result in reduced bond strength. Most MMPs are synthesized and released from odontoblasts in the form of proenzymes, requiring activation to degrade extracellular matrix components. Unfortunately, they can be activated by modern self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesives. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the role of dentinal host-derived MMPs in dentin matrix degradation. We also discuss various available MMP inhibitors, especially chlorhexidine, and suggest that they could provide a potential pathway for inhibiting collagen degradation in bonding interfaces thereby increasing dentin bonding durability. PMID:20690420

  6. Femtosecond laser surface structuring technique for making human enamel and dentin surfaces superwetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2013-12-01

    It is known that good wettability of enamel and dentin surfaces is a key factor in enhancing adhesion of restorative materials in dentistry. Here, we report on a femtosecond laser surface texturing approach that makes both the enamel and dentine surfaces superwetting. In contrast to the traditional chemical etching that yields random surface structures, this new approach produces engineered surface structures. The surface structure engineered and tested here is an array of femtosecond laser-produced parallel microgrooves that generates a strong capillary force. Due to the powerful capillary action, water is rapidly sucked into this engineered surface structure and spreads even on a vertical surface.

  7. Age, dehydration and fatigue crack growth in dentin.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Devendra; Sundaram, Naryana; Nazari, Ahmad; Arola, D

    2006-04-01

    A preliminary study of the effects from age and dehydration on fatigue crack growth in human dentin was conducted. Compact tension (CT) fatigue specimens of coronal dentin were prepared from extracted molars and subjected to high cycle fatigue (10(5)dentin (mean age=25+/-7 years), old hydrated dentin (mean age=55+/-14 years) and young dehydrated dentin (mean age=20+/-2 years) were examined. Fatigue crack growth rates were quantified according to the Paris Law in terms of the crack growth exponent (m) and coefficient (C). The average fatigue crack growth exponent for the young hydrated dentin (m=13.3+/-1.1) was significantly less than that for the hydrated old (m=21.6+/-5.2; p<0.003) and dehydrated young dentin (m=18.8+/-2.8; p<0.01). Fatigue cracks in the old dentin underwent initiation at a lower stress intensity range than in young dentin and propagated at as significantly faster rate (over 100x). Differences in the microscopic features of the fracture surfaces from the old and young dentin suggested that particular mechanisms contributing to energy dissipation and crack growth resistance in the young hydrated dentin were not present in the old dentin. Based on results of this study, the fatigue crack growth resistance of human dentin decreases with both age of the tissue and dehydration.

  8. Regulation of reactionary dentin formation by odontoblasts in response to polymicrobial invasion of dentin matrix

    PubMed Central

    Charadram, Nattida; Farahani, Ramin M; Harty, Derek; Rathsam, Catherine; Swain, Michael V; Hunter, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Odontoblast synthesis of dentin proceeds through discrete but overlapping phases characterized by formation of a patterned organic matrix followed by remodelling and active mineralization. Microbial invasion of dentin in caries triggers an adaptive response by odontoblasts, culminating in formation of a structurally altered reactionary dentin, marked by biochemical and architectonic modifications including diminished tubularity. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen framework in reactionary dentin revealed a radically modified yet highly organized meshwork as indicated by fractal and lacunarity analyses. Immuno-gold labelling demonstrated increased density and regular spatial distribution of dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in reactionary dentin. DSP contributes putative hydroxyapatite nucleation sites on the collagen scaffold. To further dissect the formation of this altered dentin matrix, the associated enzymatic machinery was investigated. Analysis of extracted dentin matrix indicated increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the reactionary zone referenced to physiologic dentin. Likewise, gene expression analysis of micro-dissected odontoblast layer revealed up-regulation of MMP-2. Parallel up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and membrane type 1- matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was observed in response to caries. Next, modulation of odontoblastic dentinogenic enzyme repertoire was addressed. In the odontoblast layer expression of Toll-like receptors was markedly altered in response to bacterial invasion. In carious teeth TLR-2 and the gene encoding the corresponding adaptor protein MyD88 were down-regulated whereas genes encoding TLR-4 and adaptor proteins TRAM and Mal/TIRAP were up-regulated. TLR-4 signalling mediated by binding of bacterial products has been linked to up-regulation of MMP-2. Further, increased expression of genes encoding components of the TGF-β signalling pathway, namely SMAD-2 and SMAD-4

  9. Dentin matrix protein 1 and phosphate homeostasis are critical for postnatal pulp, dentin and enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Rangiani, Afsaneh; Cao, Zheng-Guo; Liu, Ying; Voisey Rodgers, Anika; Jiang, Yong; Qin, Chun-Lin; Feng, Jian-Quan

    2012-12-01

    Deletion or mutation of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) leads to hypophosphatemic rickets and defects within the dentin. However, it is largely unknown if this pathological change is a direct role of DMP1 or an indirect role of phosphate (Pi) or both. It has also been previously shown that Klotho-deficient mice, which displayed a high Pi level due to a failure of Pi excretion, causes mild defects in the dentinal structure. This study was to address the distinct roles of DMP1 and Pi homeostasis in cell differentiation, apoptosis and mineralization of dentin and enamel. Our working hypothesis was that a stable Pi homeostasis is critical for postnatal tooth formation, and that DMP1 has an antiapoptotic role in both amelogenesis and dentinogenesis. To test this hypothesis, Dmp1-null (Dmp1(-/-)), Klotho-deficient (kl/kl), Dmp1/Klotho-double-deficient (Dmp1(-/-)/kl/kl) and wild-type (WT) mice were killed at the age of 6 weeks. Combinations of X-ray, microcomputed tomography (μCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, apoptosis and immunohistochemical methods were used for characterization of dentin, enamel and pulp structures in these mutant mice. Our results showed that Dmp1(-/-) (a low Pi level) or kl/kl (a high Pi level) mice displayed mild dentin defects such as thin dentin and a reduction of dentin tubules. Neither deficient mouse line exhibited any apparent changes in enamel or pulp structure. However, the double-deficient mice (a high Pi level) displayed severe defects in dentin and enamel structures, including loss of dentinal tubules and enamel prisms, as well as unexpected ectopic ossification within the pulp root canal. TUNEL assay showed a sharp increase in apoptotic cells in ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Based on the above findings, we conclude that DMP1 has a protective role for odontoblasts and ameloblasts in a pro-apoptotic environment (a high Pi level).

  10. Regulation of reactionary dentin formation by odontoblasts in response to polymicrobial invasion of dentin matrix.

    PubMed

    Charadram, Nattida; Farahani, Ramin M; Harty, Derek; Rathsam, Catherine; Swain, Michael V; Hunter, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Odontoblast synthesis of dentin proceeds through discrete but overlapping phases characterized by formation of a patterned organic matrix followed by remodelling and active mineralization. Microbial invasion of dentin in caries triggers an adaptive response by odontoblasts, culminating in formation of a structurally altered reactionary dentin, marked by biochemical and architectonic modifications including diminished tubularity. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen framework in reactionary dentin revealed a radically modified yet highly organized meshwork as indicated by fractal and lacunarity analyses. Immuno-gold labelling demonstrated increased density and regular spatial distribution of dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in reactionary dentin. DSP contributes putative hydroxyapatite nucleation sites on the collagen scaffold. To further dissect the formation of this altered dentin matrix, the associated enzymatic machinery was investigated. Analysis of extracted dentin matrix indicated increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the reactionary zone referenced to physiologic dentin. Likewise, gene expression analysis of micro-dissected odontoblast layer revealed up-regulation of MMP-2. Parallel up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and membrane type 1- matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was observed in response to caries. Next, modulation of odontoblastic dentinogenic enzyme repertoire was addressed. In the odontoblast layer expression of Toll-like receptors was markedly altered in response to bacterial invasion. In carious teeth TLR-2 and the gene encoding the corresponding adaptor protein MyD88 were down-regulated whereas genes encoding TLR-4 and adaptor proteins TRAM and Mal/TIRAP were up-regulated. TLR-4 signalling mediated by binding of bacterial products has been linked to up-regulation of MMP-2. Further, increased expression of genes encoding components of the TGF-β signalling pathway, namely SMAD-2 and SMAD-4

  11. On the repair of the dentine barrier.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to study some aspects of the repair of the dentine barrier, especially in conjunction with dental pulp capping. Understanding the events leading to the healing of the dentine and pulp, and hence successfully preserving the vitality and functions of the tooth, would lead to a scientific basis for a less invasive treatment of pulp exposures than performing root canal treatments. The surfaces of the body have physiological barrier functions aimed at protecting the body from external noxious agents. In the tooth, the odontoblasts, which line the outermost part of the pulp and are responsible for the formation of dentine, play a central role in the barrier function and thus in the defence mechanisms of the tooth. The micro-organisms in the caries lesion can reach the pulp via the dentinal tubules. However, the barrier function helps to prevent microbial invasion and thereby avoid deleterious inflammation and subsequent necrosis of the pulp. Dentine repair is an important part of the barrier function. There are however doubts as to whether the repair also leads to restitution of the function and the ability to withstand bacterial influx over the longer term. Pulp capping is a treatment method used when the pulp has been exposed in order to stimulate healing of the pulp and dentine. The evidence for repair of the dentine after pulp capping in humans has been studied by means of a systematic review. The focus of the literature search was studies performed in humans where hard tissue formation had been studied with the aid of a microscope. We concluded, based on the limited evidence available, that calcium hydroxide based materials but not bonding agents promote formation of a hard tissue bridge. Scientific evidence was lacking as to whether MTA was better than calcium hydroxide based materials in this regard. A gel (Emdogain Gel) containing amelogenin, known to be involved in dentinogenesis, was evaluated with regard to formation of hard

  12. Adhesion to chondroitinase ABC treated dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Annalisa; Pashley, David H.; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Vita, Francesca; Falconi, Mirella; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Dentin bonding relies on complete resin impregnation throughout the demineralised hydrophilic collagen mesh. Chondroitin sulphate-glycosaminoglycans are claimed to regulate the three-dimensional arrangement of the dentin organic matrix and its hydrophilicity. The aim of this study was to investigate bond strength of two etch-and-rinse adhesives to chondroitinase ABC treated dentin. Human extracted molars were treated with chondroitinase ABC and a double labelling immunohistochemical technique was applied to reveal type I collagen and chondroitin 4/6 sulphate distribution under field emission in-lens scanning electron microscope. The immunohistochemical technique confirmed the effective removal of chondroitin 4/6 sulphate after the enzymatic treatment. Dentin surfaces exposed to chondroitinase ABC and untreated specimens prepared on untreated acid-etched dentin were bonded with Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose or Prime & Bond NT. Bonded specimens were submitted to microtensile testing and nanoleakage interfacial analysis under transmission electron microscope. Increased mean values of microtensile bond strength and reduced nanoleakage expression were found for both adhesives after chondroitinase ABC treatment of the dentin surface. Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose increased its bond strength about 28%, while bonding made with Prime & Bond NT almost doubled (92% increase) compared to untreated specimens. This study supports the hypothesis that adhesion can be enhanced by removal of chondroitin 4/6 sulphate and dermatan sulphate, probably due to a reduced amount of water content and enlarged interfibrillar spaces. Further studies should validate this hypothesis investigating the stability of chondroitin 4/6 and dermatan sulphate-depleted dentin bonded interface over time. PMID:18161809

  13. Clinical status of ten dentin adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Van Meerbeek, B; Peumans, M; Verschueren, M; Gladys, S; Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1994-11-01

    Laboratory testing of dentin adhesive systems still requires corroboration by long-term clinical trials for their ultimate clinical effectiveness to be validated. The objective of this clinical investigation was to evaluate, retrospectively, the clinical effectiveness of earlier-investigated dentin adhesive systems (Scotchbond, Gluma, Clearfil New Bond, Scotchbond 2, Tenure, and Tripton), and to compare their clinical results with those obtained with four modern total-etch adhesive systems (Bayer exp. 1 and 2, Clearfil Liner Bond System, and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose). In total, 1177 Class V cervical lesions in the teeth of 346 patients were restored following two cavity designs: In Group A, enamel was neither beveled nor intentionally etched, as per ADA guidelines; in Group B, adjacent enamel was beveled and conditioned. Clinical retention rates definitely indicated the improved clinical efficacy of the newest dentin adhesives over the earlier systems. With regard to adhesion strategy, adhesive systems that removed the smear layer and concurrently demineralized the dentin surface layer performed clinically better than systems that modified the disorderly layer of smear debris without complete removal. Hybridization by resin interdiffusion into the exposed dentinal collagen layer, combined with attachment of resin tags into the opened dentin tubules, appeared to be essential for reliable dentin bonding but might be insufficient by itself. The additional formation of an elastic bonding area as a polymerization shrinkage absorber and the use of a microfine restorative composite apparently guaranteed an efficient clinical result. The perfect one-year retention recorded for Clearfil Liner Bond System and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose must be confirmed at later recalls. PMID:7983255

  14. How to bond to root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  15. Dentin caries zones: mineral, structure, and properties.

    PubMed

    Pugach, M K; Strother, J; Darling, C L; Fried, D; Gansky, S A; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral.

  16. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth. PMID:25665859

  17. The effect of early weaning on dentin formation and dentinal caries in rats.

    PubMed

    Hietala, E L; Autio, J; Larmas, M

    1997-08-01

    The effect of early weaning on caries progression, dentin formation, and dentin mineralization was examined in four groups of rats. Two groups received a normal diet and were weaned on day 18 or 21, and another two received a sucrose-rich diet and were weaned on day 18 or 21. At age 35 days the lower molars were sectioned sagittally, and the areas of dentin formation and of the dentinal caries were quantified. The width of the predentin zone was measured from histologically stained sections of maxillary molars. Early weaning reduced dentin formation in the group on the high-sucrose diet only the first days; later this effect was partially caught up with. A high-sucrose diet significantly increased caries frequency and extension of caries lesions compared with a normal diet in both early weaned and normally weaned groups. The effect of early weaning on caries frequency and extension in the high-sucrose group was insignificant compared with the normally weaned group on a high-sucrose diet. The predentin zone was wider in the sucrose groups than in the control groups at the end of the experiment. These results indicate that the effect of sucrose on dentin formation was dependent on the stage of physiologic dentin formation, but early weaning as such did not affect this.

  18. Plasma treatment of dentin surfaces for improving self-etching adhesive/dentin interface bonding

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Li, Hao; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    This study is to evaluate plasma treatment effects on dentin surfaces for improving self-etching adhesive and dentin interface bonding. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used after crown removal to expose dentin. One half of each dentin surface was treated with atmospheric non-thermal argon plasmas, while another half was untreated and used as the same tooth control. Self-etching adhesive and universal resin composite was applied to the dentin surfaces as directed. After restoration, the adhesive-dentin bonding strength was evaluated by micro-tensile bonding strength (μTBS) test. Bonding strength data was analyzed using histograms and Welch’s t-test based on unequal variances. μTBS test results showed that, with plasma treatment, the average μTBS value increased to 69.7±11.5 MPa as compared with the 57.1±17.5 MPa obtained from the untreated controls. After 2 months immersion of the restored teeth in 37 °C phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the adhesive-dentin bonding strengths of the plasma-treated specimens slightly decreased from 69.7±11.5 MPa to 63.9±14.4 MPa, while the strengths of the untreated specimens reduced from 57.1±17.5 MPa to 48.9±14.6 MPa. Water contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination verified that plasma treatment followed by water rewetting could partially open dentin tubules, which could enhance adhesive penetration to form thicker hybrid layer and longer resin tags and consequently improve the adhesive/dentin interface quality. PMID:26273561

  19. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    PubMed Central

    MOLLICA, Fernanda Brandão; TORRES, Carlos Rocha Gomes; GONÇALVES, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva; MANCINI, †Maria Nadir Gasparoto

    2012-01-01

    There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. Material and methods The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10), according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. Results ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a), Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab), Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc). Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc), Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc), Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d). Conclusions DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values. PMID:23032207

  20. Microscopic imaging of resin-bonded dentin using Cryo-FIB/TEM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsh, Turki A.

    2015-03-01

    Background and Objective: Introduction of focused ion beam (FIB) for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) preparation had enhanced the understanding of materials' interaction at nanoscale. However, this technique generates localized heat that may possibly have some effect on organic/vital structures during preparation of biological tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of milling with Cryogenic-FIB on imaging the ultra-morphological features of dentin-resin interface bonded in a tooth and compare the findings to a room-temperature FIB prepared specimens. Methods: After cylindrical dentin cavities (3 mm diameter × 1.5 mm depth) were prepared on the occlusal surfaces of extracted, non-carious human premolar teeth, they were restored with Filtek P90 (Silorane) restorative system (3M ESPE, USA). To investigate the ultra-morphological features of resin-dentin interface, the bonded specimens were divided into 2 groups based on the preparation technique; (1) FIB preparation at room-temperature (RT), and (2) FIB preparation with cryogenic cooling (Cy). Later, each group was examined under TEM. Results: The obtained sections in RT group showed blurred scattered needle-like crystals above the resin-impregnated dentin. However, the orientation of these crisscross needle-like crystals and the ultramorphological features of the underlying dentin were more vivid and distinct in Cy group. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this in-vitro study, it could be concluded that combining FIB with cryogenic cooling had preserved the biological organic features of dentin due to minimized beam damage. The presented cryogenic technique should be considered in future FIB/TEM studies involving biological substrates. This research was supported by King Abdulaziz University.

  1. Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering.

  2. Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1996-08-01

    Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required. PMID:9242125

  3. Pulp-dentin Regeneration: Current State and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Song, M; Kim, E; Shon, W; Chugal, N; Bogen, G; Lin, L; Kim, R H; Park, N-H; Kang, M K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to reinstate normal pulp function in necrotic and infected teeth that would result in reestablishment of protective functions, including innate pulp immunity, pulp repair through mineralization, and pulp sensibility. In the unique microenvironment of the dental pulp, the triad of tissue engineering would require infection control, biomaterials, and stem cells. Although revascularization is successful in resolving apical periodontitis, multiple studies suggest that it alone does not support pulp-dentin regeneration. More recently, cell-based approaches in endodontic regeneration based on pulpal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising results in terms of pulp-dentin regeneration in vivo through autologous transplantation. Although pulpal regeneration requires the cell-based approach, several challenges in clinical translation must be overcome-including aging-associated phenotypic changes in pulpal MSCs, availability of tissue sources, and safety and regulation involved with expansion of MSCs in laboratories. Allotransplantation of MSCs may alleviate some of these obstacles, although the long-term stability of MSCs and efficacy in pulp-dentin regeneration demand further investigation. For an alternative source of MSCs, our laboratory developed induced MSCs (iMSCs) from primary human keratinocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating the epithelial plasticity genes. Initially, we showed that overexpression of ΔNp63α, a major isoform of the p63 gene, led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of stem characteristics. More recently, iMSCs were generated by transient knockdown of all p63 isoforms through siRNA, further simplifying the protocol and resolving the potential safety issues of viral vectors. These cells may be useful for patients who lack tissue sources for endogenous MSCs. Further research will elucidate the level of potency of these iMSCs and assess their

  4. Transmission electron microscopic characterization of hypersensitive human radicular dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiyama, M.; Noiri, Y.; Ozaki, K.; Uchida, A.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ishida, H. )

    1990-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray microanalysis (XMA) were used for the study of the ultrastructure of the lumens of dentinal tubules in superficial layers of dentin specimens obtained by use of a new biopsy technique from both hypersensitive and naturally desensitized areas of exposed root surfaces, in vivo. The TEM images showed clearly that the lumens of most of the tubules were occluded with mineral crystals in naturally desensitized areas, but such lumens were empty and surrounded with peritubular and intertubular dentin in hypersensitive areas. Moreover, electron-dense structures that lined peritubular dentin were observed in the empty lumens of dentinal tubules.

  5. AFM Investigation of mechanical properties of dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Sidney R; Apter, Nathan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Barlam, David; Peretz, Adi Idit; Ziskind, Daniel; Wagner, H. Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of peritubular dentin were investigated using scanning probe microscopy techniques, namely Nanoindentation and Band Excitation. Particular attention was directed to the possible existence of a gradient in these properties moving outward from the tubular lumen to the junction with the intertubular dentin. Finite element analysis showed that the influence of the boundaries is small relative to the effects observed. Thus, these results strongly support the concept of a lowering of modulus and hardness from the tubular exterior to its periphery, which appear to correlate with graded changes in the mineral content.

  6. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in human dentine.

    PubMed

    Miura, Jiro; Nishikawa, Kantaro; Kubo, Mizuho; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Takeshige, Fumio; Araki, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Cross-linking of collagen by Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) occurs by non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction). The purpose of this study was to examine whether AGEs are formed in human dentinal collagen, and to consider any possible influence of AGEs on dentinal physiology. Mechanical characteristics, fluorescence spectra and immunohistochemical analyses of demineralized dentine sections from young subjects were compared with those of aged ones. The same investigations were performed with young dentine artificially glycated by incubation in 0.1M ribose solution. Indentation measurement indicated that the sections from aged dentine were mechanically harder than those from young dentine. The hardness of young dentine increased after incubation in ribose solution. Fluorescence peak wavelength of the young dentine was shorter than that of the aged one, but shifted towards the peak wavelength of the aged one after incubation in ribose solution. These changes were considered to be due to accumulation of AGEs. Existence of AGEs in dentinal collagen was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. The obtained results suggest that AGEs accumulation occurs in dentinal collagen and is affected by both human age and physiological conditions such as glucose level in blood because dentinal collagen receives nourishment via dental pulp and tubules. PMID:24370182

  7. Effects of endodontic tri-antibiotic paste on bond strengths of dentin adhesives to coronal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mirzakoucheki, Parvin; Walter, Ricardo; Jahromi, Maryam Zare; Mirsattari, Sanaz; Akbarzadeh, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tri-antibiotic paste (TAP) on microtensile bond strengths (MTBS) of dental adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty extracted molars had their occlusal surfaces flattened to expose dentin. They were divided into two groups, i.e., control group with no dentin treatment and experimental group with dentin treatment with TAP. After 10 days, specimens were bonded using self-etch (Filtek P90 adhesive) or etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond Plus) adhesives and restored with composite resin. Teeth were sectioned into beams, and the specimens were subjected to MTBS test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between dentin treatment and adhesive on MTBS to coronal dentin (p = 0.003). Despite a trend towards worse MTBS being noticed in the experimental groups, TAP application showed no significant effect on MTBS (p = 0.064). Conclusions The etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond Plus presented higher mean bond strengths than the self-etch adhesive Filtek P90, irrespective of the group. The superior bond performance for Adper Single Bond when compared to Filtek P90 adhesive was confirmed by a fewer number of adhesive failures. The influence of TAP in bond strength is insignificant. PMID:25984475

  8. Dentin Biomodification Potential Depends on Polyphenol Source

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, T.R.; Vidal, C.M.P.; Phansalkar, R.S.; Todorova, I.; Napolitano, J.G.; McAlpine, J.B.; Chen, S.N.; Pauli, G.F.; Bedran-Russo, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Although proanthocyanidins (PACs) modify dentin, the effectiveness of different PAC sources and the correlation with their specific chemical composition are still unknown. This study describes the chemical profiling of natural PAC-rich extracts from 7 plants using ultra high pressure/performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to determine the overall composition of these extracts and, in parallel, comprehensively evaluate their effect on dentin properties. The total polyphenol content of the extracts was determined (as gallic acid equivalents) using Folin-Ciocalteau assays. Dentin biomodification was assessed by the modulus of elasticity, mass change, and resistance to enzymatic biodegradation. Extracts with a high polyphenol and PAC content from Vitis vinifera, Theobroma cacao, Camellia sinensis, and Pinus massoniana induced a significant increase in modulus of elasticity and mass. The UHPLC analysis showed the presence of multiple types of polyphenols, ranging from simple phenolic acids to oligomeric PACs and highly condensed tannins. Protective effect against enzymatic degradation was observed for all experimental groups; however, statistically significant differences were observed between plant extracts. The findings provide clear evidence that the dentin bioactivities of PACs are source dependent, resulting from a combination of concentration and specific chemical constitution of the complex PAC mixtures. PMID:24574140

  9. Selective excavation of human carious dentin using a nanosecond pulsed laser with a wavelength of 5.85 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tetsuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-06-01

    Less-invasive treatment of caries has been needed in laser dentistry. Based on the absorption property of dentin substrates, 6 μm wavelength range shows specific absorptions and promising characteristics for the excavation. In our previous study, 5.8 μm wavelength range was found to be effective for selective excavation of carious dentin and restoration treatment using composite resin from the irradiation experiment with bovine sound and demineralized dentin. In this study, the availability of 5.8 μm wavelength range for selective excavation of human carious dentin was investigated for clinical application. A mid-infrared tunable nanosecond pulsed laser by difference-frequency generation was used for revealing the ablation property of human carious dentin. Irradiation experiments indicated that the wavelength of 5.85 μm and the average power density of 30 W/cm2 realized the selective excavation of human carious dentin, but ablation property was different with respect to each sample because of the different caries progression. In conclusion, the wavelength of 5.85 μm could realize the selective excavation of human carious dentin, but it was necessary to evaluate the stage of caries progression in order to control the ablation property.

  10. Some reflections on Ian McEwan's atonement: enactment, guilt, and reparation.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Ilany

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing that enactments have been discussed in psychoanalysis primarily as occurrences in the treatment setting, the author proposes a new application of the term enactments: that it may pertain to the actions of some individuals in their efforts to cope with bad things that they have done to others. That is, enactment can be a substitute-for-atonement mechanism. The author illustrates this view of enactment through a discussion of Ian McEwan's novel Atonement (2001), and in particular by examining the behavior and motivations of one of its central characters, Briony Tallis. Included are explorations of the relationships between enactment and guilt and between enactment and reparation. PMID:24470364

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Results on Sikorsky Aircraft Survivable Affordable Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The Survivable, Affordable, Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) will develop/produce new structural design concepts with lower structural weight, reduced manufacturing complexity and development time, increased readiness, and improved threat protection. These new structural concepts will require advanced field capable inspection technologies to help meet the SARAP structural objectives. In the area of repair, damage assessment using nondestructive inspection (NDI) is critical to identify repair location and size. The purpose of this work is to conduct an assessment of new and emerging NDI methods that can potentially satisfy the SARAP program goals.

  12. Effective dentin restorative material based on phosphate-terminated dendrimer as artificial protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Jiaojiao; Liang, Kunneng; Li, Jiyao; He, Libang; Yang, Xiao; Peng, Shuangjuan; Chen, Xingyu; Ding, Chunmei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-04-01

    In clinic, it calls for effective and simple materials to repair etched dentin. Bioinspired by the natural mineralization process guided by noncollagenous proteins (NCPs), in this work, we synthesized the fourth generation phosphate-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer (G4-PO3H2) by one-step modification. We used FT-IR and 1H NMR to characterize the structure of G4-PO3H2, and MTT assay to prove its biocompatibility. It was applied as the analog of dentin phosphophoryn (DPP: a type of NCPs) to repair dentin, due to its similar dimensional scale, topological architecture and peripheral functionalities to that of DPP. By the characterization of SEM and XRD, the effective regeneration of human dentin induced by G4-PO3H2 is characterized and illustrated both in vitro (artificial saliva) and in vivo (oral cavity of rats). It is noted that the thickness of the regenerated mineral layers are more than 10 μm both in vitro and in vivo. The design strategy of G4-PO3H2 may be valuable for researchers in the fields of material science, stomatology and medicine to prepare various promising restorative nano-materials for biomineralized hard tissues such as bone and teeth.

  13. Phenotypic variation in dentinogenesis imperfecta/dentin dysplasia linked to 4q21.

    PubMed

    Beattie, M L; Kim, J-W; Gong, S-G; Murdoch-Kinch, C A; Simmer, J P; Hu, J C-C

    2006-04-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and dentin dysplasia (DD) are allelic disorders that primarily affect the formation of tooth dentin. Both conditions are autosomal-dominant and can be caused by mutations in the dentin sialophosphoprotein gene (DSPP, 4q21.3). We recruited 23 members of a four-generation kindred, including ten persons with dentin defects, and tested the hypothesis that these defects are linked to DSPP. The primary dentition showed amber discoloration, pulp obliteration, and severe attrition. The secondary dentition showed either pulp obliteration with bulbous crowns and gray discoloration or thistle-tube pulp configurations, normal crowns, and mild gray discoloration. Haplotype analyses showed no recombination between three 4q21-q24 markers and the disease locus. Mutational analyses identified no coding or intron junction sequence variations associated with affection status in DMP1, MEPE, or the DSP portion of DSPP. The defects in the permanent dentition were typically mild and consistent with a diagnosis of DD-II, but some dental features associated with DGI-II were also present. We conclude that DD-II and DGI-II are milder and more severe forms, respectively, of the same disease.

  14. Effects of Fam83h Overexpression on Enamel and Dentin Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Young-Sun; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Ko, Jiyeon; Hu, Jan C-C.; Simmer, James P.; Kim, Jung-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine if FAM83H over-expression causes dentin or enamel malformations. Materials and Methods The full-length mouse Fam83h cDNA was inserted into the pCAGIG vector between a β-actin promoter and β-globin enhancer for ubiquitous expression in transgenic mice. Recombinant mouse FAM83H was expressed and used to generate polyclonal antibodies. Western blots showed enhanced expression of the Fam83h transgene. The effects of transgene expression on tooth development were assessed by microhardness measurements of enamel and dentin. Total thickness of incisor enamel at the level of the alveolar crest was measured and decussating rod patterns were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results Three transgenic mouse lines were selected based upon their transgene expression levels. There was no statistically significant difference in the Vickers microhardness values of enamel or dentin between the transgenic lines or between the transgenic lines and wild type mice. No statistically significant differences in enamel thickness were observed between the transgenic lines and the wild type mice. SEM analysis revealed no apparent differences in the enamel crystal and rod morphologies. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that over-expression of FAM83H in mice does not produce a phenotype in dentin or enamel. PMID:23545224

  15. Effects of aging on the mechanical behavior of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Arola, D; Reprogel, R K

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study on the mechanical behavior of human dentin and the influence of age was conducted. Beams with rectangular cross-section were sectioned from the coronal dentin of virgin extracted molars (N = 76) that were obtained from (N = 70) patients between 17 and 80 years of age. The beams were loaded in either quasi-static 4-point flexure or 4-point flexural fatigue to failure and the stiffness, strength and fatigue properties were evaluated. In characterizing the fatigue response the beams were divided into two age groups that were regarded as young (17 < or = age < or = 30, mean +/- std. dev. = 25 +/- 5 years) and old (50 < or = age < or = 80, mean +/- std. dev. = 64 +/- 9 years) dentin. Results from monotonic loading showed that both the flexural strength and strain to fracture of dentin decreased significantly with age. The fatigue life of dentin increased with a reduction in cyclic stress amplitude and the fatigue strength of young dentin was greater than that of old dentin at all cyclic stress amplitudes. The endurance strength of young dentin (at 10(7) cycles) was approximately 44 MPa, whereas the old dentin exhibited an endurance strength of approximately 23 MPa. Based on differences in the mechanical behavior and microscopic features of the fracture surfaces from the young and old specimens, aging appears to result in an increase in both the rate of damage initiation and propagation in dentin.

  16. Extracellular matrix proteins and the dynamics of dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Butler, William T; Brunn, Jan C; Qin, Chunlin; McKee, Marc D

    2002-01-01

    Dentinogenesis involves controlled reactions that result in conversion of unmineralized predentin to dentin when apatite crystals are formed. This process is dynamic: Maturation events occur within predentin beginning at the proximal layer and progressing to the predentin-dentin (PD) border. One type of controlled reaction is the proteolytic processing of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) to dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), by cleavage of at least three highly conserved peptide bonds. We postulate that this processing event represents an activation step, resulting in release of DPP, which is active in its effects on formation and growth of apatite crystals. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DPM1), present as a processed fragment (57-kD protein) in bone, is seen in dentin on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as one intact protein of 150-200 kD. Anti-57-kD antibodies elicit immunoreactivity in bone, dentin, and cellular cementum. In bone, the reactivity is associated with osteocytes and their cell processes. Similarly, dentin shows reactivity in odontoblasts, predentin, and the odontoblast processes. In summary, the processing of large sialic acid-rich proteins into smaller fragments may be an important part of the controlled conversion of predentin to dentin and osteoid to bone.

  17. Photodynamically crosslinked and chitosan-incorporated dentin collagen.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A; Friedman, S; Kishen, A

    2011-11-01

    A lingering concern with restored root-filled teeth is the loss of structural integrity of the dentin and dentin-sealer interface over time. We hypothesized that crosslinking of dentin collagen with simultaneous incorporation of a biopolymer into collagen matrix would improve its structural stability. This study aimed to investigate the effects of combining chemical/photodynamic crosslinking of dentin collagen with the incorporation of carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMCS) on the resistance to enzymatic degradation and mechanical properties of dentin collagen. Ninety-six demineralized dentin collagen specimens (human, n = 72; and bovine, n = 24) were prepared and crosslinked chemically/ photodynamically, with/without CMCS. Glutaraldehyde and carbodiimides were used for chemical crosslinking, while rose Bengal activated with a non-coherent light (540 nm) at 20 J/cm(2) was applied for photodynamic crosslinking. The crosslinked human dentin collagen was subjected to chemical characterization, 7 days enzymatic degradation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while the bovine dentin collagen was used for tensile-testing. Crosslinked collagen showed significantly higher resistance to enzymatic degradation (p < 0.01), stable ultrastructure, and increased tensile strength (p < 0.05). Crosslinking CMCS with collagen matrix as observed in the TEM further improved the mechanical properties of dentin collagen (p < 0.01). This study highlighted the possibility of improving the resistance and toughness of dentin collagen by chemically/photodynamically crosslinking collagen matrix with CMCS.

  18. Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Cabello, Inmaculada; Vílchez, Miguel Angel Cabrerizo; Fernández, Miguel Angel; Osorio, Raquel

    2014-02-01

    This study reports physical and chemical changes that occur at early dentin remineralization stages. Extracted human third molars were sectioned to obtain dentin discs. After polishing the dentin surfaces, three groups were established: (1) untreated dentin (UD), (2) 37% phosphoric acid application for 15 s (partially demineralized dentin-PDD), and (3) 10% phosphoric acid for 12 h at 25° C (totally demineralized dentin-TDD). Five different remineralizing solutions were used: chlorhexidine (CHX), artificial saliva (AS), phosphate solution (PS), ZnCl2, and ZnO. Wettability (contact angle), ζ potential and Raman spectroscopy analysis were determined on dentin surfaces. Demineralization of dentin resulted in a higher contact angle. Wettability decreased after immersion in all solutions. ζ potential analysis showed dissimilar performance ranging from -6.21 mV (TDD + AS) up to 3.02 mV (PDD + PS). Raman analysis showed an increase in mineral components after immersing the dentin specimens, in terms of crystallinity, mineral content, and concentration. This confirmed the optimal incorporation and deposition of mineral on dentin collagen. Organic content reflected scarce changes, except in TDD that appeared partially denatured. Pyridinium, as an expression of cross-linking, appeared in all spectra except in specimens immersed in PS. PMID:24160361

  19. Regenerative and reparative effects of human chorion-derived stem cell conditioned medium on photo-aged epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiankun; Chen, Yan; Ma, Kui; Zhao, Along; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal cells are an important regenerative source for skin wound healing. Aged epidermal cells have a low ability to renew themselves and repair skin injury. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly UVB, can cause photo-aging of the skin by suppressing the viability of human epidermal cells. A chorion-derived stem cell conditioned medium (CDSC-CNM) is thought to have regenerative properties. This study aimed to determine the regenerative effects of CDSC-CNM on UVB-induced photo-aged epidermal cells. Epidermal cells were passaged four times and irradiated with quantitative UVB, and non-irradiated cells served as a control group. Cells were then treated with different concentrations of CDSC-CNM. Compared to the non-irradiated group, the proliferation rates and migration rates of UVB-induced photo-aged epidermal cells significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage. After treatment with CDSC-CNM, photo-aged epidermal cells significantly improved their viability, and their ROS generation and DNA damage decreased. The secretory factors in CDSC-CNM, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and the related signaling pathway protein levels, increased compared to the control medium (CM). The potential regenerative and reparative effects of CDSC-CNM indicate that it may be a candidate material for the treatment of prematurely aged skin. The functions of the secretory factors and the mechanisms of CDSC-CNM therapy deserve further attention.

  20. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Kronenberg, Sefi; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor analyses of 58 items to reduce and refine the measure yielded a 36-item scale, Reparative Adaptational Impacts, that had excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and congruence between English and Hebrew versions (φ ≥ .95). Associations between impacts and SCID-based diagnoses of major depressive episode, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were moderate to strong (ds = 0.48-0.89). Strong associations also emerged between severity of offspring's reparative adaptational impacts and intensity of their parents' posttrauma adaptational styles (Multiple R = .72), with intensity of victim style, especially the mother's, having the strongest effect (β = .31-.33). Having both research and clinical relevance for assessing Holocaust survivors' offspring, future studies might investigate the scale's generalizability to other populations affected by mass trauma. PMID:25985110

  1. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Kronenberg, Sefi; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-05-01

    The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor analyses of 58 items to reduce and refine the measure yielded a 36-item scale, Reparative Adaptational Impacts, that had excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and congruence between English and Hebrew versions (φ ≥ .95). Associations between impacts and SCID-based diagnoses of major depressive episode, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were moderate to strong (ds = 0.48-0.89). Strong associations also emerged between severity of offspring's reparative adaptational impacts and intensity of their parents' posttrauma adaptational styles (Multiple R = .72), with intensity of victim style, especially the mother's, having the strongest effect (β = .31-.33). Having both research and clinical relevance for assessing Holocaust survivors' offspring, future studies might investigate the scale's generalizability to other populations affected by mass trauma.

  2. Microbiological assessment of dentin stained with a caries detector dye.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, M A; Munshi, A K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess microbiologically the efficacy of 1% acid red in propylene glycol dye to stain carious dentin. Thirty teeth with primary carious lesions involving dentin were chosen. Cavity preparation using the conventional visual and tactile criteria was done and the dye was applied to the prepared cavity. Dentin samples were collected, from carious dentin prior to cavity preparation, dye stained areas and unstained areas. The total colony forming units (CFU) in each sample were then assessed microbiologically. The results showed a highly significant difference in the total colony forming units in dye stained and dye unstained dentin samples. The 1% acid red dye in propylene glycol dye was found to be effective as an adjunctive aid in the diagnosis of carious dentin.

  3. Changes in matrix phosphorylation during bovine dentin development.

    PubMed

    Verdelis, Kostas; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Atsawasuwan, Peter; Wright, John T; Peterson, Margaret G E; Jha, Divya; Boskey, Adele L

    2007-08-01

    Phosphorylation of the organic matrix proteins of dentin is important for the initiation of mineralization, but its relevance in later mineralization stages is controversial. The objective of this study was to analyze changes in the total matrix phosphate content during dentin development and to identify their origin. Amino acid and total matrix phosphate analyses of microdissected developing mantle and circumpulpal fetal bovine dentin specimens were performed. The amino acid composition showed few changes during mantle and circumpulpal dentin maturation. However, the total matrix phosphate content showed a significant, positive correlation with tissue maturation in both mantle and circumpulpal dentin, with a two- and a three-fold increase, respectively, being observed. The data indicate that changes occur in the pattern of phosphorylation of matrix proteins during dentin maturation, which we suggest may play a functional role in later stages of tooth mineralization.

  4. Dentin phosphoprotein compound mutation in dentin sialophosphoprotein causes dentinogenesis imperfecta type III.

    PubMed

    Dong, Juan; Gu, TingTing; Jeffords, Leticia; MacDougall, Mary

    2005-01-30

    A rare compound mutation involving a 36 bp deletion and 18 bp insertion within exon 5 of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene has been identified in a family with dentinogenesis imperfecta type III (DGI-III). The DSPP gene encodes two major tooth matrix proteins dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). DSPP mutations associated with DGI-III results in an in frame truncation of the serine aspartic acid triplet repeat found in DPP near the highly conserved carboxyl terminal region shortening the protein by six amino acids. Clinically this family presents with discolored amber opalescent teeth and severe attrition of the tooth structure. This study is the first report of a mutation within DPP associated with a genetic dentin disease. Our study indicates that DGI-III is allelic with some forms of DGI-II with and without progressive hearing loss and dentin dysplasia type II that have been shown to be caused by mutations within the DSP coding or signal peptide regions.

  5. Frameshift mutations in dentin phosphoprotein and dependence of dentin disease phenotype on mutation location.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Pekka; Papagiannoulis-Lascarides, Lisa; Waltimo-Siren, Janna; Ollila, Päivi; Karjalainen, Sara; Arte, Sirpa; Veerkamp, Jaap; Tallon Walton, Victoria; Chimenos Küstner, Eduard; Siltanen, Tarja; Holappa, Heidi; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Alaluusua, Satu

    2011-04-01

    We describe results from a mutational analysis of the region of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene encoding dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) in 12 families with dominantly inherited dentin diseases. In eight families (five mutations in the N-terminal third of DPP), the clinical and radiologic features were uniform and compatible with dentin dysplasia type II (DD-II) with major clinical signs in the deciduous dentition. In the other families (four mutations in the more C-terminal part), the permanent teeth also were affected, and the diseases could be classified as variants of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Attrition was not prominent, but periapical infections were common. Discoloring with varying intensity was evident, and pulps and root canals were obliterated in the permanent dentition. All mutations caused a frameshift that replaced the Ser-Ser-Asx repeat by a code for a hydrophobic downstream sequence of approximately original length. We conclude that frameshift mutations in DSPP explain a significant part of dentin diseases. Furthermore, we propose that the location of the mutation is reflected in the phenotypic features as a gradient from DD-II to more severe disease that does not conform to the classic definitions of DI-II. PMID:20949630

  6. Frameshift mutations in dentin phosphoprotein and dependence of dentin disease phenotype on mutation location.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Pekka; Papagiannoulis-Lascarides, Lisa; Waltimo-Siren, Janna; Ollila, Päivi; Karjalainen, Sara; Arte, Sirpa; Veerkamp, Jaap; Tallon Walton, Victoria; Chimenos Küstner, Eduard; Siltanen, Tarja; Holappa, Heidi; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Alaluusua, Satu

    2011-04-01

    We describe results from a mutational analysis of the region of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene encoding dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) in 12 families with dominantly inherited dentin diseases. In eight families (five mutations in the N-terminal third of DPP), the clinical and radiologic features were uniform and compatible with dentin dysplasia type II (DD-II) with major clinical signs in the deciduous dentition. In the other families (four mutations in the more C-terminal part), the permanent teeth also were affected, and the diseases could be classified as variants of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Attrition was not prominent, but periapical infections were common. Discoloring with varying intensity was evident, and pulps and root canals were obliterated in the permanent dentition. All mutations caused a frameshift that replaced the Ser-Ser-Asx repeat by a code for a hydrophobic downstream sequence of approximately original length. We conclude that frameshift mutations in DSPP explain a significant part of dentin diseases. Furthermore, we propose that the location of the mutation is reflected in the phenotypic features as a gradient from DD-II to more severe disease that does not conform to the classic definitions of DI-II.

  7. SEM evaluation of nanoparticulate silver penetration into dentine collagen matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Bilenko, David I.; Venig, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study a novel approach to caries management based on the application of nanoparticles of different nature to increase the mineral phase of demineralized dentin has been developed. Silver nanoparticles have been tested as a material for dentine matrix infiltration. Research findings clearly show that collagen fibers of demineralized dentine could be considered as a scaffold for mineral component delivery and the place where mineral growth can occur.

  8. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml−1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

  9. Photosensitizer and light diffusion through dentin in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Ana C.; Graciano, Ariane X.; Nagata, Juliana Y.; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Terada, Raquel S. S.; Bento, Antonio C.; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Baesso, Mauro L.

    2013-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been considered a potential antimicrobial modality against oral infections, including dental caries. A model to estimate the penetration of both photosensitizers and light through human dentin, a factor of interest in photodynamic therapy, is proposed. The photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to evaluate in vitro dentin permeability of three different photosensitizers. Using the dentin optical absorption and scattering coefficients, it was possible to propose a semi-quantitative model predicting both photosensitizer and light doses within dentin. The graphic illustrations obtained provided guidelines that may be useful in photodynamic therapy protocols used as antimicrobial tools in caries lesions.

  10. Vitamin D receptor deficiency affects dentin maturation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Rahemtulla, Firoz G; MacDougall, Mary J; Thomas, Huw F

    2007-12-01

    Mutation of vitamin D receptors (vdr) results in resistance to the vitamin's normal effects which may compromise dentin formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vdr deficiency on post-natal dentin maturation in mice. The dentin in mandibular incisors of 70.5-day-old vdr wild-type and vdr knockout mice was compared at different levels along the long axis. Expression of biglycan and decorin was detected by immunolocalisation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of the dentin, and micro-computerised tomography was used to determine the degree of dentin mineralisation density. In the vdr knockout mice, the pulp chamber was larger and the dentin wall was thinner compared with the wild-type mice. In addition, the pre-dentin layer was thickened with an irregular front line and diffuse expression of biglycan and decorin. Fewer tubules, lower mineralisation density and pore-like defects were observed in the dentin at the eruptive region and level with the first molar. In conclusion, vdr deficiency compromises dentin maturation.

  11. Effect of UVA-activated riboflavin on dentin bonding.

    PubMed

    Cova, A; Breschi, L; Nato, F; Ruggeri, A; Carrilho, M; Tjäderhane, L; Prati, C; Di Lenarda, R; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Mazzoni, A

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have reported collagen cross-linking after exposure to riboflavin followed by ultraviolet-A (UVA) exposure. This study is the first to investigate the effect of a riboflavin-containing primer on adhesive interface stability and dentinal matrix metalloproteinase activity. Human dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid, treated with 0.1% riboflavin, exposed to UVA for 2 min, and bonded with a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. Adhesive was applied to control specimens without riboflavin/UVA. Specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength tests and pulled to failure after storage for 24 hrs, 6 mos, or 1 yr. Interfacial nanoleakage was evaluated by light and transmission electron microscopy. To investigate dentinal matrix metalloproteinase activity, we performed correlative zymographic assays on protein extracts obtained from phosphoric-acid-etched dentin powder with or without riboflavin/UVA treatment and XP Bond. Ultraviolet-activated riboflavin treatment increased the immediate bond strength to dentin at all aging intervals (p < 0.05 vs. control) and decreased interfacial nanoleakage in aged specimens (1 yr; p < 0.05). Zymograms revealed that riboflavin/UVA pre-treatment inhibited dentinal matrix metalloproteinase activity (especially MMP-9). In conclusion, dentinal collagen cross-linking induced by riboflavin/UVA increased immediate bond strength, stabilized the adhesive interface, and inhibited dentin matrix metalloproteinases, thereby increasing the durability of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:21940521

  12. Effect of cleaning dentine with soap and pumice on shear bond strength of dentine-bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, M; Paul, S J; Lüthy, H; Schärer, P

    1997-06-01

    This in vitro study reports on the cleaning effect of different soaps on the shear bond strength of various dentine-bonding agents. Human teeth were coated with provisional cements for 24 h or for 14 days. After removing the provisional cements with a scaler, the dentinal surface was cleaned with a cotton pellet and non-fluoridated flour of pumice and soap for 10 sec. Different dentine-bonding agents and a luting resin were bonded to the dentinal surface according to manufacturers' instructions with the bonding agent and the composite material being light-cured at the same time. The bonding agents were tested under intrapulpal pressure and with thermal cycling to imitate physiological conditions. Compared with cleaning the dentine with water and pumice, all soaps investigated in this study decreased the shear bond strength values of the tested dentine-bonding agents considerably.

  13. A Mechanistic study of Plasma Treatment Effects on Demineralized Dentin Surfaces for Improved Adhesive/Dentin Interface Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that non-thermal plasma treatment of demineralized dentin significantly (p<0.05) improved adhesive/dentin bonding strength for dental composite restoration as compared with the untreated controls. This study is to achieve mechanistic understanding of the plasma treatment effects on dentin surface through investigating the plasma treated dentin surfaces and their interaction with adhesive monomer, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The plasma treated dentin surfaces from human third molars were evaluated by water contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that plasma-treated dentin surface with subsequent HEMA immersion (Plasma/HEMA Treated) had much lower water contact angle compared with only plasma-treated (Plasma Treated) or only HEMA immersed (HEMA Treated) dentin surfaces. With prolong water droplet deposition time, water droplets spread out completely on the Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces. SEM images of Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces verified that dentin tubules were opened-up and filled with HEMA monomers. Extracted type I collagen fibrils, which was used as simulation of the exposed dentinal collagen fibrils after acid etching step, were plasma treated and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. FT-IR spectra of the Plasma/HEMA Treated collage fibrils showed broadened amide I peak at 1660 cm−1 and amide II at 1550 cm−1, which indicate secondary structure changes of the collagen fibrils. CD spectra indicated that 67.4% collagen helix structures were denatured after plasma treatment. These experimental results demonstrate that non-thermal argon plasma treatment was very effective in loosing collagen structure and enhancing adhesive monomer penetration, which are beneficial to thicker hybrid layer and longer resin tag formation, and consequently enhance adhesive/dentin interface bonding. PMID:25267936

  14. Dentin hypersensitivity: Recent trends in management.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Sanjay; Aggarwal, Vivek; Ahuja, Bhoomika

    2010-10-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is a common clinical condition usually associated with exposed dentinal surfaces. It can affect patients of any age group and most commonly affects the canines and premolars of both the arches. This article concisely reviews the patho-physiology, mechanism and clinical management of the DH. Treatment of DH should start with an accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis should be made and all other probable causes should be excluded. An often neglected phase of clinical management of DH is the identification and treatment of the causative factors of DH. By removing the etiological factors, the condition can be even prevented from occurring or recurring. There are various treatment modalities available which can be used at home or may be professionally applied. The "at home" desensitizing agents include toothpastes, mouthwashes or chewing gums and they act by either occluding the dentinal tubules or blocking the neural transmission. This article also discusses the recent treatment options like bioglass, Portland cement, lasers and casein phosphopeptide.

  15. Caries-resistant bonding layer in dentin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-na; Hu, Lin; Jiao, Kai; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-juan; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the mechanism for caries resistance and the pulp responses in vital teeth following the use of the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique. Dentin adhesives were applied to the surface of sound dentin disks in 4 experimental groups: non-antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (N-G), non-antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (N-H), antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (A-G), antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (A-H). The depth of demineralization induced by biological or chemical demineralization models was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Pulp responses of vital dog’s teeth to the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique were evaluated using light microscopy. Depth of demineralization was significantly affected by “adhesive type” and “intensity of adhesive displacement” for biological demineralization. For chemical demineralization, only “intensity of adhesive displacement” showed significant influence on lesion depth. Pulp response of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa groups showed only moderate disorganization of the odontoblast layer at 24 hours that completely re-organized after 3 weeks. Augmented-pressure adhesive displacement improves the caries resistance property of bonded dentin and does not cause irreversible pulpal damage to vital teeth when the air pressure employed is equal or smaller than 0.3 MPa. PMID:27599621

  16. Chlorhexidine Preserves Dentin Bond in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, M. R. O.; Carvalho, R. M.; de Goes, M. F.; di Hipólito, V.; Geraldeli, S.; Tay, F. R.; Pashley, D. H.; Tjäderhane, L.

    2008-01-01

    Loss of hybrid layer integrity compromises resin-dentin bond stability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be partially responsible for hybrid layer degradation. Since chlorhexidine inhibits MMPs, we hypothesized that chlorhexidine would decelerate the loss of resin-dentin bonds. Class I preparations in extracted third molars were sectioned into two halves. One half was customarily restored (etch-and-rinse adhesive/resin composite), and the other was treated with 2% chlorhexidine after being acid-etched before restoration. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva with/without protease inhibitors. Microtensile bond strengths and failure mode distribution under SEM were analyzed immediately after specimens' preparation and 6 months later. With chlorhexidine, significantly better preservation of bond strength was observed after 6 months; protease inhibitors in the storage medium had no effect. Failure analysis showed significantly less failure in the hybrid layer with chlorhexidine, compared with controls after 6 months. In conclusion, this in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine might be useful for the preservation of dentin bond strength. PMID:17189470

  17. Radiopacities in dentine under amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Rudolphy, M P; van Amerongen, J P; ten Cate, J M

    1994-01-01

    Radiopacities, caused by tin or zinc deposits in partly demineralized dental tissue, are frequently seen under amalgam restorations. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent these radiopaque areas could be identified by Caries Detector (1% acid red in propylene glycol) which is claimed to stain the irreversibly demineralized dentine. Twenty-eight extracted teeth showing radiopacities under amalgam fillings were selected. The restorations were removed, and Caries Detector was applied. Caries was excavated until the dentine did no longer stain with the Caries Detector. Standardized radiographs were taken at different stages. In all teeth the radiopaque areas stained with the Caries Detector. Visual inspection of the radiographs, taken after excavation, revealed that the radiopacities had disappeared completely in 6 teeth; in 5 teeth a very small part of the radiopaque area remained; in 17 teeth the cavity floor appeared as a thin white line on X-ray. Overall, line scan analysis confirmed the data obtained by visual observation. The residual radiopacities and radiopaque lines were a very small fraction of the initial radiopacities. Therefore, it is concluded that the radiopaque zone under amalgam fillings represents almost entirely an area of irreversibly demineralized dentine as indicated by the Caries Detector.

  18. In vitro quality testing of dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Oilo, G; Austrheim, E K

    1993-08-01

    A tensile and a shear bond strength test are compared, using two well-known and two more recently marketed dentin adhesive systems: Gluma (Bayer), Scotchbond 2 (3M), Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (3M), and Syntac (Vivadent). The adhesives were used to bond composite resins to the buccal surface of human third molars. Specimens stored for 24 h before testing did not show significant differences between bond strength values obtained by either the tensile or the shear test method for any of the materials. The bond strength of thermocycled specimens did not differ for Gluma, was significantly lower for Scotchbond 2, and significantly higher for Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Syntac. SEM observations showed increasing amounts of cohesive failure in resin with increasing bond strength values. Cohesive fractures in dentin were also observed. It is concluded that either the tensile or the shear test method can be used for quality testing of dentin adhesives. Thermocycling may provide interesting information about the quality of a bond.

  19. Glycosaminoglycan chain of dentin sialoprotein proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Q; Sun, Y; Prasad, M; Wang, X; Yamoah, A K; Li, Y; Feng, J; Qin, C

    2010-08-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is processed into dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein. A molecular variant of rat DSP, referred to as "HMW-DSP", has been speculated to be a proteoglycan form of DSP. To determine if HMW-DSP is the proteoglycan form of DSP and to identify the glycosaminoglycan side-chain attachment site(s), we further characterized HMW-DSP. Chondroitinase ABC treatment reduced the migration rate for portions of rat HMW-DSP to the level of DSP. Disaccharide analysis showed that rat HMW-DSP contains glycosaminoglycan chains made of chondroitin-4-sulfate and has an average of 31-32 disaccharides/mol. These observations confirmed that HMW-DSP is the proteoglycan form of DSP (renamed "DSP-PG"). Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analyses of tryptic peptides from rat DSP-PG, along with substitution analyses of candidate Ser residues in mouse DSPP, confirmed that 2 glycosaminoglycan chains are attached to Ser(241) and Ser(253) in the rat, or Ser(242) and Ser(254) in the mouse DSPP sequence.

  20. Caries-resistant bonding layer in dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-Na; Hu, Lin; Jiao, Kai; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-Juan; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The present study examined the mechanism for caries resistance and the pulp responses in vital teeth following the use of the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique. Dentin adhesives were applied to the surface of sound dentin disks in 4 experimental groups: non-antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (N-G), non-antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (N-H), antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (A-G), antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (A-H). The depth of demineralization induced by biological or chemical demineralization models was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Pulp responses of vital dog’s teeth to the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique were evaluated using light microscopy. Depth of demineralization was significantly affected by “adhesive type” and “intensity of adhesive displacement” for biological demineralization. For chemical demineralization, only “intensity of adhesive displacement” showed significant influence on lesion depth. Pulp response of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa groups showed only moderate disorganization of the odontoblast layer at 24 hours that completely re-organized after 3 weeks. Augmented-pressure adhesive displacement improves the caries resistance property of bonded dentin and does not cause irreversible pulpal damage to vital teeth when the air pressure employed is equal or smaller than 0.3 MPa.

  1. Cigarette smoke affects bonding to dentin.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, Junio S; de Araujo, Edson Medeiro; Araujo, Elito

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (muTBS) of composite resin bonded to dentin that had been contaminated by cigarette smoke. Ten extracted unerupted human third molars were used: Six molars were prepared for muTBS testing, while the other four molars were assigned to pre- and post-etching scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. The 20 specimens obtained from the 10 coronal portions were distributed into two experimental groups so that each tooth served as its own control. Group 1 underwent a daily toothbrushing simulation and exposure to a smoking simulation chamber, while Group 2 received only a daily simulated toothbrushing. Student's t-test demonstrated that Group 1 samples demonstrated significantly lower bond strength (49.58 MPa) than Group 2 samples (58.48 MPa). Pre and postetching SEM analysis revealed the presence of contaminants on the dentinal surfaces of the Group 1 specimens. It was concluded that contamination by cigarette smoke decreases the bond strength between dentin and composite resin.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Porto, Isabel C C M; Andrade, Ana K M; Montes, Marcos A J R

    2009-09-01

    This bibliographic review provides a general view of the etiology, characteristics and treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, so that professionals can use this information in the therapeutic management of this clinical condition. For this purpose, the authors have analyzed whole texts of relevant articles on the subject. This study showed that the predisposing factors associated with the causes of dentinal hypersensitivity must be controlled or eliminated, by educating the patient regarding the excessive intake of acidic food, as well as providing guidance on the proper tooth brushing technique and analysis of occlusion. Effective treatment must be preceded by a proper diagnosis, established after the exclusion of any other possible causes of the pain. These cases must be managed efficiently, quickly and permanently. The availability of a wide variety of treatment could be an indicator that there is still no effective desensitizing agent to completely resolve the patient's discomfort, or that it is difficult to treat, irrespective of the available treatment options. Even with the large number of published studies, it has not been possible to reach a consensus about the product that represents the gold standard in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. PMID:19776498

  3. Dentin hypersensitivity: Recent trends in management.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Sanjay; Aggarwal, Vivek; Ahuja, Bhoomika

    2010-10-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is a common clinical condition usually associated with exposed dentinal surfaces. It can affect patients of any age group and most commonly affects the canines and premolars of both the arches. This article concisely reviews the patho-physiology, mechanism and clinical management of the DH. Treatment of DH should start with an accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis should be made and all other probable causes should be excluded. An often neglected phase of clinical management of DH is the identification and treatment of the causative factors of DH. By removing the etiological factors, the condition can be even prevented from occurring or recurring. There are various treatment modalities available which can be used at home or may be professionally applied. The "at home" desensitizing agents include toothpastes, mouthwashes or chewing gums and they act by either occluding the dentinal tubules or blocking the neural transmission. This article also discusses the recent treatment options like bioglass, Portland cement, lasers and casein phosphopeptide. PMID:21217949

  4. Caries-resistant bonding layer in dentin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-Na; Hu, Lin; Jiao, Kai; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-Juan; Tay, Franklin R; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the mechanism for caries resistance and the pulp responses in vital teeth following the use of the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique. Dentin adhesives were applied to the surface of sound dentin disks in 4 experimental groups: non-antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (N-G), non-antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (N-H), antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (A-G), antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (A-H). The depth of demineralization induced by biological or chemical demineralization models was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Pulp responses of vital dog's teeth to the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique were evaluated using light microscopy. Depth of demineralization was significantly affected by "adhesive type" and "intensity of adhesive displacement" for biological demineralization. For chemical demineralization, only "intensity of adhesive displacement" showed significant influence on lesion depth. Pulp response of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa groups showed only moderate disorganization of the odontoblast layer at 24 hours that completely re-organized after 3 weeks. Augmented-pressure adhesive displacement improves the caries resistance property of bonded dentin and does not cause irreversible pulpal damage to vital teeth when the air pressure employed is equal or smaller than 0.3 MPa. PMID:27599621

  5. SEM evaluation of resin-carious dentin interfaces formed by two dentin adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kuang-Wei; Marshall, Sally J.; Pinzon, Lilliam M.; Watanabe, Larry; Saiz, Eduardo; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the influence of dentin tubule direction and identifiable zone of carious dentin on the microstructure and the thickness of the hybrid-like layer (HL) formed by self-etch and etch-rinse adhesive systems. Methods An etch-rinse and a self-etching adhesive were bonded to dentin carious zones divided into groups with parallel or perpendicular orientation relative to the dentin tubules at the resin-carious dentin interface (N = 5/variable). Bonds were prepared to each of the four zones of carious dentin apparent after staining with Caries Detector: pink, light pink, transparent and apparently normal Six non-carious third molars were controls. The microstructure and thickness of the HL were determined by SEM.and compared using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (p<0.05). Results Etch-rinse controls gave thicker HLs than self-etching systems; ; orientation did not affect thickness for the self-etch system. Perpendicular orientations gave thicker HLs than parallel for the pink zone bonded with the etch-rinse system. For both adhesives, HL thickness in the pink zone were significantly greater than in light pink for the perpendicular group, but no significant differences were found among other variables. HL microstructure was more granular and rougher for the etch rinse than for the self etching system. Pores and cracks were obvious in the more demineralized zones, Resin tags were shorter and irregular in the transparent zone and often were completely absent in the outer demineralized zones (pink, light pink). Significance Microstructure of bonded interfaces varies markedly depending on adhesive system, tubule orientation and carious zone. PMID:18155289

  6. Identification of full-length dentin matrix protein 1 in dentin and bone.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingzhen; Maciejewska, Izabela; Sun, Yao; Peng, Tao; Qin, Disheng; Lu, Yongbo; Bonewald, Lynda; Butler, William T; Feng, Jian; Qin, Chunlin

    2008-05-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) has been identified in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of dentin and bone as the processed NH(2)-terminal and COOH-terminal fragment. However, the full-length form of DMP1 has not been identified in these tissues. The focus of this investigation was to search for the intact full-length DMP1 in dentin and bone. We used two types of anti-DMP1 antibodies to identify DMP1: one type specifically recognizes the NH(2)-terminal region and the other type is only reactive to the COOH-terminal region of the DMP1 amino acid sequence. An approximately 105-kDa protein, extracted from the ECM of rat dentin and bone, was recognized by both types of antibodies; and the migration rate of this protein was identical to the recombinant mouse full-length DMP1 made in eukaryotic cells. We concluded that this approximately 105-kDa protein is the full-length form of DMP1, which is considerably less abundant than its processed fragments in the ECM of dentin and bone. We also detected the full-length form of DMP1 and its processed fragments in the extract of dental pulp/odontoblast complex dissected from rat teeth. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis showed that in MC3T3-E1 cells the NH(2)-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of DMP1 are distributed differently. Our findings indicate that the majority of DMP1 must be cleaved within the cells that synthesize it and that minor amounts of uncleaved DMP1 molecules are secreted into the ECM of dentin and bone.

  7. Effects of dentin surface treatments on the fracture toughness and tensile bond strength of a dentin-composite adhesive interface.

    PubMed

    Tam, L E; Pilliar, R M

    1994-09-01

    It has been proposed that the fracture toughness test provides an appropriate method for assessing the fracture resistance of the dentin-composite interface. The plane-strain fracture toughness test was therefore applied to a dentin-composite interface, with use of a specific dentinal adhesive, so that the effects of various dentin surface treatments on dentin-bond integrity could be studied. Interfacial fracture toughness (KIC) values were determined following 24h and 180 days of specimen aging in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Tensile bond strength (TBS) results following 24-hour aging were also obtained for comparison with the 24-hour KIC results. In general, the fracture resistance of the dentin-composite interface was highest when the dentin surface was conditioned with acid but not air-dried, intermediate when the dentin surface was conditioned with acid and subsequently air-dried, and lowest when the dentin was not conditioned with acid. The tensile bond strength results differed from the fracture toughness results in indicating differences in surface preparation effects and the type of interfacial failure observed.

  8. Dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein in human sound and carious teeth: an immunohistochemical and colorimetric assay.

    PubMed

    Martini, D; Trirè, A; Breschi, L; Mazzoni, A; Teti, G; Falconi, M; Ruggeri, A

    2013-10-29

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) are extracellular matrix proteins produced by odontoblasts involved in the dentin mineralization. The aim this study was to compare the distribution of DMP1 and DSPP in human sound dentin vs human sclerotic dentin. Sixteen sound and sixteen carious human molars were selected, fixed in paraformaldehyde and processed for immunohistochemical detection of DMP1 and DSPP by means of light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution field emission in-lens scanning electron microscopy (FEI-SEM). Specimens were submitted to a pre-embedding or a post-embedding immunolabeling technique using primary antibodies anti DMP1 and anti-DSPP and gold-conjugated secondary antibodies. Other samples were processed for the detection of DMP1 and DSPP levels. Dentin from these samples was mechanically fractured to powder, then a protein extraction and a protein level detection assay were performed. DMP1 and DSPP were more abundant in carious than in sound samples. Immunohistochemical analyses in sclerotic dentin disclosed a high expression of DMP1 and DSPP inside the tubules, suggesting an active biomineralization of dentin by odontoblasts. Furthermore, the detection of small amounts of these proteins inside the tubules far from the carious lesion, as shown in the present study, is consistent with the hypothesis of a preventive defense of all dentin after a noxious stimulus has undermined the tooth.

  9. The nano-hardness and elastic modulus of sound deciduous canine dentin and young premolar dentin--preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Y; Marshall, G W

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the nano-hardness and elastic modulus among deciduous and permanent dentin, buccal and lingual sides, incisal, center and cervical areas, and outer, middle and inner layers. Three premolars and three deciduous canines were bucco lingually (BL) sectioned, and three deciduous canines were mesio-distally (MD) sectioned parallel to the long axis at the center of the tooth. Hardness (H), plastic hardness (PH) and Young's modulus (Y) were measured using a nano-indentation tester. The H, PH and Y values from the deciduous canine dentin were significantly lower than those from the premolar dentin at most sites. For deciduous canine dentin, the H and PH values of the MD sectioned dentin were significantly higher than those of the BL sectioned dentin in many layers of many areas. Generally deciduous canine dentin had H, PH and Y values that decreased from outer toward the inner layers and significant differences were obtained among the layers in many areas. For MD sectioned deciduous canine and BD sectioned premolar dentin, the H, PH and Y values of the cervical area were significantly lower than those of the incisal and center areas in many layers. It is possible that optimum bonding may require different treatments for deciduous and permanent dentin and perhaps also for different intratooth locations.

  10. Mother-infant dyadic reparation and individual differences in vagal tone affect 4-month-old infants' social stress regulation.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Casini, Erica; de Simone, Paola; Reni, Gianluigi; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-12-01

    Infants' social stress regulation (i.e., reactivity and recovery) might be affected by mother-infant dyadic functioning and infants' vagal tone (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA). This study investigated the role of a specific dyadic functioning feature (i.e., dyadic reparation) and individual differences in vagal tone regulation (i.e., RSA suppression vs. non-suppression) in relation to social stress regulation in 4-month-old infants. A total of 65 mother-infant dyads participated in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Social stress reactivity and recovery were measured as negative emotionality during Still-Face and Reunion episodes, respectively. RSA was measured during Play, Still-Face, and Reunion episodes. Suppressors had higher dyadic reparation during Play and higher recovery from social stress compared with non-suppressors. Higher reparation during Play was associated with lower reactivity and higher recovery only for suppressors. Findings suggest a joint role of infants' RSA individual differences and dyadic reparation in affecting infants' social stress regulation at 4 months of age. PMID:26247809

  11. A Therapeutic Approach to Teaching Poetry: Individual Development, Psychology, and Social Reparation. Psychoanalysis, Education and Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Todd O.

    2012-01-01

    A Therapeutic Approach to Teaching Poetry develops a poetry pedagogy that offers significant benefits to students by helping them to achieve a sense of renewal (a deeper awareness of self and potentials) and reparation (a realistic, but positive and proactive worldview). Todd O. Williams offers a thorough examination of the therapeutic potential…

  12. Effects of Chemical Cross-linkers on Caries-affected Dentin Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, G.V.; Yamauchi, M.; Bedran-Russo, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The achievement of a strong and stable bond between composite resin and dentin remains a challenge in restorative dentistry. Over the past two decades, dental materials have been substantially improved, with better handling and bonding characteristics. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of collagen structure/stability to bond strength. We hypothesized that the induction of cross-linking in dentin collagen improves dentin collagen stability and bond strength. This study investigated the effects of glutaraldehyde- and grape seed extract-induced cross-linking on the dentin bond strengths of sound and caries-affected dentin, and on the stability of dentin collagen. Our results demonstrated that the application of chemical cross-linking agents to etched dentin prior to bonding procedures significantly enhanced the dentin bond strengths of caries-affected and sound dentin. Glutaraldehyde and grape seed extract significantly increased dentin collagen stability in sound and caries-affected dentin, likely via distinct mechanisms. PMID:19892915

  13. Growth Factor Liberation and DPSC Response Following Dentine Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Sadaghiani, L; Gleeson, H B; Youde, S; Waddington, R J; Lynch, C D; Sloan, A J

    2016-10-01

    Liberation of the sequestrated bioactive molecules from dentine by the action of applied dental materials has been proposed as an important mechanism in inducing a dentinogenic response in teeth with viable pulps. Although adhesive restorations and dentine-bonding procedures are routinely practiced, clinical protocols to improve pulp protection and dentine regeneration are not currently driven by biological knowledge. This study investigated the effect of dentine (powder and slice) conditioning by etchants/conditioners relevant to adhesive restorative systems on growth factor solubilization and odontoblast-like cell differentiation of human dental pulp progenitor cells (DPSCs). The agents included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; 10%, pH 7.2), phosphoric acid (37%, pH <1), citric acid (10%, pH 1.5), and polyacrylic acid (25%, pH 3.9). Growth factors were detected in dentine matrix extracts drawn by EDTA, phosphoric acid, and citric acid from powdered dentine. The dentine matrix extracts were shown to be bioactive, capable of stimulating odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation as observed by gene expression and phenotypic changes in DPSCs cultured in monolayer on plastic. Polyacrylic acid failed to solubilize proteins from powdered dentine and was therefore considered ineffective in triggering a growth factor-mediated response in cells. The study went on to investigate the effect of conditioning dentine slices on growth factor liberation and DPSC behavior. Conditioning by EDTA, phosphoric acid, and citric acid exposed growth factors on dentine and triggered an upregulation in genes associated with mineralized differentiation, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase in DPSCs cultured on dentine. The cells demonstrated odontoblast-like appearances with elongated bodies and long extracellular processes extending on dentine surface. However, phosphoric acid-treated dentine appeared strikingly less populated with cells, suggesting a detrimental impact on cell

  14. A novel bioactive glass-ceramic for treating dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, Camila; Panzeri, Heitor; Soares, Rodrigo Gongalves; Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a painful response to stimulus applied to the open dentinal tubules of a vital tooth. It's a common oral condition, however, without an ideal treatment available yet. This work evaluated in vitro the effect of micron-sized particles from a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) in occluding open dentinal tubules. A dentin disc model was employed to observe comparatively, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dentinal tubule occlusion by different products and deposition of hydroxyl carbonate apatite (HCA) on dentin surface by Biosilicate, after a single application: G1 - Dentifrice with potassium nitrate and fluoride; G2 - Two-step calcium phosphate precipitation treatment; G3 - Water-free gel containing Biosilicate particles (1%); G4 - Biosilicate particles mixed with distilled water in a 1:10 ratio; all of them after 1, 12 and 24 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to detect HCA formation on dentin discs filled with Biosilicate after 2 minutes, 30 minutes and 12 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. SEM showed a layer of HCA formed on dentin surface after 24 hours by G4. G1, G2 and G3 promoted not total occlusion of open dentinal tubules after 24 hours. FTIR showed HCA precipitation on the dentin surface induced by Biosilicate after 30 minutes. The micron-sized particles from the bioactive glass-ceramic thus were able to induce HCA deposition in open dentinal tubules in vitro. This finding suggests that Biosilicate may provide a new option for treating DH. PMID:21180956

  15. [SEM investigations on the human sclerosed dentinal tubules].

    PubMed

    Yagi, T; Suga, S

    1990-08-01

    Sclerotic changes of dentinal tubules appeared in the dentin beneath the carious, attrition and abrasion lesions and in the transparent root dentin were investigated using the scanning electron microscopy. 1) Shape of crystal-like substances appeared in the dentinal tubules could not be closely related to kinds of dentin destruction. 2) In the dentinal tubules beneath the carious lesions, cuboidal or rhomboid-shaped, short rod-like, long rod-like, plate-like and droplet-like crystals were mainly observed. Combination of cuboidal or rhomboid-shaped and short rod-like crystals or that of long rod-like and plate-like crystals were most frequently observed. 3) In the dentinal tubules beneath attrition and abrasion lesions, cuboidal or rhomboid-shaped, short rod-like and droplet-like crystals were mainly observed, however, the size of cuboidal or rhomboid-shaped crystal was usually smaller than that observed beneath carious lesion and they deposited compactly within the tubules. 4) In the sclerosed dentinal tubules in the transparent root dentin, compact deposition of rhomboid-shaped and irregular sand-like crystals were usually observed. Size of rhomboid-shaped crystal is smaller than that observed beneath carious lesion. The deposit of sand-like crystal in the tubules was easily discriminated from the matrix of peritubular dentin. 5) In any case, the kinds of crystals and pattern of deposition were not necessarily same between the neighboring tubules. However, in a tubule, they were almost same in shape and mode of deposition throughout the entire length of tubule from the outer side to the pulpal side. These facts seem to indicate that mineral deposition within the tubule due to sclerosis is performed under individual condition. 6) Finding showing biological control of mineral deposition within the dentinal tubules by the odontoblasts could not be observed.

  16. A novel bioactive glass-ceramic for treating dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, Camila; Panzeri, Heitor; Soares, Rodrigo Gongalves; Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a painful response to stimulus applied to the open dentinal tubules of a vital tooth. It's a common oral condition, however, without an ideal treatment available yet. This work evaluated in vitro the effect of micron-sized particles from a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate) in occluding open dentinal tubules. A dentin disc model was employed to observe comparatively, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dentinal tubule occlusion by different products and deposition of hydroxyl carbonate apatite (HCA) on dentin surface by Biosilicate, after a single application: G1 - Dentifrice with potassium nitrate and fluoride; G2 - Two-step calcium phosphate precipitation treatment; G3 - Water-free gel containing Biosilicate particles (1%); G4 - Biosilicate particles mixed with distilled water in a 1:10 ratio; all of them after 1, 12 and 24 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to detect HCA formation on dentin discs filled with Biosilicate after 2 minutes, 30 minutes and 12 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. SEM showed a layer of HCA formed on dentin surface after 24 hours by G4. G1, G2 and G3 promoted not total occlusion of open dentinal tubules after 24 hours. FTIR showed HCA precipitation on the dentin surface induced by Biosilicate after 30 minutes. The micron-sized particles from the bioactive glass-ceramic thus were able to induce HCA deposition in open dentinal tubules in vitro. This finding suggests that Biosilicate may provide a new option for treating DH.

  17. Thrombin receptor agonist Peptide immobilized in microspheres stimulates reparative processes in rats with gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Rusanova, A V; Makarova, A M; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A; Gorbachyova, L R; Stashevskaya, K S; Vasil'eva, T V; Sidorova, E I; Bespalova, Zh D; Grandfils, Ch

    2006-07-01

    The effect of synthetic thrombin receptor (PAR1) agonist peptide encapsulated in microspheres made of lactic and glycolic acid copolymer on tissue reparation was studied in rats with acetate-induced ulcer. PAR1 agonist peptide was immobilized in biodegraded lactic and glycolic acid microspheres by double emulgation, the kinetics of peptide release was analyzed, and the dynamics of ulcer healing was studied in experimental (administration of microspheres with the peptide into the stomach) and two control groups (administration of saline or spheres without peptide). Thrombin receptor agonist peptide gradually released from lactic and glycolic acid microspheres into the stomach shortened the inflammation phase and shifted the proliferation phase to the earlier period, thus accelerating healing of experimental ulcers in rats. PMID:17369897

  18. Resin–dentin bonds to EDTA-treated vs. acid-etched dentin using ethanol wet-bonding

    PubMed Central

    Sauro, Salvatore; Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fatima Sánchez; Mannocci, Francesco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.; Watson, Timothy F.; Osorio, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare resin–dentin bond strengths and the micropermeability of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic resins bonded to acid-etched or EDTA-treated dentin, using the ethanol wet-bonding technique. Methods Flat dentin surfaces from extracted human third molars were conditioned before bonding with: 37% H3PO4 (15 s) or 0.1 M EDTA (60 s). Five experimental resin blends of different hydrophilicities and one commercial adhesive (SBMP: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose) were applied to ethanol wet-dentin (1 min) and light-cured (20 s). The solvated resins were used as primers (50% ethanol/50% comonomers) and their respective neat resins were used as the adhesive. The resin-bonded teeth were stored in distilled water (24 h) and sectioned in beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Modes of failure were examined by stereoscopic light microscopy and SEM. Confocal tandem scanning microscopy (TSM) interfacial characterization and micropermeability were also performed after filling the pulp chamber with 1 wt% aqueous rhodamine-B. Results The most hydrophobic resin 1 gave the lowest bond strength values to acid-etched dentin and all beams failed prematurely when the resin was applied to EDTA-treated dentin. Resins 2 and 3 gave intermediate bond strengths to both conditioned substrates. Resin 4, an acidic hydrophilic resin, gave the highest bond strengths to both EDTA-treated and acid-etched dentin. Resin 5 was the only hydrophilic resin showing poor resin infiltration when applied on acid-etched dentin. Significance The ethanol wet-bonding technique may improve the infiltration of most of the adhesives used in this study into dentin, especially when applied to EDTA-treated dentin. The chemical composition of the resin blends was a determining factor influencing the ability of adhesives to bond to EDTA-treated or 37% H3PO4 acid-etched dentin, when using the ethanol wet-bonding technique in a clinically relevant time period. PMID:20074787

  19. Ablation of human carious dentin with a nanosecond pulsed laser at a wavelength of 5.85 μm: relationship between hardness and ablation depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-02-01

    Less invasive treatment and preservation of teeth, referred to as minimal intervention, are strong requirements in dentistry. In our previous study, the fundamental ablation properties of human dentin at wavelengths around 5.8 μm were investigated, and the results indicated that the wavelength of 5.85 μm was optimal for selective removal of carious dentin with less damage to normal dentin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ablation depth and hardness of human dentin including carious lesion. A nanosecond pulsed laser produced by difference-frequency generation was used for irradiations to human carious dentin. It was observed that correlation between ablation depth and Vickers hardness after 2 s laser irradiation at the wavelength of 5.85 μm and the average power density of 30 W/cm2. On the other hand, ablations did not depend on Vickers hardness at the wavelength of 6.00 μm. A nanosecond pulsed laser with the wavelength at 5.85 μm is useful for selective ablation of human carious dentin in accordance with the hardness.

  20. Tooth dentin defects reflect genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C.; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.

    2012-01-01

    Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding of deciduous teeth and the extractions of premolars and third molars for orthodontic treatment. The feasibility of obtaining dentin makes this a good model to study biomineralization in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we focus on two genetic diseases that disrupt both bone and dentin mineralization. Hypophosphatemic rickets is related to abnormal secretory proteins involved in the ECM organization of both bone and dentin, as well as in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. Osteogenesis imperfecta affects proteins involved in the local organization of the ECM. In addition, dentin examination permits evaluation of the effects of the systemic treatment prescribed to hypophosphatemic patients during growth. In conclusion, dentin constitutes a valuable tool for better understanding of the pathological processes affecting biomineralization. PMID:22296718

  1. External Dentin Stimulation Induces ATP Release in Human Teeth.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wang, C; Fujita, T; Malmstrom, H S; Nedergaard, M; Ren, Y F; Dirksen, R T

    2015-09-01

    ATP is involved in neurosensory processing, including nociceptive transduction. Thus, ATP signaling may participate in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain. In this study, we investigated whether pannexins, which can form mechanosensitive ATP-permeable channels, are present in human dental pulp. We also assessed the existence and functional activity of ecto-ATPase for extracellular ATP degradation. We further tested if ATP is released from dental pulp upon dentin mechanical or thermal stimulation that induces dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain and if pannexin or pannexin/gap junction channel blockers reduce stimulation-dependent ATP release. Using immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated immunoreactivity of pannexin 1 and 2 in odontoblasts and their processes extending into the dentin tubules. Using enzymatic histochemistry staining, we also demonstrated functional ecto-ATPase activity within the odontoblast layer, subodontoblast layer, dental pulp nerve bundles, and blood vessels. Using an ATP bioluminescence assay, we found that mechanical or cold stimulation to the exposed dentin induced ATP release in an in vitro human tooth perfusion model. We further demonstrated that blocking pannexin/gap junction channels with probenecid or carbenoxolone significantly reduced external dentin stimulation-induced ATP release. Our results provide evidence for the existence of functional machinery required for ATP release and degradation in human dental pulp and that pannexin channels are involved in external dentin stimulation-induced ATP release. These findings support a plausible role for ATP signaling in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain. PMID:26130258

  2. External Dentin Stimulation Induces ATP Release in Human Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C.; Fujita, T.; Malmstrom, H.S.; Nedergaard, M.; Ren, Y.F.; Dirksen, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    ATP is involved in neurosensory processing, including nociceptive transduction. Thus, ATP signaling may participate in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain. In this study, we investigated whether pannexins, which can form mechanosensitive ATP-permeable channels, are present in human dental pulp. We also assessed the existence and functional activity of ecto-ATPase for extracellular ATP degradation. We further tested if ATP is released from dental pulp upon dentin mechanical or thermal stimulation that induces dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain and if pannexin or pannexin/gap junction channel blockers reduce stimulation-dependent ATP release. Using immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated immunoreactivity of pannexin 1 and 2 in odontoblasts and their processes extending into the dentin tubules. Using enzymatic histochemistry staining, we also demonstrated functional ecto-ATPase activity within the odontoblast layer, subodontoblast layer, dental pulp nerve bundles, and blood vessels. Using an ATP bioluminescence assay, we found that mechanical or cold stimulation to the exposed dentin induced ATP release in an in vitro human tooth perfusion model. We further demonstrated that blocking pannexin/gap junction channels with probenecid or carbenoxolone significantly reduced external dentin stimulation–induced ATP release. Our results provide evidence for the existence of functional machinery required for ATP release and degradation in human dental pulp and that pannexin channels are involved in external dentin stimulation–induced ATP release. These findings support a plausible role for ATP signaling in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain. PMID:26130258

  3. Can interaction of materials with the dentin-pulp complex contribute to dentin regeneration?

    PubMed

    Ferracane, Jack L; Cooper, Paul R; Smith, Anthony J

    2010-02-01

    Understanding outcomes of the interaction between a dental material and tooth tissue is important in terms not only of biocompatibility but also of the potential for the material to modulate the response of the tissue. This interaction is influenced by many factors, including the chemistry of the material and any of its eluted components or degradation products, and the manner in which the tissue responds to these agents. Past studies of this interaction have primarily been aimed at identifying cytotoxic effects. More recently, investigations have focused on specific cellular responses, and in particular, on understanding how the materials themselves actually may contribute to regenerative processes in the tooth. Recent work has demonstrated the solubilization of proteins from dentin exposed to certain materials, such as calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate, and acidic solutions that relate to those used in dentin bonding agents, with the subsequent modulation by these proteins of gene expression in odontoblast-like cells. This work suggests that dentin bridge formation under such materials may be stimulated through this process. Thus, there is much merit in examining both how new dental materials can be developed and how more traditional ones can be modified to preferentially stimulate regenerative processes when preferred. This review summarizes current knowledge about the potential beneficial effects derived from the interaction of dental materials with the dentin-pulp complex, as well as potential future developments in this exciting field.

  4. Dentin noncollagenous matrix proteins in familial hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Céline; Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Septier, Dominique; Jehan, Frédéric; Rowe, Peter S; Garabédian, Michèle; Goldberg, Michel; Chaussain-Miller, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Familial hypophosphatemic rickets is transmitted in most cases as an X-linked dominant trait and results from the mutation of the PHEX gene predominantly expressed in osteoblast and odontoblast. Patients with rickets have been reported to display important dentin defects. Our purpose was to explore the structure, composition and distribution of noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) of hypophosphatemic dentin. We collected teeth from 10 hypophosphatemic patients whose mineralization occurred either in a hypophosphatemic environment or in a corrected phosphate and vitamin environment. Teeth were examined by scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. An abnormal distribution (accumulation in interglobular spaces) and cleavage of the NCPs and particularly of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein were observed in deciduous dentin. In contrast, it was close to normal in permanent dentin mineralized under corrected conditions. In conclusion, dentin mineralization in a corrected phosphate and vitamin D environment compensates the adverse effect of PHEX mutation.

  5. Bone Induction by Demineralized Dentin Matrix in Nude Mouse Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the osteoinductive activity of demineralized human dentin matrix for nude mice. Methods: Twenty healthy nude mice weighing about 15 to 20 g were used for study. Demineralized human dentin matrix was prepared and implanted into the dorsal portion of nude mice (subcutaneous), which were sacrificed at two, four, and eight weeks after demineralized dentin matrix grafting and evaluated histologically by H&E and Masson trichrome staining. The specimens were also evaluated histomorphometrically. Results: The demineralized dentin matrix induced bone and cartilage formation independently in soft tissues. Histological examination showed bone-forming cells such as osteoblasts and fibroblasts at two, four, and eight weeks. Conclusion: These results suggest that demineralized human dentin matrix has osteoinductive ability, and is a good alternative to autogenous bone graft materials. PMID:27489810

  6. Cryopreserved dentin matrix as a scaffold material for dentin-pulp tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Liang; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Zongting; Feng, Lian; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation has been identified as an efficient approach to preserve tissue engineered products for a long term. Our prior studies have suggested that the treated dentin matrix (TDM) could be an ideal bioactive scaffold for dental tissue regeneration. In this study, we hypothesize that the cryopreservation could effectively maintain the survival and viability of dentinogenesis-related proteins of TDM and the cryopreserved dentin matrix (CDM) would provide the suitable biological scaffold and inductive microenvironment for the regeneration of dentin-pulp like tissue. CDM-3 and CDM-6 were prepared by cryopreserving TDM in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) with cryoprotectant for 3 months and 6 months, respectively. Various biological characteristics of CDM, including mechanical properties, cell proliferation, and odontogenesis ability, were investigated. To further evaluate the inductive capacity of CDM, human dental follicle cells were encapsulated within CDM, and implanted the scaffold into a mouse model for 8 weeks, and the grafts were harvested and assessed histologically. The CDM showed superior mechanical properties than TDM. Compared to TDM, CDM can release more dentinogenesis-related proteins due to the larger pore diameter. Cell proliferation with the addition of CDM extract liquid was similar to that of TDM in the first five days. Human dental follicle cells, under the effect of CDM extract liquid, highly expressed bone sialoprotein, collagen-1, alkaline phosphatase, indicating that CDM, regarded as the inductive microenvironment, plays an important role in odontogenesis. Most importantly, in vivo, CDM could induce dental follicle cells to regenerate new dentin-pulp like tissues, such as dentinal tubules, predentin, collagen fibers, nerves, and blood vessels which were positive for dentin sialophosphoprotein, dental matrix protein-1, Tubulin, and collagen-1. In conclusion, CDM is an ideal biological scaffold material for human dentin-pulp like tissue

  7. Identification of new rat dentin proteoglycans utilizing C18 chromatography.

    PubMed

    Steinfort, J; van de Stadt, R; Beertsen, W

    1994-09-01

    Although only one small PG has been identified in dentin until now, a preliminary investigation has shown indications of the presence of several new proteoglycans (PGs) in rat incisor dentin. The aim of the present investigation was to isolate and characterize these PGs, which were labeled with 35S to facilitate the analysis. C18 chromatography resolved five dentin PGs. Based on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, their size varied from 100 to 400 kDa. The core proteins of the first four PGs appeared as 25, 40, 70, and 115 kDa bands. They stained turquoise with Stains All but did not stain with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. The core protein of the fifth PG appeared at about 45 kDa. This core protein stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue but not with Stains All. In all PGs, the glycosaminoglycans consisted mainly of chondroitin 4-sulfate. To investigate their incorporation into predentin (young dentin that is not yet mineralized) and dentin, rat dentin PGs were pulse-labeled by injecting rats with [35S]sulfate at 5, 28, 55, or 177 h before killing the animals. Radiolabeling of predentin PGs was highest after 5 h and decreased rapidly (76%) over the next 50 h. In dentin PGs, a large percentage (34%) of the final quantity of incorporated 35S (at 177 h) was already present at 5 h. C18 chromatography of dentin PGs for each of the four time intervals showed similar 35S distribution patterns representing all five PGs, whereas the predentin appeared to contain mainly the fifth PG. This study demonstrates the existence of several apparently novel PGs in dentin that can be resolved by the use of a new method. These PGs were found in mineralized dentin and are thought to be rapidly transported toward the mineralization front. Part of the predentin PGs, on the other hand, seems to be lost as mineralization proceeds.

  8. Site specific properties of carious dentin matrices biomodified with collagen cross-linkers

    PubMed Central

    Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Karol, Sachin; Pashley, David H.; Viana, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess in non-cavitated carious teeth the mechanical properties of dentin matrix by measuring its reduced modulus of elasticity and the effect of dentin biomodification strategies on three dentin matrix zones: caries-affected, apparently normal dentin below caries-affected zone and sound dentin far from carious site. Methods Nano-indentations were performed on dentin matrices of carious molars before and after surface modification using known cross-linking agents (glutaraldehyde, proanthocyanidins from grape seed extract and carbodiimide). Results Statistically significant differences were observed between dentin zones of demineralized dentin prior to surface biomodification (P< 0.05). Following surface modification, there were no statistically significant differences between dentin zones (P< 0.05). An average increase of 30-fold, 2-fold and 2.2-fold of the reduced modulus of elasticity was observed following treatments of the three dentin zones with proanthocyanidin, carbodiimide and glutaraldehyde, respectively. PMID:24479274

  9. Micromechanical testing of the dentin hybrid zone formed by all-in-one adhesive system in sound human dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koytchev, E.; Datcheva, M.; Iankov, R.

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the spatial variations in mechanical behavior of the dentin hybrid layer formed by a single step (one bottle) dentin adhesive system. Objective. The objectives were to: (1) evaluate the mechanical behavior of the hybrid zone formed by a single sep dentin adhesive system using nanoindentation technique, (2) compare the indentation moduli (EIT) and indentation hardness (HIT) of human dentin and the hybrid zone, and (3) assess the importance of specimen hydration on the nanoindentation response. Methods. Specimens of human dentin, treated with commercial single step resin adhesive and restored with composite material were evaluated using a nanoindenter in a load-displacement control mode. The load and displacement responses were used to perform nanoindentation characterization of dentin and the hybrid layer and estimate EIT and HIT, using Oliver & Pharr approximation method. Results. In hydrated state, EIT for dentin and hybrid layer were 18.214 ± 1.30 GPa and 12.535 ± 0.19 GPa respectively. For HIT, also in hydrated state, the values in dentin and hybrid layer were 0.56 ± 0.06 GPa and 0.36 ± 0.005 GPa respectively. Viscoelastic deformation of the dentin hybrid zone exceeded that occuring in regions of uniform dentin tissue. The load displacement curves of the two zones were also estimated and analyzed. They generally follow the same pattern without any noticeable pop-ins or irregularities. Significance. The microstructure and hydration play critical roles on the mechanical behavior of the hybrid layer and nanoindentation provides a potent measurment tool for identifying the spatial variations.

  10. The adverse effect of commercial dentine-bonding systems on the skin of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Katsuno, K; Manabe, A; Kurihara, A; Itoh, K; Hisamitsu, H; Wakumoto, S; Yoshida, T

    1998-03-01

    It was widely known that 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) can cause contact dermatitis. Commercially available dentine primers and dentine bonding agents that contain 2-HEMA are widely used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative irritation and delayed hypersensitivity caused by commercial dentine bonding systems when applied to the skin of guinea pigs. We have concluded that almost no dentine bonding systems cause cumulative irritation, but some commercially available dentine bonding systems may produce delayed hypersensitivity.

  11. Kinetics of reparative DNA replication induced in CBA and C57BL/6 mouse spleen cells by urethane and influenza virus

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Antonenko, S.V.; Chekova, V.V.; Shcherbinskaya, A.M.; Nadgornaya, N.I.; Zasukhina, G.D.

    1986-09-01

    The authors investigated the reparative replication of DNA, induced by urethane and influenza virus in C57BL/6 and CBA mice which have marked differences in tumor formation. Reparative DNA replication, induced by urethane and influenza virus was investigated by a liquid scintillation method based on measuring incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into the total mass of mouse spleen cells, when replicative DNA synthesis was inhibited by hydroxyurea. The intensity of reparative DNA replication was judged from the value of the stimulation index which is the ratio of the radioactivity in the spleen cells of the experimental animals to the corresponding parameters in cells of intact animals. The phenomenon of the stimulating and inhibitory effects of influenza virus on reparative DNA replication in cells depending on their genotype and sensitivity to virus is established.

  12. Proanthocyanidins Rapidly Stabilize the Demineralized Dentin Layer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Dusevich, V.; Wang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    While proanthocyanidins (PA) are effective in improving collagen’s resistance to collagenolytic degradation, the direct incorporation of PA into an adhesive system is detrimental to the light-curing thereof. Conversely, the use of PA as a primer could circumvent this issue, but little is known about the efficacy of PA in stabilizing collagen when applied in a clinically relevant manner. This study investigated the pre- and post-digestion morphology of an acid-etched dentin collagen layer that underwent PA treatment for time periods on a scale of seconds. The null hypothesis, that there is no difference between the PA-treated and untreated control group, had to be rejected, since it was revealed that the untreated control could not survive 1 hr of exogenous collagenase digestion, while the PA-treated collagen could sustain at least 16 hrs of digestion with no perceptible changes in collagen structure. In addition, the stabilizing effect of the gold-standard cross-linker glutaraldehyde at comparable experimental conditions was found to be almost non-existent within the 5, 15, or 30 sec of cross-linking permitted. Therefore, PA have been proven to be extraordinarily efficient in stabilizing demineralized dentin collagen against enzymatic challenges in a clinically relevant setting, likely due to the non-covalent nature of their interaction with collagen molecules. PMID:23723381

  13. Pulsed HF laser ablation of dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini I.; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan G.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of a TEA (Transversally Excited Atmospheric pressure) corona preionized oscillator double amplifier HF (hydrogen fluoride) laser beam with dentin tissue is reported. Pulses of 39 ns in the wavelength range of 2.65-3.35 μm and output energies in the range of 10-45 mJ, in a predominantly TEM00 beam were used to interact with dentin tissue. Ablation experiments were conducted with the laser beam directly focused on the tissue. Several samples of freshly extracted human teeth were used, cut longitudinally in facets of about 1mm thick and stored in phosphate buffered saline after being cleaned from the soft tissue remains. The experimental data (ablation thresholds, ablation rates) are discussed with respect to the ablation mechanism(s). Adequate tissue removal was observed and the ablation behavior was, in the greates part of the available fluences, almost linear. From the microscopic examination of teh samples, in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the irradiated surfaces displayed oval craters (reflecting the laser beam shape) with absence of any melting or carbonization zone. It is suggested that the specific laser removes hard tissue by a combined photothermal and plasma mediated ablation mechanism, leaving a surface free from thermal damage and with a well-shaped crater.

  14. The distribution of magnesium in developing rat incisor dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfort, J.; Driessens, F.C.; Heijligers, H.J.; Beertsen, W. )

    1991-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that rat incisor dentin contains a considerable amount of magnesium that is distributed heterogeneously. The cementum-related dentin, especially its incisal portion, is richest in magnesium. It was the purpose of the present study to investigate the changes that occur in the magnesium content during dentin maturation. Cross-sections were prepared from rat incisors at the apical, middle, and incisal levels. By means of an electron microprobe, tracings were made of the Ca-, Mg-, and P- signal frequencies. Comparison of corresponding dentin layers within and between the cross-sections showed that the Mg/P molar ratio was always higher in the cementum-related dentin (CRD) than in the enamel-related dentin (ERD) and increased from the apex toward the incisal edge. Especially in the incisal cross-section, an increase in Mg/P was found from the older (peripheral) toward the younger (central) dentin layers. As the Mg/P ratio varied from 0.07 to 0.33, the Ca/P ratio was found to fluctuate from 1.48 to 1.15. The two ratios appeared to be highly correlated (r = -0.97; p less than 0.001), suggesting that Mg replaces Ca and is bound to phosphate.

  15. Abrasion of eroded root dentine brushed with different toothpastes.

    PubMed

    De Menezes, Márcio; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Hara, Anderson Takeo; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2004-09-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness change and wear provided by different dentifrices on root dentine previously exposed to erosive challenges. According to a randomized complete block design, 150 slabs of bovine root dentine (6 x 3 x 2 mm) were ground flat and polished. In an area of 4 x 3 mm on the dentine surface, specimens were submitted to five erosive/abrasive events, each one composed by: exposure to Sprite Diet or distilled water for 5 min, then to a remineralizing solution for 1 min, and simulation of 5,000 brushing strokes. Four dentifrices--regular (RE), baking soda (BS), whitening (WT) and tartar control (TC)--and distilled water (CO), used as control, were compared. Final texture and the wear depth were evaluated using a profilometer. ANOVA did not show significant interaction, indicating that the effect of dentifrices on both surface roughness change and wear did not depend on whether or not the dentine was eroded ( p>0.05). There was no difference between abrasion of eroded and sound dentine. The Tukey's test revealed that WT, BS and TC provided the highest increase in surface roughness differing from RE and CO. TC yielded the deepest wear of root dentine, whereas RE and CO, the shallowest. No significant difference in wear among BS, TC and WT were observed. Within the limitations of this study, the data showed that abrasion of both eroded and sound root dentine was dependent on the dentifrice used. PMID:15146320

  16. Spectroscopic and morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemor, R. M.; Kruger, Michael B.; Wieliczka, David M.; Swafford, Jim R.; Spencer, Paulette

    1999-01-01

    The potential environmental risks associated with mercury release have forced many European countries to ban the use of dental amalgam. Alternative materials such as composite resins do not provide the clinical function for the length of time characteristically associated with dental amalgam. The weak link in the composite restoration is the dentin/adhesive bond. The purpose of this study was to correlate morphologic characterization of the dentin/adhesive bond with chemical analyses using micro- Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A commercial dental adhesive was placed on dentin substrates cut from extracted, unerupted human third molars. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface were investigated using infrared radiation produced at the Aladdin synchrotron source; visible radiation from a Kr+ laser was used for the micro-Raman spectroscopy. Sections of the dentin/adhesive interface, differentially stained to identify protein, mineral, and adhesive, were examined using light microscopy. Due to its limited spatial resolution and the unknown sample thickness the infrared results cannot be used quantitatively in determining the extent of diffusion. The results from the micro-Raman spectroscopy and light microscopy indicate exposed protein at the dentin/adhesive interface. Using a laser that reduces background fluorescence, the micro-Raman spectroscopy provides quantitative chemical and morphologic information on the dentin/adhesive interface. The staining procedure is sensitive to sites of pure protein and thus, complements the Raman results.

  17. Tubule orientation and the fatigue strength of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Arola, Dwayne D; Reprogel, Robert K

    2006-03-01

    In this study the influence of tubule orientation on the strength of human dentin under static and cyclic loads was examined. Rectangular beams were sectioned from the coronal dentin of virgin extracted molars (N=83) and then loaded in quasi-static 4-point flexure or 4-point flexural fatigue to failure. The flexure strength, energy to fracture and fatigue strength were evaluated for specimens with the dentin tubules aligned parallel (theta=0 degrees ) and perpendicular (theta=90 degrees ) to the plane of maximum normal stress. Results from monotonic loading showed that both the flexural strength and energy to fracture of dentin specimens with theta=0 degrees were significantly greater than those with theta=90 degrees . Furthermore, the apparent endurance strength of dentin with theta=0 degrees (44MPa) was significantly greater than that of the dentin with theta=90 degrees (24MPa). The ratio of apparent endurance strength (for fully reversed loading) to the flexure strength for theta=0 degrees and theta=90 degrees was 0.41 and 0.28, respectively. Although the influence of tubule orientation was most important to mechanical behavior, the flexure strength and energy to fracture also decreased with an increase in tubule density. According to differences in the fatigue strength with tubule orientation, restorative practices promoting large cyclic normal stresses perpendicular to the tubules would be more likely to facilitate fatigue failure in dentin with cyclic loading.

  18. Dentin Biomodification: Strategies, Renewable Resources and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Pauli, Guido F.; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James; Castellan, Carina S.; Phansalkar, Rasika S; Aguiar, Thaiane R.; Vidal, Cristina M.P.; Napotilano, José; Nam, Joo-Won; Leme, Ariene A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The biomodification of dentin is a biomimetic approach, mediated by bioactive agents, to enhance and reinforce the dentin by locally altering the biochemistry and biomechanical properties. This review provides an overview of key dentin matrix components, targeting effects of biomodification strategies, the chemistry of renewable natural sources, and current research on their potential clinical applications. Methods The PubMed database and collected literature were used as a resource for peer-reviewed articles to highlight the topics of dentin hierarchical structure, biomodification agents, and laboratorial investigations of their clinical applications. In addition, new data is presented on laboratorial methods for the standardization of proanthocyanidin-rich preparations as a renewable source of plant-derived biomodification agents. Results Biomodification agents can be categorized as physical methods and chemical agents. Synthetic and naturally occurring chemical strategies present distinctive mechanism of interaction with the tissue. Initially thought to be driven only by inter- or intra-molecular collagen induced non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking, multiple interactions with other dentin components are fundamental for the long-term biomechanics and biostability of the tissue. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins show promising bioactivity, and their chemical complexity requires systematic evaluation of the active compounds to produce a fully standardized intervention material from renewable resource, prior to their detailed clinical evaluation. Significance Understanding the hierarchical structure of dentin and the targeting effect of the bioactive compounds will establish their use in both dentin-biomaterials interface and caries management. PMID:24309436

  19. Carbodiimide inactivation of MMPs and effect on dentin bonding.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, A; Apolonio, F M; Saboia, V P A; Santi, S; Angeloni, V; Checchi, V; Curci, R; Di Lenarda, R; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2014-03-01

    The use of protein cross-linking agents during bonding procedures has been recently proposed to improve bond durability. This study aimed to use zymography and in situ zymography techniques to evaluate the ability of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linker to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The hypotheses tested were that: (1) bonding procedures increase dentin gelatinolytic activity and (2) EDC pre-treatment prevents this enzymatic activity. The zymographic assay was performed on protein extracts obtained from dentin powder treated with Optibond FL or Scotchbond 1XT with or without 0.3M EDC pre-treatment. For in situ zymography, adhesive/dentin interfaces were created with the same adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin slabs pre-treated or not with EDC conditioner. Zymograms revealed increased expression of dentin endogenous MMP-2 and -9 after adhesive application, while the use of EDC as a primer inactivated dentin gelatinases. Results of in situ zymograpy showed that hybrid layers of tested adhesives exhibited intense collagenolytic activity, while almost no fluorescence signal was detected when specimens were pre-treated with EDC. The correlative analysis used in this study demonstrated that EDC could contribute to inactivate endogenous dentin MMPs within the hybrid layer created by etch-and-rinse adhesives.

  20. Limitations in Bonding to Dentin and Experimental Strategies to Prevent Bond Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Tjäderhane, L.; Breschi, L.; Mazzoni, A.; Li, N.; Mao, J.; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.

    2011-01-01

    The limited durability of resin-dentin bonds severely compromises the lifetime of tooth-colored restorations. Bond degradation occurs via hydrolysis of suboptimally polymerized hydrophilic resin components and degradation of water-rich, resin-sparse collagen matrices by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. This review examined data generated over the past three years on five experimental strategies developed by different research groups for extending the longevity of resin-dentin bonds. They include: (1) increasing the degree of conversion and esterase resistance of hydrophilic adhesives; (2) the use of broad-spectrum inhibitors of collagenolytic enzymes, including novel inhibitor functional groups grafted to methacrylate resins monomers to produce anti-MMP adhesives; (3) the use of cross-linking agents for silencing the activities of MMP and cathepsins that irreversibly alter the 3-D structures of their catalytic/allosteric domains; (4) ethanol wet-bonding with hydrophobic resins to completely replace water from the extrafibrillar and intrafibrillar collagen compartments and immobilize the collagenolytic enzymes; and (5) biomimetic remineralization of the water-filled collagen matrix using analogs of matrix proteins to progressively replace water with intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar apatites to exclude exogenous collagenolytic enzymes and fossilize endogenous collagenolytic enzymes. A combination of several of these strategies should result in overcoming the critical barriers to progress currently encountered in dentin bonding. PMID:21220360

  1. Structure and chemical composition of the dentin-enamel junction analyzed by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desoutter, A.; Salehi, H.; Slimani, A.; Marquet, P.; Jacquot, B.; Tassery, H.; Cuisinier, F. J. G.

    2014-02-01

    The structure and chemical composition of the human dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) was studied using confocal Raman microscopy - a chemical imaging technique. Slices of non-fixed, sound teeth were prepared with an Isomet diamond saw and scanned with Witec Alpha300R system. The combination of different characteristics peaks of phosphate, carbonate and organic matrix (respectively 960, 1072 and 1545 cm-1), generates images representing the chemical composition of the DEJ area. Images are also calculated using peak ratios enabling precise determination of the chemical composition across the DEJ. Then, with two characterized peaks, different pictures are calculated to show the ratio of two components. The images of the spatial distribution of mineral phosphate (960cm-1) to organic matrix (1545 cm-1) ratios, mineral carbonates (1072cm-1) to mineral phosphate ratios; and mineral carbonates to organic matrix ratios were reconstructed. Cross sectional and calculated graphic profile show the variations of the different chemical component ratios through the enamel and the dentin. Phosphate to organic ratio shows an accumulation of organic material under the enamel surface. The cross sectional profile of these pictures shows a high phosphate content compared to enamel in the vicinity of the DEJ. The Confocal Raman imaging technique can be used to further provide full chemical imaging of tooth, particularly of the whole DEJ and to study enamel and dentin decay.

  2. Dentinal tubules revealed with X-ray tensor tomography.

    PubMed

    Jud, Christoph; Schaff, Florian; Zanette, Irene; Wolf, Johannes; Fehringer, Andreas; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Dentin is a mineralized material making up most of the tooth bulk. A system of microtubules, so called dentinal tubules, transverses it radially from the pulp chamber to the outside. This highly oriented structure leads to anisotropic mechanical properties directly connected to the tubules orientation and density: the ultimate tensile strength as well as the fracture toughness and the shear strength are largest perpendicular to dentinal tubules. Consequently, the fatigue strength depends on the direction of dentinal tubules, too. However, none of the existing techniques used to investigate teeth provide access to orientation and density of dentinal tubules for an entire specimen in a non-destructive way. In this paper, we measure a third molar human tooth both with conventional micro-CT and X-ray tensor tomography (XTT). While the achievable resolution in micro-CT is too low to directly resolve the dentinal tubules, we provide strong evidence that the direction and density of dentinal tubules can be indirectly measured by XTT, which exploits small-angle X-ray scattering to retrieve a 3D map of scattering tensors. We show that the mean directions of scattering structures correlate to the orientation of dentinal tubules and that the mean effective scattering strength provides an estimation of the relative density of dentinal tubules. Thus, this method could be applied to investigate the connection between tubule orientation and fatigue or tensile properties of teeth for a full sample without cutting one, non-representative peace of tooth out of the full sample. PMID:27424269

  3. Role of Dentin MMPs in Caries Progression and Bond Stability

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, A.; Tjäderhane, L.; Checchi, V.; Di Lenarda, R.; Salo, T.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collagen in the adhesive hybrid layer under composite restorations. MMPs and cysteine cathepsins present in saliva, mineralized dentin, and/or dentinal fluid may affect the dentin caries process at the early phases of demineralization. Changes in collagen and noncollagenous protein structure may participate in observed decreases in mechanical properties of caries-affected dentin and reduce the ability of caries-affected dentin to remineralize. These endogenous enzymes also remain entrapped within the hybrid layer during the resin infiltration process, and the acidic bonding agents themselves (irrespective of whether they are etch-and-rinse or self-etch) can activate these endogenous protease proforms. Since resin impregnation is frequently incomplete, denuded collagen matrices associated with free water (which serves as a collagen cleavage reagent for these endogenous hydrolase enzymes) can be enzymatically disrupted, finally contributing to the degradation of the hybrid layer. There are multiple in vitro and in vivo reports showing that the longevity of the adhesive interface is increased when nonspecific enzyme-inhibiting strategies are used. Different chemicals (i.e., chlorhexidine, galardin, and benzalkonium chloride) or collagen cross-linker agents have been successfully employed as therapeutic primers in the bonding procedure. In addition, the incorporation of enzyme inhibitors (i.e., quaternary ammonium methacrylates) into the resin blends has been recently promoted. This

  4. Adhesive sealing of dentin surfaces in vitro: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Nawareg, Manar M; Zidan, Ahmed Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Agee, Kelli; Chiba, Ayaka; Tagami, Jungi; Pashley, David H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of the use of dental adhesives to form a tight seal of freshly prepared dentin to protect the pulp from bacterial products, during the time between crown preparation and final cementum of full crowns. The evolution of these “immediate dentin sealants” follows the evolution of dental adhesives, in general. That is, they began with multiple-step, etch-and-rinse adhesives, and then switched to the use of simplified adhesives. Methods Literature was reviewed for evidence that bacteria or bacterial products diffusing across dentin can irritate pulpal tissues before and after smear layer removal. Smear layers can be solubilized by plaque organisms within 7–10 days if they are directly exposed to oral fluids. It is likely that smear layers covered by temporary restorations may last more than one month. As long as smear layers remain in place, they can partially seal dentin. Thus, many in vitro studies evaluating the sealing ability of adhesive resins use smear layer-covered dentin as a reference condition. Surprisingly, many adhesives do not seal dentin as well as do smear layers. Results Both in vitro and in vivo studies show that resin-covered dentin allows dentinal fluid to cross polymerized resins. The use of simplified single bottle adhesives to seal dentin was a step backwards. Currently, most authorities use either 3-step adhesives such as Scotchbond Multi-Purposea or OptiBond FLb or two-step self-etching primer adhesives, such as Clearfil SEc, Unifil Bondd or AdheSEe, respectfully. PMID:26846037

  5. [The stimulation of reparative regeneration in the treatment of fractures of the extremities with the use of new biotechnologies].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, G V; Borovkov, V N; Eremin, A V; Orlov, A A; Saburina, I N

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of Russian and foreign authors on modern methods of stimulation of reparative regeneration of bone tissue. Highlight general principles for the construction and use of bioplastic materials. An attempt to classify the most famous of biomaterials based on their physico-chemical and biological properties, as well as identified trends in the further development of tissue engineering and its importance in traumatology and orthopedics. PMID:24340626

  6. Dentin hypersensitivity: etiology, diagnosis and treatment; a literature review.

    PubMed

    Davari, Ar; Ataei, E; Assarzadeh, H

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this review is to inform practitioners about dentin hypersensitivity (DH); to provide a brief overview of the diagnosis, etiology and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity and to discuss technical approaches to relieve sensitivity. This clinical information is described in the context of the underlying biology. The author used PUBMED to find relevant English-language literature published in the period 1999 to 2010. The author used combinations of the search terms "dentin*", "tooth", "teeth", "hypersensit*", "desensitiz*". Abstracts and also full text articles to identify studies describing etiology, prevalence, clinical features, controlled clinical trials of treatments and relevant laboratory research on mechanisms of action were used. PMID:24724135

  7. The rescue of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1)-deficient tooth defects by the transgenic expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) indicates that DSPP is a downstream effector molecule of DMP1 in dentinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Monica Prasad; Zhu, Qinglin; Wang, Suzhen; Liu, Qilin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Xiaofang; Yuan, Baozhi; Ruest, L Bruno; Feng, Jian Q; D'Souza, Rena N; Qin, Chunlin; Lu, Yongbo

    2013-03-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) are essential for the formation of dentin. Previous in vitro studies have indicated that DMP1 might regulate the expression of DSPP during dentinogenesis. To examine whether DMP1 controls dentinogenesis through the regulation of DSPP in vivo, we cross-bred transgenic mice expressing normal DSPP driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col1a1 promoter with Dmp1 KO mice to generate mice expressing the DSPP transgene in the Dmp1 KO genetic background (referred to as "Dmp1 KO/DSPP Tg mice"). We used morphological, histological, and biochemical techniques to characterize the dentin and alveolar bone of Dmp1 KO/DSPP Tg mice compared with Dmp1 KO and wild-type mice. Our analyses showed that the expression of endogenous DSPP was remarkably reduced in the Dmp1 KO mice. Furthermore, the transgenic expression of DSPP rescued the tooth and alveolar bone defects of the Dmp1 KO mice. In addition, our in vitro analyses showed that DMP1 and its 57-kDa C-terminal fragment significantly up-regulated the Dspp promoter activities in a mesenchymal cell line. In contrast, the expression of DMP1 was not altered in the Dspp KO mice. These results provide strong evidence that DSPP is a downstream effector molecule that mediates the roles of DMP1 in dentinogenesis.

  8. Dentine hypersensitivity. The effects in vitro of acids and dietary substances on root-planed and burred dentine.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Absi, E G; Adams, D

    1987-05-01

    Evidence indicates that teeth exhibiting cervical dentine hypersensitivity have open dentinal tubules at the dentine surface. The identification of factors which render dentine exposed and tubules open is important both to the prevention and management of dentine hypersensitivity. In this study, recently extracted teeth were root planed or burred to expose the root dentine. Specimens were horizontally sectioned and then using the apical portion as control, the coronal portions placed in a variety of strong and weak acids and dietary fluids. Examination under the scanning electron microscope revealed a smear layer covering completely underlying tubules on the control root planed or burred portions. Test portions exposed to strong and weak acids showed loss of the smear layer and exposure of large numbers of tubules. Formic and tannic acids produced no changes. Some dietary fluids, in particular red and white wine, citrus fruit juices, apple juice and yogurt produced similar etching effects to the acids. The low pH carbonated drink, coca-cola, and a blackcurrent cordial produced no effects. The results of this study in vitro cannot necessarily be extrapolated to the clinical situation, but suggest that certain dietary factors could play a rôle in the aetiology of dentine hypersensitivity. Dietary advice to patients may prove important in the management of this often recurrent condition. PMID:3301914

  9. Fatigue of the Resin-Dentin Interface: A New Approach for Evaluating the Durability of Dentin Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Mutluay, Mustafa Murat; Yahyazadefar, Mobin; Ryou, Heonjune; Majd, Hessam; Do, Dominic; Arola, Dwayne

    2013-01-01

    There are concerns regarding the longevity of resin composite restorations and the clinical relevance of in vitro bond strength testing to the durability of dentin bonds in vivo. Objective The objectives of this investigation were to: 1) develop a new method of experimental evaluation for quantifying the durability of dentin bonds, 2) apply this method to characterize the interfacial strength of a selected commercial system under both monotonic and cyclic loading, and 3) distinguish mechanisms contributing to the interface degradation and failure. Methods A new method for fatigue testing the resin-dentin interface was developed based on a four-point flexure arrangement that includes two identical bonded interfaces. Cyclic loading of specimens comprised of coronal dentin bonded to a commercial resin composite and controls of resin composite was performed to failure within a hydrated environment. Scanning electron microscopy and nanoscopic dynamic mechanical analysis were used to evaluate failure mechanisms. Results The fatigue strength of the resin-dentin interface was significantly lower (p≤0.0001) than that of the resin composite and reported for dentin over the entire finite life regime. Defined at 1×107 cycles, the apparent endurance limit of the resin-dentin interface was 13 MPa, in comparison to 48 MPa and 44 MPa for the resin composite and dentin, respectively. The ratio of fully reversed endurance limit to ultimate strength of the interface (0.26) was the lowest of the three materials. Significance The proposed approach for characterizing the fatigue strength of resin-dentin bonds may offer new insights concerning durability of the bonded interface. PMID:23434232

  10. Selective removal of carious dentin using a nanosecond pulsed laser with a wavelength of 6.02 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Saiki, Masayuki; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Awazu, Kunio

    2010-04-01

    Conventional laser light sources for the treatment of a hard tissue in dental (Er:YAG laser, Er,Cr:YSGG laser and CO2 laser etc.) are good for removal of caries. However these lasers cannot achieve to give a selective treatment effect for caries without a side effect for normal tissue. The objective of this study is to develop the less-invasive treatment technique of carious dentin by selective absorption effect using the laser with a wavelength of 6.02 μm which corresponds to an absorption peak of organic matters called amide 1 band. Mid-infrared nanosecond pulsed laser by difference-frequency generation was used for the experiment of selective treatment. A tunable wavelength range, pulse width and repetition rate is from 5.5 to 10 μm, 5 ns and Hz, respectively. The laser with a wavelength of 6.02 μm and predetermined energy parameters was irradiated to the plate of carious dentin model which is made by soaking in lactic acid solution. After laser irradiation, the surface and cross-sectional surface of samples were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Average power density about 15 W/cm2 realized to excavate a demineralized region (carious dentin model) selectively in a SEM observation. In the same energy condition, serious side effect was not observed on the surface of normal dentin. A wavelength of 6.02 μm realizes a selective excavation of carious dentin. Using 6.02 μm is a novel and promising technique toward to next-generation dental treatment procedure for realizing MI.

  11. Computer simulated screening of dentin bonding primer monomers through analysis of their chemical functions and their spatial 3D alignment.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, J; Vaidyanathan, T K; Ravichandran, S

    2009-02-01

    Binding interactions between dentin bonding primer monomers and dentinal collagen were studied by an analysis of their chemical functions and their spatial 3D alignment. A trial set of 12 monomers used as primers in dentin adhesives was characterized to assess them for binding to a complementary target. HipHop utility in the Catalyst software from Accelrys was used for the study. Ten hypotheses were generated by HipHop procedures involving (a) conformational generation using a poling technique to promote conformational variation, (b) extraction of functions to remodel ligands as function-based structures, and (c) identification of common patterns of functional alignment displayed by low energy conformations. The hypotheses, designated as pharmacaphores, were also scored and ranked. Analysis of pharmacaphore models through mapping of ligands revealed important differences between ligands. Top-ranked poses from direct docking simulations using type 1 collagen target were mapped in a rigid manner to the highest ranked pharmacophore model. The visual match observed in mapping and associated fit values suggest a strong correspondence between direct and indirect docking simulations. The results elegantly demonstrate that an indirect approach used to identify pharmacaphore models from adhesive ligands without a target may be a simple and viable approach to assess their intermolecular interactions with an intended target. Inexpensive indirect/direct virtual screening of hydrophilic monomer candidates may be a practical way to assess their initial promise for dentin primer use well before additional experimental evaluation of their priming/bonding efficacy. This is also of value in the search/design of new compounds for priming dentin. PMID:18546179

  12. Computer simulated screening of dentin bonding primer monomers through analysis of their chemical functions and their spatial 3D alignment.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, J; Vaidyanathan, T K; Ravichandran, S

    2009-02-01

    Binding interactions between dentin bonding primer monomers and dentinal collagen were studied by an analysis of their chemical functions and their spatial 3D alignment. A trial set of 12 monomers used as primers in dentin adhesives was characterized to assess them for binding to a complementary target. HipHop utility in the Catalyst software from Accelrys was used for the study. Ten hypotheses were generated by HipHop procedures involving (a) conformational generation using a poling technique to promote conformational variation, (b) extraction of functions to remodel ligands as function-based structures, and (c) identification of common patterns of functional alignment displayed by low energy conformations. The hypotheses, designated as pharmacaphores, were also scored and ranked. Analysis of pharmacaphore models through mapping of ligands revealed important differences between ligands. Top-ranked poses from direct docking simulations using type 1 collagen target were mapped in a rigid manner to the highest ranked pharmacophore model. The visual match observed in mapping and associated fit values suggest a strong correspondence between direct and indirect docking simulations. The results elegantly demonstrate that an indirect approach used to identify pharmacaphore models from adhesive ligands without a target may be a simple and viable approach to assess their intermolecular interactions with an intended target. Inexpensive indirect/direct virtual screening of hydrophilic monomer candidates may be a practical way to assess their initial promise for dentin primer use well before additional experimental evaluation of their priming/bonding efficacy. This is also of value in the search/design of new compounds for priming dentin.

  13. Shear bond strength of two resin cements to human root dentin using three dentin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Gogos, C; Stavrianos, C; Kolokouris, I; Economides, N; Papadoyannis, I

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the bond strength of two resin cements to human root dentin when used with three bonding agents. The materials used were Rely X ARC and Perma Cem, two one-bottle bonding agents (Single Bond, Bond-1) and one self-etching bonding agent (Clearfil SE Bond). The dentin was obtained from single rooted human teeth, and the specimens were treated with either 15% EDTA or 37% phosphoric acid to remove the smear layer, except in groups where the self-etching bonding agent was used. The resin cements were placed on dentin surfaces with the use of bonding agents. Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested using a single plane shear test assembly. The dentin specimens were divided into 10 groups. Eight groups were pre-treated with EDTA or phosphoric acid to remove the smear layer, followed by a bonding agent (Bond-1 or Single Bond) and resin cement (Rely X or Perma Cem). In the two remaining groups, the smear layer was left intact, and the two resins cements were used in combination with the self-etching bonding agent (Clearfil SE Bond). No statistically significant differences were observed among the eight groups treated with one-bottle bonding agents. The mean bond strengths of the two groups treated with the self-etching bonding agent did not differ significantly from each other but were both significantly greater than the bond strengths of all the other groups. The results of this study also showed that EDTA can be used as an alternative to phosphoric acid in bonding procedures for resin cements. However, the bond strengths of resin cements, in combination with a self-etching bonding agent, were significantly greater than those of the same cements when used with one-bottle bonding agents.

  14. Potential Reparative Role of Resident Adult Renal Stem/Progenitor Cells in Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sallustio, Fabio; Serino, Grazia; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human kidney is particularly susceptible to ischemia and toxins with consequential tubular necrosis and activation of inflammatory processes. This process can lead to the acute renal injury, and even if the kidney has a great capacity for regeneration after tubular damage, in several circumstances, the normal renal repair program may not be sufficient to achieve a successful regeneration. Resident adult renal stem/progenitor cells could participate in this repair process and have the potentiality to enhance the renal regenerative mechanism. This could be achieved both directly, by means of their capacity to differentiate and integrate into the renal tissues, and by means of paracrine factors able to induce or improve the renal repair or regeneration. Recent genetic fate-tracing studies indicated that tubular damage is instead repaired by proliferative duplication of epithelial cells, acquiring a transient progenitor phenotype and by fate-restricted clonal cell progeny emerging from different nephron segments. In this review, we discuss about the properties and the reparative characteristics of high regenerative CD133+/CD24+ cells, with a view to a future application of these cells for the treatment of acute renal injury. PMID:26309808

  15. [Reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures of mammals under antioxidant therapy conditions].

    PubMed

    Belova, S V; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of administration of the antioxidant complexes consisting of nonenzymatic antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol acetate preparation) and enzymatic antioxidants (ceruloplasmin) has been studied in rabbits with experimental arthritis. The introduction of alpha-tocopherol acetate (at a daily dose of 4 mg) improved metabolic processes in the organism (decreased in the rate of erythrocyte precipitation, total leukocytes and their stub and segmental forms; increased in erythrocyte count; reduced the glycosaminoglycan content as determined from uronic acid and hexose level; decreased ceruloplasmin activity and malonic dialdehyde level ion blood serum, all at p < 0.05), thus favoring reduction in the total activity of the inflammatory process as judged from hematological and biochemical data. Intra-articular introduction of ceruloplasmin (1.5 mg/kg, once per week) positively influenced the state of joint structures in damaged knee joints of the animals: decreased the activity of ceruloplasmin (from 5.28 ± 0.06 to 3.94 ± 0.01 AU), and malonic dialdehyde level (0.18 ± 0.02 to 0.08 ± 0.01 μM) in the articular fluid (all at p < 0.05). These effects are probably related to the elimination of inefficiency of the antioxidant system in the synovial medium, thus preventing inflammatory destruction of articular tissues, hindering the development of pannus, and assisting the activation of reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures.

  16. [Reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures of mammals under antioxidant therapy conditions].

    PubMed

    Belova, S V; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of administration of the antioxidant complexes consisting of nonenzymatic antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol acetate preparation) and enzymatic antioxidants (ceruloplasmin) has been studied in rabbits with experimental arthritis. The introduction of alpha-tocopherol acetate (at a daily dose of 4 mg) improved metabolic processes in the organism (decreased in the rate of erythrocyte precipitation, total leukocytes and their stub and segmental forms; increased in erythrocyte count; reduced the glycosaminoglycan content as determined from uronic acid and hexose level; decreased ceruloplasmin activity and malonic dialdehyde level ion blood serum, all at p < 0.05), thus favoring reduction in the total activity of the inflammatory process as judged from hematological and biochemical data. Intra-articular introduction of ceruloplasmin (1.5 mg/kg, once per week) positively influenced the state of joint structures in damaged knee joints of the animals: decreased the activity of ceruloplasmin (from 5.28 ± 0.06 to 3.94 ± 0.01 AU), and malonic dialdehyde level (0.18 ± 0.02 to 0.08 ± 0.01 μM) in the articular fluid (all at p < 0.05). These effects are probably related to the elimination of inefficiency of the antioxidant system in the synovial medium, thus preventing inflammatory destruction of articular tissues, hindering the development of pannus, and assisting the activation of reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures. PMID:25826874

  17. Selective treatment of carious dentin using a mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser at 6 μm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, Masayuki; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Optical technologies have good potential for caries detection, prevention, excavation, and the realization of minimal intervention dentistry. This study aimed to develop a selective excavation technique of carious tissue using the specific absorption in 6 μm wavelength range. Bovine dentin demineralized with lactic acid solution was used as a carious dentin model. A mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser was obtained by difference-frequency generation technique. The wavelength was tuned to 6.02 and 6.42 μm which correspond to absorption bands called amide I and amide II, respectively. The laser delivers 5 ns pulse width at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The morphological change after irradiation was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the measurement of ablation depth was performed with a confocal laser microscope. At λ = 6.02 μm and the average power density of 15 W/cm2, demineralized dentin was removed selectively with less-invasive effect on sound dentin. The wavelength of 6.42 μm also showed the possibility of selective removal. High ablation efficiency and low thermal side effect were observed using the nanosecond pulsed laser with λ = 6.02 μm. In the near future, development of compact laser device will open the minimal invasive laser treatment to the dental clinic.

  18. Morphology of the dentin structure of sloths Bradypus tridactylus: a light and scanning electron microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Santana, L N S; Barbosa, L V M; Teixeira, F B; Costa, A M P; Fernandes, L M P; Lima, R R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dentine morphology of sloths (Bradypus tridactylus). The sloth teeth were removed and prepared for light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM). LM revealed two patterns of tubular dentins: an outer with dentinary tubules over the all tooth length and one in the inner part with larger diameter and more spaced tubules, when compared to those present in the outer dentine. These findings were confirmed by SEM, which revealed a tubular pattern in the outer dentine like in humans. The inner dentine displayed pared grouped tubules that were characterized as vascular channels. It can be concluded that this sloth species present two types of dentins: an inner dentin (ortodentin) and an outer dentin characterized as a vascular dentin. This suggests a partial evolutive/adaptive process of this dental tissue, as compared to other mammalian species.

  19. Role of Dentin Compositional Changes and Structural Loss on Fracture Predilection in Endodontically Treated Teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossareh, Arezou

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of chemical compositional changes and iatrogenic dentin structural loss on the mechanical response of teeth to force and resistance to fracture. The experiments were divided into three phases. In phase 1, experimental studies were performed to evaluate the effect of chemicals used during treatment on ultrastructure, composition and resistance to fracture of dentin. In phase 2, experimental studies were used to evaluate the influence of dentin removal and remaining dentin volume on the resistance to fracture and microcrack formation in root dentin. In phase 3 finite element analysis was carried out to examine the influence of dentin loss on the stress distribution in root dentin. The combination of experimental and numerical analysis highlighted the role of remaining dentin volume and moment of inertia on root dentin biomechanics.

  20. Morphology of the dentin structure of sloths Bradypus tridactylus: a light and scanning electron microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Santana, L N S; Barbosa, L V M; Teixeira, F B; Costa, A M P; Fernandes, L M P; Lima, R R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dentine morphology of sloths (Bradypus tridactylus). The sloth teeth were removed and prepared for light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM). LM revealed two patterns of tubular dentins: an outer with dentinary tubules over the all tooth length and one in the inner part with larger diameter and more spaced tubules, when compared to those present in the outer dentine. These findings were confirmed by SEM, which revealed a tubular pattern in the outer dentine like in humans. The inner dentine displayed pared grouped tubules that were characterized as vascular channels. It can be concluded that this sloth species present two types of dentins: an inner dentin (ortodentin) and an outer dentin characterized as a vascular dentin. This suggests a partial evolutive/adaptive process of this dental tissue, as compared to other mammalian species. PMID:23410180

  1. A scanning electron microscopic study on the distribution of peritubular dentine in cheek teeth of Cervidae and Suidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, H; Kierdorf, U

    1992-09-01

    Distribution of peritubular dentine was studied in cheek teeth of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). In the two cervid species, especially intense peritubular dentine formation was found in the outer regions of mid and cuspal coronal dentine. In these areas a marked asymmetry occurred, peritubular dentine being predominantly secreted onto the side of the dentinal tubule walls nearest to the dentinoenamel junction. Intensity and asymmetry of peritubular dentine formation decreased cervically. In root dentine, the walls of the dentinal tubules were covered with only a thin peritubular dentine layer of even thickness. Here, in contrast to peripheral coronal dentine, the volume of intertubular dentine far exceeded that of peritubular dentine. In porcine coronal dentine, PTD asymmetry, being of lesser extent than in cervids, was observed only in peripheral areas of cuspal and flank regions of the cheek teeth. Because peritubular is more highly mineralized than intertubular dentine, the relative volume of dentine made up from the two components has an important influence on dentinal wear resistance. The significance of variations in volume and distribution of peritubular dentine between different dentinal regions for achieving and maintaining a functional occlusal surface is shown for cervid cheek teeth. Our results suggest that dentinal structure (in addition to enamel structure) should be taken more into consideration when discussing occlusal surface morphology in herbi- and omnivores from a functional point of view.

  2. Hardness, elasticity, and ultrastructure of bonded sound and caries-affected primary tooth dentin.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Y; Tay, F R

    2007-04-01

    Biomechanical properties of bonded dentin are important factors for resin restoration. We evaluated the hardness and elastic modulus of bonded sound and caries-affected primary tooth dentin using a one-step adhesive system, and observed the microstructure of the bonded interface. Six sound and six carious primary teeth were used. For sound teeth, flat occlusal dentin surfaces were prepared with a water-cooled high-speed diamond bur. For carious teeth, infected dentin was stained with a caries detector and removed with a water-cooled low-speed round steel bur and hand instruments. The prepared dentin was bonded with One-Up Bond F Plus (Tokuyama Dental Co., Tokyo, Japan). The resin-dentin interface and dentin beneath the interface were measured with a nano-indentation tester and observed with SEM and TEM. For both the carious and sound teeth, there was no significant difference between the hardness of the interfacial dentin and dentin 10-80 microm beneath the interface. However, the Young's modulus of the interfacial dentin was significantly lower than the dentin 40-80 microm (carious teeth) or 50-80 microm (sound teeth) beneath the interface. Both the hardness and Young's modulus of the interfacial dentin were not significantly different between the carious and sound teeth. Compared to the sound dentin, the hybrid layer on the caries-affected dentin was thicker and exhibited more complicated morphologic features. The thickness of the hybrid layers was generally less than 1 microm.

  3. In vivo Dentin Microhardness beneath a Calcium-Phosphate Cement

    PubMed Central

    Bresciani, E.; Wagner, W.C.; Navarro, M.F.L.; Dickens, S.H.; Peters, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    A minimally invasive caries-removal technique preserves potentially repairable, caries-affected dentin. Mineral-releasing cements may promote remineralization of soft residual dentin. This study evaluated the in vivo remineralization capacity of resin-based calcium-phosphate cement (Ca-PO4) used for indirect pulp-capping. Permanent carious and sound teeth indicated for extraction were excavated and restored either with or without the Ca-PO4 base (control), followed by adhesive restoration. Study teeth were extracted after 3 months, followed by sectioning and in vitro microhardness analysis of the cavity floor to 115-µm depth. Caries-affected dentin that received acid conditioning prior to Ca-PO4 basing showed significantly increased Knoop hardness near the cavity floor. The non-etched group presented results similar to those of the non-treated group. Acid etching prior to cement application increased microhardness of residual dentin near the interface after 3 months in situ. PMID:20511564

  4. Innovations for combating dentin hypersensitivity: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming

    2012-06-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common dental complaint, and in severe cases it can impair eating, drinking, and even speaking, thus interfering with the normal daily life of an individual. Throughout years of research, there has been significant advancement in understanding dentin hypersensitivity, and various treatment regimens have been developed for combating the problem. The continued efforts have recently resulted in a novel technology that uses 8% arginine and calcium carbonate for treating dentin hypersensitivity. Formulations of oral care products using this technology--including toothpaste and prophylactic pastes--have demonstrated not only their effectiveness but also their ability to provide instant relief. This paper provides an overview of the etiology of dentin hypersensitivity, the discovery and development of measures for combating the problem, and the available data on the clinical efficacy of products based on 8% arginine and calcium carbonate.

  5. Role of Alcohol on the Fracture Resistance of Dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Nalla, Ravi K.; Kinney, John H.; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie,Robert O.

    2006-05-01

    Healthy dentin, the mineralized tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth, is naturally hydrated in vivo; however, it is known that various chemical reagents including acetone and ethanol can induce dehydration and thereby affect its properties. Here, we seek to investigate this in light of the effect alcohol can have on the mechanical properties of dentin, specifically by measuring the stiffness, strength and toughness of dentin in simulated body fluid and scotch whisky. Results indicate that chemical dehydration induced by the whisky has a significant beneficial effect on the elastic modulus, strength and fracture toughness of dentin. Although this makes teeth more resistant to fracture, the change in properties is fully reversible upon rehydration. This effect is considered to be associated with increased cross-linking of the collagen molecules from intermolecular hydrogen-bonding where water is replaced with weaker hydrogen-bond forming solvents such as alcohol.

  6. Penetration of varnishes into demineralized root dentine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arends, J; Duschner, H; Ruben, J L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the penetration of three different varnishes employed in caries prevention (Duraphat, Fluor Protector and Cervitec) into demineralized dentine is quantified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the varnish penetration into lesions about 85 microns in depth if for Cervitec about 35 microns and considerably less for Duraphat and Fluor Protector. The penetration is into the dentinal tubules and is influenced by dentinal tubule direction. The drying procedure--pretreatment of the dentine--influences the penetration, though sizeably only for Cervitec applications. This paper shows that varnish penetration into the tissue and presumably 'sealing' tubules completely or partly is valuable with respect to root caries prevention and hypersensitivity. PMID:9165191

  7. Bonding stability of adhesive systems to eroded dentin.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Janaina Barros; Bonini, Gabriela; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the immediate and 6 months microshear bond strength (µSBS) of different adhesive systems to sound and eroded dentin. Sixty bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated into two groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva) and eroded dentin (erosive challenge following a pH cycling model comprising 4 ×/day Sprite Light® drink for 10 days). Then, specimens were reassigned according to the adhesive system: etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond), two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond), or one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One). Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over pre-treated dentin and filled with resin composite (Z250). Half of the specimens were evaluated by the µSBS test after 24 h, and the other half 6 months later, after water storage at 37 °C. Failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400 ×). Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). After 6 months of water aging, marked reductions in µSBS values were observed, irrespective of the substrate. The µSBS values for eroded dentin were lower than those obtained for sound dentin. No difference in bonding effectiveness was observed among adhesive systems. For all groups, adhesive/mixed failure was observed. In conclusion, eroded dentin compromises the bonding quality of adhesive systems over time. PMID:26154377

  8. Morphological effects of MMPs inhibitors on the dentin bonding

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Li, Tianbo; Li, Xiuying; Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Penglian; Li, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been studied extensively, and MMP inhibitors have been used as dental pretreatment agents prior to dentin bonding because they reduce collagen fiber degradation and improve bonding strength. However, morphologic characteristics of the collagen network after etching and of the post-adhesive dentin hybrid layers (DHL) after MMP inhibitors pretreatment have not been evaluated. Thus, we investigated demineralized dentin pretreated with chlorhexidine (CHX) and minocycline (MI) in an etch- and -rinse adhesive system with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and immuno-gold labeling markers to observe the collagen network and DHL. FESEM revealed after CHX and MI, a demineralized dentin surface and improved collagen network formation, reduced collagen degradation, and distinct gold-labeling signals. Applying adhesive after either MMP inhibitor created a better dentin interface as evidenced by immuno-gold staining, better adhesive penetration, and higher DHL quality. With microtensile bond strength tests (µTBS) we estimated bonding strength using µTBS data. Immediate µTBS was enhanced with MMP inhibitor application to the bonding surface, and the CHX group was significantly different than non-treated etched surfaces, but no significant change was detected in the MI group. Surface micromorphology of the fractured dentin resin restoration showed that the CHX group had a better resin and dentin tube combination. Both MMP inhibitors created uniform resin coverage. Thus, morphologic results and µTBS data suggest that CHX and MI can inhibit MMP activity, improve immediate bonding strength, and enhance dentin bonding stability with an etch- and -rinse adhesive system. PMID:26379873

  9. Methods for biomimetic remineralization of human dentine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chris Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the laboratory methods on biomimetic remineralization of demineralized human dentine. A systematic search of the publications in the PubMed, TRIP, and Web of Science databases was performed. Titles and abstracts of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, resin-dentine interface studies, hybrid layer studies, hybrid scaffolds studies, and irrelevant studies were excluded. The remaining papers were retrieved with full texts. Manual screening was conducted on the bibliographies of remaining papers to identify relevant articles. A total of 716 studies were found, and 690 were excluded after initial screening. Two articles were identified from the bibliographies of the remaining papers. After retrieving the full text, 23 were included in this systematic review. Sixteen studies used analogues to mimic the functions of non-collagenous proteins in biomineralization of dentine, and four studies used bioactive materials to induce apatite formation on demineralized dentine surface. One study used zinc as a bioactive element, one study used polydopamine, and another study constructed an agarose hydrogel system for biomimetic mineralization of dentine. Many studies reported success in biomimetic mineralization of dentine, including the use of non-collagenous protein analogues, bioactive materials, or elements and agarose hydrogel system. PMID:25739078

  10. Analytical method to estimate resin cement diffusion into dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Ferraz, Larissa Cristina; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; de Oliveira, Bruna Medeiros Bertol; Neto, Antonio Medina; Sato, Fracielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the diffusion of two resin luting agents (resin cements) into dentin, with the aim of presenting an analytical method for estimating the thickness of the diffusion zone. Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars (n=9). Indirect composite inlays were luted into the cavities with either a self-adhesive or a self-etch resin cement. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and the cement-dentin interface was analyzed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy. Evolution of peak intensities of the Raman bands, collected from the functional groups corresponding to the resin monomer (C–O–C, 1113 cm-1) present in the cements, and the mineral content (P–O, 961 cm-1) in dentin were sigmoid shaped functions. A Boltzmann function (BF) was then fitted to the peaks encountered at 1113 cm-1 to estimate the resin cement diffusion into dentin. The BF identified a resin cement-dentin diffusion zone of 1.8±0.4 μm for the self-adhesive cement and 2.5±0.3 μm for the self-etch cement. This analysis allowed the authors to estimate the diffusion of the resin cements into the dentin. Fitting the MRS data to the BF contributed to and is relevant for future studies of the adhesive interface.

  11. Surface characteristics of dentin experimentally exposed to hydrofluoric acid.

    PubMed

    Pioch, Thomas; Jakob, Heiko; García-Godoy, Franklin; Götz, Hermann; Dörfer, Christof E; Staehle, Hans J

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) on the surface characteristics of dentin in vitro. Dentin was exposed in 50 human molars and divided into five groups according to different etching schedules: (i) no etching, (ii) 15 s HF, (iii) 15 s H3PO4, (iv) 15 s HF and 15 s H3PO4, (v) 15 s H3PO4 and 15 s HF. Teeth were examined under a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) or two layers of fluorescence-labeled primer followed by the composite were applied, and the teeth were sectioned and examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). With scanning electron microscopy, no openings of dentinal tubules were found in groups (i), (ii), and (iv). In group (v) only a few tubules were opened and in group (iii) the smear layer was completely removed and tubules appeared open. The EDX analysis revealed that fluoride was incorporated into the dentin surface when HF was used. With CLSM, distinct hybrid layers could be detected only in group (iii). In group (v) the hybrid layer appeared less established compared with group (iii). No dentin hybridization was found in groups (i), (ii), and (iv). It is concluded that HF has the ability to close the openings of dentin tubules which were opened due to etching by phosphoric acid and cannot dissolve the smear layer.

  12. Methods for Biomimetic Remineralization of Human Dentine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chris Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the laboratory methods on biomimetic remineralization of demineralized human dentine. A systematic search of the publications in the PubMed, TRIP, and Web of Science databases was performed. Titles and abstracts of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, resin-dentine interface studies, hybrid layer studies, hybrid scaffolds studies, and irrelevant studies were excluded. The remaining papers were retrieved with full texts. Manual screening was conducted on the bibliographies of remaining papers to identify relevant articles. A total of 716 studies were found, and 690 were excluded after initial screening. Two articles were identified from the bibliographies of the remaining papers. After retrieving the full text, 23 were included in this systematic review. Sixteen studies used analogues to mimic the functions of non-collagenous proteins in biomineralization of dentine, and four studies used bioactive materials to induce apatite formation on demineralized dentine surface. One study used zinc as a bioactive element, one study used polydopamine, and another study constructed an agarose hydrogel system for biomimetic mineralization of dentine. Many studies reported success in biomimetic mineralization of dentine, including the use of non-collagenous protein analogues, bioactive materials, or elements and agarose hydrogel system. PMID:25739078

  13. Possible role of DMP1 in dentin mineralization.

    PubMed

    Beniash, Elia; Deshpande, Atul S; Fang, Ping An; Lieb, Nicholas S; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Sfeir, Charles S

    2011-04-01

    Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1), the essential noncollagenous proteins in dentin and bone, is believed to play an important role in the mineralization of these tissues, although the mechanisms of its action are not fully understood. To gain insight into DMP1 functions in dentin mineralization we have performed immunomapping of DMP1 in fully mineralized rat incisors and in vitro calcium phosphate mineralization experiments in the presence of DMP1. DMP1 immunofluorescene was localized in peritubular dentin (PTD) and along the dentin-enamel boundary. In vitro phosphorylated DMP1 induced the formation of parallel arrays of crystallites with their c-axes co-aligned. Such crystalline arrangement is a hallmark of mineralized collagen fibrils of bone and dentin. Interestingly, in DMP1-rich PTD, which lacks collagen fibrils, the crystals are organized in a similar manner. Based on our findings we hypothesize, that in vivo DMP1 controls the mineral organization outside of the collagen fibrils and plays a major role in the mineralization of PTD.

  14. Analytical method to estimate resin cement diffusion into dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Ferraz, Larissa Cristina; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; de Oliveira, Bruna Medeiros Bertol; Neto, Antonio Medina; Sato, Fracielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the diffusion of two resin luting agents (resin cements) into dentin, with the aim of presenting an analytical method for estimating the thickness of the diffusion zone. Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars (n=9). Indirect composite inlays were luted into the cavities with either a self-adhesive or a self-etch resin cement. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and the cement-dentin interface was analyzed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy. Evolution of peak intensities of the Raman bands, collected from the functional groups corresponding to the resin monomer (C-O-C, 1113 cm-1) present in the cements, and the mineral content (P-O, 961 cm-1) in dentin were sigmoid shaped functions. A Boltzmann function (BF) was then fitted to the peaks encountered at 1113 cm-1 to estimate the resin cement diffusion into dentin. The BF identified a resin cement-dentin diffusion zone of 1.8±0.4 μm for the self-adhesive cement and 2.5±0.3 μm for the self-etch cement. This analysis allowed the authors to estimate the diffusion of the resin cements into the dentin. Fitting the MRS data to the BF contributed to and is relevant for future studies of the adhesive interface.

  15. Effect of two restorative materials on root dentine erosion.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Silvia Jorge; Colucci, Vivian; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate the microhardness of root dentine adjacent to glass-ionomer and composite resin restorations after erosive challenge. A crossover study was performed in two phases of 4 consecutive days each. One hundred twelve bovine root dentine slabs were obtained, and standardized box-shaped cavities were prepared at center of each specimen. The prepared cavities were randomly restored with glass-ionomer cement or composite resin. The slabs were randomly assigned among 14 volunteers, which wore intraoral palatal device containing four restored root dentin slabs. Starting on the second day, half of the palatal acrylic devices were immersed extraorally in a lemonade-like carbonated soft drink for 90 s, four times daily for 3 days. After 3-day wash-out, dentine slabs restored with the alternative material were placed into palatal appliance and the volunteers started the second phase of this study. After erosive challenges, microhardness measurements were performed. Regardless of the restorative material employed, eroded specimens demonstrated lower microhardness value (p < 0.0001). At eroded condition examined in this study, dentine restored with glass-ionomer cement showed higher microhardness values (p < 0.0001). It may be concluded that the glass-ionomer cement decreases the progression of root dentine erosion at restoration margin.

  16. The effect of CPP-ACP and Nd:YAG laser on the bond strength of softened dentin.

    PubMed

    Kamozaki, Maria Beatriz Beber; Prakki, Anuradha; Perote, Letícia Carvalho Coutinho Costa; Gutierrez, Natalia Cortez; Pagani, Clovis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CPP-ACP treatment and Nd:YAG laser on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of softened dentin. Sixty samples were obtained from thirty sound third molars. All samples were submitted to dentin softening procedure, by the immersion of the specimens in 30 mL of Sprite Zero for 30 min. Afterwards, the samples were randomly divided according to the CPP-ACP treatment: CG-Control group; MP-treated with CPP-ACP paste (MI Paste); MPP-treated with CPP-ACP+900 ppm NaF paste (MI Paste Plus). Each group was further divided according to bonding procedure: NL-No laser; L-Laser irradiation after adhesive application and before polymerization. The laser parameters used were 1.4 W, 10 Hz, 140 mJ/pulse, with an optic fiber of 320 µm, generating energy of 174 J/cm(2) per pulse. All samples were restored with Clearfil SE Bond/Filtek Z350 XT. After 24 h, the restored samples were cut into beams (± 1 mm(2) adhesive interface area) and subjected to a µTBS test. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA test and Holm-Sidak post-hoc method (α = 0.05). The treatment with CPP-ACP pastes did not significantly affect softened dentin µTBS (p = 0.070). Statistic revealed significant reduction on µTBS values for CG/L, leading to the rejection of the second null hypothesis (p < 0.001). Both CPP-ACP based pastes did not affect µTBS of softened dentin for the adhesive system utilized. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation after application of adhesive system did affect µTBS values of softened dentin samples untreated with CPP-ACP based pastes. PMID:26083086

  17. BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER CEMENT TO PRIMARY DENTIN AFTER CUTTING WITH DIFFERENT BUR TYPES AND DENTIN CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Nicoló, Rebeca Di; Shintome, Luciana Keiko; Myaki, Silvio Issáo; Nagayassu, Marcos Paulo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bur types and acid etching protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC) to primary dentin. Forty-eight clinically sound human primary molars were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (n=12). In G1, the lingual surface of the teeth was cut with a carbide bur until a 2.0-mm-diameter dentin area was exposed, followed by the application of RM-GIC (Vitremer – 3M/ESPE) prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The specimens of G2, received the same treatment of G1, however the dentin was conditioned with phosphoric acid. In groups G3 and G4 the same procedures of G1 and G2 were conducted respectively, nevertheless dentin cutting was made with a diamond bur. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24h, and then tested in a universal testing machine. SBS. data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA (= 5%) and indicated that SBS values of RM-GIC bonded to primary dentin cut with different burs were not statistically different, but the specimens that were conditioned with phosphoric acid presented SBS values significantly higher that those without conditioning. To observe micromorphologic characteristics of the effects of dentin surface cut by diamond or carbide rotary instruments and conditioners treatment, some specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Smear layer was present in all specimens regardless of the type of rotary instrument used for dentin cutting, and specimens etched with phosphoric acid presented more effective removal of smear layer. It was concluded that SBS of a RM-GIC to primary dentin was affected by the acid conditioning but the bur type had no influence. PMID:19089179

  18. Differential regulation of dentin matrix protein 1 expression during odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Shubin; Xie, Yixia; Pi, Yuli; Feng, Jian Q

    2005-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in mineralized tooth and bone. Both in vitro and in vivo data show that DMP1 is critical for mineralization and tooth morphogenesis (growth and development). In this study, we studied Dmp1 gene regulation. The in vitro transient transfection assay identified two important DNA fragments, the 2.4- and 9.6-kb promoter regions. We next generated and analyzed transgenic mice bearing the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter gene driven by the 2.4- or 9.6-kb promoter with the complete 4-kb intron 1. The 9.6-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice conferred a DMP1 expression pattern in odontoblasts identical to that in the endogenous Dmp1 gene. This is reflected by lacZ expression in Dmp1-lacZ knock-in mice during all stages of odontogenesis. In contrast, the 2.4-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice display activity in odontoblast cells only at the early stage of odontogenesis. Thus, we propose that different transcription factors regulate early or later cis-regulatory domains of the Dmp1 promoter, which gives rise to the unique spatial and temporal expression pattern of Dmp1 gene at different stages of tooth development.

  19. Possible involvement of inflammatory/reparative processes in the development of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Protic, Olga; Toti, Paolo; Islam, Md Soriful; Occhini, Rossella; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Catherino, William H; Cinti, Saverio; Petraglia, Felice; Ciavattini, Andrea; Castellucci, Mario; Hinz, Boris; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2016-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors in the smooth muscle layer of the uterus. The most common histological type is the "usual leiomyoma", characterized by overexpression of ECM proteins, whereas the "cellular type" has higher cellular content. Our objective is to investigate the involvement of inflammatory and reparative processes in leiomyoma pathobiology. Using a morphological approach, we investigate the presence of inflammatory cells. Next, we determine the localization of the ECM, the presence/absence of fibrotic cells via α-sma and desmin and the immunohistochemical profile of the mesenchymal cells with respect to CD34. Finally, we explore the effect of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, GM-CSF and IFN-γ) on pro-fibrotic factor activin A mRNA expression in vitro. Higher numbers of macrophages were found inside and close to leiomyomas as compared to the more distant myometrium. Cellular leiomyomas showed more macrophages and mast cells than the "usual type". Inside the fibroid tissue, we found cells positive for α-sma, but negative for desmin and a large amount of collagen surrounding the nodule, suggestive of myofibroblasts producing ECM. In the myometrium and leiomyomas of the "usual type", we identified numerous CD34+ fibroblasts, which are known to give rise to myofibroblasts upon loss of CD34 expression. In leiomyomas of the "cellular type", stromal fibroblasts were CD34-negative. Finally, we found that TNF-α increased activin A mRNA in myometrial and leiomyoma cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the presence of inflammatory cells in uterine leiomyomas, which may contribute to excessive ECM production, tissue remodeling and leiomyoma growth. PMID:26613601

  20. A New Method to Stabilize C-Kit Expression in Reparative Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Dassanayaka, Sujith; Zafir, Ayesha; Ghafghazi, Shahab; Long, Bethany W.; Noble, Camille; DeMartino, Angelica M.; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Bolli, Roberto; Jones, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy improves cardiac function. Few cells have been investigated more extensively or consistently shown to be more effective than c-kit sorted cells; however, c-kit expression is easily lost during passage. Here, our primary goal was to develop an improved method to isolate c-kitpos cells and maintain c-kit expression after passaging. Cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMCs) from wild-type mice were selected by polystyrene adherence properties. CMCs adhering within the first hours are referred to as rapidly adherent (RA); CMCs adhering subsequently are dubbed slowly adherent (SA). Both RA and SA CMCs were c-kit sorted. SA CMCs maintained significantly higher c-kit expression than RA cells; SA CMCs also had higher expression endothelial markers. We subsequently tested the relative efficacy of SA vs. RA CMCs in the setting of post-infarct adoptive transfer. Two days after coronary occlusion, vehicle, RA CMCs, or SA CMCs were delivered percutaneously with echocardiographic guidance. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, significantly improved cardiac function compared to vehicle treatment. Although the mechanism remains to be elucidated, the more pronounced endothelial phenotype of the SA CMCs coupled with the finding of increased vascular density suggest a potential pro-vasculogenic action. This new method of isolating CMCs better preserves c-kit expression during passage. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, were effective in reducing cardiac dysfunction. Although c-kit expression was maintained, it is unclear whether maintenance of c-kit expression per se was responsible for improved function, or whether the differential adherence property itself confers a reparative phenotype independently of c-kit. PMID:27536657

  1. Restoring Akt1 activity in outgrowth endothelial cells from South Asian men rescues vascular reparative potential.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Yuldasheva, Nadira Y; Viswambharan, Hema; Mercer, Ben N; Baliga, Vivek; Stephen, Sam L; Askham, Jonathan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Skromna, Anna; Mughal, Romana S; Walker, Andrew M N; Bruns, Alexander; Bailey, Marc A; Galloway, Stacey; Imrie, Helen; Gage, Matthew C; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Li, Jing; Porter, Karen E; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Beech, David J; Kearney, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Recent data suggest reduced indices of vascular repair in South Asian men, a group at increased risk of cardiovascular events. Outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) represent an attractive tool to study vascular repair in humans and may offer potential in cell-based repair therapies. We aimed to define and manipulate potential mechanisms of impaired vascular repair in South Asian (SA) men. In vitro and in vivo assays of vascular repair and angiogenesis were performed using OEC derived from SA men and matched European controls, prior defining potentially causal molecular mechanisms. SA OEC exhibited impaired colony formation, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis, associated with decreased expression of the proangiogenic molecules Akt1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Transfusion of European OEC into immunodeficient mice after wire-induced femoral artery injury augmented re-endothelialization, in contrast with SA OEC and vehicle; SA OEC also failed to promote angiogenesis after induction of hind limb ischemia. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 (E17KAkt), but not green fluorescent protein control, in SA OEC increased in vitro angiogenesis, which was abrogated by a NOS antagonist. Moreover, E17KAkt expressing SA OEC promoted re-endothelialization of wire-injured femoral arteries, and perfusion recovery of ischemic limbs, to a magnitude comparable with nonmanipulated European OEC. Silencing Akt1 in European OEC recapitulated the functional deficits noted in SA OEC. Reduced signaling via the Akt/eNOS axis is causally linked with impaired OEC-mediated vascular repair in South Asian men. These data prove the principle of rescuing marked reparative dysfunction in OEC derived from these men.

  2. A New Method to Stabilize C-Kit Expression in Reparative Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells.

    PubMed

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Dassanayaka, Sujith; Zafir, Ayesha; Ghafghazi, Shahab; Long, Bethany W; Noble, Camille; DeMartino, Angelica M; Brittian, Kenneth R; Bolli, Roberto; Jones, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy improves cardiac function. Few cells have been investigated more extensively or consistently shown to be more effective than c-kit sorted cells; however, c-kit expression is easily lost during passage. Here, our primary goal was to develop an improved method to isolate c-kit(pos) cells and maintain c-kit expression after passaging. Cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMCs) from wild-type mice were selected by polystyrene adherence properties. CMCs adhering within the first hours are referred to as rapidly adherent (RA); CMCs adhering subsequently are dubbed slowly adherent (SA). Both RA and SA CMCs were c-kit sorted. SA CMCs maintained significantly higher c-kit expression than RA cells; SA CMCs also had higher expression endothelial markers. We subsequently tested the relative efficacy of SA vs. RA CMCs in the setting of post-infarct adoptive transfer. Two days after coronary occlusion, vehicle, RA CMCs, or SA CMCs were delivered percutaneously with echocardiographic guidance. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, significantly improved cardiac function compared to vehicle treatment. Although the mechanism remains to be elucidated, the more pronounced endothelial phenotype of the SA CMCs coupled with the finding of increased vascular density suggest a potential pro-vasculogenic action. This new method of isolating CMCs better preserves c-kit expression during passage. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, were effective in reducing cardiac dysfunction. Although c-kit expression was maintained, it is unclear whether maintenance of c-kit expression per se was responsible for improved function, or whether the differential adherence property itself confers a reparative phenotype independently of c-kit. PMID:27536657

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Henry F.; Smith, Anthony J.; Fleming, Garry J.P.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2013-06-10

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2.

  4. The effect of IDS (immediate dentin sealing) on dentin bond strength under various thermocycling periods

    PubMed Central

    Leesungbok, Richard; Lee, Sang-Min; Park, Su-Jung; Lee, Suk-Won; Lee, Do Yun; Im, Byung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) on bond strength of ceramic restoration under various thermocycling periods with DBA (dentin bonding agent system). MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty freshly extracted human mandibular third molars were divided into 5 groups (1 control and 4 experimental groups) of 10 teeth. We removed enamel layer of sound teeth and embedded them which will proceed to be IDS, using All Bond II. A thermocycling was applied to experimental groups for 1, 2, 7, 14 days respectively and was not applied to control group. IPS Empress II for ceramic was acid-etched with ceramic etchant (9.5% HF) and silane was applied. Each ceramic disc was bonded to specimens with Duo-link, dual curable resin cement by means of light curing for 100 seconds. After the cementation procedures, shear bond strength measurement and SEM analysis of the fractured surface were done. The data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison test (α=.05). RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between 4 experimental groups and control group, however the mean value started to decrease in group 7d, and group 14d showed the lowest mean bond strength in all groups. Also, group 7d and 14d showed distinct exposed dentin and collapsed hybrid layer was observed in SEM analysis. CONCLUSION In the present study, it can be concluded that ceramic restorations like a laminate veneer restoration should be bonded using resin cement within one week after IDS procedure. PMID:26140174

  5. DMP1-derived peptides promote remineralization of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Padovano, J D; Ravindran, S; Snee, P T; Ramachandran, A; Bedran-Russo, A K; George, A

    2015-04-01

    Remineralization of dentin during dental caries is of considerable clinical interest. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a non-collagenous calcium-binding protein that plays a critical role in biomineralization. In the present study, we tested if peptides derived from DMP1 can be used for dentin remineralization. Peptide pA (pA, MW = 1.726 kDa) and peptide pB (pB, MW = 2.185), containing common collagen-binding domains and unique calcium-binding domains, were synthesized by solid-phase chemistry. An extreme caries lesion scenario was created by collagenase digestion, and the biomineral-nucleating potential of these peptides was ascertained when coated on collagenase-treated dentin matrix and control, native human dentin matrix under physiological levels of calcium and phosphate. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that peptide pB was an effective nucleator when compared with pA. However, a 1:4 ratio of pA to pB was determined to be ideal for dentin remineralization, based on hydroxyapatite (HA) morphology and calcium/phosphorus ratios. Interestingly, HA was nucleated on collagenase-challenged dentin with as little as 20 min of 1:4 peptide incubation. Electron diffraction confirmed the presence of large HA crystals that produced a diffraction pattern indicative of a rod-like crystal structure. These findings suggest that DMP1-derived peptides may be useful to modulate mineral deposition and subsequent formation of HA when exposed to physiological concentrations of calcium and phosphate. PMID:25694469

  6. DMP1-derived Peptides Promote Remineralization of Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Padovano, J.D.; Ravindran, S.; Snee, P.T.; Ramachandran, A.; Bedran-Russo, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Remineralization of dentin during dental caries is of considerable clinical interest. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a non-collagenous calcium-binding protein that plays a critical role in biomineralization. In the present study, we tested if peptides derived from DMP1 can be used for dentin remineralization. Peptide pA (pA, MW = 1.726 kDa) and peptide pB (pB, MW = 2.185), containing common collagen-binding domains and unique calcium-binding domains, were synthesized by solid-phase chemistry. An extreme caries lesion scenario was created by collagenase digestion, and the biomineral-nucleating potential of these peptides was ascertained when coated on collagenase-treated dentin matrix and control, native human dentin matrix under physiological levels of calcium and phosphate. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that peptide pB was an effective nucleator when compared with pA. However, a 1:4 ratio of pA to pB was determined to be ideal for dentin remineralization, based on hydroxyapatite (HA) morphology and calcium/phosphorus ratios. Interestingly, HA was nucleated on collagenase-challenged dentin with as little as 20 min of 1:4 peptide incubation. Electron diffraction confirmed the presence of large HA crystals that produced a diffraction pattern indicative of a rod-like crystal structure. These findings suggest that DMP1-derived peptides may be useful to modulate mineral deposition and subsequent formation of HA when exposed to physiological concentrations of calcium and phosphate. PMID:25694469

  7. DMP1-derived peptides promote remineralization of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Padovano, J D; Ravindran, S; Snee, P T; Ramachandran, A; Bedran-Russo, A K; George, A

    2015-04-01

    Remineralization of dentin during dental caries is of considerable clinical interest. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a non-collagenous calcium-binding protein that plays a critical role in biomineralization. In the present study, we tested if peptides derived from DMP1 can be used for dentin remineralization. Peptide pA (pA, MW = 1.726 kDa) and peptide pB (pB, MW = 2.185), containing common collagen-binding domains and unique calcium-binding domains, were synthesized by solid-phase chemistry. An extreme caries lesion scenario was created by collagenase digestion, and the biomineral-nucleating potential of these peptides was ascertained when coated on collagenase-treated dentin matrix and control, native human dentin matrix under physiological levels of calcium and phosphate. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that peptide pB was an effective nucleator when compared with pA. However, a 1:4 ratio of pA to pB was determined to be ideal for dentin remineralization, based on hydroxyapatite (HA) morphology and calcium/phosphorus ratios. Interestingly, HA was nucleated on collagenase-challenged dentin with as little as 20 min of 1:4 peptide incubation. Electron diffraction confirmed the presence of large HA crystals that produced a diffraction pattern indicative of a rod-like crystal structure. These findings suggest that DMP1-derived peptides may be useful to modulate mineral deposition and subsequent formation of HA when exposed to physiological concentrations of calcium and phosphate.

  8. Shear bond strength of partial coverage restorations to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Alonso-Pérez-Barquero, Jorge; Fons-Font, Antonio; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background When partial coverage restorations (veneers, inlays, onlays…) must be cemented to dentin, bond strength may not reach the same predictable values as to enamel. The purpose of this study was: 1. To compare, with a shear bond test, the bond strength to dentin of a total-etch and a self-etching bonding agent. 2. To determine whether creating microretention improves the bond strength to dentin. Material and Methods Two bonding agents were assayed, Optibond FL® (Kerr), two-bottle adhesive requiring acid etching, and Clearfil SE Bond® (Kuraray), two-bottle self-etching adhesive. The vestibular, lingual, distal and mesial surfaces of ten molars (n=10) were ground to remove all enamel and 40 ceramic samples were cemented with Variolink II® (Ivoclar Vivadent). Half the molar surfaces were treated to create round microretention (pits) to determine whether these could influence bond strength to dentin. The 40 molar surfaces were divided into four groups (n=10): Optibond FL (O); Clearfil SE (C); Optibond FL + microretention (OM); Clearfil SE + micro retention (CM). A shear bond test was performed and the bond failures provoked examined under an optical microscope. Results O=35.27±8.02 MPa; C=36.23±11.23 MPa; OM=28.61±6.27 MPa; CM=27.01±7.57 MPa. No statistically significant differences were found between the adhesives. Optibond FL showed less statistical dispersion than Clearfil SE. The presence of microretentions reduced bond strength values regardless of the adhesive used. Conclusions 1. Clearfil SE self-etching adhesive and Optibond FL acid-etch showed adequate bond strengths and can be recommended for bonding ceramic restorations to dentin. 2. The creation of round microretention pits compromises these adhesives’ bond strength to dentin. Key words:Adhesion to dentin, bonding agent, Optibond FL, Clearfil SE, microretention, shear bond test. PMID:26330937

  9. Alternative surgical treatment for giant-cell reparative granuloma in the metacarpal, using phenol and ethanol adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Akio; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Shuichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2007-01-01

    Giant-cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) or a solid variant of an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an uncommon benign reactive lesion with a predilection for the small tubular bones of the hands and feet. Treatment usually involves wide resection or amputation because of unacceptable high recurrence rates after curettage. Adjuvant therapy usually is applied to reduce the recurrence of locally aggressive bone tumors. We report 2 cases of GCRG that were treated successfully with curettage, adjuvant phenol and ethanol, and autogenous bone grafting.

  10. An in vitro comparison of acid etched vs. nonacid etched dentin bonding agents/composite interfaces over primary dentin.

    PubMed

    Donly, K J; Keprta, M; Stratmann, R G

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acid etchant penetration on dentin bonding agents and its effect on the composite resin bond strength. Forty primary molars were mounted, then the buccal and lingual surfaces were prepared into dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups of 10, and four dentin bonding agents were placed on the buccal and lingual surfaces of exposed dentin, as recommended by the manufacturers. One surface of each tooth was etched randomly for 60 sec with 35% phosphoric acid. A standardized tube of composite resin was placed on each dentin surface and polymerized for 60 sec. The tubes were sheared off with an Instron Testing Machine. The specimens then were sectioned to be examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results demonstrated shear strengths (kg/cm2) of etched (e) and unetched (u) bonding agents to be: Scotchbond (3M Dental Products, St. Paul, MN) (e) 116.7 +/- 37.7, (u) 116.7 +/- 63.0; Scotchbond 2 (3M Dental Products, St. Paul, MN) (e) 112.0 +/- 40.6, (u) 127.0 +/- 38.7; Gluma (Bayer Dental, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany) (e) 80.1 +/- 21.7, (u) 107.0 +/- 16.6; Bondlite (Kerr Manufacturing Co., Romulus, MI) (e) 53.4 +/- 34.7, (u) 79.1 +/- 26.3. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated a statistical significance in variance at the P less than 0.001 level. Scheffe's Test indicated no statistically significant differences between the bond strengths of etched vs. nonetched dentin bonding agents and composite resin. SEM evaluation indicated that the acid etchant penetrated none of the dentin bonding agents. PMID:1886824

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA ON DENTIN EROSION AND ABRASION

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Rios, Daniela; Hannas, Angélica Reis; Attin, Thomas; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This in situ study evaluated the protective effect of green tea on dentin erosion (ERO) and erosion-abrasion (ABR). Material and methods: Ten volunteers wore intraoral palatal appliances with bovine dentin specimens subjected to ERO or ERO + toothbrushing abrasion performed immediately (ERO+I-ABR) or 30 min after erosion (ERO+30-min-ABR). During 2 experimental 5-day crossover phases, the volunteers rinsed with green tea or water (control, 1 min) between each erosive (5 min, cola drink) and abrasive challenge (30 s, toothbrushing), 4x/day. Dentin wear was measured by profilometry. Results: The green tea reduced the dentin wear significantly for all conditions compared to control. ERO+I-ABR led to significantly higher wear than ERO, but it was not significantly different from ERO+30-min-ABR. ERO+30-min-ABR provoked significant higher wear than ERO, only for the placebo treatment. Conclusions: From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that green tea reduces the dentin wear under erosive/abrasive conditions. PMID:20027426

  12. Novel dentin phosphoprotein frameshift mutations in dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    PubMed

    Lee, K-E; Kang, H-Y; Lee, S-K; Yoo, S-H; Lee, J-C; Hwang, Y-H; Nam, K H; Kim, J-S; Park, J-C; Kim, J-W

    2011-04-01

    The dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene encodes the most abundant non-collagenous protein in tooth dentin and DSPP protein is cleaved into several segments including the highly phosphorylated dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). Mutations in the DSPP gene have been solely related to non-syndromic form of hereditary dentin defects. We recruited three Korean families with dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) type II and sequenced the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the DSPP gene based on the candidate gene approach. Direct sequencing of PCR products and allele-specific cloning of the highly repetitive exon 5 revealed novel single base pair (bp) deletional mutations (c.2688delT and c.3560delG) introducing hydrophobic amino acids in the hydrophilic repeat domain of the DPP coding region. All affected members of the three families showed exceptionally rapid pulp chambers obliteration, even before tooth eruption. Individuals with the c.3560delG mutation showed only mild, yellowish tooth discoloration, in contrast to the affected individuals from two families with c.2688delT mutation. We believe that these results will help us to understand the molecular pathogenesis of DGI type II as well as the normal process of dentin biomineralization.

  13. Machining human dentin by abrasive water jet drilling.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Tegtmeyer, Sven; Biskup, Christian; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experimental in-vitro study was to investigate the machining of human dentin using an abrasive water jet and to evaluate the influence of different abrasives and water pressures on the removal rate. Seventy-two human teeth had been collected after extraction and randomly divided into six homogeneous groups (n=12). The teeth were processed in the area of root dentin with an industrial water jet device. Different abrasives (saccharose, sorbitol, xylitol) and water pressures (15 or 25 MPa) were used in each group. Dimensions of dentin removal were analysed using a stripe projection microscope and both drilling depth as well as volume of abrasion were recorded. Morphological analyses of the dentin cavities were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both drilling depth and volume of abrasion were significantly influenced by the abrasive and the water pressure. Depending on these parameters, the drilling depth averaged between 142 and 378 μm; the volume of abrasion averaged between 0.07 and 0.15 mm3. Microscopic images revealed that all cavities are spherical and with clearly defined margins. Slight differences between the abrasives were found with respect to the microroughness of the surface of the cavities. The results indicate that abrasive water jet machining is a promising technique for processing human dentin.

  14. Studies of osteocalcin function in dentin formation in rodent teeth.

    PubMed

    Bronckers, A L; Price, P A; Schrijvers, A; Bervoets, T J; Karsenty, G

    1998-06-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a major non-collagenous protein synthesized by osteoblasts, odontoblasts and cementoblasts. We examined the function of OC in dentinogenesis by exposing rat and hamster tooth organ cultures to 1,25(OH)2vit D3 or to bovine OC added to the culture medium. We furthermore examined dentinogenesis in tooth explants cultured in the presence of warfarin (an inhibitor of gamma-carboxylation of OC). Finally, we analyzed dentin from osteocalcin null mutant mice. Exposure to 1,25(OH)2vit D3 increased OC synthesis by odontoblasts in vitro at the transcriptional and protein levels but had no apparent effect on matrix formation or 45Ca uptake. High levels of bovine OC temporarily suppressed the initial formation of dentin and enamel and uptake of 45Ca. This effect was not seen when tooth explants were exposed to thermally decarboxylated OC. Exposure of tooth explants to warfarin had no significant effect on dentinogenesis. Dentin obtained from two-month-old OC null mutants looked structurally normal and did not show marked differences in dentin matrix thickness and mineral content compared to wild type. We concluded that, although OC at supraphysiological levels has the potential to affect dentin mineralization probably through its Gla-residues, the locally produced levels of OC are not sufficient to markedly influence dentinogenesis.

  15. Effects of direct and indirect bleach on dentin fracture toughness.

    PubMed

    Tam, L E; Noroozi, A

    2007-12-01

    There are concerns that tooth-whitening procedures irreversibly damage tooth structure. We investigated the hypothesis that dental bleaches significantly affect dentin structural integrity. The objective was to evaluate the effects of peroxide bleaches on dentin fracture toughness. Compact test specimens, composed of human dentin, were used (n = 10/group). Bleach (16% or 10% carbamide peroxide or 3% hydrogen peroxide) or control material, containing 0.1% sodium fluoride, was applied directly or indirectly to dentin through enamel (6 hrs/day) for 2 or 8 weeks. Fracture toughness results were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test (p < 0.05). There were significant decreases in mean fracture toughness after two- and eight-week direct (19-34% and 61-68%, respectively) and indirect (up to 17% and 37%, respectively) bleach application. The in vitro reduction in dentin fracture toughness caused by the application of peroxide bleaches was greater for the direct application method, longer application time, and higher bleach concentration.

  16. Porcine dentin sialophosphoprotein: length polymorphisms, glycosylation, phosphorylation, and stability.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Lu, Yuhe; Hu, Jan C-C; Kim, Jung-Wook; Iwata, Takanori; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Hu, Yuanyuan; Fukae, Makoto; Simmer, James P

    2008-05-23

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is critical for proper mineralization of tooth dentin, and mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects. Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is the C-terminal cleavage product of DSPP that binds collagen and induces intrafibrillar mineralization. We isolated DPP from individual pigs and determined that its N-terminal and C-terminal domains are glycosylated and that DPP averages 155 phosphates per molecule. Porcine DPP is unstable at low pH and high temperatures, and complexing with collagen improves its stability. Surprisingly, we observed DPP size variations on SDS-PAGE for DPP isolated from individual pigs. These variations are not caused by differences in proteolytic processing or degrees of phosphorylation or glycosylation, but rather to allelic variations in Dspp. Characterization of the DPP coding region identified 4 allelic variants. Among the 4 alleles, 27 sequence variations were identified, including 16 length polymorphisms ranging from 3 to 63 nucleotides. None of the length variations shifted the reading frame, and all localized to the highly redundant region of the DPP code. The 4 alleles encode DPP domains having 551, 575, 589, or 594 amino acids and completely explain the DPP size variations. DPP length variations are polymorphic and are not associated with dentin defects.

  17. DMP1 processing is essential to dentin and jaw formation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Lu, Y; Chen, L; Gao, T; D'Souza, R; Feng, J Q; Qin, C

    2011-05-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), an acidic protein that is essential to the mineralization of bone and dentin, exists as proteolytically processed fragments in the mineralized tissues. In this study, we characterized the tooth and jaw phenotypes in transgenic mice containing no wild-type DMP1, but expressing a mutant DMP1 in which Asp(213), a residue at one cleavage site, was replaced by Ala(213) (named "Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg" mice). The teeth and mandible of Dmp1-KO/D213A-Tg mice were compared with those of wild-type, Dmp1-knockout (Dmp1-KO), and Dmp1-KO mice expressing the normal Dmp1 transgene. The results showed that D213A-DMP1 was not cleaved in dentin, and the expression of D213A-DMP1 failed to rescue the defects in the dentin, cementum, and alveolar bones in the Dmp1-KO mice. These findings indicate that the proteolytic processing of DMP1 is essential to the formation and mineralization of dentin, cementum, and jaw bones.

  18. Penetration of smeared or nonsmeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Love, R M; Chandler, N P; Jenkinson, H F

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetration of smeared and nonsmeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii. Prepared human roots, grouped as either nonsmeared or smeared, were immersed in a suspension of S. gordonii cells for 3 weeks. The roots were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis. Dentine discs prepared from coronal dentine were grouped similarly. Using a fluid filtration apparatus, the hydraulic conductance (Lp) of each disc was determined before and after incubation with bacterial suspension. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the roots following infection with bacteria showed no change in the smear layer (P < 0.0001). Histological sections revealed that bacterial penetration of all the nonsmeared samples had occurred, while nine out of 10 smeared samples showed no bacterial penetration (P < 0.0001). The Lp of the nonsmeared discs was significantly reduced by 42% (P < 0.0001) after bacterial penetration. However, the smeared samples revealed a 1% reduction in Lp which was not significant (P > 0.05). The results suggest that dentinal smear layers are an effective barrier to dentinal tubule invasion by S. gordonii. PMID:9206406

  19. Machining human dentin by abrasive water jet drilling.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Tegtmeyer, Sven; Biskup, Christian; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experimental in-vitro study was to investigate the machining of human dentin using an abrasive water jet and to evaluate the influence of different abrasives and water pressures on the removal rate. Seventy-two human teeth had been collected after extraction and randomly divided into six homogeneous groups (n=12). The teeth were processed in the area of root dentin with an industrial water jet device. Different abrasives (saccharose, sorbitol, xylitol) and water pressures (15 or 25 MPa) were used in each group. Dimensions of dentin removal were analysed using a stripe projection microscope and both drilling depth as well as volume of abrasion were recorded. Morphological analyses of the dentin cavities were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both drilling depth and volume of abrasion were significantly influenced by the abrasive and the water pressure. Depending on these parameters, the drilling depth averaged between 142 and 378 μm; the volume of abrasion averaged between 0.07 and 0.15 mm3. Microscopic images revealed that all cavities are spherical and with clearly defined margins. Slight differences between the abrasives were found with respect to the microroughness of the surface of the cavities. The results indicate that abrasive water jet machining is a promising technique for processing human dentin. PMID:24642975

  20. Water content and apparent stiffness of non-caries versus caries-affected human dentin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shuichi; Saito, Takashi; Tay, Franklin R; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Pashley, David H

    2005-01-15

    Caries-affected dentin contains less mineral and more water than surrounding normal dentin. Such dentin should be less stiff and should shrink more than normal dentin when dried. The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between the stiffness, shrinkage, and water content of caries-affected versus normal dentin. Extracted human carious third molars were stained with caries-detector dye and the occlusal surfaces ground down until only caries-affected dentin remained, surrounded by normal dentin. Dentin disks were prepared from these crowns placed in a aluminum well positioned under a modified thermal mechanical analyzer. Changes in specimen height and stiffness were measured following drying or static loading in both caries-affected and surrounding normal dentin. Core samples of these two types of dentin were used to gravimetrically measure water content. Two-way ANOVA and regression analysis was used to test the relationship between shrinkage versus water content, stiffness versus water content, and stiffness versus shrinkage. Caries-affected dentin was found to be less stiff and contained more water than normal dentin (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed highly significant inverse relationships between stiffness and water content, and stiffness and shrinkage (p < 0.0005).

  1. The Difference of Structural State and Deformation Behavior between Teenage and Mature Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Panfilov, Peter; Zaytsev, Dmitry; Antonova, Olga V.; Alpatova, Victoria; Kiselnikova, Larissa P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The cause of considerable elasticity and plasticity of human dentin is discussed in the relationship with its microstructure. Methods. Structural state of teenage and mature human dentin is examined by using XRD and TEM techniques, and their deformation behavior under compression is studied as well. Result. XRD study has shown that crystallographic type of calcium hydroxyapatite in human dentin (calcium hydrogen phosphate hydroxide Ca9HPO4(PO4)5OH; Space Group P63/m (176); a = 9,441 A; c = 6,881 A; c/a = 0,729; Crystallite (Scherrer) 200 A) is the same for these age groups. In both cases, dentin matrix is X-ray amorphous. According to TEM examination, there are amorphous and ultrafine grain phases in teenage and mature dentin. Mature dentin is stronger on about 20% than teenage dentin, while teenage dentin is more elastic on about 20% but is less plastic on about 15% than mature dentin. Conclusion. The amorphous phase is dominant in teenage dentin, whereas the ultrafine grain phase becomes dominant in mature dentin. Mechanical properties of human dentin under compression depend on its structural state, too. PMID:26989416

  2. The Difference of Structural State and Deformation Behavior between Teenage and Mature Human Dentin.

    PubMed

    Panfilov, Peter; Zaytsev, Dmitry; Antonova, Olga V; Alpatova, Victoria; Kiselnikova, Larissa P

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The cause of considerable elasticity and plasticity of human dentin is discussed in the relationship with its microstructure. Methods. Structural state of teenage and mature human dentin is examined by using XRD and TEM techniques, and their deformation behavior under compression is studied as well. Result. XRD study has shown that crystallographic type of calcium hydroxyapatite in human dentin (calcium hydrogen phosphate hydroxide Ca9HPO4(PO4)5OH; Space Group P63/m (176); a = 9,441 A; c = 6,881 A; c/a = 0,729; Crystallite (Scherrer) 200 A) is the same for these age groups. In both cases, dentin matrix is X-ray amorphous. According to TEM examination, there are amorphous and ultrafine grain phases in teenage and mature dentin. Mature dentin is stronger on about 20% than teenage dentin, while teenage dentin is more elastic on about 20% but is less plastic on about 15% than mature dentin. Conclusion. The amorphous phase is dominant in teenage dentin, whereas the ultrafine grain phase becomes dominant in mature dentin. Mechanical properties of human dentin under compression depend on its structural state, too. PMID:26989416

  3. Reparative Dentinogenesis Induced by Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Review from the Biological and Physicochemical Points of View

    PubMed Central

    Okiji, Takashi; Yoshiba, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to review the biological and physicochemical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with respect to its ability to induce reparative dentinogenesis, which involves complex cellular and molecular events leading to hard-tissue repair by newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells. Compared with that of calcium hydroxide-based materials, MTA is more efficient at inducing reparative dentinogenesis in vivo. The available literature suggests that the action of MTA is attributable to the natural wound healing process of exposed pulps, although MTA can stimulate hard-tissue-forming cells to induce matrix formation and mineralization in vitro. Physicochemical analyses have revealed that MTA not only acts as a “calcium hydroxide-releasing” material, but also interacts with phosphate-containing fluids to form apatite precipitates. MTA also shows better sealing ability and structural stability, but less potent antimicrobial activity compared with that of calcium hydroxide. The clinical outcome of direct pulp capping and pulpotomy with MTA appears quite favorable, although the number of controled prospective studies is still limited. Attempts are being conducted to improve the properties of MTA by the addition of setting accelerators and the development of new calcium silicate-based materials. PMID:20339574

  4. Excimer laser interaction with dentin of the human tooth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Gilliam, Ruth L.; Baker, George R.

    1989-01-01

    The use an excimer laser produced many unusual conical structures within the dentin of the inner part of the human tooth. By varying the frequency of the laser one can disperse the energy and cause more bleeding in laser surgery, but not destroy the cells associated with the incision. Therefore, the healing process will virtually be without scarring. Whereas, using the infrared laser the blood loss would be less, but the healing process would tend to be longer because cells are being destroyed due to the cauterization effect of the laser. The question is, are these structures produced as an interaction with the laser or are they an intrinsic part of the structure. The effects of the laser interaction upon dentin was studied, and in using electron microscopy the interaction of the excimer laser upon the tooth dentin and other various biological tissue is more clearly understood.

  5. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 j.tm of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 p.tm and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the

  6. Microleakage in MOD resin composite with three dentin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Nakamoto, D K

    1989-11-01

    The extent of microleakage under MOD composites was studied when an aluminum oxalate dentin bonding agent (Tenure), a phosphonated resin bonding agent (Bondlite), and a glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Silver) were used. Three groups of 10 extracted molars were prepared with MOD cavities; one box ended on enamel, the other on cementum. In Group 1, Bondlite was applied to dentin and etched enamel before the sample was restored with a light-cured hybrid composite. In Group 2, a 2-mm increment of Ketac Silver was placed in each box before Bondlite and composite. In Group 3, Tenure was applied to dentin before being restored. Teeth were thermal-cycled, stained in silver nitrate, sectioned, and scored for microleakage. Microleakage along the gingival floor was significantly less at enamel margins than at cementum margins in all three groups. All groups showed severe marginal microleakage on cementum. PMID:2700971

  7. Dentin Hypersensitivity: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment; A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Davari, AR; Ataei, E; Assarzadeh, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to inform practitioners about dentin hypersensitivity (DH); to provide a brief overview of the diagnosis, etiology and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity and to discuss technical approaches to relieve sensitivity. This clinical information is described in the context of the underlying biology. The author used PUBMED to find relevant English-language literature published in the period 1999 to 2010. The author used combinations of the search terms “dentin*”, “tooth”, “teeth”, “hypersensit*”, “desensitiz*”. Abstracts and also full text articles to identify studies describing etiology, prevalence, clinical features, controlled clinical trials of treatments and relevant laboratory research on mechanisms of action were used. PMID:24724135

  8. Teachable Moments: When Protests Erupted Following the Publication of an Anti-Reparations Ad in a Campus Newspaper, Brown University President Ruth Simmons Decided Her Community Could Benefit from Taking a Closer Look at the University's Historical Ties to Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    It all started as a rather ran-of-the-mill campus controversy over race and slavery: an anti-reparations ad ran in The Brown Daily Herald; students cried foul, formed human chains and demanded "reparations" in the form of free advertising for the opposing side; still others responded with shouts of "political correctness." But then something…

  9. Anacardic acid from brazilian cashew nut trees reduces dentine erosion.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cintia; Oliveira, Flávia; Dos Santos, Maria Lucilia; de Freitas, Thiago; Imparato, José Carlos; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solutions containing saturated anacardic acid (AA) on dentine erosion in vitro. AA was chemically isolated from natural cashew nutshell liquid obtained by continuous extraction in a Soxhlet extractor and was fully saturated by catalytic hydrogenation. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity, when exposed to buffers containing 100 µmol/l AA, was analyzed using zymography. Bovine root samples were subjected to erosive demineralization (Sprite Zero™, 4 × 90 s/day) and remineralization with artificial saliva between the erosive cycles for 5 days. The samples were treated as follows, after the first and the last acid exposure (1 min; n = 12/group): (1) 100 µmol/l epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (positive control); (2) 0.05% NaF; (3) 100 µmol/l saturated AA; (4) saturated AA and EGCG; (5) saturated AA, EGCG and NaF; (6) untreated (negative control). Dentine erosion was measured using a contact profilometer. Two dentine samples from each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Saturated AA reduced the activity of MMP-2. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that all treatments significantly reduced dentine loss compared to the negative control (6.03 ± 0.98 µm). Solutions containing saturated AA (1.97 ± 1.02 µm) showed the greatest reduction in dentine erosion compared to the NaF (3.93 ± 1.54 µm) and EGCG (3.79 ± 0.83 µm) solutions. Therefore, it may be concluded that AA significantly reduces dentine erosion in vitro, possibly by acting as an MMP-2 inhibitor. PMID:24993776

  10. Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

  11. Anacardic acid from brazilian cashew nut trees reduces dentine erosion.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cintia; Oliveira, Flávia; Dos Santos, Maria Lucilia; de Freitas, Thiago; Imparato, José Carlos; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solutions containing saturated anacardic acid (AA) on dentine erosion in vitro. AA was chemically isolated from natural cashew nutshell liquid obtained by continuous extraction in a Soxhlet extractor and was fully saturated by catalytic hydrogenation. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity, when exposed to buffers containing 100 µmol/l AA, was analyzed using zymography. Bovine root samples were subjected to erosive demineralization (Sprite Zero™, 4 × 90 s/day) and remineralization with artificial saliva between the erosive cycles for 5 days. The samples were treated as follows, after the first and the last acid exposure (1 min; n = 12/group): (1) 100 µmol/l epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (positive control); (2) 0.05% NaF; (3) 100 µmol/l saturated AA; (4) saturated AA and EGCG; (5) saturated AA, EGCG and NaF; (6) untreated (negative control). Dentine erosion was measured using a contact profilometer. Two dentine samples from each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Saturated AA reduced the activity of MMP-2. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that all treatments significantly reduced dentine loss compared to the negative control (6.03 ± 0.98 µm). Solutions containing saturated AA (1.97 ± 1.02 µm) showed the greatest reduction in dentine erosion compared to the NaF (3.93 ± 1.54 µm) and EGCG (3.79 ± 0.83 µm) solutions. Therefore, it may be concluded that AA significantly reduces dentine erosion in vitro, possibly by acting as an MMP-2 inhibitor.

  12. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  13. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 in Human Caries Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Galanti, C.; Musumeci, G.; Rusu, M.C.; Leonardi, R.

    2014-01-01

    The immunoexpression profile of matrix metalloproteinase-13 was investigated for the first time in dentin of human caries and healthy teeth. Twelve permanent premolars (10 caries and 2 sound) were decalcified in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Sections 3-4 µm in thickness were cut and processed for immunohistochemistry. A mouse monoclonal anti-metalloproteinase-13 antibody was used for localisation using an immunoperoxidase technique. Dentinal immunoreactivity was detected in all teeth; it was weak in sound teeth and strong close to the caries area. These in vivo findings suggest a role for metalloproteinase-13 in the development and progression of adult human dental tissue disorders. PMID:24704999

  14. Rate of permeation of isotopes through human dentin, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H; Livingston, M J; Outhwaite, W C

    1977-01-01

    A simple in vitro method has been described for quantitatively measuring the rate at which isotopically labeled substances permeate through dentin in occlusal cavity preparations. The presence or absence of pulp tissue had only a minor effect on the kinetics of permeation. As the dentin was made thinner there was a resulting increase in the rate of iodide permeation. The relative rates of permeation were 3H2O greater than 131I greater than 99mTc greater than 14C-urea, a sequence that follows the molecular dimensions of these substances. PMID:264870

  15. Effects of common dental materials used in preventive or operative dentistry on dentin permeability and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Thompson, Ian; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentin remineralization induced by bioactive substances contained in common dental materials used in preventive and operative dentistry. Several materials were applied on human dentin segments. Dentin permeability was quantified using a fluid filtration system working at 20 cm H(2)O. Micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, and microhardness calculation were used to evaluate changes in the mineralization of dentin. Dentin treated with the prophylactic materials showed different dentin permeability values, in particular subsequent to immersion in remineralizing solutions (RSS). The bioactive glass (Sylc) was the only substance able to reduce dentin permeability after immersion in remineralizing solution and to show hydroxyapatite precipitation as a sign of dentin remineralization. The reduction in dentin permeability obtained after the application of the other prophylactic materials used in this study was due to the presence of the remnant material in the dentinal tubules, with no remineralization effect after storage in remineralizing solution. In conclusion, the results indicated that bioactive glass prophy powder may induce immediate remineralization of dentin. PMID:21777102

  16. Innervation of different parts of the predentin and dentin in young human premolars.

    PubMed

    Lilja, J

    1979-01-01

    The innervation of the predentin and inner part of the mineralized dentin was studied at the ultrastructural level in ten premolars. Each tooth was divided into fifteen different parts, each containing odontoblasts, predentin and dentin. It was found that the innervation in the coronal dentin was more compact than in the root dentin. Within the coronal dentin itself, the most densely innervated area was the dentin covering the pulp horns. No nerves were identified more than 100 microns from the pulp-dentinal border. No nervous structures were found in the mineralized dentin of the root. Nervous structures which seemed to have no connection with the odontoblastic processes were frequently observed in the predentin of the root. Signs of degeneration of the nervous structures of the predentin of the root was also a common finding. The observation that the intradentinal nerves were confined to the predentin and the most pulpal part of the dentin supports the theory that surface stimulation on dentin has an indirect effect on the nerves activated by movements in the liquid of the dentinal tubules.

  17. Effect of delayed light curing of a resin composite on marginal integrity in cylindrical dentine cavities.

    PubMed

    Manabe, A; Debari, K; Itoh, K; Hisamitsu, H; Wakumoto, S

    1993-12-01

    The effect of delayed light curing of resin composite on marginal adaptation has been examined by measuring the wall-to-wall polymerization contraction gap when using a commercial resin composite together with experimental dentine bonding systems to restore cylindrical preparations in dentine. Morphological changes in dentine during dentine bonding procedures were observed using a scanning electron microscope. In a previous report, the contraction gap width for a resin composite increased when irradiation of the resin system was delayed, despite the use of a dentine bonding system considered to be 'contraction' gap free. Such deterioration in marginal adaptation was minimized by use of an experimental dentine primer, 40% erythritol methacrylate aqueous solution (EM), followed by the use of a commercial dual- or autocured dentine bonding agent. Under scanning electron microscopy, the dentine surface microstructure became unclear after EM priming, and a polymer film was detected after polymerization of the dual-cured dentine bonding agent. The hydrogelled primer and the formation of a polymer network on the dentine surface may prevent the flow of fluid from the pulp through the dentine tubules, and maintain marginal integrity if there is delay in light curing of light-activated resin composite systems.

  18. Mechanisms Regulating the Degradation of Dentin Matrices by Endogenous Dentin Proteases and their Role in Dental Adhesion. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Camila; Pashley, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This systematic review provides an overview of the different mechanisms proposed to regulate the degradation of dentin matrices bye host-derived dentin proteases, particularly as it relates to their role in dental adhesion. Methods Significant developments have taken place over the last few years that have contributed to a better understanding of all the factors affecting the durability of adhesive resin restorations. The complexity of dentin-resin interfaces mandates a thorough understanding of all the mechanical, physical and biochemical aspects that play a role in the formation of hybrid layers. The ionic and hydrophilic nature of current dental adhesives yields permeable, unstable hybrid layers susceptible to water sorption, hydrolytic degradation and resin leaching. The hydrolytic activity of host-derived proteases also contributes to the degradation of the resin-dentin bonds. Preservation of the collagen matrix is critical to the improvement of resin-dentin bond durability. Approaches to regulate collagenolytic activity of dentin proteases have been the subject of extensive research in the last few years. A shift has occurred from the use of proteases inhibitors to the use of collagen cross-linking agents. Data provided by fifty-one studies published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1999 and December 2013 was compiled in this systematic review. Results Appraisal of the data provided by the studies included in the present review yielded a summary of the mechanisms which have already proven to be clinically successful and those which need further investigation before new clinical protocols can be adopted. PMID:25831604

  19. A rapid non-destructive method for root dentin moisture measurements

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang; Jiang, Jin; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spångberg, Larz S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Dentin moisture content is important in adhesive bonding and structural strength research. However, there is no rapid method available to assess dentin moisture without sample destruction. This study examined the use of a digital grain moisture meter to measure root dentin moisture in vitro. Extracted mandibular single rooted teeth were sectioned at the CEJ. The moisture of the root dentin was measured at six measuring modes for different grains and repeated five times. Dentin weight changes before and after drying were measured to obtain control values. The control values were compared with machine readings. In conclusion, (1) Each non-destructive measurement took less than 30 seconds. (2) 24 hours storage at 37°C and 100 % humidity did not restore dentin moisture. (3) Five grain modes had a high validity, and could be used for dentin moisture measurements. PMID:19157921

  20. Age-related ransparent root dentin: mineral concentration,crystallite size and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, John H.; Nalla, Ravi K.; Pople, John A.; Breunig, Tom M.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2004-12-29

    Many fractures occur in teeth that have been altered, forexample restored or endodontically repaired. It is therefore essential toevaluate the structure and mechanical properties of these altereddentins. One such altered form of dentin is transparent (sometimes calledsclerotic) dentin, which forms gradually with aging. The present studyfocuses on differences in the structure and mechanical properties ofnormal versus transparent dentin. The mineral concentration, as measuredby X-ray computed microtomography, was signifcantly higher in transparentdentin, the elevated concentration being consistent with the closure ofthe tubule lumens. Crystallite size, as measured by small angle X-rayscattering, was slightly smaller in transparent dentin, although theimportance of this ending requires further study. The elastic propertieswere unchanged by transparency; however, transparent dentin, unlikenormal dentin, exhibited almost no yielding before failure. In addition,the fracture toughness was lowered by roughly 20 percent while thefatigue lifetime was deleteriously affected at high stress levels. Theseresults are discussed in terms of the altered microstructure oftransparent dentin.

  1. Comparison of mechanical property and role between enamel and dentin in the human teeth

    PubMed Central

    Choi, HH; Lee, JY

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of enamel and dentin were studied using test specimens having the same shape and dimensions because these properties might vary with the experimental conditions and specimen shapes and dimensions. Healthy human teeth were used as specimens for mechanical tests. The stress (MPa), strain (%), and elastic modulus (E, MPa) of the specimens were obtained from compression tests. The maximum stresses of the enamel, dentin, and enamel–dentin specimens were 62.2 ± 23.8, 193.7 ± 30.6, and 126.1 ± 54.6 MPa, respectively. The maximum strains of the enamel, dentin, and enamel–dentin specimens were 4.5 ± 0.8%, 11.9 ± 0.1%, and 8.7 ± 2.7%, respectively. The elastic moduli of the enamel, dentin, and enamel–dentin specimens were 1338.2 ± 307.9, 1653.7 ± 277.9, and 1628.6 ± 482.7 MPa, respectively. The measured hardness value of enamel specimens (HV = 274.8 ± 18.1) was around 4.2 times higher than that of dentin specimens (HV = 65.6 ± 3.9). Judging from the measured values of the stress and strain of enamel specimens, enamel tended to fracture earlier than dentin; therefore, it was considered more brittle than dentin. However, judging from the measured hardness values, enamel was considered harder than dentin. Therefore, enamel has higher wear resistance, making it suitable for grinding and crushing foods, and dentin has higher force resistance, making it suitable for absorbing bite forces. The different mechanical roles of enamel and dentin may arise from their different compositions and internal structures, as revealed through scanning electron micrographs of enamel and dentin. PMID:24550998

  2. Dentin hypersensitivity: from diagnosis to a breakthrough therapy for everyday sensitivity relief.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge of diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity. It summarizes technical approaches to relieve sensitivity in professional and home-use products, with emphasis on the clinical evidence for the efficacy of desensitizing toothpaste, and introduces a new innovative dentifrice technology containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to external stimuli which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or disease. The hydrodynamic theory proposes that pain-producing stimuli cause a change in dentin fluid flow that activates intra-dental nerve fibers, via a mechanoreceptor response, to cause pain. To be hypersensitive, dentin must be exposed and dentin tubules must be open to external stimuli and patent at the pulp. Gingival recession is the primary cause of dentin exposure, and a major predisposing factor for dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition. It has been reported to afflict 15-20% of the adult population, typically 20 to 50-year-olds, with peak incidence between 30 and 39 years. Some studies have reported higher prevalence levels of up to 57%. The incidence of dentin hypersensitivity is expected to rise with changing diets, and as caries and periodontal disease prevention result in improved oral health status, and retention and functionality of the dentition. Treatments to relieve dentin hypersensitivity are based on interruption of the neural response to pain stimuli or occlusion of open tubules to block the hydrodynamic mechanism. Effective and robust dentin occlusion offers the greatest prospect for instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity. In particular, materials which can coat exposed dentin surfaces, in addition to plugging and sealing open dentin tubules, offer the intriguing

  3. Dentin hypersensitivity: from diagnosis to a breakthrough therapy for everyday sensitivity relief.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge of diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity. It summarizes technical approaches to relieve sensitivity in professional and home-use products, with emphasis on the clinical evidence for the efficacy of desensitizing toothpaste, and introduces a new innovative dentifrice technology containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to external stimuli which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or disease. The hydrodynamic theory proposes that pain-producing stimuli cause a change in dentin fluid flow that activates intra-dental nerve fibers, via a mechanoreceptor response, to cause pain. To be hypersensitive, dentin must be exposed and dentin tubules must be open to external stimuli and patent at the pulp. Gingival recession is the primary cause of dentin exposure, and a major predisposing factor for dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition. It has been reported to afflict 15-20% of the adult population, typically 20 to 50-year-olds, with peak incidence between 30 and 39 years. Some studies have reported higher prevalence levels of up to 57%. The incidence of dentin hypersensitivity is expected to rise with changing diets, and as caries and periodontal disease prevention result in improved oral health status, and retention and functionality of the dentition. Treatments to relieve dentin hypersensitivity are based on interruption of the neural response to pain stimuli or occlusion of open tubules to block the hydrodynamic mechanism. Effective and robust dentin occlusion offers the greatest prospect for instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity. In particular, materials which can coat exposed dentin surfaces, in addition to plugging and sealing open dentin tubules, offer the intriguing

  4. Dentin phosphophoryn in the matrix activates AKT and mTOR signaling pathway to promote preodontoblast survival and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Asha; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dentin phosphophoryn (DPP) is an extracellular matrix protein synthesized by odontoblasts. It is highly acidic and the phosphorylated protein possesses a strong affinity for calcium ions. Therefore, DPP in the extracellular matrix can promote hydroxyapatite nucleation and can regulate the size of the growing crystal. Besides its calcium binding property, DPP can initiate signaling functions from the ECM (Extracellular matrix). The signals that promote the cytodifferentiation of preodontoblasts to fully functional odontoblasts are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that preodontoblasts on a DPP matrix, generates mechanical and biochemical signals. This is initiated by the ligation of the integrins with the RGD containing DPP. The downstream biochemical response observed is the activation of the AKT(protein kinase B) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathways leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB (Nuclear factor κB). Terminal differentiation of the preodontoblasts was assessed by identifying phosphate and calcium deposits in the matrix using von Kossa and Alizarin red staining respectively. Identifying the signaling pathways initiated by DPP in the dentin matrix would help in devising strategies for dentin tissue engineering. PMID:26300786

  5. Effects of argon laser curing on dentin shear bond strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, G. L.; Blankenau, Richard J.

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the argon laser to polymerize light activated materials and improve enamel shear bond strengths. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the argon laser on dentin shear bond strengths of current dentin bonding systems. Argon laser (HGM Model 8) at 231 mw and 280 mw, 5 second bonding agent, 10 seconds composite and a conventional curing light (Translux EC/Kulzer) at 10 seconds bonding agent, 20 second composite were used to polymerize samples of dentin bonding systems: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (3M) and Prime Bond (Dentsply/Caulk), both with TPH (Dentsply/Caulk) composite. A flat dentin bonding site (600 grit) was prepared on the buccal surface of extracted human teeth. Twelve samples were made for each set of parameters for both laser and conventional light totaling 60 samples. Samples were stored in distilled water in light- proof containers for 24 hours at 37 degree(s)C. Shear bond strengths (MPa) were determined for each sample on the Instron testing machine. Mean values were calculated for each set of data and ANOVA with Fisher PLSD were used for statistical analysis. The argon laser provided bond strengths that were 21 - 24% greater than those of the conventional curing light system.

  6. Apoptosis Activation in Human Carious Dentin. An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Psaila, A.; Musumeci, G.; Castorina, S.; Leonardi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanisms and enzymes involved in caries progression are largely unclear. Apoptosis plays a key role in dentin remodelling related to damage repair; however, it is unclear whether apoptosis in decayed teeth is activated through the extrinsic or the intrinsic pathway. This ex vivo immunohistochemical study explored the localization of TRAIL, DR5, Bcl-2 and Bax, the main proteins involved in apoptosis, in teeth with advanced caries. To evaluate TRAIL, DR5, Bcl-2 and Bax immunoexpressions twelve permanent carious premolars were embedded in paraffin and processed for immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TRAIL and DR5 were overexpressed in dentin and in pulp vessels and mononuclear cells; strong Bax immunostaining was detected in dilated dentinal tubules close to the lesion, and Bcl-2 staining was weak in some dentin areas under the cavity or altogether absent. These findings suggest that both apoptosis pathways are activated in dental caries. Further studies are required to gain insights into its biomolecular mechanisms. PMID:26428882

  7. Ten-years degradation of resin-dentin bonds.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Fujita, Shinichi; Nagano, Futami; Ohno, Hiroki; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the durability of resin-dentin bonds in 10-yr water-storage testing. Resin-dentin bonded bulk specimens were prepared using six commercially available resin adhesives. The resin-dentin bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 h (control group) or for 10 yr (experimental groups). After each storage period, the specimens were sectioned to make specimen beams and then subjected to a microtensile bond test. After the bond test, fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, interfacial observation of silver nanoleakage was performed using the backscatter electron mode of SEM. The bond strengths of four of the six adhesive systems tested decreased significantly after 10 yr. However, no significant bond-strength reduction was recorded for the other two systems. The interfacial observations showed water tree propagation in the bonding resin layer as a typical morphological change after aging for five of the six adhesives tested. Water tree propagation may be a symptom of degradation in the resin bonding layer of resin-dentin bonds.

  8. Proteolytic processing of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is essential to dentinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinglin; Gibson, Monica Prasad; Liu, Qilin; Liu, Ying; Lu, Yongbo; Wang, Xiaofang; Feng, Jian Q; Qin, Chunlin

    2012-08-31

    DSPP, which plays a crucial role in dentin formation, is processed into the NH(2)-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments. We believe that the proteolytic processing of DSPP is an essential activation step for its biological function in biomineralization. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing transgenic mice expressing the mutant D452A-DSPP in the Dspp-knock-out (Dspp-KO) background (referred to as "Dspp-KO/D452A-Tg" mice). We employed multipronged approaches to characterize the dentin of the Dspp-KO/D452A-Tg mice, in comparison with Dspp-KO mice and mice expressing the normal DSPP transgene in the Dspp-KO background (named Dspp-KO/normal-Tg mice). Our analyses showed that 90% of the D452A-DSPP in the dentin of Dspp-KO/D452A-Tg mice was not cleaved, indicating that D452A substitution effectively blocked the proteolytic processing of DSPP in vivo. While the expression of the normal DSPP fully rescued the dentin defects of the Dspp-KO mice, expressing the D452A-DSPP failed to do so. These results indicate that the proteolytic processing of DSPP is an activation step essential to its biological function in dentinogenesis.

  9. Compounded PHOSPHO1/ALPL deficiencies reduce dentin mineralization.

    PubMed

    McKee, M D; Yadav, M C; Foster, B L; Somerman, M J; Farquharson, C; Millán, J L

    2013-08-01

    Phosphatases are involved in bone and tooth mineralization, but their mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) regulates inhibitory extracellular pyrophosphate through its pyrophosphatase activity to control mineral propagation in the matrix; mice without TNAP lack acellular cementum, and have mineralization defects in dentin, enamel, and bone. PHOSPHO1 is a phosphatase found within membrane-bounded matrix vesicles in mineralized tissues, and double ablation of Alpl and Phospho1 in mice leads to a complete absence of skeletal mineralization. Here, we describe mineralization abnormalities in the teeth of Phospho1(-/-) mice, and in compound knockout mice lacking Phospho1 and one allele of Alpl (Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) ). In wild-type mice, PHOSPHO1 and TNAP co-localized to odontoblasts at early stages of dentinogenesis, coincident with the early mineralization of mantle dentin. In Phospho1 knockout mice, radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, and transmission electron microscopy all demonstrated mineralization abnormalities of incisor dentin, with the most remarkable findings being reduced overall mineralization coincident with decreased matrix vesicle mineralization in the Phospho1(-/-) mice, and the almost complete absence of matrix vesicles in the Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) mice, whose incisors showed a further reduction in mineralization. Results from this study support prominent non-redundant roles for both PHOSPHO1 and TNAP in dentin mineralization.

  10. [Bond strength to dentin of resin composites associated with filled and unfilled adhesive systems].

    PubMed

    Youssef, J A; Turbino, M L; Youssef, M N; Matson, E

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzed in vitro two brands of one-step adhesive systems of fourth generation (Optisolo--Kerr, filled; and Single Bond--3M, unfilled) and two composite resins (Prodigy--Kerr and Z100--3M), aiming at evaluating their bond strength to dentin. Eighty human extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin and grounded until dentin was exposed in longitudinal direction. The specimens were divided in 4 groups. Composite resin cones were bonded to the specimens using the mentioned adhesive systems, following the instructions of the manufacturers. The test-specimens were submitted to tensile tests using a 4442 Universal Mini-Instron Machine with the speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results were converted into MPa, according to the area of adhesion, and submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA. There was significant statistical difference (p < 0.01) between the adhesive systems (F = 7.24). Optisolo (m = 11.03 +/- 4.23) showed better bond strength than Single Bond (m = 8.37 +/- 4.54). There was no significant statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the composites (F = 0.43).

  11. Enhancement of nano-hydroxyapatite bonding to dentin through a collagen/calcium dual-affinitive peptide for dentinal tubule occlusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ronghan; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Xiumei; Tian, Lili; Liu, Huiying; Zhao, Miaomiao; Peng, Ce; Cai, Qiang; Shi, Yunming

    2014-02-01

    Calcium phosphate crystals, as the main component of dentin and enamel, have been widely used for the occlusion of dentinal tubules. However, the low bond strength and poor sealing effect limit their clinical practicality. In this study, a collagen/calcium dual-affinitive peptide E8DS (EEEEEEEEDSpESpSpEEDR) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) flocculi were developed to seal dentin tubules for reducing dentin hypersensitivity, whereas the E8DS peptides were pre-applied to improve the adhesion of occlusive hydroxyapatite coating on dentin collagen matrix for the long-lasting sealing effect and relief from hypersensitivity. Our study showed that E8DS peptides had a strong affinity with dentin collageneous matrix that almost 43.7% of initial E8DS peptides immobilized on exposed dentin samples remained detained after continuous washing by distilled water for four weeks at a rate of 1 mL/min. Nano-HAp flocculi were obtained by re-neutralization of HAp-HCl solution and then brushed onto the surfaces of pre-treated human dentin disks with E8DS peptides, which showed a perfect occlusion of exposed dentinal tubules, as compared with Nano-HAp only and a commercial desensitizer, Green Or. With only around 10-min E8DS peptide pre-treatment, the occlusive mineral layers remained intact against consecutively stirred washing in phosphate-buffered saline or coke for 15 min, and 6 min of tooth-brushing, which implied that our E8DS peptide could comparatively improve the durability of sealant-dentin interface bonds for long-lasting dentine desensitization.

  12. Assessment of dysplastic dentin in osteogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, Barbro; Lindskog, Sven

    2003-04-01

    Two semiquantitative scoring systems, Clinical Radiographic Score (CRS) and Dysplastic Dentin Score (DDS), were introduced for analyzing degree of dysplastic manifestations in dentin. The utility of both systems was demonstrated in a large material of teeth from patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Twenty teeth from healthy controls, 81 teeth from 40 patients with OI, and 18 teeth with DI without OI (DI type II) were examined. The degree of dysplasia was correlated with type and form of OI and type of DI. The median DDS did not differ between DI associated with OI (DI type I) and DI type II. DDS in OI patients without clinical signs of DI was above that of control teeth. Both circumpulpal and mantle dentin showed increased DDS, although circumpulpal dentin was more severely affected. The median DDS was highest for the most severe type of non-lethal OI (type III). DDS increased significantly with form (severity) of OI. A significant association between DDS and CRS was found, although diagnosis of DI in less severe cases was not possible based on radiographic or clinical signs alone. Thus, the DDS system proved valuable when the CRS system based on radiographic/clinical manifestations failed, the most significant finding being subclinical histological manifestations of DI in patients with OI but without clinical or radiographic signs of DI. These subtle dysplastic changes are most likely an expression of genetic disturbances associated with OI and should not be diagnosed as DI, but rather be termed histologic manifestations of dysplastic dentin associated with OI.

  13. Dentin bonding--state of the art 1999.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, J; Lopes, M

    1999-12-01

    The adhesion of restorative materials to the hard components of tooth structure has been a goal pursued by many researchers ever since Buonocore established the foundation for adhesive and preventive dentistry. Based on the industrial use of phosphoric acid to obtain better adhesion of paints and resin coatings to metal surfaces, Buonocore proposed that phosphoric acid could be used to transform the surface of enamel to "render it more receptive to adhesion." Subsequent research indicated that the formation of taglike resin prolongations into the enamel microporosities was the leading bonding mechanism of resin to phosphoric acid-etched enamel. The enamel bonding agents of the 1960s and 1970s progressively evolved into complex multibottle or universal adhesives in the early 1990s, which were designed to bond to enamel, dentin, composite, amalgam, porcelain, and non-precious metal. Although bonding to enamel has been a dependable technique, bonding to dentin still represents an overwhelming task because dentin is a naturally wet organic tissue penetrated by a tubular maze containing the odontoblastic process, which communicates with the pulp. This intrinsic moisture may actually benefit the chemistry of the newest adhesive systems, which must be applied on moist dentin to be effective. In fact, the collapse of the collagen that occurs on air-drying may prevent the adhesive monomers from penetrating the network of nano-channels formed by the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals between collagen fibrils. In view of the complexity of the mechanisms associated with these mechanisms, the objective of this review article is to summarize the most recent concepts in dentin bonding.

  14. Viability of imaging structures inside human dentin using dental transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandisoli, C. L.; Alves-de-Souza, F. D.; Costa, M. M.; Castro, L.; Ana, P. A.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C.

    2014-02-01

    Dental Transillumination (DT) is a technique for imaging internal structures of teeth by detecting infrared radiation transmitted throughout the specimens. It was successfully used to detect caries even considering dental enamel and dentin scatter infrared radiation strongly. Literature reports enamel's scattering coefficient is 10 to 30 times lower than dentin; this explain why DT is useful for imaging pathologies in dental enamel, but does not disable its using for imaging dental structures or pathologies inside the dentin. There was no conclusive data in the literature about the limitations of using DT to access biomedical information of dentin. The goal in this study was to present an application of DT to imaging internal structures of dentin. Slices of tooth were confectioned varying the thickness of groups from 0.5 mm up to 2,5 mm. For imaging a FPA InGaAs camera Xeva 1.7- 320 (900-1700 nm; Xenics, Inc., Belgium) and a 3W lamp-based broadband light source (Ocean Optics, Inc., USA) was used; bandpass optical filters at 1000+/-10 nm, 1100+/-10 nm, 1200+/-10 nm and 1300+/-50 nm spectral region were also applied to spectral selection. Images were captured for different camera exposure times and finally a computational processing was applied. The best results revealed the viability to imaging dent in tissue with thickness up to 2,5 mm without a filter (900-1700nm spectral range). After these results a pilot experiment of using DT to detect the pulp chamber of an incisive human tooth was made. New data showed the viability to imaging the pulp chamber of specimen.

  15. Ablation of dentin by irradiation of violet diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatayama, H.; Kato, J.; Akashi, G.; Hirai, Y.; Inoue, A.

    2006-02-01

    Several lasers have been used for clinical treatment in dentistry. Among them, diode lasers are attractive because of their compactness compared with other laser sources. Near-infrared diode lasers have been practically used for cutting soft tissues. Because they penetrate deep to soft tissues, they cause sufficiently thick coagulation layer. However, they aren't suitable for removal of carious dentin because absorption by components in dentin is low. Recently, a violet diode laser with a wavelength of 405nm has been developed. It will be effective for cavity preparation because dentin contains about 20% of collagen whose absorption coefficient at a violet wavelength is larger than that at a near-infrared wavelength. In this paper, we examined cutting performance of the violet diode laser for dentin. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on application of a violet laser to dentin ablation. Bovine teeth were irradiated by continuous wave violet diode laser with output powers in a range from 0.4W to 2.4W. The beam diameter on the sample was about 270μm and an irradiation time was one second. We obtained the crater ablated at more than an output power of 0.8W. The depth of crater ranged from 20μm at 0.8W to 90μm at 2.4W. Furthermore, the beam spot with an output power of 1.7W was scanned at a speed of 1mm/second corresponding to movement of a dentist's hand in clinical treatment. Grooves with the depth of more than 50μm were also obtained. From these findings, the violet diode laser has good potential for cavity preparation. Therefore, the violet diode laser may become an effective tool for cavity preparation.

  16. [The research of biodegradation of a composite material used in reconstructive and reparative surgery of maxillofacial area].

    PubMed

    Malanchuk, V O; Astapenko, O O; Halatenko, N A; Rozhnova, R A

    2013-09-01

    Dates about the research of biodegradation of epoxy-polyurethane composite material used in reconstructive and reparative surgery of maxillofacial area are reflected in the article. Was founded: 1) notable biodegradation of species from epoxy-polyurethane composition in the term of observation up to 6 months was not founded. That testifies their preservation of physical and mechanical properties. 2) founded, that in species from epoxy-polyurethane composition, which contain levamisole, processes of biodegradation are faster then in species from pure epoxy-polyurethane composition and in species from epoxy-polyurethane composition with hydroxyapatite; 3) material from epoxy-polyurethane composition, which contains levamisole and hydroxyapatite, stays in biological environment in small quantity of petty fragments during the incubation in term of 2 years. So, it biodegrades practically totally. Authors suggest on the basis of achieved information, that the use of epoxy-polyurethane constructions that biodegrade, is pertinently in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery.

  17. Morphological analysis and chemical content of natural dentin carious lesion zones.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Konopka, S; Kriwalsky, M S; Gaengler, P

    2003-10-01

    Dentin is one of the earliest bio-mineralization products to appear in the evolution of vertebrates. Dentin reactions to infection mimic earlier phylogenetic patterns, and carious lesions are divided into different zones which reflect the natural patho-morphological reaction of dentin to the carious attack. It was the aim of this study to investigate deep dentin carious lesions of human molars with combined polarization light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray element analysis (EDX) for the determination of different zones of the carious lesions, their extent and the chemical content. Sixteen extracted teeth with deep dentin carious lesions were embedded in Technovit 9100 (Kulzer) and serial sections of 80 microm thickness were made. These sections were then examined with polarized light microscopy to identify the different zones of the lesions. The outlines of the zones were traced consecutively and 3D-reconstructions were made for the determination of the extent and calculation of the volumes of the different zones. From the volumes of the demineralizing dentin and the translucent zone a Dentin Demineralization Index (DDI) was calculated. Three sections of each lesion were then coated with carbon and studied with a scanning electron microscope. 3D-reconstruction of the teeth showed the rather stable translucent zone, interrupted by remnants of dead tracts, and very different volumes of demineralizing dentin. Therefore, with increasing size of the demineralizing dentin, the DDI increased. The chemical content was measured using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) in areas of intertubular dentin. The content of Ca, P, and C was significantly different in all zones. The Ca/P ratio was significantly different between sound dentin and demineralizing dentin. From the results we conclude that the mineral content of intertubular dentin of the translucent zone and demineralizing dentin is different from that of sound dentin, and the

  18. Hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Pishan

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemia has become a serious health problem in children and adolescents worldwide for its high prevalence. Since hard tissues of permanent teeth form mainly during this period and lipids are actively involved in tooth development, the effects of hyperlipidemia on dental tissue formation and mineralization need to be illustrated. In this study, hyperlipidemia model was established in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Micro-CT and histomorphological analyses were performed on the mandibular bones to assess the morphological changes of the mandibular incisor and first molar. After 4 weeks of HFD feeding, mice had significantly elevated serum lipid levels compared with mice fed with control diet. After 8 weeks, the mandibular incisor presented significantly increased dentin thickness and decreased diameter of pulp cavity in HFD-fed mice compared with control diet-fed mice, while its gross morphology and enamel thickness were not altered. In the mandibular first molar, dentin thickness of root did not show difference between the two groups. Histological section showed that mandibular incisor of HFD-fed mice manifested a wider predentin region and a lower mineral apposition rate compared with that of the control mice. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia induced by HFD feeding enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in the developing mouse incisor. PMID:27558143

  19. Effect of air-drying dentin surfaces on dentin bond strength of a solvent-free one-step adhesive.

    PubMed

    Takai, Tomoyuki; Hosaka, Keiichi; Kambara, Keisuke; Thitthaweerat, Suppason; Matsui, Naoko; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Ryuzo; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Otsuki, Masayuki; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effect of air-drying dentin surfaces on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of a solvent-free onestep adhesive (Bond 1 SF). Twelve human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper. Before applying bonding agent, the dentin surface was rinsed with distilled water and blot-dried with tissue paper, followed by air-drying for 0, 3, 30, and 60 s using with a dental air syringe. After applying and curing Bond 1 SF, resin composite was incrementally built up. Specimens were then stored in distilled water for 24 h and then μTBSs were measured at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Higher μTBS were observed when the dentin surface was air-dried for 3 s (33.2±6.8MPa)>0 s (26.7±4.5MPa)>30 s (22.6±5.5MPa)=60 s (20.4±5.0MPa). The results suggested that prolonged air-drying of the dentin surface removed water and decreased the bond strengths of Bond 1 SF. PMID:22864208

  20. Hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Pishan

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemia has become a serious health problem in children and adolescents worldwide for its high prevalence. Since hard tissues of permanent teeth form mainly during this period and lipids are actively involved in tooth development, the effects of hyperlipidemia on dental tissue formation and mineralization need to be illustrated. In this study, hyperlipidemia model was established in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Micro-CT and histomorphological analyses were performed on the mandibular bones to assess the morphological changes of the mandibular incisor and first molar. After 4 weeks of HFD feeding, mice had significantly elevated serum lipid levels compared with mice fed with control diet. After 8 weeks, the mandibular incisor presented significantly increased dentin thickness and decreased diameter of pulp cavity in HFD-fed mice compared with control diet-fed mice, while its gross morphology and enamel thickness were not altered. In the mandibular first molar, dentin thickness of root did not show difference between the two groups. Histological section showed that mandibular incisor of HFD-fed mice manifested a wider predentin region and a lower mineral apposition rate compared with that of the control mice. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia induced by HFD feeding enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in the developing mouse incisor.

  1. Immunolocalization of fibronectin during reparative dentinogenesis in rat molor teeth after pulp capping with mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Bal, Cenkhan; Oztas, Nurhan; Cincik, Mehmet; Baris, Emre

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunolocalization of fibronectin during reparative dentinogenesis in rat teeth after pulp capping with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). The pulps of 72 upper and lower first molar teeth from 18 male Wistar rats were experimentally exposed. The pulps were capped with MTA or (Ca(OH)2); final restoration followed with zinc oxide and eugenol cement. The animals were euthanized at, respectively, one, three, seven and fourteen days postoperatively. At day one, all groups showed varying degrees of inflammation, from mild to severe. There was no positive reaction for fibronectin at day one. After three days, a partial acute pulpitis was observed in the Ca(OH)2 group. There was less inflammation in the MTA group (p<0.05), and a layer of fibrin barrier was observed along the pulp walls of the MTA material. The layer of fibrodentin formation showed positive reaction for fibronectin. At seven days, the Ca(OH)2 group showed mild inflammation and demonstrated more immunostaining for fibronectin than the Ca(OH)2 group (p<0.05) at three days. Pulps capped with MTA at seven days showed thicker fibrin barrier formation than the MTA group at three days and more immunostaining for fibronectin in whole groups (p<0.05). At fourteen days, there was no positive reaction for fibronectin in either the MTA or Ca(OH)2 group. It seems MTA showed better biocompability properties with the dental pulp tissue, inducing the expression of reparative molecule fibronectin compared with Ca(OH)2. Therefore, MTA may be a better choice for pulp capping procedures. PMID:22338817

  2. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Navitskaya, Svetlana; O’Reilly, Sandra; Wang, Qi; Kady, Nermin; Huang, Chao; Grant, Maria B.; Busik, Julia V.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM) pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26760976

  3. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Harshini; Beli, Eleni; Navitskaya, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Sandra; Wang, Qi; Kady, Nermin; Huang, Chao; Grant, Maria B; Busik, Julia V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM) pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Adipose tissue-deprived stem cells acquire cementoblast features treated with dental follicle cell conditioned medium containing dentin non-collagenous proteins in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiujie; Nie, Xin; Zhang, Li; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} In this study we examine the effects of dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs) on differentiation of ADSCs. {yields} We examined that ADSCs treated with dNCPs/DFCCM underwent morphological changes and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. {yields} dNCPs/DFCCM enhanced the mineralization behaviour and mineralization-related marker expression of ADSCs. {yields} ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are easily harvested and show excellent pluripotency potential, have generated considerable interest in regenerative medicine. In this study, the differentiation of ADSCs was assessed after treatment with dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs). ADSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and high proliferative capacity. However, after treatment with dNCPs/DFCCM, ADSCs changed from a fibroblast-like to cementoblast-like morphology and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. Alkaline phosphatase activity and in vitro mineralization behaviour of ADSCs were significantly enhanced. Mineralization-related markers including cementum attachment protein, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin and osteonectin were detected at mRNA or protein levels, whereas dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein were not detected, implying a cementoblast-like phenotype. These results demonstrate that ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment and could be a potential source of cementogenic cells for periodontal regeneration.

  5. In vivo model for microbial invasion of tooth root dentinal tubules

    PubMed Central

    BRITTAN, Jane L; SPRAGUE, Susan V; MACDONALD, Emma L; LOVE, Robert M; JENKINSON, Howard F; WEST, Nicola X

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Bacterial penetration of dentinal tubules via exposed dentine can lead to root caries and promote infections of the pulp and root canal system. The aim of this work was to develop a new experimental model for studying bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules within the human oral cavity. Material and Methods Sections of human root dentine were mounted into lower oral appliances that were worn by four human subjects for 15 d. Roots were then fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically for evidence of bacterial invasion. Levels of invasion were expressed as Tubule Invasion Factor (TIF). DNA was extracted from root samples, subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes, and invading bacteria were identified by comparison of sequences with GenBank database. Results All root dentine samples with patent tubules showed evidence of bacterial cell invasion (TIF value range from 5.7 to 9.0) to depths of 200 mm or more. A spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell morphotypes were visualized, and molecular typing identified species of Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas as dentinal tubule residents. Conclusion A novel in vivo model is described, which provides for human root dentine to be efficiently infected by oral microorganisms. A range of bacteria were able to initially invade dentinal tubules within exposed dentine. The model will be useful for testing the effectiveness of antiseptics, irrigants, and potential tubule occluding agents in preventing bacterial invasion of dentine. PMID:27119760

  6. Stress-strain response in human dentine: rethinking fracture predilection in postcore restored teeth.

    PubMed

    Kishen, Anil; Kumar, Ganesh V; Chen, Nah-Nah

    2004-04-01

    In this study, the biomechanical perspective of fracture predilection in post-core restored teeth is investigated using computational, experimental, and fractographic analyses. The computational finite element analysis and the experimental tensile testing are used to evaluate the stress-strain response in structural dentine. The fractographic evaluations are conducted using laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to examine the topography of dentine from experimentally fractured specimens, and clinically fractured post-core restored teeth specimens. These experiments aided in correlating the stress-strain response in structural dentine with cracks and catastrophic fractures in post-core restored teeth. It was observed from these experiments that the inner dentine displayed distinctly high strains (deformations), while the outer dentine demonstrated high stresses during tensile loading. This implies that the energy fed into the material as it is extended will be spread throughout the inner dentine, and there is less possibility of local increase in stress at the outer dentine, which can lead to the failure of dentine structure. During post-endodontic restoration with increase in loss of inner dentine, the fracture resistance factor contributed by the inner dentine is compromised, and this in turn predisposes the tooth to catastrophic fracture.

  7. Chemical profile of adhesive/caries-affected dentin interfaces using Raman microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette; Walker, Mary P.

    2007-01-01

    In clinical practice, dentists must frequently bond adhesives to caries-affected dentin substrates, but the bond that characteristically forms with these substrates does not provide the durability necessary for long-term clinical function. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the interfacial chemistry of adhesive with caries-affected and noncarious dentin using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated that the differences in the Raman spectra between noncarious and caries-affected dentin could not be accounted for by simple decreased mineralization. Both the structure of collagen and mineral in the caries-affected dentin has been altered by the caries process. The differences in structure and composition not only interfered with acid-etching process but also subsequent resin monomer penetration. It was shown that the interface between the adhesive and caries-affected dentin was wider and more complicated than that of the adhesive and noncarious dentin. As a result of adhesive phase separation, a structurally integrated hybrid layer did not form at the interface with either caries-affected or non-carious dentin. Using chemical imaging techniques, this study provides the direct evidence of adhesive phase separation at the interface with caries-affected dentin. Although our group previously reported adhesive phase separation at the interface with noncarious dentin, the chemistry of caries-affected dentin leads to greater variability and a more highly irregular composition along the length and breadth of the interface. PMID:17120213

  8. Inhabitual autosomal recessive form of dentin dysplasia type I in a large consanguineous Moroccan family.

    PubMed

    Cherkaoui Jaouad, I; El Alloussi, M; Laarabi, F Z; Bouhouche, A; Ameziane, R; Sefiani, A

    2013-08-01

    Dentin dysplasia is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by defect of dentin development and the causal gene is DSPP (Dentin Sialophosphoprotein gene). We report in the present study a large Moroccan family in which dentin dysplasia is clearly transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Four males and females family members born from healthy consanguineous parents are carriers of the typical features of the dentin dysplasia type I. Polymorphic markers that span the DSPP gene, allowed us to show that this locus is not linked to dentin dysplasia in our family. We also excluded in our family the SMOC2 gene (Sparc Related Modular Calcium Binding Protein 2) which was recently identified as a causal gene in dentin dysplasia type I with microdontia and misshapen teeth. This family represents, a new description of autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of dentin dysplasia type I. Moreover, this form of dentin dysplasia is not allelic to the autosomal dominant dentin dysplasia and the genetic cause is to be discovered.

  9. In vivo model for microbial invasion of tooth root dentinal tubules.

    PubMed

    Brittan, Jane L; Sprague, Susan V; Macdonald, Emma L; Love, Robert M; Jenkinson, Howard F; West, Nicola X

    2016-04-01

    Objective Bacterial penetration of dentinal tubules via exposed dentine can lead to root caries and promote infections of the pulp and root canal system. The aim of this work was to develop a new experimental model for studying bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules within the human oral cavity. Material and Methods Sections of human root dentine were mounted into lower oral appliances that were worn by four human subjects for 15 d. Roots were then fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically for evidence of bacterial invasion. Levels of invasion were expressed as Tubule Invasion Factor (TIF). DNA was extracted from root samples, subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes, and invading bacteria were identified by comparison of sequences with GenBank database. Results All root dentine samples with patent tubules showed evidence of bacterial cell invasion (TIF value range from 5.7 to 9.0) to depths of 200 mm or more. A spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell morphotypes were visualized, and molecular typing identified species of Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas as dentinal tubule residents. Conclusion A novel in vivo model is described, which provides for human root dentine to be efficiently infected by oral microorganisms. A range of bacteria were able to initially invade dentinal tubules within exposed dentine. The model will be useful for testing the effectiveness of antiseptics, irrigants, and potential tubule occluding agents in preventing bacterial invasion of dentine. PMID:27119760

  10. Evaluating EDTA as a substitute for phosphoric acid-etching of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Imbery, Terence A; Kennedy, Matthew; Janus, Charles; Moon, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes released when dentin is acid-etched. The enzymes are capable of destroying unprotected collagen fibrils that are not encapsulated by the dentin adhesive. Chlorhexidine applied after etching inhibits the activation of released MMPs, whereas neutral ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) prevents the release of MMPs. The purpose of this study was to determine if conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA can be a substitute for treating acid-etching enamel and dentin with chlorhexidine. A column of composite resin was bonded to enamel and dentin after conditioning. Shear bond strengths were evaluated after 48 hours and after accelerated aging for three hours in 12% sodium hypochlorite. Shear bond strengths ranged from 15.6 MP a for accelerated aged EDTA enamel specimens to 26.8 MPa for dentin conditioned with EDTA and tested after 48 hours. A three-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD test found statistically significant differences among the eight groups and the three independent variables (P < 0.05). EDTA was successfully substituted for phosphoric acid-etched enamel and dentin treated with chlorhexidine. Interactions of conditioning agent and aging were significant for dentin but not for enamel. In an effort to reduce the detrimental effects of MMPs, conditioning enamel and dentin with EDTA is an alternative to treating acid-etched dentin and enamel with chlorhexidine.

  11. Diffusive transport within dentinal tubules: an X-ray microtomographic study.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Masako; Hector, Mark P; Davis, Graham R; Parkinson, Charles R; Rees, Gareth D; Anderson, Paul

    2008-08-01

    The hydrodynamic theory of dentine hypersensitivity proposes that external stimuli cause dentinal fluid movement within dentinal tubules thereby triggering mechanosensitive nerves and eliciting a pain response. The aim of this study was to employ X-ray microtomography (XMT) to monitor diffusion of caesium acetate through dentine to investigate the extent to which transport occurs within the primary tubules compared to that through branched microtubules believed to run perpendicular to the direction of the primary dentinal tubules. 2.0-mm thick coronal dentine disks masked to leave half of the upper surface exposed were imaged by XMT, initially in water, which was then replaced with an aqueous solution of 0.50 mol l(-1) caesium acetate. Further XMT images were acquired after 1 and 6 days immersion. The XMT images were used to measure the change in the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient resulting from caesium acetate ingress into dentine. There was clearly considerable ingress of caesium acetate into the dentine lying below the exposed surface, but considerably less beneath the sealed surface, suggesting that diffusive transport occurs predominantly in the direction of the primary dentinal tubules, with no significant lateral transport. Primary tubules are clearly the dominant transmission route for triggering the mechanosensitive nerves present at the dentine-pulp interface, and for delivery of nerve desensitising agents. PMID:18485329

  12. Tooth root dentin mineralization defects in a mouse model of hypophosphatasia

    PubMed Central

    Foster, B.L.; Nagatomo, K.J.; Tso, H.W.; Tran, A.B.; Nociti, F.H.; Narisawa, S.; Yadav, M.C.; McKee, M.D.; Millán, J.L.; Somerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is expressed in mineralizing tissues and functions to reduce pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of mineralization. Loss of TNAP function causes hypophosphatasia (HPP), a heritable disorder marked by increased PPi, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia. Tooth root cementum defects are well described in both HPP patients and in Alpl−/− mice, a model for infantile HPP. In Alpl−/− mice, dentin mineralization is specifically delayed in the root, however, reports from human HPP patients are variable and inconsistent regarding dentin defects. In the present study, we aimed to define the molecular basis for changes in dentinogenesis observed in Alpl−/− mice. TNAP was found to be highly expressed by mature odontoblasts, and Alpl−/− molar and incisor roots featured defective dentin mineralization, ranging from a mild delay to severely disturbed root dentinogenesis. Lack of mantle dentin mineralization was associated with disordered and dysmorphic odontoblasts having disrupted expression of marker genes osteocalcin and dentin sialophosphoprotein. The formation of, initiation of mineralization within, and rupture of matrix vesicles in Alpl−/− dentin matrix was not affected. Osteopontin (OPN), an inhibitor of mineralization that contributes to the skeletal pathology in Alpl−/− mice, was present in the generally unmineralized Alpl−/− mantle dentin at ruptured mineralizing matrix vesicles, as detected by immunohistochemistry and by immunogold labeling. However, ablating the OPN-encoding Spp1 gene in Alpl−/− mice was insufficient to rescue the dentin mineralization defect. Administration of bioengineered mineral-targeting human TNAP (ENB-0040) to Alpl−/− mice corrected defective dentin mineralization in the molar roots. These studies reveal that TNAP participates in root dentin formation and confirm that reduction of PPi during dentinogenesis is necessary for odontoblast differentiation, dentin

  13. Effects of a Dicalcium and Tetracalcium Phosphate-Based Desensitizer on In Vitro Dentin Permeability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Chiba, Ayaka; Scheffel, Debora L S; Hebling, Josimeri; Agee, Kelli; Niu, Li-Na; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer in reducing dentin permeability in vitro. Dentin fluid flow was measured before and after treatment of dentin with patent dentinal tubules using 1 or 3 applications of the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate containing agent TeethmateTM (TM) and comparing the results with two sodium fluoride varnishes VellaTM (VLA) and VanishTM (VAN), after storage in artificial saliva for 24 h, 48 h and 7 days. Significant differences were observed among the 4 methods employed for reducing dentin permeability (p < 0.001) and the 3 post-treatment times (p < 0.001). VLA and VAN never achieved 50% permeability reductions consistently in any of the 3 time periods. Only the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer applied for 3 times consistently reduced dentin permeability by 50% after 24 h. When applied once, the permeability reduction of TM increased progressively over the 3 time periods. After 7 days, only one and three applications of the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer consistently reduced dentin permeability by more than 50%. Permeability reductions corresponded well with scanning electron microscopy examination of dentinal tubule orifice occlusion in dentin specimens treated with the agents. Overall, the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer is effective in reducing dentin permeability via a tubule occlusion mechanism. The ability of the agent to reduce dentin permeability renders it to be potentially useful as a clinical dentin desensitizing agent, which has to be confirmed in future clinical studies. By contrast, the two sodium fluoride varnishes are not effective in dentin permeability reduction and should be considered as topical fluoride delivering agents rather than tubular orifice-blocking agents. PMID:27359118

  14. Effects of a Dicalcium and Tetracalcium Phosphate-Based Desensitizer on In Vitro Dentin Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Chiba, Ayaka; Scheffel, Debora L. S.; Hebling, Josimeri; Agee, Kelli; Niu, Li-na; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer in reducing dentin permeability in vitro. Dentin fluid flow was measured before and after treatment of dentin with patent dentinal tubules using 1 or 3 applications of the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate containing agent TeethmateTM (TM) and comparing the results with two sodium fluoride varnishes VellaTM (VLA) and VanishTM (VAN), after storage in artificial saliva for 24 h, 48 h and 7 days. Significant differences were observed among the 4 methods employed for reducing dentin permeability (p < 0.001) and the 3 post-treatment times (p < 0.001). VLA and VAN never achieved 50% permeability reductions consistently in any of the 3 time periods. Only the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer applied for 3 times consistently reduced dentin permeability by 50% after 24 h. When applied once, the permeability reduction of TM increased progressively over the 3 time periods. After 7 days, only one and three applications of the calcium phosphate-based desensitizer consistently reduced dentin permeability by more than 50%. Permeability reductions corresponded well with scanning electron microscopy examination of dentinal tubule orifice occlusion in dentin specimens treated with the agents. Overall, the dicalcium and tetracalcium phosphate-based desensitizer is effective in reducing dentin permeability via a tubule occlusion mechanism. The ability of the agent to reduce dentin permeability renders it to be potentially useful as a clinical dentin desensitizing agent, which has to be confirmed in future clinical studies. By contrast, the two sodium fluoride varnishes are not effective in dentin permeability reduction and should be considered as topical fluoride delivering agents rather than tubular orifice-blocking agents. PMID:27359118

  15. mRNA expression and protein localization of dentin matrix protein 1 during dental root formation.

    PubMed

    Toyosawa, S; Okabayashi, K; Komori, T; Ijuhin, N

    2004-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic phosphoprotein. DMP1 was initially detected in dentin and later in other mineralized tissues including cementum and bone, but the DMP1 expression pattern in tooth is still controversial. To determine the precise localization of DMP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the protein in the tooth, we performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses using rat molars and incisors during various stages of root formation. During root dentin formation of molars, DMP1 mRNA was detected in root odontoblasts in parallel with mineralization of the dentin. However, the level of DMP1 mRNA expression in root odontoblasts decreased near the coronal part and was absent in coronal odontoblasts. DMP1 protein was localized along dentinal tubules and their branches in mineralized root dentin, and the distribution of DMP1 shifted from the end of dentinal tubules to the base of the tubules as dentin formation progressed. During the formation of the acellular cementum, DMP1 mRNA was detected in cementoblasts lining the acellular cementum where its protein was localized. During the formation of the cellular cementum, DMP1 mRNA was detected in cementocytes embedded in the cellular cementum but not in cementoblasts, and its protein was localized in the pericellular cementum of cementocytes including their processes. During dentin formation of incisors, DMP1 mRNA was detected in odontoblasts on the cementum-related dentin, where its protein was localized along dentinal tubules near the mineralization front. The localization of DMP1 mRNA and protein in dentin and cementum was related to their mineralization, suggesting that one of the functions of DMP1 may be involved in the mineralization of dentin and cementum during root formation. PMID:14751569

  16. In vitro effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on dentine hypersensitivity. Dentine permeability and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine clinical parameters for the use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. Two antagonist areas were determined as control and experimental areas for irradiation in 90 premolar roots. Each surface was conditioned with 24% EDTA (sub-group 1) and 35% phosphoric acid (sub-group 2) and irradiated with the following settings: 1) Er:YAG, 60 mJ, 2 Hz, defocused; groups 2 to 9: irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser, 20 Hz, Z6 tip, 0% of air and water: 2) Er,Cr:YSGG 0.25 W; 3) 0.5 W; 4) 0.75 W; 5) 1.0 W; 6) 1.25 W, 7) 1.50 W, 8) 2 W; 9) 2 W. After irradiation, samples were immersed in methylene blue solution and included in epoxy resin to obtain longitudinal cuts. The images were digitalized and analyzed by computer software. Although the samples irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed less microleakage, sub-group 1 showed differences between the groups, differing statistically from groups 3, 6, and 9. The results of sub-group 2 showed that the mean values of Er:YAG samples showed a negative trend, however, no differences were detected between the groups. For scanning electron microscopy analysis, dentine squares were obtained and prepared to evaluate the superficial morphology. Partial closure of dentinal tubules was observed after irradiation with Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the 0.25 and 0.50 W protocols. As the energy densities rose, open dentinal tubules, carbonization and cracks were observed. It can be concluded that none of the parameters were capable of eliminating microleakage, however, clinical studies with Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers should be conducted with the lowest protocols in order to determine the most satisfactory setting for dentine hypersensitivity. PMID:21948399

  17. Comprehensive analyses of how tubule occlusion and advanced glycation end-products diminish strength of aged dentin

    PubMed Central

    Shinno, Yuko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Saito, Mitsuru; Uemura, Reo; Arino, Masumi; Marumo, Keishi; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ≥ 40) exhibited significantly lower flexural strength and toughness than young dentin (age < 40). Aged dentin, in which the dentinal tubules were occluded with calcified material, recorded the highest mineral density; but showed significantly lower flexural strength than young dentin. Dentin with strong alignment of the c-axis in hydroxyapatite exhibited high fracture strength, possibly because the aligned apatite along the collagen fibrils may reinforce the intertubular dentin. Aged dentin, showing a high advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) level in its collagen, recorded low flexural strength. We first comprehensively identified significant factors, which affected the inferior mechanical properties of aged dentin. The low mechanical strength of aged dentin is caused by the high mineral density resulting from occlusion of dentinal tubules and accumulation of AGEs in dentin collagen. PMID:26797297

  18. Morphological and mechanical characterization of the acid-base resistant zone at the adhesive-dentin interface of intact and caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Go; Tsuchiya, Satoko; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the ultrastructure of both intact and caries affected dentin-adhesive interface after artificial secondary caries formation, using scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation testing. Half of the prepared specimens were bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical, Japan) and a resin composite (Metafil Flo, Sun Medical, Japan) for the nanoindentation test. The other specimens were stored in a buffered demineralizing solution for 90 minutes, then observed using SEM. An acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) was observed beneath the hybrid layer, distinguished by argon-ion etching. The ABRZ of caries-affected dentin was thicker than that of normal dentin, while its nanohardess was lower than normal dentin (p<0.05). It is suggested that the monomer of Clearfil SE Bond penetrated deeper than previously reported, creating a so-called "hybrid layer." However, its physical properties depended on the condition of the dentin.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase 20-dentin sialophosphoprotein interaction in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Saxena, G; Koli, K; de la Garza, J; Ogbureke, K U E

    2015-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP-20), widely regarded as tooth specific, participates with MMP-2 in processing dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) into dentin sialoprotein, dentin phosphoprotein, and dentin glycoprotein. In biochemical system, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 bind with high affinity to, and are activated by, specific small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs): bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and dentin matrix protein 1, respectively. Subsequent reports documented possible biological relevance of SIBLING-MMP interaction in vivo by showing that SIBLINGs are always coexpressed with their MMP partners. However, the cognate MMPs for 2 other SIBLINGs-DSPP and matrix extracellular phosphogylcoprotein-are yet to be identified. Our goal was to investigate MMP-20 expression and to explore preliminary evidence of its interaction with DSPP in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Immunohistochemistry analysis of sections from 21 cases of archived human OSCC tissues showed immunoreactivity for MMP-20 in 18 (86%) and coexpression with DSPP in all 15 cases (71%) positive for DSPP. Similarly, 28 (93%) of 30 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia were positive for MMP-20. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis on OSCC cell lines showed upregulation of MMP-20 protein and mRNA, respectively, while immunofluorescence showed coexpression of MMP-20 and DSPP. Colocalization and potential interaction of MMP-20 with dentin sialoprotein was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitation product from OSCC cell lysate, and in situ proximity ligation assays. Significantly, results of chromatin immunoprecipation revealed a 9-fold enrichment of DSPP at MMP-20 promoter-proximal elements. Our data provide evidence that MMP-20 has a wider tissue distribution than previously acknowledged. MMP-20-DSPP specific interaction, excluding other MMP-20-SIBLING pairings, identifies MMP-20 as DSPP cognate MMP

  20. LOCALIZED MECHANICS OF DENTIN SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Ko, Ching-Chang; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Martin, Manoel; Archangelo, Carlos Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The bond strength of composite resins (CRs) to dentin is influenced by the interfacial microstructure of the hybrid layer (HL) and the resin tags (TAG). The contemporary self-etching primer adhesive systems overcame the inconvenient of the etch-and-rinse protocol. Studies, however, have demonstrated that HL thickness and TAG length vary according to the wetting time and additional use of acid-etching prior to self-etching primers. This study investigated the localized stress distribution in the HL and the dentin/adhesive interface. Two HL thicknesses (3 or 6 μm), two TAG lengths (13 or 17 μm) and two loading conditions (perpendicular and oblique-25o) were investigated by the finite element (FE) analysis. Five two-dimensional FE models (M) of a dentin specimen restored with CR (38 x 64 μm) were constructed: Ml - no HL and no TAG; M2 - 3 μm of HL and 13 μm of TAG; M3 - 3 μm of HL and 17 μm of TAG; M4 - 6 μm of HL and 13 μm of TAG; and M5 - 6 μm of HL and 17 μm of TAG. Two distributed loadings (L) (20N) were applied on CR surface: L1 - perpendicular, and L2 - oblique (25°). Fixed interfacial conditions were assigned on the border of the dentin specimen. Ansys 10.0 (Ansys®, Houston, PA, USA) software was used to calculate the stress fields. The peak of von Mises (σvM) and maximum principal stress (σmax) was higher in L2 than in L1. Microstructures (HL and TAG) had no effect on local stresses for L1. Decreasing HL decreased σvM and σmax in all structures for L2, but the TAG length had influence only on the peributular dentin. The thickness of HL had more influence on the σvM and σmax than TAG length. The peritubular dentin and its adjacent structures showed the highest σvM and σmax, mainly in the oblique loading. PMID:19089152

  1. A transmission electron microscopy study of mineralization in age-induced transparent dentin.

    PubMed

    Porter, Alexandra E; Nalla, Ravi K; Minor, Andrew; Jinschek, Joerg R; Kisielowski, Christian; Radmilovic, Velimir; Kinney, John H; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, R O

    2005-12-01

    It is known that fractures are more likely to occur in altered teeth, particularly following restoration or endodontic repair; consequently, it is important to understand the structure of altered forms of dentin, the most abundant tissue in the human tooth, in order to better define the increased propensity for such fractures. Transparent (or sclerotic) dentin, wherein the dentinal tubules become occluded with mineral as a natural progressive consequence of aging, is one such altered form. In the present study, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the effect of aging on the mineral phase of dentin. Such studies revealed that the intertubular mineral crystallites were smaller in transparent dentin, and that the intratubular mineral (larger crystals deposited within the tubules) was chemically similar to the surrounding intertubular mineral. Exit-wave reconstructed lattice-plane images suggested that the intratubular mineral had nanometer-size grains. These observations support a "dissolution and reprecipitation" mechanism for the formation of transparent dentin.

  2. Splicing site mutations in dentin sialophosphoprotein causing dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    PubMed

    Holappa, Heidi; Nieminen, Pekka; Tolva, Liisa; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Alaluusua, Satu

    2006-10-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) type II (OMIM # 125490) is an inherited disorder affecting dentin. Defective dentin formation results in discolored teeth that are prone to attrition and fracture. To date, several mutations have been described in the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene, causing DGI types II and III and dentin dysplasia type II. DSPP encodes two proteins: dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). Here, we describe a mutational analysis of DSPP in seven Finnish families with DGI type II. We report two mutations and five single nucleotide polymorphisms. In one family we found a mutation that has been described earlier in families with different ethnicity, while in six families we found a novel g.1194C>A (IVS2-3) transversion. Bioinformatic analysis of known DSPP mutations suggests that DGI type II is usually caused by aberration of normal splicing.

  3. Composite resin bond strength to primary dentin prepared with Er, Cr:YSSG laser.

    PubMed

    Sung, Eric C; Chenard, Torin; Caputo, Angelo A; Amodeo, Michael; Chung, Evelyn M; Rizoiu, Ioana M

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of a hybrid composite resin bonded to primary dentin prepared with an Er, Cr:YSGG hydrokinetic laser compared to conventional bur prepared primary dentin. The results suggest that primary dentin surfaces treated with the Er, Cr:YSGG laser, with or without etching, may provide comparable or increased composite resin bond strengths depending upon bonding agent used.

  4. Composite resin bond strength to primary dentin prepared with Er, Cr:YSSG laser.

    PubMed

    Sung, Eric C; Chenard, Torin; Caputo, Angelo A; Amodeo, Michael; Chung, Evelyn M; Rizoiu, Ioana M

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of a hybrid composite resin bonded to primary dentin prepared with an Er, Cr:YSGG hydrokinetic laser compared to conventional bur prepared primary dentin. The results suggest that primary dentin surfaces treated with the Er, Cr:YSGG laser, with or without etching, may provide comparable or increased composite resin bond strengths depending upon bonding agent used. PMID:16302599

  5. Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength of Nanocomposite on Carious and Sound Deciduous Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Nandlal, B

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of conventional composites with nanocomposites in carious and sound deciduous dentin with the use of self-etching adhesive. Methodology: Human primary molars were ground to obtain flat dentin surfaces and divided into two groups: Carious dentin and sound dentin group. The carious teeth specimens were prepared by removing infected dentin and area with affected dentin was used for bonding composite. Teeth with carious and sound dentin were subdivided in two groups (n = 15) based on the type of the composite into conventional composite group and nanocomposite group. The composite was bonded to the teeth with self-etching adhesive. All the bonded specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C before shear bond testing. Independent t-test and analysis of variance were applied to the results. Results: The results indicated that the nanocomposite offered significantly higher bond strength compared to conventional composite. In addition presence of affected dentin significantly reduced the bond strength of both the composite types. How to cite this article: Deshmukh S, Nandlal B. Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength of Nanocomposite on Carious and Sound Deciduous Dentin. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1): 25-28. PMID:25206130

  6. Age-related transparent root dentin: mineral concentration, crystallite size, and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kinney, J H; Nalla, R K; Pople, J A; Breunig, T M; Ritchie, R O

    2005-06-01

    Many fractures occur in teeth that have been altered, for example restored or endodontically repaired. It is therefore essential to evaluate the structure and mechanical properties of these altered dentins. One such altered form of dentin is transparent (sometimes called sclerotic) dentin, which forms gradually with aging. The present study focuses on differences in the structure and mechanical properties of normal versus transparent dentin. The mineral concentration, as measured by X-ray computed microtomography, was significantly higher in transparent dentin, the elevated concentration being consistent with the closure of the tubule lumens. Crystallite size, as measured by small angle X-ray scattering, was slightly smaller in transparent dentin, although the importance of this finding requires further study. The elastic properties were unchanged by transparency; however, transparent dentin, unlike normal dentin, exhibited almost no yielding before failure. In addition, the fracture toughness was lowered by roughly 20% while the fatigue lifetime was deleteriously affected at high stress levels. These results are discussed in terms of the altered microstructure of transparent dentin.

  7. [Dependence of the dentinal abrasion of human teeth on their microhardness].

    PubMed

    Remizov, S M; Pruzhanskiĭ, L Iu

    1989-01-01

    The dentin resistance against abrasion was studied as related to its microhardness. Sections of 15 intact teeth were investigated (central upper incisors). Water suspensions (40% weight-to weight) of dicalcium phosphate (DCP, FRG; and DKF-1 and DKF-2, USSR) were used as abrasives. Dentin microhardness was measured with a PMT-3 device, and abrasion assessed with profilographic technique. Dentin abrasion was related to its microhardness and to the kind of abrasive used. Dentin abrasion increased as its microhardness decreased. DCF showed minimal abrasive effect, DKF-2 had maximal effect with DKF-1 keeping the intermediate position.

  8. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evaluation of the effects of phosphoric acid etching on dentin proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, A; Rathkamp, H; Dreyer, E

    2000-12-01

    It has been reported that phosphoric acid (PA) produces structural and molecular alterations in dentin collagen fibrils; however, no relevant information exists on the influence of etching with PA on dentin non-collagenous macromolecules. The present study investigated, by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural histochemistry, the behavior of dentin proteoglycans (PG) after etching human dentin samples with 35% PA gel (thickened with colloidal silica) or with a 35% PA liquid for 15, 30 and 120 s. Immunolabeling with a mouse monoclonal anti-chondroitin sulfate antibody demonstrated that glycosaminoglycans (GAG) were preserved within dentinal tubules opened to the surface after etching with PA gel. In addition, the cationic tracer polyethyleneimine, used for the ultramicroscopic localization of PG anionic sites, revealed that treatment of dentin samples with PA gel preserved the polyanionic peritubular PG in the etched area. On the other hand, etching with the PA liquid produced loss of peritubular GAG and PG anionic sites in the etched dentin surface. The results obtained indicated that similar concentrations of PA in gel or liquid formulations differently affect the organization of dentin PG. The clinical significance of these in vitro findings and the structural and molecular interactions of dentin PG with adhesive systems are still unknown.

  9. Clinical, histological and microbiological study of hand-excavated carious dentine in extracted permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Bönecker, M; Grossman, E; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Parak, R

    2003-08-01

    Changes in cultivable flora in dentine samples collected before and after hand excavation were examined in association with clinical status of the cavity surface, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thirty-five extracted permanent molar teeth with an occlusal caries lesion were excavated with hand instruments according to the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. Excavation pressure, dentine colour and consistency were recorded at the dentine-enamel junction (DEJ) prior to carious dentine removal and at the cavity floor after the final excavation; a microbiological sample of dentine was taken at both stages. Twelve restored teeth; six with positive and six with negative bacterial growth on the second sample, were selected for light microscopy and SEM. The hand-excavation removed tooth structure was soft, irreversibly damaged, dark and highly infected. Hand excavation reached dentine of increased hardness with a more normal colour to provide a sound structural base for restoration. Light and SEM examination of the cavity floor showed infected dentinal tubules in all 12 teeth examined. Linear logistic analysis showed a statistical association between light-yellow dentine on the cavity floor and an absence of bacterial growth (P = 0.006). This short-term in vitro study showed that caries-producing bacteria remained in dentine close to the cavity floor in 26/35 teeth despite clinical observations that indicated a suitably prepared cavity floor. PMID:14649040

  10. Age-related changes in ac-impedance spectroscopy studies of normal human dentine: further investigations.

    PubMed

    Eldarrat, A H; High, A S; Kale, G M

    2010-01-01

    One of the age-related changes occurring in dentine structure is the formation of peritubular dentine on the inner walls of dentinal tubules leading to complete closure of tubules. Ac-impedance is safe, fast and non-invasive technique. In the last decade, the popularity of the technique has increased in dental research. Several investigators have used the technique to detect tooth cracks and caries. The results of in vitro studies showed that ac-impedance technique was more advanced for caries detection than visual and radiographic methods. However, other studies demonstrated that the accuracy of impedance measurements can be affected by many factors such as remineralization after tooth eruption. A study has been published on effect of age on impedance measurements by the authors for two age groups by employing ac-impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the importance of this technique by conducting further investigations on dentine samples of wider age groups. Dentine samples were prepared from extracted sound third molars of known patient age. The ac-impedance measurements were carried out over a wide range of frequency. After performing all electrical measurements, dentine samples were examined under SEM to correlate the electrical measurements with their structure. Impedance measurements showed that there were differences in impedance between young and old dentine. One-way ANOVA of the means of resistance and capacitance for all age groups (20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 years old dentine) revealed a significant difference (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) as a function of age. Applying Tukey's post hoc test, to the same data showed that this difference was due to the 50 years old dentine for resistance and was due to the 40 and 50 years old dentine for capacitance which were statistically different to all other groups. SEM investigation of dentine samples showed that young dentine is characterized by open dentinal tubules distributed all over the

  11. Effect of free electron laser (FEL) irradiation on tooth dentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Seiji; Awazu, Kunio; Tomimasu, Takio

    1996-12-01

    Free electron laser (FEL) gives high efficiency for the photo-induced effects when the laser is tuned to the absorption maximum of target materials. The effect on dentine was investigated using the FEL tuned to 9.4 micrometers , which is an absorption maximum of phosphoric acid in infrared region. As a result, irradiated dentine surface which was amorphous had changed to the recrystalized structure by the spectroscopic analysis of IR absorption and x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the atomic ratio of P/Ca had reduced from 0.65 to 0.60. These results indicated that 9.4micrometers -FEL irradiation caused the selective ablation of phosphoric acid ion and the reconstruction of disordered atoms.

  12. Examination of dentin surface using AFM (our experience).

    PubMed

    Zapletalová, Zdenka; Kubínek, Roman; Vůjtek, Milan; Novotný, Radko

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) as one the technique of Scanning Probe Microscopy is useful for imaging of surface structure. This method can yield three-dimensional high-resolution topographic images of sample surfaces by using a scanning technique for conductors and insulators on atomic scale. It is based upon mapping of atomic-forces on a surface of an investigated sample. The method is useful not only in physics and chemistry; it can be also applied in biological fields. Special construction of AFM scanner enables to follow biological samples in liquid environments. Artifacts caused by dehydration of samples are removed this way. Dentin of human teeth is a vital hydrated tissue. It is strongly sensitive to dehydration and drying that are commonly used in preparation of samples in examinations by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We describe our experience in examination of dentin surfaces of extracted human third molars using contact method of AFM under moist conditions.

  13. Fracture resistance of teeth restored with dentin-bonded crowns.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J; Watts, D C

    1994-05-01

    While dentin-bonded crowns may hold esthetic advantages over metal-ceramic restorations, and minimal tooth preparation may also be appropriate, resistance to fracture of the restored unit is an important consideration. Dentin-bonded crowns were placed on standardized preparations in two groups of 10 maxillary premolar teeth in vitro. The preparations differed only in degree of taper. The restored specimens were subjected to compressive loading at 1 mm/min from a steel bar placed along the midline fissure. Mean fracture loads of 0.77 kN (6-degree taper) and 0.71 kN (8-degree taper) were recorded for the groups of prepared teeth, and a mean fracture load of 0.97 kN was obtained for a group of unprepared controls. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the fracture load of the 6-degree taper group and that of the sound control teeth.

  14. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  15. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  16. Regional variation in root dentinal tubule infection by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules at different regions in human roots. Specimens were obtained from single-rooted teeth that had their root canals prepared in a standard manner. Roots were then sectioned longitudinally through the canals and the resulting specimens chemically treated to remove the smear layers. Specimens were immersed in a suspension of Streptococcus gordonii for 3 weeks and then prepared for histological analysis. Sections from the cervical, midroot, and apical areas were examined. The pattern of bacterial infection of the cervical and midroot areas was similar, characterized as a heavy infection with bacteria penetrating as deep as 200 microns. Invasion of the apical dentin was significantly different, with a mild infection and maximum penetration of 60 microns. PMID:8934987

  17. [Zinc signaling-mediated regulation of dentin and periodontal tissues].

    PubMed

    Fukada, Toshiyuki; Idaira, Yayoi; Shimoda, Shinji; Asada, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-01

    An essential trace element zinc is required for variety of cellular functions and physiological responses, therefore, downregulation of zinc homeostasis cause serious problems in health, such as growth retardation and abnormal bone formation. Recent technical advances contributed to reveal that zinc ion regulated by zinc transporters acts as a signaling mediator, called zinc signaling that involves in mammalian physiology and pathogenesis. This review will address the current understanding of the roles of zinc signaling in regulation of dentin formation and periodontal tissues homeostasis.

  18. Holmium:YAG laser: effects on dentin demineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Raleigh A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    1995-05-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser at 2.12 microns wavelength was used to compare the changes in resistance to demineralization of the dentinal root surfaces of human extracted teeth in vitro. Three protocols were used: Group #1, and application of nonfilled resin/NaF (4%) solution followed by exposure with the Holmium:YAG laser beam; Group #2, an application of an aqueous solution of NaF (4%) only; and Group #3, irradiation with the laser beam only. The teeth were exposed on the root surfaces with untreated control and experimental sites on opposite sides of the teeth. A 3 mm spot size covered an area of 3 X 5 mm with 0.450 (+/- .05) joules at a fluence of 2.66 - 3.3 J/cm2. All teeth were decalcified in a 10% Formic acid solution for a timed period. Samples were prepared for staining by sectioning the teeth at the dentoenamel junction and 3 mm apically to produce a cross-section of each tooth root surface. Each sample was placed in toluidine blue dye to observe the depth of dye penetration into the dentin of treated and control sites. Toluidine blue dye showed a consistent greater depth of dye penetration into the dentinal areas of the untreated control sites versus the resin/NaF-lased group. The topical fluoride only group did not appear different than the untreated control sites of the teeth. The lased only group showed areas of dye penetration similar to the untreated control sides with other areas of little or no dye penetration. The finding that HO:YAG laser energy/chemical agent produced increased resistance to demineralization of dentinal surfaces in vitro suggested potential clinical applications of this combined modality.

  19. Effect of a fluoride solution on dentinal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Thrash, W J; Jones, D L; Dodds, W J

    1992-12-01

    This two-phase experiment assessed the effects over time of a solution containing 1.09% sodium fluoride, .40% stannous fluoride, and .14% hydrogen fluoride (.717% fluoride solution, DentinBloc) on pain associated with dentinal hypersensitivity. During phase I, 30 subjects demonstrating dentinal hypersensitivity to a blast of cool air were divided into three double blind experimental groups. After baseline data were collected for all subjects, one group was instructed to apply the .717% fluoride solution twice a day. A second group was instructed to apply a gel containing .04% stannous fluoride (Gel-Kam) twice a day. A third group was instructed to apply distilled water. Each subject was assessed at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks utilizing the "method of limits" with a standardized, repeatable cold thermal stimulus. The results of a two factor repeated ANOVA indicated that those subjects who applied the .717% fluoride solution reported significantly less sensitivity at the 2-week period than the other groups (P < .05). In addition, those subjects whose solution contained the 0.4% stannous fluoride reported significantly less sensitivity at the 4- to 8-week periods (P < .05). Phase II of the study assessed the .717% fluoride solution on a more precise time course. These included: immediately, 15 minute, 1 day, 1 week and 2 weeks. A one factor repeated ANOVA revealed that this effect presented 15-minute post application (P < .05) and continued throughout the testing periods. It was concluded that the fully active 0.717% fluoride solution was an effective agent in the control of dentinal hypersensitivity after two 1-minute applications.

  20. Transition behavior in fatigue of human dentin: structure and anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Arola, D; Reid, J; Cox, M E; Bajaj, D; Sundaram, N; Romberg, E

    2007-09-01

    The influence of tubule orientation on the transition from fatigue to fatigue crack growth in human dentin was examined. Compact tension (CT) and rectangular beam specimens were prepared from the coronal dentin of molars with three unique tubule orientations (i.e., 0 degrees , 45 degrees and 90 degrees). The CT specimens (N=25) were used to characterize fatigue crack initiation and steady-state cyclic extension, whereas the rectangular beams (N=132) were subjected to 4-pt flexure and used in quantifying the stress-life fatigue response. The transition behavior was analyzed using both the Kitagawa-Takahashi and El Haddad approaches. Results showed that both the fatigue crack growth and stress-life responses were dependent on the tubule orientation. The average Paris Law exponent for crack growth perpendicular (90 degrees) to the tubules (m=13.3+/-1.1) was significantly greater (p<0.05) than that for crack growth oblique (45 degrees) to the tubules (m=11.5+/-1.87). Similarly, the fatigue strength of dentin with 90 degrees tubule orientation was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that for the other two orientations, regardless of the range of cyclic stress. The apparent endurance strengths of specimens with 0 degrees (44MPa) and 45 degrees (53MPa) orientations were nearly twice that of the 90 degrees (24MPa) orientation. Based on these results, human dentin exhibits the largest degree of anisotropy within the stress-life regime and the transition from fatigue to fatigue crack growth occurs under the lowest cyclic stress range when the tubules are aligned with the cyclic normal stress (90 degrees orientation).

  1. Treatment of dentinal tubules by Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmelíčkova, Hana; Zapletalova, Zdeňka; Peřina, Jan, Jr.; Novotný, Radko; Kubínek, Roman; Stranyánek, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Symptom of cervical dentine hypersensitivity attacks from 10% to 15% of population and causes an uncomfortable pain during contact with any matter. Sealing of open dentinal tubules is one of the methods to reach insensibility. Laser as a source of coherent radiation is used to melt dentine surface layers. Melted dentine turns to hard mass with a smooth, non-porous surface. Simulation of this therapy was made in vitro by means of LASAG Nd:YAG pulsed laser system KLS 246-102. Eighty human extracted teeth were cut horizontally to obtain samples from 2 mm to 3 mm thick. First experiments were done on cross section surfaces to find an optimal range of laser parameters. A wide range of energies from 30 mJ to 210 mJ embedded in 0,3 ms long pulse was tested. Motion in X and Y axes was ensured by a CNC driven table and the pulse frequency 15 Hz was chosen to have a suitable overlap of laser spots. Some color agents were examined with the aim to improve surface absorption. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to evaluate all samples and provided optimal values of energies around 50 J.cm-2. Next experiments were done with the beam oriented perpendicularly to a root surface, close to the real situation. Optical fibers with the diameter of 0,6 mm and 0,2 mm were used to guide a laser beam to teeth surfaces. Laser processing heads with lens F = 100 mm and F = 50 mm were used. The best samples were investigated by means of the Atomic Force Microscopy.

  2. Testing mode and surface treatment effects on dentin bonding.

    PubMed

    Drummond, J L; Sakaguchi, R L; Racean, D C; Wozny, J; Steinberg, A D

    1996-12-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the effect of the following variables on shear dentin-bonding test results: mode of testing (cyclic fatigue versus static loading), surface treatments (32% phosphoric acid, 10% phosphoric acid, and no treatment [unetched]), and type of shear test (traditional planar versus push-out). All teeth were stored in distilled water and tested in a shear mode at a loading rate of 2 mm/ min. The specimens were loaded in static or cycled for 1000 cycles using a staircase approach or until fracture, whichever occurred first. On samples with etched dentin surfaces, the push-out test did not demonstrate a significant difference in measured bond strength when compared with results from the planar test, although sample preparation was more labor-intensive. The bond strength resulting from cyclic fatigue of the etched specimens was approximately 51% of the static loading value. Ten percent phosphoric acid was as effective as 32% phosphoric acid for dentin bonding. Finite-element analysis indicated that the traditional planar shear test produces flexure of the specimen and high tensile stress magnitudes within the resin bonding layer. The push-out test produces elevated compressive stresses localized in the composite along the circumference of the punch. Shear stresses in the resin bonding layer are similar for both testing methods at the same loading element contact force.

  3. Aging and fracture of human cortical bone and tooth dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Kurt J.; Ager, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-06-01

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms, which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms, which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms, which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force (e.g., the stress intensity) as a function of crack extension (“R-curve approach”). Here this methodology is used to study the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  4. Optical techniques to understand biofunctional adaptation in human dentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishen, Anil; Asundi, Anand K.

    2004-08-01

    Human tooth structure in the oral environment is subjected to mechanical forces and thermal fluctuations. Dentine, the major component of the tooth structure, is a bio-composite, mainly composed of a highly mineralized phase and a collagenous phase. When subjected to changes in load and/or temperature, dentine will experience stresses and strains distribution within their structure. Though such effects are found to cause deleterious effects on artificial dental restorations, biological structures such as dentine seem to posses an inherent ability to adapt to functional thermo-mechanical loads. Optical techniques enable visualization and quantification of deformation, strain and stress on dental structures and provide a better understanding on their thermo-mechanical response. In this study 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional digital photoelasticity, digital moiré interferometry and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) are all shown to be quite promising in this application. This paper will highlight these techniques and the corresponding applications. These experiments will aid in designing and development of better dental restorations and implants in clinical practice.

  5. Dentin-derived BMP-2 and odontoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, L; Demarco, F F; Zhang, Z; Araujo, F B; Shi, S; Nör, J E

    2010-06-01

    It is known that stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) can be induced to differentiate into odontoblasts. However, the nature of dentin-derived morphogenic signals required for dental pulp stem cell differentiation remains unclear. The hypothesis underlying this work is that dentin-derived Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) are necessary for the differentiation of SHED into odontoblasts. We observed that SHED express markers of odontoblastic differentiation (DSPP, DMP-1, MEPE) when seeded in human tooth slice/scaffolds and cultured in vitro, or implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. In contrast, SHED cultured in deproteinized tooth slice/scaffolds, or scaffolds without a tooth slice, do not express these markers. SHED express the BMP receptors BMPR-IA, BMPR-IB, and BMPR-II. Notably, blockade of BMP-2 signaling inhibited the expression of markers of odontoblastic differentiation by SHED cultured in tooth slice/scaffolds. Collectively, this work demonstrates that dentin-derived BMP-2 is required to induce the differentiation of SHED into odontoblasts.

  6. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  7. Holmium:YAG laser in dentistry: photoconditioning of dentinal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Raleigh A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    1994-09-01

    This in vitro study was undertaken to determine energy levels necessary to produce tubule closure and surface smoothing on dentinal surfaces of human teeth and their resultant temperature increases within the pulpal canals with the Holmium:YAG laser. An optimal working spot size and even absorption pattern were produced by defocusing the laser beam and evaluated by images produced on light exposed and developed photographic paper. The surface effects on dentin were examined by scanning electron microscopy. A thermocouple was positioned in the canals of fresh dissected dog jaws and attached to a recorder which produced a graph of the temperature changes. The in vitro research model for intrapulpal temperatures changes was verified by comparing premortem and postmortem temperature readings. The same protocol was used to evaluate temperature changes in fresh human extracted teeth. In vivo histological studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of HO:YAG laser energy on pulpal tissues. The results of these studies indicate the HO:YAG laser at a wavelength of 2.12 microns can be safely and effectively used for photoconditioning of the dentinal surfaces of teeth in clinical conditions.

  8. Dentin mid-infrared laser ablation at various lasing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Papagiakoumou, Eirini I.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Marouan G.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study a frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) Q-switched and free-running Er:YAG laser, as well as a novel design transversally excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) oscillator-double amplifier corona preionised high beam quality Hydrogen-Fluoride (HF) laser system, all developed in our lab, were used in dentin ablation experiments. In the case of the Er:YAG laser, pulses of 190 ns in Q-switched operation and of 80 μs pulse width in free-running operation at 2.94 μm were used, while HF laser pulses of 39 ns in the wavelength range of 2.6-3.1 μm in a predominantly TEM00 beam were also used to interact in vitro with dentin tissue. Several samples of freshly extracted human teeth were used, cut longitudinally in facets of 0.4-1.5 mm thick. Ablation experiments were conducted with the laser beam directly focused on the tissue or after being waveguided through suitable mid-IR fiber/waveguide alternatively ended with quartz end-sealing caps. The correlation between the various laser beam parameters, as wavelength, pulse duration, repetition rate, energy and spatial distribution of the beam profile and the ablative characteristics (ablation rates, tissue surface morphology) of dentin surface were investigated.

  9. Incidence and time course of dentinal hypersensitivity after periodontal surgery.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Beneduce, Carla; Andreana, Sebastiano; Ciancio, Sebastian G

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to characterize the incidence and clinical progression of dentinal hypersensitivity after periodontal surgery. Fourteen patients scheduled for open-flap periodontal debridement participated in the study. Ten subjects completed the study and were evaluated for six consecutive weeks after periodontal surgery. Tactile hypersensitivity was assessed using the Yeaple probe; thermal hypersensitivity measurements were obtained using a blast of air from the air/water syringe; and subjective hypersensitivity measurements were obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS). Measurements were taken preoperatively, one week postoperatively, and once a week for the next five consecutive weeks, for a total of six measurements after periodontal surgery. Depending on the stimuli used, dentinal hypersensitivity at one week after periodontal surgery ranged from 67 to 76%. Preoperative tactile and thermal hypersensitivity incidence combined was 30% at baseline. One week after periodontal surgery, the combined incidence had increased to 79%; at six weeks postsurgery, it had decreased to 45%. This study shows that postoperative dentinal hypersensitivity increases at one and three weeks after open-flap periodontal debridement before spontaneously and gradually decreasing to levels similar to those presurgery, even in the absence of desensitizing therapy. PMID:20129876

  10. Soft dentin results in unique flexible teeth in scraping catfishes.

    PubMed

    Geerinckx, Tom; Huysseune, Ann; Boone, Matthieu; Claeys, Myriam; Couvreur, Marjolein; De Kegel, Barbara; Mast, Peter; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Verbeken, Kim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Teeth are generally used for actions in which they experience mainly compressive forces acting toward the base. The ordered tooth enamel(oid) and dentin structures contribute to the high compressive strength but also to the minor shear and tensile strengths. Some vertebrates, however, use their teeth for scraping, with teeth experiencing forces directed mostly normal to their long axis. Some scraping suckermouth catfishes (Loricariidae) even appear to have flexible teeth, which have not been found in any other vertebrate taxon. Considering the mineralized nature of tooth tissues, the notion of flexible teeth seems paradoxical. We studied teeth of five species, testing and measuring tooth flexibility, and investigating tooth (micro)structure using transmission electron microscopy, staining, computed tomography scanning, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectrometry. We quantified the extreme bending capacity of single teeth (up to 180°) and show that reorganizations of the tooth (micro)structure and extreme hypomineralization of the dentin are adaptations preventing breaking by allowing flexibility. Tooth shape and internal structure appear to be optimized for bending in one direction, which is expected to occur frequently when feeding (scraping) under natural conditions. Not all loricariid catfishes possess flexible teeth, with the trait potentially having evolved more than once. Flexible teeth surely rank among the most extreme evolutionary novelties in known mineralized biological materials and might yield a better understanding of the processes of dentin formation and (hypo)mineralization in vertebrates, including humans.

  11. Preventive effect of a high fluoride toothpaste and arginine-carbonate toothpaste on dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge: a dentine permeability evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering the current high use of high fluoride toothpastes, the aim of the study was to quantify alterations in the root dentine permeability submitted to treatment with a high fluoride toothpaste and 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste as a preventive treatment for dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge. Methods Thirty-third molars were sectioned below the cementoenamel. The root segments were connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure dentine permeability after the following sequential steps (n = 10 per group): I) Baseline; II) treatment with phosphoric acid for 30 s (maximum permeability); III) Toothbrushing (1 min) according to the experimental groups (G1- control; G2- 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste; G3- 8% arginine-calcium carbonate toothpaste); IV) acid challenge for 5 min (orange juice). The data were converted into percentage, considering stage II as 100%. Results The results have shown a statistically significant decreasing on dentine permeability after treatment with toothpaste (Friedman test and Dunn’s post hoc test). Comparison among groups demonstrated a high increasing on dentine permeability when acid challenge was performed after toothbrushing with distilled water (control group) (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc test). Conclusion The toothpaste treatment may provide sufficient resistance on dentine surface, preventing dentinal tubules exposure after acid challenge. PMID:24958423

  12. Effect of preliminary treatment of the dentin surface on the shear bond strength of resin composite to dentin.

    PubMed

    Pilo, R; Cardash, H S; Oz-Ari, B; Ben-Amar, A

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of two dentin disinfectants (Consepsis, Tubulicid), one aqueous HEMA solution (Aqua Prep), a combination of Aqua Prep and Tubulicid and an air abrasion treatment (50 microns aluminum oxide) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two acetone-based single bottle adhesives (One Step and Prime & Bond 2.1). The occlusal surfaces of 167 freshly extracted human third molars were ground flat to expose the dentin, then polished with a 600 grit-polishing disc. The teeth were randomly assigned to 12 test groups (two bonding agents, six pretreatment protocols). The exposed dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 20 seconds, rinsed and briefly (1-2 seconds) air dried. Six pretreatment protocols were then applied. The air abrasion groups were exceptional, as etching was carried out only after pretreatment. One Step, or Prime & Bond 2.1 was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cylinders of Z-100 composite were bonded to the flat dentin surfaces by transparent gelatin capsules. Specimens were thermocycled in water baths between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C, then sheared in an Instron Testing Machine. One-way and two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. In the One Step group, Consepsis yielded a significantly higher SBS (17.8 MPa) than air abrasion (9.5 MPa), Control (11.8 MPa) and Aqua Prep + Tubilicid (11.9 MPa), and a comparable SBS with Tubilicid (12.5 MPa) and Aqua Prep (14.8 MPa). In the Prime & Bond 2.1 group, Aqua Prep (24.9 MPa) showed a significantly higher SBS than all other groups: air abrasion (9.3 MPa), Control (9.97 MPa), Tubilicid (12.2 MPa), Consepsis (13.0 MPa) and Tubilicid + Aqua Prep (13.3 MPa).

  13. Molecular evolution of dentin phosphoprotein among toothed and toothless animals

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is the largest member of the SIBLING family and is the most abundant noncollagenous protein in dentin. DSPP is also expressed in non-mineralized tissues including metabolically active ductal epithelia and some cancers. Its function, however, is poorly defined. The carboxy-terminal fragment, dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is encoded predominantly by a large repetitive domain that requires separate cloning/sequencing reactions and is, therefore, often incomplete in genomic databases. Comparison of DPP sequences from at least one member of each major branch in the mammalian evolutionary tree (including some "toothless" mammals) as well as one reptile and bird may help delineate its possible functions in both dentin and ductal epithelia. Results The BMP1-cleavage and translation-termination domains were sufficiently conserved to permit amplification/cloning/sequencing of most species' DPP. While the integrin-binding domain, RGD, was present in about half of species, only vestigial remnants of this tripeptide were identified in the others. The number of tandem repeats of the nominal SerSerAsp phosphorylation motif in toothed mammals (including baleen whale and platypus which lack teeth as adults), ranged from ~75 (elephant) to >230 (human). These repeats were not perfect, however, and patterns of intervening sequences highlight the rapidity of changes among even closely related species. Two toothless anteater species have evolved different sets of nonsense mutations shortly after their BMP1 motifs suggesting that while cleavage may be important for DSPP processing in other tissues, the DPP domain itself may be required only in dentin. The lizard DSPP had an intact BMP1 site, a remnant RGD motif, as well as a distinctly different Ser/Asp-rich domain compared to mammals. Conclusions The DPP domain of DSPP was found to change dramatically within mammals and was lost in two truly toothless animals. The defining aspect of DPP, the

  14. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Bond strength was significantly influenced by dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength. PMID:27367640

  15. Topical application of lithium chloride on the pulp induces dentin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Kazuya; Hayano, Satoru; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Itoh, Shinsuke; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe a novel procedure for dentin regeneration that mimics the biological processes of tooth development in nature. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an important regulator of the Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) expression. Our approach mimics the biological processes underlying tooth development in nature and focuses on the activation of canonical Wnt signaling to trigger the natural process of dentinogenesis. The coronal portion of the dentin and the underlying pulp was removed from the first molars. We applied lithium chloride (LiCl), an activator of canonical Wnt signaling, on the amputated pulp surface to achieve transdifferentiation toward odontoblasts from the surrounding pulpal cells. MicroCT and microscopic analyses demonstrated that the topical application of LiCl induced dentin repair, including the formation of a complete dentin bridge. LiCl-induced dentin is a tubular dentin in which the pulp cells are not embedded within the matrix, as in primary dentin. In contrast, a dentin bridge was not induced in the control group treated with pulp capping with material carriers alone, although osteodentin without tubular formation was induced at a comparatively deeper position from the pulp exposure site. We also evaluated the influence of LiCl on differentiation toward odontoblasts in vitro. In the mDP odontoblast cell line, LiCl activated the mRNA expression of Dspp, Axin2 and Kallikrein 4 (Klk4) and downregulated the Osteopontin (Osp) expression. These results provide a scientific basis for the biomimetic regeneration of dentin using LiCl as a new capping material to activate dentine regeneration.

  16. Topical Application of Lithium Chloride on the Pulp Induces Dentin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Kazuya; Hayano, Satoru; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Itoh, Shinsuke; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe a novel procedure for dentin regeneration that mimics the biological processes of tooth development in nature. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an important regulator of the Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) expression. Our approach mimics the biological processes underlying tooth development in nature and focuses on the activation of canonical Wnt signaling to trigger the natural process of dentinogenesis. The coronal portion of the dentin and the underlying pulp was removed from the first molars. We applied lithium chloride (LiCl), an activator of canonical Wnt signaling, on the amputated pulp surface to achieve transdifferentiation toward odontoblasts from the surrounding pulpal cells. MicroCT and microscopic analyses demonstrated that the topical application of LiCl induced dentin repair, including the formation of a complete dentin bridge. LiCl-induced dentin is a tubular dentin in which the pulp cells are not embedded within the matrix, as in primary dentin. In contrast, a dentin bridge was not induced in the control group treated with pulp capping with material carriers alone, although osteodentin without tubular formation was induced at a comparatively deeper position from the pulp exposure site. We also evaluated the influence of LiCl on differentiation toward odontoblasts in vitro. In the mDP odontoblast cell line, LiCl activated the mRNA expression of Dspp, Axin2 and Kallikrein 4 (Klk4) and downregulated the Osteopontin (Osp) expression. These results provide a scientific basis for the biomimetic regeneration of dentin using LiCl as a new capping material to activate dentine regeneration. PMID:25812134

  17. Strain Distribution in Root Surface Dentin of Maxillary Central Incisors during Lateral Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Raphael; Metzger, Zvi; Brosh, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Aim To precisely quantify the circumferential strains created along the radicular dentin of maxillary incisors during a simulated clinical procedure of lateral compaction. Methods Six miniature strain gauges were bonded on the roots of fourteen recently extracted maxillary central incisors that were subjected to root canal instrumentation. The strain gauges were bonded at three levels (apical, middle, and coronal) and four aspects (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal) of the roots. Each tooth was embedded in a PVC cylinder containing polyvinyl-siloxane impression material. Root filling was then performed by simulating the clinical procedure of lateral compaction using nickel-titanium finger spreaders. The force applied to the spreader and the strains developing in the surface root dentin were continuously recorded at a frequency of 10 Hz. Results The highest strains that developed during lateral compaction were in the mesial and distal aspects at the apical level of the root. The magnitudes of the maximal mesial/distal strains at the apical as well as the mid-root levels were approximately 2.5–3 times higher than those at the buccal/lingual aspects (p = 0.041). The strains decreased significantly (p<0.04) from the apical through the mid-root levels to the coronal level, yielding gradients of 2.5- and 6-fold, respectively. The mesial and distal strains were consistently tensile and did not differ significantly; however, the buccal strains were generally 35–65% higher than the lingual strains (p = 0.078). Lateral compaction resulted in the gradual build-up of residual strains, resulting in generation of a 'stair-step' curve. These strains declined gradually and almost completely disappeared after 1000 sec. Conclusions With proper mounting of several miniature strain gauges at various levels and aspects of the root, significant circumferential strains can be monitored under clinically relevant compaction forces. The residual strains at the end of lateral

  18. Laser-based technique for controlled damage of mesenchymal cell spheroids: a first step in studying reparation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ilina, I. V.; Zurina, I. M.; Roskova, A. E.; Gorkun, A. A.; Ovchinnikov, A. V.; Agranat, M. B.; Saburina, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modern techniques of laser microsurgery of cell spheroids were used to develop a new simple reproducible model for studying repair and regeneration in vitro. Nanosecond laser pulses (wavelength 355 nm, frequency 100 Hz, pulse duration 2 ns) were applied to perform a microdissection of the outer and the inner zones of human bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM MMSC) spheroids. To achieve effective dissection and preservation of spheroid viability, the energy of laser pulses was optimized and adjusted in the range 7-9 μJ. After microdissection, the edges of the wound surface opened and the angular opening reached a value of more than 180°. The destruction of the initial spheroid structure was observed in the wound area, with surviving cells changing their shape into a round one. Partial restoration of a spheroid form took place in the first six hours. The complete structure restoration accompanying the reparative processes occurred gradually over seven days due to remodelling of surviving cells. PMID:27334698

  19. Third-harmonic generation microscopy reveals dental anatomy in ancient fossils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Szu-Yu; Wu, Yana; Brink, Kirstin; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Huang, Timothy D; Reisz, Robert R; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-04-01

    Fossil teeth are primary tools in the study of vertebrate evolution, but standard imaging modalities have not been capable of providing high-quality images in dentin, the main component of teeth, owing to small refractive index differences in the fossilized dentin. Our first attempt to use third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy in fossil teeth has yielded significant submicrometer level anatomy, with an unexpectedly strong signal contrasting fossilized tubules from the surrounding dentin. Comparison between fossilized and extant teeth of crocodilians reveals a consistent evolutionary signature through time, indicating the great significance of THG microscopy in the evolutionary studies of dental anatomy in fossil teeth.

  20. Third-harmonic generation microscopy reveals dental anatomy in ancient fossils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Szu-Yu; Wu, Yana; Brink, Kirstin; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Huang, Timothy D; Reisz, Robert R; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2015-04-01

    Fossil teeth are primary tools in the study of vertebrate evolution, but standard imaging modalities have not been capable of providing high-quality images in dentin, the main component of teeth, owing to small refractive index differences in the fossilized dentin. Our first attempt to use third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy in fossil teeth has yielded significant submicrometer level anatomy, with an unexpectedly strong signal contrasting fossilized tubules from the surrounding dentin. Comparison between fossilized and extant teeth of crocodilians reveals a consistent evolutionary signature through time, indicating the great significance of THG microscopy in the evolutionary studies of dental anatomy in fossil teeth. PMID:25831331

  1. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Janaina Barros; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida Brandão; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva) and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days). Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM) or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250). Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×). Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001). For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested. PMID:22714927

  2. Magnitude and distribution of stresses in composite resin and sound dentine interface with mechanical retentions

    PubMed Central

    Borie, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara-Augusta; Del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Background Adhesive systems are constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stresses that negatively impact the integrity and durability of the dentine-adhesive interface. Despite the lack of evidence to support or reject the clinical indication for mechanical retention, the potential further contribution of these preparations to the behavior of the composite resin-sound dentine bond has been rarely addressed. The authors evaluated by finite element analysis the effect of mechanical retention on the magnitude and distribution of stresses in a composite resin-sound dentin bonding interface when subjected to tensile and shear forces. Material and Methods A three-dimensional model was created based on three cylindrical volumes representing the sound dentin, adhesive system, and composite resin. From this main model, two models were designed to simulate dentine bonding: 1) a model with no mechanical retention, which considered flat adhesion; and 2) a model with retention, which considered four hemispherical holes on the dentine surface. Both groups were subjected to linear static analysis under tensile and shear loading of 200N. Results At the model with retentions’ bonding interface under tensile and shear loading, a concentration of Von Mises equivalent stress was observed within the retentions, with a reduction of those stresses on the bonding boundary surface. Conclusions Additional mechanical retention increases the tensile strength of the sound dentin-composite resin bonding interface, promoting a decrease in the magnitude of the stresses and their redistribution under tensile and shear loading. Key words:Adhesion, composite resins, dentine, finite element analysis. PMID:26155338

  3. Orthodontic force accelerates dentine mineralization during tooth development in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangwei; Cao, Meng; Ye, Ruidong; Ding, Yin

    2010-08-01

    Malocclusion, the improper positioning of the teeth and jaws, is among the most important global oral health burdens. People with malocclusion may require orthodontic treatment to correct the problem. Orthodontic treatment is a way of straightening or moving teeth, to improve the appearance of the teeth and how they work. It is generally best carried out in children aged 9 to 12 years, whose teeth are mainly young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation. However, the relationship between orthodontic force and tooth development has not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of orthodontic force on dentine formation and mineralization during the development of young permanent teeth. Standardized orthodontic tooth movement was performed with the orthodontic appliance in five-week-old rats. To obtain longitudinal assessment of dentine formation, tetracycline was administered on the operation day and 1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 days afterward. We found that the distance between two tetracycline stripes, which indicates the amount of dentine formation during orthodontic treatment, increased with time. Importantly, no significant difference was detected in dentine formation between treated and control rats. In contrast, immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of dentin sialoprotein, a marker of odontoblast differentiation and mineral apposition, was significantly elevated in crown and root dentine after orthodontic treatment. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment does not affect the dentine formation of young permanent teeth, but it promotes the activation of odontoblasts and accelerates the dentine mineralization. These results suggest the safety of early orthodontic treatment.

  4. Dentin permeability: the basis for understanding pulp reactions and adhesive technology.

    PubMed

    Mjör, Ivar A

    2009-01-01

    Permeability involves the passage of fluids, ions, molecules, particulate matter and bacteria into and through a substance or tissue under different and varying conditions. The permeability of the dentin is essential to support the physiology and reaction patterns of the pulp-dentin organ. Nutrients and impulses are transported from the pulp via the odontoblast process and the contents of its tubules maintain the dentin as a vital tissue. However, the main interest of this paper focuses on penetration from the outside towards the pulp rather than from the pulp towards the outside. The present overview centers on the dentinal tubules; how they are formed and how they change as a result of normal and abnormal function, age, and pathological processes and the effect of these processes on the permeability of dentin. Particular attention is focused on the patency of the dentinal tubules.This overview is largely based on the authors own research, clinical insights and active participation in continuing dental education over the last 50 years. It is not a review of the literature related to the permeability of dentin. Rather it presents interpretation of results related to the permeability of dentin based on experience and opinions acquired over a lifetime in dental research.

  5. DSPP contains an IRES element responsible for the translation of dentin phosphophoryn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Song, Y; Ravindran, S; Gao, Q; Huang, C C; Ramachandran, A; Kulkarni, A; George, A

    2014-02-01

    The major phosphoprotein in dentin is the aspartic acid and serine-rich protein called dentin phosphophoryn (DPP). DPP appears to be synthesized as a part of a larger compound protein, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). DSPP has never been isolated or detected in dentin extracts. It is now evident that DSPP is a chimeric protein composed of 3 parts: dentin sialoprotein (DSP), DPP, and dentin glycoprotein (DGP). Previous reports have suggested that the BMP1 protease is responsible for processing DSPP. However, unequal amounts of these products are present in the dentin matrix. Here, we provide evidence for an internal ribosome entry site in the DSPP gene that directs the synthesis of DPP. This mechanism would account for unequal amounts of intracellular DSP and DPP. The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) activity varied in different cell types, suggesting the presence of additional regulatory elements during the translational regulation of DPP. Further, we provide evidence that DPP is transported to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through exosomes. Using tissue recombination and lentivirus-mediated gain-of-function approaches, we also demonstrate that DPP is essential for the formation of well-defined tooth structures with mineralized dentin matrix.

  6. Essential role of Osterix for tooth root but not crown dentin formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Yong; Qin, Chunlin; Liu, Ying; Ho, Sunita P.; Feng, Jian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth is made of crown and root. It is widely believed that dentin formation in crown and root uses the same regulatory mechanism. However, identification of NFIC’s unique function in determining root but not crown dentin formation challenges the old thought. In searching for the target molecules downstream of NFIC, we unexpectedly found a sharp reduction of OSX (osterix), the key transcription factor in skeleton formation, in the Nfic knockout (KO) tooth root. We then demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of Osx in the odontoblast cell line due to a transient transfection of Nfic expression plasmid. Studies of global and conditional Osx KO mice revealed no apparent changes in the crown dentin tubules and dentin matrix. However, the OSX conditional KO mice (crossed to the 2.3 kb Col 1-Cre) displayed an increase in cell proliferation but great decreases in expressions of root dentin matrix proteins (DMP1 and DSPP), leading to an inhibition in odontoblast differentiation, and short thin root dentin with few dentin tubules. Compared to the Nfic KO tooth, which contains essentially no dentin tubules and remains in a “root-less” status at adult stages, the Osx cKO root phenotype had partially improved at the late stage, indicating that other factors can compensate for OSX function. Thus, we conclude that OSX, one of the key downstream molecules of NFIC, plays a critical role in root, but not crown, formation. PMID:25349111

  7. Role of host-derived proteinases in dentine caries and erosion.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Charone, Senda; Tjäderhane, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Demineralization in dentinal caries and erosion exposes dentine organic matrix. This exposed matrix, containing type I collagen and non-collagenous proteins, is then degraded by host collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. The knowledge of the identities and function of these enzymes in dentine has accumulated only within the last 15 years, but has already formed a field of research called 'dentine degradomics'. This research has demonstrated the role of endogenous collagenolytic enzymes in caries and erosion development. In demineralized dentine, the enzymes degrade triple-helical collagen molecules, leading to the gradual loss of collagen matrix. Even before that, they can cleave off the terminal non-helical ends of collagen molecules called telopeptides, leading to the structural changes at the intramolecular gap areas, which may affect or even prevent intrafibrillar remineralization, which is considered essential in restoring the dentine's mechanical properties. They may also cause the loss of non-collagenous proteins that could serve as nucleation sites for remineralization. Here we review the findings demonstrating that inhibition of salivary or dentine endogenous MMPs and cysteine cathepsins may provide preventive means against the progression of caries or erosion. Furthermore, we also suggest the future directions for the new experimental preventive research to gain more knowledge of the enzymes and their function during and after dentine demineralization, and the pathways to find the clinically acceptable means to prevent the functional activity of these enzymes.

  8. Young's modulus of peritubular and intertubular human dentin by nano-indentation tests.

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Daniel; Hasday, Moran; Cohen, Sidney R; Wagner, H Daniel

    2011-04-01

    The local Young modulus of dry dentin viewed as a hierarchical composite was measured by nano-indentation using two types of experiments, both in a continuous stiffness measurement mode. First, tests were performed radially along straight lines running across highly mineralized peritubular dentin sections and through less mineralized intertubular dentin areas. These tests revealed a gradual decrease in Young's modulus from the bulk of the peritubular dentin region where modulus values of up to ∼40-42GPa were observed, down to approximately constant values of ∼17GPa in the intertubular dentin region. A second set of nano-indentation experiments was performed on the facets of an irregular polyhedron specimen cut from the intertubular dentin region, so as to probe the modulus of intertubular dentin specimens at different orientations relative to the tubular direction. The results demonstrated that the intertubular dentin region may be considered to be quasi-isotropic, with a slightly higher modulus value (∼22GPa) when the indenting tip axis is parallel to the tubular direction, compared to the values (∼18GPa) obtained when the indenting tip axis is perpendicular to the tubule direction.

  9. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1 mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  10. Microbiome of Deep Dentinal Caries Lesions in Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, Isabela N.; Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Lima, Kenio C.; Assunção, Isauremi V.; Gomes, Patrícia N.; Siqueira, José F.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in the advanced front of caries biofilms associated with pulp exposure and irreversible pulpitis. Samples were taken from the deepest layer of dentinal caries lesions associated with pulp exposure in 10 teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. DNA was extracted and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 14 phyla and 101 genera composed by 706 different OTUs. Three phyla accounted for approximately 98% of the sequences: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. These phyla were also the ones with most representatives at the species level. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in 9/10 samples. As for genera, Lactobacillus accounted for 42.3% of the sequences, followed by Olsenella (13.7%), Pseudoramibacter (10.7%) and Streptococcus (5.5%). Half of the samples were heavily dominated by Lactobacillus, while in the other half lactobacilli were in very low abundance and the most dominant genera were Pseudoramibacter, Olsenella, Streptococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. High bacterial diversity occurred in deep dentinal caries lesions associated with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The microbiome could be classified according to the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. Except for Lactobacillus species, most of the highly prevalent and abundant bacterial taxa identified in this study have been commonly detected in infected root canals. The detected taxa can be regarded as candidate pathogens for irreversible pulpitis and possibly the pioneers in pulp invasion to initiate endodontic infection. PMID:27135405

  11. Dual Role of the Trps1 Transcription Factor in Dentin Mineralization*

    PubMed Central

    Kuzynski, Maria; Goss, Morgan; Bottini, Massimo; Yadav, Manisha C.; Mobley, Callie; Winters, Tony; Poliard, Anne; Kellermann, Odile; Lee, Brendan; Millan, Jose Luis; Napierala, Dobrawa

    2014-01-01

    TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome) is a unique GATA-type transcription factor that acts as a transcriptional repressor. TRPS1 deficiency and dysregulated TRPS1 expression result in skeletal and dental abnormalities implicating TRPS1 in endochondral bone formation and tooth development. Moreover, patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome frequently present with low bone mass indicating TRPS1 involvement in bone homeostasis. In addition, our previous data demonstrated accelerated mineralization of the perichondrium in Trps1 mutant mice and impaired dentin mineralization in Col1a1-Trps1 transgenic mice, implicating Trps1 in the mineralization process. To understand the role of Trps1 in the differentiation and function of cells producing mineralized matrix, we used a preodontoblastic cell line as a model of dentin mineralization. We generated both Trps1-deficient and Trps1-overexpressing stable cell lines and analyzed the progression of mineralization by alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining. As predicted, based on our previous in vivo data, delayed and decreased mineralization of Trps1-overexpressing odontoblastic cells was observed when compared with control cells. This was associated with down-regulation of genes regulating phosphate homeostasis. Interestingly, Trps1-deficient cells lost the ability to mineralize and demonstrated decreased expression of several genes critical for initiating the mineralization process, including Alpl and Phospho1. Based on these data, we have concluded that Trps1 serves two critical and context-dependent functions in odontoblast-regulated mineralization as follows: 1) Trps1 is required for odontoblast maturation by supporting expression of genes crucial for initiating the mineralization process, and 2) Trps1 represses the function of mature cells and, consequently, restricts the extent of extracellular matrix mineralization. PMID:25128529

  12. Dentin matrix degradation by host matrix metalloproteinases: inhibition and clinical perspectives toward regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chaussain, Catherine; Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Khaddam, Mayssam; Tjaderhane, Leo; George, Anne; Menashi, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial enzymes have long been considered solely accountable for the degradation of the dentin matrix during the carious process. However, the emerging literature suggests that host-derived enzymes, and in particular the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contained in dentin and saliva can play a major role in this process by their ability to degrade the dentin matrix from within. These findings are important since they open new therapeutic options for caries prevention and treatment. The possibility of using MMP inhibitors to interfere with dentin caries progression is discussed. Furthermore, the potential release of bioactive peptides by the enzymatic cleavage of dentin matrix proteins by MMPs during the carious process is discussed. These peptides, once identified, may constitute promising therapeutical tools for tooth and bone regeneration. PMID:24198787

  13. The effects of restorative composite resins on the cytotoxicity of dentine bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghwan; Son, Kyung Mi; Kwon, Ji Hyun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    During restoration of damaged teeth in dental clinics, dentin bonding agents are usually overlaid with restorative resin composites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of restorative resin composites on cytotoxicity of dentin bonding agents. Dentin bonding agents were placed on glass discs, pre-cured and uncured resin composite discs. Bonding agents on the glass discs and composite resins discs were light cured and used for agar overlay cytotoxicity testing. Dentin bonding agents on composite resin discs exhibited far less cytotoxicity than that on glass discs. The polymerization of resin composite increased the surface hardness and decreased the cytotoxicity of bonding agents. In conclusion, composite resins in dental restorations are expected to enhance the polymerization of dentin bonding agents and reduce the elution of resin monomers, resulting in the decrease of cytotoxicity.

  14. In Vitro Study of Dentin Hypersensitivity Treated by 980-nm Diode Laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yan; XU, Shuaimei; Zhan, Xueling; Wu, Buling

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To investigate the ultrastructural changes of dentin irradiated with 980-nm diode laser under different parameters and to observe the morphological alterations of odontoblasts and pulp tissue to determine the safety parameters of 980-nm diode laser in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methods: Twenty extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into four areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser under different parameters: Group A: control group, 0 J/cm2; Group B: 2 W/CW (continuous mode), 166 J/cm2; Group C: 3W/CW, 250 J/cm2; and Group D: 4W/CW, 333 J/cm2. Ten additional extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into two areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser: Group E: control group, 0 J/cm2; and Group F: 2.0 W/CW, 166 J/cm2. The morphological alterations of the dentin surfaces and odontoblasts were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue irradiated by laser were observed with an upright microscope. Results: The study demonstrated that dentinal tubules can be entirely blocked after irradiation by 980-nm diode laser, regardless of the parameter setting. Diode laser with settings of 2.0 W and 980-nm sealed exposed dentin tubules effectively, and no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation. Conclusions: Irradiation with 980-nm diode laser could be effective for routine clinical treatment of DH, and 2.0W/CW (166 J/cm2) was a suitable energy parameter due to its rapid sealing of the exposed dentin tubules and its safety to the odontoblasts and pulp tissue. PMID:25606318

  15. Storage effect on dentine structure and on resultant composite bond strengths.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Lin, C T

    1997-11-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a food simulating solution (75 vol% ethanol/water) and an artificial saliva (Moi-Stir) on dentine structure and chemistry, using scanning electron microscopic examination and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) microscopic characterization. The effect on the bonding of composites to the conditioned dentine were evaluated by shear bond strength (SBS) tests. Three adhesive/composite systems were examined: Tenure/Marathon One, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100, and Optibond/Herculite XRV. Control specimens were stored in either distilled water or tested without storage. Dentine surface exposure to ethanol resulted in partial loss of the smear layer and of plugs, as well as possible perturbation of collagen. Dentine surfaces exposed to artificial saliva or to distilled water had no evidence of any change from normal appearance of the smear layer. The measured FTIR spectra for most specimens conditioned in these two liquids appeared to be similar to those obtained from fresh dentine. SBS data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. The SBS value for the non-preconditioned control (23.0 +/- 3.7 MPa) or for the dentine preconditioned in distilled water (22.9 +/- 4.2 MPa) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that for dentine pre-conditioned in ethanol (20.0 +/- 3.5 MPa). The SBS (13.3 +/- 3.4 MPa) of all bonding systems was reduced by 40-50% (P < 0.001) when artificial saliva pre-conditioned dentine was used. The failure mode at the dentine-bonding agent interface for the artificial saliva group was adhesive in nature. This is in contrast to the complex cohesive fracture mode found in the control groups and in most ethanol conditioned groups. Dentine structure and chemistry, shear bond strength, and the subsequent debonded mode can be significantly affected by exposure to oral environment prior to conditioning.

  16. Essential role of osterix for tooth root but not crown dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Yong; Qin, Chunlin; Liu, Ying; Ho, Sunita P; Feng, Jian Q

    2015-04-01

    Tooth is made of crown and root. It is widely believed that dentin formation in crown and root uses the same regulatory mechanism. However, identification of nuclear factor 1 C (NFIC)'s unique function in determining root but not crown dentin formation challenges the old thinking. In searching for the target molecules downstream of NFIC, we unexpectedly found a sharp reduction of osterix (OSX), the key transcription factor in skeleton formation, in the Nfic knockout (Nfic-KO) tooth root. We then demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of Osx in the odontoblast cell line due to a transient transfection of Nfic expression plasmid. Studies of global and conditional Osx-KO mice revealed no apparent changes in the crown dentin tubules and dentin matrix. However, the OSX conditional KO (cKO) mice (crossed to the 2.3-kb collagen type 1 [Col1]-Cre) displayed an increase in cell proliferation but great decreases in expressions of root dentin matrix proteins (dentin matrix protein 1 [DMP1] and dentin sialophosphoprotein [DSPP]), leading to an inhibition in odontoblast differentiation, and short, thin root dentin with few dentin tubules. Compared to the Nfic-KO tooth, which contains essentially no dentin tubules and remains in a "root-less" status at adult stages, the Osx-cKO root phenotype had partially improved at the late stage, indicating that other factors can compensate for OSX function. Thus, we conclude that OSX, one of the key downstream molecules of NFIC, plays a critical role in root, but not crown, formation.

  17. Milk as Desensitizing Agent for Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity Following Periodontal Treatment Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentinal hypersensitivity is a commonly observed problem after periodontal treatment procedures in periodontal patients. This further complicates preventive oral hygiene procedures by patients which jeopardize periodontal treatment, or even may aid in periodontal treatment failure. Aims and Objectives The aims and objectives of present study were to assess the problem of dentine hypersensitivity after non-surgical periodontal treatment and selection of cases for evaluation of commercially available milk at room temperature as mouth rinse for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity caused by periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods Patients were selected randomly for nonsurgical periodontal treatment and then were assessed for dentine hypersensitivity. Those having dentine hypersensitivity were assigned in two groups. Group one patients were advised to rinse with commercially available milk at room temperature, group two patients were advised to rinse with luke warm water as control. A four point Verbal Rating Score (VRS) was designed to record the numerical value of dentine hypersensitivity. Results The results show incidence of 42.5% and prevalence of 77.5% for dentine hypersensitivity after periodontal treatment procedures. After rinsing with milk following periodontal treatment procedures, there was found a significant reduction of dentine hypersensitivity with probability by unpaired t-test as 0.0007 and 0.0001 at tenth and fifteenth day post periodontal treatment procedures respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the milk rinse is a suitable, cheaper, fast acting, home-use and easily available solution to the problem of dentine hypersensitivity after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Milk can be used as desensitizing agent and rinsing with milk for few days is effective in quick reduction of dentine hypersensitivity due to periodontal treatment procedures. PMID:26674005

  18. Dynamic mechanical behavior of human dentin and collagen: Methods and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryou, Heonjune

    Experimental evaluations of human coronal dentin and its collagen fibrils were performed by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) using nanoindentation and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The primary objectives were to quantify the changes in mechanical behavior of intertubular and peritubular dentin with age, and to evaluate the nanostructure and mechanical behavior of the collagen fibrils. Specimens of coronal dentin were evaluated by nanoDMA using single indents and in scanning mode via scanning probe microscopy. Collagen fibrils from coronal dentin were evaluated using Pulse-Force Mode (PFM) AFM (Peakforce QNM). Nanoindentation results showed that there were no significant differences in the storage modulus or complex modulus between the two age groups (18-25 versus 54-83 yrs) for either the intertubular or peritubular dentin. However, there were significant differences in the dampening behavior between the young and old tissues, as represented in the loss modulus and tanϕ responses. For both the intertubular and peritubular components, the capacity for dampening was significantly lower in the old group. Scanning based nanoDMA showed that the tubules of old dentin exhibit a gradient in elastic behavior, with decrease in elastic modulus from the cuff to the center of tubules filled with newly deposited mineral. AFM results showed that the stiffness of the old dentin fibrils in the peak and trough regions were greater than the young dentin fibrils. In addition, there were significant differences in the dampening behavior between the young and old dentin fibrils, as represented in the energy dissipation, phase angle and loss modulus responses. For both the peak and trough regions, the dissipative capacity was significantly lower in the old dentin fibrils.

  19. Morphological/Chemical Imaging of Demineralized Dentin Layer in Its Natural, Wet State

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Yao, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    Objective Measuring the structure, composition or suitability for bonding of the acid etched dentin substrate, especially in its hydrated state, has been a formidable problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphological and structural profiles of the dentin demineralized layer measured in its natural wet state using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and micro-Raman imaging. Materials and methods The occlusal 1/3 of the crown was removed from 9 extracted, unerupted human third molars. Dentin surfaces were abraded with 600 grit SiC sandpaper under water to create smear layers. The prepared dentin surfaces were randomly selected for treatment with the self-etching agent (Adper™ Prompt L-Pop) or the total etching agent 35% H3PO4 gel (with/without agitation). Micro-Raman spectra and imaging were acquired at 1-1.5 μm spatial resolution at positions perpendicular to the treated surfaces; since this technique is non-destructive, the same specimens were also imaged with ESEM. Specimens were kept wet throughout spectral acquisition and ESEM observations. Results ESEM could be used to reveal demineralized layers in acid-etched dentin, but the resolution was low and no collagen fibrils were disclosed. The detailed chemical maps/profiles of demineralized dentin layers under wet conditions could be obtained using Raman imaging. It was shown that the mineral existed in the superficial layer of all etched dentin covered with smear layers. The mineral was much easier to be removed underneath the superficial layer. The depth, degree, and profile of dentin demineralization were dependent on the types of acids (self-etching vs. total etching) and application procedures (with vs. without agitation). Significance Most current adhesives are applied using wet bonding techniques in which the dentin is kept fully hydrated throughout the bonding. Our ability to fully characterize the hydrated, etched dentin substrates is very important for understanding

  20. Combination of aligned PLGA/Gelatin electrospun sheets, native dental pulp extracellular matrix and treated dentin matrix as substrates for tooth root regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Jinlong; Yang, Bo; Li, Lei; Luo, Xiangyou; Zhang, Xuexin; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Yu, Mei; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2015-06-01

    In tissue engineering, scaffold materials provide effective structural support to promote the repair of damaged tissues or organs through simulating the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments for stem cells. This study hypothesized that simulating the ECM microenvironments of periodontium and dental pulp/dentin complexes would contribute to the regeneration of tooth root. Here, aligned PLGA/Gelatin electrospun sheet (APES), treated dentin matrix (TDM) and native dental pulp extracellular matrix (DPEM) were fabricated and combined into APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM for periodontium and dental pulp regeneration, respectively. This study firstly examined the physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities of both APES and DPEM in vitro, and further investigated the degradation of APES and revascularization of DPEM in vivo. Then, the potency of APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM in odontogenic induction was evaluated via co-culture with dental stem cells. Finally, we verified the periodontium and dental pulp/dentin complex regeneration in the jaw of miniature swine. Results showed that APES possessed aligned fiber orientation which guided cell proliferation while DPEM preserved the intrinsic fiber structure and ECM proteins. Importantly, both APES/TDM and DPEM/TDM facilitated the odontogenic differentiation of dental stem cells in vitro. Seeded with stem cells, the sandwich composites (APES/TDM/DPEM) generated tooth root-like tissues after being transplanted in porcine jaws for 12 w. In dental pulp/dentin complex-like tissues, columnar odontoblasts-like layer arranged along the interface between newly-formed predentin matrix and dental pulp-like tissues in which blood vessels could be found; in periodontium complex-like tissues, cellular cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL)-like tissues were generated on the TDM surface. Thus, above results suggest that APES and DPEM exhibiting appropriate physicochemical properties and well biocompatibilities, in accompany with TDM, could

  1. The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) localize differently in the compartments of dentin and growth plate of bone.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Izabela; Cowan, Cameron; Svoboda, Kathy; Butler, William T; D'Souza, Rena; Qin, Chunlin

    2009-02-01

    Multiple studies have shown that dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is essential for bone and dentin mineralization. After post-translational proteolytic cleavage, DMP1 exists within the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin as an NH2-terminal fragment, a COOH-terminal fragment, and the proteoglycan form of the NH2-terminal fragment (DMP1-PG). To begin to assess the biological function of each fragment, we evaluated the distribution of both fragments in the rat tooth and bone using antibodies specific to the NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal regions of DMP1 and confocal microscopy. In rat first molar organs, the NH2-terminal fragment localized to predentin, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment was mainly restricted to mineralized dentin. In the growth plate of bone, the NH2-terminal fragment appeared in the proliferation and hypertrophic zones, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment occupied the ossification zone. Forster resonance energy transfer analysis showed colocalization of both fragments of DMP1 in odontoblasts and predentin, as well as hypertrophic chondrocytes within the growth plates of bone. The biochemical analysis of bovine teeth showed that predentin is rich in DMP1-PG, whereas mineralized dentin primarily contains the COOH-terminal fragment. We conclude that the differential patterns of expression of NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of DMP1 reflect their potentially distinct roles in the biomineralization of dentin and bone matrices.

  2. Microshear bond strength according to dentin cleansing methods before recementation

    PubMed Central

    Taşar, Simge; Ulusoy, Mutahhar Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet laser in different output powers for removing permanent resin cement residues and therefore its influence on microshear bond strength compared to other cleaning methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS 90 extracted human molars were sectioned in 1 mm thickness. Resin cement was applied to surface of sliced teeth. After the removal of initial cement, 6 test groups were prepared by various dentin surface treatment methods as follows: no treatment (Group 1), ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid application (Group 2), Endosolv R application (Group 3), 1.25 W Erbium, Chromium:Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet laser irradiation (Group 4), 2 W Erbium, Chromium:Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet laser irradiation (Group 5) and 3.5 W Erbium, Chromium:Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet laser irradiation (Group 6). The topography and morphology of the treated dentin surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (n=2 for each group). Following the repetitive cementation, microshear bond strength between dentin and cement (n=26 in per group) were measured with universal testing machine and the data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis H Test with Bonferroni correction (P<.05). Fracture patterns were investigated by light microscope. RESULTS Mean microshear bond strength ± SD (MPa) for each group was 34.9 ± 17.7, 32.1 ± 15.8, 37.8 ± 19.3, 31.3 ± 12.7, 44.4 ± 13.6, 40.2 ± 13.2 respectively. Group 5 showed significantly difference from Group 1, Group 2 and Group 4. Also, Group 6 was found statistically different from Group 4. CONCLUSION 2 W and 3.5 W Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet laser application were found efficient in removing resin residues. PMID:24843391

  3. Chelating and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles on dentin

    PubMed Central

    Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Moura, Marcia Regina; Aouada, Fauze Ahmad; Kishen, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) in endodontics is of interest due to their antibiofilm properties. This study was to investigate the ability of bioactive CNPs to remove the smear layer and inhibit bacterial recolonization on dentin. Materials and Methods One hundred bovine dentin sections were divided into five groups (n = 20 per group) according to the treatment. The irrigating solutions used were 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 20 min, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 3 min and 1.29 mg/mL CNPs for 3 min. The samples were irrigated with either distilled water (control), NaOCl, NaOCl-EDTA, NaOCl-EDTA-CNPs or NaOCl-CNPs. After the treatment, half of the samples (n = 50) were used to assess the chelating effect of the solutions using portable scanning electronic microscopy, while the other half (n = 50) were infected intra-orally to examine the post-treatment bacterial biofilm forming capacity. The biovolume and cellular viability of the biofilms were analysed under confocal laser scanning microscopy. The Kappa test was performed for examiner calibration, and the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05) were used for comparisons among the groups. Results The smear layer was significantly reduced in all of the groups except the control and NaOCl groups (p < 0.05). The CNPs-treated samples were able to resist biofilm formation significantly better than other treatment groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions CNPs could be used as a final irrigant during root canal treatment with the dual benefit of removing the smear layer and inhibiting bacterial recolonization on root dentin. PMID:26295022

  4. Evaluation of dentin permeability after light activated internal dental bleaching.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Laise Daniela; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Fröner, Izabel Cristina

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess quantitatively the dentin permeability of human teeth after intracoronal bleaching therapy with 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by LEDs, halogen lamp or using the walking bleach technique. Forty human maxillary central incisors had standard access cavities performed and the cervical thirds of the canals were prepared with Gates-Glidden drills up to a size 130. Roots were resected between the coronal and middle thirds and the apical portions were discarded. A glass ionomer, 2 mm thick cervical plug was placed inside the canal, at the cement-enamel junction level. Group I received 35% hydrogen peroxide gel activated by LEDs. Group II was submitted to 35% hydrogen peroxide gel activated by halogen lamp. Group III received 35% hydrogen peroxide gel and the walking bleach technique was followed. Group IV (control) received a dry cotton pellet inside the pulp chamber with temporary restoration. Dentinal permeability was quantified by copper ion penetration. Linear measurements were obtained by analysis of digital images under x 5 magnification. Mean values and SD for the experimental groups were: I, 7.1% (+/-3.2%); II, 8.4% (+/-3.0%); III, 9.1% (+/-3.0%); IV, 1.3% (+/-2.8%). One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the results. Results showed an increase of permeability values for groups I, II and III when compared to group IV (control); however, no statistical differences were found between the three tested bleaching techniques. It can be concluded that 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by LED, halogen lamp or used following the walking bleach technique produced similar increase in dentinal permeability. PMID:17227378

  5. Dentine chips produced by nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Guppy, D R; Curtis, R V; Ford, T R

    2000-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the cross-sectional shape of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments, namely ProFile and Quantec files, both ISO 25, 0.06 taper, and sought to relate this to the chips produced by cutting dentine. A limited comparison was made with stainless steel engine reamers. First, five files of each type were sectioned transversely at 12 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm from the tip and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cutting angles were assessed by a direct measurement technique which allowed for the inclination of a cutting edge to the root canal. Second, eight samples of cutting debris were collected from instrumentation by each type of nickel-titanium file and four samples from the engine reamers. The major and minor axis, area and roundness of the dentine chips in each sample were measured using computerized particle analysis. The results demonstrated that all files had a negative cutting angle which varied at the different levels (ProFiles range 69.4 degrees to 58.4 degrees and Quantec range 74.8 degrees to 56.8 degrees). The consistency within files of the same type was good as demonstrated by low standard deviations, except for Quantec files at the 4 mm level where higher standard deviations of 4.1 degrees and 5.5 degrees for the two blades were found. The chip analysis showed significant differences between chips produced by ProFile and Quantec files (P < 0.05). The latter were larger and rounder. The chips from the ProFile and the engine reamer chips were similar in dimension (P > 0.05). No simple relationship existed between file geometry and the dentine chips produced during instrumentation. PMID:11202891

  6. Water distribution in dentin matrices: bound vs. unbound water

    PubMed Central

    Agee, Kelli A.; Prakki, Anuradha; Abu-Haimed, Tariq; Naguib, Ghada H.; Nawareg, Manar Abu; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Scheffel, Debora L.S.; Chen, Chen; Jang, Seung Soon; Hwang, Hyea; Brackett, Martha; Grégoire, Geneviéve; Tay, Franklin R.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work measured the amount of bound versus unbound water in completely-demineralized dentin. Methods Dentin beams prepared from extracted human teeth were completely demineralized, rinsed and dried to constant mass. They were rehydrated in 41% relative humidity (RH), while gravimetrically measuring their mass increase until the first plateau was reached at 0.064 (vacuum) or 0.116 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite). The specimens were then exposed to 60% RH until attaining the second plateau at 0.220 (vacuum) or 0.191 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite), and subsequently exposed to 99% RH until attaining the third plateau at 0.493 (vacuum) or 0.401 g H2O/g dry mass (Drierite). Results Exposure of the first layer of bound water to 0% RH for 5 min produced a −0.3% loss of bound water; in the second layer of bound water it caused a −3.3% loss of bound water; in the third layer it caused a −6% loss of bound water. Immersion in 100% ethanol or acetone for 5 min produced a 2.8 and 1.9% loss of bound water from the first layer, respectively; it caused a −4 and −7% loss of bound water in the second layer, respectively; and a −17 and −23% loss of bound water in the third layer.. Bound water represented 21–25% of total dentin water. Chemical dehydration of water-saturated dentin with ethanol/acetone for 1 min only removed between 25 to 35% of unbound water, respectively. Significance Attempts to remove bound water by evaporation were not very successful. Chemical dehydration with 100% acetone was more successful than 100% ethanol especially the third layer of bound water. Since unbound water represents between 75–79% of total matrix water, the more such water can be removed, the more resin can be infiltrated. PMID:25612786

  7. Digital moiré interferometric analysis on the effect of nanoparticle conditioning on the mechanical deformation in dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang Chi; Kishen, Anil

    2016-02-01

    Dentin is a biological composite that forms the major bulk of tooth structure. Understanding the biomechanical response of dentin structure to forces is essential to restore the loss of mechanical integrity associated with dentin loss during disease or treatment procedures. Moiré interferometry is an optical interferometry based method, which allows wholefield, real-time analysis of dental structures with high-sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the deformation gradients in dentin during function and subsequent to surface conditioning with bioactive biopolymeric nanoparticle. Slab shaped dentin specimens were prepared and a customized loading jig was used to compressively load the specimens from 10 N to 50 N. Specific regions of interest was chosen on the dentin specimens for strain analysis. The digital moiré interferometry experiments showed a distinct deformation pattern in dentin in the direction perpendicular to the dentinal tubules, which increased with increase in dentin loss. The dentin conditioned with nanoparticles did not display marked increase in strain gradients with loads. The current photomechanical experiment highlighted the impact of nanoparticle treatment to improve the mechanical integrity of dentin.

  8. Dentinogenesis imperfecta: a review and case report of a family over four generations.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sudhir; Pannu, Karneev

    2008-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is one of the most common hereditary disorders of dentin formation. It follows an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission, affecting both the formation and mineralization of dentin. Either or both primary and permanent dentition is affected by it. This paper briefly reviews the manifestations of DGI Type II (DGI1) and presents a case report of a family affected with DGI1 over four generations.

  9. Neuromuscular and Vascular Hamartoma of the Small Intestine: An Exuberant Reparative Process Secondary to Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Crothers, Jessica W; Zenali, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    The term Neuromuscular and Vascular Hamartoma (NMVH) was initially coined by Fernando and McGovern in 1982 in their report of 2 cases. Whether this lesion is truly hamartomatous or represents a "burnt-out" phase of varying chronic pathologies has been debated since that time. Examples of NMVH-like proliferations have been reported in the setting of diaphragm disease, Crohn's disease, radiation, and ischemia. Herein we present the case of a 73-year-old female with partial small bowel obstruction and a past surgical history significant for cholecystectomy and abdominal hysterectomy. A computed tomography scan revealed an ill-defined mass with the same density as muscle extending into the mesentery, worrisome for malignancy and generating the differential of lymphoma versus metastatic disease. Upon laparotomy, a 2.5 cm, constrictive, predominantly mural-based mass was identified. The more proximal bowel was dilated, and there were dense serosal adhesions. Grossly, the transmural lesion had a tan-yellow cobweb-like cut surface and the overlying mucosa was flattened. Histologically, the lesion contained fascicles of smooth muscle, irregularly spaced large nerve bundles, and thick-walled vasculature in a haphazard arrangement within a hypocellular fibroadipose stroma. No stigmata of Crohn's disease were observed, and the uninvolved enteric tissue was unremarkable. The patient's medical history was negative for chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use and was otherwise unremarkable. This case of an NMVH-like lesion is presented as a reminder of benign mass-forming lesions causing bowel obstruction and suggests that such lesions may develop secondary to a chronic inflammatory process.

  10. MicroRNAs as new maestro conducting the expanding symphony orchestra of regenerative and reparative medicine.

    PubMed

    Sen, Chandan K

    2011-05-01

    The human genome encodes 1,048 microRNAs (miRNAs). These miRNAs regulate virtually all biological processes. Leaving ignominy on the significance miRNAs behind we are approaching a new era in tissue repair where an ever expanding orchestra of events that enable tissue repair and regeneration seems to be conducted by miRNAs as the maestro. microRNAs are emerging as molecular rheostats that fine-tune and switch regulatory circuits governing tissue repair. Key elements of tissue repair such as stem cell biology, inflammation, hypoxia-response, and angiogenesis are all under the sophisticated control of a network of specific mRNAs. Embryonic stem cells lacking miRNAs lose their "stemness." Manipulation of specific cellular miRNAs helps enhance reprogramming of somatic cells to an embryonic stem cell-like phenotype helping generate inducible pluripotent stem cells. Expression of miRNAs is subject to control by epigenetic factors. Such control influences the balance between proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Angiomirs regulate various aspects of angiogenesis, such as proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis of endothelial cells. MiRNAs play a key role in resolution of inflammation. Hypoxia-inducible mRNAs or hypoxamirs suppress mitochondrial respiration, cause cell cycle arrest, and interfere with growth factor signaling. miRNA-210 is a good example in this category that impairs wound closure. As fine tools enabling specific and temporally controlled manipulation of cell-specific miRNAs emerge, miRNA-based therapies hold promise in facilitating tissue repair. Treatment of skin wounds has lower barriers because it lends itself to local delivery of miRNA mimics and antagonizing agents minimizing risks associated with systemic off-target toxicity.

  11. Zoledronate and ion-releasing resins impair dentin collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, A; Seseogullari-Dirihan, R; Feitosa, V P; Tay, F R; Watson, T F; Pashley, D H; Sauro, S

    2014-10-01

    This study analyzed the amounts of solubilized telopeptides cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) derived from matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CTPs) subsequent to application of a filler-free (Res.A) or an ion-releasing resin (Res.B) to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-demineralized dentin with or without zoledronate-containing primer (Zol-primer) pre-treatment. The chemical modification induced following treatments and artificial saliva (AS) storage was also analyzed through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Totally EDTA-demineralized specimens were infiltrated with Res.A or Res.B with or without Zol-primer pre-treatment, light-cured, and immersed in AS for up to 4 wk. ICTP release was reduced following infiltration with Res.B and further reduced when Res.B was used with Zol-primer; remarkable phosphate mineral uptake was attained after AS storage. CTX release was increased in Res.A- and Res.B-treated dentin. However, when Zol-primer was used with Res.A, the CTX release fell significantly compared to the other tested resin-infiltration methods. In conclusion, zoledronate offers an additional inhibitory effect to the ion-releasing resins in MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, Zol-primer induces a modest reduction in CTX release only when used with resin-based systems containing no ion-releasing fillers.

  12. SYNERGISTIC DEGRADATION OF DENTIN BY CYCLIC STRESS AND BUFFER AGITATION

    PubMed Central

    Orrego, Santiago; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Secondary caries and non-carious lesions develop in regions of stress concentrations and oral fluid movement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cyclic stress and fluid movement on material loss and subsurface degradation of dentin within an acidic environment. Rectangular specimens of radicular dentin were prepared from caries-free unrestored 3rd molars. Two groups were subjected to cyclic cantilever loading within a lactic acid solution (pH=5) to achieve compressive stresses on the inner (pulpal) or outer sides of the specimens. Two additional groups were evaluated in the same solution, one subjected to movement only (no stress) and the second held stagnant (control: no stress or movement). Exterior material loss profiles and subsurface degradation were quantified on the two sides of the specimens. Results showed that under cyclic stress material loss was significantly greater (p≤0.0005) on the pulpal side than on the outer side and significantly greater (p≤0.05) under compression than tension. However, movement only caused significantly greater material loss (p≤0.0005) than cyclic stress. Subsurface degradation was greatest at the location of highest stress, but was not influenced by stress state or movement. PMID:25637823

  13. Biodentine-a novel dentinal substitute for single visit apexification.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Gurudutt; Hasan, Mohammad Faiz

    2014-05-01

    Use of an apical plug in management of cases with open apices has gained popularity in recent years. Biodentine, a new calcium silicate-based material has recently been introduced as a dentine substitute, whenever original dentine is damaged. This case report describes single visit apexification in a maxillary central incisor with necrotic pulp and open apex using Biodentine as an apical barrier, and a synthetic collagen material as an internal matrix. Following canal cleaning and shaping, calcium hydroxide was placed as an intracanal medicament for 1 mon. This was followed by placement of small piece of absorbable collagen membrane beyond the root apex to serve as matrix. An apical plug of Biodentine of 5 mm thickness was placed against the matrix using pre-fitted hand pluggers. The remainder of canal was back-filled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha and access cavity was restored with composite resin followed by all-ceramic crown. One year follow-up revealed restored aesthetics and function, absence of clinical signs and symptoms, resolution of periapical rarefaction, and a thin layer of calcific tissue formed apical to the Biodentine barrier. The positive clinical outcome in this case is encouraging for the use of Biodentine as an apical plug in single visit apexification procedures.

  14. Accelerated Fatigue of Dentin with Exposure to Lactic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Majd, H.; Ryou, H.; Mutluay, M. M.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Arola, D.

    2013-01-01

    Composite restorations accumulate more biofilm than other dental materials. This increases the likelihood for the hard tissues supporting a restoration (i.e. dentin and enamel) to be exposed to acidic conditions beyond that resulting from dietary variations. In this investigation the fatigue strength and fatigue crack growth resistance of human coronal dentin were characterized within a lactic acid solution (with pH=5) and compared to that of controls evaluated in neutral conditions (pH=7). A comparison of the fatigue life distributions showed that the lactic acid exposure resulted in a significant reduction in the fatigue strength (p≤0.001), and nearly 30% reduction in the apparent endurance limit (from 44 MPa to 32 MPa). The reduction in pH also caused a significant decrease (p≤0.05) in the threshold stress intensity range required for the initiation of cyclic crack growth, and significant increase in the incremental rate of crack extension. Exposure of tooth structure to lactic acid may cause demineralization, but it also increases the likelihood of restored tooth failures via fatigue, and after short time periods. PMID:23948166

  15. Digital approach for measuring dentin translucency in forensic age estimation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Simranjit; Venkatapathy, Ramesh; Balamurali, PD; Charles, NSC; Suganya, R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dentin translucency is best suited for age estimation not only in terms of accuracy but also in terms of simplicity. Conventionally, translucency has been measured using calipers. Computer-based methods have been proposed for the same, although these required the use of custom-built software programs. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to use a simple digital method to measure dentinal translucency on sectioned teeth and to compare digital measurements to conventionally obtained translucency measurements. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted permanent teeth were collected and were sectioned to 250 μm. Translucency measurements were obtained using the digital method and compared with those obtained using a caliper. Results: Correlation coefficients of translucency measurements to age were statistically significant for both methods (P < 0.001), and marginally higher for the conventional approach (r = 0.4671). Application of derived linear regression equations on an independent sample (n = 10) revealed a similar ability of both the methods to assess age to within ±5 years of the actual age. Conclusion: The translucency measurements obtained by the two methods were very similar, with no clear superiority of one method over the other. Hence, further studies on a large scale are warranted to determine which method is more reliable to estimate the age. PMID:23960415

  16. Root dentine and endodontic instrumentation: cutting edge microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Atmeh, Amre R; Watson, Timothy F

    2016-06-01

    Cutting of the dental hard tissues is an integral part of restorative dentistry. Cutting of the root dentine is also needed in preparation prior to endodontic treatment, with significant commercial investment for the development of flexible cutting instruments based around nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys. This paper describes the evolution of endodontic cutting instruments, both in materials used, e.g. the transition from stainless steel to NiTi, and the design of the actual instruments themselves and their method of activation-by hand or motor driven. We have been examining tooth-cutting interactions microscopically for over 25 years using a variety of microscopic techniques; in particular, video-rate confocal microscopy. This has given a unique insight into how many of the procedures that we take for granted are achieved in clinical practice, by showing microscopic video images of the cutting as it occurs within the tooth. This technology has now been extended to allow imaging of the endodontic instrument and the root canal wall for the first time. We are able to image dentine distortion and crack propagation during endodontic filing of the root canal space. We are also able to visualize the often claimed, but seldom seen action of contemporary endodontic instruments. PMID:27274802

  17. Stress ratio contributes to fatigue crack growth in dentin.

    PubMed

    Arola, D; Zheng, W; Sundaram, N; Rouland, J A

    2005-05-01

    An experimental study of fatigue crack growth in dentin was conducted, and the influence of stress ratio (R) on the crack growth rate and mechanisms of cyclic extension were examined. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) fatigue specimens were sectioned from bovine molars and then subjected to high cycle fatigue loading (10(5) < N < 10(6)) under hydrated conditions. The evaluation consisted of Mode I loads with stress ratios that ranged from -0.5 to 0.5. The fatigue crack growth rates were measured and used to estimate the crack growth exponent (m) and coefficient (C) according to the Paris Law model. The fatigue crack growth rates for steady-state extension (Region II) ranged from 1E-7 to 1E-4 mm/cycle. It was found that the rate of cyclic extension increased significantly with increasing R, and that the highest average crack growth rate occurred at a stress ratio of 0.5. However, the crack growth exponent decreased with increasing R from an average of 4.6 (R = 0.10) to 2.7 (R = 0.50). The stress intensity threshold for crack growth decreased with increasing R as well. Results from this study suggest that an increase in the cyclic stress ratio facilitates fatigue crack growth in dentin and increases the rate of cyclic extension, both of which are critical concerns in minimizing tooth fractures and maintaining lifelong oral health.

  18. Accelerated fatigue of dentin with exposure to lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Do, Dominic; Orrego, Santiago; Majd, Hessam; Ryou, Heonjune; Mutluay, Mustafa M; Xu, Hockin H K; Arola, Dwayne D

    2013-11-01

    Composite restorations accumulate more biofilm than other dental materials. This increases the likelihood for the hard tissues supporting a restoration (i.e. dentin and enamel) to be exposed to acidic conditions beyond that resulting from dietary variations. In this investigation the fatigue strength and fatigue crack growth resistance of human coronal dentin were characterized within a lactic acid solution (with pH = 5) and compared to that of controls evaluated in neutral conditions (pH = 7). A comparison of the fatigue life distributions showed that the lactic acid exposure resulted in a significant reduction in the fatigue strength (p ≤ 0.001), and nearly 30% reduction in the apparent endurance limit (from 44 MPa to 32 MPa). The reduction in pH also caused a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the threshold stress intensity range required for the initiation of cyclic crack growth, and significant increase in the incremental rate of crack extension. Exposure of tooth structure to lactic acid may cause demineralization, but it also increases the likelihood of restored tooth failures via fatigue, and after short time periods.

  19. Biomimetic Scaffold with Aligned Microporosity Designed for Dentin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Panseri, Silvia; Montesi, Monica; Dozio, Samuele Maria; Savini, Elisa; Tampieri, Anna; Sandri, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Tooth loss is a common result of a variety of oral diseases due to physiological causes, trauma, genetic disorders, and aging and can lead to physical and mental suffering that markedly lowers the individual’s quality of life. Tooth is a complex organ that is composed of mineralized tissues and soft connective tissues. Dentin is the most voluminous tissue of the tooth and its formation (dentinogenesis) is a highly regulated process displaying several similarities with osteogenesis. In this study, gelatin, thermally denatured collagen, was used as a promising low-cost material to develop scaffolds for hard tissue engineering. We synthetized dentin-like scaffolds using gelatin biomineralized with magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite and blended it with alginate. With a controlled freeze-drying process and alginate cross-linking, it is possible to obtain scaffolds with microscopic aligned channels suitable for tissue engineering. 3D cell culture with mesenchymal stem cells showed the promising properties of the new scaffolds for tooth regeneration. In detail, the chemical–physical features of the scaffolds, mimicking those of natural tissue, facilitate the cell adhesion, and the porosity is suitable for long-term cell colonization and fine cell–material interactions. PMID:27376060

  20. Interfacial properties of three different bioactive dentine substitutes.

    PubMed

    Gjorgievska, Elizabeta S; Nicholson, John W; Apostolska, Sonja M; Coleman, Nichola J; Booth, Samantha E; Slipper, Ian J; Mladenov, Mitko I

    2013-12-01

    Three different bioactive materials suitable as dentine substitutes in tooth repair have been studied: glass-ionomer cement, particulate bioglass, and calcium-silicate cement. On 15 permanent human molars, Class V cavities were prepared and the bottom of each cavity was de-mineralized by an artificial caries gel. After the de-mineralization, the teeth were restored with: (1) Bioglass®45S5 and ChemFil® Superior; (2) Biodentine™ and ChemFil® Superior; and (3) ChemFil® Superior for a complete repair. The teeth were stored for 6 weeks in artificial saliva, then cut in half along the longitudinal axis: the first half was imaged in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the other half was embedded in resin and analyzed by SEM using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The glass-ionomer and the bioglass underwent ion exchange with the surrounding tooth tissue, confirming their bioactivity. However, the particle size of the bioglass meant that cavity adaptation was poor. It is concluded that smaller particle size bioglasses may give more acceptable results. In contrast, both the glass-ionomer and the calcium-silicate cements performed well as dentine substitutes. The glass-ionomer showed ion exchange properties, whereas the calcium silicate gave an excellent seal resulting from its micromechanical attachment.

  1. Geochemical evolution of amino acids in dentine of Pleistocene bears.

    PubMed

    De Torres, T; Ortiz, J E; García, M J; Llamas, J F; Canoira, L; De La Morena, M A; Juliá, R

    2001-08-01

    A linear correlation was established between aspartic acid racemization ratio from cave bear dentine collagen and absolute dating. The high correlation coefficient obtained allowed age calculation through amino acid racemization. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid racemization kinetics have also been explored in dentine from a North American black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas). Three sample sets were prepared for kinetic heating experiments in nitrogen atmosphere: one water soaked, one with a water-saturated nitrogen atmosphere, and one without any moisture. It was possible to show that the presence of water is a factor controlling amino acid racemization rate. The aspartic acid in a heating experiment at 105 degrees C shows an "apparent kinetics reversal" which can be explained by a progressive hydrolysis of amino acid chains (proteins and polypeptides). Because of the low potential of collagen preservation over long periods of time, the apparent kinetics reversal phenomenon will not affect the dating of old material where no traces of collagen remain. An apparent kinetics reversal was not observed in glutamic acid, which racemizates more slowly. PMID:11466777

  2. Root dentine and endodontic instrumentation: cutting edge microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Atmeh, Amre R; Watson, Timothy F

    2016-06-01

    Cutting of the dental hard tissues is an integral part of restorative dentistry. Cutting of the root dentine is also needed in preparation prior to endodontic treatment, with significant commercial investment for the development of flexible cutting instruments based around nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys. This paper describes the evolution of endodontic cutting instruments, both in materials used, e.g. the transition from stainless steel to NiTi, and the design of the actual instruments themselves and their method of activation-by hand or motor driven. We have been examining tooth-cutting interactions microscopically for over 25 years using a variety of microscopic techniques; in particular, video-rate confocal microscopy. This has given a unique insight into how many of the procedures that we take for granted are achieved in clinical practice, by showing microscopic video images of the cutting as it occurs within the tooth. This technology has now been extended to allow imaging of the endodontic instrument and the root canal wall for the first time. We are able to image dentine distortion and crack propagation during endodontic filing of the root canal space. We are also able to visualize the often claimed, but seldom seen action of contemporary endodontic instruments.

  3. Biomimetic Scaffold with Aligned Microporosity Designed for Dentin Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Panseri, Silvia; Montesi, Monica; Dozio, Samuele Maria; Savini, Elisa; Tampieri, Anna; Sandri, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Tooth loss is a common result of a variety of oral diseases due to physiological causes, trauma, genetic disorders, and aging and can lead to physical and mental suffering that markedly lowers the individual's quality of life. Tooth is a complex organ that is composed of mineralized tissues and soft connective tissues. Dentin is the most voluminous tissue of the tooth and its formation (dentinogenesis) is a highly regulated process displaying several similarities with osteogenesis. In this study, gelatin, thermally denatured collagen, was used as a promising low-cost material to develop scaffolds for hard tissue engineering. We synthetized dentin-like scaffolds using gelatin biomineralized with magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite and blended it with alginate. With a controlled freeze-drying process and alginate cross-linking, it is possible to obtain scaffolds with microscopic aligned channels suitable for tissue engineering. 3D cell culture with mesenchymal stem cells showed the promising properties of the new scaffolds for tooth regeneration. In detail, the chemical-physical features of the scaffolds, mimicking those of natural tissue, facilitate the cell adhesion, and the porosity is suitable for long-term cell colonization and fine cell-material interactions. PMID:27376060

  4. Repair of dentin defects from DSPP knockout mice by PILP mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Nurrohman, H.; Saeki, K.; Carneiro, K.; Chien, Y.C.; Djomehri, S.; Ho, S.P.; Qin, C.; Marshall, S.J.; Gower, L.B.; Marshall, G.W.; Habelitz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) lacks intrafibrillar mineral with severe compromise of dentin mechanical properties. A Dspp knockout (Dspp−/−) mouse, with a phenotype similar to that of human DGI-II, was used to determine if poly-L-aspartic acid [poly(ASP)] in the “polymer-induced liquid-precursor” (PILP) system can restore its mechanical properties. Dentin from six-week old Dspp−/− and wild-type mice was treated with CaP solution containing poly(ASP) for up to 14 days. Elastic modulus and hardness before and after treatment were correlated with mineralization from Micro x-ray computed tomography (Micro-XCT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to compare matrix mineralization and crystallography. Mechanical properties of the Dspp−/− dentin were significantly less than wild-type dentin and recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after PILP-treatment, reaching values comparable to wild-type dentin. Micro-XCT showed mineral recovery similar to wild-type dentin after PILP-treatment. TEM/SAED showed repair of patchy mineralization and complete mineralization of defective dentin. This approach may lead to new strategies for hard tissue repair. PMID:27239097

  5. In vitro electrical impedance spectroscopy of human dentine: the effect of restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Berta; Botta, Pablo M; Varela, Purificación; Martín, Benjamín; Fondado, Alfonso; Rivas, Jose

    2008-04-01

    The influence of different restorative materials on in vitro dielectric properties of sound dentine was investigated. The studied samples were three-layer materials consisting of successive disks of dentine and silver amalgam or nanohybrid composite resin. Before being tested, the samples were maintained in physiological solution never more than 48 h from the extraction. Also, sections of intact dentine were similarly prepared for electrical measurements. Complex dielectric permittivity of these specimens was determined in a wide frequency range using the parallel-plate capacitor technique. Very similar dielectric responses of intact dentine and amalgam-dentine material were observed. This is explained on the basis of high dc conductivity exhibited by both samples. In contrast, resin-dentine specimen revealed a much more insulating behavior. A simple theoretical model for heterogeneous systems could be applied to these dental three-layer materials. The dielectric properties of restored dentine are strongly dependent on the kind of restorative material employed in each case. This suggests that electrical data should be used carefully in caries diagnosis on restored teeth.

  6. Micro- and nanoscale structures of mesiodens dentin: Combined study of FTIR and SAXS/WAXS techniques.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Ozlem Marti; Bayari, Sevgi Haman; Ide, Semra; Polat, Günseli Guven; Kalkhoran, Ilghar Orujalipoor

    2015-01-01

    A mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary tooth present in conjunction to normal dentition. A mesiodens may commonly occur in the central region of the upper or lower jaw. A mesiodens is different from normal teeth in terms of structure and shape. The aim of this study is to evaluate the micro- and nanoscale structural properties of mesiodens dentin by combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Five freshly extracted, noncarious mesiodens and five normal dentin disks prepared from human incisor teeth were compared. Using FTIR, the phosphate-to-amide I, carbonate-to-phosphate, and carbonate-to-amide I band area ratios and the crystallinity index were quantified. SAXS/WAXS were used to study the nanostructure of mesiodens. An increase in the mineral content in the mesiodens dentin with respect to the normal group was found. Crystallinity was also significantly increased and the protein content decreased in the mesiodens dentin compared with that of normal dentin. SAXS/WAXS results revealed that mesiodens dentin has a more calcified tissue. Further, SAXS analysis revealed a nonuniform distribution of dentin fibrils in mesiodens.

  7. Effect of in vitro chewing and bruxism events on remineralization, at the resin-dentin interface.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Cabello, Inmaculada; Aguilera, Fátima S; Osorio, Estrella; Osorio, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different in vitro functional and parafunctional habits promote mineralization at the resin-dentin interface after bonding with three different adhesive approaches. Dentin surfaces were subjected to distinct treatments: demineralization by (1) 37% phosphoric acid (PA) followed by application of an etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive, Single Bond (SB) (PA+SB); (2) 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) followed by SB (EDTA+SB); (3) application of a self-etch dentin adhesive, Clearfil SE Bond (SEB). Different loading waveforms were applied: No cycling (I), cycled in sine (II) or square (III) waves, sustained loading hold for 24 h (IV) or sustained loading hold for 72 h (V). Remineralization at the bonded interfaces was assessed by AFM imaging/nano-indentation, Raman spectroscopy and Masson's trichrome staining. In general, in vitro chewing and parafunctional habits, promoted an increase of nano-mechanical properties at the resin-dentin interface. Raman spectroscopy through cluster analysis demonstrated an augmentation of the mineral-matrix ratio in loaded specimens. Trichrome staining reflected a narrow demineralized dentin matrix after loading in all groups except in PA+SB and EDTA+SB samples after sustained loading hold for 72 h, which exhibited a strong degree of mineralization. In vitro mechanical loading, produced during chewing and bruxism (square or hold 24 and 72 h waveforms), induced remineralization at the resin-dentin bonded interface.

  8. Comparison of propagation-based phase-contrast tomography approaches for the evaluation of dentin microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhle, Hans; Weitkamp, Timm; Lang, Sabrina; Schulz, Georg; Rack, Alexander; Zanette, Irene; Müller, Bert

    2012-10-01

    The complex hierarchical structure of human tooth hard tissues, enamel and dentin, guarantees function for decades. On the micrometer level the dentin morphology is dominated by the tubules, micrometer-narrow channels extending from the dentin-enamel junction to the pulp chamber. Their structure has been extensively studied, mainly with two-dimensional approaches. Dentin tubules are formed during tooth growth and their orientation is linked to the morphology of the nanometer-sized components, which is of interest for example for the development of bio-inspired dental fillings. Therefore, a method has to be identified that can access the three-dimensional organization of the tubules, e.g. density and orientation. Tomographic setups with pixel sizes in the sub-micrometer range allow for the three-dimensional visualization of tooth dentin tubules both in phase and absorption contrast modes. We compare high-resolution tomographic scans reconstructed with propagation based phase retrieval algorithms as well as reconstructions without phase retrieval concerning spatial and density resolution as well as rendering of the dentin microstructure to determine the approach best suited for dentin tubule imaging. Reasonable results were obtained with a single-distance phase retrieval algorithm and a propagation distance of about 75% of the critical distance of d2/λ, where d is the size of the smallest objects identifiable in the specimen and λ is the X-ray wavelength.

  9. Dental Pulp and Dentin Tissue Engineering and Regeneration – Advancement and Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Huang, George T.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Hard tissue is difficult to repair especially dental structures. Tooth enamel is incapable of self-repairing whereas dentin and cememtum can regenerate with limited capacity. Enamel and dentin are commonly under the attack by caries. Extensive forms of caries destroy enamel and dentin and can lead to dental pulp infection. Entire pulp amputation followed by the pulp space disinfection and filled with an artificial rubber-like material is employed to treat the infection --commonly known as root canal or endodontic therapy. Regeneration of dentin relies on having vital pulps; however, regeneration of pulp tissue has been difficult as the tissue is encased in dentin without collateral blood supply except from the root apical end. With the advent of modern tissue engineering concept and the discovery of dental stem cells, regeneration of pulp and dentin has been tested. This article will review the recent endeavor on pulp and dentin tissue engineering and regeneration. The prospective outcome of the current advancement and challenge in this line of research will be discussed. PMID:21196351

  10. Residual Dentin Thickness of Bifurcated Maxillary Premolars Following Two Post Space Preparation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Bagherpour, Ali; Mahmudabadi, Fatemeh; Forghani, Maryam; Sarmad, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of Gates-Glidden and Peeso reamer drills on residual dentin thickness during post space preparation in order to discover which method has minimum root structure damage. Materials and Methods Thirty extracted human maxillary premolars with bifurcations at root middle were horizontally cut 15 mm coronal to the apical end after root canal treatment. The samples were scannedby Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) before and after preparing the post space. Residual dentin thicknesses were measured at 4-, 6-, and 8-mm levels from the apex. Data were analyzed using repeated measured ANOVA. Results Endodontic therapy and post space preparations removed more dentin within the bifurcation of both roots compared to outer dentin. The difference in residual dentin thickness was highly significant regarding stage (before and after post space preparation) in all levels and stage × device in coronal and middle levels (P<.05). This in vitro study emphasizes the minimal dentin width in the buccal root of maxillary premolars, especially near the bifurcation. Conclusion Lack of adequate residual dentin thickness after post space preparation implies that the use of posts in maxillary first premolars should be limited. When mandatory, it is recommended that post space be prepared with Gates-Glidden drill in the palatal root of maxillary first premolars and use of Peeso reamer be avoided. PMID:23922568

  11. Effect of phytic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and chitosan solutions on microhardness of the human radicular dentin

    PubMed Central

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Jaiswal, Shikha; Bansal, Parul; Arora, Rohit; Raj, Shalya; Malhotra, Pulkit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phytic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and chitosan solutions on the microhardness of human radicular dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty dentin specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 10 specimens each according to the irrigant used: G1 — 1% phytic acid, G2 — 17% EDTA, and G3 — 0.2% chitosan. A standardized volume of each chelating solution was used for 3 min. Dentin microhardness was measured before and after application at the cervical, middle, and apical levels with a Vickers indenter under a 200-g load and a 10-s dwell time. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t test. Results: Microhardness of the radicular dentin varied at the cervical, middle, and apical levels. EDTA had the greatest overall effect, causing a sharp percentage reduction in dentin microhardness with a significant difference from phytic acid and chitosan (P = 0.002). However, phytic acid and chitosan differed insignificantly from each other (P = 0.887). Conclusion: All tested chelating solutions reduced microhardness of the radicular dentin layer at all the levels. However, reduction was least at the apical level. EDTA caused more reduction in dentin microhardness than chitosan while phytic acid reduced the least. PMID:27099428

  12. Evaluation of the Diode laser (810nm,980nm) on dentin tubule diameter following internal bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Salim, Soheil; Sarraf, Pegah; Javad-Kharazifard, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diode laser irradiation and bleaching materials on the dentinal tubule diameter after laser bleaching. Material and Methods The dentin discs of 40 extracted third molar were used in this experiment. Each disc surface was divided into two halves by grooving. Half of samples were laser bleached at different wavelengths with two different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Other half of each disc with no laser bleaching remained as a negative control. Dentin discs were assigned randomly into four groups (n=10) with following hydrogen peroxide and diode laser wavelength specifications; Group 1 (30% - 810 nm), group 2 (30% - 980 nm), group 3 (46% - 810 nm) and group 4 (46% - 980 nm). All specimens were sent for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis in order to measure tubular diameter in laser treated and control halves. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). Results A significant reduction in dentin tubule diameter was observed in groups 1, 2 and 4. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 3 and 4 after bleaching. Conclusions The SEM results showed that diode laser was able to reduce dentin tubule diameter and its effect on dentin was dependent on chemical action of bleaching material. Key words:Laser, diode, dentin, tubule, diameter. PMID:27398172

  13. A new method for characterization of thermal properties of human enamel and dentine: Influence of microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Liu, Q. D.; Kim, T.; Xu, F.; Bai, B. F.; Lu, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    For better selection of "tooth-like" dental restorative materials, it is of great importance to evaluate the thermal properties of the human tooth. A simple method capable of non-destructively characterizing the thermal properties of the individual layers (dentine and enamel) of human tooth is presented. The traditional method of monotonic heating regime was combined with infrared thermography to measure the thermal diffusivities of enamel and dentine layers without physically separating them, with 4.08 (±0.178) × 10 7 m 2/s measured for enamel and 2.01 (±0.050) × 10 7 m 2/s for dentine. Correspondingly, the thermal conductivity was calculated to be 0.81 W/mK (enamel) and 0.48 W/mK (dentine). To examine the dependence of thermal conductivity on the configuration of dentine microstructure (microtubules), the Maxwell-Eucken and Parallel models of effective thermal conductivity are employed. The effective thermal conductivity of dentine in the direction parallel to tubules was found to be about 1.1 times higher than that perpendicular to the tubules, indicating weak anisotropy. By adopting the Series model, the bulk thermal conductivity of enamel and dentine layers is estimated to be 0.57 W/mK.

  14. Tensile Strength of Mineralized/Demineralized Human Normal and Carious Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Y.; Yoshiyama, M.; Tay, F.R.; Wadgaonkar, B.; Waller, J.; Agee, K.; Pashley, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    The bond strengths of resins to caries-affected dentin are low. This could be due to weakened organic matrix. The purpose of this work was to determine if the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of excavated carious dentin is weaker than that of normal dentin. Soft caries was excavated from extracted human molars, and the tooth was vertically sectioned into slabs. Each slab was trimmed to an hourglass shape, parallel or perpendicular to the tubule direction. Half of the specimens were mineralized, while the other half were completely demineralized in EDTA. ANOVA on ranks showed that the three-factor interactions (mineralization, caries, tubule direction) were all significant (p < 0.0001), indicating that mineralization and tubule direction gave different UTS results in normal and caries-affected dentin. No significant differences were seen between the UTS of normal and and that of caries-affected demineralized dentin in the parallel or perpendicular group. The matrix of demineralized caries-affected dentin was as strong as that of normal demineralized dentin when tested in the same direction. PMID:16246945

  15. The Reduction in Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance of Dentin with Depth

    PubMed Central

    Ivancik, J.; Neerchal, N.K.; Romberg, E.; Arola, D.

    2011-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth resistance of dentin was characterized as a function of depth from the dentino-enamel junction. Compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from the crowns of third molars in the deep, middle, and peripheral dentin. The microstructure was quantified in terms of the average tubule dimensions and density. Fatigue cracks were grown in-plane with the tubules and characterized in terms of the initiation and growth responses. Deep dentin exhibited the lowest resistance to the initiation of fatigue crack growth, as indicated by the stress intensity threshold (ΔKth ≈ 0.8 MPa•m0.5) and the highest incremental fatigue crack growth rate (over 1000 times that in peripheral dentin). Cracks in deep dentin underwent incremental extension under cyclic stresses that were 40% lower than those required in peripheral dentin. The average fatigue crack growth rates increased significantly with tubule density, indicating the importance of microstructure on the potential for tooth fracture. Molars with deep restorations are more likely to suffer from the cracked-tooth syndrome, because of the lower fatigue crack growth resistance of deep dentin. PMID:21628640

  16. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls. In vitro SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sulaiman, Alaa; Al-Rasheed, Fellwa; Alnajjar, Fatimah; Al-Abdulwahab, Bander; Al-Badah, Abdulhakeem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study aimed to investigate the ability of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) to penetrate dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal surface of split human teeth. Materials and Methods Sixty intact extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups, negative control, positive control without canal instrumentation, instrumented, and retreated. Root canals in the instrumented group were enlarged with endodontic instruments, while root canals in the retreated group were enlarged, filled, and then removed the canal filling materials. The teeth were split longitudinally after canal preparation in 3 groups except the negative control group. The teeth were inoculated with both microorganisms separately and in combination. Teeth specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the depth of penetration into the dentinal tubules was assessed using the SMILE view software (JEOL Ltd). Results Penetration of C. albicans and E. faecalis into the dentinal tubules was observed in all 3 groups, although penetration was partially restricted by dentin debris of tubules in the instrumented group and remnants of canal filling materials in the retreated group. In all 3 groups, E. faecalis penetrated deeper into the dentinal tubules by way of cell division than C. albicans which built colonies and penetrated by means of hyphae. Conclusions Microorganisms can easily penetrate dentinal tubules of root canals with different appearance based on the microorganism size and status of dentinal tubules. PMID:25383343

  17. The reduction in fatigue crack growth resistance of dentin with depth.

    PubMed

    Ivancik, J; Neerchal, N K; Romberg, E; Arola, D

    2011-08-01

    The fatigue crack growth resistance of dentin was characterized as a function of depth from the dentino-enamel junction. Compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from the crowns of third molars in the deep, middle, and peripheral dentin. The microstructure was quantified in terms of the average tubule dimensions and density. Fatigue cracks were grown in-plane with the tubules and characterized in terms of the initiation and growth responses. Deep dentin exhibited the lowest resistance to the initiation of fatigue crack growth, as indicated by the stress intensity threshold (ΔK(th) ≈ 0.8 MPa•m(0.5)) and the highest incremental fatigue crack growth rate (over 1000 times that in peripheral dentin). Cracks in deep dentin underwent incremental extension under cyclic stresses that were 40% lower than those required in peripheral dentin. The average fatigue crack growth rates increased significantly with tubule density, indicating the importance of microstructure on the potential for tooth fracture. Molars with deep restorations are more likely to suffer from the cracked-tooth syndrome, because of the lower fatigue crack growth resistance of deep dentin.

  18. The fibrillar structure of the cemento-dentinal junction in different kinds of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Islam, M N; Suzuki, R

    2001-10-01

    The cemento-dentinal junction was examined in human maxillary incisors, canines and premolars by scanning electron microscopy combined with NaOH maceration. The NaOH maceration was used to remove interfibrillar substances and to observe details of the fibrillar architecture. The teeth were half-sectioned longitudinally, demineralized and macerated for 3-4 days or for 10-14 days. In the 3-4 day-macerated specimens, longitudinal sections of the cemento-dentinal junction were examined. In the 10-14 day-macerated specimens, the cementum was detached and the inner cementum surface facing the cemento-dentinal junction was examined. Observations suggested that cemental fibrils intermingle with dentinal fibrils only in places at the cemento-dentinal junction in both acellular and cellular cementum. These structural features were consistent in all kinds of teeth investigated here. Using human molars, we have previously proposed that the adhesion of proteoglycans is a main factor for the cemento-dentinal attachment and that the fibril intermingling between dentin and cementum is an accessory or secondary factor. The present study suggests that this applies to other kinds of human teeth. PMID:11585119

  19. Porcine dentin matrix protein 1: gene structure, cDNA sequence, and expression in teeth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Wook; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Iwata, Takanori; Hu, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Hengmin; Hu, Jan C-C; Simmer, James P

    2006-02-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic non-collagenous protein that is necessary for the proper biomineralization of bone, cartilage, cementum, dentin, and enamel. Dentin matrix protein 1 is highly phosphorylated and potentially glycosylated, but there is no experimental data identifying which specific amino acids are modified. For the purpose of facilitating the characterization of DMP1 from pig, which has the advantage of large developing teeth for obtaining protein in quantity and extensive structural information concerning other tooth matrix proteins, we characterized the porcine DMP1 cDNA and gene structure, raised anti-peptide immunoglobulins that are specific for porcine DMP1, and detected DMP1 protein in porcine tooth extracts and histological sections. Porcine DMP1 has 510 amino acids, including a 16-amino acid signal peptide. The deduced molecular weight of the secreted, unmodified protein is 53.5 kDa. The protein has 93 serines and 12 threonines in the appropriate context for phosphorylation, and four asparagines in a context suitable for glycosylation. Dentin matrix protein 1 protein bands with apparent molecular weights between 30 and 45 kDa were observed in partially purified dentin extracts. In developing teeth, immunohistochemistry localized DMP1 in odontoblasts and the dentinal tubules of mineralized dentin and in ameloblasts, but not in the enamel matrix.

  20. Adhesion to Primary and Permanent Dentin and a Simple Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Can-Karabulut, Deniz C.; Oz, Firdevs Tulga; Karabulut, Baris; Batmaz, Inci; Ilk, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    Objectives First to compare different dentin bonding agents’ shear bond strength to primary and permanent dentin. Secondly to compare the fracture failure modes and making an attempt to develop a statistical model that could be helpful in predicting them. Methods Extracted human primary and permanent molars were used as substrates (dentin). The shear bond strength of composite to substrate was measured and fracture surfaces were evaluated visually and with stereomicroscope. Using the data obtained, a statistical model was built in order to predict the failure modes. Results Higher bond strength values were obtained for permanent dentin. Total-etch adhesives displayed higher shear bond strength values than the self-etch adhesive. Adhesive failures were more frequently seen in primary dentin. Self-etch adhesive system displayed more adhesive failures. Prepared model confirmed the negative relationship between shear bond strength and the probability of observing adhesive failure. Conclusions There should be an application protocol for the usage of dentin bonding agents in primary dentin. Further development of statistical and fuzzy models for failure modes can be supportive alternatives for microscopic evaluations and also be helpful in understanding and eliminating the factors which are responsible for the formation of adhesive failures and for achieving clinically more successful adhesive restorations. PMID:19262729

  1. Potential effects of tooth-brushing on human dentin wear following exposure to acidic soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Park, K-H; Cheong, Y; Moon, S W; Park, Y-G; Park, H-K

    2012-08-01

    This study used scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to examine the short-term potential effects of brushing time and the start-time of tooth-brushing after demineralization on primary dentin wear in vitro. Thirty-six noncarious primary central incisors were assigned to 12 experimental groups. Exposure to cola drinks was used to initiate the demineralization process. Three brushing times (5, 15 and 30 s) and four start-times of brushing (0, 30, 60 and 120 min) after an erosive attack were used for the abrasion process. Tooth-brushing the softened dentin surface led to increases in the open tubular fraction and microstructural changes on the dentin surface. Brushing immediately after exposure to cola resulted in the greatest irreversible dentin loss, whereas brushing 60 or 120 min after pretreatment resulted in the least irreversible dentin loss. However, brushing time had no effect on the irreversible loss of dentin wear. Based on these experimental results, tooth-brushing should be performed at least 60 min after consuming a cola drink to achieve the desired tooth cleaning and avoid the introduction of surface lesions on dentin.

  2. Clinical efficacy of the Er:YAG laser treatment on hypersensitive dentin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2014-06-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptomatic condition that causes discomfort and sometimes severe pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment on cervically exposed hypersensitive dentin. Twenty patients with dentin hypersensitivity of caries-free teeth were selected. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure dentin sensitivity in response to air stimulus. A 2-minute Er:YAG laser (energy level: 60 mJ/pulse; repetition rate: 2 Hz) was applied to cervically exposed hypersensitive dentin. After 4 weeks, the hypersensitive teeth were examined again, and the VAS score was measured again and recorded. No complications such as detrimental pulpal effects were observed. Eighteen participants reported significantly reduced dentin hypersensitivity 4 weeks after the laser desensitization treatment. The VAS scores measured 4 weeks after the Er:YAG laser desensitization treatment were significantly decreased as compared with those measured at the baseline (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the Er:YAG laser desensitization treatment can effectively reduce hypersensitivity of cervically exposed hypersensitive dentin. PMID:23602018

  3. Adipose tissue-deprived stem cells acquire cementoblast features treated with dental follicle cell conditioned medium containing dentin non-collagenous proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiujie; Nie, Xin; Zhang, Li; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing

    2011-06-10

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are easily harvested and show excellent pluripotency potential, have generated considerable interest in regenerative medicine. In this study, the differentiation of ADSCs was assessed after treatment with dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) containing dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs). ADSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and high proliferative capacity. However, after treatment with dNCPs/DFCCM, ADSCs changed from a fibroblast-like to cementoblast-like morphology and significantly lost their proliferative capacity. Alkaline phosphatase activity and in vitro mineralization behaviour of ADSCs were significantly enhanced. Mineralization-related markers including cementum attachment protein, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin and osteonectin were detected at mRNA or protein levels, whereas dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein were not detected, implying a cementoblast-like phenotype. These results demonstrate that ADSCs acquired cementoblast features in vitro with dNCPs/DFCCM treatment and could be a potential source of cementogenic cells for periodontal regeneration.

  4. Nanoscopic dynamic mechanical analysis of resin-infiltrated dentine, under in vitro chewing and bruxism events.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Estrella; Cabello, Inmaculada; Aguilera, Fátima S; López-López, Modesto T; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the induced changes in mechanical behavior and bonding capability of resin-infiltrated dentine interfaces, after application of mechanical stimuli. Dentine surfaces were subjected to partial demineralization through 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by the application of an etch-and-rinse dentine adhesive, Single Bond (3M/ESPE). Bonded interfaces were stored in simulated body fluid during 24h, and then tested or submitted to the mechanical loading challenge. Different loading waveforms were applied: No cycling (I), 24h cycled in sine (II) or square (III) waves, sustained loading held for 24h (IV) or sustained loading held for 72h (V). Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was assessed for the different groups. Debonded dentine surfaces were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). At the resin-dentine interface, both the hybrid layer (HL) and the bottom of the hybrid layer (BHL), and both peritubular and intertubular were evaluated using a nanoindenter in scanning mode. The load and displacement responses were used to perform the nano-Dynamic Mechanical analysis and to estimate the complex and storage modulus. Dye assisted Confocal Microscopy Evaluation was used to assess sealing ability. Load cycling increased the percentage of adhesive failures in all groups. Specimens load cycled in held 24h attained the highest complex and storage moduli at HL and BHL. The storage modulus was maximum in specimens load cycled in held 24h at peritubular dentine, and the lowest values were attained at intertubular dentine. The storage modulus increased in all mechanical tests, at peritubular dentine. An absence of micropermeability and nanoleakage after loading in sine and square waveforms were encountered. Porosity of the resin-dentine interface was observed when specimens were load cycled in held 72h. Areas of combined sealing and permeability were discovered at the interface of specimens load cycled in held 24h. Crack

  5. Differences in the Microstructure and Fatigue Properties of Dentin Between Residents of North and South America

    PubMed Central

    Ivancik, J.; Naranjo, M.; Correa, S.; Ossa, A.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Arola, D.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variations in the microstructure of dentin contribute to its mechanical behavior. Objective The objective of this investigation was to compare the microstructure and fatigue behavior of dentin from donors of two different countries. Methods Caries-free third molars were obtained from dental practices in Colombia, South America and the US to assemble two age-matched samples. The microstructure of the coronal dentin was evaluated at three characteristic depths (i.e. deep, middle and superficial dentin) using scanning electron microscopy and image processing techniques. The mechanical behavior of dentin in these three regions was evaluated by the fatigue crack growth resistance. Cyclic crack growth was achieved in-plane with the dentin tubules and the fatigue crack growth behavior was characterized in terms of the stress intensity threshold and the Paris Law parameters. Results There was no difference in the tubule density between the dentin of patients from the two countries. However, there were significant differences (p≤0.05) in the tubule lumen diameters between the two groups in the deep and peripheral regions. In regards to the fatigue resistance, there was a significant increase (p≤0.05) in threshold stress intensity range, and a significant decrease in fatigue crack growth coefficient with increasing distance from the pulp in teeth from the US donors. In contrast, these properties were independent of location for the dentin of teeth from the Colombian donors. Conclusions The microstructure of dentin and its mechanical behavior appear to be a function of patient background, which may include environmental factors and/or ethnicity. PMID:24960115

  6. Effect of surface preparation on bond strength of resin luting cements to dentin.

    PubMed

    Peerzada, Farrahnaz; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; Hiraishi, Noriko; Tay, Franklin Russell; King, Nigel Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using two different burs for dentin surface preparation on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of three resin luting cements. Flat, deep dentin surfaces from 45 extracted human third molars were divided into three groups (n = 15) according to bur type: (i) diamond bur and (ii) tungsten carbide bur. The controls were abraded with #600-grit SiC paper. Both burs operated in a high-speed handpiece under water-cooling. Composite blocks were luted onto the dentin using one of three cements: RelyX ARC (ARC, 3M ESPE), Panavia F2.0 (PF, Kuraray) and RelyX Unicem (UN, 3M ESPE) following the manufacturers' instructions. For ARC, the dentin surface was treated with 32% phosphoric acid. The bonded specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and sectioned into 0.9 x 0.9 mm beams for microTBS testing. The data were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Representative fractured beams from each group were prepared for fractographic analysis under SEM. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the effects of "dentin surface preparation" and "luting cement" were statistically significant (p < 0.001); however, the interaction of these two factors was not significant (p > 0.05). ARC showed no significant difference in microTBS among the three differently prepared dentin surfaces. The microTBS of PF and UN was significantly lower when bonding to dentin prepared with a diamond bur (p < 0.05), compared to the control. For Panavia F2.0, higher bond strengths were achieved on the dentin surface prepared with a tungsten carbide bur. Proper bur selection is essential to optimizing the dentin adhesion of self-etch resin luting cements.

  7. Microhardness evaluations of resin-dentin bonding areas by nano-indentation.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Y; Seino, E; Ushiki, T; Ogata, T; Hirai, Y; Kawada, E; Oda, Y

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the hardness values of the hybrid layer and its surroundings through the continuous use of a microhardness measuring device. Black's Class V cavities were prepared in nine dog teeth. The cavities were divided into four groups according to the dentin adhesive system applied. The adhesive systems were: "Bond One System", "Liner Bond II sigma System", "One Step System", and "Single Bond System". The treated teeth were observed at seven days post-application. Specimens were cross-sectioned perpendicularly or horizontally to the resin-dentin interface and embedded in epoxy resin. Their surfaces were polished. The microhardness of the resin-dentin bonding area was measured with a nano-indentation tester. The hardness values at a point of 10 microns distant from the interface in the direction of the dentin differed between systems. It appeared that this was influenced by the presence of the decalcified dentin not impregnated by resin, differences in the chemistry forming the hybrid layer, and the composition of the bonding resin. The hardness of the dentin-bonding interface and its surroundings was determined, and these areas were observed using SEM. Three layers were confirmed the healthy dentin layer, the composite resin layer, and the hybrid layer, (in which decalcified dentin impregnated by resin and that not impregnated by resin are considered to be mix). In the hybrid layer, no impression was found by SEM although the hardness in the bonding interface was significantly different. These layers appear to be more elastic and softer than the healthy dentin. PMID:10522177

  8. Effect of surface preparation on bond strength of resin luting cements to dentin.

    PubMed

    Peerzada, Farrahnaz; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; Hiraishi, Noriko; Tay, Franklin Russell; King, Nigel Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using two different burs for dentin surface preparation on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of three resin luting cements. Flat, deep dentin surfaces from 45 extracted human third molars were divided into three groups (n = 15) according to bur type: (i) diamond bur and (ii) tungsten carbide bur. The controls were abraded with #600-grit SiC paper. Both burs operated in a high-speed handpiece under water-cooling. Composite blocks were luted onto the dentin using one of three cements: RelyX ARC (ARC, 3M ESPE), Panavia F2.0 (PF, Kuraray) and RelyX Unicem (UN, 3M ESPE) following the manufacturers' instructions. For ARC, the dentin surface was treated with 32% phosphoric acid. The bonded specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and sectioned into 0.9 x 0.9 mm beams for microTBS testing. The data were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Representative fractured beams from each group were prepared for fractographic analysis under SEM. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the effects of "dentin surface preparation" and "luting cement" were statistically significant (p < 0.001); however, the interaction of these two factors was not significant (p > 0.05). ARC showed no significant difference in microTBS among the three differently prepared dentin surfaces. The microTBS of PF and UN was significantly lower when bonding to dentin prepared with a diamond bur (p < 0.05), compared to the control. For Panavia F2.0, higher bond strengths were achieved on the dentin surface prepared with a tungsten carbide bur. Proper bur selection is essential to optimizing the dentin adhesion of self-etch resin luting cements. PMID:21180001

  9. Distribution and relative activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in human coronal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Boushell, Lee W; Kaku, Masaru; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The presence of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in dentin has been reported, but its distribution and activity level in mature human coronal dentin are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the MMP-2 distribution and relative activity in demineralized dentin. Crowns of twenty eight human molars were sectioned into inner (ID), middle (MD), and outer dentin (OD) regions and demineralized. MMP-2 was extracted with 0.33 mol·L−1 EDTA/2 mol·L−1 guanidine-HCl, pH 7.4, and MMP-2 concentration was estimated with enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Further characterization was accomplished by Western blotting analysis and gelatin zymography. The mean concentrations of MMP-2 per mg dentin protein in the dentin regions were significantly different (P=0.043): 0.9 ng (ID), 0.4 ng (MD), and 2.2 ng (OD), respectively. The pattern of MMP-2 concentration was OD>ID>MD. Western blotting analysis detected ∼66 and ∼72 kDa immunopositive proteins corresponding to pro- and mature MMP-2, respectively, in the ID and MD, and a ∼66 kDa protein in the OD. Gelatinolytic activity consistent with MMP-2 was detected in all regions. Interestingly, the pattern of levels of Western blot immunodetection and gelatinolytic activity was MD>ID>OD. The concentration of MMP-2 in human coronal dentin was highest in the region of dentin that contains the dentinoenamel junction and least in the middle region of dentin. However, levels of Western blot immunodetection and gelatinolytic activity did not correlate with the estimated regional concentrations of MMP-2, potentially indicating region specific protein interactions. PMID:22010577

  10. Degradation in the Fatigue Strength of Dentin by Cutting, Etching and Adhesive Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H.-H.; Majd, H.; Orrego, S.; Majd, B.; Romberg, E.; Mutluay, M.M.; Arola, D.

    2014-01-01

    The processes involved in placing resin composite restorations may degrade the fatigue strength of dentin and increase the likelihood of fractures in restored teeth. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative changes in strength and fatigue behavior of dentin caused by bur preparation, etching and resin bonding procedures using a 3-step system. Methods Specimens of dentin were prepared from the crowns of unrestored 3rd molars and subjected to either quasi-static or cyclic flexural loading to failure. Four treated groups were prepared including dentin beams subjected to a burr treatment only with a conventional straight-sided bur, or etching treatment only. An additional treated group received both bur and etching treatments, and the last was treated by bur treatment and etching, followed by application of a commercial resin adhesive. The control group consisted of “as sectioned” dentin specimens. Results Under quasi-static loading to failure there was no significant difference between the strength of the control group and treated groups. Dentin beams receiving only etching or bur cutting treatments exhibited fatigue strengths that were significantly lower (p≤0.0001) than the control; there was no significant difference in the fatigue resistance of these two groups. Similarly, the dentin receiving bur and etching treatments exhibited significantly lower (p≤0.0001) fatigue strength than that of the control, regardless of whether an adhesive was applied. Significance The individual steps involved in the placement of bonded resin composite restorations significantly decrease the fatigue strength of dentin, and application of a bonding agent does not increase the fatigue strength of dentin. PMID:24985539

  11. Thermal, ablative, and physicochemical effects of XeCl laser on dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jon P.; Cheung, Eric M.; Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Desai, T. J.; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Berns, Michael W.; Neev, Joseph

    1995-05-01

    Previous studies have reported altered dentinal structure and properties after laser irradiation. It was the aim of this investigation to determine the thermal and ablative effects of XeCl irradiation in dentin and then to investigate microstructural and physicochemical changes in the residual dentin structure. Extracted human molar tooth roots were bisected and coated with acid-resistant varnish, leaving a window. After irradiation of one half at 1 Hz, 15 ns pulse durations, fluences of 0.5 - 2 J/cm2, both halves were subjected to acidified gelatin gel at pH 4.5. The carious lesions were bisected and used to perform SEM and microhardness measurements.

  12. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the effects of posts on stress distribution in dentin.

    PubMed

    Ho, M H; Lee, S Y; Chen, H H; Lee, M C

    1994-10-01

    A finite element analysis was conducted to study the influence of posts on dentinal stress in pulpless teeth. Three-dimensional models of an intact Chinese maxillary central incisor with and without post restoration were analyzed. When the tooth was subjected to masticatory and traumatic loads, stress distributions in dentin were similar whether or not the post was present. Maximal dentinal stresses were reduced by only 7% to 10% and 10% to 14.5%, respectively, with gold alloy and stainless steel posts. Thus the reinforcement effects from posts appeared limited in pulpless incisors.

  13. Characterization of interglobular dentin and Tomes' granular layer in dog dentin using electron probe microanalysis in comparison with predentin.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, M; Sasano, Y; Kagayama, M; Watanabe, M

    2001-03-01

    The interglobular dentin (IG) and the Tomes' granular layer (TGL) as well as predentin are hypomineralized regions in dentin. Some previous studies proposed that the IG and the TGL are identical with difference only in size, whereas other suggested that they are distinct structures. In order to characterize their matrix components, the present study was designed to analyze the elements of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) in the IG and the TGL in comparison with predentin using the Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA). The TGL was highest in the concentration of both Ca and P among the hypomineralized regions followed by the IG and predentin, whereas predentin was the highest in the concentration of S followed by the IG and the TGL. Alcian blue staining suggested that the S elements identified with the EPMA are incorporated into the sulfated glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans. The present study first demonstrated distinct characteristics of matrix components in the IG and the TGL, i.e., the IG is poorer in mineralization but much richer in a proteoglycan content than the TGL. The IG may originate from predentin because of their analogy, whereas the TGL may follow a different ontogeny.

  14. Comparison of the Effect of Dentin Bonding, Dentin Sealing Agents on the Microleakage of Provisional Crowns Fabricated with Direct and Indirect Technique-An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, B; Kumar, M Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative sensitivity after temporization is a common complaint in Fixed Partial Denture patients. It is caused by weak and ill fitting temporary restorations which results in microleakage. This can be controlled by providing good temporary restorations and by coating the exposed dentinal tubules of the prepared tooth with dentin bonding agent or dental varnish. Aim The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of dentin-bonding, dentin sealing agents on the microleakage of temporary crowns made by tooth colored auto polymerizing resin fabricated with direct and indirect technique. Materials and Methods Thirty premolar and molar human teeth were collected which were extracted recently was used for the study. The teeth were marked and divided into 3 groups each containing 10 nos. They were individually mounted with self-cure acrylic resin. It was then mounted on a milling machine and crown preparations done. Temporary crowns were fabricated by direct and indirect method with two types of materials. In group A (Control group), the temporary crowns fabricated with both direct and indirect method were cemented directly with temporary luting cement. In group B dentine-bonding agent (solobond M) was applied once to the prepared surface of each tooth specimen before the cementation of temporary crowns where as in case of group C a single layer of dental varnish is applied prior to crown cementation. The entire specimens were immersed in 1% methylene blue and allowed to undergo thermal treatment. It was then sectioned in a hard tissue microtome. Each section was evaluated for dye penetration into the dentin tubules by comparing it with a visual scale. Statistical Analysis SPSS Version 13 software was used for non-parametric data analysis by a qualified statistician. P-values less than 0.05 (p-value<0.05) were considered to be statistically significant. Results Group B (Dentin Bonding Agent) specimens cemented with crowns fabricated in direct technique

  15. Dentin surface treatment using a non-thermal argon plasma brush for interfacial bonding improvement in composite restoration.

    PubMed

    Ritts, Andy C; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Xu, Changqi; Yao, Xiaomei; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of non-thermal atmospheric gas plasmas on dentin surfaces used for composite restoration. Extracted unerupted human third molars were prepared by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. The dentin surfaces were treated using a non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush for various periods of time. The molecular changes of the dentin surfaces were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR), and an increase in the amount of carbonyl groups was detected on plasma-treated dentin surfaces. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were applied as directed. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, the teeth thus prepared were sectioned into micro-bars and analyzed using tensile testing. Student-Newman-Keuls tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s of plasma treatment. However, the bonding strength to plasma-treated inner dentin did not show any improvement. It was found that plasma treatment of the peripheral dentin surface for up to 100 s resulted in an increase in the interfacial bonding strength, while prolonged plasma treatment of dentin surfaces (e.g. 5 min) resulted in a decrease in the interfacial bonding strength.

  16. The initial attachment of cemental fibrils to the root dentin surface in acellular and cellular cementogenesis in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Islam, M N; Suzuki, R

    2001-03-01

    To elucidate the initial attachment mechanism of cemental fibrils to the root dentin surface in acellular and cellular cementogenesis, developing rat molars were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with NaOH maceration. The NaOH maceration was used to observe details of the positional association of cemental and dentinal fibrils during cementogenesis. An initial hematoxylin stained, cementum layer began to form on the root dentin surface with the first dentin mineralization in both acellular and cellular cementogenesis. The initial attachment of cemental fibrils to the dentin surface also began at this point. At the initial attachment the intermingling of cemental and dentinal fibrils occurred only in places. With advanced cementogenesis the initial cementum layer became the fibril-poor cemento-dentinal junction. This suggests that cemental fibrils attach on the initial cementum layer, and not directly on dentinal fibrils, so that the layer results in the fibril-poor cemento-dentinal junction. The present study suggests that an intervening adhesive is necessary for the cemento-dentinal attachment at any stage of cementogenesis in rat molars. PMID:11325058

  17. Immunocytochemical detection of dentin matrix proteins in primary teeth from patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta associated with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Orsini, G; Majorana, A; Mazzoni, A; Putignano, A; Falconi, M; Polimeni, A; Breschi, L

    2014-12-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta determines structural alterations of the collagen structure still not completely elucidated. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to assay Type I and VI collagen, various non-collagenous proteins distribution in human primary teeth from healthy patients or from patients affected by type I dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI-I) associated with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In sound primary teeth, an organized well-known ordered pattern of the type I collagen fibrils was found, whereas atypical and disorganized fibrillar structures were observed in dentin of DGI-I affected patients. Expression of type I collagen was observed in both normal and affected primary teeth, although normal dentin stained more uniformly than DGI-I affected dentin. Reactivity of type VI collagen was significantly lower in normal teeth than in dentin from DGI-I affected patients (P<0.05). Expressions of dentin matrix protein (DMP)-1 and osteopontin (OPN) were observed in both normal dentin and dentin from DGI-I affected patients, without significant differences, being DMP1 generally more abundantly expressed. Immunolabeling for chondroitin sulfate (CS) and biglycan (BGN) was weaker in dentin from DGI-I-affected patients compared to normal dentin, this decrease being significant only for CS. This study shows ultrastructural alterations in dentin obtained from patients affected by DGI-I, supported by immunocytochemical assays of different collagenous and non-collagenous proteins.

  18. The comparison between two irrigation regimens on the dentine wettability for an epoxy resin based sealer by measuring its contact angle formed to the irrigated dentine

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rayapudi Phani; Pai, Annappa Raghavendra Vivekananda

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the influence of two irrigation regimens having ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) as final irrigants, respectively, on the dentine wettability for AH Plus sealer by comparing its contact angle formed to the irrigated dentine. Materials and Methods: Study samples were divided into two groups (n = 10). The groups were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution followed by either 17% EDTA or 17% EDTAC solution. AH Plus was mixed, and controlled volume droplet (0.1 mL) of the sealer was placed on the dried samples. The contact angle was measured using a Dynamic Contact Angle Analyzer and results were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and 2 sample t-test. Results: There was a significant difference in the contact angle of AH Plus formed to the dentine irrigated with the above two regimens. AH Plus showed significantly lower contact angle with the regimen having EDTAC as a final irrigant than the one with EDTA (P < 0.05). Conclusion: An irrigation regimen consisting of NaOCl with either EDTA or EDTAC solution as a final irrigant influences the dentine wettability and contact angle of a sealer. EDTAC as a final irrigant facilitates better dentin wettability than EDTA for AH Plus to promote its better flow and adhesion. PMID:26180409

  19. Magnesium-Containing Nanostructured Hybrid Scaffolds for Enhanced Dentin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Tiejun; Jing, Junjun; Jiang, Yong; Taylor, Robert J.; Feng, Jian Q.; Geiger, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States, affecting 92% of adults aged 20–64 years. Scaffold-based tissue engineering represents a promising strategy to replace damaged dental structures and restore their biological functions. Current single-component scaffolding materials used for dental tissue regeneration, however, cannot provide the proper microenvironment for dental stem/progenitor cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation; new biomimetic hybrid scaffolds are needed to promote better dental tissue formation. In this work, we developed a biomimetic approach to prepare three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous gelatin/magnesium phosphate (NF-gelatin/MgP) hybrid scaffolds. These scaffolds not only mimic the nanostructured architecture and the chemical composition of natural dentin matrices but also constantly present favorable chemical signals (Mg ions) to dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), thus providing a desirable microenvironment to facilitate DPSC proliferation, differentiation, and biomineralization. Synthesized hybrid NF-gelatin/MgP possesses natural extracellular matrix (ECM)-like architecture, high porosity, high pore interconnectivity, well-defined pore size, and controlled Mg ion release from the scaffold. Adding MgP into NF-gelatin also increased the mechanical strength of the hybrid scaffold. The sustained release of Mg ions from the NF-gelatin/MgP (MgP=10% wt/wt) scaffold significantly enhanced the proliferation, differentiation, and biomineralization of human DPSCs in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expressions for odontogenic differentiation (collagen I [Col I], ALP, osteocalcin [OCN], dentin sialophosphoprotein [DSPP], and dentin matrix protein 1 [DMP1]) were all significantly higher (p<0.05) in the NF-gelatin/MgP group than in the NF-gelatin group. Those results were further confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and von Kossa staining, as shown by greater ECM secretion and

  20. Magnesium-containing nanostructured hybrid scaffolds for enhanced dentin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tiejun; Jing, Junjun; Jiang, Yong; Taylor, Robert J; Feng, Jian Q; Geiger, Benjamin; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-09-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States, affecting 92% of adults aged 20-64 years. Scaffold-based tissue engineering represents a promising strategy to replace damaged dental structures and restore their biological functions. Current single-component scaffolding materials used for dental tissue regeneration, however, cannot provide the proper microenvironment for dental stem/progenitor cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation; new biomimetic hybrid scaffolds are needed to promote better dental tissue formation. In this work, we developed a biomimetic approach to prepare three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous gelatin/magnesium phosphate (NF-gelatin/MgP) hybrid scaffolds. These scaffolds not only mimic the nanostructured architecture and the chemical composition of natural dentin matrices but also constantly present favorable chemical signals (Mg ions) to dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), thus providing a desirable microenvironment to facilitate DPSC proliferation, differentiation, and biomineralization. Synthesized hybrid NF-gelatin/MgP possesses natural extracellular matrix (ECM)-like architecture, high porosity, high pore interconnectivity, well-defined pore size, and controlled Mg ion release from the scaffold. Adding MgP into NF-gelatin also increased the mechanical strength of the hybrid scaffold. The sustained release of Mg ions from the NF-gelatin/MgP (MgP=10% wt/wt) scaffold significantly enhanced the proliferation, differentiation, and biomineralization of human DPSCs in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expressions for odontogenic differentiation (collagen I [Col I], ALP, osteocalcin [OCN], dentin sialophosphoprotein [DSPP], and dentin matrix protein 1 [DMP1]) were all significantly higher (p<0.05) in the NF-gelatin/MgP group than in the NF-gelatin group. Those results were further confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and von Kossa staining, as shown by greater ECM secretion and

  1. Clinical evaluation of Carisolv in the chemico-mechanical removal of carious dentin.

    PubMed

    Munshi, A K; Hegde, A M; Shetty, P K

    2001-01-01

    The Chemo-mechanical caries removal technique involves the application of chemical agents, to cause a selective softening of the carious dentine and facilitate removal by gentle excavation. Carisolv is one such new chemical agent used in this minimal invasive technique of carious dentine removal. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Carisolv in the chemo-mechanical removal of carious dentine, the time taken for caries removal, the perception of the treatment by the patient, and to evaluate the restorations, radiographically. Accordingly, fifty primary and permanent molars with dentinal carious lesions were excavated using this technique of caries removal. The chemo-mechanical caries removal technique using Carisolv proved to be an effective atraumatic treatment modality with potential interest for use in clinical pediatric dentistry.

  2. Hardness and Young's modulus of transparent dentin associated with aging and carious disease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Higashi, Takashi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in hardness and Young's modulus of the transparent layer of dentin associated with aging and the carious process. Eighteen extracted human molars with or without coronal caries were used in this study. The normal teeth were divided into two groups by age, and the carious teeth were divided into two groups of active or arrested caries. After polishing the specimens parallel to the long axis of the tooth, both hardness and Young's modulus were measured using a nanoindentation tester. The hardness and Young's modulus of the transparent layer in aged dentin were higher than the other portions of aged dentin. The transparent layer under carious lesions had a significantly lower hardness than the underlying normal dentin, whereas its Young's modulus was not significantly reduced. The hardness and Young's modulus of the transparent layer in active carious lesions were lower than those in arrested carious lesions.

  3. Mineral composition of enamel and dentin of primary and permanent teeth in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lakomaa, E L; Rytömaa, I

    1977-01-01

    The concentrations of 12 different elements were measured in dentin and enamel of primary and permanent teeth collected in six different localities in Finland. Na, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, and P were determined by neutron activation analysis, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Fe by the atomic absorption method, and F with the fluoride-specific electrode. Most elements were present in higher concentrations in the enamel than in the dentin: Mg, however, was higher in the dentin. Compared with the permanent teeth, the primary teeth contained more K and Mn in enamel and K and Mg in dentin, but less Na and Zn in enamel. Differences between the six localities were significant for F, Cl, K, Zn, Na, and Mn. Fe, Cu, and Mn contents of teeth were much lower in Finland than elsewhere; in the typical Finnish diet the contents of Fe and Cu are relatively low and iron deficiency anemia is usually common in Finland.

  4. Invivo comparative evaluation of tertiary dentin deposit to three different luting cements a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, P B; Preethi, M; Babu, Hari; Malathi, N

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate histopathologically the amount of tertiary dentin deposit stimulated by three different luting cements. With the informed consent for fifteen patients crown preparation was done for maxillary and mandibular premolar teeth which were scheduled for orthodontic extraction. Copings were cemented with three different luting cements zinc oxide eugenol, glass ionomer and zinc polycarboxylate which were classified as Groups A, B and C respectively. The teeth were later extracted and histopathologically analysed for pulpodentinal reactions using a control study group. Statistically Tukey-HSD procedure was used to identify the significant group and one way ANNOVA was used to analyse the thickness of tertiary dentin among the study group. Tertiary dentin was seen in most of the specimens. When the three groups were compared zinc oxide eugenol helps in stimulation of tertiary dentin formation. PMID:24431735

  5. Mechanical properties of methacrylate-based model dentin adhesives: effect of loading rate and moisture exposure.

    PubMed

    Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical behavior of model methacrylate-based dentin adhesives under conditions that simulate the wet oral environment. A series of monotonic and creep experiments were performed on rectangular beam samples of dentin adhesive in three-point bending configuration under different moisture conditions. The monotonic test results show a significant effect of loading rate on the failure strength and the linear limit (yield point) of the stress-strain response. In addition, these tests show that the failure strength is low, and the failure occurs at a smaller deformation when the test is performed under continuously changing moisture conditions. The creep test results show that under constant moisture conditions, the model dentin adhesives can have a viscoelastic response under certain low loading levels. However, when the moisture conditions vary under the same low loading levels, the dentin adhesives have an anomalous creep response accompanied by large secondary creep and high strain accumulation. PMID:23744598

  6. Microbial invasion of dentinal tubules: a literature review and a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Samaranayake, Lakshman; Chang, Jeffrey W W; Corbella, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    Various features of endodontic microbiology have been investigated using various methods. The aim of the present study was to review the existing literature on endodontic microbiology in dentinal tubules, and to present the features of two cases with endodontic pathology. An electronic search was performed with a search string created ad hoc. Ex vivo and in vitro studies were included, recording the method of detection and characteristics of analyzed teeth. Twenty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seven of them were in vitro laboratory studies on teeth inoculated after extraction, while 13 were ex vivo studies on extracted, infected teeth. Endodontic bacteria were detected in dentinal tubules, both as single units and as biofilm aggregates. Two similar in vitro cases presented here corroborate the latter findings. A number of techniques have been utilized to observe bacteria in the dentinal tubule ecosystem. Dentinal tubules are favorable niches for microbial survival, either in the form of monomicrobial or polymicrobial communities.

  7. Triclosan-loaded poly(amido amine) dendrimer for simultaneous treatment and remineralization of human dentine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Yang, Jiaojiao; Lin, Zaifu; Li, Jiyao; Liang, Kunneng; Yuan, He; Li, Sheyu; Li, Jianshu

    2014-03-01

    In order to treat dental caries of damaged dentine, triclosan-loaded carboxyl-terminated poly(amido amine) dendrimer (PAMAM-COOH) is prepared and characterized. While being incubated in artificial saliva, triclosan-loaded PAMAM-COOH formulation can induce in situ remineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA) on etched dentine, and the regenerated HA has a similar crystal structure with natural dentine. It can also release the encapsulated triclosan for a long period. The interesting drug release profiles are controlled by both dendrimer encapsulation capability and the mineralization degree, which are ideal to obtain multifunctional properties of long-term release of anti-bacterial drug for local treatment during the remineralization process. The triclosan-loaded G4-COOH provides a general strategy to cure dental caries and repair damaged dentine at the same time, which forms a potential restorative material for dental repair.

  8. Effect of a lactose-containing sweetener on root dentine demineralization in situ.

    PubMed

    Aires, C P; Tabchoury, C P M; Del Bel Cury, A A; Cury, J A

    2002-01-01

    Since lactose has been used as an excipient in powdered sweeteners, we evaluated its effect on dentine demineralization, in an in situ crossover study. Twelve adult volunteers wore palatal appliances containing 4 blocks of bovine root dentine, which were submitted 4 times a day to: distilled water (negative control), aqueous solution of powdered sweetener (Zero Cal); experimental group), 1.5% lactose solution (active group), 1.5% sucrose solution (positive control). After 15 days, microhardness was determined on dentine surface (SMH) and on the sectioned blocks (CSMH). All groups presented statistical differences in SMH before and after the treatments; water increased, while sweetener, lactose and sucrose decreased SMH. By CSMH, the only significant difference was observed after sucrose treatment. The data suggest that sweeteners containing lactose as a bulking agent may be cariogenic for root dentine.

  9. The effects of spaceflight on the mineralization of rat incisor dentin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Rosenberg, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Specific effects of space flight on dentin formation on the lower incisors of male rats were determined. Data were Fourier analyzed to determine the spectra of chemical growth rhythms. It was found that Calcium and P were more concentrated in the newly forming dentin of the Flight rats than in comparable regions of control tissues. There was no significant difference in the mean S-concentration between the two groups, but the pattern of S-distribution in the recently formed dentin from the Flight rats was different from that in the control group. Sulfur fluctuations in flight animals periodically peak above the irregular background fluctuations, but there are no comparable sulfur peaks across the dentin in the control. It is indicated that spaceflight has measurable effects on dentinogenesis, and may also bear on the problem of the regulatory role of proteoglycans in mineralization and the maturation of mineral and matrix moieties in skeletal tissue.

  10. CO2 laser improves 45S5 bioglass interaction with dentin.

    PubMed

    Bakry, A S; Takahashi, H; Otsuki, M; Sadr, A; Yamashita, K; Tagami, J

    2011-02-01

    Bioglass 45S5 is a bioactive glass that can create a layer of calcium-phosphate crystals on mineralized hard tissues. In this study, 45S5 bioglass was mixed with phosphoric acid and irradiated with CO(2) laser and examined as a possible aid in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. The dentinal surface modified by the aforementioned technique was chemically and micro-morphologically examined with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS), and the crystalline structures of the examined dentinal surfaces were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the mechanical properties of the newly formed layer were examined by nanoindentation. The results showed that 45S5 bioglass could occlude the dentinal tubule orifices with calcium-phosphate crystals. The application of CO(2) laser potentially improved the mechanical organization of these crystals. PMID:21084716

  11. Degradation in the fatigue resistance of dentin by bur and abrasive air-jet preparations.

    PubMed

    Majd, H; Viray, J; Porter, J A; Romberg, E; Arola, D

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to distinguish whether the instruments commonly used for cutting dentin cause degradation in strength or fatigue behavior. Beams of coronal dentin were obtained from unrestored 3(rd) molars and subjected to either quasi-static or cyclic flexural loading to failure. The surfaces of selected beams were treated with a conventional straight-sided bur or with an abrasive air jet laden with glass particles. Under monotonic loading, there was no difference in the strength or Weibull parameters obtained for the control or treated beams. However, the fatigue strength of dentin receiving bur and air-jet treatments was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.0001) than that of the control. The bur treatment resulted in the largest overall degree of degradation, with nearly 40% reduction in the endurance limit and even more substantial decrease in the fatigue life. The methods currently used for cavity preparations substantially degrade the durability of dentin.

  12. The effect of endodontic regeneration medicaments on mechanical properties of radicular dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassen, Ghaeth H.

    Endodontic regeneration treatment of necrotic immature teeth has gained popularity in recent years. The approach suggests a biological alternative to induce a continuous root development. In this project, three in vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on mechanical properties and chemical structure of radicular dentin. In the first experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the indentation properties of the root canal surface of immature teeth using a novel BioDent reference point indenter. A significant difference in the majority of indentation parameters between all groups was found after one-week and one-month application of medicaments (p double antibiotic paste (DAP) > control > calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The four-week exposure of dentin to TAP and DAP caused 43% and 31% increase in total indentation distance outcome, respectively. In the second experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the chemical structure of immature radicular dentin by measuring the phosphate/amide I ratios of dentin using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Phosphate/amide I ratios were significantly different between the four groups after one week, two weeks and four week application of medicaments (p untreated dentin > DAP-treated dentin > TAP-treated dentin. In the third experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on root fracture resistance and microhardness of radicular dentin. For the microhardness, the two-way interaction between group and time was significant (p<0.001). TAP and DAP caused a significant and continuous decrease in dentin microhardness after one and three month application, respectively. The three-month intracanal application of Ca(OH)2 significantly increased the microhardness of root dentin. The time factor had a significant effect on fracture resistance (p<0.001). All

  13. Overlapping DSPP mutations cause dentin dysplasia and dentinogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    McKnight, D A; Simmer, J P; Hart, P S; Hart, T C; Fisher, L W

    2008-12-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and dentin dysplasia (DD) are allelic disorders due to mutations in DSPP. Typically, the phenotype breeds true within a family. Recently, two reports showed that 3 different net -1 bp frameshift mutations early in DSPP's repeat domain caused DD, whereas 6 more 3' frameshift mutations were associated with DGI. Here we identify a DD kindred with a novel -1 bp frameshift (c.3141delC) that falls within the portion of the DSPP repeat domain previously associated solely with the DGI phenotype. This new frameshift mutation shows that overlapping DSPP mutations can give rise to either DGI or DD phenotypes. Furthermore, the consistent kindred presentation of the DD or DGI phenotype appears to be dependent on an as-yet-undescribed genetic modifier closely linked to DSPP.

  14. Sealing and dentin bond strengths of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Del Nero, M O; de la Macorra, J C

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) to analyze the variations of the permeability of dentin after restoration with two polyacid-modified resin composites (Compoglass, Dyract) and four single-bottle adhesives (Prime & Bond 2.0, Syntac Single Component, OptiBond Solo, and Single Bond--Scotch Bond 1 in Europe--immediately (approximately 1 hour) after insertion. A perfusion system with distilled water was used at a pressure of 32.5 cm of water; (2) to study the bond strength of their interfaces; and (3) to find the correlation, if any, between both parameters. None of the materials used produced a complete cessation in fluid filtration. Tensile bond strengths were very low (maximum: P&B = 3.96 MPa) probably because of the very large bonding surfaces used (mean bonded surface area = 88.8 mm2). No significant correlation was found between tensile bond strength and the sealing ability for any material.

  15. Efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate in managing dentinal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Surve, Sai M; Acharya, Anirudh B; Shetty, Ananya; Thakur, Srinath L

    2012-01-01

    A large number of home use products have been tested and used for managing dentinal hypersensitivity. This eight-week clinical trial compared the temporal efficacy of a commercially available toothpaste containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate to that of a toothpaste containing potassium nitrate. For this study, 20 subjects (age 18 - 65) were screened using a visual analog scale (VAS) for sensitivity to a cold stimulus. Baseline VAS sensitivity scores to tactile stimulus were recorded for a minimum of two teeth per patient. Dentifrices were prescribed for all patients and sensitivity scores were re-evaluated at two, four, and eight weeks. Though both groups showed significant reductions in sensitivity scores, only at eight weeks was there a marginally significant difference (p = 0.0551) in sensitivity scores between the test group and the positive control group. PMID:23032238

  16. Bonding to dentin: evaluation of three adhesive materials.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, H; Davila, J M; Gwinnett, A J

    1992-01-01

    Dye penetration was observed in all specimens. SEM demonstrated isolated areas with no gap formation, suggesting a partial bond with dentin. A correlation is evident from the results of both techniques. Since dye-penetration was found to be similar in all the specimens, it was difficult to assess the effect of thermocycling on the amount of dye penetration. The use of posterior composites should be considered as a short-term tested procedure. It should be utilized carefully, following the manufacturer's instructions, and monitored routinely. Undoubtedly, the utilization of posterior composite materials is a very technique-sensitive procedure. Comparing the results of this in vitro study with those previously reported suggests that little improvement has been made in the bonding of the materials tested. Development of new materials and improved techniques are necessary.

  17. Effect of rotatory instrument speed on its capacity to remove demineralized and sound dentin

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Mariana; Pecorari, Vanessa Galego Arias; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of two rotatory instruments (controlled speed electric motor [CSEM] – 300 rpm; conventional slow handpiece [CSHP] – 18,000 rpm) to remove sound and demineralized dentin, by examining prepared cavity walls using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and assessing loss of mass. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 blocks of human occlusal dentin, measuring 5 mm × 5 mm × 4 mm (L × W × H), were divided into two groups according to the substrate type in which the cavity preparation was performed: D - demineralized dentin; and S - sound dentin (control group). The groups were subdivided according to the rotatory instrument used for cavity preparation (n = 10): CSEM (300 rpm); and CSHP (18,000 rpm). In half of the dentin blocks, caries lesion induction was performed for 6 weeks. The preparation of the cavities was performed on a standardizing machine, using a cylindrical tungsten carbide burr. Before and after the preparation, specimens were dehydrated in an incubator at 60°C for 30 min. The initial and final mass (in mg) of each dentin block was measured 3 times using the digital precision balance to obtain the mean weight Following cavity preparation, all specimens were hemisected and SEM was used to blindly assess each half so that the lateral walls of the prepared cavity were measured in μm, accepting the average of two measurements as the total depth of the preparation. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney analysis was performed with a 5% of significance level. Results: Regarding the weight difference (mg), no significance was detected between the groups. Regarding depth (μm), a significant difference was found between the groups, so that the CSRM showed lower cavity depth when compared with CSHP, both in sound and demineralized dentin. Conclusions: Controlled speed rotatory instruments were found to be more conservative in removing both sound and demineralized dentin, in terms of preparation and depth

  18. Effect of various laser irradiations on the mineral content of dentin

    PubMed Central

    Dilber, Erhan; Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Ozturk, A. Nilgun; Ozturk, Firat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral content of dentin irradiation with Erbium: yttrium-aliminum-garnet (Er:YAG), Neodmiyum:yttrium-aliminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and potassium titanium phosphate (KTP) laser used for in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Methods: Six extracted wisdom, unerupted molar teeth were used in this study. The enamel of the teeth was removed with a conventional bur under water cooling to expose the dentin surface. The teeth were mounted in a slow-speed, diamond-saw, sectioning machine. Two dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth and each slab was sectioned so that 4 slabs were made from each teeth. Then dentin slabs were randomly divided into four groups. Group A: Control Group, Group B: Er:YAG laser, Group C: Nd:YAG laser, Group D: KTP laser. The levels of Ca, K, Mg, Na,P and Ca/P mineral ratio in each dentin slab were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Data were analysed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests. One sample from each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: There were no significant differences between the groups for Ca, K, Mg, Na,P and Ca/P mineral ratio (P>.05). SEM photographs indicated that there were melted areas around the exposed dentin tubules in groups treated with Er:YAG and KTP lasers. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that laser etching with the Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, KTP laser systems did not affect the compositional structure of the dentin surfaces. PMID:23407579

  19. Characterization of transparent dentin in attrited teeth using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Mandurah, Mona M; Sadr, Alireza; Bakhsh, Turki A; Shimada, Yasushi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2015-05-01

    Attrition and wear of tooth surface occur with aging and result in loss of enamel, with exposure and histological changes in dentin. Dealing with attrited teeth and restoration of the lost tissue are clinically challenging. The main objective of this study is to characterize the exposed transparent dentin in the occlusal surface of attrited teeth by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Naturally attrited, extracted human teeth with occlusal-transparent dentin were investigated in comparison to sound and carious teeth. The teeth were subjected to OCT imaging and then cross-sectioned and polished. OCT B-scans were compared to light microscopy images of the same cross section. In OCT images, some changes were evident at the transparent dentin in attrited teeth. An OCT attenuation coefficient parameter (μ t) was derived based on the Beer-Lambert law as a function of backscatter signal slope. The mean values of μ t were 1.05 ± 0.3, 2.23 ± 0.4, and 0.61 ± 0.27 mm(-1) for sound, carious, and transparent dentins, respectively. One-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc showed a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Physiological changes in transparent dentin that involve deposition of mineral casts in the dentinal tubules lead to lower attenuation of OCT signal. OCT has a potential role to detect transparent dentin on the surface of attrited teeth and can be used in the future as a clinical adjunct tool. PMID:24532117

  20. Enamel and dentin mineralization in familial hypophosphatemic rickets: a micro-CT study

    PubMed Central

    Costa, F W G; Soares, E C S; Williams, J R; Fonteles, C S R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyse the mineralization pattern of enamel and dentin in patients affected by X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) using micro-CT (µCT), and to associate enamel and dentin mineralization in primary and permanent teeth with tooth position, gender and the presence/absence of this disease. Methods: 19 teeth were collected from 5 individuals from the same family, 1 non-affected by XLHR and 4 affected by XLHR. Gender, age, tooth position (anterior/posterior) and tooth type (deciduous/permanent) were recorded for each patient. Following collection, teeth were placed in 0.1% thymol solution until µCT scan. Projection images were reconstructed and analysed. A plot profile describing the greyscale distance relationship in µCT images was achieved through a line bisecting each tooth in a region with the presence of enamel and dentin. The enamel and dentin mineralization densities were measured and compared. Univariate ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used for all comparisons. Results: Teeth of all affected patients presented dentin with a different mineralization pattern compared with the teeth of healthy patients with dentin defects observed next to the pulp chambers. Highly significant differences were found for gray values between anterior and posterior teeth (p < 0.05), affected and non-affected (p < 0.05), as well as when position and disease status were considered (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, the mineralization patterns of dentin differed when comparing teeth from patients with and without FHR, mainly next to pulp chambers where areas with porosity and consequently lower mineral density and dentin defects were f