Apparatus for generating highly squeezed collective atomic spin states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelsen, Nils Johan; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Hosten, Onur; Kasevich, Mark
2014-05-01
Production of spin-squeezed atomic ensembles could greatly enhance the performance of existing atom-based sensors by overcoming the atomic shot-noise inherent in sensors with uncorrelated atoms. We pursue a measurement based method for spin squeezing inside of a high-finesse cavity, potentially enabling spin-squeezing at 20 dB in variance, compatible with releasing the generated states into free space. We use a dual-wavelength cavity, resonant at both 780 nm and 1560 nm, with a finesse of 105. Up to 105 Rubidium atoms can be trapped at the anti-nodes of the 1560 nm mode, and probed by the 780 nm mode. The commensurate wavelength relationship allows identical coupling of the probe light to all atoms, minimizing decoherence issues associated with inhomogeneous coupling Thus far we have engineered a homodyne detection system that has an empty cavity technical read-out noise level of 10 Hz in 200 μs measurement intervals, corresponding to the resonance shift induced by an individual atom at a probe detuning of ~ 1GHz. This technical noise level is so low that it has no significant effect in the preparation of the anticipated squeezed states. At the time of writing, we have demonstrated back-to-back measurements with 20×103 atoms, with 0.02 photons scattered per atom in a measurement interval of 200 μs, that exhibit read-out noise levels compatible with 10-17dB of squeezing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youn, Sun-Hyun
2016-08-01
Conditions to generate high-purity entangled vacuum-evacuated coherent states (| 0 > | α>0 - | - α>0 | 0 >) were studied for two cascade-placed beam splitters, with one squeezed state input and two coherent state inputs whenever a single photon is detected. Controlling the amplitudes and the phases of the beams allows for various amplitudes of the vacuum-evacuated coherent states (| α>0 = | α > -e - | α|2 | 0 >) up to α = 2.160 to be manipulated with high-purity.
Generation of High-Order Squeezing in Multiphoton Micromaser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Fu-Li; Huang, Qing
1996-01-01
The generation of steady state higher-order squeezing in the sense of Hong and Mandel and also of Hillery in a multiphoton micromaser is studied. The results show that the cotangent state which is generated by the coherent trapping scheme in a multiphoton micromaser can exhibit not only second-order squeezing but also fourth-order and squared field amplitude squeezings. The influence of the cavity loss on the squeezings is investigated.
Non-Gaussian quantum states generation and robust quantum non-Gaussianity via squeezing field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Xu-Bing; Gao, Fang; Wang, Yao-Xiong; Kuang, Sen; Shuang, Feng
2015-03-01
Recent studies show that quantum non-Gaussian states or using non-Gaussian operations can improve entanglement distillation, quantum swapping, teleportation, and cloning. In this work, employing a strategy of non-Gaussian operations (namely subtracting and adding a single photon), we propose a scheme to generate non-Gaussian quantum states named single-photon-added and -subtracted coherent (SPASC) superposition states by implementing Bell measurements, and then investigate the corresponding nonclassical features. By squeezed the input field, we demonstrate that robustness of non-Gaussianity can be improved. Controllable phase space distribution offers the possibility to approximately generate a displaced coherent superposition states (DCSS). The fidelity can reach up to F ≥ 0.98 and F ≥ 0.90 for size of amplitude z = 1.53 and 2.36, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203061 and 61074052), the Outstanding Young Talent Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. 2012SQRL040), and the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2012Z035).
Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, L.; Pogorzalek, S.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Goetz, J.; Xie, E.; Wulschner, F.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Di Candia, R.; Las Heras, U.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.
2016-07-01
Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power.
Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States.
Fedorov, Kirill G; Zhong, L; Pogorzalek, S; Eder, P; Fischer, M; Goetz, J; Xie, E; Wulschner, F; Inomata, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Di Candia, R; Las Heras, U; Sanz, M; Solano, E; Menzel, E P; Deppe, F; Marx, A; Gross, R
2016-07-01
Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power. PMID:27447495
Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States.
Fedorov, Kirill G; Zhong, L; Pogorzalek, S; Eder, P; Fischer, M; Goetz, J; Xie, E; Wulschner, F; Inomata, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Di Candia, R; Las Heras, U; Sanz, M; Solano, E; Menzel, E P; Deppe, F; Marx, A; Gross, R
2016-07-01
Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power.
Squeezed boson states in condensed matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sá de Melo, C. A. R.
1991-12-01
The possibility of the existence of squeezed states in interacting-boson condensed-matter systems is studied. These states are intimately related to the Bogoliubov and Valatin-Butler wave functions, and they are constructed as a possible ground state for the attractive-interaction Bose problem (AIBP) in a lattice, in which pair states can be formed. The pair ground state is constructed as variational many-body wave function for the AIBP by exploring the analogies with the dynamically generated photon squeezed states of quantum optics. The possible existence of these boson squeezed states is discussed in the context of biexcitons. In order to characterize the statistical properties of the pair (squeezed) state, the boson-field amplitude fluctuations, number probability distribution, and the second-order correlation function are calculated.
The Squeezing Operator and the Squeezing States of Superspace
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aiqun, Ma; Changzhi, Yan; Qiquang, Lu; Weichun, Shi
1996-01-01
In this paper ,the unitary squeezing operator of 'superspace' is introduced and by making this operator act on the supercoherent state, the squeezing supercoherent states are obtained, then come out the four orthonormalization eigenstates of the square of annihilation operator A of the supersymmetry harmonic oscillator, and their squeezing character is also studied.
Entanglement and Squeezing in Solid State Circuits
Wen Yihuo; Gui Lulong
2008-11-07
We investigate the dynamics of a system consisting of a Cooper-pair box and two superconducting transmission line resonators. There exist both linear and nonlinear interactions in such a system. We show that single-photon entanglement state can be generated in a simple way in the linear interaction regime. In nonlinear interaction regime, we derive the Hamiltonian of degenerate three-wave mixing and propose a scheme for generating squeezed state of microwave using the three-wave mixing in solid state circuits. In the following, we design a system for generating squeezed states of nanamechanical resonator.
Squeezed spin states: Squeezing the spin uncertainty relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitagawa, Masahiro; Ueda, Masahito
1993-01-01
The notion of squeezing in spin systems is clarified, and the principle for spin squeezing is shown. Two twisting schemes are proposed as building blocks for spin squeezing and are shown to reduce the standard quantum noise, s/2, of the coherent S-spin state down to the order of S(sup 1/3) and 1/2. Applications to partition noise suppression are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youn, Sun-Hyun
2015-01-01
The numerical conditions to generate high-fidelity Yurke-Stoler states (| α > + e iψ | - α >)were found for two cascade-placed beam splitters with one squeezed state input and two coherent state inputs. Controlling the amplitudes and the phases of beams allows for various Yurke-Stoler states to be manipulated with ultra-high fidelity, and the expected theoretical fidelity is more than 0.9999.
Squeezing in su(2) intelligent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahler, Dylan; Joanis, Patrick; Vilim, Ryan; de Guise, Hubert
2010-03-01
Angular momentum intelligent states are defined to satisfy \\Delta J_x \\Delta J_y = \\frac{1}{2}|J_z| . They also share with angular momentum coherent states a number of features. In this paper we describe and illustrate the squeezing properties of angular momentum intelligent states. We analyze three classes of state: never squeezed, always squeezed and sometimes squeezed. Our conclusions are applicable for a broad range of definitions of the standard quantum limit for angular momentum systems.
Generation of squeezing: magnetic dipoles on cantilevers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seok, Hyojun; Singh, Swati; Steinke, Steven; Meystre, Pierre
2011-05-01
We investigate the generation of motional squeezed states in a nano-mechanical cantilever. Our model system consists of a nanoscale cantilever - whose center-of-mass motion is initially cooled to its quantum mechanical ground state - magnetically coupled a classically driven mechanical tuning fork. We show that the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction can produce significant phonon squeezing of the center-of-mass motion of the cantilever, and evaluate the effect of various dissipation channels, including the coupling of the cantilever to a heat bath and phase and amplitude fluctuations in the oscillating field driving the tuning fork. US National Science Foundation, the US Army Research Office, DARPA ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.
Squeezed colour states in gluon jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilin, S. YA.; Kuvshinov, V. I.; Firago, S. A.
1993-01-01
The possibility of the formation of squeezed states of gluon fields in quantum chromodynamics due to nonlinear nonperturbative self interaction during jet evolution in the process of e(+)e(-) annihilation into hadrons, which are analogous to the quantum photon squeezed states in quantum electrodynamics, is demonstrated. Additionally, the squeezing parameters are calculated.
Squeezed states and path integrals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.
1992-01-01
The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.
Generation of a squeezed state at 1.55 μm with periodically poled LiNbO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qin; Feng, Jin-Xia; Li, Hong; Jiao, Yue-Chun; Zhang, Kuan-Shou
2012-10-01
We report on the generation of a squeezing vacuum at 1.55 μm using an optical parametric amplifier based on periodically poled LiNbO3. Using three specifically designed narrow linewidth mode cleaners as the spatial mode and noise filter of the laser at 1.55 μm and 775 nm, the squeezed vacuum of up to 3.0 dB below the shot noise level at 1.55 μm is experimentally obtained. This system is compatible with standard telecommunication optical fibers, and will be useful for continuous variable long-distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computing.
Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states
Yeh, L.
1992-08-14
It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states in investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.
Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Leehwa
1993-01-01
It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a Hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states is investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.
Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Daesoo (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Zachary, W. W. (Editor)
1992-01-01
The proceedings from the workshop are presented, and the focus was on the application of squeezed states. There are many who say that the potential for industrial applications is enormous, as the history of the conventional laser suggests. All those who worked so hard to produce squeezed states of light are continuing their efforts to construct more efficient squeezed-state lasers. Quite naturally, they are looking for new experiments using these lasers. The physical basis of squeezed states is the uncertainty relation in Fock space, which is also the basis for the creation and annihilation of particles in quantum field theory. Indeed, squeezed states provide a unique opportunity for field theoreticians to develop a measurement theory for quantum field theory.
Laguerre-Polynomial-Weighted Two-Mode Squeezed State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Rui; Fan, Hong-Yi; Song, Jun; Zhou, Jun
2016-07-01
We propose a new optical field named Laguerre-polynomial-weighted two-mode squeezed state. We find that such a state can be generated by passing the l-photon excited two-mode squeezed vacuum state C l a † l S 2|00> through an single-mode amplitude damping channel. Physically, this paper actually is concerned what happens when both excitation and damping of photons co-exist for a two-mode squeezed state, e.g., dessipation of photon-added two-mode squeezed vacuum state. We employ the summation method within ordered product of operators and a new generating function formula about two-variable Hermite polynomials to proceed our discussion.
Squeezed states of damped oscillator chain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, O. V.
1993-01-01
The Caldirola-Kanai model of one-dimensional damped oscillator is extended to the chain of coupled parametric oscillators with damping. The correlated and squeezed states for the chain of coupled parametric oscillators with damping are constructed. Based on the concept of the integrals of motion, it is demonstrated how squeezing phenomenon arises due to parametric excitation.
Impossibility of naively generalizing squeezed coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, Robert A.; Nieto, Michael Martin; Sandberg, Vernon D.
1984-03-01
Pertinent properties of the unitary operators that create coherent states and squeezed coherent states are discussed. We show that certain generalizations of squeezed coherent states do not exist. This is accomplished by demonstrating that for the generalized squeeze operators Uk=exp(iAk)=exp[zk(a†)k+ihk-1-(zk)*ak], <0|Uk|0> diverges, k>2. This implies that |0> is not an analytic vector of Ak for all k>2, where hk-1 is a Hermitian polynomial in a and a† up to powers of (k-1).
Quantum benchmark for teleportation and storage of squeezed states.
Adesso, Gerardo; Chiribella, Giulio
2008-05-01
We provide a quantum benchmark for teleportation and storage of single-mode squeezed states with zero displacement and a completely unknown degree of squeezing along a given direction. For pure squeezed input states, a fidelity higher than 81.5% has to be attained in order to outperform any classical strategy based on an estimation of the unknown squeezing and repreparation of squeezed states. For squeezed thermal input states, we derive an upper and a lower bound on the classical average fidelity which tighten for moderate degree of mixedness. These results enable a critical discussion of recent experiments with squeezed light.
Adiabatic creation of atomic squeezing in dark states versus decoherences
Gong, Z. R.; Sun, C. P.; Wang Xiaoguang
2010-07-15
We study the multipartite correlations of the multiatom dark states, which are characterized by the atomic squeezing beyond the pairwise entanglement. It is shown that, in the photon storage process with atomic ensemble via the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) mechanism, the atomic squeezing and the pairwise entanglement can be created by adiabatically manipulating the Rabi frequency of the classical light field on the atomic ensemble. We also consider the sudden death for the atomic squeezing and the pairwise entanglement under various decoherence channels. An optimal time for generating the greatest atomic squeezing and pairwise entanglement is obtained by studying in detail the competition between the adiabatic creation of quantum correlation in the atomic ensemble and the decoherence that we describe with three typical decoherence channels.
Gerrits, Thomas; Glancy, Scott; Clement, Tracy S.; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Knill, Emanuel; Miller, Aaron J.; Migdall, Alan L.
2010-09-15
We have created heralded coherent-state superpositions (CSSs) by subtracting up to three photons from a pulse of squeezed vacuum light. To produce such CSSs at a sufficient rate, we used our high-efficiency photon-number-resolving transition edge sensor to detect the subtracted photons. This experiment is enabled by and utilizes the full photon-number-resolving capabilities of this detector. The CSS produced by three-photon subtraction had a mean-photon number of 2.75{sub -0.24}{sup +0.06} and a fidelity of 0.59{sub -0.14}{sup +0.04} with an ideal CSS. This confirms that subtracting more photons results in higher-amplitude CSSs.
Squeezed states in the theory of primordial gravitational waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grishchuk, Leonid P.
1992-01-01
It is shown that squeezed states of primordial gravitational waves are inevitably produced in the course of cosmological evolution. The theory of squeezed gravitons is very similar to the theory of squeezed light. Squeezed parameters and statistical properties of the expected relic gravity-wave radiation are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Namrata; Prakash, Ranjana
2016-09-01
We study polarization squeezing of a pure photon number state, which is obviously polarized but the mere change in the basis of polarization leads to simultaneous polarization squeezing in all the components of Stokes operator vector except those falling along or perpendicular to the direction of polarization state, is observed. We use the most general definition of polarization squeezing and discuss the experimental feasibility of the result. We also observe that a squeezing operation like non-degenerate parametric amplification of the state does not reveal simultaneous squeezing in all Stokes operator vectors and decreases in this sense.
The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.
1993-01-01
This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.
Stokes-operator-squeezed continuous-variable polarization states
Schnabel, Roman; Bowen, Warwick P.; Treps, Nicolas; Bachor, Hans-A.; Lam, Ping Koy; Ralph, Timothy C.
2003-01-01
We investigate nonclassical Stokes-operator variances in continuous-wave polarization-squeezed laser light generated from one and two optical parametric amplifiers. A general expression of how Stokes-operator variances decompose into two-mode quadrature operator variances is given. Stokes parameter variance spectra for four different polarization-squeezed states have been measured and compared with a coherent state. Our measurement results are visualized by three-dimensional Stokes-operator noise volumes mapped on the quantum Poincare sphere. We quantitatively compare the channel capacity of the different continuous-variable polarization states for communication protocols. It is shown that squeezed polarization states provide 33% higher channel capacities than the optimum coherent beam protocol.
EDITORIAL: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jauregue-Renaud, Rocio; Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Moya-Cessa, Hector
2004-06-01
This special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is composed mainly of extended versions of talks and papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Puebla, Mexico on 9-13 June 2003. The Conference was hosted by Instituto de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This series of meetings began at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in March 1991. The second and third workshops were organized by the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, Russia, in 1992 and by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA, in 1993, respectively. Afterwards, it was decided that the workshop series should be held every two years. Thus the fourth meeting took place at the University of Shanxi in China and was supported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). The next three meetings in 1997, 1999 and 2001 were held in Lake Balatonfüred, Hungary, in Naples, Italy, and in Boston, USA, respectively. All of them were sponsored by IUPAP. The ninth workshop will take place in Besançon, France, in 2005. The conference has now become one of the major international meetings on quantum optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics, where most of the active research groups throughout the world present their new results. Accordingly this conference has been able to align itself to the current trend in quantum optics and quantum mechanics. The Puebla meeting covered most extensively the following areas: quantum measurements, quantum computing and information theory, trapped atoms and degenerate gases, and the generation and characterization of quantum states of light. The meeting also covered squeeze-like transformations in areas other than quantum optics, such as atomic physics, nuclear physics, statistical physics and relativity, as well as optical devices. There were many new participants at this meeting, particularly
Q-derivatives, coherent states and squeezing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Celeghini, E.; Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Rasetti, M.; Vitiello, G.
1994-01-01
We show that the q-deformation of the Weyl-Heisenberg (q-WH) algebra naturally arises in discretized systems, coherent states, squeezed states and systems with periodic potential on the lattice. We incorporate the q-WH algebra into the theory of (entire) analytical functions, with applications to theta and Bloch functions.
Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Quantum Squeezed State Beyond the 3 dB Limit.
Lei, C U; Weinstein, A J; Suh, J; Wollman, E E; Kronwald, A; Marquardt, F; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C
2016-09-01
We use a reservoir engineering technique based on two-tone driving to generate and stabilize a quantum squeezed state of a micron-scale mechanical oscillator in a microwave optomechanical system. Using an independent backaction-evading measurement to directly quantify the squeezing, we observe 4.7±0.9 dB of squeezing below the zero-point level surpassing the 3 dB limit of standard parametric squeezing techniques. Our measurements also reveal evidence for an additional mechanical parametric effect. The interplay between this effect and the optomechanical interaction enhances the amount of squeezing obtained in the experiment. PMID:27636463
Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Quantum Squeezed State Beyond the 3 dB Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, C. U.; Weinstein, A. J.; Suh, J.; Wollman, E. E.; Kronwald, A.; Marquardt, F.; Clerk, A. A.; Schwab, K. C.
2016-09-01
We use a reservoir engineering technique based on two-tone driving to generate and stabilize a quantum squeezed state of a micron-scale mechanical oscillator in a microwave optomechanical system. Using an independent backaction-evading measurement to directly quantify the squeezing, we observe 4.7 ±0.9 dB of squeezing below the zero-point level surpassing the 3 dB limit of standard parametric squeezing techniques. Our measurements also reveal evidence for an additional mechanical parametric effect. The interplay between this effect and the optomechanical interaction enhances the amount of squeezing obtained in the experiment.
Thomas precession and squeezed states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, D.; Hardekopf, E. E.; Kim, Y. S.
1989-02-01
The Lorentz group, which is the language of special relativity, is a useful theoretical toll in modern optics. Optics experiments can therefore serve as analog computers for special relativity. Possible optics experiments involving squeezed states are discussed in connection with the Thomas precession and the Wigner rotation.
Dissipation in a squeezed-state environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oconnell, R. F.
1993-01-01
The problem of a quantum particle coupled to a quantum mechanical heat bath has a broad and general description in terms of a generalized quantum Langevin equation. Here we show how a squeezed state environment may be incorporated in this general framework.
Thomas precession and squeezed states of light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Hardekopf, E. E.; Kim, Y. S.
1989-01-01
The Lorentz group, which is the language of special relativity, is a useful theoretical toll in modern optics. Optics experiments can therefore serve as analog computers for special relativity. Possible optics experiments involving squeezed states are discussed in connection with the Thomas precession and the Wigner rotation.
Squeezed states and Affleck-Dine baryogenesis
Chaitanya, K. V. S. Shiv; Bambah, Bindu A.
2008-09-15
Quantum fluctuations in the post-inflationary Affleck-Dine baryogenesis model are studied. The squeezed states formalism is used to give evolution equations for the particle and antiparticle modes in the early universe. The role of expansion and parametric amplification of the quantum fluctuations on the baryon asymmetry produced is investigated.
Coherence area profiling in multi-spatial-mode squeezed states
Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.; Otterstrom, Nils T.
2015-09-12
The presence of multiple bipartite entangled modes in squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing enables ultra-trace sensing, imaging, and metrology applications that are impossible to achieve with single-spatial-mode squeezed states. For Gaussian seed beams, the spatial distribution of these bipartite entangled modes, or coherence areas, across each beam is largely dependent on the spatial modes present in the pump beam, but it has proven difficult to map the distribution of these coherence areas in frequency and space. We demonstrate an accessible method to map the distribution of the coherence areas within these twin beams. In addition, we also show thatmore » the pump shape can impart different noise properties to each coherence area, and that it is possible to select and detect coherence areas with optimal squeezing with this approach.« less
Coherence area profiling in multi-spatial-mode squeezed states
Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.; Otterstrom, Nils T.
2015-09-12
The presence of multiple bipartite entangled modes in squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing enables ultra-trace sensing, imaging, and metrology applications that are impossible to achieve with single-spatial-mode squeezed states. For Gaussian seed beams, the spatial distribution of these bipartite entangled modes, or coherence areas, across each beam is largely dependent on the spatial modes present in the pump beam, but it has proven difficult to map the distribution of these coherence areas in frequency and space. We demonstrate an accessible method to map the distribution of the coherence areas within these twin beams. In addition, we also show that the pump shape can impart different noise properties to each coherence area, and that it is possible to select and detect coherence areas with optimal squeezing with this approach.
Spin-Squeezing Entanglement of Second-Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Jian
2016-10-01
An experimentally feasible scheme for generating spin-squeezing entanglement via second-harmonic generation was presented. Its shown that spin-squeezing entanglement can be generated rapidly in the dynamical process by adjusting coupling constant, detuning, the total number of particles and the evolution time.
The POLIS interferometer for ponderomotive squeezed light generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calloni, Enrico; Conte, Andrea; De Laurentis, Martina; Naticchioni, Luca; Puppo, Paola; Ricci, Fulvio
2016-07-01
POLIS (POnderomotive LIght Squeezer) is a suspended interferometer, presently under construction, devoted to the generation of ponderomotive squeezed light and to the study of the interaction of non classical quantum states of light and macroscopic objects. The interferometer is a Michelson whose half-meter long arms are constituted by high-finesse cavities, suspended to a seismic isolation chain similar to the Virgo SuperAttenuator. The mass of the suspended cavity mirrors are chosen to be tens of grams: this value is sufficiently high to permit the use of the well-tested Virgo suspension techniques but also sufficiently small to generate the coupling among the two phase quadratures with a limited amount of light in the cavity, of the order of few tens of kW. In this short paper the main features of the interferometer are shown, together with the expected sensitivity and squeezing factor.
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-01-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-09-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime.
Experimental generation of amplitude squeezed vector beams.
Chille, Vanessa; Berg-Johansen, Stefan; Semmler, Marion; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph
2016-05-30
We present an experimental method for the generation of amplitude squeezed high-order vector beams. The light is modified twice by a spatial light modulator such that the vector beam is created by means of a collinear interferometric technique. A major advantage of this approach is that it avoids systematic losses, which are detrimental as they cause decoherence in continuous-variable quantum systems. The utilisation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) gives the flexibility to switch between arbitrary mode orders. The conversion efficiency with our setup is only limited by the efficiency of the SLM. We show the experimental generation of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes with radial indices 0 or 1 and azimuthal indices up to 3 with complex polarization structures and a quantum noise reduction up to -0.9dB±0.1dB. The corresponding polarization structures are studied in detail by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters. PMID:27410153
Alignment sensing and control for squeezed vacuum states of light.
Schreiber, E; Dooley, K L; Vahlbruch, H; Affeldt, C; Bisht, A; Leong, J R; Lough, J; Prijatelj, M; Slutsky, J; Was, M; Wittel, H; Danzmann, K; Grote, H
2016-01-11
Beam alignment is an important practical aspect of the application of squeezed states of light. Misalignments in the detection of squeezed light result in a reduction of the observable squeezing level. In the case of squeezed vacuum fields that contain only very few photons, special measures must be taken in order to sense and control the alignment of the essentially dark beam. The GEO 600 gravitational wave detector employs a squeezed vacuum source to improve its detection sensitivity beyond the limits set by classical quantum shot noise. Here, we present our design and implementation of an alignment sensing and control scheme that ensures continuous optimal alignment of the squeezed vacuum field at GEO 600 on long time scales in the presence of free-swinging optics. This first demonstration of a squeezed light automatic alignment system will be of particular interest for future long-term applications of squeezed vacuum states of light. PMID:26832246
Alignment sensing and control for squeezed vacuum states of light.
Schreiber, E; Dooley, K L; Vahlbruch, H; Affeldt, C; Bisht, A; Leong, J R; Lough, J; Prijatelj, M; Slutsky, J; Was, M; Wittel, H; Danzmann, K; Grote, H
2016-01-11
Beam alignment is an important practical aspect of the application of squeezed states of light. Misalignments in the detection of squeezed light result in a reduction of the observable squeezing level. In the case of squeezed vacuum fields that contain only very few photons, special measures must be taken in order to sense and control the alignment of the essentially dark beam. The GEO 600 gravitational wave detector employs a squeezed vacuum source to improve its detection sensitivity beyond the limits set by classical quantum shot noise. Here, we present our design and implementation of an alignment sensing and control scheme that ensures continuous optimal alignment of the squeezed vacuum field at GEO 600 on long time scales in the presence of free-swinging optics. This first demonstration of a squeezed light automatic alignment system will be of particular interest for future long-term applications of squeezed vacuum states of light.
Baryon asymmetry, inflation and squeezed states
Bambah, Bindu A. . E-mail: bbsp@uohyd.ernet.in; Chaitanya, K.V.S. Shiv; Mukku, C.
2007-04-15
We use the general formalism of squeezed rotated states to calculate baryon asymmetry in the wake of inflation through parametric amplification. We base our analysis on a B and CP violating Lagrangian in an isotropically expanding universe. The B and CP violating terms originate from the coupling of complex fields with non-zero baryon number to a complex background inflaton field. We show that a differential amplification of particle and antiparticle modes gives rise to baryon asymmetry.
Rotation of the noise ellipse for squeezed vacuum light generated via four-wave mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corzo, Neil V.; Glorieux, Quentin; Marino, Alberto M.; Clark, Jeremy B.; Glasser, Ryan T.; Lett, Paul D.
2013-10-01
We report the generation of a squeezed vacuum state of light whose noise ellipse rotates as a function of the detection frequency. The squeezed state is generated via a four-wave mixing process in a vapor of 85Rb. We observe that rotation varies with experimental parameters such as pump power and laser detunings. We use a theoretical model based on the Heisenberg-Langevin formalism to describe this effect. Our model can be used to investigate the parameter space and potentially to tailor the ellipse rotation in order to obtain an optimum squeezing angle, for example, for coupling to an interferometer whose optimal noise quadrature varies with frequency.
Polariton-generated intensity squeezing in semiconductor micropillars.
Boulier, T; Bamba, M; Amo, A; Adrados, C; Lemaitre, A; Galopin, E; Sagnes, I; Bloch, J; Ciuti, C; Giacobino, E; Bramati, A
2014-01-01
The generation of squeezed and entangled light fields is a crucial ingredient for the implementation of quantum information protocols. In this context, semiconductor materials offer a strong potential for the implementation of on-chip devices operating at the quantum level. Here we demonstrate a novel source of continuous variable squeezed light in pillar-shaped semiconductor microcavities in the strong coupling regime. Degenerate polariton four-wave mixing is obtained by exciting the pillar at normal incidence. We observe a bistable behaviour and we demonstrate the generation of squeezing near the turning point of the bistability curve. The confined pillar geometry allows for a larger amount of squeezing than planar microcavities due to the discrete energy levels protected from excess noise. By analysing the noise of the emitted light, we obtain a measured intensity squeezing of 20.3%, inferred to be 35.8% after corrections.
Deterministic secure communications using two-mode squeezed states
Marino, Alberto M.; Stroud, C. R. Jr.
2006-08-15
We propose a scheme for quantum cryptography that uses the squeezing phase of a two-mode squeezed state to transmit information securely between two parties. The basic principle behind this scheme is the fact that each mode of the squeezed field by itself does not contain any information regarding the squeezing phase. The squeezing phase can only be obtained through a joint measurement of the two modes. This, combined with the fact that it is possible to perform remote squeezing measurements, makes it possible to implement a secure quantum communication scheme in which a deterministic signal can be transmitted directly between two parties while the encryption is done automatically by the quantum correlations present in the two-mode squeezed state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lobashov, A. A.; Mostepanenko, V. M.
1993-01-01
The theory of quantum effects in nonlinear dielectric media is developed. The nonlinear dielectric media is influenced by an external pumping field. The diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of a quantized field is obtained by the canonical Bogoliubov transformations. The transformations allow us to obtain the general expressions for the number of created photons and for the degree of squeezing. In the case of a plane pumping wave, for example, the results are calculated by using the zero order of the secular perturbation theory, with small parameters characterizing the medium nonlinearity. The Heisenberg equations of motion are obtained for non-stationary case and a commonly used Hamiltonian is derived from the first principles of quantum electrodynamics.
Improvement of the GEO600 gravitational wave detector using squeezed states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dooley, Katherine; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2015-04-01
During the last 3 years, the GEO600 laser interferometer gravitational wave (GW) observatory, located near Hannover, Germany, has conducted the first long-term study of the permanent integration of a squeezed light source to such a detector. Squeezed vacuum states, which are generated using quantum optics, are injected into the output port of the laser interferometer, where they join the GW signal and improve the shot-noise-limited signal-to-noise ratio. An improvement up to a factor 1.5 above 800 Hz has been achieved at GEO600, as well as a squeezing application duty cycle of about 90 % . New control loops have also been developed to ensure long-term stability of the integration of the squeezed light source to the GW detector. I will describe the squeezing experiment at GEO600 and report on the lessons learned for integration of a squeezed light source to future GW detectors, such as Advanced LIGO.
Conditional quantum-state engineering using ancillary squeezed-vacuum states
Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.; Lance, Andrew M.; Grosse, Nicolai B.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy
2006-09-15
We investigate an optical scheme to conditionally engineer quantum states using a beam splitter, homodyne detection, and a squeezed vacuum as an ancillar state. This scheme is efficient in producing non-Gaussian quantum states such as squeezed single photons and superpositions of coherent states (SCSs). We show that a SCS with well defined parity and high fidelity can be generated from a Fock state of n{<=}4, and conjecture that this can be generalized for an arbitrary n Fock state. We describe our experimental demonstration of this scheme using coherent input states and measuring experimental fidelities that are only achievable using quantum resources.
Squeezed light from second-harmonic generation: experiment versus theory.
Ralph, T C; Taubman, M S; White, A G; McClelland, D E; Bachor, H A
1995-06-01
We report excellent quantitative agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental observation of squeezing from a singly resonant second-harmonic-generating crystal. Limitations in the noise suppression imposed by the pump laser are explicitly modeled and confirmed by our measurements.
Production of a planar squeezed state in a cold atomic ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colangelo, Giorgio; Ciurana, Ferran Martin; Sewell, Robert J.; Mitchell, Morgan W.
2016-05-01
Production of squeezed states is of great interest for quantum metrology and allows production of exotic highly entangled spin states, a powerful resource for quantum simulators. However, while canonical variables such as quadratures of the radiation field can be squeezed in at most one component, a planar quantum squeezed (PQS) state, where two orthogonal spin components are simultaneously squeezed can be achieved due to the angular momentum commutation relations. Such states have recently attracted attention due to their potential applications in atomic interferometry and quantum information. Here we report the generation of a PQS state by coherently rotate the collective spin of a cold atomic ensemble of more than one million atoms . We induce spin squeezing through quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements and a coherent rotation by an external magnetic field that rotates a coherent spin state on a plane. This allows us to successively measure and squeeze two components of the atomic spin, while maintaining a large spin polarization (coherence) in the plane. We observe 3dB of spin squeezing and quantum enhanced sensitivity in the estimation of the magnetic field for any angle in the rotation plane, and detect entanglement by using generalized spin squeezing inequalities.
Squeezed States and Particle Production in High Energy Collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bambah, Bindu A.
1996-01-01
Using the 'quantum optical approach' we propose a model of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions based on squeezed coherent states. We show that the k-mode squeezed coherent state is the most general one in describing hadronic multiplicity distributions in particle collision processes, describing not only p(bar-p) collisions but e(+)e(-), vp and diffractive collisions as well. The reason for this phenomenological fit has been gained by working out a microscopic theory in which the squeezed coherent sources arise naturally if one considers the Lorentz squeezing of hadrons and works in the covariant phase space formalism.
Generation of stable entanglement between two cavity mirrors by squeezed-reservoir engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chun-Jie; An, Jun-Hong; Yang, Wanli; Li, Yong
2015-12-01
The generation of quantum entanglement of macroscopic or mesoscopic bodies in mechanical motion is generally bounded by the thermal fluctuation exerted by their environments. Here we propose a scheme to establish stationary entanglement between two mechanically oscillating mirrors of a cavity. It is revealed that, by applying a broadband squeezed laser acting as a squeezed-vacuum reservoir to the cavity, a stable entanglement between the mechanical mirrors can be generated. Using the adiabatic elimination and master equation methods, we analytically find that the generated entanglement is essentially determined by the squeezing of the relative momentum of the mechanical mirrors, which is transferred from the squeezed reservoir through the cavity. Numerical verification indicates that our scheme is within the present experimental state of the art of optomechanics.
Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)
2000-01-01
These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.
Superposition and entanglement of mesoscopic squeezed vacuum states in cavity QED
Chen Changyong; Feng Mang; Gao Kelin
2006-03-15
We propose a scheme to generate superposition and entanglement between the mesoscopic squeezed vacuum states by considering the two-photon interaction of N two-level atoms in a cavity with high quality factor, assisted by a strong driving field. By virtue of specific choices of the cavity detuning, a number of multiparty entangled states can be prepared, including the entanglement between the atomic and the squeezed vacuum cavity states and between the squeezed vacuum states and the coherent states of the cavities. We also present how to prepare entangled states and 'Schroedinger cats' states regarding the squeezed vacuum states of the cavity modes. The possible extension and application of our scheme are discussed. Our scheme is close to the reach with current cavity QED techniques.
Recoherence by squeezed states in electron interferometry
Hsiang, J.-T.; Ford, L. H.
2008-09-15
Coherent electrons coupled to the quantized electromagnetic field undergo decoherence which can be viewed as due either to fluctuations of the Aharonov-Bohm phase or to photon emission. When the electromagnetic field is in a squeezed vacuum state, it is possible for this decoherence to be reduced, leading to the phenomenon of recoherence. This recoherence effect requires electrons which are emitted at selected times during the cycle of the excited mode of the electromagnetic field. We show that there are bounds on the degree of recoherence which are analogous to quantum inequality restriction on negative energy densities in quantum field theory. We make some estimates of the degree of recoherence, and show that although small, it is in principle observable.
Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations
Mehmet, Moritz; Vahlbruch, Henning; Lastzka, Nico; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2010-01-15
Squeezed states of light constitute an important nonclassical resource in the field of high-precision measurements, for example, gravitational wave detection, as well as in the field of quantum information, for example, for teleportation, quantum cryptography, and distribution of entanglement in quantum computation networks. Strong squeezing in combination with high purity, high bandwidth, and high spatial mode quality is desirable in order to achieve significantly improved performances contrasting any classical protocols. Here we report on the observation of 11.5 dB of squeezing, together with relatively high state purity corresponding to a vacuum contribution of less than 5%, and a squeezing bandwidth of about 170 MHz. The analysis of our squeezed states reveals a significant production of higher-order pairs of quantum-correlated photons and the existence of strong photon-number oscillations.
Experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation of a squeezed state
Takei, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takao; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Koike, Satoshi; Yoshino, Ken-ichiro; Hiraoka, Takuji; Wakui, Kentaro; Mizuno, Jun; Takeoka, Masahiro; Ban, Masashi
2005-10-15
Quantum teleportation of a squeezed state is demonstrated experimentally. Due to some inevitable losses in experiments, a squeezed vacuum necessarily becomes a mixed state which is no longer a minimum uncertainty state. We establish an operational method of evaluation for quantum teleportation of such a state using fidelity and discuss the classical limit for the state. The measured fidelity for the input state is 0.85{+-}0.05, which is higher than the classical case of 0.73{+-}0.04. We also verify that the teleportation process operates properly for the nonclassical state input and its squeezed variance is certainly transferred through the process. We observe the smaller variance of the teleported squeezed state than that for the vacuum state input.
Two-mode squeezed states as Schrödinger cat-like states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oudot, E.; Sekatski, P.; Fröwis, F.; Gisin, N.; Sangouard, N.
2015-10-01
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the generation of superposition of coherent states with opposite phases, the so-called photonic Schrodinger-cat states. These experiments are very challenging and so far, cats involving small photon numbers only have been implemented. Here, we propose to consider two-mode squeezed states as examples of a Schrodinger-cat-like state. In particular, we are interested in several criteria aiming to identify quantum states that are macroscopic superpositions in a more general sense. We show how these criteria can be extended to continuous variable entangled states. We apply them to various squeezed states, argue that two-mode squeezed vacuum states belong to a class of general Schrodinger-cat states and compare the size of states obtained in several experiments. Our results not only promote two-mode squeezed states for exploring quantum effects at the macroscopic level but also provide direct measures to evaluate their usefulness for quantum metrology.
Spin-motion entanglement and state diagnosis with squeezed oscillator wavepackets.
Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Kienzler, Daniel; de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Keitch, Ben C; Home, Jonathan P
2015-05-21
Mesoscopic superpositions of distinguishable coherent states provide an analogue of the 'Schrödinger's cat' thought experiment. For mechanical oscillators these have primarily been realized using coherent wavepackets, for which the distinguishability arises as a result of the spatial separation of the superposed states. Here we demonstrate superpositions composed of squeezed wavepackets, which we generate by applying an internal-state-dependent force to a single trapped ion initialized in a squeezed vacuum state with nine decibel reduction in the quadrature variance. This allows us to characterize the initial squeezed wavepacket by monitoring the onset of spin-motion entanglement, and to verify the evolution of the number states of the oscillator as a function of the duration of the force. In both cases we observe clear differences between displacements aligned with the squeezed and anti-squeezed axes. We observe coherent revivals when inverting the state-dependent force after separating the wavepackets by more than 19 times the ground-state root mean squared extent, which corresponds to 56 times the root mean squared extent of the squeezed wavepacket along the displacement direction. Aside from their fundamental nature, these states may be useful for quantum metrology or quantum information processing with continuous variables.
Spin-motion entanglement and state diagnosis with squeezed oscillator wavepackets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Kienzler, Daniel; de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Keitch, Ben C.; Home, Jonathan P.
2015-05-01
Mesoscopic superpositions of distinguishable coherent states provide an analogue of the `Schrödinger's cat' thought experiment. For mechanical oscillators these have primarily been realized using coherent wavepackets, for which the distinguishability arises as a result of the spatial separation of the superposed states. Here we demonstrate superpositions composed of squeezed wavepackets, which we generate by applying an internal-state-dependent force to a single trapped ion initialized in a squeezed vacuum state with nine decibel reduction in the quadrature variance. This allows us to characterize the initial squeezed wavepacket by monitoring the onset of spin-motion entanglement, and to verify the evolution of the number states of the oscillator as a function of the duration of the force. In both cases we observe clear differences between displacements aligned with the squeezed and anti-squeezed axes. We observe coherent revivals when inverting the state-dependent force after separating the wavepackets by more than 19 times the ground-state root mean squared extent, which corresponds to 56 times the root mean squared extent of the squeezed wavepacket along the displacement direction. Aside from their fundamental nature, these states may be useful for quantum metrology or quantum information processing with continuous variables.
Simultaneous two component squeezing in generalized q-coherent states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcdermott, Roger J.; Solomon, Allan I.
1994-01-01
Using a generalization of the q-commutation relations, we develop a formalism in which it is possible to define generalized q-bosonic operators. This formalism includes both types of the usual q-deformed bosons as special cases. The coherent states of these operators show interesting and novel noise reduction properties including simultaneous squeezing in both field components, unlike the conventional case in which squeezing is permitted in only one component. This also contrasts with the usual quantum group deformation which also only permits one component squeezing.
Two mode mechanical non-Gaussian squeezed number state in a two-membrane optomechanical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakeri, S.; Mahmoudi, Z.; Zandi, M. H.; Bahrampour, A. R.
2016-07-01
We consider an optomechanical system with two membranes when a bichromatic laser field with red-sideband and blue-sideband frequencies is applied in the single photon strong coupling regime. It is shown that using the mode selecting method and under the Lamb-Dicke approximation, motion of membranes can evolve to single or two mode squeezed number states. By considering the environmental effect, a Wigner function is plotted for understanding the conditions that lead to the generation of non-Gaussian states. The results show that, in this system, initial states of membranes are important to generation of non-Gaussian mechanical squeezed number states.
Study of higher order non-classical properties of squeezed Kerr state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Devendra Kumar
2010-09-01
Recently, Prakash and Mishra [J. Phys. B: at. Mol. Opt. Phys., 39, 2291(2006); 40, 2531(2007)] have studied higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistic conditions for non-classicality in the form of general inequalities for expectation values of products of arbitrary powers of photon number and of photon-number fluctuation. It is, therefore, vital to study the generation of these higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics (phase-insensitive behavior) in a physically realizable medium and their relations to higher order squeezing (phase-sensitive behavior). In the present paper, we study higher order non-classical properties, such as Hong and Mandel squeezing, amplitude-squared squeezing and higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics, of squeezed Kerr state which is generated by squeezing the output of a Kerr medium whose input is coherent light. Such states can be realized if laser light is sent through an optical fiber and then into a degenerate parametric amplifier. It is established that the squeezed Kerr state can exhibit higher order non-classical properties.
Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D. (Editor); Janszky, J. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Man'ko, V. I. (Editor)
1998-01-01
The Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, on 27-31 May 1997. This series was initiated in 1991 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland as the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. The scientific purpose of this series was to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics including quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic. As the meeting attracted more participants and started covering more diversified subjects, the fourth meeting was called an international conference. The Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held in 1995 was hosted by Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China. The fifth meeting of this series, which was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, was also supported by the IUPAP. In 1999, the Sixth International Conference will be hosted by the University of Naples in 1999. The meeting will take place in Ravello near Naples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-03-01
Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [
Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-03-01
Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033812 (2004)], we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of Hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing nondegenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated with the canonical transformations, which generalize the nondegenerate two-photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non-Gaussian, highly nonclassical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonlinearity the heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states define two-mode cubic phase states. The statistical properties of these states can be widely adjusted by tuning the heterodyne mixing angles, the phases of the nonlinear couplings, as well as the strength of the nonlinearity. For quadratic nonlinearity, we study the higher-order contributions to the susceptibility in nonlinear media and we suggest possible experimental realizations of multiphoton conversion processes generating the cubic-phase heterodyne squeezed states.
Understanding squeezing of quantum states with the Wigner function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Royer, Antoine
1994-01-01
The Wigner function is argued to be the only natural phase space function evolving classically under quadratic Hamiltonians with time-dependent bilinear part. This is used to understand graphically how certain quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians induce squeezing of quantum states. The Wigner representation is also used to generalize Ehrenfest's theorem to the quantum uncertainties. This makes it possible to deduce features of the quantum evolution, such as squeezing, from the classical evolution, whatever the Hamiltonian.
Wave and pseudo-diffusion equations from squeezed states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daboul, Jamil
1993-01-01
We show that the probability distributions P(sub n)(q,p;y) := the absolute value squared of (n(p,q;y), which are obtained from squeezed states, obey an interesting partial differential equation, to which we give two intuitive interpretations: as a wave equation in one space dimension; and as a pseudo-diffusion equation. We also study the corresponding Wehrl entropies S(sub n)(y), and we show that they have minima at zero squeezing, y = 0.
Comparison of qubit and qutrit like entangled squeezed and coherent states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najarbashi, G.; Mirzaei, S.
2016-10-01
Squeezed state of light is one of the important subjects in quantum optics which is generated by optical nonlinear interactions. In this paper, we especially focus on qubit like entangled squeezed states (ESS's) generated by beam splitters, phase-shifter and cross Kerr nonlinearity. Moreover the Wigner function of two-mode qubit and qutrit like ESS are investigated. We will show that the distances of peaks of Wigner functions for two-mode ESS are entanglement sensitive and can be a witness for entanglement. Like the qubit cases, monogamy inequality is fulfilled for qutrit like ESS. These trends are compared with those obtained for qubit and qutrit like entangled coherent states (ECS).
Comment on ''Teleportation of two-mode squeezed states''
He Guangqiang; Zhang Jingtao
2011-10-15
We investigate the teleportation scheme of two-mode squeezed states proposed by Adhikari et al.[S. Adhikari et al., Phys. Rev. A 77, 012337 (2008)]. It uses four-mode entangled states to teleport two-mode squeezed states. The fidelity between the original two-mode squeezed states and teleported ones is calculated. The maximal fidelity value of Adhikari's protocol is 0.38, which is incompatible with the fidelity definition with the maximal value 1. In our opinion, one reason is that they calculate the fidelity for multimodes Gaussian states using the fidelity formula for single-mode ones. Another reason is that the covariance matrix of output states should be what is obtained after applying the linear unitary Bogoliubov operations (two cascaded Fourier transformations) on the covariance matrix given in Eq. (12) in their paper. These two reasons result in the incomparable results. In addition, Adhikari's protocol can be simplified to be easily implemented.
Engineering squeezed states of microwave radiation with circuit quantum electrodynamics
Li Pengbo; Li Fuli
2011-03-15
We introduce a squeezed state source for microwave radiation with tunable parameters in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We show that when a superconducting artificial multilevel atom interacting with a transmission line resonator is suitably driven by external classical fields, two-mode squeezed states of the cavity modes can be engineered in a controllable fashion from the vacuum state via adiabatic following of the ground state of the system. This scheme appears to be robust against decoherence and is realizable with present techniques in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Dissipative preparation of squeezed states with ultracold atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Gentaro; Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Diehl, Sebastian; Mäkelä, Harri; Oberthaler, Markus
2014-05-01
We present a dissipative quantum state preparation scheme for the creation of phase- and number-squeezed states. It utilizes ultracold atoms in a double-well configuration immersed in a background BEC acting as a dissipative quantum reservoir. We derive a master equation starting from microscopic physics, and show that squeezing develops on a time scale proportional to 1 / N , where N is the number of particles in the double well. This scaling, caused by bosonic enhancement, allows us to make the time scale for the creation of squeezed states very short. Effects of the dephasing which limits the lifetime of the squeezed states can be avoided by stroboscopically switching the driving off and on. We show that this approach leads to robust stationary squeezed states. We also provide the necessary ingredients for a potential experimental implementation. NRF (No. 2012R1A1A2008028), MPS, Korea MEST, FWF (No. F4006-N16), Alfred Kordelin Foundation, Magnus Ehrnrooth Foundation, Emil Aaltonen Foundation, Academy of Finland (No. 251748).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahboob, I.; Okamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, H.
2016-08-01
Two-mode squeezed states, generated via non-degenerate parametric down-conversion, are invariably revealed via their entangled vacuum or correlated thermal fluctuations. Here, two-mode thermal squeezed states, generated in an electromechanical system, are made bright by means of degenerate parametric amplification of their constituent modes to the point where they are almost perfect, even when seeded from low intensity non-degenerate parametric down-conversion. More dramatically, activating the degenerate parametric resonances of the underlying modes yields perfect correlations which can be resolved via the coordinated switching of their phase bi-stable vibrations, without recourse to monitoring their thermal fluctuations. This ability to enhance the two-mode squeezed states and to decipher them without needing to observe their intrinsic noise is supported by both analytical and numerical modelling and it suggests that the technical constraints to making this phenomenon more widely available can be dramatically relaxed.
Wang, Dong-Yang; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2016-01-01
Quantum squeezing of mechanical resonator is important for studying the macroscopic quantum effects and the precision metrology of weak forces. Here we give a theoretical study of a hybrid atom-optomechanical system in which the steady-state squeezing of the mechanical resonator can be generated via the mechanical nonlinearity and cavity cooling process. The validity of the scheme is assessed by simulating the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature numerically. The scheme is robust against dissipation of the optical cavity, and the steady-state squeezing can be effectively generated in a highly dissipative cavity. PMID:27091072
Generation of degenerate, factorizable, pulsed squeezed light at telecom wavelengths.
Gerrits, Thomas; Stevens, Martin J; Baek, Burm; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana; Glancy, Scott; Knill, Emanuel; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P; Hadfield, Robert H; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P; Dorenbos, Sander; Zijlstra, Tony; Klapwijk, Teun; Zwiller, Val
2011-11-21
We characterize a periodically poled KTP crystal that produces an entangled, two-mode, squeezed state with orthogonal polarizations, nearly identical, factorizable frequency modes, and few photons in unwanted frequency modes. We focus the pump beam to create a nearly circular joint spectral probability distribution between the two modes. After disentangling the two modes, we observe Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with a raw (background corrected) visibility of 86% (95%) when an 8.6 nm bandwidth spectral filter is applied. We measure second order photon correlations of the entangled and disentangled squeezed states with both superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors and photon-number-resolving transition-edge sensors. Both methods agree and verify that the detected modes contain the desired photon number distributions.
Generation of degenerate, factorizable, pulsed squeezed light at telecom wavelengths
Gerrits, Thomas; Stevens, Martin; Baek, Burm; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana; Glancy, Scott; Knill, Emanuel; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard; Hadfield, Robert; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P; Dorenbos, Sander; Zijlstra, Tony; Klapwijk, Teun; Zwiller, Val
2011-01-01
We characterize a periodically poled KTP crystal that produces an entangled, two-mode, squeezed state with orthogonal polarizations, nearly identical, factorizable frequency modes, and few photons in unwanted frequency modes. We focus the pump beam to create a nearly circular joint spectral probability distribution between the two modes. After disentangling the two modes, we observe Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with a raw (background corrected) visibility of 86% (95%) when an 8.6 nm bandwidth spectral filter is applied. We measure second order photon correlations of the entangled and disentangled squeezed states with both superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors and photon-number-resolving transition-edge sensors. Both methods agree and verify that the detected modes contain the desired photon number distributions.
Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)
1996-01-01
The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.
Li, Zhixiu; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Wenhai; Wang, Yajun; Zheng, Yaohui
2016-07-15
We report an electro-optic modulator (EOM) with a wedged MgO: LiNbO_{3} as the modulation crystal to reduce the zero baseline drift (ZBD) of the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) error signal. When the input linear polarization is not along the modulation direction, the wedged design can separate the two orthogonal polarizations in space after the EOM and eliminate the interference between the carrier and the two orthogonal sidebands. Therefore, the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) of phase modulation process caused by the input polarization misalignment and the etalon effect can be significantly reduced. The noise power spectrum of phase-modulated light with wedged crystal EOM is suppressed from -24 to -69 dBm, which is much lower than that with conventional EOM. The peak-to-peak value of the ZBD of the PDH error signal is reduced effectively to +70/-50 ppm during the 10 h, which meets the requirements for stable squeezed light generation.
Phase control of squeezed vacuum states of light in gravitational wave detectors.
Dooley, K L; Schreiber, E; Vahlbruch, H; Affeldt, C; Leong, J R; Wittel, H; Grote, H
2015-04-01
Quantum noise will be the dominant noise source for the advanced laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors currently under construction. Squeezing-enhanced laser interferometers have been recently demonstrated as a viable technique to reduce quantum noise. We propose two new methods of generating an error signal for matching the longitudinal phase of squeezed vacuum states of light to the phase of the laser interferometer output field. Both provide a superior signal to the one used in previous demonstrations of squeezing applied to a gravitational-wave detector. We demonstrate that the new signals are less sensitive to misalignments and higher order modes, and result in an improved stability of the squeezing level. The new signals also offer the potential of reducing the overall rms phase noise and optical losses, each of which would contribute to achieving a higher level of squeezing. The new error signals are a pivotal development towards realizing the goal of 6 dB and more of squeezing in advanced detectors and beyond. PMID:25968662
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Song, Jie; Wu, E.
2016-06-01
As the quantum states of nitrogen vacancy (NV) center can be coherently manipulated and obtained at room temperature, it is important to generate steady-state spin squeezing in spin qubits associated with NV impurities in diamond. With this task we consider a new type of a hybrid magneto-nano-electromechanical resonator, the functionality of which is based on a magnetic-field induced deflection of an appropriate cantilever that oscillates between NV spins in diamond. We show that there is bistability and spin squeezing state due to the presence of the microwave field, despite the damping from mechanical damping. Moreover, we find that bistability and spin squeezing can be controlled by the microwave field and the parameter Vz. Our scheme may have the potential application on spin clocks, magnetometers, and other measurements based on spin-spin system in diamond nanostructures.
Temporal second-order coherence function for displaced-squeezed thermal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexanian, Moorad
2016-05-01
We calculate the quantum mechanical, temporal second-order coherence function for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz. a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The calculation involves first dynamical generation at time t of the Gaussian state from an initial thermal state and subsequent measurements of two photons a time ? apart. The generation of the Gaussian state by the parametric amplifier insures that the temporal second-order coherence function depends only on ?, via ?, for the given Gaussian state parameters, Gaussian state preparation time t, and average number ? of thermal photons. It is interesting that the time evolution for displaced thermal states shows a power decay in ? rather than an exponential one as is the case for general, displaced-squeezed thermal states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A, Karimi; M, K. Tavassoly
2016-04-01
In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled squeezed states, we produce a new class of the continuous-variable-type entangled states, namely, deformed photon-added entangled squeezed states. These states are obtained via the iterated action of the f-deformed creation operator A = f (n)a † on the entangled squeezed states. In the continuation, by studying the criteria such as the degree of entanglement, quantum polarization as well as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, the two-mode correlation function, one-mode and two-mode squeezing, we investigate the nonclassical behaviors of the introduced states in detail by choosing a particular f-deformation function. It is revealed that the above-mentioned physical properties can be affected and so may be tuned by justifying the excitation number, after choosing a nonlinearity function. Finally, to generate the introduced states, we propose a theoretical scheme using the nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model.
Measurement of the squeezed vacuum state by a bichromatic local oscillator.
Li, Wei; Yu, Xudong; Zhang, Jing
2015-11-15
We present the experimental measurement of a squeezed vacuum state by means of a bichromatic local oscillator (BLO). A pair of local oscillators at ±5 MHz around the central frequency ω(0) of the fundamental field with equal power are generated by three acousto-optic modulators and phase-locked technology and used as a BLO. The squeezed vacuum light is detected by a phase-sensitive balanced-homodyne detection with a BLO. The baseband signal around ω(0) combined with a broad squeezed field can be detected with the sensitivity below the shot-noise limit, in which the baseband signal is shifted to the vicinity of 5 MHz (the half of the BLO separation). This work has important applications in quantum state measurement and quantum information. PMID:26565859
Tunneling of squeezed states with an eye to evaporating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra; Haggard, Hal
2016-03-01
In this work we study how tunneling time depends on the squeezing parameter of quantum states. Squeezed quantum states are investigated for optical communications and appear in the emission from black holes. A surprising property of these states is reduced tunneling time. Treating Hawking radiation as a quantum tunneling process, we study the interplay of squeezing with the radiation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chang-Yong
2008-05-01
We propose an efficient scheme for generating the macroscopic superpositions and the entanglement between the high-order squeezed vacuum states by considering the multi-photon interaction of N two-level atoms in a cavity with high quality factor, assisted by a strong driving field. Through specific choices of the cavity detuning, a number of multi-party entangled states between the atoms and the high-order squeezed vacuum states and among the high-order squeezed vacuum states of the cavities can be prepared, including also the macroscopic "Schrödinger cats" of the high-order squeezed vacuum states, the entangled states of the macroscopic "Schrödinger cats", and so on. Possible extension and application of our scheme are discussed. Our scheme is reachable within the current techniques in the cavity QED.
Squeezed states and Hermite polynomials in a complex variable
Ali, S. Twareque; Górska, K. Horzela, A.; Szafraniec, F. H.
2014-01-15
Following the lines of the recent paper of J.-P. Gazeau and F. H. Szafraniec [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 495201 (2011)], we construct here three types of coherent states, related to the Hermite polynomials in a complex variable which are orthogonal with respect to a non-rotationally invariant measure. We investigate relations between these coherent states and obtain the relationship between them and the squeezed states of quantum optics. We also obtain a second realization of the canonical coherent states in the Bargmann space of analytic functions, in terms of a squeezed basis. All this is done in the flavor of the classical approach of V. Bargmann [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 14, 187 (1961)].
Comment on ``Teleportation of two-mode squeezed states''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao
2011-10-01
We investigate the teleportation scheme of two-mode squeezed states proposed by Adhikari [S. Adhikari , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.77.012337 77, 012337 (2008)]. It uses four-mode entangled states to teleport two-mode squeezed states. The fidelity between the original two-mode squeezed states and teleported ones is calculated. The maximal fidelity value of Adhikari's protocol is 0.38, which is incompatible with the fidelity definition with the maximal value 1. In our opinion, one reason is that they calculate the fidelity for multimodes Gaussian states using the fidelity formula for single-mode ones. Another reason is that the covariance matrix of output states should be what is obtained after applying the linear unitary Bogoliubov operations (two cascaded Fourier transformations) on the covariance matrix given in Eq. (12) in their paper. These two reasons result in the incomparable results. In addition, Adhikari's protocol can be simplified to be easily implemented.
Third International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Rubin, Morton H. (Editor); Shih, Yan-Hua (Editor); Zachary, Woodford W. (Editor)
1994-01-01
The purpose of these workshops is to bring together an international selection of scientists to discuss the latest developments in Squeezed States in various branches of physics, and in the understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. At the third workshop, special attention was given to the influence that quantum optics is having on our understanding of quantum measurement theory. The fourth meeting in this series will be held in the People's Republic of China.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, Mary Ann
2004-03-01
We propose a model for the generation of Schrödinger cat states of BEC in multiple wells, and also show how squeezed states can be produced nonadiabatically. The condensate in the multiple well evolves, starting with a certain initial phase difference between the neighboring wells, to a state with a well defined entanglement. We propose a general formula for the initial phase difference: j 2 pi/N where j=1,2,..,N-1, and N is the number of wells. We show the generation of cat states for these different phase configurations in two, three and four wells, and thus generalize this method to any number of wells, even or odd. In addition to the macroscopic superposition states, the method can also be used to generate squeezed states in a nonadiabatic fashion. This work was supported by NSF grant PHY-0140091 and the Computational Science Graduate Fellowship program.
Generation of squeezed Schrödinger cats in a tunable cavity filled with a Kerr medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
León-Montiel, R. de J.; Moya-Cessa, H. M.
2015-06-01
In this work we analyze the temporal dynamics of a system comprising an optical cavity filled with a nonlinear Kerr medium, whose frequency is allowed to change during time evolution. By exactly solving the corresponding time-dependent anharmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that squeezed coherent-state superpositions can be generated within the optical cavity. Moreover, we show that the squeezing degree of the produced states may be tuned by properly controlling the frequency shift of the cavity, a feature that might lead to interesting studies in the field of quantum state engineering.
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubairy, Suhail
2005-05-01
Quantum squeezed states are a consequence of uncertainty relations; a state is squeezed when the noise in one variable is reduced below the symmetric limit at the expense of the increased noise in the conjugate variable such that the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is not violated. Such states have been known since the earliest days of quantum mechanics. The realization in the early 80's that quantum squeezed states of the radiation field can have important applications in high precision Michelson interferometry for detecting gravitational waves led to a tremendous amount of activity, both in theoretical and experimental quantum optics. The present volume, edited by two eminent scientists, is a collection of papers by leading experts in the field of squeezed states on different aspects of the field as it stands today. The book is divided into three parts. In the first part, there are three articles that review the fundamentals. The first paper by Knight and Buzek presents an introductory account of squeezed states and their properties. The chapter, which opens with the quantization of the radiation field, goes on to discuss the quantum optical properties of single mode and multimode squeezed states. The second article by Hillery provides a detailed description of field quantization in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium, thus providing a rigorous treatment of squeezing in nonlinear media. The third article by Yurke presents a comprehensive discussion of the input-output theory of the squeezed radiation at the dielectric boundaries. The second part of the book, comprising of three articles, deals with the generation of squeezed states. In the first article, Drummond reviews the squeezing properties of light in nonlinear systems such as parametric oscillators. He also discusses squeezed light propagation through waveguides and optical fibers. In the second article, Ralph concentrates on active laser sources of squeezing and presents an analysis based on the
Study of squeezed state on free electron lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Teng; Madey, J. M. J.
1998-02-01
Preliminary investigations on squeezed state of FEL have been undertaken at the Duke FEL lab by means of photon counting experiments. We report photon statistics for spontaneous undulator radiation from Duke Storage Ring. Photon counting measurements have also been constructed on the Mark III FEL to obtain the statistical behavior of the visible harmonics of the infrared radiation. The initial experimental data demonstrate that the squeezing of optical phase fluctuations in an FEL is directly associated with the phase regulation of the electron beam as a result of FEL bunching. Simulation results on phase fluctuations in FEL radiation are also presented which support the above viewpoint. Further measurements are in process in an attempt to obtain better understanding on the effect of quantum fluctuations on the FEL interaction.
Properties of two-mode squeezed number states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chizhov, Alexei V.; Murzakhmetov, B. K.
1994-01-01
Photon statistics and phase properties of two-mode squeezed number states are studied. It is shown that photon number distribution and Pegg-Barnett phase distribution for such states have similar (N + 1)-peak structure for nonzero value of the difference in the number of photons between modes. Exact analytical formulas for phase distributions based on different phase approaches are derived. The Pegg-Barnett phase distribution and the phase quasiprobability distribution associated with the Wigner function are close to each other, while the phase quasiprobability distribution associated with the Q function carries less phase information.
Fuzzy sphere: Star product induced from generalized squeezed states
Lubo, Musongela
2005-02-15
A family of states built from the uncertainty principle on the fuzzy sphere has been shown to reproduce the stereographic projection in the large j limit. These generalized squeezed states are used to construct an associative star product which involves a finite number of derivatives on its primary functional space. It is written in terms of a variable on the complex plane. We show that it actually coincides with the one found by Gross and Presnajder in the simplest cases, endowing the later with a supplementary physical interpretation. We also show how the spherical harmonics emerge in this setting.
Generating Low-Frequency Squeezed Light from Four-Wave Mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Meng-Chang; Horrom, Travis; Anderson, Brian; Lett, Paul
2015-05-01
We generate squeezed light near the D1 atomic resonance using four-wave mixing (4WM) in a warm Rb vapor. Given the desire in many applications to have squeezed light for measurement improvements at low (typically acoustic) frequencies, we are investigating what operating parameters affect the low-frequency squeezing in this system. We use an amplified, feedback-narrowed (~ 10 kHz linewidth) diode laser to pump and seed the process and we examine the effects of laser linewidth as well as the detuning, beam alignment and intensity parameters used in the generation process on the low frequency limit of the squeezing. Squeezing limits below 500 Hz are obtained. This work was supported by the AFOSR.
Generation and multi-pass propagation of a squeezed vacuum field in hot Rb vapor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Mi; Lanning, R. Nicholas; Xiao, Zhihao; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.
2016-05-01
We study a squeezed vacuum field generated in hot Rb vapor via the polarization self-rotation effect. By propagating the strong laser beam through a vapor cell once, we were able to achieve a noise suppression of 2 dB below shot noise. Our previous experiments showed that the amount of observed squeezing may be limited by the contamination of the squeezed vacuum output with higher-order spatial modes, also generated inside the cell. Here, we investigate whether or not the squeezing can be improved by making the light interact several times with a less dense atomic ensemble. We carry out a comparison of various conditions, e.g. injection power, atomic density, passing numbers etc., and studied their effect on squeezing level and the spatial structure of the output squeezed vacuum field. We observe that multiple passages of beam through the medium can lead to an improvement of squeezing, and minimum noise occurs at almost the same effective atomic density for all setups. We show optimization of the conditions can lead to higher achievable squeezing which would be very useful for precision metrology and quantum memory applications. We acknowledge support from AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-13-1- 0098, ARO Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0381, NSF Grant No. 1403105, and the Northrop Grumman Corporation.
Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-03-01
We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n -mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [
Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states
Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-03-01
We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004)], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.
Stable control of 10 dB two-mode squeezed vacuum states of light.
Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Schnabel, Roman
2013-05-01
Continuous variable entanglement is a fundamental resource for many quantum information tasks. Important protocols like superactivation of zero-capacity channels and finite-size quantum cryptography that provides security against most general attacks, require about 10 dB two-mode squeezing. Additionally, stable phase control mechanisms are necessary but are difficult to achieve because the total amount of optical loss to the entangled beams needs to be small. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a control scheme for two-mode squeezed vacuum states at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. Our states exhibited an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen covariance product of 0.0309 ± 0.0002, where 1 is the critical value, and a Duan inseparability value of 0.360 ± 0.001, where 4 is the critical value. The latter corresponds to 10.45 ± 0.01 dB which reflects the average non-classical noise suppression of the two squeezed vacuum states used to generate the entanglement. With the results of this work demanding quantum information protocols will become feasible. PMID:23670011
Generation of broadband two-mode squeezed light in cascaded double-cavity optomechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhen; Ma, Sheng-li; Li, Fu-li
2015-08-01
The generation of two-mode broadband squeezed light is investigated in cascading double-cavity optomechanical systems. The cavities are driven by amplitude-modulated lasers with two frequency tones, one of which is red detuning and other blue detuning from the cavity fields. It is shown that a two-mode squeezed field can be generated in a single double-cavity system via dissipation of the mechanical resonator. To generate broadband and strong squeezing of the cavity fields, many identical double-cavity optomechanical systems are connected together in a cascading way. The vacuum noise fed into the cavities and the thermal noise coupled to the mechanical resonator can be greatly depressed in the cascading system. As a result, the very strong and constant squeezing can be achieved in a large frequency range when the number of cascaded optomechanical systems becomes large.
Squeezed states from a quantum deformed oscillator Hamiltonian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, R.; Reboiro, M.
2016-03-01
The spectrum and the time evolution of a system, which is modeled by a non-hermitian quantum deformed oscillator Hamiltonian, is analyzed. The proposed Hamiltonian is constructed from a non-standard realization of the algebra of Heisenberg. We show that, for certain values of the coupling constants and for a range of values of the deformation parameter, the deformed Hamiltonian is a pseudo-hermitic Hamiltonian. We explore the conditions under which the Hamiltonian is similar to a Swanson Hamiltonian. Also, we show that the lowest eigenstate of the system is a squeezed state. We study the time evolution of the system, for different initial states, by computing the corresponding Wigner functions.
Generation of a frequency comb of squeezing in an optical parametric oscillator
Dunlop, A. E.; Huntington, E. H.; Harb, C. C.; Ralph, T. C.
2006-01-15
The multimode operation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating below threshold is calculated. We predict that squeezing can be generated in a comb that is limited only by the phase matching bandwidth of the OPO. Effects of technical noise on the squeezing spectrum are investigated. It is shown that maximal squeezing can be obtained at high frequency even in the presence of seed laser noise and cavity length fluctuations. Furthermore the spectrum obtained by detuning the laser frequency off OPO cavity resonance is calculated.
First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory.
Grote, H; Danzmann, K; Dooley, K L; Schnabel, R; Slutsky, J; Vahlbruch, H
2013-05-01
We report on the first long-term application of squeezed vacuum states of light to improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a gravitational-wave observatory. In particular, squeezed vacuum was applied to the German-British detector GEO 600 during a period of three months from June to August 2011, when GEO 600 was performing an observational run together with the French-Italian Virgo detector. In a second period, the squeezing application continued for about 11 months from November 2011 to October 2012. During this time, squeezed vacuum was applied for 90.2% (205.2 days total) of the time that science-quality data were acquired with GEO 600. A sensitivity increase from squeezed vacuum application was observed broadband above 400 Hz. The time average of gain in sensitivity was 26% (2.0 dB), determined in the frequency band from 3.7 to 4.0 kHz. This corresponds to a factor of 2 increase in the observed volume of the Universe for sources in the kHz region (e.g., supernovae, magnetars). We introduce three new techniques to enable the long-term application of squeezed light, and show that the glitch rate of the detector did not increase from squeezing application. Squeezed vacuum states of light have arrived as a permanent application, capable of increasing the astrophysical reach of gravitational-wave detectors.
Egorov, E. N. Koronovskii, A. A.; Kurkin, S. A.; Hramov, A. E.
2013-11-15
Results of numerical simulations and analysis of the formation and nonlinear dynamics of the squeezed state of a helical electron beam in a vircator with a magnetron injection gun as an electron source and with additional electron deceleration are presented. The ranges of control parameters where the squeezed state can form in such a system are revealed, and specific features of the system dynamics are analyzed. It is shown that the formation of a squeezed state of a nonrelativistic helical electron beam in a system with electron deceleration is accompanied by low-frequency longitudinal dynamics of the space charge.
Accuracy of a teleported squeezed coherent-state superposition trapped into a high-Q cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sales, J. S.; da Silva, L. F.; de Almeida, N. G.
2011-03-01
We propose a scheme to teleport a superposition of squeezed coherent states from one mode of a lossy cavity to one mode of a second lossy cavity. Based on current experimental capabilities, we present a calculation of the fidelity demonstrating that accurate quantum teleportation can be achieved for some parameters of the squeezed coherent states superposition. The signature of successful quantum teleportation is present in the negative values of the Wigner function.
Accuracy of a teleported squeezed coherent-state superposition trapped into a high-Q cavity
Sales, J. S.; Silva, L. F. da; Almeida, N. G. de
2011-03-15
We propose a scheme to teleport a superposition of squeezed coherent states from one mode of a lossy cavity to one mode of a second lossy cavity. Based on current experimental capabilities, we present a calculation of the fidelity demonstrating that accurate quantum teleportation can be achieved for some parameters of the squeezed coherent states superposition. The signature of successful quantum teleportation is present in the negative values of the Wigner function.
Spin squeezing in a Rydberg lattice clock.
Gil, L I R; Mukherjee, R; Bridge, E M; Jones, M P A; Pohl, T
2014-03-14
We theoretically demonstrate a viable approach to spin squeezing in optical lattice clocks via optical dressing of one clock state to a highly excited Rydberg state, generating switchable atomic interactions. For realistic experimental parameters, these interactions are shown to generate over 10 dB of squeezing in large ensembles within a few microseconds and without degrading the subsequent clock interrogation. PMID:24679291
Generation of Squeezed Light Using Photorefractive Degenerate Two-Wave Mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Yajun; Wu, Meijuan; Wu, Ling-An; Tang, Zheng; Li, Shiqun
1996-01-01
We present a quantum nonlinear model of two-wave mixing in a lossless photorefractive medium. A set of equations describing the quantum nonlinear coupling for the field operators is obtained. It is found that, to the second power term, the commutation relationship is maintained. The expectation values for the photon number concur with those of the classical electromagnetic theory when the initial intensities of the two beams are strong. We also calculate the quantum fluctuations of the two beams initially in the coherent state. With an appropriate choice of phase, quadrature squeezing or number state squeezing can be produced.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kryuchkyan, Gagik YU.; Kheruntsyan, Karen V.
1994-01-01
Two schemes of four-wave mixing oscillators with nondegenerate pumps are proposed for above-threehold generation of squeezed light with nonzero mean-field amplitudes. Noise and correlation properties and optical spectra of squeezed-light beams generated in these schemes are discussed.
Quantum amplification and quantum optical tapping with squeezed states and correlated quantum states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ou, Z. Y.; Pereira, S. F.; Kimble, H. J.
1994-01-01
Quantum fluctuations in a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) are investigated experimentally with a squeezed state coupled into the internal idler mode of the NOPA. Reductions of the inherent quantum noise of the amplifier are observed with a minimum noise level 0.7 dB below the usual noise level of the amplifier with its idler mode in a vacuum state. With two correlated quantum fields as the amplifier's inputs and proper adjustment of the gain of the amplifier, it is shown that the amplifier's intrinsic quantum noise can be completely suppressed so that noise-free amplification is achieved. It is also shown that the NOPA, when coupled to either a squeezed state or a nonclassically correlated state, can realize quantum tapping of optical information.
Optimal Gaussian squeezed states for atom interferometry in the presence of phase diffusion
Tikhonenkov, Igor; Moore, Michael G.; Vardi, Amichay
2010-10-15
We optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer with Gaussian squeezed input states in the presence interactions. For weak interactions, our results coincide with those of Huang and Moore [Y. P. Huang and M. G. Moore, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 250406 (2008)], with an optimal initial number variance {sigma}{sub o{proportional_to}}N{sup 1/3} and an optimal signal-to-noise ratio s{sub o{proportional_to}}N{sup 2/3} for the total atom number N. As the interaction strength u increases past unity, phase diffusion becomes dominant, leading to a transition in the optimal squeezing from initial number squeezing to initial phase squeezing with {sigma}{sub o{proportional_to}{radical}}(uN) and s{sub o{proportional_to}{radical}}(N/u) shot-noise scaling. The initial phase squeezing translates into hold-time number squeezing, which is less sensitive to interactions than coherent states and improves s{sub o} by a factor of {radical}(u).
Squeezed states of electrons and transitions of the density of states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Seung Joo; Um, Chung IN
1993-01-01
Electron systems which have low dimensional properties have been constructed by squeezing the motion in zero, one, or two-directions. An isolated quantum dot is modeled by a potential box with delta-profiled, penetrable potential walls embedded in a large outer box with infinitely high potential walls which represent the world function with respect to vacuum. We show the smooth crossover of the density of states from the three-dimensional to the quasi-zero dimensional electron gas.
Thermal vacuum state corresponding to squeezed chaotic light and its application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Zhi-Long; Fan, Hong-Yi; Wang, Zhen
2015-12-01
For the density operator (mixed state) describing squeezed chaotic light (SCL) we search for its thermal vacuum state (a pure state) in the real-fictitious space. Using the method of integration within ordered product (IWOP) of operators we find that it is a kind of one- and two-mode combinatorial squeezed state. Its application in evaluating the quantum fluctuation of photon number reveals: the stronger the squeezing is, the larger a fluctuation appears. The second-order degree of coherence of SCL is also deduced which shows that SCL is classic. The new thermal vacuum state also helps to derive the Wigner function of SCL. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175113, 11447202, and 11574295).
Linear canonical transformations of coherent and squeezed states in the Wigner phase space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1988-01-01
It is shown that classical linear canonical transformations are possible in the Wigner phase space. Coherent and squeezed states are shown to be linear canonical transforms of the ground-state harmonic oscillator. It is therefore possible to evaluate the Wigner functions for coherent and squeezed states from that for the harmonic oscillator. Since the group of linear canonical transformations has a subgroup whose algebraic property is the same as that of the (2+1)-dimensional Lorentz group, it may be possible to test certain properties of the Lorentz group using optical devices. A possible experiment to measure the Wigner rotation angle is discussed.
Weinstein, M; Smith, J C
1992-12-01
We taught isometric squeeze relaxation (a variant of progressive relaxation) or meditation to 52 anxious subjects (16 men, 36 women). For meditation, pretreatment high absorption correlated with reductions in state cognitive and somatic anxiety as well as increments in state focusing. For isometric squeeze relaxation, pretreatment low state focusing correlated with reductions in somatic anxiety and increments in focusing. Results suggest that isometric squeeze relaxation (and progressive relaxation) may be more appropriate for individuals who have difficulty focusing, and meditation for those who already possess well-developed relaxation skills at a trait level. The results appear more consistent with Smith's cognitive-behavioral model of relaxation than with Benson's relaxation response or Davidson and Schwartz's specific effects models.
The Total Gaussian Class of Quasiprobabilities and its Relation to Squeezed-State Excitations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wuensche, Alfred
1996-01-01
The class of quasiprobabilities obtainable from the Wigner quasiprobability by convolutions with the general class of Gaussian functions is investigated. It can be described by a three-dimensional, in general, complex vector parameter with the property of additivity when composing convolutions. The diagonal representation of this class of quasiprobabilities is connected with a generalization of the displaced Fock states in direction of squeezing. The subclass with real vector parameter is considered more in detail. It is related to the most important kinds of boson operator ordering. The properties of a specific set of discrete excitations of squeezed coherent states are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wunsche, A.
1993-01-01
The eigenvalue problem of the operator a + zeta(boson creation operator) is solved for arbitrarily complex zeta by applying a nonunitary operator to the vacuum state. This nonunitary approach is compared with the unitary approach leading for the absolute value of zeta less than 1 to squeezed coherent states.
Minikes, Adi; Bucher, Izhak
2003-05-01
This paper presents the theory describing the dynamical behavior of a noncontacting lateral transportation of planer objects by means of a gas squeeze film created by traveling flexural waves of a driving surface. An oscillating motion in the normal direction between two surfaces can generate a gas film with an average pressure higher than the surrounding. This load-carrying phenomenon arises from the fact that a viscous flow cannot be instantaneously squeezed; therefore, fast vibrations give rise to a cushioning effect. Equilibrium is established through a balance between viscous flow forces and compressibility forces. When the oscillatory motion between two surfaces creates traveling waves, lateral viscous forces are generated in addition to the normal levitation forces. These forces are produced as a result of nonuniform pressure gradients in the lateral direction between the surfaces. The combination of normal and lateral forces could be used for transporting objects without any direct contact with the driving surface. The numerical algorithm in this work couples the squeeze film phenomenon, which is represented by means of finite difference equations, to model a variant of the Reynolds equation, together with the equations describing the dynamics of the floating object. Numerical simulations are presented and investigated to highlight noteworthy topics.
Continuous-variable quantum information processing with squeezed states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yonezawa, H.; Furusawa, A.
2010-02-01
We investigate experiments of continuous-variable quantum information processing based on the teleportation scheme. Quantum teleportation, which is realized by a two-mode squeezed vacuum state and measurement-and-feedforward, is considered as an elementary quantum circuit as well as quantum communication. By modifying ancilla states or measurement-and-feedforwards, we can realize various quantum circuits which suffice for universal quantum computation. In order to realize the teleportation-based computation we improve the level of squeezing, and fidelity of teleportation. With a high-fidelity teleporter we demonstrate some advanced teleportation experiments, i.e., teleportation of a squeezed state and sequential teleportation of a coherent state. Moreover, as an example of the teleportation-based computation, we build a QND interaction gate which is a continuous-variable analog of a CNOT gate. A QND interaction gate is constructed only with ancillary squeezed vacuum states and measurement-and-feedforwards. We also create continuous-variable four mode cluster type entanglement for further application, namely, one-way quantum computation.
Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states
Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; DiGugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman
2007-11-15
We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wills, John S.
2007-01-01
Background/Context: Recent research indicates that social studies is being "squeezed" from the elementary curriculum as instructional time is shifted to language arts and mathematics in response to state testing and the federal No Child Left Behind Act, especially in schools serving poor students and students of color. However, less is known about…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun
2016-10-01
We theoretically introduce a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed coherent states (PSTMSCS), by successively subtracting photons from each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. The normalization factor which is related to bivariate Hermite polynomials is obtained by virtue of the two-mode squeezing operator in entangled-states representation. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, antibunching effects, and partial negative Wigner function, respectively, are observed numerically, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the resultant states. Finally, employing the SV criteria and the EPR correlation, respectively, the entangled property of PSTMSCS is analyzed. It is shown that the photon subtraction operation can effectively enhance the inseparability between the two modes.
Dual squeezed states in an atom-photon cluster and their manifestations
Trubilko, A. I.
2012-04-15
The general kinetic equation for an isolated two-level atom and a high-Q cavity mode in a heat bath exhibiting quantum correlations (entangled bath) is applied to the analysis of the squeezed states of the collective system. Two types of collective operators are introduced for the analysis: one is based on bosonic commutation relations, and the other, on the commutation relations of the algebra obtained by a polynomial deformation of the angular momentum algebra. On the basis of these relations, formulas for observables are constructed that identify squeezed states in the system. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the collective system exhibits dual squeezing within the relations for boson operators, as well as for the operators constructed from the angular momentum algebra. Such squeezing is demonstrated under a projective measurement of an atom and for an entanglement swapping protocol. In the latter case, when measuring two initially independent atomic systems, depending on the type of measurement, two cavity modes collapse into a nonseparable state, which is described either by a nonseparability relation based on boson operators or by a relation based on the operators of the algebra of the quasimomentum of the collective system consisting of these two modes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the basic symmetry of two-mode squeezed states is governed by the group SP(4) in the Wigner phase space which is locally isomorphic to the (3 + 2)-dimensional Lorentz group. This symmetry, in the Schroedinger picture, appears as Dirac's two-oscillator representation of O(3,2). It is shown that the SU(2) and SU(1,1) interferometers exhibit the symmetry of this higher-dimensional Lorentz group. The mathematics of two-mode squeezed states is shown to be applicable to other branches of physics including thermally excited states in statistical mechanics and relativistic extended hadrons in the quark model.
Carreno, F.; Calderon, Oscar G.; Anton, M.A.
2005-06-15
We study the dispersion and absorption spectra of a weak probe in a {lambda}-type three-level atomic system with closely ground sublevels driven by a strong field and damped by a broadband squeezed vacuum. We analyze the interplay between the spontaneous generated coherence and the squeezed field on the susceptibility of the atomic system. We find that by varying the intensity of the squeezed field the group velocity of a weak pulse can change from subluminal to superluminal. In addition we exploit the fact that the properties of the atomic medium can be dramatically modified by controlling the relative phase between the driving field and the squeezed field, allowing us to manipulate the group velocity at which light propagates. The physical origin of this phenomenon corresponds to a transfer of the atomic coherence from electromagnetically induced transparency to electromagnetically induced absorption. Besides, this phenomenon is achieved under nearly transparency conditions and with negligible distortion of the propagation pulse.
Enhanced Spin Squeezing in Atomic Ensembles via Control of the Internal Spin States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shojaee, Ezad; Norris, Leigh; Baragiola, Ben; Montano, Enrique; Hemmer, Daniel; Jessen, Poul; Deutsch, Ivan
2015-05-01
Abstract: We study the process by which the collective spin squeezing of an ensemble of Cesium atoms is enhanced by control of the internal spin state of the atoms. By increasing the initial atomic projection noise, one can enhance the Faraday interaction that entangles the atoms with a probe. The light acts as a quantum bus for creating atom-atom entanglement via measurement backaction. Further control can be used to transfer this entanglement to metrologically useful squeezing. We numerically simulate this protocol by a stochastic master equation, including QND measurement and optical pumping, which accounts for decoherence and transfer of coherences between magnetic sub-levels. We study the tradeoff between the enhanced entangling interaction and increased rates of decoherence for different initial state preparations. Under realistic conditions, we find that we can achieve squeezing with a ``CAT-State'' superpostion |F = 4, Mz = 4> + |F, Mz = -4> of ~ 9.9 dB and for the spin coherent state |F = 4, Mx = 4> of ~ 7.5 dB. The increased entanglement enabled by the CAT state preparation is partially, but not completely reduced by the increased fragility to decoherence. National Science Foundation.
Squeezed states and graviton-entropy production in the early universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giovannini, Massimo
1994-01-01
Squeezed states are a very useful framework for the quantum treatment of tensor perturbations (i.e. gravitons production) in the early universe. In particular, the non equilibrium entropy growth in a cosmological process of pair production is completely determined by the associated squeezing parameter and is insensitive to the number of particles in the initial state. The total produced entropy may represent a significant fraction of the entropy stored today in the cosmic blackbody radiation, provided pair production originates from a change in the background metric at a curvature scale of the Planck order. Within the formalism of squeezed thermal states it is also possible to discuss the stimulated emission of gravitons from an initial thermal bath, under the action of the cosmic gravitational background field. We find that at low energy the graviton production is enhanced, if compared with spontaneous creation from the vacuum; as a consequence, the inflation scale must be lowered, in order not to exceed the observed CMB quadrupole anisotropy. This effect is important, in particular, for models based on a symmetry-breaking transition which require, as initial condition, a state of thermal equilibrium at temperatures higher than the inflation scale and in which inflation has a minimal duration.
Řeháček, Jaroslav; Teo, Yong Siah; Hradil, Zdeněk; Wallentowitz, Sascha
2015-01-01
We reveal that quadrature squeezing can result in significantly better quantum-estimation performance with quantum heterodyne detection (of H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro) as compared to quantum homodyne detection for Gaussian states, which touches an important aspect in the foundational understanding of these two schemes. Taking single-mode Gaussian states as examples, we show analytically that the competition between the errors incurred during tomogram processing in homodyne detection and the Arthurs-Kelly uncertainties arising from simultaneous incompatible quadrature measurements in heterodyne detection can often lead to the latter giving more accurate estimates. This observation is also partly a manifestation of a fundamental relationship between the respective data uncertainties for the two schemes. In this sense, quadrature squeezing can be used to overcome intrinsic quantum-measurement uncertainties in heterodyne detection. PMID:26195198
Preparation of free-travelling three-mode W-type entangled squeezed vacuum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2016-02-01
A scheme is proposed to prepare W-type entangled squeezed vacuum states (ESVSs) via free-travelling optical fields with simple linear optical devices, photo detectors and cross-Kerr medium. We investigate the influence of an inexact nonlinear phase factor between two modes on the fidelity of the prepared three-mode W-type ESVSs. By adjusting the appropriate reflectivity, the scheme can be extended to create 2n+1-mode W-type ESVSs.
Total quantum Zeno effect and intelligent states for a two-level system in a squeezed bath
Mundarain, D.; Stephany, J.; Orszag, M.
2006-11-15
In this work we show that, by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two-level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states that display total Zeno effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.
State Budgets Are Likely to Squeeze 2-Year Colleges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Selingo, Jeffrey J.
2008-01-01
Community colleges in nearly half of the states will probably face midyear reductions in their appropriations, according to a survey of members of the National Council of State Directors of Community Colleges. The study paints a bleak picture of a widening fiscal crisis among state governments, which started in the most recent budget year and is…
Spin-squeezing and Dicke-state preparation by heterodyne measurement
Vanderbruggen, T.; Bernon, S.; Bertoldi, A.; Bouyer, P.; Landragin, A.
2011-01-15
We investigate the quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of an atomic population based on a heterodyne detection and show that the induced back-action allows for the preparation of both spin-squeezed and Dicke states. We use a wave-vector formalism to describe the stochastic process of the measurement and the associated atomic evolution. Analytical formulas of the atomic distribution momenta are derived in the weak-coupling regime both for short- and long-time behavior, and they are in good agreement with those obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental implementation of the proposed heterodyne detection scheme is discussed. The role played in the squeezing process by the spontaneous emission is considered.
Quantum entropy and uncertainty for two-mode squeezed, coherent and intelligent spin states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aragone, C.; Mundarain, D.
1993-01-01
We compute the quantum entropy for monomode and two-mode systems set in squeezed states. Thereafter, the quantum entropy is also calculated for angular momentum algebra when the system is either in a coherent or in an intelligent spin state. These values are compared with the corresponding values of the respective uncertainties. In general, quantum entropies and uncertainties have the same minimum and maximum points. However, for coherent and intelligent spin states, it is found that some minima for the quantum entropy turn out to be uncertainty maxima. We feel that the quantum entropy we use provides the right answer, since it is given in an essentially unique way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Wenchao; Bhattacharya, M.
2016-10-01
Nonclassical states of macroscopic objects are promising for ultrasensitive metrology as well as testing quantum mechanics. In this work, we investigate dissipative mechanical quantum state engineering in an optically levitated nanodiamond. First, we study single-mode mechanical squeezed states by magnetically coupling the mechanical motion to a dressed three-level system provided by a nitrogen-vacancy center in the nanoparticle. Quantum coherence between the dressed levels is created via microwave fields to induce a two-phonon transition, which results in mechanical squeezing. Remarkably, we find that in ultrahigh vacuum quantum squeezing is achievable at room temperature with feedback cooling. For moderate vacuum, quantum squeezing is possible with cryogenic temperature. Second, we present a setup for two mechanical modes coupled to the dressed three levels, which results in two-mode squeezing analogous to the mechanism of the single-mode case. In contrast to previous works, our study provides a deterministic method for engineering macroscopic squeezed states without the requirement for a cavity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tong-Tong; Fan, Hong-Yi
2016-12-01
Based on the one- and two-mode combinatorial squeezed state (H.Y. Fan, Phys. Rev. A. 41(3), 1526 (1990))which can enhance squeezing effect, we derive a new optical field by using partial tracing method, we not only obtain its density operator but also deduce its Wigner function by virtue of operators' Weyl ordering property. This new photon field possesses more photon numbers than the corresponding chaotic field, and can be applied to quantum controlling and quantum information processing.
Frequency dependent squeezed light at audio frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, John
2015-04-01
Following successful implementation in the previous generation of instruments, squeezed states of light represent a proven technology for the reduction of quantum noise in ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. As a result of lower noise and increased circulating power, the current generation of detectors places one further demand on this technique - that the orientation of the squeezed ellipse be rotated as function of frequency. This extension allows previously negligible quantum radiation pressure noise to be mitigated in addition to quantum shot noise. I will present the results of an experiment which performs the appropriate rotation by reflecting the squeezed state from a detuned high-finesse optical cavity, demonstrating frequency dependent squeezing at audio frequencies for the first time and paving the way for broadband quantum noise reduction in Advanced LIGO. Further, I will indicate how a realistic implementation of this approach will impact Advanced LIGO both alone and in combination with other potential upgrades.
Squeezed states, time-energy uncertainty relation, and Feynman's rest of the universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1992-01-01
Two illustrative examples are given for Feynman's rest of the universe. The first example is the two-mode squeezed state of light where no measurement is taken for one of the modes. The second example is the relativistic quark model where no measurement is possible for the time-like separation fo quarks confined in a hadron. It is possible to illustrate these examples using the covariant oscillator formalism. It is shown that the lack of symmetry between the position-momentum and time-energy uncertainty relations leads to an increase in entropy when the system is different Lorentz frames.
Squeezed States, Uncertainty Relations and the Pauli Principle in Composite and Cosmological Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Terazawa, Hidezumi
1996-01-01
The importance of not only uncertainty relations but also the Pauli exclusion principle is emphasized in discussing various 'squeezed states' existing in the universe. The contents of this paper include: (1) Introduction; (2) Nuclear Physics in the Quark-Shell Model; (3) Hadron Physics in the Standard Quark-Gluon Model; (4) Quark-Lepton-Gauge-Boson Physics in Composite Models; (5) Astrophysics and Space-Time Physics in Cosmological Models; and (6) Conclusion. Also, not only the possible breakdown of (or deviation from) uncertainty relations but also the superficial violation of the Pauli principle at short distances (or high energies) in composite (and string) models is discussed in some detail.
Dissipative transverse-field Ising model: Steady-state correlations and spin squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Tony E.; Chan, Ching-Kit
2013-12-01
We study the transverse-field Ising model with infinite-range coupling and spontaneous emission on every site. We find that there is spin squeezing in steady state due to the presence of the transverse field. This means that there is still entanglement, despite the decoherence from spontaneous emission. We analytically calculate fluctuations beyond mean-field theory using a phase-space approach, which involves converting the master equation into a Fokker-Planck equation for the Wigner function. Our calculations are relevant to current experiments with trapped ions.
Steady-state and transient analysis of a squeeze film damper bearing for rotor stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrett, L. E.; Gunter, E. J.
1975-01-01
A study of the steady-state and transient response of the squeeze film damper bearing is presented. Both the steady-state and transient equations for the hydrodynamic bearing forces are derived. The bearing equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients are determined by steady-state equations. These coefficients are used to find the bearing configuration which will provide the optimum support characteristics based on a stability analysis of the rotor-bearing system. The transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is performed by coupling the bearing and journal equations and integrating forward in time. The effects of unbalance, cavitation, and retainer springs are included in the analysis. Methods of determining the stability of a rotor-bearing system under the influence of aerodynamic forces and internal shaft friction are discussed with emphasis on solving the system characteristic frequency equation and on producing stability maps. It is shown that for optimum stability and low force transmissability the squeeze bearing should operate at an eccentricity ratio epsilon 0.4.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jimin; Bragas, A. V.; Merlin, R.; Lockwood, D. J.
2003-03-01
We demonstrate spin squeezing by impulsive optical excitation of magnon pairs in antiferromagnetic MnF_2, similar to the squeezing of phonons (G. A. Garrett, A. G. Rojo, A. K. Sood, J. F. Whitaker, R. Merlin, Science, 275), 1638-1640, 14 March 1997.. Femtosecond laser pulses with a central wavelength of 543 nm are used in a transmission pump-probe geometry to impulsively stimulate magnon pairs at ˜3 K. We excite our sample with 50 fs pulses at 10 mW average power. The FFT of the time domain traces shows a peak at ˜100 cm-1. Comparison with Raman data (P. A. Fleury, R. Loudon, Phys. Rev. 166), 514-530, 1968., combined with theoretical analysis, gives strong evidence that a squeezed state has been generated. Theoretical considerations indicate that the coherent magnon fields are a combination of both one- and two-mode squeezed states.
Nonclassical properties and teleportation in the two-mode photon-added displaced squeezed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoai, Nguyen Thi Xuan; Duc, Truong Minh
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the nonclassical properties and find out the effect of photon addition on these properties as well as the process of teleportation in the two-mode photon-added displaced squeezed (TMPADS) states. We derive the analytic expressions of the Wigner function, the photon number distribution and the intermode photon antibunching for these states. We show that photon addition operation not only makes the Wigner function become negative but also leads to increase the degree of antibunching. The peak of the photon number distribution becomes flatter and shifts to the greater number of photons by adding photons to both modes simultaneously. Furthermore, it is proved that the degree of intermodal entanglement becomes bigger and bigger through increasing the number of photons added to both modes. As expected, when using these states as an entanglement resource to teleport a state, the average fidelity of teleportation process is also improved by increasing the number of added photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aeineh, N.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we investigate the higher-order nonclassical properties of a particular class of generalized coherent states namely the deformed photon-added nonlinear coherent states (DPACS) A†m |α, f, m>. To achieve this purpose we pay attention to higher-orders of squeezing (both Hillery- and Hong-Mandel-types), sub-Poissonian statistics and anti-bunching of the mentioned states with a well-known nonlinearity function. It is shown that for enough large values of field intensity (|α|2) for a fixed N (the order of squeezing) by increasing m (the order of excitation) the degree of squeezing evaluated by Hillery and Hong-Mandel approaches increases, while for a chosen fixed value of m, by increasing N for Hillery (Hong-Mandel) type of squeezing the strength of squeezing decreases (increases). Similarly, the degree of higher-order sub-Poissonian statistics (with fixed K) becomes lower when m increases, while (with fixed m) it gets greater values when the order of sub-Poissonian K increases. At last, higher-order anti-bunching of the DPACS is evaluated, by which we established that its (always) negative values increase with increasing m, α and l (the order of anti-bunching) individually, i.e. the degree of anti-bunching increases.
Two Different Squeeze Transformations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.
1996-01-01
Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. While these transformations are similar to those in squeezed states of light, they are fundamentally different from both physical and mathematical points of view. The difference is illustrated in terms of two coupled harmonic oscillators, and in terms of the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism.
Squeezing in a {lambda}-type three-level atom via spontaneously generated coherence
Gonzalo, Isabel
2005-09-15
The squeezing spectrum of the fluorescent light is investigated for a laser-driven three-level atom of the {lambda} configuration when quantum interference of the decay channels is accounted for. We show that when the two atomic transitions contribute to the detected fluorescence field, squeezing at certain frequency intervals is obtained in both the weak- and the high-Rabi-frequency regimes even for equally decay rates of the transitions. Unlike in two-level atoms in free space, squeezing can be obtained in both the in-phase and out-of-phase quadrature spectra although in different spectral regions. We also show that the squeezing spectrum can be controlled by an adequate selection of the Rabi frequencies and atomic detunings. Another remarkable effect is that squeezing can be achieved with proper relative phases of the driving fields. We provide an analytical description in the dressed basis which accounts for the main features of the squeezing spectra obtained from the numerical work.
Corzo, Neil; Marino, Alberto M; Jones, Kevin M; Lett, Paul D
2011-10-24
We present experimental results on the generation of multi-spatial-mode, single-beam, quadrature squeezed light using four-wave mixing in hot Rb vapor. Squeezing and phase-sensitive deamplification are observed over a range of powers and detunings near the (85)Rb D1 atomic transition. We observe -3 dB of vacuum quadrature squeezing, comparable to the best single-spatial mode results previously reported using atomic vapors, however, produced here in multiple spatial modes. We confirm that the squeezing is present in more than one transverse mode by studying the spatial distribution of the noise properties of the field.
Lopez, L.; Chalopin, B.; Riviere de la Souchere, A.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.; Maitre, A.
2009-10-15
We investigate the spatial quantum properties of the light emitted by a perfectly spatially degenerate optical parametric oscillator (self-imaging optical parametric oscillator). We show that this device produces local squeezing for areas bigger than a coherence area that depends on the crystal length and pump width. Furthermore, it generates local EPR beams in the far field. We show, calculating the eigenmodes of the system, that it is highly multimode for realistic experimental parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Leehwa
1993-01-01
The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite-mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barsotti, Lisa
2013-04-01
After two decades of technology development, the first direct observation of gravitational waves appears to be imminent. Ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors world-wide are about to come back on-line after a major upgrade aimed to significantly improve their sensitivity. As these advanced detectors become a reality, the gravitational wave community is looking at new ways of further expanding their astrophysical reach. The quantum nature of light imposes a fundamental limit to the sensitivity that gravitational wave detectors can achieve, due to statistical fluctuations in the arrival time of photons at the interferometer output (shot noise) and the recoil of the mirrors due to radiation pressure noise. In this talk I will show how mature technology can be used to push interferometric precision measurement beyond the standard quantum limit by means of squeezed states of light, and current ideas on how to integrate this technology into the Advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO).
Quantum metrology with two-mode squeezed thermal state: Parity detection and phase sensitivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Heng-Mei; Xu, Xue-Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Zhen
2016-10-01
Based on the Wigner-function method, we investigate the parity detection and phase sensitivity in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with two-mode squeezed thermal state (TMSTS). Using the classical transformation relation of the MZI, we derive the input-output Wigner functions and then obtain the explicit expressions of parity and phase sensitivity. The results from the numerical calculation show that supersensitivity can be reached only if the input TMSTS have a large number photons. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447002), the Research Foundation of the Education Department of Jiangxi Province of China (Grant No. GJJ150338), and the Research Foundation for Changzhou Institute of Modern Optoelectronic Technology (Grant No. CZGY15).
Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes.
Semmler, Marion; Berg-Johansen, Stefan; Chille, Vanessa; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-04-01
As the generation of squeezed states of light has become a standard technique in laboratories, attention is increasingly directed towards adapting the optical parameters of squeezed beams to the specific requirements of individual applications. It is known that imaging, metrology, and quantum information may benefit from using squeezed light with a tailored transverse spatial mode. However, experiments have so far been limited to generating only a few squeezed spatial modes within a given setup. Here, we present the generation of single-mode squeezing in Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss modes, as well as an arbitrary intensity pattern, all from a single setup using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The degree of squeezing obtained is limited mainly by the initial squeezing and diffractive losses introduced by the SLM, while no excess noise from the SLM is detectable at the measured sideband. The experiment illustrates the single-mode concept in quantum optics and demonstrates the viability of current SLMs as flexible tools for the spatial reshaping of squeezed light. PMID:27137050
Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, S.; Machida, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohzu, H.
1993-09-01
The intensity-noise properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser were studied experimentally. The constant-current-driven semiconductor laser producing the amplitude-squeezed state whose intensity noise was reduced below the standard quantum limit (SQL) by 0.72 dB was injection-locked by an external master laser. The measured intensity-noise level of the injection-locked semiconductor laser was 0.91 dB below the SQL. This experimental result indicates that a phase-coherent amplitude-squeezed state or squeezed vacuum state together with a reference local oscillator wave can be generated directly by semiconductor laser systems.
Spin Squeezing and Light Entanglement in Coherent Population Trapping
Dantan, A.; Cviklinski, J.; Giacobino, E.; Pinard, M.
2006-07-14
We show that strong squeezing and entanglement can be generated at the output of a cavity containing atoms interacting with two fields in a coherent population trapping situation, on account of a nonlinear Faraday effect experienced by the fields close to a dark-state resonance in a cavity. Moreover, the cavity provides a feedback mechanism allowing to reduce the quantum fluctuations of the ground state spin, resulting in strong steady state spin squeezing.
Output squeezed radiation from dispersive ultrastrong light-matter coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedortchenko, S.; Huppert, S.; Vasanelli, A.; Todorov, Y.; Sirtori, C.; Ciuti, C.; Keller, A.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.
2016-07-01
We investigate the output generation of squeezed radiation of a cavity photon mode coupled to another off-resonant bosonic excitation. By modulating in time their linear interaction, we predict a high degree of output squeezing when the dispersive ultra-strong-coupling regime is achieved, i.e., when the interaction rate becomes comparable to the frequency of the lowest-energy mode. Our paper paves the way to squeezed light generation in frequency domains where the ultrastrong coupling is obtained, e.g., solid-state resonators in the GHz, THz, and mid-IR spectral ranges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caves, C. M.; Schumaker, B. L.
1985-01-01
A new formalism for analyzing two-photon devices, such as parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors, is proposed in part I, focusing on the properties and the significance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes and two-mode squeezed states. Time-stationary quasi-probability noise is also detailed for the case of Gaussian noise, and uncertainty principles for the quadrature-phase amplitudes are outlined, as well as some important properties of the two-mode states. Part II establishes a mathematical foundation for the formalism, with introduction of a vector notation for compact representation of two-mode properties. Fundamental unitary operators and special quantum states are also examined with an emphasis on the two-mode squeezed states. The results are applied to a previously studied degenerate limit (epsilon = 0).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wei-Feng
2016-08-01
Using the thermo entangled state approach, we successfully solve the master equation of a damped harmonic oscillator affected by a linear resonance force in a squeezed heat reservoir, and obtain the analytical evolution formula for the density operator in the infinitive Kraus operator-sum representation. Interestingly, the Kraus operators M l,m,n,r and M_{l,m,n,r}^{dag } are not Hermite conjugate, but they are still trace-preserving quantum operations because of the normalization condition. We also investigate the evolution for an initial coherent state for damping in a squeezed heat reservoir, which shows that the initial coherent state decays to a complex mixed state as a result of damping and thermal noise.
Displacing, squeezing, and time evolution of quantum states for nanoelectronic circuits
2013-01-01
The time behavior of DSN (displaced squeezed number state) for a two-dimensional electronic circuit composed of nanoscale elements is investigated using unitary transformation approach. The original Hamiltonian of the system is somewhat complicated. However, through unitary transformation, the Hamiltonian became very simple enough that we can easily treat it. By executing inverse transformation for the wave function obtained in the transformed system, we derived the exact wave function associated to the DSN in the original system. The time evolution of the DSN is described in detail, and its corresponding probability density is illustrated. We confirmed that the probability density oscillates with time like that of a classical state. There are two factors that drive the probability density to oscillate: One is the initial amplitude of complementary functions, and the other is the external power source. The oscillation associated with the initial amplitude gradually disappears with time due to the dissipation raised by resistances of the system. These analyses exactly coincide with those obtained from classical state. The characteristics of quantum fluctuations and uncertainty relations for charges and currents are also addressed. PMID:23320631
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsue, Yasuhiko
1994-01-01
A general framework for time-dependent variational approach in terms of squeezed coherent states is constructed with the aim of describing quantal systems by means of classical mechanics including higher order quantal effects with the aid of canonicity conditions developed in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. The Maslov phase occurring in a semi-classical quantization rule is investigated in this framework. In the limit of a semi-classical approximation in this approach, it is definitely shown that the Maslov phase has a geometric nature analogous to the Berry phase. It is also indicated that this squeezed coherent state approach is a possible way to go beyond the usual WKB approximation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Defacio, Brian; Kim, S.-H.; Vannevel, A.
1994-01-01
The squeezed states or Bogoliubov transformations and wavelets are applied to two problems in nonrelativistic statistical mechanics: the dielectric response of liquid water, epsilon(q-vector,w), and the bubble formation in water during insonnification. The wavelets are special phase-space windows which cover the domain and range of L(exp 1) intersection of L(exp 2) of classical causal, finite energy solutions. The multiresolution of discrete wavelets in phase space gives a decomposition into regions of time and scales of frequency thereby allowing the renormalization group to be applied to new systems in addition to the tired 'usual suspects' of the Ising models and lattice gasses. The Bogoliubov transformation: squeeze transformation is applied to the dipolaron collective mode in water and to the gas produced by the explosive cavitation process in bubble formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celeghini, E.; Rasetti, M.; Vitiello, G.
1991-04-01
Generalized quasicoherent states for the Weyl-Heisenberg quantum group have been defined by Biedenharn and MacFarlane. In this Letter other quantum Weyl-Heisenberg coherent states are defined for complex q in the usual Fock space. Such states are shown to exhibit interesting squeezing properties, in particular when ||q||~=1, for the q analog to the harmonic oscillator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Bing-Ju; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Jia, Chun-Xia; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Liu, Xiao-Juan
2014-12-01
Considering two atomic qubits initially in Bell states, we send one qubit into a vacuum cavity with two-photon resonance and leave the other one outside. Using quantum information entropy squeezing theory, the time evolutions of the entropy squeezing factor of the atomic qubit inside the cavity are discussed for two cases, i.e., before and after rotation and measurement of the atomic qubit outside the cavity. It is shown that the atomic qubit inside the cavity has no entropy squeezing phenomenon and is always in a decoherent state before the operating atomic qubit outside the cavity. However, the periodical entropy squeezing phenomenon emerges and the optimal entropy squeezing state can be prepared for the atomic qubit inside the cavity by adjusting the rotation angle, choosing the interaction time between the atomic qubit and the cavity, controlling the probability amplitudes of subsystem states. Its physical essence is cutting the entanglement between the atomic qubit and its environment, causing the atomic qubit inside the cavity to change from the initial decoherent state into maximum coherent superposition state, which is a possible way of recovering the coherence of a single atomic qubit in the noise environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Shao-Hua; Wen, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Jing; Song, Ke-Hui
2016-06-01
We characterize the non-Gaussianity of continuous-variable quantum states in terms of the cumulant theory and derive the exact formula of the cumulant of any order for such states. Exploiting the fourth-order cumulant method, we evaluate the quantum non-Gaussianity of two-mode single-photon squeezed Bell states and investigate their dynamics under the influence of two different types of decoherence models. It is shown that in a two-reservoir model, all the fourth-order cumulants of these states are very fragile, while in single-reservoir model, the fourth-order cumulants of one such state are insensitive to thermal noise, showing the time-invariant non-Gaussianity.
Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2016-09-01
Squeezed states of light belong to the most prominent nonclassical resources. They have compelling applications in metrology, which has been demonstrated by their routine exploitation for improving the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave detector since 2010. Here, we report on the direct measurement of 15 dB squeezed vacuum states of light and their application to calibrate the quantum efficiency of photoelectric detection. The object of calibration is a customized InGaAs positive intrinsic negative (p-i-n) photodiode optimized for high external quantum efficiency. The calibration yields a value of 99.5% with a 0.5% (k=2) uncertainty for a photon flux of the order 10^{17} s^{-1} at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The calibration neither requires any standard nor knowledge of the incident light power and thus represents a valuable application of squeezed states of light in quantum metrology. PMID:27661673
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2016-09-01
Squeezed states of light belong to the most prominent nonclassical resources. They have compelling applications in metrology, which has been demonstrated by their routine exploitation for improving the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave detector since 2010. Here, we report on the direct measurement of 15 dB squeezed vacuum states of light and their application to calibrate the quantum efficiency of photoelectric detection. The object of calibration is a customized InGaAs positive intrinsic negative (p-i-n) photodiode optimized for high external quantum efficiency. The calibration yields a value of 99.5% with a 0.5% (k =2 ) uncertainty for a photon flux of the order 1 017 s-1 at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The calibration neither requires any standard nor knowledge of the incident light power and thus represents a valuable application of squeezed states of light in quantum metrology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meng, Guang
1991-01-01
The stability of the steady state response, the bistable response, and the jumping characteristics are analyzed for the case when a system accelerates or decelerates through the bistable region of a flexible rotor-centralized squeeze film damper system. It was found that the system steady state responses have two unstable regions. The larger the unbalance parameter and the smaller the bearing parameter and the external damping ratio, the easier it is for the system to lose stability. The larger the mass ratio and the smaller the stiffness ratio, the lower the threshold rotating speed of instability. The instability of the system steady-state response determined here is due to the system nonsynchronous response in many cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premaratne, Shavindra; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.
Using a single junction Al/AlOx/Al transmon qubit coupled to a superconducting Al cavity (at a temperature 15 mK), we have used a Raman technique to produce a single Fock state in the cavity. The technique requires 3 microwave tones to drive the system from the ground state of the cavity/qubit system. We achieve an experimental fidelity of the final Fock state of around 90%, limited by thermal photons in the cavity and by decay during the operation time. Using this technique, we have also generated an arbitrary superposition of Fock states and a superposition of qubit and cavity states. Results, simulations and applications of this technique will be discussed.
Squeezed light at 1550 nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3 dB.
Mehmet, Moritz; Ast, Stefan; Eberle, Tobias; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Schnabel, Roman
2011-12-01
Continuous-wave squeezed states of light at the wavelength of 1550 nm have recently been demonstrated, but so far the obtained factors of noise suppression still lag behind today's best squeezing values demonstrated at 1064 nm. Here we report on the realization of a half-monolithic nonlinear resonator based on periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate which enabled the direct detection of up to 12.3 dB of squeezing at 5 MHz. Squeezing was observed down to a frequency of 2 kHz which is well within the detection band of gravitational wave interferometers. Our results suggest that a long-term stable 1550 nm squeezed light source can be realized with strong squeezing covering the entire detection band of a 3rd generation gravitational-wave detector such as the Einstein Telescope.
Optimizing the choice of spin-squeezed states for detecting and characterizing quantum processes
Rozema, Lee A.; Mahler, Dylan H.; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Steinberg, Aephraim M.
2014-11-07
Quantum metrology uses quantum states with no classical counterpart to measure a physical quantity with extraordinary sensitivity or precision. Most such schemes characterize a dynamical process by probing it with a specially designed quantum state. The success of such a scheme usually relies on the process belonging to a particular one-parameter family. If this assumption is violated, or if the goal is to measure more than one parameter, a different quantum state may perform better. In the most extreme case, we know nothing about the process and wish to learn everything. This requires quantum process tomography, which demands an informationallymore » complete set of probe states. It is very convenient if this set is group covariant—i.e., each element is generated by applying an element of the quantum system’s natural symmetry group to a single fixed fiducial state. In this paper, we consider metrology with 2-photon (“biphoton”) states and report experimental studies of different states’ sensitivity to small, unknown collective SU(2) rotations [“SU(2) jitter”]. Maximally entangled N00N states are the most sensitive detectors of such a rotation, yet they are also among the worst at fully characterizing an a priori unknown process. We identify (and confirm experimentally) the best SU(2)-covariant set for process tomography; these states are all less entangled than the N00N state, and are characterized by the fact that they form a 2-design.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar; Cruz y Cruz, Sara; Enríquez, Marco
2016-10-01
It is shown that each one of the Lie algebras su(1 , 1) and su(2) determine the spectrum of the radial oscillator. States that share the same orbital angular momentum are used to construct the representation spaces of the non-compact Lie group SU(1 , 1) . In addition, three different forms of obtaining the representation spaces of the compact Lie group SU(2) are introduced, they are based on the accidental degeneracies associated with the spherical symmetry of the system as well as on the selection rules that govern the transitions between different energy levels. In all cases the corresponding generalized coherent states are constructed and the conditions to squeeze the involved quadratures are analyzed.
Which Q-analogue of the squeezed oscillator?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Solomon, Allan I.
1993-01-01
The noise (variance squared) of a component of the electromagnetic field - considered as a quantum oscillator - in the vacuum is equal to one half, in appropriate units (taking Planck's constant and the mass and frequency of the oscillator all equal to 1). A practical definition of a squeezed state is one for which the noise is less than the vacuum value - and the amount of squeezing is determined by the appropriate ratio. Thus the usual coherent (Glauber) states are not squeezed, as they produce the same variance as the vacuum. However, it is not difficult to define states analogous to coherent states which do have this noise-reducing effect. In fact, they are coherent states in the more general group sense but with respect to groups other than the Heisenberg-Weyl Group which defines the Glauber states. The original, conventional squeezed state in quantum optics is that associated with the group SU(1,1). Just as the annihilation operator a of a single photon mode (and its hermitian conjugate a, the creation operator) generates the Heisenberg Weyl algebra, so the pair-photon operator a(sup 2) and its conjugate generates the algebra of the group SU(1,1). Another viewpoint, more productive from the calculational stance, is to note that the automorphism group of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra is SU(1,1). Needless to say, each of these viewpoints generalizes differently to the quantum group context. Both are discussed. The following topics are addressed: conventional coherent and squeezed states; eigenstate definitions; exponential definitions; algebra (group) definitions; automorphism group definition; example: signal-to-noise ratio; q-coherent and q-squeezed states; M and P q-bosons; eigenstate definitions; exponential definitions; algebra (q-group) definitions; and automorphism q-group definition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.
2016-10-01
The degree of purity and nonclassical properties for a two-level system interacting with a photon-added squeezed thermal field (PASTF) are described in terms of the physical parameters involved in the whole system state with and without time-dependent coupling effect. Specially, we investigate the influence of the squeezed parameter and photon-added number on the behavior of the linear entropy and the Mandel's parameter. We find that for each value of the photon-added number, there exist critical value of the squeezed parameter for which the linear entropy is maximal and the statistical properties get farther from the trivial case. Moreover, we show that the presence of the time-dependent coupling effect may increase the periodicity time and lead to quench oscillations of the Mandel's parameter during the evolution. Finally, we exploit an interesting relationship between the linear entropy and the Mandel's parameter in terms of the physical parameters.
Enhanced Spin Squeezing Through Quantum Control of Qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norris, Leigh; Trail, Collin; Deutsch, Ivan; Jessen, Poul
2012-10-01
Spin squeezed states have applications in metrology and quantum information processing. Most spin squeezing research to date has focused on ensembles of qubit spins. We explore squeezed state production in an ensemble of spin f>1/2 alkali atoms (qudits). Collective interactions are achieved through coherent quantum feedback of a laser probe, interacting with the ensemble through Faraday interaction. This process is enhanced with control of the atomic qudits, both before and after the collective interaction. Initial preparation increases the collective squeezing parameter through enhancement of resolvable quantum fluctuations, but comes at the price of increased decoherence. We find an optimal state preparation, achieving an increased squeezing parameter while remaining robust to decoherence. After the collective interaction, qudit control maps generated entanglement to different pseudo-spin subspaces where it is metrologically useful, e.g., the clock transition or the stretched state for magnetometry. These considerations highlight the unique capabilities of our platform: we can transfer correlations between subspaces to explore a wider variety of nonclassical states, with ultimate application in sensors or quantum information processors.
Enhanced Spin Squeezing Through Quantum Control of Qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norris, Leigh; Trail, Collin; Jessen, Poul; Deutsch, Ivan
2012-06-01
Spin squeezed states have applications in metrology and quantum information processing. Most spin squeezing research to date has focused on ensembles of qubit spins. We explore squeezed state production in an ensemble of spin f>1/2 alkali atoms (qudits). Collective interactions are achieved through coherent quantum feedback of a laser probe, interacting with the ensemble through Faraday interaction. This process is enhanced with control of the atomic qudits, both before and after the collective interaction. Initial preparation increases the collective squeezing parameter through enhancement of resolvable quantum fluctuations, but comes at the price of increased decoherence. We find an optimal state preparation, achieving an increased squeezing parameter while remaining robust to decoherence. After the collective interaction, qudit control maps generated entanglement to different pseudo-spin subspaces where it is metrologically useful, e.g., the clock transition or the stretched state for magnetometry. These considerations highlight the unique capabilities of our platform: we can transfer correlations between subspaces to explore a wider variety of nonclassical states, with ultimate application in sensors or quantum information processors.
Parallel Polarization State Generation
She, Alan; Capasso, Federico
2016-01-01
The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security. PMID:27184813
Parallel Polarization State Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
She, Alan; Capasso, Federico
2016-05-01
The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.
Cayley-Klein parameters and evolution of two- and three-level systems and squeezed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.
1990-01-01
In this paper the time behavior of quantum states ruled by Hamiltonians linear in the SU(2), SU(1,1), and SU(3) generators in terms of the Cayley-Klein parameters, originally introduced in classical mechanics is analyzed. Also pointed out is the link between the Cayley-Klein parameters and the Wei-Norman ordering functions, exploited in the context of the Schrödinger representation.
Squeezed light from a silicon micromechanical resonator.
Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Gröblacher, Simon; Hill, Jeff T; Chan, Jasper; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Painter, Oskar
2013-08-01
Monitoring a mechanical object's motion, even with the gentle touch of light, fundamentally alters its dynamics. The experimental manifestation of this basic principle of quantum mechanics, its link to the quantum nature of light and the extension of quantum measurement to the macroscopic realm have all received extensive attention over the past half-century. The use of squeezed light, with quantum fluctuations below that of the vacuum field, was proposed nearly three decades ago as a means of reducing the optical read-out noise in precision force measurements. Conversely, it has also been proposed that a continuous measurement of a mirror's position with light may itself give rise to squeezed light. Such squeezed-light generation has recently been demonstrated in a system of ultracold gas-phase atoms whose centre-of-mass motion is analogous to the motion of a mirror. Here we describe the continuous position measurement of a solid-state, optomechanical system fabricated from a silicon microchip and comprising a micromechanical resonator coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. Laser light sent into the cavity is used to measure the fluctuations in the position of the mechanical resonator at a measurement rate comparable to its resonance frequency and greater than its thermal decoherence rate. Despite the mechanical resonator's highly excited thermal state (10(4) phonons), we observe, through homodyne detection, squeezing of the reflected light's fluctuation spectrum at a level 4.5 ± 0.2 per cent below that of vacuum noise over a bandwidth of a few megahertz around the mechanical resonance frequency of 28 megahertz. With further device improvements, on-chip squeezing at significant levels should be possible, making such integrated microscale devices well suited for precision metrology applications. PMID:23925241
Optimizing the choice of spin-squeezed states for detecting and characterizing quantum processes
Rozema, Lee A.; Mahler, Dylan H.; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Steinberg, Aephraim M.
2014-11-07
Quantum metrology uses quantum states with no classical counterpart to measure a physical quantity with extraordinary sensitivity or precision. Most such schemes characterize a dynamical process by probing it with a specially designed quantum state. The success of such a scheme usually relies on the process belonging to a particular one-parameter family. If this assumption is violated, or if the goal is to measure more than one parameter, a different quantum state may perform better. In the most extreme case, we know nothing about the process and wish to learn everything. This requires quantum process tomography, which demands an informationally complete set of probe states. It is very convenient if this set is group covariant—i.e., each element is generated by applying an element of the quantum system’s natural symmetry group to a single fixed fiducial state. In this paper, we consider metrology with 2-photon (“biphoton”) states and report experimental studies of different states’ sensitivity to small, unknown collective SU(2) rotations [“SU(2) jitter”]. Maximally entangled N00N states are the most sensitive detectors of such a rotation, yet they are also among the worst at fully characterizing an a priori unknown process. We identify (and confirm experimentally) the best SU(2)-covariant set for process tomography; these states are all less entangled than the N00N state, and are characterized by the fact that they form a 2-design.
Improvement of an Atomic Clock using Squeezed Vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Peise, J.; Lücke, B.; Pezzè, L.; Arlt, J.; Ertmer, W.; Lisdat, C.; Santos, L.; Smerzi, A.; Klempt, C.
2016-09-01
Since the pioneering work of Ramsey, atom interferometers are employed for precision metrology, in particular to measure time and to realize the second. In a classical interferometer, an ensemble of atoms is prepared in one of the two input states, whereas the second one is left empty. In this case, the vacuum noise restricts the precision of the interferometer to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel clock configuration that surpasses the SQL by squeezing the vacuum in the empty input state. We create a squeezed vacuum state containing an average of 0.75 atoms to improve the clock sensitivity of 10000 atoms by 2.05-0.37 +0 .34 dB . The SQL poses a significant limitation for today's microwave fountain clocks, which serve as the main time reference. We evaluate the major technical limitations and challenges for devising a next generation of fountain clocks based on atomic squeezed vacuum.
Quantum control and squeezing of collective spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montano, Enrique
Quantum control of many body atomic spins is often pursued in the context of an atom-light quantum interface, where a quantized light field acts as a "quantum bus" that can be used to entangle distant atoms. One key challenge is to improve the coherence of the atom-light interface and the amount of atom-light entanglement it can generate, given the constraints of working with multilevel atoms and optical fields in a 3D geometry. We have explored new ways to achieve this, through rigorous optimization of the spatial geometry, and through control of the internal atomic state. Our basic setup consists of a quantized probe beam passing through an atom cloud held in a dipole trap, first generating spin-probe entanglement through the Faraday interaction, and then using backaction from a measurement of the probe polarization to squeeze the collective atomic spin. The relevant figure of merit is the metrologically useful spin squeezing determined by the enhancement in the resolution of rotations of the collective spin, relative to the commonly used spin coherent state. With an optimized free-space geometry, and by using a 2-color probe scheme to suppress tensor light shifts, we achieve 3(2) dB of metrologically useful spin squeezing. We can further increase atom-light coupling by implementing internal state control to prepare spin states with larger initial projection noise relative to the spin coherent state. Under the right conditions this increase in projection noise can lead to stronger measurement backaction and increased atom-atom entanglement. With further internal state control the increased atom-atom entanglement can then be mapped to a basis where it corresponds to improved squeezing of, e.g., the physical spin-angular momentum or the collective atomic clock pseudospin. In practice, controlling the collective spin of N ~ 106 atoms in this fashion is an extraordinarily difficult challenge because errors in the control of individual atoms tend to be highly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-10-01
Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.
Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe
1994-01-01
We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.
Generating non-classical states from spin coherent states via interaction with ancillary spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dooley, Shane; Joo, Jaewoo; Proctor, Timothy; Spiller, Timothy P.
2015-02-01
The generation of non-classical states of large quantum systems has attracted much interest from a foundational perspective, but also because of the significant potential of such states in emerging quantum technologies. In this paper we consider the possibility of generating non-classical states of a system of spins by interaction with an ancillary system, starting from an easily prepared initial state. We extend previous results for an ancillary system comprising a single spin to bigger ancillary systems and the interaction strength is enhanced by a factor of the number of ancillary spins. Depending on initial conditions, we find - by a combination of approximation and numerics - that the system of spins can evolve to spin cat states, spin squeezed states or to multiple cat states. We also discuss some candidate systems for implementation of the Hamiltonian necessary to generate these non-classical states.
Parsing polarization squeezing into Fock layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Christian R.; Madsen, Lars S.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2016-03-01
We investigate polarization squeezing in squeezed coherent states with varying coherent amplitudes. In contrast to the traditional characterization based on the full Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine the Stokes vector of each excitation subspace separately. Only for states with a fixed photon number do the methods coincide; when the photon number is indefinite, we parse the state in Fock layers, finding that substantially higher squeezing can be observed in some of the single layers. By capitalizing on the properties of the Husimi Q function, we map this notion onto the Poincaré space, providing a full account of the measured squeezing.
Wormholes and negative energy from the gravitationally squeezed vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hochberg, David
1992-01-01
Minkowski-signature wormhole solutions of the Einstein field equations require the existence of negative energy density in the vicinity of their throats. We point out that the gravitational interaction automatically generates squeezed vacuum states of matter, which by their nature, entail negative energy and, thus, provide a natural source for maintaining this class of wormholes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhang; Lang, Mattihas; Caves, Carlton; CenterQuantum Information and Control Collaboration
2014-03-01
In quantum optics a pure state is considered classical, relative to the statistics of photodetection, if and only if it is a coherent state. A different and newer notion of nonclassicality is based on modal entanglement. One example that relates these two notions is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, where modal entanglement is generated by a beamsplitter from the nonclassical photon-number state | 1 > ⊗ | 1 > . This suggests the beamsplitter or, more generally, linear-optical networks as a mediator of the two notions of nonclassicality. We show the following: Given a nonclassical pure product state input to an N-port linear-optical network, the output is almost always mode entangled; the only exception is a product of squeezed states, all with the same squeezing strength, input to a network that does not mix the squeezed and anti-squeezed quadratures. Our work thus gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear network to generate modal entanglement from pure product inputs, a result that is of immediate relevance to the boson sampling problem.
Generation of excited coherent states for a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A. E-mail: alireza.dehghani@gmail.com
2015-04-15
We introduce excited coherent states, |β,α;nÐ³Ð‚‰≔a{sup †n}|β,αÐ³Ð‚‰, where n is an integer and states |β,αÐ³Ð‚‰ denote the coherent states of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. States |β,αÐ³Ð‚‰ minimize the Schrödinger-Robertson uncertainty relation while having the nonclassical properties. It has been shown that the resolution of identity condition is realized with respect to an appropriate measure on the complex plane. Some of the nonclassical features such as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of these states are investigated. Our results are compared with similar Agarwal’s type photon added coherent states (PACSs) and it is shown that, while photon-counting statistics of |β,α,nÐ³Ð‚‰ are the same as PACSs, their squeezing properties are different. It is also shown that for large values of |β|, while they are squeezed, they minimize the uncertainty condition. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that by changing the magnitude of the external magnetic field, B{sub ext}, the squeezing effect is transferred from one component to another. Finally, a new scheme is proposed to generate states |β,α;nÐ³Ð‚‰ in cavities. .
Generation of excited coherent states for a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.
2015-04-01
We introduce excited coherent states, |β , α ; n| ≔ a† n | β , α|, where n is an integer and states |β , α| denote the coherent states of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. States |β , α| minimize the Schrödinger-Robertson uncertainty relation while having the nonclassical properties. It has been shown that the resolution of identity condition is realized with respect to an appropriate measure on the complex plane. Some of the nonclassical features such as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of these states are investigated. Our results are compared with similar Agarwal's type photon added coherent states (PACSs) and it is shown that, while photon-counting statistics of |β , α , n| are the same as PACSs, their squeezing properties are different. It is also shown that for large values of |β|, while they are squeezed, they minimize the uncertainty condition. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that by changing the magnitude of the external magnetic field, Bext, the squeezing effect is transferred from one component to another. Finally, a new scheme is proposed to generate states |beta; , α ; n| in cavities.
Pulsed squeezed light: Simultaneous squeezing of multiple modes
Wasilewski, Wojciech; Lvovsky, A. I.; Banaszek, Konrad; Radzewicz, Czeslaw
2006-06-15
We analyze the spectral properties of squeezed light produced by means of pulsed, single-pass degenerate parametric down-conversion. The multimode output of this process can be decomposed into characteristic modes undergoing independent squeezing evolution akin to the Schmidt decomposition of the biphoton spectrum. The main features of this decomposition can be understood using a simple analytical model developed in the perturbative regime. In the strong pumping regime, for which the perturbative approach is not valid, we present a numerical analysis, specializing to the case of one-dimensional propagation in a beta-barium borate waveguide. Characterization of the squeezing modes provides us with an insight necessary for optimizing homodyne detection of squeezing. For a weak parametric process, efficient squeezing is found in a broad range of local oscillator modes, whereas the intense generation regime places much more stringent conditions on the local oscillator. We point out that without meeting these conditions, the detected squeezing can actually diminish with the increasing pumping strength, and we expose physical reasons behind this inefficiency.
Generating and probing entangled states for optical atomic clocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan
2016-05-01
The precision of quantum measurements is inherently limited by projection noise caused by the measurement process itself. Spin squeezing and more complex forms of entanglement have been proposed as ways of surpassing this limitation. In our system, a high-finesse asymmetric micromirror-based optical cavity can mediate the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating entanglement in an 171 Yb optical lattice clock. I will discuss approaches for creating, characterizing, and optimally utilizing these nonclassical states for precision measurement, as well as recent progress toward their realization. This research is supported by DARPA QuASAR, NSF, and NSERC.
Orientation-Dependent Entanglement Lifetime in a Squeezed Atomic Clock
Leroux, Ian D.; Schleier-Smith, Monika H.; Vuletic, Vladan
2010-06-25
We study experimentally the application of a class of entangled states, squeezed spin states, to the improvement of atomic-clock precision. In the presence of anisotropic noise, the entanglement lifetime is strongly dependent on squeezing orientation. We measure the Allan deviation spectrum of a clock operated with a phase-squeezed input state. For averaging times up to 50 s the squeezed clock achieves a given precision 2.8(3) times faster than a clock operating at the standard quantum limit.
Squeezing with a flux-driven Josephson parametric amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, E. P.; Zhong, L.; Eder, P.; Baust, A.; Haeberlein, M.; Hoffmann, E.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; di Candia, R.; Solano, E.; Ihmig, M.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.
2014-03-01
Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA) are promising devices for the implementation of continuous-variable quantum communication protocols. Operated in the phase-sensitive mode, they allow for amplifying a single quadrature of the electromagnetic field without adding any noise. While in practice internal losses introduce a finite amount of noise, our device still adds less noise than an ideal phase-insensitive amplifier. This property is a prerequisite for the generation of squeezed states. In this work, we reconstruct the Wigner function of squeezed vacuum, squeezed thermal and squeezed coherent states with our dual-path method [L. Zhong et al. arXiv:1307.7285 (2013); E. P. Menzel et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 100401 (2010)]. In addition, we illuminate the physics of squeezed coherent microwave fields. This work is supported by SFB 631, German Excellence Initiative via NIM, EU projects SOLID, CCQED, PROMISCE and SCALEQIT, MEXT Kakenhi ``Quantum Cybernetics,'' JSPS FIRST Program, the NICT Commissioned Research, Basque Government IT472-10, Spanish MINECO FIS2012-36673-C03-02, and UPV/EHU UFI 11/55.
Ye Jinwu; Zhang Cunlin
2011-08-15
Recently, strong-coupling regimes of superconducting qubits or quantum dots inside a microwave circuit cavity and BEC atoms inside an optical cavity were achieved experimentally. The strong-coupling regimes in these systems were described by the Dicke model. Here, we solve the Dicke model by a 1/N expansion. In the normal state, we find a {radical}(N) behavior of the collective Rabi splitting. In the superradiant phase, we identify an important Berry phase term that has dramatic effects on both the ground state and the excitation spectra of the strongly interacting system. The single photon excitation spectrum has a low-energy quantum phase diffusion mode in imaginary time with a large spectral weight and also a high-energy optical mode with a low spectral weight. The photons are in a number squeezed state that may have wide applications in high sensitive measurements and quantum-information processing. Comparisons with exact diagonalization studies are made. Possible experimental schemes to realize the superradiant phase are briefly discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, R. E.
1977-01-01
Experimental data were obtained for the unbalance response of a flexible rotor to speeds above the third lateral bending critical. Squeeze-film damping coefficients calculated from measured data showed good agreement with short-journal-bearing approximations over a frequency range from 5000 to 31,000 cmp. Response of a rotor to varying amounts of unbalance was investigated. A very lightly damped rotor was compared with one where oil-squeeze dampers were applied.
Persistent atomic spin squeezing at the Heisenberg limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ling-Na; Tey, Meng Khoon; You, Li
2016-05-01
One-axis twisting (OAT) and two-axis counter twisting (TACT) are two widely discussed processes capable of dynamically generating spin squeezed states, which have potential applications to precision measurement and entanglement detection. TACT provides better spin squeezing (SS), but has not been demonstrated as its form of interaction does not occur naturally in known physical systems. Several proposals for realizing effective TACT transformed from OAT require stringent experimental conditions, in order to overcome the problems of non-stationary (oscillating) SS and continuously varying mean spin direction. We report a simple protocol that solves both problems by freezing SS at an optimal point and realizing effectively persistent SS by inhibiting further squeezing dynamics. Explicit procedures are outlined which favorably relax experimental demands and significantly brighten the prospects for realizing TACT.
Two-color bright squeezed vacuum
Agafonov, Ivan N.; Chekhova, Maria V.
2010-07-15
In a strongly pumped nondegenerate traveling-wave optical parametric amplifier, we produce a two-color squeezed vacuum with up to millions of photons per pulse. Our approach to registering this macroscopic quantum state is direct detection of a large number of transverse and longitudinal modes, which is achieved by making the detection time and area much larger than the coherence time and area, respectively. Using this approach, we obtain a record value of twin-beam squeezing for direct detection of bright squeezed vacuum. This makes direct detection of macroscopic squeezed vacuum a practical tool for quantum information applications.
Spin squeezing, entanglement and correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirsi, Swarnamala
2004-11-01
Spin-s assemblies are classified into two mutually exclusive classes: oriented and non-oriented systems. The density matrix rgr, describing oriented systems, can assume diagonal form in the angular momentum basis \\vert sm \\rangle (m=-s \\cdots {+}s ) defined with respect to the axis of quantization, whereas the eigenstates of rgr for the non-oriented assembly cannot all be identified with \\vert sm \\rangle states. A new scheme for constructing a mixed, non-oriented spin-s state using s(2s+1) spinors all pointing in different directions in space and 2s weights is discussed. Such a construction takes its inspiration from Schwinger's idea of realizing an \\vert sm \\rangle state as being made up of (s+m) 'up' spinors and (s-m) 'down' spinors, all defined with respect to a single axis in space. Since the oriented systems are never squeezed, non-oriented spin-1 assemblies which can be prepared in the laboratory with the available NQR technology are examined for signatures of squeezing using our scheme in a frame of reference where the Heisenberg-Robertson uncertainty relation has the same form as the Schrödinger uncertainty relation. It is shown that unlike in the case of the pure spin-1 state where squeezing is synonymous with non-orientedness, a non-oriented spin-1 system need not be squeezed and the existence of entanglement is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the system to be squeezed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chembo, Yanne K.
2016-03-01
that can lead to squeezed states of light under some optimal conditions that are analytically determined. These quantum correlations can persist regardless the dynamical state of the system (rolls or solitons), regardless of the spectral extension of the comb (number side modes) and regardless of the dispersion regime (normal or anomalous). We also explicitly determine the phase quadratures leading to photon entanglement and analytically calculate their quantum-noise spectra. For both the below- and above-threshold cases, we study with particular emphasis the two principal architectures for Kerr comb generation, namely the add-through and add-drop configurations. It is found that regardless of the configuration, an essential parameter is the ratio between out-coupling and total losses, which plays a key role as it directly determines the efficiency of the detected fluorescence or squeezing spectra. We finally discuss the relevance of Kerr combs for quantum information systems at optical telecommunication wavelengths below and above threshold.
Kozlovskii, Andrei V
2007-01-31
The scheme of an active interferometer for amplification of small optical signals for their subsequent photodetection is proposed. The scheme provides a considerable amplification of signals by preserving their quantum-statistical properties (ideal amplification) and also can improve these properties under certain conditions. The two-mode squeezed state of light produced upon four-wave mixing, which is used for signal amplification, can be transformed to the non-classical state of the output field squeezed in the number of photons. The scheme is phase-sensitive upon amplification of the input coherent signal. It is shown that in the case of the incoherent input signal with the average number of photons (n{sub s}){approx}1, the amplification process introduces no additional quantum noise at signal amplification as large as is wished. A scheme is also proposed for the cascade small-signal amplification ((n{sub s}){approx}1) in the coherent state producing the amplified signal in the squeezed sub-Poisson state, which can be used for the high-resolution detection of weak and ultraweak optical signals. (quantum optics)
Wade, A R; Mansell, G L; McRae, T G; Chua, S S Y; Yap, M J; Ward, R L; Slagmolen, B J J; Shaddock, D A; McClelland, D E
2016-06-01
With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10(-6) mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance. PMID:27370423
Wade, A R; Mansell, G L; McRae, T G; Chua, S S Y; Yap, M J; Ward, R L; Slagmolen, B J J; Shaddock, D A; McClelland, D E
2016-06-01
With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10(-6) mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wade, A. R.; Mansell, G. L.; McRae, T. G.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Yap, M. J.; Ward, R. L.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Shaddock, D. A.; McClelland, D. E.
2016-06-01
With the recent detection of gravitational waves, non-classical light sources are likely to become an essential element of future detectors engaged in gravitational wave astronomy and cosmology. Operating a squeezed light source under high vacuum has the advantages of reducing optical losses and phase noise compared to techniques where the squeezed light is introduced from outside the vacuum. This will ultimately provide enhanced sensitivity for modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors that will soon become limited by quantum noise across much of the detection bandwidth. Here we describe the optomechanical design choices and construction techniques of a near monolithic glass optical parametric oscillator that has been operated under a vacuum of 10-6 mbar. The optical parametric oscillator described here has been shown to produce 8.6 dB of quadrature squeezed light in the audio frequency band down to 10 Hz. This performance has been maintained for periods of around an hour and the system has been under vacuum continuously for several months without a degradation of this performance.
Internal Spin Control, Squeezing and Decoherence in Ensembles of Alkali Atomic Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norris, Leigh Morgan
Large atomic ensembles interacting with light are one of the most promising platforms for quantum information processing. In the past decade, novel applications for these systems have emerged in quantum communication, quantum computing, and metrology. Essential to all of these applications is the controllability of the atomic ensemble, which is facilitated by a strong coupling between the atoms and light. Non-classical spin squeezed states are a crucial step in attaining greater ensemble control. The degree of entanglement present in these states, furthermore, serves as a benchmark for the strength of the atom-light interaction. Outside the broader context of quantum information processing with atomic ensembles, spin squeezed states have applications in metrology, where their quantum correlations can be harnessed to improve the precision of magnetometers and atomic clocks. This dissertation focuses upon the production of spin squeezed states in large ensembles of cold trapped alkali atoms interacting with optical fields. While most treatments of spin squeezing consider only the case in which the ensemble is composed of two level systems or qubits, we utilize the entire ground manifold of an alkali atom with hyperfine spin f greater or equal to 1/2, a qudit. Spin squeezing requires non-classical correlations between the constituent atomic spins, which are generated through the atoms' collective coupling to the light. Either through measurement or multiple interactions with the atoms, the light mediates an entangling interaction that produces quantum correlations. Because the spin squeezing treated in this dissertation ultimately originates from the coupling between the light and atoms, conventional approaches of improving this squeezing have focused on increasing the optical density of the ensemble. The greater number of internal degrees of freedom and the controllability of the spin-f ground hyperfine manifold enable novel methods of enhancing squeezing. In
Internal Spin Control, Squeezing and Decoherence in Ensembles of Alkali Atomic Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norris, Leigh Morgan
Large atomic ensembles interacting with light are one of the most promising platforms for quantum information processing. In the past decade, novel applications for these systems have emerged in quantum communication, quantum computing, and metrology. Essential to all of these applications is the controllability of the atomic ensemble, which is facilitated by a strong coupling between the atoms and light. Non-classical spin squeezed states are a crucial step in attaining greater ensemble control. The degree of entanglement present in these states, furthermore, serves as a benchmark for the strength of the atom-light interaction. Outside the broader context of quantum information processing with atomic ensembles, spin squeezed states have applications in metrology, where their quantum correlations can be harnessed to improve the precision of magnetometers and atomic clocks. This dissertation focuses upon the production of spin squeezed states in large ensembles of cold trapped alkali atoms interacting with optical fields. While most treatments of spin squeezing consider only the case in which the ensemble is composed of two level systems or qubits, we utilize the entire ground manifold of an alkali atom with hyperfine spin f greater than or equal to 1/2, a qudit. Spin squeezing requires non-classical correlations between the constituent atomic spins, which are generated through the atoms' collective coupling to the light. Either through measurement or multiple interactions with the atoms, the light mediates an entangling interaction that produces quantum correlations. Because the spin squeezing treated in this dissertation ultimately originates from the coupling between the light and atoms, conventional approaches of improving this squeezing have focused on increasing the optical density of the ensemble. The greater number of internal degrees of freedom and the controllability of the spin-f ground hyperfine manifold enable novel methods of enhancing squeezing. In
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhang; Lang, Matthias D.; Caves, Carlton M.
2013-10-01
In quantum optics a pure state is considered classical, relative to the statistics of photodetection, if and only if it is a coherent state. A different and newer notion of nonclassicality is based on modal entanglement. One example that relates these two notions is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, where modal entanglement is generated by a beamsplitter from the nonclassical photon-number state |1>⊗|1>. This suggests that beamsplitters or, more generally, linear-optical networks are mediators of the two notions of nonclassicality. In this Brief Report, we show the following: Given a nonclassical pure-product-state input to an N-port linear-optical network, the output is almost always mode entangled; the only exception is a product of squeezed states, all with the same squeezing strength, input to a network that does not mix the squeezed and antisqueezed quadratures. Our work thus gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear network to generate modal entanglement from pure-product inputs, a result that is of immediate relevance to the boson-sampling problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deb, Ram Narayan
2016-07-01
We quantify multiparticle quantum entanglement in a system of N two-level atoms interacting with a squeezed vacuum state of the electromagnetic field. We calculate the amount of quantum entanglement present among one hundred such two-level atoms and also show the variation of that entanglement with the radiation field parameter. We show the continuous variation of the amount of quantum entanglement as we continuously increase the number of atoms from N = 2 to N = 100. We also discuss that the multiparticle correlations among the N two-level atoms are made up of all possible bipartite correlations among the N atoms.
Emergence and degradation of squeezing in resonance fluorescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro-Beltrán, Héctor M.; Herrera-Garza, José R.; Horvath, Levente
2011-09-01
Using master equation and quantum Monte Carlo wavefunction approaches, we study the circumstances surrounding the emergence and degradation of the elusive squeezing of fluctuations in two-level atom resonance fluorescence. For its measurement we suggest conditional homodyne detection (CHD) [G.T. Foster, L.A. Orozco, H.M. Castro-Beltran, H.J. Carmichael, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, pp. 3149-3152, 2000], which is nearly independent of detector efficiencies, which have harmed previous attemps. Squeezing in resonance fluorescence requires a weak laser, so the average interval between emitted photons is much longer than the regression time to the steady state; here, the spectrum of the out-of-phase quadrature is a negative peak. In CHD, moderate fields generate a non-zero third-order correlation in the dipole fluctuations that contaminates squeezing, making the noise non- Gaussian. If the probability to emit two and even three close photons is still small the additional contribution is also negative, helping to make the full spectrum a bit larger and easier to measure. Strong driving spreads the photoemission distribution, which destroys squeezing, and the third order fluctuations become responsible for the non-classicality of the fluorescence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lott, Jeffrey
2010-01-01
A survey of more than 35,000 alumni magazine readers conducted by CASE and more than 135 member institutions in the United States provides powerful evidence that, among the communications options in the advancement toolbox, magazines are one of the most effective ways to connect with, engage, and motivate alumni and other constituents. The CASE…
Some rules for polydimensional squeezing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, Vladimir I.
1994-01-01
The review of the following results is presented: For mixed state light of N-mode electromagnetic field described by Wigner function which has generic Gaussian form, the photon distribution function is obtained and expressed explicitly in terms of Hermite polynomials of 2N-variables. The momenta of this distribution are calculated and expressed as functions of matrix invariants of the dispersion matrix. The role of new uncertainty relation depending on photon state mixing parameter is elucidated. New sum rules for Hermite polynomials of several variables are found. The photon statistics of polymode even and odd coherent light and squeezed polymode Schroedinger cat light is given explicitly. Photon distribution for polymode squeezed number states expressed in terms of multivariable Hermite polynomials is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlowicz, Michael
According to Science & Engineering Indicators 1996, concerns about funding for research are well founded. Data gathered by the National Science Board indicate that total spending on research in the United States has been in steady decline during the 1990s.Industry has held the research and development line item steady at about $97 billion since 1987, but the value has dropped about 1.5$ per year in real dollars (adjusted for inflation). In that same period, the government contribution to R&D has dropped 20% from its peak in 1987. Overall R&D has dropped from 2.8% of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1991 to 2.4% in 1995, and spending on nondefense research has dropped below 2% of the GDP. Japan now invests 2.7% in nondefense R&D Germany, 2.4%.
Sudden vanishing of spin squeezing under decoherence
Wang Xiaoguang; Miranowicz, Adam; Liu, Yu-xi; Sun, C. P.; Nori, Franco
2010-02-15
In order to witness multipartite correlations beyond pairwise entanglement, spin-squeezing parameters are analytically calculated for a spin ensemble in a collective initial state under three different decoherence channels. It is shown that, in analogy to pairwise entanglement, the spin squeezing described by different parameters can suddenly become zero at different vanishing times. This finding shows the general occurrence of sudden vanishing phenomena of quantum correlations in many-body systems, which here is referred to as spin-squeezing sudden death (SSSD). It is shown that the SSSD usually occurs due to decoherence and that SSSD never occurs for some initial states in the amplitude-damping channel. We also analytically obtain the vanishing times of spin squeezing.
Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Teleportation of Broadband Squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Furusawa, Akira
2007-09-01
We demonstrate an unconditional high-fidelity teleporter capable of preserving the broadband entanglement in an optical squeezed state. In particular, we teleport a squeezed state of light and observe -0.8±0.2dB of squeezing in the teleported (output) state. We show that the squeezing criterion translates directly into a sufficient criterion for entanglement of the upper and lower sidebands of the optical field. Thus, this result demonstrates the first unconditional teleportation of broadband entanglement. Our teleporter achieves sufficiently high fidelity to allow the teleportation to be cascaded, enabling, in principle, the construction of deterministic non-Gaussian operations.
Experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation of broadband squeezing.
Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Braunstein, Samuel L; Furusawa, Akira
2007-09-14
We demonstrate an unconditional high-fidelity teleporter capable of preserving the broadband entanglement in an optical squeezed state. In particular, we teleport a squeezed state of light and observe -0.8+/-0.2 dB of squeezing in the teleported (output) state. We show that the squeezing criterion translates directly into a sufficient criterion for entanglement of the upper and lower sidebands of the optical field. Thus, this result demonstrates the first unconditional teleportation of broadband entanglement. Our teleporter achieves sufficiently high fidelity to allow the teleportation to be cascaded, enabling, in principle, the construction of deterministic non-Gaussian operations. PMID:17930422
Triple-mode squeezing with dressed six-wave mixing.
Wen, Feng; Li, Zepei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Che, Junling; Che, Junling; Abdulkhaleq, Hasan; Zhang, Yanpeng; Wang, Hongxing
2016-05-12
The theory of proof-of-principle triple-mode squeezing is proposed via spontaneous parametric six-wave mixing process in an atomic-cavity coupled system. Special attention is focused on the role of dressed state and nonlinear gain on triple-mode squeezing process. Using the dressed state theory, we find that optical squeezing and Autler-Towns splitting of cavity mode can be realized with nonlinear gain, while the efficiency and the location of maximum squeezing point can be effectively shaped by dressed state in atomic ensemble. Our proposal can find applications in multi-channel communication and multi-channel quantum imaging.
Experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation of broadband squeezing.
Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Braunstein, Samuel L; Furusawa, Akira
2007-09-14
We demonstrate an unconditional high-fidelity teleporter capable of preserving the broadband entanglement in an optical squeezed state. In particular, we teleport a squeezed state of light and observe -0.8+/-0.2 dB of squeezing in the teleported (output) state. We show that the squeezing criterion translates directly into a sufficient criterion for entanglement of the upper and lower sidebands of the optical field. Thus, this result demonstrates the first unconditional teleportation of broadband entanglement. Our teleporter achieves sufficiently high fidelity to allow the teleportation to be cascaded, enabling, in principle, the construction of deterministic non-Gaussian operations.
Triple-mode squeezing with dressed six-wave mixing
Wen, Feng; Li, Zepei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Che, Junling; Che, Junling; Abdulkhaleq, Hasan; Zhang, Yanpeng; Wang, Hongxing
2016-01-01
The theory of proof-of-principle triple-mode squeezing is proposed via spontaneous parametric six-wave mixing process in an atomic-cavity coupled system. Special attention is focused on the role of dressed state and nonlinear gain on triple-mode squeezing process. Using the dressed state theory, we find that optical squeezing and Autler-Towns splitting of cavity mode can be realized with nonlinear gain, while the efficiency and the location of maximum squeezing point can be effectively shaped by dressed state in atomic ensemble. Our proposal can find applications in multi-channel communication and multi-channel quantum imaging. PMID:27169878
Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing.
Long, Rui; Liu, Wei
2015-06-01
The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.
Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Rui; Liu, Wei
2015-06-01
The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Lu; Tan, Xin-Zhou; Xiong, Hong-Wei; Lu, Bao-Long
2009-08-01
We study the phase coherence property of Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a standing-wave laser field. The lattice depth is determined using a method of Kapitza-Dirac scattering between a condensate and a short pulse lattice potential. Condensates are then adiabatically loaded into the optical lattice. The phase coherence property of the confined condensates is reflected by the interference patterns of the expanded atomic cloud released from the optical lattice. For weak lattice, nearly all of the atoms stay in a superfluid state. However, as the lattice depth is increased, the phase coherence of the whole condensate sample is gradually lost, which confirms that the sub-condensates in each lattice well have evolved into number-squeezed states.
Squeezing of Quantum Noise of Motion in a Micromechanical Resonator.
Pirkkalainen, J-M; Damskägg, E; Brandt, M; Massel, F; Sillanpää, M A
2015-12-11
A pair of conjugate observables, such as the quadrature amplitudes of harmonic motion, have fundamental fluctuations that are bound by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. However, in a squeezed quantum state, fluctuations of a quantity can be reduced below the standard quantum limit, at the cost of increased fluctuations of the conjugate variable. Here we prepare a nearly macroscopic moving body, realized as a micromechanical resonator, in a squeezed quantum state. We obtain squeezing of one quadrature amplitude 1.1±0.4 dB below the standard quantum limit, thus achieving a long-standing goal of obtaining motional squeezing in a macroscopic object. PMID:26705631
Squeezed light spin noise spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Jiménez-Martínez, Ricardo; Kong, Jia; Mitchell, Morgan
2016-05-01
Spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for determining physical properties of an unperturbed spin system from its power noise spectrum both in atomic and solid state physics. In the presence of a transverse magnetic field, we detect spontaneous spin fluctuations of a dense Rb vapor via Faraday rotation of an off-resonance probe beam, resulting in the excess of spectral noise at the Larmor frequency over a white photon shot-noise background. We report quantum enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio via polarization squeezing of the probe beam up to 3dB over the full density range up to n = 1013 atoms cm-3, covering practical conditions used in optimized SNS experiments. Furthermore, we show that squeezing improves the trade-off between statistical sensitivity and systematic errors due to line broadening, a previously unobserved quantum advantage.
Generating single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Hong-chun
2016-07-01
We theoretically generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states (SPCCSs) by means of quantum-optical catalysis based on the beam splitter (BS) or the parametric amplifier (PA). These states are obtained in one of the BS (or PA) output channels if a coherent state and a single-photon Fock state are present in two input ports and a single photon is registered in the other output port. The success probabilities of the detection (also the normalization factors) are discussed, which is different for BS and PA catalysis. In addition, we prove that the generated states catalyzed by BS and PA devices are actually the same quantum states after analyzing photon number distribution of the SPCCSs. The quantum properties of the SPCCSs, such as sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effect, quadrature squeezing effect, and the negativity of the Wigner function are investigated in detail. The results show that the SPCCSs are non-Gaussian states with an abundance of nonclassicality.
A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum.
Wade, Andrew R; Mansell, Georgia L; Chua, Sheon S Y; Ward, Robert L; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E
2015-01-01
Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments.
A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum.
Wade, Andrew R; Mansell, Georgia L; Chua, Sheon S Y; Ward, Robert L; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E
2015-01-01
Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments. PMID:26657616
A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.
2015-12-01
Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments.
Exact dynamics and squeezing in two harmonic modes coupled through angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canosa, N.; Mandal, Swapan; Rossignoli, R.
2015-08-01
We investigate the exact dynamics of a system of two independent harmonic oscillators coupled through their angular momentum. The exact analytic solution of the equations of motion for the field operators is derived, and the conditions for dynamical stability are obtained. As for the application, we examine the emergence of squeezing and mode entanglement for an arbitrary separable coherent initial state. It is shown that close to instability, the system develops considerable entanglement, which is accompanied with simultaneous squeezing in the coordinate of one oscillator and the momentum of the other oscillator. In contrast, for weak coupling away from instability, the generated entanglement is small, with weak alternating squeezing in the coordinate and momentum of each oscillator. Approximate expressions describing these regimes are also provided.
Planar quantum squeezing and atom interferometry
He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.; Peng Shiguo
2011-08-15
We obtain a lower bound on the sum of two orthogonal spin component variances in a plane. This gives a planar uncertainty relation which holds even when the Heisenberg relation is not useful. We investigate the asymptotic, large-J limit and derive the properties of the planar quantum squeezed states that saturate this uncertainty relation. These states extend the concept of spin squeezing to any two conjugate spin directions. We show that planar quantum squeezing can be achieved experimentally as the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate in two coupled potential wells with a critical attractive interaction. These states reduce interferometric phase noise at all phase angles simultaneously. This is useful for one-shot interferometric phase measurements where the measured phase is completely unknown. Our results can also be used to derive entanglement criteria for multiple spins J at separated sites, with applications in quantum information.
Analysis of All-Optical State Generator for "Encoding a Qubit in an Oscillator"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Policarpo, S. C.; Vasconcelos, H. M.
2016-06-01
The fault-tolerant quantum computation scheme proposed by Gottesman (Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001)) can be performed using relatively simple linear optical resources and provides a natural protection against arbitrary small errors. On the other hand, preparing the initial GKP states is a difficult task. A few proposals to generate GKP states have been done over the last years. Our objective here is to analyze the performance of a particular GKP generator that uses cat states, linear optical devices, squeezing, and homodyne detection. We use numerical simulations to study the behavior of the fidelity between the generated and the ideal states and show that the proposal in consideration is indeed a promising scheme.
Generation of optical 'Schrödinger cats' from photon number states.
Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe
2007-08-16
Schrödinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a 'cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrödinger 'kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrödinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrödinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the 'dead' and 'alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory.
Preparation of 5.6dB vacuum squeezing on 795nm rubidium D1 line via an OPO (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Junmin; Han, Yashuai; Wen, Xin; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Yanhua; He, Jun
2016-04-01
We report on experimental preparation of the second-harmonic-wave laser and the single-mode squeezed vacuum state of 795 nm (rubidium atom D1 line) with periodically-poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) bulk crystals. By using a four-mirror bow-tie type ring doubling cavity we achieved ~111 mW of continuous-wave single-frequency ultra-violet (UV) laser radiation at 397.5 nm with ~191 mW of 795 nm fundamental-wave laser input. The corresponding doubling efficiency is 58.1%. To our knowledge, this is the highest doubling efficiency at 795 nm so far. Employing the 397.5 nm UV laser as a pump source of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a PPKTP crystal, we achieved 5.6 dB of 795 nm single-mode squeezed vacuum output at analyzing frequency of 2 MHz. To our knowledge, this is the highest squeezing level of 795 nm single-mode squeezed vacuum so far. We analyzed the pump power dependence of the squeezing level, and concluded that UV laser induced losses of PPKTP crystal are main limiting factors for further improving the squeezing level. The generated 795 nm vacuum squeezing has huge potential applications in quantum memory and ultra-precision measurement with rubidium atoms.
Resonant squeezing and the anharmonic decay of coherent phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Éamonn D.; Reis, David A.
2016-04-01
We show that the anharmonic decay of large-amplitude coherent phonons in a solid generates strongly enhanced squeezing of the phonon modes near points of the Brillouin zone where energy conservation in the three-phonon decay process is satisfied. The squeezing process leads to temporal oscillations of the mean-square displacement of target modes in resonance with the coherent phonon, which are characteristic of coherent phonon decay and do not occur in the decay of a phonon in a well-defined number state. For realistic material parameters of optically excited group-V semimetals, we predict that this squeezing results in strongly enhanced oscillations of the x-ray diffuse scattering intensity at sharply defined values of the x-ray momentum transfer. Numerical simulations of the phonon dynamics and the x-ray diffuse scattering in optically excited bismuth, using harmonic and anharmonic force parameters calculated with constrained density functional theory, demonstrate oscillations of the diffuse scattering intensity of magnitude 10%-20% of the thermal background at points of the Brillouin zone, where resonance occurs. Such oscillations should be observable using time-resolved optical-pump and x-ray-probe facilities available at current x-ray free-electron laser sources.
Schmidt modes in the angular spectrum of bright squeezed vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharapova, P.; Pérez, A. M.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Chekhova, M. V.
2015-04-01
We investigate both theoretically and experimentally strong correlations in macroscopic (bright) quantum states of light generated via unseeded parametric down-conversion and four-wave mixing. The states generated this way contain only quantum noise, without a classical component, and are referred to as bright squeezed vacuum (BSV). Their important advantage is the multimode structure, which offers a larger capacity for the encoding of quantum information. For the theoretical description of these states and their correlation features we introduce a generalized fully analytical approach, based on the concept of independent collective (Schmidt) modes and valid for the cases of both weak and strong nonlinear interaction. In experiment, we generate states of macroscopic BSV with up to 1010 photons per mode and examine large photon-number spatial correlations that are found to be very well described by our theoretical approach.
Generation of coherent states of photon-added type via pathway of eigenfunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Górska, K.; Penson, K. A.; Duchamp, G. H. E.
2010-09-01
We obtain and investigate the regular eigenfunctions of simple differential operators xr dr + 1/dxr + 1, r = 1, 2, ..., with the eigenvalues equal to 1. With the help of these eigenfunctions, we construct a non-unitary analogue of a boson displacement operator which will be acting on the vacuum. In this way, we generate collective quantum states of the Fock space which are normalized and equipped with the resolution of unity with the positive weight functions that we obtain explicitly. These states are thus coherent states in the sense of Klauder. They span the truncated Fock space without first r lowest-lying basis states: |0rang, |1rang, ..., |r - 1rang. These states are squeezed, sub-Poissonian in nature and reminiscent of photon-added states in Agarwal and Tara (1991 Phys. Rev. A 43 492).
The origin of non-classical effects in a one-dimensional superposition of coherent states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buzek, V.; Knight, P. L.; Barranco, A. Vidiella
1992-01-01
We investigate the nature of the quantum fluctuations in a light field created by the superposition of coherent fields. We give a physical explanation (in terms of Wigner functions and phase-space interference) why the 1-D superposition of coherent states in the direction of the x-quadrature leads to the squeezing of fluctuations in the y-direction, and show that such a superposition can generate the squeezed vacuum and squeezed coherent states.
Nanoscale squeezing in elastomeric nanochannels for single chromatin linearization
Matsuoka, Toshiki; Kim, Byoung Choul; Huang, Jiexi; Douville, Nicholas Joseph; Thouless, M.D.; Takayama, Shuichi
2012-01-01
This paper describes a novel nanofluidic phenomenon where untethered DNA and chromatin are linearized by rapidly narrowing an elastomeric nanochannel filled with solutions of the biopolymers. This nanoscale squeezing procedure generates hydrodynamic flows while also confining the biopolymers into smaller and smaller volumes. The unique features of this technique enable full linearization then trapping of biopolymers such as DNA. The versatility of the method is also demonstrated by analysis of chromatin stretchability and mapping of histone states using single strands of chromatin. PMID:23186544
Belavkin filtering with squeezed light sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dąbrowska, A.; Gough, J.
2016-04-01
We derive the filtering equation for Markovian systems undergoing homodyne measurement in the situation where the output processes being monitored are squeezed. The filtering theory applies to case where the system is driven by Fock noise (that is, quantum input processes in a coherent state) and where the output is mixed with a squeezed signal. It also applies to the case of a system driven by squeezed noise, but here there is a physical restriction to emission/absorption coupling only. For the special case of a cavity mode where the dynamics is linear, we are able to derive explicitly the filtered estimate π t ( a) for the mode annihilator a based on the homodyne quadrature observations up to time t.'
Progress toward a spin squeezed optical atomic clock beyond the standard quantum limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan
2014-05-01
State of the art optical lattice atomic clocks have reached a relative inaccuracy level of 10-18, already making them the most stable time references in existence. One restriction on the precision of these clocks is the projection noise caused by the measurement of the atomic state. This limit, known as the standard quantum limit (SQL), can be overcome by entangling the atoms. By performing spin squeezing, we can robustly generate such entanglement and surpass the SQL of precision in optical atomic clocks. I will report on recent experimental progress toward realizing spin squeezing in an 171Yb optical lattice clock. A high-finesse micromirror-based optical cavity mediates the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating the entanglement. By exceeding the SQL in this state of the art system, we are aiming to advance precision time metrology, as well as expanding the boundaries of quantum control and measurement. Supported by DARPA QUASAR and NSERC.
Progress toward a spin squeezed optical atomic clock beyond the standard quantum limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan
2015-05-01
State of the art optical lattice atomic clocks have reached a relative inaccuracy level of 10-18, already making them the most stable time references in existence. One restriction on the precision of these clocks is the projection noise caused by the measurement of the atomic state. This limit, known as the standard quantum limit (SQL), can be overcome by entangling the atoms. By performing spin squeezing, it is possible to robustly generate such entanglement and therefore surpass the SQL of precision in optical atomic clocks. I will report on recent experimental progress toward realizing spin squeezing in an 171Yb optical lattice clock. A high-finesse micromirror-based optical cavity mediates the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating the entanglement. By exceeding the SQL in this state of the art system, we are aiming to advance precision time metrology, as well as expanding the boundaries of quantum control and measurement.
Squeezed pulsed light from a fiber ring interferometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergman, K.; Haus, H. A.
1992-01-01
Observation of squeezed noise, 5 +/- 0.3 dB below the shot noise level, generated with pulses in a fiber ring interferometer is reported. The interferometric geometry is used to separate the pump pulse from the squeezed vacuum radiation. A portion of the pump is reused as the local oscillator in a homodyne detection. The pump fluctuations are successfully subtracted and shot noise limited performance is achieved at low frequencies (35-85 KHz). A possible utilization of the generated squeezed vacuum in improving a fiber gyro's signal to noise ratio is discussed.
EDITORIAL: Squeeze transformation and optics after Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel
2005-12-01
-electron) statistics and fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, whose importance was first emphasized by Einstein in 1905. The squeezed states can also be considered as a generalization of the concept of coherent states, which turned out to be one of the most important theoretical tools for solving the numerous problems of quantum optics. It seems highly symbolical that the printed version of this special issue will appear in the same month when one of the prominent creators of the theory of coherent states and modern quantum optics—Professor Roy J Glauber—will receive his Nobel Prize in Stockholm. ICSSUR'05 was opened by the invited talk of R J Glauber, `What makes a quantum jump?', and we take great pleasure in congratulating him on this well deserved award. We are sure that all participants of ICSSUR'05 and all readers of this special issue share our feelings. Two other Nobel Prize winners of 2005—Professor J L Hall and Professor T W H\\"ansch—also made great contributions to quantum optics. In particular, in 1986, J L Hall with collaborators, performed the first experiments on the generation of squeezed states by parametric down conversion, having obtained squeezing at the 50% level (Wu L A, Kimble H J, Hall J L and Wu H 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 2520). Another area, which has attracted the attention of many researchers in the past decade and which is well represented in this special issue, is related to the problems of quantum correlations, entanglement and quantum nonlocality. It is also connected with the name of Einstein due to his famous `EPR' paper of 1935 written together with Podolsky and Rosen. For several decades this was an area of `thought experiments' only, but now this field is becoming a new part of physics, known as `quantum information'. The reader can find several papers which introduce new concepts in this area, such as applications of the Galois algebras and discrete Wigner functions. Solutions of different problems of the interaction between light
Uncertainty Principle, Squeezing, and Quantum Groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajagopal, A. K.; Gupta, Virendra
It is shown that the complete form of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation (HUR) must be employed in introducing the concepts of squeezing and coherent state in q-quantum mechanics. An important feature of this form of the HUR is that it is invariant under unitary transformation of the operators appearing in it and consequences of this are pointed out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Min; Fang, Mao-Fa
2016-10-01
We investigate the entropy squeezing of a two-level atom coupled to a dissipative cavity under two different controls: In the first case, quantum-jump-based feedback is alone applied, whereas in the second case we consider the combined effect of quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving, in which we provide a scheme to generate and protect steady and optimal entropy squeezing of the two-level atom. The results show that the entropy squeezing of atomic polarization components greatly depends on the control of quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving. Under the condition of designing proper quantum-jump-based feedback parameters, the entropy squeezing can be generated and protected. Furthermore, when both quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving are simultaneously applied, steady and optimal entropy squeezing of the two-level atom can be obtained even though there is initially no entropy squeezing, which is explained by making use of the steady-state solution of the atom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Min; Fang, Mao-Fa
2016-07-01
We investigate the entropy squeezing of a two-level atom coupled to a dissipative cavity under two different controls: In the first case, quantum-jump-based feedback is alone applied, whereas in the second case we consider the combined effect of quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving, in which we provide a scheme to generate and protect steady and optimal entropy squeezing of the two-level atom. The results show that the entropy squeezing of atomic polarization components greatly depends on the control of quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving. Under the condition of designing proper quantum-jump-based feedback parameters, the entropy squeezing can be generated and protected. Furthermore, when both quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving are simultaneously applied, steady and optimal entropy squeezing of the two-level atom can be obtained even though there is initially no entropy squeezing, which is explained by making use of the steady-state solution of the atom.
Generation of graph-state streams
Ballester, Daniel; Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, M. S.
2011-01-15
We propose a protocol to generate a stream of mobile qubits in a graph state through a single stationary parent qubit and discuss two types of its physical implementation, namely, the generation of photonic graph states through an atomlike qubit and the generation of flying atoms through a cavity-mode photonic qubit. The generated graph states fall into an important class that can hugely reduce the resource requirement of fault-tolerant linear optics quantum computation, which was previously known to be far from realistic. In regard to the flying atoms, we also propose a heralded generation scheme, which allows for high-fidelity graph states even under the photon loss.
Liu, Cunjin; Jing, Jietai; Zhou, Zhifan; Pooser, Raphael C; Hudelist, Florian; Zhang, Weiping
2011-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the creation of two correlated beams generated by a nondegenerate four-wave-mixing amplifier at {lambda} = 795 nm in hot rubidium vapor. We achieve intensity difference squeezing at frequencies as low as 1.5 kHz which is so far the lowest frequency to observe squeezing in an atomic system. The squeezing spans from 5.5 to 16.5 MHz with a maximum squeezing of {approx}5 dB at 1 MHz. We can control the squeezing bandwidth by changing the pump power. Both low frequency and controllable bandwidth squeezing show great potential in sensitivity detection and precise control of the atom optics measurement.
Solid state pulsed power generator
Tao, Fengfeng; Saddoughi, Seyed Gholamali; Herbon, John Thomas
2014-02-11
A power generator includes one or more full bridge inverter modules coupled to a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) through an inductive resonant branch. Each module includes a plurality of switches that are switched in a fashion causing the one or more full bridge inverter modules to drive the semiconductor opening switch SOS through the resonant circuit to generate pulses to a load connected in parallel with the SOS.
Spin squeezing a cold molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, M.
2015-12-01
In this article we present a concrete proposal for spin squeezing the cold ground-state polar paramagnetic molecule OH, a system currently under fine control in the laboratory. In contrast to existing work, we consider a single, noninteracting molecule with angular momentum greater than 1 /2 . Starting from an experimentally relevant effective Hamiltonian, we identify an adiabatic regime where different combinations of static electric and magnetic fields can be used to realize the single-axis twisting Hamiltonian of Kitagawa and Ueda [M. Kitagawa and M. Ueda, Phys. Rev. A 47, 5138 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevA.47.5138], the uniform field Hamiltonian proposed by Law et al. [C. K. Law, H. T. Ng, and P. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A 63, 055601 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.63.055601], and a model of field propagation in a Kerr medium considered by Agarwal and Puri [G. S. Agarwal and R. R. Puri, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2969 (1989), 10.1103/PhysRevA.39.2969]. We then consider the situation in which nonadiabatic effects are quite large and show that the effective Hamiltonian supports spin squeezing even in this case. We provide analytical expressions as well as numerical calculations, including optimization of field strengths and accounting for the effects of field misalignment. Our results have consequences for applications such as precision spectroscopy, techniques such as magnetometry, and stereochemical effects such as the orientation-to-alignment transition.
Teleportation of squeezing: Optimization using non-Gaussian resources
Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Adesso, Gerardo
2010-12-15
We study the continuous-variable quantum teleportation of states, statistical moments of observables, and scale parameters such as squeezing. We investigate the problem both in ideal and imperfect Vaidman-Braunstein-Kimble protocol setups. We show how the teleportation fidelity is maximized and the difference between output and input variances is minimized by using suitably optimized entangled resources. Specifically, we consider the teleportation of coherent squeezed states, exploiting squeezed Bell states as entangled resources. This class of non-Gaussian states, introduced by Illuminati and co-workers [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, L. Albano, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 022301 (2007); F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, ibid. 81, 012333 (2010)], includes photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed states as special cases. At variance with the case of entangled Gaussian resources, the use of entangled non-Gaussian squeezed Bell resources allows one to choose different optimization procedures that lead to inequivalent results. Performing two independent optimization procedures, one can either maximize the state teleportation fidelity, or minimize the difference between input and output quadrature variances. The two different procedures are compared depending on the degrees of displacement and squeezing of the input states and on the working conditions in ideal and nonideal setups.
Teleportation of squeezing: Optimization using non-Gaussian resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-12-01
We study the continuous-variable quantum teleportation of states, statistical moments of observables, and scale parameters such as squeezing. We investigate the problem both in ideal and imperfect Vaidman-Braunstein-Kimble protocol setups. We show how the teleportation fidelity is maximized and the difference between output and input variances is minimized by using suitably optimized entangled resources. Specifically, we consider the teleportation of coherent squeezed states, exploiting squeezed Bell states as entangled resources. This class of non-Gaussian states, introduced by Illuminati and co-workers [F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, L. Albano, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.022301 76, 022301 (2007); F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.012333 81, 012333 (2010)], includes photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed states as special cases. At variance with the case of entangled Gaussian resources, the use of entangled non-Gaussian squeezed Bell resources allows one to choose different optimization procedures that lead to inequivalent results. Performing two independent optimization procedures, one can either maximize the state teleportation fidelity, or minimize the difference between input and output quadrature variances. The two different procedures are compared depending on the degrees of displacement and squeezing of the input states and on the working conditions in ideal and nonideal setups.
Van Wijk, Eduard P A; Van Wijk, Roeland; Bajpai, Rajendra P
2008-05-01
Research on human ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) has suggested a typical human emission anatomic percentage distribution pattern. It was demonstrated that emission intensities are lower in long-term practitioners of meditation as compared to control subjects. The percent contribution of emission from different anatomic locations was not significantly different for meditation practitioners and control subjects. Recently, a procedure was developed to analyze the fluctuations in the signals by measuring probabilities of detecting different numbers of photons in a bin and correct these for background noise. The procedure was tested utilizing the signal from three different body locations of a single subject, demonstrating that probabilities have non-classical features and are well described by the signal in a coherent state from the three body sites. The values indicate that the quantum state of photon emitted by the subject could be a coherent state in the subject being investigated. The objective in the present study was to systematically quantify, in subjects with long-term meditation experience and subjects without this experience, the photon count distribution of 12 different locations. Data show a variation in quantum state parameters within each individual subject as well as variation in quantum state parameters between the groups.
Dynamics of squeezing fluids: Clapping wet hands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gart, Sean; Chang, Brian; Slama, Brice; Goodnight, Randy; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan
2013-08-01
Droplets splash around when a fluid volume is quickly compressed. This phenomenon has been observed during common activities such as kids clapping with wet hands. The underlying mechanism involves a fluid volume being compressed vertically between two objects. This compression causes the fluid volume to be ejected radially and thereby generate fluid threads and droplets at a high speed. In this study, we designed and performed laboratory experiments to observe the process of thread and drop formation after a fluid is squeezed. A thicker rim at the outer edge forms and moves after the squeezing, and then becomes unstable and breaks into smaller drops. This process differs from previous well-known examples (i.e., transient crown splashes and continuous water bells) in aspects of transient fluid feeding, expanding rim dynamics, or sparsely distributed drops. We compared experimental measurements with theoretical models over three different stages; early squeezing, intermediate sheet-expansion, and later break-up of the liquid thread. In the earlier stage, the fluid is squeezed and its initial velocity is governed by the lubrication force. The outer rim of the liquid sheet forms curved trajectories due to gravity, inertia, drag, and surface tension. At the late stage, drop spacing set by the initial capillary instability does not change in the course of rim expansion, consequently final ejected droplets are very sparse compared to the size of the rim.
Orbit-induced spin squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
Lian, Jinling; Yu, Lixian; Liang, J.-Q.; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang
2013-01-01
In recent pioneer experiment, a strong spin-orbit coupling, with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strengths, has been created in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Moreover, many exotic superfluid phenomena induced by this strong spin-orbit coupling have been predicted. In this report, we show that this novel spin-orbit coupling has important applications in quantum metrology, such as spin squeezing. We first demonstrate that an effective spin-spin interaction, which is the heart for producing spin squeezing, can be generated by controlling the orbital degree of freedom (i.e., the momentum) of the ultracold atoms. Compared with previous schemes, this realized spin-spin interaction has advantages of no dissipation, high tunability, and strong coupling. More importantly, a giant squeezing factor (lower than −30 dB) can be achieved by tuning a pair of Raman lasers in current experimental setup. Finally, we find numerically that the phase factor of the prepared initial state affects dramatically on spin squeezing. PMID:24196590
Orbit-induced spin squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Lian, Jinling; Yu, Lixian; Liang, J-Q; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang
2013-11-07
In recent pioneer experiment, a strong spin-orbit coupling, with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strengths, has been created in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Moreover, many exotic superfluid phenomena induced by this strong spin-orbit coupling have been predicted. In this report, we show that this novel spin-orbit coupling has important applications in quantum metrology, such as spin squeezing. We first demonstrate that an effective spin-spin interaction, which is the heart for producing spin squeezing, can be generated by controlling the orbital degree of freedom (i.e., the momentum) of the ultracold atoms. Compared with previous schemes, this realized spin-spin interaction has advantages of no dissipation, high tunability, and strong coupling. More importantly, a giant squeezing factor (lower than -30 dB) can be achieved by tuning a pair of Raman lasers in current experimental setup. Finally, we find numerically that the phase factor of the prepared initial state affects dramatically on spin squeezing.
Effect of dispersion forces on squeezing with Rydberg atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, S. K.; Muhamad, M. R.; Wahiddin, M. R. B.
1994-01-01
We report exact results concerning the effect of dipole-dipole interaction (dispersion forces) on dynamic and steady-state characteristics of squeezing in the emitted fluorescent field from two identical coherently driven two-level atoms. The atomic system is subjected to three different damping baths in particular the normal vacuum, a broad band thermal field and a broad band squeezed vacuum. The atomic model is the Dicke model, hence possible experiments are most likely to agree with theory when performed on systems of Rydberg atoms making microwave transitions. The presence of dipole-dipole interaction can enhance squeezing for realizable values of the various parameters involved.
Information Entropy Squeezing for a Atom in Mode-Mode Competition System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Qin; Fang, Mao-Fa; Li, Shao-Xin; Li, Ying; Hu, Yao-Hua
2008-12-01
The entropy squeezing properties for a two-level atom interacting with a two-mode field via two different competing transitions are investigated from a quantum information point of view. The influences of the initial state of the system and the relative coupling strength between the atom and the field on the atomic information entropy squeezing are discussed. Our results show that the squeezed direction and the frequency of the information entropy squeezing can be controlled by choosing the phase of the atom dipole and the relative competing strength of atom-field, respectively. We find that, under the same condition, no atomic variance squeezing is predicted from the HUR while optimal entropy squeezing is obtained from the EUR, so the quantum information entropy is a remarkable precision measure for the atomic squeezing in the considered system.
Gong, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, ShengLi; Xu, P; Zhu, S N
2016-03-21
We propose to generate a single-mode-squeezing two-mode squeezed vacuum state via a single χ^{(2)} nonlinear photonic crystal. The state is favorable for existing Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes, since local squeezing operations can enhance the final entanglement and the success probability. The crystal is designed for enabling three concurrent quasi-phase-matching parametric-down conversions, and hence relieves the auxiliary on-line bi-side local squeezing operations. The compact source opens up a way for continuous-variable quantum technologies and could find more potential applications in future large-scale quantum networks. PMID:27136831
Harmonic oscillator interaction with squeezed radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dodonov, V. V.; Nikonov, D. E.
1993-01-01
Although the problem of electromagnetic radiation by a quantum harmonic oscillator is considered in textbooks on quantum mechanics, some of its aspects have remained unclear until now. By this, we mean that usually the initial quantum states of both the oscillator and the field are assumed to be characterized by a definite energy level of the oscillator and definite occupation numbers of the field modes. In connection with growing interest in squeezed states, it would be interesting to analyze the general case when the initial states of both subsystems are arbitrary superpositions of energy eigenstates. This problem was considered in other work, where the power of the spontaneous emission was calculated in the case of an arbitrary oscillator's initial state, but the field was initially in a vacuum state. In the present article, we calculate the rate of the oscillator average energy, squeezing, and correlation parameter change under the influence of an arbitrary external radiation field. Some other problems relating to the interaction between quantum particles (atoms) or oscillators where the electromagnetic radiation is an arbitrary (in particular squeezed) state were investigated.
Robust spin squeezing preservation in photonic crystal cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Wo-Jun; Li, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xing; Xie, Ying-Mao
2016-08-01
We show that the robust spin squeezing preservation can be achieved by utilizing detuning modification for an ensemble of N separate two-level atoms embedded in photonic crystal cavities (PCC). In particular, we explore the different dynamical behaviors of spin squeezing between isotropic and anisotropic PCC cases when the atomic frequency is inside the band gap. In both cases, it is shown that the robust preservation of spin squeezing is completely determined by the formation of bound states. Intriguingly, we find that unlike the isotropic case where steady-state spin squeezing varies smoothly when the atomic frequency moves from the inside to the outside band edge, a sudden transition occurs for the anisotropic case. The present results may be of direct importance for, e.g. quantum metrology in open quantum systems.
Heralded Generation of an Atomic NOON State
Chen Yuao; Bao Xiaohui; Yuan Zhensheng; Chen Shuai; Pan Jianwei; Zhao Bo
2010-01-29
We report the heralded generation of an atomic NOON state by observation of phase super resolution in a motion-sensitive spin-wave (SW) interferometer. The SW interferometer is implemented by generating a superposition of two SWs and observing the interference between them, where the interference fringe is sensitive to the atomic collective motion. By heralded generation of a second order NOON state in the SW interferometer, we observe the interference pattern which provides strong evidence of phase super resolution. The demonstrated SW interferometer can in principle be scaled up to a highly entangled state, and thus is of fundamental importance, and might be used as an inertial sensor.
Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun
2016-10-01
A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).
Squeezed light from multi-level closed-cycling atomic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xiao, Min; Zhu, Yi-Fu
1994-01-01
Amplitude squeezing is calculated for multi-level closed-cycling atomic systems. These systems can last without atomic population inversion in any atomic bases. Maximum squeezing is obtained for the parameters in the region of lasing without inversion. A practical four-level system and an ideal three-level system are presented. The latter system is analyzed in some detail and the mechanism of generating amplitude squeezing is discussed.
Surface Sulci in Squeezed Soft Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tallinen, T.; Biggins, J. S.; Mahadevan, L.
2013-01-01
The squeezing of soft solids, the constrained growth of biological tissues, and the swelling of soft elastic solids such as gels can generate large compressive stresses at their surfaces. This causes the otherwise smooth surface of such a solid to become unstable when its stress exceeds a critical value. Previous analyses of the surface instability have assumed two-dimensional plane-strain conditions, but in experiments isotropic stresses often lead to complex three-dimensional sulcification patterns. Here we show how such diverse morphologies arise by numerically modeling the lateral compression of a rigidly clamped elastic layer. For incompressible solids, close to the instability threshold, sulci appear as I-shaped lines aligned orthogonally with their neighbors; at higher compressions they are Y-shaped and prefer a hexagonal arrangement. In contrast, highly compressible solids when squeezed show only one sulcified phase characterized by a hexagonal sulcus network.
A low loss Faraday isolator for squeezed vacuum injection in Advanced LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goetz, Ryan; Tanner, David; Mueller, Guido
2016-03-01
Using conventional interferometry, the strain sensitivity of Advanced LIGO is limited by a quantum noise floor known as the standard quantum limit (SQL). Injecting squeezed vacuum states into the output port of the interferometer allows for detector sensitivities below the SQL at frequencies within a band of observational interest. The effectiveness of squeezing in reducing quantum noise is strongly dependent upon the optical loss in the squeezed path. Thus, to combine the squeezed vacuum state with the interferometer output we require a Faraday isolator with both high power-throughput efficiency and high isolation ratio. A prototype isolator is currently being developed, and we will discuss the design goals and current status.
Squeezing of Spin Waves in Atomic Ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baragiola, Ben; Norris, Leigh; Montano, Enrique; Michelson, Pascal; Jessen, Poul; Deutsch, Ivan
2013-05-01
Squeezing the collective spin of an atomic ensemble via QND measurement is based on the lighhift interaction between a cloud of atoms and a laser probe. When the shot noise resolution of the laser probe is below the projection noise of the atoms, the resulting backaction can reduce the uncertainty for a collective atomic observable. Most current models of this process rely on idealized one-dimensional plane wave approximations of the underlying light-matter interaction, which are not appropriate for describing a real system consisting of an atomic cloud in dipole trap interacting with a paraxial probe laser. We derive from first principles a model for three-dimensional QND spin squeezing of an ensemble of alkali atoms. The model includes spin waves, diffraction, propagation phase, paraxial modes, and optical pumping, based on a full master equation description. Our model easily generalizes to atoms with hyperfine spin f >1/2, for which initial state preparation of the ensemble using internal hyperfine control can enhance the entangling power of the Faraday interaction [Norris et al., PRL 109, 173603 (2012)]. Including dissipative dynamics, we find optimal geometries to maximize spin squeezing for a variety of state preparations and spin sizes.
Garcés, Rafael; de Valcárcel, Germán J.
2016-01-01
Squeezed light, displaying less fluctuation than vacuum in some observable, is key in the flourishing field of quantum technologies. Optical or microwave cavities containing a Kerr nonlinearity are known to potentially yield large levels of squeezing, which have been recently observed in optomechanics and nonlinear superconducting circuit platforms. Such Kerr-cavity squeezing however suffers from two fundamental drawbacks. First, optimal squeezing requires working close to turning points of a bistable cycle, which are highly unstable against noise thus rendering optimal squeezing inaccessible. Second, the light field has a macroscopic coherent component corresponding to the pump, making it less versatile than the so-called squeezed vacuum, characterised by a null mean field. Here we prove analytically and numerically that the bichromatic pumping of optomechanical and superconducting circuit cavities removes both limitations. This finding should boost the development of a new generation of robust vacuum squeezers in the microwave and optical domains with current technology. PMID:26916946
A periodic probabilistic photonic cluster state generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fanto, Michael L.; Smith, A. Matthew; Alsing, Paul M.; Tison, Christopher C.; Preble, Stefan F.; Lott, Gordon E.; Osman, Joseph M.; Szep, Attila; Kim, Richard S.
2014-10-01
The research detailed in this paper describes a Periodic Cluster State Generator (PCSG) consisting of a monolithic integrated waveguide device that employs four wave mixing, an array of probabilistic photon guns, single mode sequential entanglers and an array of controllable entangling gates between modes to create arbitrary cluster states. Utilizing the PCSG one is able to produce a cluster state with nearest neighbor entanglement in the form of a linear or square lattice. Cluster state resources of this type have been proven to be able to perform universal quantum computation.
Dual clearance squeeze film damper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, D. P. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A dual clearance hydrodynamic liquid squeeze film damper for a gas turbine engine is described. Under normal operating conditions, the device functions as a conventional squeeze film damper, using only one of its oil films. When an unbalance reaches abusive levels, as may occur with a blade loss or foreign object damage, a second, larger clearance film becomes active, controlling vibration amplitudes in a near optimum manner until the engine can be safely shut down and repaired.
Classification of spin and multipolar squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukawa, Emi; Nemoto, Kae
2016-06-01
We investigate various types of squeezing in a collective su(2J+1) system consisting of spin-J particles (J\\gt 1/2). We show that squeezing in the collective su(2J+1) system can be classified into unitary equivalence classes, each of which is characterized by a set of squeezed and anti-squeezed observables forming an su(2) subalgebra in the su(2J+1) algebra. The dimensionality of the unitary equivalence class is found to be fundamentally related to its squeezing limit. We also demonstrate the classification of squeezing among the spin and multipolar observables in a collective su(4) system.
Improvement of vacuum squeezing resonant on the rubidium D1 line at 795 nm.
Han, Yashuai; Wen, Xin; He, Jun; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Junmin
2016-02-01
We report on efficient generation of second harmonic laser and single-mode vacuum squeezed light of 795 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystals. We achieved 111 mW of ultra-violet (UV) light at 397.5 nm from 191 mW of fundamental light with a PPKTP crystal in a doubling cavity, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 58.1%. Using the UV light to pump an optical parametric oscillator with a PPKTP crystal, we realized -5.6 dB of a maximum squeezing. We analyzed the pump power dependence of the squeezing level and concluded that the UV light induced losses limit the improvement of the squeezing level. The generated squeezed light has huge potential application in quantum memory and ultra-precise measurement. PMID:26906810
Q (Alpha) Function and Squeezing Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yunjie, Xia; Xianghe, Kong; Kezhu, Yan; Wanping, Chen
1996-01-01
The relation of squeezing and Q(alpha) function is discussed in this paper. By means of Q function, the squeezing of field with gaussian Q(alpha) function or negative P(a)function is also discussed in detail.
Kurucz, Z.; Moelmer, K.
2010-03-15
We show that an ensemble of identical d-level atoms can be efficiently described by d-1 collective oscillator degrees of freedom in the vicinity of a product state with all atoms in the same, but otherwise arbitrary single-particle state. We apply our description to two different kinds of spin squeezing: (i) when each spin-F atom is individually squeezed without creating interatomic entanglement and (ii) when a particular collective atomic oscillator mode is squeezed via quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement and feedback. When combined in sequence, the order of the two methods is relevant in the final degree of squeezing. We also discuss the role of the two kinds of squeezing when multisublevel atoms are used as quantum memories for light.
Four-Mode Squeezing For Optical Communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schumaker, Bonny L.
1989-01-01
Experiments demonstrated potential of four-mode squeezing for increasing immunity to noise in fiber-optical communication systems and interferometric devices. Four-mode squeezing reduces quantum noise more than ordinary squeezing and provides partial immunity to non-quantum-mechanical phase noise arising in such media as optical fibers.
Atomic Spin Squeezing Towards Sub-Shot-Noise Measurement Of Permanent Electric Dipole Moment
Takano, T.; Fuyama, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Takahashi, Y.
2007-06-13
We have been studying laser-cooled and trapped atoms towards the detection of the permanent electric dipole moment (p-EDM). The existence of the p-EDM shows the CP-violation and its detection has significant implications for the test of the proposed elementary particle models. However, the current experimental accuracy has not yet reached the range of the predicted value of the standard model. Especially, a measurement error due to a shot noise is one of the important factors. To overcome the shot-noise limit, we are now trying to generate the atomic squeezed spin state.
Two photon annihilation operators and squeezed vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roy, Anil K.; Mehta, C. L.; Saxena, G. M.
1993-01-01
Inverses of the harmonic oscillator creation and annihilation operators by their actions on the number states are introduced. Three of the two photon annihilation operators, viz., a(sup +/-1)a, aa(sup +/-1), and a(sup 2), have normalizable right eigenstates with nonvanishing eigenvalues. The eigenvalue equation of these operators are discussed and their normalized eigenstates are obtained. The Fock state representation in each case separates into two sets of states, one involving only the even number states while the other involving only the odd number states. It is shown that the even set of eigenstates of the operator a(sup +/-1)a is the customary squeezed vacuum S(sigma) O greater than.
Squeeze-Out of Branched Alkanes on Graphite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gosvami, N. N.; Sinha, S. K.; O'Shea, S. J.
2008-02-01
We study squalane and heptamethylnonane (HMN) confined between a conducting atomic force microscope tip and a graphite surface. Solvation layering occurs for both liquids but marked differences in the squeeze out mechanics are observed for ordered or disordered monolayers. The squalane monolayer at 25°C is an ordered solid, as verified by direct imaging, and the squeeze out can be modeled using elastic continuum mechanics. HMN is in a disordered state at 25°C and cannot be modeled as a single elastic asperity even in solid-solid contact because HMN liquid is trapped in the contact zone.
Nonlinear optical magnetometry with accessible in situ optical squeezing
Otterstrom, N.; Pooser, R. C.; Lawrie, B. J.
2014-11-14
In this paper, we demonstrate compact and accessible squeezed-light magnetometry using four-wave mixing in a single hot rubidium vapor cell. The strong intrinsic coherence of the four-wave mixing process results in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) on each mode of a two-mode relative-intensity squeezed state. Finally, this framework enables 4.7 dB of quantum noise reduction while the opposing polarization rotation signals of the probe and conjugate fields add to increase the total signal to noise ratio.
Intense steady state electron beam generator
Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.
1990-07-17
An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.
Intense steady state electron beam generator
Hershcovitch, Ady; Kovarik, Vincent J.; Prelec, Krsto
1990-01-01
An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.
Communication via the statistics of photon-number squeezed light.
Paramanandam, Joshua; Parker, Michael A
2005-06-17
A method of communication employing the second order statistics of photon-number squeezed light is demonstrated. The technique encodes the information content in both nonstationary noise processes and in the average optical power, thereby creating two orthogonal channels and increasing the transmission capacity. Communication via the fragile quantum state has potential applications for privatized communication. PMID:16090471
Parametric excitation and squeezing in a many-body spinor condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, T. M.; Anquez, M.; Robbins, B. A.; Yang, X. Y.; Land, B. J.; Hamley, C. D.; Chapman, M. S.
2016-04-01
Atomic spins are usually manipulated using radio frequency or microwave fields to excite Rabi oscillations between different spin states. These are single-particle quantum control techniques that perform ideally with individual particles or non-interacting ensembles. In many-body systems, inter-particle interactions are unavoidable; however, interactions can be used to realize new control schemes unique to interacting systems. Here we demonstrate a many-body control scheme to coherently excite and control the quantum spin states of an atomic Bose gas that realizes parametric excitation of many-body collective spin states by time varying the relative strength of the Zeeman and spin-dependent collisional interaction energies at multiples of the natural frequency of the system. Although parametric excitation of a classical system is ineffective from the ground state, we show that in our experiment, parametric excitation from the quantum ground state leads to the generation of quantum squeezed states.
Parametric excitation and squeezing in a many-body spinor condensate.
Hoang, T M; Anquez, M; Robbins, B A; Yang, X Y; Land, B J; Hamley, C D; Chapman, M S
2016-01-01
Atomic spins are usually manipulated using radio frequency or microwave fields to excite Rabi oscillations between different spin states. These are single-particle quantum control techniques that perform ideally with individual particles or non-interacting ensembles. In many-body systems, inter-particle interactions are unavoidable; however, interactions can be used to realize new control schemes unique to interacting systems. Here we demonstrate a many-body control scheme to coherently excite and control the quantum spin states of an atomic Bose gas that realizes parametric excitation of many-body collective spin states by time varying the relative strength of the Zeeman and spin-dependent collisional interaction energies at multiples of the natural frequency of the system. Although parametric excitation of a classical system is ineffective from the ground state, we show that in our experiment, parametric excitation from the quantum ground state leads to the generation of quantum squeezed states. PMID:27044675
Parametric excitation and squeezing in a many-body spinor condensate
Hoang, T. M.; Anquez, M.; Robbins, B. A.; Yang, X. Y.; Land, B. J.; Hamley, C. D.; Chapman, M. S.
2016-01-01
Atomic spins are usually manipulated using radio frequency or microwave fields to excite Rabi oscillations between different spin states. These are single-particle quantum control techniques that perform ideally with individual particles or non-interacting ensembles. In many-body systems, inter-particle interactions are unavoidable; however, interactions can be used to realize new control schemes unique to interacting systems. Here we demonstrate a many-body control scheme to coherently excite and control the quantum spin states of an atomic Bose gas that realizes parametric excitation of many-body collective spin states by time varying the relative strength of the Zeeman and spin-dependent collisional interaction energies at multiples of the natural frequency of the system. Although parametric excitation of a classical system is ineffective from the ground state, we show that in our experiment, parametric excitation from the quantum ground state leads to the generation of quantum squeezed states. PMID:27044675
Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.
2007-09-15
We have generalized the two-step approach to the solution of systems of N coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators. By using the squeezed vacuum state of each individual oscillator, we construct the tensor product state, and obtain the optimal squeezed vacuum product state through energy minimization. We then employ this optimal state and its associated bosonic operators to define a basis set to construct the Heisenberg matrix. The diagonalization of the matrix enables us to obtain the energy eigenvalues of the coupled oscillators. In particular, we have applied our formalism to determine the eigenenergies of systems of two coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators perturbed by a general polynomial potential, as well as three and four coupled systems. Furthermore, by performing a first-order perturbation analysis about the optimal squeezed vacuum product state, we have also examined into the squeezing properties of two coupled oscillator systems.
Generation of photon-added coherent states via photon-subtracted generalised coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mojaveri, Bashir; Dehghani, Alireza
2014-10-01
Based on previous work [A. Dehghani, B. Mojaveri, J. Phys. A 45, 095304 (2012)], we introduce photon-subtracted generalised coherent states (PSGCSs) |z,m⟩r: = am|z⟩r, where m is a nonnegative integer and |z⟩r denote the generalised coherent states (GCSs). We have shown that the states |z,m⟩r are eigenstates of a non-Hermitian operator f(n̂,m)â, where f(n̂,m) is a nonlinear function of the number operator N̂ . Also, the states | z, - m ⟩ r can be considered as another set of eigenstates for negative values of m. They span the truncated Fock space without the first m lowest-lying basis states: | 0 ⟩ , | 1 ⟩ , | 2 ⟩ ,...,| m - 1 ⟩ which are reminiscent of the so-called photon-added coherent states. The resolution of the identity property, which is the most important property of coherent states, is realised for |z,m⟩r as well as for |z, - m⟩r. Some nonclassical features such as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of the states |z, ± m⟩r are compared. We show that the annihilation operator diminishes the mean number of photons of the initial state |z⟩r. Finally we show that |z,m⟩r can be produced through a simple theoretical scheme.
Squeezed Particle-Antiparticle Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padula, S. S.; Dudek, D. M.; Socolowski, O., Jr.
2009-04-01
A novel type of correlation involving particle-antiparticle pairs was found out in the 1990's. Currently known as squeezed or Back-to-Back Correlations (BBC), they should be present if the hadronic masses are modified in the hot and dense medium formed in high energy heavy ion collisions. Although well-established theoretically, such hadronic correlations have not yet been observed experimentally. In this phenomenological study we suggest a promising way to search for the BBC signal, by looking into the squeezed correlation function of phi phi and K+ K- pairs at RHIC energies, as function of the pair average momentum, K12=(@BOLD@ k1+@BOLD@ k2)/2. The effects of in-medium mass-shift on the identical particle correlations (Hanbury-Brown and Twiss effect) are also discussed.
QUANTUM MECHANICS. Quantum squeezing of motion in a mechanical resonator.
Wollman, E E; Lei, C U; Weinstein, A J; Suh, J; Kronwald, A; Marquardt, F; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C
2015-08-28
According to quantum mechanics, a harmonic oscillator can never be completely at rest. Even in the ground state, its position will always have fluctuations, called the zero-point motion. Although the zero-point fluctuations are unavoidable, they can be manipulated. Using microwave frequency radiation pressure, we have manipulated the thermal fluctuations of a micrometer-scale mechanical resonator to produce a stationary quadrature-squeezed state with a minimum variance of 0.80 times that of the ground state. We also performed phase-sensitive, back-action evading measurements of a thermal state squeezed to 1.09 times the zero-point level. Our results are relevant to the quantum engineering of states of matter at large length scales, the study of decoherence of large quantum systems, and for the realization of ultrasensitive sensing of force and motion.
Stoiaken, L.N.
1988-02-01
Like a sleeping giant, utilities are waking up and preparing to participate in the increasingly competitive power production industry. Some are establishing subsidiaries to participate in join venture deals with independents. Others are competing by offering lucrative discount or deferral rates to important industrial and commercial customers considering cogeneration. And now, a third approach is beginning to shape up- the disaggregation of generation assets into a separate generation company, or genco. This article briefly discusses these three and also devotes brief sections to functional segmentation and The regulatory arena.
Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids.
Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J
2004-01-22
We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n-->n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application. PMID:15268334
Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.
2004-01-01
We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n→n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application.
Non-Hamiltonian Modeling of Squeezing and Thermal Disorder in Driven Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sewran, Sashwin; Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G.; Sergi, Alessandro
2015-04-01
Recently, model systems with quadratic Hamiltonians and time-dependent interactions were studied by Briegel and Popescu (Proc R Soc A 469:20110290, 2013) and by Galve et al. (Phys Rev Lett 105:180501, 2010; Phys Rev Lett 81:062117, 2010) in order to consider the possibility of both quantum refrigeration in enzymes and entanglement in the high temperature limit. Following this line of research, we studied a model comprising two quantum harmonic oscillators driven by a time-dependent harmonic coupling. Such a system was embedded in a thermal bath represented in two different ways. In one case, the bath was composed of a finite but great number of independent harmonic oscillators with an Ohmic spectral density. In the other case, the bath was more efficiently defined in terms of a single oscillator coupled to a non-Hamiltonian thermostat. In both cases, we simulated the effect of the thermal disorder on the generation of the squeezed states in the two-oscillators relevant system. We found that, in our model, the thermal disorder of the bath determines the presence of a threshold temperature, for the generation of squeezed states, equal to K. Such a threshold is estimated to be within temperatures where chemical reactions and biological activity comfortably take place.
Lin, Bo; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Yuanyuan
2015-06-15
The Al–5.0 wt.% Cu–0.6 wt.% Mn alloys with a variable Fe content were prepared by squeeze casting. Optical microscopy (OM), Deep etching technique, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the solid-state transformation of Fe-rich intermetallics during the solution heat treatment. The results showed that the Chinese script-like α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and needle-like Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases transform to a new Cu-rich β-Fe (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}(FeMn)) phase during solution heat treatment. The possible reaction and overall transformation kinetics of the solid-state phase transformation for the Fe-rich intermetallics were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The α-Fe, Al{sub 6}(FeMn) and Al{sub 3}(FeMn) phases change to the β-Fe phases. • Possible reactions of Fe phases during solution heat treatment are discussed. • The overall fractional transformation rate follows an Avrami curve.
Two-mode squeezing in a broadband parametric amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grover, J. A.; Kamal, A.; Gustavsson, S.; Yan, F.; Orlando, T. P.; Oliver, W. D.; Hover, D.; Bolkhovsky, V.; Yoder, J. L.; Macklin, C.; O'Brien, K.; Siddiqi, I.
The Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA) exhibits gains of greater than 20 dB over a frequency range of a few gigahertz. In addition to being a quantum-limited amplifier over a wide frequency range, the JTWPA is a source of broadband squeezed radiation. We report the observation of broadband squeezing of microwave light generated by a JTWPA by measuring cross correlations between modes separated by up to one gigahertz in frequency. Employing a chain of two JTWPAs, the first as a squeezer and the second as a quantum-limited preamplifier, ensures a high-efficiency measurement of squeezing. We also discuss progress towards employing such two-mode squeezed radiation to realize high-fidelity dispersive readout of superconducting qubits. This research was funded in part by the U.S. Army Research Office Grant No. W911NF-14-1-0682 and by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabriel, C.; Aiello, A.; Berg-Johansen, S.; Marquardt, Ch.; Leuchs, G.
2012-07-01
Quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes contain entanglement not only in the polarization and spatial electric field variables but also between these two degrees of freedom [C. Gabriel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011)]. In this paper we present tools to generate and detect this entanglement. Experimentally we demonstrate the generation of quadrature squeezing in cylindrically polarized modes by mode transforming a squeezed Gaussian mode. Specifically, -1.2 dB ± 0.1 dB of amplitude squeezing are achieved in the radially and azimuthally polarized mode. Furthermore, theoretically it is shown how the entanglement contained within these modes can be measured and how strong the quantum correlations are, depending on the measurement scheme.
Short-cavity squeezing in barium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.
1992-01-01
Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.
Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin
2015-12-07
We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.
Observation of Two-Photon Excitation for Three-Level Atoms in a Squeezed Vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edamatsu, K.; Georgiades, N. Ph.; Polzik, E. S.; Kimble, H. J.; Parkins, A. S.
1996-01-01
The two-photon transition (6S(sub 1/2) yields 6D(sub 5/2)) of atomic Cesium is investigated for excitation with squeezed vacuum generated via nondegenerate parametric down conversion. The two-photon excitation rate (R) is observed to have a non-quadratic dependence of R = aI(exp 2) + bI on the incident photon flux (I), reflecting the nonclassical correlations of the squeezed vacuum field.
Atom-assisted quadrature squeezing of a mechanical oscillator inside a dispersive cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Asoka; Chauhan, Anil Kumar
2016-05-01
Measurement of position of a mesoscopic harmonic oscillator below standard quantum limit in cavity optomechanics has seen a growing interest in recent times. If the oscillator is suspended inside the cavity (with both the mirrors fixed) at a position where the cavity frequency becomes extremum (a membrane-in-the-middle setup), large squeezing can be achieved by conditional measurement of thermal photons; however the cavity decay degrades such squeezing. Here we propose an atom-cavity-oscillator hybrid scheme, in which the effect of cavity decay is eliminated via dispersive coupling of the cavity mode. The atom in Λ configuration is considered to be trapped on either side of the membrane inside the cavity. We show that a considerable amount of squeezing (far beyond the 3 dB limit) can be achieved that is not affected by spontaneous emission of the atom. The squeezing depends upon the initial preparation of the atomic states. Further, the external classical fields, that drive the atomic transition and the cavity mode, control the degree of squeezing and can also lead to a strong effective atom-oscillator coupling. Effect of thermal phonon bath on squeezing is studied in terms of the squeezing spectrum. The results are supported by the detailed analytical calculations.
CALL FOR PAPERS: Optics and squeeze transformations after Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel
2004-12-01
Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will publish a special issue in connection with the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, to be held in Besançon, France, on 2-6 May 2005. In 2005, the physics community celebrates the 100th anniversary of the publication of Einstein’s theories of relativity and quantum physics. To celebrate these great contributions to physics, the conference will include sessions on Einstein’s influence on modern optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics. Conference participants, as well as other researchers working in the field, are invited to submit research papers to this special issue of the journal. The topics to be covered include: • Superposition principle • Squeezed states • Uncertainty relations • Quantum state generation and characterization • Phase space and group representations in quantum physics • Quantum transforms in signal analysis • Information theory and quantum computing • Quantum interference, decoherence and entanglement measure • Quantum chaos and quantum control • Bell inequalities • Nonstationary Casimir effect • Quantum-like and mesoscopic systems Manuscripts should be submitted by 1 August 2005 as the special issue is scheduled for publication in March 2006. All papers will be peer reviewed and the normal refereeing standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will be maintained. The Editorial Division of IOP Publishing at the P N Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow will oversee editorial procedures in association with the IOP Publishing office in Bristol. There are no page charges for publication. Submissions should preferably be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. Advice on publishing your work in the journal, including specific information on figures, tables and references, may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors. Manuscripts should be submitted by e-mail to the Guest Editors at IOPP
CALL FOR PAPERS: Optics and squeeze transformations after Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel
2005-01-01
Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will publish a special issue in connection with the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, to be held in Besançon, France, on 2-6 May 2005. In 2005, the physics community celebrates the 100th anniversary of the publication of Einstein’s theories of relativity and quantum physics. To celebrate these great contributions to physics, the conference will include sessions on Einstein’s influence on modern optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics. Conference participants, as well as other researchers working in the field, are invited to submit research papers to this special issue of the journal. The topics to be covered include: • Superposition principle • Squeezed states • Uncertainty relations • Quantum state generation and characterization • Phase space and group representations in quantum physics • Quantum transforms in signal analysis • Information theory and quantum computing • Quantum interference, decoherence and entanglement measure • Quantum chaos and quantum control • Bell inequalities • Nonstationary Casimir effect • Quantum-like and mesoscopic systems Manuscripts should be submitted by 1 August 2005 as the special issue is scheduled for publication in March 2006. All papers will be peer reviewed and the normal refereeing standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will be maintained. The Editorial Division of IOP Publishing at the P N Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow will oversee editorial procedures in association with the IOP Publishing office in Bristol. There are no page charges for publication. Submissions should preferably be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. Advice on publishing your work in the journal, including specific information on figures, tables and references, may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors. Manuscripts should be submitted by e-mail to the Guest Editors at IOPP
Orientation-to-alignment conversion and spin squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rochester, S. M.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Zigdon, T.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Budker, D.
2012-02-01
The relationship between orientation-to-alignment conversion (a form of atomic polarization evolution induced by an electric field) and the phenomenon of spin squeezing is demonstrated. A “stretched” state of an atom or molecule with maximum angular-momentum projection along the quantization axis possesses orientation and is a quantum-mechanical minimum-uncertainty state, where the product of the equal uncertainties of the angular-momentum projections on two orthogonal directions transverse to the quantization axis is the minimum allowed by the uncertainty relation. Application of an electric field for a short time induces orientation-to-alignment conversion and produces a spin-squeezed state, in which the quantum state essentially remains a minimum-uncertainty state, but the uncertainties of the angular-momentum projections on the orthogonal directions are unequal. This property can be visualized using the angular-momentum probability surfaces, where the radius of the surface is given by the probability of measuring the maximum angular-momentum projection in that direction. Brief remarks are also given concerning collective-spin squeezing and quantum nondemolition measurements.
Sequential generation of matrix-product states in cavity QED
Schoen, C.; Hammerer, K.; Wolf, M. M.; Cirac, J. I.; Solano, E.
2007-03-15
We study the sequential generation of entangled photonic and atomic multiqubit states in the realm of cavity QED. We extend the work of C. Schoen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 110503 (2005)], where it was shown that all states generated in a sequential manner can be classified efficiently in terms of matrix-product states. In particular, we consider two scenarios: photonic multiqubit states sequentially generated at the cavity output of a single-photon source and atomic multiqubit states generated by their sequential interaction with the same cavity mode.
Generation of macroscopic superposition states with small nonlinearity
Jeong, H.; Ralph, T.C.; Kim, M. S.; Ham, B.S.
2004-12-01
We suggest a scheme to generate a macroscopic superposition state ('Schroedinger cat state') of a free-propagating optical field using a beam splitter, homodyne measurement, and a very small Kerr nonlinear effect. Our scheme makes it possible to reduce considerably the required nonlinear effect to generate an optical cat state using simple and efficient optical elements.
Roadmap for Next-Generation State Accountability Systems. Second Edition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Council of Chief State School Officers, 2011
2011-01-01
This Roadmap, developed by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) Next-Generation State Accountability Taskforce, presents a vision for next-generation accountability systems to support college and career readiness for all students. It is written by and for states, building on the leadership toward college and career readiness. This…
Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Wakui, Kentaro
2005-08-15
We study the measurement-induced non-Gaussian operation on the single- and two-mode Gaussian squeezed vacuum states with beam splitters and on-off type photon detectors, with which mixed non-Gaussian states are generally obtained in the conditional process. It is known that the entanglement can be enhanced via this non-Gaussian operation on the two-mode squeezed vacuum state. We show that, in the range of practical squeezing parameters, the conditional outputs are still close to Gaussian states, but their second order variances of quantum fluctuations and correlations are effectively suppressed and enhanced, respectively. To investigate an operational meaning of these states, especially entangled states, we also evaluate the quantum dense coding scheme from the viewpoint of the mutual information, and we show that non-Gaussian entangled state can be advantageous compared with the original two-mode squeezed state.
Stability of Intershaft Squeeze Film Dampers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Shafei, A.
1991-01-01
Intershaft squeeze film dampers were investigated for damping of dual rotor aircraft jet engines. It was thought that the intershaft damper would enhance the stability of the rotor-bearing system. Unfortunately, it was determined that the intershaft squeeze film damper was unstable above the engine's first critical speed. Here, a stability analysis of rotors incorporating intershaft squeeze film dampers is discussed. A rotor model consisting of two Jeffcott rotors with two intershaft squeeze film dampers was investigated. Examining the system characteristic equation for the conditions at which the roots indicate an ever-growing unstable motion results in the stability conditions. The cause of the instability is identified as the rotation of the oil in the damper clearance. Several proposed configurations of intershaft squeeze film dampers are discussed, and it is shown that the intershaft dampers are stable supercritically only with a configuration in which the oil film does not rotate.
The Bose-Hubbard model with squeezed dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quijandría, Fernando; Naether, Uta; Porras, Diego; José García-Ripoll, Juan; Zueco, David
2015-03-01
The stationary properties of the Bose-Hubbard model under squeezed dissipation are investigated. The dissipative model does not possess a U(1) symmetry but conserves parity. We find that < {{a}j}> =0 always holds, so no symmetry breaking occurs. Without the onsite repulsion, the linear case is known to be critical. At the critical point the system freezes to an EPR state with infinite two mode entanglement. We show here that the correlations are rapidly destroyed whenever the repulsion is switched on. As we increase the latter, the system approaches a thermal state with an effective temperature defined in terms of the squeezing parameter in the dissipators. We characterize this transition by means of a Gutzwiller ansatz and the Gaussian Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation.
Entropy squeezing for qubit – field system under decoherence effect
Abdel-Khalek, S; Berrada, K; A-S F Obada; Wahiddin, M R
2014-03-28
We study in detail the dynamics of field entropy squeezing (FES) for a qubit – field system whose dynamics is described by the phase-damped model. The results of calculations show that the initial state and decoherence play a crucial role in the evolution of FES. During the temporal evolution of the system under decoherence effect, an interesting monotonic relation between FES, Wehrl entropy (WE) and negativity is observed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Entropy squeezing for qubit - field system under decoherence effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Khalek, S.; Berrada, K.; Obada, A.-S. F.; Wahiddin, M. R.
2014-03-01
We study in detail the dynamics of field entropy squeezing (FES) for a qubit - field system whose dynamics is described by the phase-damped model. The results of calculations show that the initial state and decoherence play a crucial role in the evolution of FES. During the temporal evolution of the system under decoherence effect, an interesting monotonic relation between FES, Wehrl entropy (WE) and negativity is observed.
Atom-assisted quadrature squeezing of a mechanical oscillator inside a dispersive cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chauhan, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Asoka
2016-08-01
We present a hybrid optomechanical scheme to achieve dynamical squeezing of position quadrature of a mesoscopic mechanical oscillator, that can be externally controlled by classical fields. A membrane-in-the-middle setup is employed, in which an atom in Λ configuration is considered to be trapped on either side of the membrane inside the cavity. We show that a considerable amount of squeezing (beyond the 3-dB limit) can be achieved and maintained at a transient time scale that is not affected by the spontaneous emission of the atom. Squeezing depends upon the initial preparation of atomic states. Further, a strong effective coupling (larger than the relevant decay rates) between the atom and the oscillator can be attained by using large control fields that pump the atom and the cavity. The effects of cavity decay and the phononic bath on squeezing are studied. The results are supported by the detailed analytical calculations.
A Novel Solid State Character Generator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Paul Allen, Jr.
This thesis describes a character generator which was built for a refreshed cathode-ray tube (CRT) display and demonstrates the feasibility of displaying high quality dot-matrix characters using the low-band width sinusoidal scan. The CRT used was a low-cost entertainment-quality television tube, and hence had a very poor deflection band width.…
The generation of entangled states from independent particle sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, Morton H.; Shih, Yan-Hua
1994-01-01
The generation of entangled states of two systems from product states is discussed for the case in which the paths of the two systems do not overlap. A particular method of measuring allows one to project out the nonlocal entangled state. An application to the production of four photon entangled states is outlined.
Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts
David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu
2002-07-30
This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must
Zhu, Jia-pei; Huang, Hui; Li, Gao-xiang
2014-01-21
We theoretically propose a scheme for the quadrature squeezing of the cavity field via dissipative processes. The effects of the electron-phonon interaction (EPI) on the squeezing are investigated, where the cavity is off-resonantly coupled with a coherently driven quantum dot (QD) which is allowed to interact with an acoustic-phonon reservoir. Under certain conditions, the participation of the phonon induced by both the EPI and the off-resonant coupling of the cavity with the QD enables some dissipative processes to occur resonantly in the dressed-state basis of the QD. The cavity-mode photons emitted or absorbed during the phonon-mediated dissipative processes are correlated, thus leading to the squeezing of the cavity field. A squeezed vacuum reservoir for the cavity field is built up due to the EPI plus the off-resonant coupling between the cavity and the QD. The numerical results obtained with an effective polaron master equation derived using second-order perturbation theory indicate that, in low temperature limit, the degree of squeezing is maximal but the increasing temperature of the phonon reservoir could hinder the squeezing and degrade the degree of the squeezing of the cavity field. In addition, the presence of the photonic crystal could enhance the quadrature squeezing of the cavity field.
Generation of atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chong; Su, Shi-Lei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2016-10-01
Based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants and quantum Zeno dynamics, we propose an effective scheme for generating atomic NOON states via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The photon losses are efficiently suppressed by engineering shortcuts to adiabatic passage in the scheme. The numerical simulation shows that the atomic NOON states can be generated with high fidelity.
Squeezed potato orbits in a magnetic well
Shaing, K. C.
2001-09-01
It is shown that potato orbits in the near-axis region of a high beta tokamak are squeezed in a magnetic well. The squeezing factor is the same as that for the banana orbits derived in an earlier work [Phys. Plasmas 3, 2843 (1996)]. It depends on the energy of the particle. For high-energy particles, the size of the squeezed orbits is independent of their energy. This implies improved confinement for high-energy particles and for high beta tokamaks with advanced fuels.
Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities
Alexanian, Moorad
2011-11-15
The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.
Theory of degenerate three-wave mixing using circuit QED in solid-state circuits
Cao, Ye; Huo, Wen Yi; Ai, Qing; Long, Gui Lu
2011-11-15
We study the theory of degenerate three-wave mixing and the generation of squeezed microwaves using circuit quantum electrodynamics in solid state circuits. The Hamiltonian for degenerate three-wave mixing, which seemed to be given phenomenologically in quantum optics, is derived by quantum mechanical calculations. The nonlinear medium needed in three-wave mixing is composed of a series of superconducting charge qubits which are located inside two superconducting transmission-line resonators. Here, the multiqubit ensemble is present to enhance the effective coupling constant between the two modes in the transmission-line resonators. In the squeezing process, the qubits are kept in their ground states so that their decoherence does not corrupt the squeezing. The main obstacle preventing a large squeezing efficiency is the decay rate of the transmission-line resonator.
Next Generation Science Standards: For States, by States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Academies Press, 2013
2013-01-01
"Next Generation Science Standards" identifies the science all K-12 students should know. These new standards are based on the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education." The National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science,…
Steam generator issues in the United States
Strosnider, J.R.
1997-02-01
Alloy 600 steam generator tubes in the US have exhibited degradation mechanisms similar to those observed in other countries. Effective programs have been implemented to address several degradation mechanisms including: wastage; mechanical wear; pitting; and fatigue. These degradation mechanisms are fairly well understood as indicated by the ability to effectively mitigate/manage them. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the dominant degradation mechanism in the US. SCC poses significant inspection and management challenges to the industry and the regulators. The paper also addresses issues of research into SCC, inspection programs, plugging, repair strategies, water chemistry, and regulatory control. Emerging issues in the US include: parent tube cracking at sleeve joints; detection and repair of circumferential cracks; free span cracking; inspection and cracking of dented regions; and severe accident analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opatrný, Tomáš; Kolář, Michal; Das, Kunal K.
2015-05-01
We propose a scheme for spin squeezing in the orbital motion of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a toroidal trap. A circular lattice couples two counterrotating modes and squeezing is generated by the nonlinear interaction spatially modulated at half the lattice period. By varying the amplitude and phase of the modulation, various cases of the twisting tensor can be directly realized, leading to different squeezing regimes. These include the one-axis twisting and two-axis countertwisting that are often discussed as the most important paradigms for spin squeezing. Our scheme naturally realizes the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model with the freedom to vary all its parameters simultaneously.
Cluster-type entangled coherent states: Generation and application
An, Nguyen Ba; Kim, Jaewan
2009-10-15
We consider a type of (M+N)-mode entangled coherent states and propose a simple deterministic scheme to generate these states that can fly freely in space. We then exploit such free-flying states to teleport certain kinds of superpositions of multimode coherent states. We also address the issue of manipulating size and type of entangled coherent states by means of linear optics elements only.
Cluster-type entangled coherent states: Generation and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Nguyen Ba; Kim, Jaewan
2009-10-01
We consider a type of (M+N) -mode entangled coherent states and propose a simple deterministic scheme to generate these states that can fly freely in space. We then exploit such free-flying states to teleport certain kinds of superpositions of multimode coherent states. We also address the issue of manipulating size and type of entangled coherent states by means of linear optics elements only.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Daeho; Kim, Junki; Lee, Moonjoo; Chough, Young-Tak; An, Kyungwon
2016-08-01
We propose a method for generating an optical Schrödinger-cat-like state in a cavity in a substantial decoherence regime. Even when the cavity decay rate is considerably large, a cat-like state can be generated in a laser-like setting if the gain for the field is larger than the loss. Under the condition that opposite-phase atomic dipoles repeatedly traverse the cavity, the cavity field converges to a squeezed vacuum state in a steady state. A Schrödinger-cat-like state is then generated when a single photon decay occurs. The phase-space distribution of the cat state can be revealed in homodyne detection by using the decaying photon as a herald event. Quantum trajectory simulation was used to identify the conditions for the Schrödinger-cat-like state formation as well as to analyze the properties of those states. Based on these simulations, possible experiments are proposed within the reach of the current technology.
Quantum-beat based dissipation for spin squeezing and light entanglement.
Huang, Chen; Hu, Xiangming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Lingchao; Rao, Shi
2016-08-22
We show an engineered dissipation for the spin squeezing and the light entanglement in a quantum beat system, in which two bright fields interact with an ensemble of three-level atoms in V configuration. The dissipation is based on the atom-field nonlinear interaction that is controlled by the atomic coherence between the excited states off two-photon resonance. Physical analysis and numerical verification are presented for the symmetrical parameters by using the dressed atomic states. It is shown that for particular parameters, the engineered dissipation induces almost perfect two-mode squeezing and entanglement both for the bright fields and for the dressed spins. The excited-state spin has squeezing of near 40% below the standard quantum limit although there remains the spontaneous emission from the involved excited states.
Quantum-beat based dissipation for spin squeezing and light entanglement.
Huang, Chen; Hu, Xiangming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Lingchao; Rao, Shi
2016-08-22
We show an engineered dissipation for the spin squeezing and the light entanglement in a quantum beat system, in which two bright fields interact with an ensemble of three-level atoms in V configuration. The dissipation is based on the atom-field nonlinear interaction that is controlled by the atomic coherence between the excited states off two-photon resonance. Physical analysis and numerical verification are presented for the symmetrical parameters by using the dressed atomic states. It is shown that for particular parameters, the engineered dissipation induces almost perfect two-mode squeezing and entanglement both for the bright fields and for the dressed spins. The excited-state spin has squeezing of near 40% below the standard quantum limit although there remains the spontaneous emission from the involved excited states. PMID:27557189
High density spin noise spectroscopy with squeezed light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Jiménez-Martínez, Ricardo; Kong, Jia; Mitchell, Morgan
2016-05-01
Spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for determining physical properties of an unperturbed spin system from its power noise spectrum both in atomic and solid state physics. In the presence of a transverse magnetic field, we detect spontaneous spin fluctuations of a dense Rb vapor via Faraday rotation of an off-resonance probe beam, resulting in the excess of spectral noise at the Larmor frequency over a white photon shot-noise background. We report quantum enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio via polarization squeezing of the probe beam up to 3dB over the full density range up to n = 1013 atoms cm-3, covering practical conditions used in optimized SNS experiments. Furthermore, we show that squeezing improves the trade-off between statistical sensitivity and systematic errors due to line broadening, a previously unobserved quantum advantage. Finally, we present a novel theoretical model on quantum limits of noise spectroscopies by defining a standard quantum limit under optimized regimes and by discussing the conditions of its overcoming due to squeezing.
Engineering a squeezed phonon reservoir with a bichromatic driving of a quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Bo; Li, Gao-xiang; Ficek, Zbigniew
2016-09-01
We demonstrate how an acoustic phonon bath when coupled to a quantum dot with the help of a bichromatic laser field may effectively form a quantum squeezed reservoir. This approach allows one to achieve an arbitrary degree of squeezing of the effective reservoir and it incorporates the properties of the reservoir into two parameters, which can be controlled by varying the ratio of the Rabi frequencies of the bichromatic field. It is found that for unequal Rabi frequencies, the effective reservoir may appear as a quantum squeezed field of ordinary or inverted harmonic oscillators. When the Rabi frequencies are equal the effective reservoir appears as a perfectly squeezed field in which the decay of one of the polarization quadratures of the quantum dot dipole moment is inhibited. The decay of the quantum dot to a stationary state which depends on the initial coherence is predicted. This unusual result is shown to be a consequence of a quantum-nondemolition-type coupling of the quantum dot to the engineered squeezed reservoir. The effect of the initial coherence on the steady-state dressed-state population distribution and the fluorescence spectrum is discussed in detail. The complete polarization of the dressed state population and asymmetric spectra composed of only a single Rabi sideband peak are obtained under strictly resonant excitation.
On squeezed limits in single-field inflation. Part I
Flauger, Raphael; Green, Daniel; Porto, Rafael A. E-mail: dgreen@stanford.edu
2013-08-01
The n-point correlation functions in single-field inflation obey a set of consistency conditions in the exact squeezed limit which are not present in multi-field models, and thus are powerful tools to distinguish between the two. However, these consistency conditions may be violated for a finite range of scales in single-field models, for example by departures from the Bunch-Davies state. These excited states may be the consequence of interactions during inflation, or may be a remnant of the era that preceded inflation. In this paper we analyze the bispectrum, and show that in the regime of theoretical control the resulting signal in the squeezed limit remains undetectably small in all known models which continuously excite the state. We also show that the signal remains undetectably small if the initial state is related to the Bunch-Davies state by a Bogoliubov transformation and the energy density in the state is small enough so that the usual slow-roll conditions are obeyed. Bogoliubov states that lead to violations of the slow-roll conditions, as well as more general excited states, require more careful treatment and will be discussed in a separate publication.
Entangled Coherent States Generation in two Superconducting LC Circuits
Chen Meiyu; Zhang Weimin
2008-11-07
We proposed a novel pure electronic (solid state) device consisting of two superconducting LC circuits coupled to a superconducting flux qubit. The entangled coherent states of the two LC modes is generated through the measurement of the flux qubit states. The interaction of the flux qubit and two LC circuits is controlled by the external microwave control lines. The geometrical structure of the LC circuits is adjustable and makes a strong coupling between them achievable. This entangled coherent state generator can be realized by using the conventional microelectronic fabrication techniques which increases the feasibility of the experiment.
The CMB bispectrum in the squeezed limit
Creminelli, Paolo; Pitrou, Cyril; Vernizzi, Filippo E-mail: cyril.pitrou@gmail.com
2011-11-01
The CMB bispectrum generated by second-order effects at recombination can be calculated analytically when one of the three modes has a wavelength much longer than the other two and is outside the horizon at recombination. This was pointed out in [1] and here we correct their results. We derive a simple formula for the bispectrum, f{sub NL}{sup loc} = −(1/6+cos 2θ)⋅(1−1/2⋅dln (l{sub S}{sup 2}C{sub S})/dln l{sub S}), where C{sub S} is the short scale spectrum and θ the relative orientation between the long and the short modes. This formula is exact and takes into account all effects at recombination, including recombination-lensing, but neglects all late-time effects such as ISW-lensing. The induced bispectrum in the squeezed limit is small and will negligibly contaminate the Planck search for a local primordial signal: this will be biased only by f{sub NL}{sup loc} ≈ −0.4. The above analytic formula includes the primordial non-Gaussianity of any single-field model. It also represents a consistency check for second-order Boltzmann codes: we find substantial agreement with the current version of the CMBquick code.
Generation of GHZ states with invariant-based shortcuts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Li-Xiang; Lin, Xiu; Chen, Xiang; He, Juan; Yang, Rong-Can; Liu, Hong-Yu
2016-07-01
A scheme is proposed to generate three-atom GHZ states by applying the inversely engineered control method on the basis of Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants. In the proposal, three atoms that have different configurations are trapped in a bimodal cavity. Numerical simulations indicate that our protocol has an obvious improvement of speed for the generation of GHZ states. Moreover, the present scheme is robust against both parameter fluctuations and dissipation.
Generation of multiple-particle cluster state via cavity QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Gong-Wei; Lin, Xiu-Min; Chen, Li-Bo; Du, Qian-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Hua
2008-01-01
This paper proposes schemes for generating multiple-photon and multiple-atom cluster states, respectively. The schemes are based on the cavity input-output process and atomic or photonic states measurement, and the successful probabilities approach unity in the ideal case. The numerical simulations show that the produced multiple-particle cluster states have high fidelity even if the Lamb-Dicke condition is not satisfied. Some practical imperfections, such as atomic spontaneous emission and output coupling inefficiency, only decrease the success probability but exert no influence on the fidelity of generated multiple-particle cluster states. From the experimental point of view, smaller operation number and lack of need for individual addressing keeps the schemes easy to implement. These schemes may offer a promising approach to the generation of a large-scale cluster state.
Mechanical squeezing and photonic anti-bunching in a coupled two-cavity optomechanical system.
Cai, Qiu-Hua; Xiao, Yin; Yu, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Ming
2016-09-01
We propose a scheme for generating the squeezing of a mechanical mode and the anti-bunching of photonic modes in an optomechanical system. In this system, there are two photonic modes (the left cavity-mode and the right cavity-mode) and one mechanical mode. Both the left cavity-mode and the right cavity-mode are driven by two lasers, respectively. The power of the driving lasers and the detuning between them play a key role in generating squeezing of the mechanical mode. We find that the squeezing of the mechanical mode can be achieved even at a high temperature by increasing the power of the driving lasers. We also find that the cavity-modes can show photonic anti-bunching under suitable conditions. PMID:27607612
Maximally entangled mixed-state generation via local operations
Aiello, A.; Puentes, G.; Voigt, D.; Woerdman, J. P.
2007-06-15
We present a general theoretical method to generate maximally entangled mixed states of a pair of photons initially prepared in the singlet polarization state. This method requires only local operations upon a single photon of the pair and exploits spatial degrees of freedom to induce decoherence. We report also experimental confirmation of these theoretical results.
Generation of the reciprocal-binomial state for optical fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valverde, C.; Avelar, A. T.; Baseia, B.; Malbouisson, J. M. C.
2003-08-01
We compare the efficiencies of two interesting schemes to generate truncated states of the light field in running modes, namely the “quantum scissors” and the “beam-splitter array” schemes. The latter is applied to create the reciprocal-binomial state as a travelling wave, required to implement recent experimental proposals of phase-distribution determination and of quantum lithography.
Prospects of charged-oscillator quantum-state generation with Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, Robin; Minář, Jiří; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-10-01
We explore the possibility of engineering quantum states of a charged mechanical oscillator by coupling it to a stream of atoms in superpositions of high-lying Rydberg states. Our scheme relies on the driving of a two-phonon resonance within the oscillator by coupling it to an atomic two-photon transition. This approach effectuates a controllable open system dynamics on the oscillator that in principle permits versatile dissipative creation of squeezed and other nonclassical states which are central to sensing applications or for studies of fundamental questions concerning the boundary between classical and quantum-mechanical descriptions of macroscopic objects. We show that these features survive thermal coupling of the oscillator with the environment. We perform a detailed feasibility study finding that current state-of-the-art parameters result in atom-oscillator couplings which are too weak to efficiently implement the proposed oscillator state preparation protocol. Finally, we comment on ways to circumvent the present limitations.
Generating arbitrary photon-number entangled states for continuous-variable quantum informatics.
Lee, Su-Yong; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Nha, Hyunchul
2012-06-18
We propose two experimental schemes that can produce an arbitrary photon-number entangled state (PNES) in a finite dimension. This class of entangled states naturally includes non-Gaussian continuous-variable (CV) states that may provide some practical advantages over the Gaussian counterparts (two-mode squeezed states). We particularly compare the entanglement characteristics of the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian states in view of the degree of entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation, and further discuss their applications to the CV teleportation and the nonlocality test. The experimental imperfection due to the on-off photodetectors with nonideal efficiency is also considered in our analysis to show the feasibility of our schemes within existing technologies. PMID:22714485
Generation of hyperentangled states between remote noninteracting atomic ions
Hu Baolin; Zhan Youbang
2010-11-15
We propose a scheme of generating four-qubit hyperentangled states between a pair of remote noninteracting atomic ions with a {Lambda} configuration that are confined in Paul traps. These hyperentangled states, different from the normal entangled states that are entangled in a single degree of freedom, are entangled in both spin and motion degrees of freedom. In our proposal, the entanglement is first generated in spin degrees of freedom using linear optics and then transferred to the motion degree of freedom using a sequence of laser pluses, including the stimulated Raman carrier transitions and sideband transitions. The proposal is completed with regenerating entanglement in spin degrees of freedom using linear optics.
Squeezed light for the interferometric detection of high-frequency gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnabel, R.; Harms, J.; Strain, K. A.; Danzmann, K.
2004-03-01
The quantum noise of the light field is a fundamental noise source in interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Injected squeezed light is capable of reducing the quantum noise contribution to the detector noise floor to values that surpass the so-called standard quantum limit (SQL). In particular, squeezed light is useful for the detection of gravitational waves at high frequencies where interferometers are typically shot-noise limited, although the SQL might not be beaten in this case. We theoretically analyse the quantum noise of the signal-recycled laser interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 with additional input and output optics, namely frequency-dependent squeezing of the vacuum state of light entering the dark port and frequency-dependent homodyne detection. We focus on the frequency range between 1 kHz and 10 kHz, where, although signal recycled, the detector is still shot-noise limited. It is found that the GEO 600 detector with present design parameters will benefit from frequency-dependent squeezed light. Assuming a squeezing strength of -6 dB in quantum noise variance, the interferometer will become thermal noise limited up to 4 kHz without further reduction of bandwidth. At higher frequencies the linear noise spectral density of GEO 600 will still be dominated by shot noise and improved by a factor of 106dB/20dB ap 2 according to the squeezing strength assumed. The interferometer might reach a strain sensitivity of 6 × 10-23 above 1 kHz (tunable) with a bandwidth of around 350 Hz. We propose a scheme to implement the desired frequency-dependent squeezing by introducing an additional optical component into GEO 600's signal-recycling cavity.
Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states.
Grosshans, Frédéric; Grangier, Philippe
2002-02-01
We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states, and we show that they are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks. These protocols require that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50%, but they do not rely on "sub-shot-noise" features such as squeezing. Their security is a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which limits the signal-to-noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line. Our approach can also be used for evaluating various QKD protocols using light with Gaussian statistics.
Strong quantum squeezing near the pull-in instability of a nonlinear beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George
2016-08-01
Microscopic silicon-based suspended mechanical oscillators, constituting an extremely sensitive force probe, transducer, and actuator, are being increasingly employed in many developing microscopies, spectroscopies, and emerging optomechanical and chem-bio sensors. We predict a significant squeezing in the quantum state of motion of an oscillator constrained as a beam and subject to an electrically induced nonlinearity. By taking into account the quantum noise, the underlying nonlinear dynamics is investigated in both the transient and stationary regimes of the driving force leading to the finding that strongly squeezed states are accessible in the vicinity of the pull-in instability of the oscillator. We discuss a possible application of this strong quantum squeezing as an optomechanical method for detecting broad-spectrum single or low-count photons, and further suggest other novel sensing actions.
Strong quantum squeezing near the pull-in instability of a nonlinear beam
Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George
2016-08-04
Microscopic silicon-based suspended mechanical oscillators, constituting an extremely sensitive force probe, transducer, and actuator, are being increasingly employed in many developing microscopies, spectroscopies, and emerging optomechanical and chem-bio sensors. Here, we predict a significant squeezing in the quantum state of motion of an oscillator constrained as a beam and subject to an electrically induced nonlinearity. When we take into account the quantum noise, the underlying nonlinear dynamics is investigated in both the transient and stationary regimes of the driving force leading to the finding that strongly squeezed states are accessible in the vicinity of the pull-in instability of the oscillator.more » We discuss a possible application of this strong quantum squeezing as an optomechanical method for detecting broad-spectrum single or low-count photons, and further suggest other novel sensing actions.« less
On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states
Vergyris, Panagiotis; Meany, Thomas; Lunghi, Tommaso; Sauder, Gregory; Downes, James; Steel, M. J.; Withford, Michael J.; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sébastien
2016-01-01
Beyond the use of genuine monolithic integrated optical platforms, we report here a hybrid strategy enabling on-chip generation of configurable heralded two-photon states. More specifically, we combine two different fabrication techniques, i.e., non-linear waveguides on lithium niobate for efficient photon-pair generation and femtosecond-laser-direct-written waveguides on glass for photon manipulation. Through real-time device manipulation capabilities, a variety of path-coded heralded two-photon states can be produced, ranging from product to entangled states. Those states are engineered with high levels of purity, assessed by fidelities of 99.5 ± 8% and 95.0 ± 8%, respectively, obtained via quantum interferometric measurements. Our strategy therefore stands as a milestone for further exploiting entanglement-based protocols, relying on engineered quantum states, and enabled by scalable and compatible photonic circuits. PMID:27775062
Multimode squeezing, biphotons and uncertainty relations in polarization quantum optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karassiov, V. P.
1994-01-01
The concept of squeezing and uncertainty relations are discussed for multimode quantum light with the consideration of polarization. Using the polarization gauge SU(2) invariance of free electromagnetic fields, we separate the polarization and biphoton degrees of freedom from other ones, and consider uncertainty relations characterizing polarization and biphoton observables. As a consequence, we obtain a new classification of states of unpolarized (and partially polarized) light within quantum optics. We also discuss briefly some interrelations of our analysis with experiments connected with solving some fundamental problems of physics.
Backscatter tolerant squeezed light source for advanced gravitational-wave detectors.
Chua, Sheon S Y; Stefszky, Michael S; Mow-Lowry, Conor M; Buchler, Ben C; Dwyer, Sheila; Shaddock, Daniel A; Lam, Ping Koy; McClelland, David E
2011-12-01
We report on the performance of a dual-wavelength resonant, traveling-wave optical parametric oscillator to generate squeezed light for application in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. Shot noise suppression of 8.6±0.8 dB was measured across the detection band of interest to Advanced LIGO, and controlled squeezing measured over 5900 s. Our results also demonstrate that the traveling-wave design has excellent intracavity backscattered light suppression of 47 dB and incident backscattered light suppression of 41 dB, which is a crucial design issue for application in advanced interferometers. PMID:22139282
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelsen, Nils; Hosten, Onur; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark
2016-05-01
The standard quantum limit (SQL) for quantum metrology has been surpassed by as much as a factor of 100 using entangled states. However, in order to utilize these states, highly engineered, low-noise state readout is required. Here we present a new method to bypass this requirement in a wide variety of physical systems. We implement the protocol experimentally in a system using the clock states of 5 ×105 87 Rb atoms. Through a nonlinear, optical cavity-mediated interaction we generate spin squeezed states. A small microwave rotation followed by an additional optical cavity interaction stage allow us to exploit the full sensitivity of the squeezed states with a fluorescence detection system. Though the technical noise floor of our fluorescence detection is 15dB above the SQL, we show metrology at 8dB below the SQL. This is the first time squeezed states prepared in a cavity are read out by fluorescence imaging. The method described can be used in any system with a suitable nonlinear interaction.
A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang
2013-06-01
LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.
A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.
Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang
2013-06-01
LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.
Quantum optics. Quantum harmonic oscillator state synthesis by reservoir engineering.
Kienzler, D; Lo, H-Y; Keitch, B; de Clercq, L; Leupold, F; Lindenfelser, F; Marinelli, M; Negnevitsky, V; Home, J P
2015-01-01
The robust generation of quantum states in the presence of decoherence is a primary challenge for explorations of quantum mechanics at larger scales. Using the mechanical motion of a single trapped ion, we utilize reservoir engineering to generate squeezed, coherent, and displaced-squeezed states as steady states in the presence of noise. We verify the created state by generating two-state correlated spin-motion Rabi oscillations, resulting in high-contrast measurements. For both cooling and measurement, we use spin-oscillator couplings that provide transitions between oscillator states in an engineered Fock state basis. Our approach should facilitate studies of entanglement, quantum computation, and open-system quantum simulations in a wide range of physical systems.
Audio-Band Frequency-Dependent Squeezing for Gravitational-Wave Detectors.
Oelker, Eric; Isogai, Tomoki; Miller, John; Tse, Maggie; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew
2016-01-29
Quantum vacuum fluctuations impose strict limits on precision displacement measurements, those of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors among them. Introducing squeezed states into an interferometer's readout port can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, leading to richer astrophysical observations. However, optomechanical interactions dictate that the vacuum's squeezed quadrature must rotate by 90° around 50 Hz. Here we use a 2-m-long, high-finesse optical resonator to produce frequency-dependent rotation around 1.2 kHz. This demonstration of audio-band frequency-dependent squeezing uses technology and methods that are scalable to the required rotation frequency and validates previously developed theoretical models, heralding application of the technique in future gravitational-wave detectors. PMID:26871318
Audio-Band Frequency-Dependent Squeezing for Gravitational-Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oelker, Eric; Isogai, Tomoki; Miller, John; Tse, Maggie; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew
2016-01-01
Quantum vacuum fluctuations impose strict limits on precision displacement measurements, those of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors among them. Introducing squeezed states into an interferometer's readout port can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, leading to richer astrophysical observations. However, optomechanical interactions dictate that the vacuum's squeezed quadrature must rotate by 90° around 50 Hz. Here we use a 2-m-long, high-finesse optical resonator to produce frequency-dependent rotation around 1.2 kHz. This demonstration of audio-band frequency-dependent squeezing uses technology and methods that are scalable to the required rotation frequency and validates previously developed theoretical models, heralding application of the technique in future gravitational-wave detectors.
Observation of strong radiation pressure forces from squeezed light on a mechanical oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Jeremy B.; Lecocq, Florent; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Aumentado, José; Teufel, John D.
2016-07-01
In quantum-enhanced sensing, non-classical states are used to improve the sensitivity of a measurement. Squeezed light, in particular, has proved a useful resource in enhanced mechanical displacement sensing, although the fundamental limit to this enhancement due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle has not been encountered experimentally. Here we use a microwave cavity optomechanical system to observe the squeezing-dependent radiation pressure noise that necessarily accompanies any quantum enhancement of the measurement precision and ultimately limits the measurement noise performance. By increasing the measurement strength so that radiation pressure forces dominate the thermal motion of the mechanical oscillator, we exploit the optomechanical interaction to implement an efficient quantum nondemolition measurement of the squeezed light. Thus, our results show how the mechanical oscillator improves the measurement of non-classical light, just as non-classical light enhances the measurement of the motion.
Squeezing Meteorites to Reveal the Martian Mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, G. J.
2006-12-01
A piece of a Martian lava flow, Antarctic meteorite Yamato-980459, appears to represent the composition of a magma produced by partial melting of the Martian interior. That's the view of researchers Don Musselwhite, Walter Kiefer, and Allan Treiman (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston) and Heather Dalton (Arizona State University). Musselwhite and his colleagues determined that this basaltic Martian meteorite represented a primary melt from the mantle. This was an important discovery because magma produced inside a planet contains significant clues to the composition of the region of the interior in which it formed. The lava flows that decorate the surface of planets tell us about the mantle, the rocky region beneath the crust and above the metallic core. The researchers used apparatus at the Johnson Space Center to determine what minerals are present when samples with the composition of Y-980459 are heated to a range of temperatures and squeezed to a range of pressures like those that planetary scientists expect to exist in the interior of Mars. The results indicate that the magma represented by this special meteorite formed at a depth of about 100 kilometers and a temperature of about 1540 degrees C. From the high temperature and high ratio of magnesium to iron in the magma, Musselwhite and his colleagues infer that the amount of melting to produce the Y-980459 parent magma was high, which suggests that the temperature at the boundary between the metallic core and the rocky mantle was higher than previous estimates. This work gives us clues to the composition and dynamics of the Martian interior--all from a rock chipped off a lava flow on Mars and flung to Earth by an impact.
Generating and protecting correlated quantum states under collective dephasing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnio, Edoardo G.; Buchleitner, Andreas; Gessner, Manuel
2016-07-01
We study the collective dephasing process of a system of non-interacting atomic qubits, immersed in a spatially uniform magnetic field of fluctuating intensity. The correlation properties of bipartite states are analysed based on a geometric representation of the state space. Particular emphasis is put on the dephasing-assisted generation of states with a high correlation rank, which can be related to discord-type correlations and allow for direct applications in quantum information theory. Finally we study the conditions that ensure the robustness of initial entanglement and discuss the phenomenon of time-invariant entanglement.
Reduce, reuse, recycle for robust cluster-state generation
Horsman, Clare; Brown, Katherine L.; Kendon, Vivien M.; Munro, William J.
2011-04-15
Efficient generation of cluster states is crucial for engineering large-scale measurement-based quantum computers. Hybrid matter-optical systems offer a robust, scalable path to this goal. Such systems have an ancilla which acts as a bus connecting the qubits. We show that by generating the cluster in smaller sections of interlocking bricks, reusing one ancilla per brick, the cluster can be produced with maximal efficiency, requiring fewer than half the operations compared with no bus reuse. By reducing the time required to prepare sections of the cluster, bus reuse more than doubles the size of the computational workspace that can be used before decoherence effects dominate. A row of buses in parallel provides fully scalable cluster-state generation requiring only 20 controlled-phase gates per bus use.
Squeezing in a 2-D generalized oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castanos, Octavio; Lopez-Pena, Ramon; Manko, Vladimir I.
1994-01-01
A two-dimensional generalized oscillator with time-dependent parameters is considered to study the two-mode squeezing phenomena. Specific choices of the parameters are used to determine the dispersion matrix and analytic expressions, in terms of standard hermite polynomials, of the wavefunctions and photon distributions.
Evolution of l-photon excited thermo vacuum state in a single-mode damping channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Rui; Fan, Hong-Yi
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate how a kind of non-Gaussian states (l-photon excited thermo vacuum state Cla†l|0(β)>) evolves in a single-mode damping channel. We find that it evolves into a Laguerre-polynomial-weighted real-fictitious squeezed thermo vacuum state, which exhibits strong decoherence and its original nonclassicality fades. In particular, when l = 0, in this damping process the thermo squeezing effect decreases while the fictitious-mode vacuum becomes chaotic. In overcoming the difficulty of calculation, we employ the summation method within ordered product of operators, a new generating function formula about two-variable Hermite polynomials is derived.
On-chip generation of photon-triplet states.
Krapick, Stephan; Brecht, Benjamin; Herrmann, Harald; Quiring, Viktor; Silberhorn, Christine
2016-02-01
Efficient sources of many-partite non-classical states are key for the advancement of quantum technologies and for the fundamental testing of quantum mechanics. We demonstrate the generation of time-correlated photon triplets at telecom wavelengths via pulsed cascaded parametric down-conversion in a monolithically integrated source. By detecting the generated states with success probabilities of (6.25 ± 1.09) × 10(-11) per pump pulse at injected powers as low as 10 μW, we benchmark the efficiency of the complete system and deduce its high potential for scalability. Our source is unprecedentedly long-term stable, it overcomes interface losses intrinsically due to its monolithic architecture, and the photon-triplet states dominate uncorrelated noise significantly. These results mark crucial progress towards the proliferation of robust, scalable, synchronized and miniaturized quantum technology. PMID:26906852
Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh
A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.
Deterministic photonic cluster state generation from quantum dot molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Economou, Sophia; Gimeno-Segovia, Mercedes; Rudolph, Terry
2014-03-01
Currently, the most promising approach for photon-based quantum information processing is measurement-based, or one-way, quantum computing. In this scheme, a large entangled state of photons is prepared upfront and the computation is implemented with single-qubit measurements alone. Available approaches to generating the cluster state are probabilistic, which makes scalability challenging. We propose to generate the cluster state using a quantum dot molecule with one electron spin per quantum dot. The two spins are coupled by exchange interaction and are periodically pulsed to produce photons. We show that the entanglement created by free evolution between the spins is transferred to the emitted photons, and thus a 2D photonic ladder can be created. Our scheme only utilizes single-spin gates and measurement, and is thus fully consistent with available technology.
Atomic Dipole Squeezing in the Correlated Two-Mode Two-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dong, Zhengchao; Zhao, Yonglin
1996-01-01
In this paper, we study the atomic dipole squeezing in the correlated two-mode two-photon JC model with the field initially in the correlated two-mode SU(1,1) coherent state. The effects of detuning, field intensity and number difference between the two field modes are investigated through numerical calculation.
Time development of fluorescence spectra of a three-level atom in a squeezed vacuum
Jayarao, A.S.; Lawande, S.V.; D'Souza, R. )
1992-06-20
In this paper, the authors present an analytical study of the time-dependent spectra of a three-level atom in the cascade configuration driven by two intense coherent fields and damped by a broadband squeezed vacuum. The authors have also studied the influence of the initial state preparation of the atom on the transient spectrum.
Dominant flood generating mechanisms across the United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berghuijs, Wouter R.; Woods, Ross A.; Hutton, Christopher J.; Sivapalan, M.
2016-05-01
River flooding can have severe societal, economic, and environmental consequences. However, limited understanding of the regional differences in flood-generating mechanisms results in poorly understood historical flood trends and uncertain predictions of future flood conditions. Through systematic data analyses of 420 catchments we expose the primary drivers of flooding across the contiguous United States. This is achieved by exploring which flood-generating processes control the seasonality and magnitude of maximum annual flows. The regional patterns of seasonality and interannual variabilities of maximum annual flows are, in general, poorly explained by rainfall characteristics alone. For most catchments soil moisture dependent precipitation excess, snowmelt, and rain-on-snow events are found to be much better predictors of the flooding responses. The continental-scale classification of dominant flood-generating processes we generate here emphasizes the disparity in timing and variability between extreme rainfall and flooding and can assist predictions of flooding and flood risk within the continental U.S.
Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardini, Alex E.; Mizrahi, Salomon S.
2015-06-01
The effects of general noncommutativity of operators on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined in phase space. A two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure, similar to that of Hadamard billiard, is obtained and the components behaviour is monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two free 1D harmonic oscillators (HOs), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the NC deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained, new, Hamiltonian represents two interacting 1D HOs. By admitting that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed in terms of Wigner functions, which are essential to put in evidence the effects of the noncommutativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Applegarth, L. J.; Pinkerton, H.; James, M. R.
2009-04-01
The general processes associated with the formation and activity of ephemeral boccas in lava flow fields are well documented (e.g. Pinkerton & Sparks 1976; Polacci & Papale 1997). The importance of studying such behaviour is illustrated by observations of the emplacement of a basaltic andesite flow at Parícutin during the 1940s. Following a pause in advance of one month, this 8 km long flow was reactivated by the resumption of supply from the vent, which forced the rapid drainage of stagnant material in the flow front region. The material extruded during drainage was in a highly plastic state (Krauskopf 1948), and its displacement allowed hot fluid lava from the vent to be transported in a tube to the original flow front, from where it covered an area of 350,000 m2 in one night (Luhr & Simkin 1993). Determining when a flow has stopped advancing, and cannot be drained in such a manner, is therefore highly important in hazard assessment and flow modelling, and our ability to do this may be improved through the examination of relatively small-scale secondary extrusions and boccas. The 2001 flank eruption of Mt. Etna, Sicily, resulted in the emplacement of a 7 km long compound `a`ā flow field over a period of 23 days. During emplacement, many ephemeral boccas were observed in the flow field, which were active for between two and at least nine days. The longer-lived examples initially fed well-established flows that channelled fresh material from the main vent. With time, as activity waned, the nature of the extruded material changed. The latest stages of development of all boccas involved the very slow extrusion of material that was either draining from higher parts of the flow or being forced out of the flow interior as changing local flow conditions pressurised parts of the flow that had been stagnant for some time. Here we describe this late-stage activity of the ephemeral boccas, which resulted in the formation of ‘squeeze-ups' of lava with a markedly different
Design and application of squeeze film dampers for turbomachinery stabilization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunter, E. J.; Barrett, L. E.; Allaire, P. E.
1975-01-01
The steady-state transient response of the squeeze film damper bearing was investigated. Both the steady-state and transient equations for the hydrodynamic bearing forces are derived; the steady-state equations were used to determine the damper equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients. These coefficients are used to find the damper configuration which will provide the optimum support characteristics based on a stability analysis of the rotor-bearing system. The effects of end seals and cavitated fluid film are included. The transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems was conducted by coupling the damping and rotor equations and integrating forward in time. The effects of unbalance, cavitation, and retainer springs are included. Methods of determining the stability of a rotor-bearing system under the influence of aerodynamic forces and internal shaft friction are discussed.
Generating Reduced Tests for FSMs with Extra States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simão, Adenilso; Petrenko, Alexandre; Yevtushenko, Nina
We address the problem of generating tests from a deterministic Finite State Machine to provide full fault coverage even if the faults may introduce extra states in the implementations. It is well-known that such tests should include the sequences in the so-called traversal set, which contains all sequences of length defined by the number of extra states. Therefore, the only apparent opportunity to produce shorter tests is to find within a test suite a suitable arrangement of the sequences in the inescapable traversal set. We observe that the direct concatenation of the traversal set to a given state cover, suggested by all existing generation methods with full fault coverage, results in extensive test branching, when a test has to be repeatedly executed to apply all the sequences of the traversal set. In this paper, we state conditions which allow distributing these sequences over several tests. We then utilize these conditions to elaborate a method, called SPY-method, which shortens tests by avoiding test branching as much as possible. We present the results of the experimental comparison of the proposed method with an existing method which indicate that the resulting save can be up to 40%.
Entangled mixed-state generation by twin-photon scattering
Puentes, G.; Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J. P.; Voigt, D.
2007-03-15
We report experimental results on mixed-state generation by multiple scattering of polarization-entangled photon pairs created from parametric down-conversion. By using a large variety of scattering optical systems we have experimentally obtained entangled mixed states that lie upon and below the Werner curve in the linear entropy-tangle plane. We have also introduced a simple phenomenological model built on the analogy between classical polarization optics and quantum maps. Theoretical predictions from such a model are in full agreement with our experimental findings.
Harnessing gauge fields for maximally entangled state generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, S. A.; Morales-Molina, L.; Orszag, M.; Spehner, D.
2014-10-01
We study the generation of entanglement between two species of bosons living on a ring lattice, where each group of particles can be described by a d-dimensional Hilbert space (qudit). Gauge fields are exploited to create an entangled state between the pair of qudits. Maximally entangled eigenstates are found for well-defined values of the Aharonov-Bohm phase, which are zero-energy eigenstates of both the kinetic and interacting parts of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, making them quite exceptional and robust. We propose a protocol to reach the maximally entangled state (MES) by starting from an initially prepared ground state. Also, an indirect method to detect the MES by measuring the current of the particles is proposed.
Harnessing gauge fields for maximally entangled state generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, Sebastian; Morales-Molina, Luis; Orszag, Miguel; Spehner, Dominique
2015-03-01
We study the generation of entanglement between two species of bosons living on a ring lattice, where each group of particles can be described by a d-dimensional Hilbert space (qudit). Gauge fields are exploited to create an entangled state between the pair of qudits. Maximally entangled eigenstates are found for well-defined values of the Aharonov-Bohm phase, which are zero-energy eigenstates of both the kinetic and interacting parts of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, making them quite exceptional. We propose a protocol to reach the maximally entangled state (MES) by starting from an initially prepared ground state. Also, an indirect method to detect the MES by measuring the current of the particles is proposed.
Generation of chiral spin state by quantum simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanamoto, Tetsufumi
2016-06-01
Chirality of materials in nature appears when there are asymmetries in their lattice structures or interactions in a certain environment. Recent development of quantum simulation technology has enabled the manipulation of qubits. Accordingly, chirality can be realized intentionally rather than passively observed. Here we theoretically provide simple methods to create a chiral spin state in a spin-1/2 qubit system on a square lattice. First, we show that switching on and off the Heisenberg and X Y interactions produces the chiral interaction directly in the effective Hamiltonian without controlling local fields. Moreover, when initial states of spin qubits are appropriately prepared, we prove that the chirality with desirable phase is dynamically obtained. Finally, even for the case where switching on and off the interactions is infeasible and the interactions are always on, we show that, by preparing an asymmetric initial qubit state, the chirality whose phase is π /2 is dynamically generated.
Investigation of squeeze-film dampers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, R.; Dogan, M.
1982-01-01
Squeeze film dampers are a means of curing instabilities in rotating shaft assemblies. Their efficiency depends very much on the condition of the oil, which in turn depends on inlet and outlet arrangements, on damper geometry and on the flexibility of the rotor and surrounding structure. Rig investigations in which structural flexibility is included experimentally are discussed. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted results.
Nonperturbative calculation of phonon effects on spin squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dylewsky, D.; Freericks, J. K.; Wall, M. L.; Rey, A. M.; Foss-Feig, M.
2016-01-01
Theoretical models of spins coupled to bosons provide a simple setting for studying a broad range of important phenomena in many-body physics, from virtually mediated interactions to decoherence and thermalization. In many atomic, molecular, and optical systems, such models also underlie the most successful attempts to engineer strong, long-ranged interactions for the purpose of entanglement generation. Especially when the coupling between the spins and bosons is strong, such that it cannot be treated perturbatively, the properties of such models are extremely challenging to calculate theoretically. Here, exact analytical expressions for nonequilibrium spin-spin correlation functions are derived for a specific model of spins coupled to bosons. The spatial structure of the coupling between spins and bosons is completely arbitrary, and thus the solution can be applied to systems in any number of dimensions. The explicit and nonperturbative inclusion of the bosons enables the study of entanglement generation (in the form of spin squeezing) even when the bosons are driven strongly and near resonantly, and thus provides a quantitative view of the breakdown of adiabatic elimination that inevitably occurs as one pushes towards the fastest entanglement generation possible. The solution also helps elucidate the effect of finite temperature on spin squeezing. The model considered is relevant to a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems, such as atoms in cavities or trapped ions. As an explicit example, the results are used to quantify phonon effects in trapped ion quantum simulators, which are expected to become increasingly important as these experiments push towards larger numbers of ions.
Complex Squeezing and Force Measurement Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchmann, L. F.; Schreppler, S.; Kohler, J.; Spethmann, N.; Stamper-Kurn, D. M.
2016-07-01
A continuous quantum field, such as a propagating beam of light, may be characterized by a squeezing spectrum that is inhomogeneous in frequency. We point out that homodyne detectors, which are commonly employed to detect quantum squeezing, are blind to squeezing spectra in which the correlation between amplitude and phase fluctuations is complex. We find theoretically that such complex squeezing is a component of ponderomotive squeezing of light through cavity optomechanics. We propose a detection scheme called synodyne detection, which reveals complex squeezing and allows the accounting of measurement backaction. Even with the optomechanical system subject to continuous measurement, such detection allows the measurement of one component of an external force with sensitivity only limited by the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation.
Squeeze film effect for the design of an ultrasonic tactile plate.
Biet, Mélisande; Giraud, Frédéric; Lemaire-Semail, Betty
2007-12-01
Most tactile displays currently built rely on pin-based arrays. However, this kind of tactile device is not always appropriate when we need to give the illusion of finely textured surfaces. In this paper, we describe the squeeze film effect between a plate and a finger, and we use this effect to design an ultrasonic tactile plate. The plate is actuated by piezoelectric ceramics. Ultrasonic vibrations are thus produced and are capable of generating the squeeze film effect. This enables us to simulate variable friction on the surface of the plate. In order to identify the squeeze film phenomenon, this study considers the case where a finger, with a planar bottom surface and with epidermal ridges, is placed on a rapidly vibrating plate. The overpressure is calculated and the result enables us to assess the relative coefficient of friction as a function of the vibration amplitude of the plate. Based on this principle, and using both analytic and FE method studies, and given ergonomic and stimulation (squeeze film) requirements, we show that it is possible to design a tactile plate which is capable of giving programmable tactile sensations. We conclude by comparing the results obtained from our simulations with experimental results. PMID:18276574
A Plastic Temporal Brain Code for Conscious State Generation
Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Durup, Jean
2009-01-01
Consciousness is known to be limited in processing capacity and often described in terms of a unique processing stream across a single dimension: time. In this paper, we discuss a purely temporal pattern code, functionally decoupled from spatial signals, for conscious state generation in the brain. Arguments in favour of such a code include Dehaene et al.'s long-distance reverberation postulate, Ramachandran's remapping hypothesis, evidence for a temporal coherence index and coincidence detectors, and Grossberg's Adaptive Resonance Theory. A time-bin resonance model is developed, where temporal signatures of conscious states are generated on the basis of signal reverberation across large distances in highly plastic neural circuits. The temporal signatures are delivered by neural activity patterns which, beyond a certain statistical threshold, activate, maintain, and terminate a conscious brain state like a bar code would activate, maintain, or inactivate the electronic locks of a safe. Such temporal resonance would reflect a higher level of neural processing, independent from sensorial or perceptual brain mechanisms. PMID:19644552
Amplitude-squeezed fiber-Bragg-grating solitons
Lee, R.-K.; Lai Yinchieh
2004-02-01
Quantum fluctuations of optical fiber-Bragg-grating solitons are investigated numerically by the back-propagation method. It is found that the band-gap effects of the grating act as a nonlinear filter and cause the soliton to be amplitude squeezed. The squeezing ratio saturates after a certain grating length and the optimal squeezing ratio occurs when the pulse energy is slightly above the fundamental soliton energy.
Generalised squeezing and information theory approach to quantum entanglement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vourdas, A.
1993-01-01
It is shown that the usual one- and two-mode squeezing are based on reducible representations of the SU(1,1) group. Generalized squeezing is introduced with the use of different SU(1,1) rotations on each irreducible sector. Two-mode squeezing entangles the modes and information theory methods are used to study this entanglement. The entanglement of three modes is also studied with the use of the strong subadditivity property of the entropy.
Photon statistics of a two-mode squeezed vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrade, Guenter; Akulin, V. M.; Schleich, W. P.; Manko, Vladimir I.
1994-01-01
We investigate the general case of the photon distribution of a two-mode squeezed vacuum and show that the distribution of photons among the two modes depends on four parameters: two squeezing parameters, the relative phase between the two oscillators and their spatial orientation. The distribution of the total number of photons depends only on the two squeezing parameters. We derive analytical expressions and present pictures for both distributions.
A solid state Marx generator for TEL2
Kamerdzhiev, V.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab
2007-06-01
The solid-state Marx generator modulates the anode of the electron gun to produce the electron beam pulses in the second Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL2). It is capable of driving the 60 pF terminal with 600 ns pulses of up to 6 kV with a p.r.r. of 50 kHz. The rise and fall times are 150 ns. Stangenes Industries developed the unit and is working on a second version which will go to higher voltage and have the ability to vary its output in 396 ns intervals over a 5 {micro}s pulse.
Two-mode Bose gas: Beyond classical squeezing
Bodet, C.; Gasenzer, T.; Esteve, J.; Oberthaler, M. K.
2010-06-15
The dynamical evolution of squeezing correlations in an ultracold Bose-Einstein condensate distributed across two modes is investigated theoretically in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. It is shown that the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian do not exploit the full region allowed by Heisenberg's uncertainty relation for number and phase fluctuations. The development of nonclassical correlations and relative number squeezing is studied in the transition from the Josephson to the Fock regime. Comparing the full quantum evolution with classical statistical simulations allows us to identify quantum aspects of the squeezing formation. In the quantum regime, the measurement of squeezing allows us to distinguish even and odd total particle numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanning, R. Nicholas; Xiao, Zhihao; Zhang, Mi; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2015-03-01
Recent research relying on the polarization self rotation (PSR) effect in Rb87 has revealed a squeezed vacuum field consisting of several spatial modes with various squeezing parameters [Mi Zhang, Spatial Modes of a Squeezed Vacuum Field, 2015 APS March Meeting]. In order to explain these results, we re-derive the beam propagation model describing the creation of squeezed vacuum via PSR and incorporate more realistic multimode input-output relations in the paraxial approximation. We solve the propagation equation and use it to predict the spatial distribution of squeezed vacuum via the proper Laguerre-Gauss modal structure. This modal structure is instrumental in the development of a complete second quantized beam propagation formalism also being reported at this meeting [Zhihao Xiao, Second quantization of squeezed light through non-linear medium, 2015 APS March Meeting].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haine, S. A.; Lau, J.; Anderson, R. P.; Johnsson, M. T.
2014-08-01
We theoretically investigate a scheme to enhance relative number squeezing and spin squeezing in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) by utilizing the inherent mean-field dynamics of the condensate. Due to the asymmetry in the scattering lengths, the two components exhibit large density oscillations where they spatially separate and recombine. The effective nonlinearity responsible for the squeezing is increased by up to 3 orders of magnitude when the two components spatially separate. We perform a multimode simulation of the system using the truncated Wigner method and show that this method can be used to create significant squeezing in systems where the effective nonlinearity would ordinarily be too small to produce any significant squeezing in sensible time frames, and we show that strong spatial dynamics resulting from large particle numbers aren't necessarily detrimental to generating squeezing. We develop a simplified semianalytic model that gives good agreement with our multimode simulation and will be useful for predicting squeezing in a range of different systems.
Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies in the United States: Preprint
McConnell, R.; Matson, R.
2004-06-01
This paper describes highlights of exploratory research into next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of finding disruptive or ''leap frog'' technologies that may leap ahead of conventional PV in energy markets. The most recent set of 14 next-generation PV projects, termed Beyond the Horizon PV, will complete their third year of research this year. The projects tend to take two notably different approaches: high-efficiency solar cells that are presently too expensive, or organic solar cells having potential for low cost although efficiencies are currently too low. We will describe accomplishments for several of these projects. As prime examples of what these last projects have accomplished, researchers at Princeton University recently reported an organic solar cell with 5% efficiency (not yet NREL-verified). And Ohio State University scientists recently demonstrated an 18% (NREL-verified) single-junction GaAs solar cell grown on a low-cost silicon substrate. We also completed an evaluation of proposals for the newest set of exploratory research projects, but we are unable to describe them in detail until funding becomes available to complete the award process.
The Interference of the Dynamically Squeezed Vibrational Wave Packets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinogradov, An. V.; Janszky, J.; Kobayashi, T.
1996-01-01
An electronic excitation of a molecule by a sequence of two femtosecond phase-locked laser pulses is considered. In this case the interference between the vibrational wave packets induced by each of the subpulses within a single molecule takes place. It is shown that due to the dynamical squeezing effect of a molecular vibrational state the interference of the vibrational wave packets allows one to measure the duration of a femtosecond laser pulse. This can be achieved experimentally by measuring the dependence of the integral fluorescence of the excited molecule on the delay time between the subpulses. The interference can lead to a sharp peak (or to a down-fall) in that dependence, the width of which is equal to the duration of the laser pulse. It is shown that finite temperature of the medium is favorable for such an experiment.
Analytical investigation of squeeze film dampers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bicak, Mehmet Murat Altug
Squeeze film damping effects naturally occur if structures are subjected to loading situations such that a very thin film of fluid is trapped within structural joints, interfaces, etc. An accurate estimate of squeeze film effects is important to predict the performance of dynamic structures. Starting from linear Reynolds equation which governs the fluid behavior coupled with structure domain which is modeled by Kirchhoff plate equation, the effects of nondimensional parameters on the damped natural frequencies are presented using boundary characteristic orthogonal functions. For this purpose, the nondimensional coupled partial differential equations are obtained using Rayleigh-Ritz method and the weak formulation, are solved using polynomial and sinusoidal boundary characteristic orthogonal functions for structure and fluid domain respectively. In order to implement present approach to the complex geometries, a two dimensional isoparametric coupled finite element is developed based on Reissner-Mindlin plate theory and linearized Reynolds equation. The coupling between fluid and structure is handled by considering the pressure forces and structural surface velocities on the boundaries. The effects of the driving parameters on the frequency response functions are investigated. As the next logical step, an analytical method for solution of squeeze film damping based upon Green's function to the nonlinear Reynolds equation considering elastic plate is studied. This allows calculating modal damping and stiffness force rapidly for various boundary conditions. The nonlinear Reynolds equation is divided into multiple linear non-homogeneous Helmholtz equations, which then can be solvable using the presented approach. Approximate mode shapes of a rectangular elastic plate are used, enabling calculation of damping ratio and frequency shift as well as complex resistant pressure. Moreover, the theoretical results are correlated and compared with experimental results both in the
Quantum correlated heat engine with spin squeezing.
Altintas, Ferdi; Hardal, Ali Ü C; Müstecaplıoglu, Özgür E
2014-09-01
We propose a four-level quantum heat engine in an Otto cycle with a working substance of two spins subject to an external magnetic field and coupled to each other by a one-axis twisting spin squeezing nonlinear interaction. We calculate the positive work and the efficiency of the engine for different parameter regimes. In particular, we investigate the effects of quantum correlations at the end of the two isochoric processes of the Otto cycle, as measured by the entanglement of formation and quantum discord, on the work extraction and efficiency. The regimes where the quantum correlations could enhance the efficiency and work extraction are characterized.
Experimental study of uncentralized squeeze film dampers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinn, R. D.
1983-01-01
The vibration response of a rotor system supported by a squeeze film damper (SFD) was experimentally investigated in order to provide experimental data in support of the Rotor/Stator Interactive Finite Element theoretical development. Part of the investigation required the designing and building of a rotor/SFD system that could operate with or without end seals in order to accommodate different SFD lengths. SFD variables investigated included clearance, eccentricity mass, fluid pressure, and viscosity and temperature. The results show inlet pressure, viscosity and clearance have significant influence on the damper performance and accompanying rotor response.
Physical Activity Benefits Creativity: Squeezing a Ball for Enhancing Creativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, JongHan
2015-01-01
Studies in embodied cognition show that physical sensations, such as touch and movement, influence cognitive processes. Two studies were conducted to test whether squeezing a soft versus a hard ball facilitates different types of creativity. Squeezing a malleable ball would increase divergent creativity by catalyzing multiple or alternative ideas,…
Laser generation of Au ions with charge states above 50+
Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Krasa, J.; Krousky, E.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Velyhan, A.; Margarone, D.; Torrisi, L.; Ryc, L.; Ullschmied, J.
2008-02-15
Results of recent studies on highly charged Au ion generation, using the intense long pulses of the PALS high power iodine laser ({lambda}=1.315 {mu}m, E{sub L}=800 J/400 ps), operating under variable experimental conditions (1{omega}, 3{omega}, varying target thickness and changing focus positions), are presented. Both the ion collectors and the ion electrostatic analyzers were applied for the identification of ions in a large distance from the target. The time-of-flight collector signals were treated by a means of peak deconvolution assuming a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann form of the constituent ion current peaks. Attention was paid to the influence of pulse precursor, which becomes evident, especially, if using thinner targets and 1{omega}. The results for 3{omega} point to the presence of several groups of ions with the highest recorded charge state Au{sup 53+}.
Distributed state-space generation of discrete-state stochastic models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ciardo, Gianfranco; Gluckman, Joshua; Nicol, David
1995-01-01
High-level formalisms such as stochastic Petri nets can be used to model complex systems. Analysis of logical and numerical properties of these models of ten requires the generation and storage of the entire underlying state space. This imposes practical limitations on the types of systems which can be modeled. Because of the vast amount of memory consumed, we investigate distributed algorithms for the generation of state space graphs. The distributed construction allows us to take advantage of the combined memory readily available on a network of workstations. The key technical problem is to find effective methods for on-the-fly partitioning, so that the state space is evenly distributed among processors. In this paper we report on the implementation of a distributed state-space generator that may be linked to a number of existing system modeling tools. We discuss partitioning strategies in the context of Petri net models, and report on performance observed on a network of workstations, as well as on a distributed memory multi-computer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miszczak, Jarosław Adam
2013-01-01
The presented package for the Mathematica computing system allows the harnessing of quantum random number generators (QRNG) for investigating the statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states. The new version of the package adds the ability to use the on-line quantum random number generator service and implements new functions for retrieving lists of random numbers. Thanks to the introduced improvements, the new version provides faster access to high-quality sources of random numbers and can be used in simulations requiring large amount of random data. New version program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 134 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 520 49 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C. Computer: Any supporting Mathematica in version 7 or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit). RAM: Case-dependent Supplementary material: Fig. 1 mentioned below can be downloaded. Classification: 4.15. External routines: Quantis software library (http://www.idquantique.com/support/quantis-trng.html) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)118 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices and utilization of high-quality random numbers for the purpose of computer simulation. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator and an on-line service providing access to the source of true random
Resonance Fluorescence from an Artificial Atom in Squeezed Vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toyli, D. M.; Eddins, A. W.; Boutin, S.; Puri, S.; Hover, D.; Bolkhovsky, V.; Oliver, W. D.; Blais, A.; Siddiqi, I.
2016-07-01
We present an experimental realization of resonance fluorescence in squeezed vacuum. We strongly couple microwave-frequency squeezed light to a superconducting artificial atom and detect the resulting fluorescence with high resolution enabled by a broadband traveling-wave parametric amplifier. We investigate the fluorescence spectra in the weak and strong driving regimes, observing up to 3.1 dB of reduction of the fluorescence linewidth below the ordinary vacuum level and a dramatic dependence of the Mollow triplet spectrum on the relative phase of the driving and squeezed vacuum fields. Our results are in excellent agreement with predictions for spectra produced by a two-level atom in squeezed vacuum [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2539 (1987)], demonstrating that resonance fluorescence offers a resource-efficient means to characterize squeezing in cryogenic environments.
Modeling Pilot State in Next Generation Aircraft Alert Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlin, Alan S.; Alexander, Amy L.; Schurr, Nathan
2011-01-01
The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit that must convey a large number of potentially complex alerts. Our work focuses on the challenges associated with prioritizing aircraft sensor alerts in a quick and efficient manner, essentially determining when and how to alert the pilot This "alert decision" becomes very difficult in NextGen due to the following challenges: 1) the increasing number of potential hazards, 2) the uncertainty associated with the state of potential hazards as well as pilot slate , and 3) the limited time to make safely-critical decisions. In this paper, we focus on pilot state and present a model for anticipating duration and quality of pilot behavior, for use in a larger system which issues aircraft alerts. We estimate pilot workload, which we model as being dependent on factors including mental effort, task demands. and task performance. We perform a mathematically rigorous analysis of the model and resulting alerting plans. We simulate the model in software and present simulated results with respect to manipulation of the pilot measures.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corndorf, Eric
objectives of key generation and direct data-encryption, a new quantum cryptographic principle is demonstrated wherein keyed coherent-state signal sets are employed. Taking advantage of the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states, these schemes do not require the users to measure the influence of an attacker. Experimental key-generation and data encryption schemes based on these techniques, which are compatible with today's WDM fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, are implemented and analyzed.
Partial squeeze film levitation modulates fingertip friction.
Wiertlewski, Michaël; Fenton Friesen, Rebecca; Colgate, J Edward
2016-08-16
When touched, a glass plate excited with ultrasonic transverse waves feels notably more slippery than it does at rest. To study this phenomenon, we use frustrated total internal reflection to image the asperities of the skin that are in intimate contact with a glass plate. We observed that the load at the interface is shared between the elastic compression of the asperities of the skin and a squeeze film of air. Stroboscopic investigation reveals that the time evolution of the interfacial gap is partially out of phase with the plate vibration. Taken together, these results suggest that the skin bounces against the vibrating plate but that the bounces are cushioned by a squeeze film of air that does not have time to escape the interfacial separation. This behavior results in dynamic levitation, in which the average number of asperities in intimate contact is reduced, thereby reducing friction. This improved understanding of the physics of friction reduction provides key guidelines for designing interfaces that can dynamically modulate friction with soft materials and biological tissues, such as human fingertips. PMID:27482117
Controllable hybrid shape of correlation and squeezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdisa, Garuma; Ahmed, Irfan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Liu, Zongchen; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Yanpeng
2016-08-01
Two- and three-mode correlation and squeezing of spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing (SPFWM) and fourth-order fluorescence (FL) composite signals are investigated theoretically and experimentally in both homonuclear (two-level) and heteronuclearlike (V-type level) molecular systems of P r3 + :YSO. By selecting different time positions, changing the power, and changing the frequency detuning of the laser field, the competition between the composite signals is demonstrated. It is found that as the laser parameters change, the signal evolves from a nonlinear χ(4 ) process resulting in a FL signal to a SPFWM signal (χ(3 ) process). In addition, the competition effect between the signals determines the evolution of the shape of the correlation from a pure sharp to a two-stage (mixed) shape and finally to a pure broad peak amplitude. Furthermore, the signal evolution determines the magnitude of squeezing, which can control the noise level. Such progress may find potential applications in optical hybrid communication and information processing.
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Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoff, Ulrich B.; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2016-09-01
A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction with nonclassical optical resources and measurement-induced feedback, the need for strong single-photon coupling is avoided. We outline a three-pulse sequence of QND interactions encompassing squeezing-enhanced cooling by measurement, state preparation, and tomography.
Time Evolution and Characteristic Quantities of Squeezed Chaotic Field in Diffusion Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da, Cheng; Fan, Hong-Yi
2016-10-01
In exploring the time evolution law of squeezed chaotic state, described by the density operator,ρ 0= (1-ek ) S^{dagger } (r ) e^{ka^{dagger }a}S (r ) , in a diffusion channel, we find two physical quantities characteristic of this physical process, they are τ=1/( 2bar{n+1) e^{-2r}+1}, θ={1}/{( 2bar{n}+1) e^{2r}+1}, where bar {n} is average photon number of the chaotic field, r is the squeezing parameter and ρ 0 in normal ordering is ρ0=2√{τ θ}\\colon exp [ 1/2( τ -θ ) ( a^{dagger2}+a2) -( τ +θ ) a^{dag}a] \\colon. We find in the diffusion process, τ and 𝜃 evolves into τ → τ^'=τ/1+2κ tτ, θ → θ^'=θ/1+2κ tθ, where κ represent diffusion coefficient, thus ρ ( t) =2√{τ^'θ^'\\colon exp [ 1/2( τ^'-θ^') ( a^{dagger 2}+a2) -( τ^'+θ^') a^{dagger }a] \\colon, this is the evolution law of squeezed chaotic state in diffusion channel. The photon number of the final state slightly increases by an amount κ t. This diffusion process can be considered a quantum controlling scheme in the way of photon addition by adjusting κ.
Mechanistic study and modeling of precipitation scale inhibitor squeeze processes
Malandrino, A.; Yuan, M.D.; Sorbie, K.S.; Jordan, M.M.
1995-11-01
A scale inhibitor precipitation squeeze is one of the two main types of treatment for preventing downhole scale deposition; the other type is an adsorption squeeze. However, unlike for the adsorption squeeze process, the mechanism for inhibitor retention within the formation through precipitation/re-dissolution is not fully understood and it is this issue that is considered in this work. Here, the central objective is to consider a range of possible models of the precipitation squeeze process and to determine which of these are consistent with the available laboratory core flood and field data. Such models range from pure precipitation through to more complex models which couple the precipitation process with an adsorption process or with a mechanical transport phenomenon. The various models are explained in terms of the chemical processes which are observed. Results from two inhibitor precipitation core floods and one field squeeze treatment are presented along with the modeled inhibitor return curves. Based on certain model assumptions, the authors understanding of the process allows them to optimize the squeeze design of both inhibitor solution and operational parameters for extending the precipitation squeeze life time.
Cookson, R.A.; Kossa, S.S.
1981-10-01
An analytic approach to the study of uncentralized squeeze-film damper bearings in terms of nondimensional system parameters is presented. A theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the ability of the bearing to reduce vibration amplitude and transmitted force produced by simple unbalance in the rotor or nearness to a critical speed. Four simultaneous nonlinear differential equations are developed to reach a steady state solution from a nondimensional form of the equations of motion. Predictions are made and compared with results from tests with a flexible rotor using various journals and outer squeeze-film rings during rotational speeds up to 17,000 rpm. Results are diagrammed and photographs of the orbits are presented. The close match between the predicted orbits of the disk and journal centers with the experimental data indicates that the theoretical method employed yields an accurate description of the true situation.
Optimal Signal Filtration in Optical Sensors with Natural Squeezing of Vacuum Noises
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gusev, A. V.; Kulagin, V. V.
1996-01-01
The structure of optimal receiver is discussed for optical sensor measuring a small displacement of probe mass. Due to nonlinear interaction of the field and the mirror, a reflected wave is in squeezed state (natural squeezing), two quadratures of which are correlated and therefore one can increase signal-to-noise ratio and overcome the SQL. A measurement procedure realizing such correlation processing of two quadratures is clarified. The required combination of quadratures can be produced via mixing of pump field reflected from the mirror with local oscillator phase modulated field in duel-detector homodyne scheme. Such measurement procedure could be useful not only for resonant bar gravitational detector but for laser longbase interferometric detectors as well.
Squeezing in phase-conjugated resonance fluorescence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnoldus, Henk F.
1993-01-01
Emission of resonance fluorescence by an atom near the surface of a four-wave mixing phase conjugator is considered. The dipole radiation field, regarded as a Heisenberg-operator field, is decomposed into plane waves with the aid of Weyl's representation of the Green's function for the wave equation. Each plane-wave component which is incident on the surface of the nonlinear medium, is reflected as its phase-conjugate image. Summation of all reflected plane waves then yields the phase conjugate replica of the incident dipole radiation. This field adds to the radiation which is emitted by the atom into the direction away from the medium. The condition under which squeezing occurs in the emitted resonance fluorescence is investigated.
Squeeze-film dampers for turbomachinery stabilization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclean, L. J.; Hahn, E. J.
1984-01-01
A technique for investigating the stability and damping present in centrally preloaded radially symmetric multi-mass flexible rotor bearing systems is presented. In general, one needs to find the eigenvalues of the linearized perturbation equations, though zero frequency stability maps may be found by solving as many simultaneous non-linear equations as there are dampers; and in the case of a single damper, such maps may be found directly, regardless of the number of degrees of freedom. The technique is illustrated for a simple symmetric four degree of freedom flexible rotor with an unpressurized damper. This example shows that whereas zero frequency stability maps are likely to prove to be a simple way to delineate multiple solution possibilities, they do not provide full stability information. Further, particularly for low bearing parameters, the introduction of an unpressurized squeeze film damper may promote instability in an otherwise stable system.
Spin and field squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Huang, Yixiao; Hu, Zheng-Da
2015-01-26
Recently, strong spin-orbit coupling with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strength has been realized in neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via a pair of Raman lasers. In this report, we investigate spin and field squeezing of the ground state in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. By mapping the spin-orbit coupled BEC to the well-known quantum Dicke model, the Dicke type quantum phase transition is presented with the order parameters quantified by the spin polarization and occupation number of harmonic trap mode. This Dicke type quantum phase transition may be captured by the spin and field squeezing arising from the spin-orbit coupling. We further consider the effect of a finite detuning on the ground state and show the spin polarization and the quasi-momentum exhibit a step jump at zero detuning. Meanwhile, we also find that the presence of the detuning enhances the occupation number of harmonic trap mode, while it suppresses the spin and the field squeezing.
Spin and field squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
Huang, Yixiao; Hu, Zheng-Da
2015-01-01
Recently, strong spin-orbit coupling with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strength has been realized in neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via a pair of Raman lasers. In this report, we investigate spin and field squeezing of the ground state in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. By mapping the spin-orbit coupled BEC to the well-known quantum Dicke model, the Dicke type quantum phase transition is presented with the order parameters quantified by the spin polarization and occupation number of harmonic trap mode. This Dicke type quantum phase transition may be captured by the spin and field squeezing arising from the spin-orbit coupling. We further consider the effect of a finite detuning on the ground state and show the spin polarization and the quasi-momentum exhibit a step jump at zero detuning. Meanwhile, we also find that the presence of the detuning enhances the occupation number of harmonic trap mode, while it suppresses the spin and the field squeezing. PMID:25620051
Spin and field squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Huang, Yixiao; Hu, Zheng-Da
2015-01-01
Recently, strong spin-orbit coupling with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strength has been realized in neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via a pair of Raman lasers. In this report, we investigate spin and field squeezing of the ground state in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. By mapping the spin-orbit coupled BEC to the well-known quantum Dicke model, the Dicke type quantum phase transition is presented with the order parameters quantified by the spin polarization and occupation number of harmonic trap mode. This Dicke type quantum phase transition may be captured by the spin and field squeezing arising from the spin-orbit coupling. We further consider the effect of a finite detuning on the ground state and show the spin polarization and the quasi-momentum exhibit a step jump at zero detuning. Meanwhile, we also find that the presence of the detuning enhances the occupation number of harmonic trap mode, while it suppresses the spin and the field squeezing. PMID:25620051
Conditional spin squeezing of a large ensemble via the vacuum Rabi splitting.
Chen, Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G; Sankar, Shannon R; Dai, Jiayan; Thompson, James K
2011-04-01
We use the vacuum Rabi splitting to perform quantum nondemolition measurements that prepare a conditionally spin squeezed state of a collective atomic psuedospin. We infer a 3.4(6) dB improvement in quantum phase estimation relative to the standard quantum limit for a coherent spin state composed of uncorrelated atoms. The measured collective spin is composed of the two-level clock states of nearly 10(6) (87)Rb atoms confined inside a low finesse F=710 optical cavity. This technique may improve atomic sensor precision and/or bandwidth, and may lead to more precise tests of fundamental physics.
Feedback-Enhanced Parametric Squeezing of Mechanical Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinante, A.; Falferi, P.
2013-11-01
We present a single-quadrature feedback scheme able to overcome the conventional 3 dB limit on parametric squeezing. The method is experimentally demonstrated in a micromechanical system based on a cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is detected at low temperature by a SQUID susceptometer, while parametric pumping is obtained by modulating the magnetic field gradient at twice the cantilever frequency. A maximum squeezing of 11.5 dB and 11.3 dB is observed, respectively, in the response to a sinusoidal test signal and in the thermomechanical noise. So far, the maximum squeezing factor is limited only by the maximum achievable parametric modulation. The proposed technique might be used to squeeze one quadrature of a mechanical resonator below the quantum noise level, even without the need for a quantum limited detector.
Search for squeezed-pair correlations at RHIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padula, Sandra S.; Socolowski, O., Jr.; Csörgő, T.; Nagy, M. I.
2008-10-01
Squeezed correlations of particle-antiparticle pairs, also called back-to-back correlations (BBC), are predicted to appear if the hadron masses are modified in the hot and dense hadronic medium formed in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Although well established theoretically, the squeezed-particle correlations have not yet been searched for experimentally in high energy hadronic or heavy ion collisions, clearly requiring optimized forms to experimentally search for this effect. Within a non-relativistic treatment developed earlier we show that one promising way to search for the BBC signal is to look into the squeezed correlation function of pairs of phi's at RHIC energies, plotted in terms of the average momentum of the pair, {\\bf K}_{12}=\\frac{1}{2} ({\\bf k}_1 + {\\bf k}_2) . This variable's modulus, 2|K12|, is the non-relativistic limit of the variable Qbbc, introduced herewith. Some squeezing effects on the HBT correlation function are also discussed.
HUNTER 20 MATCHPLATE MOLDING MACHINE 'SQUEEZING' BOTH HALVES OF A ...
HUNTER 20 MATCHPLATE MOLDING MACHINE 'SQUEEZING' BOTH HALVES OF A MOLD SURROUNDING A MATCHPLATE PATTERN, DENNIS GRAY OPERATOR. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL
Squeezing in the weakly interacting uniform Bose-Einstein condensate
Haque, Masudul; Ruckenstein, Andrei E.
2006-10-15
We investigate the presence of squeezing in the weakly repulsive uniform Bose gas, in both the condensate mode and in the nonzero opposite-momenta mode pairs, using two different variational formulations. We explore the U(1) symmetry breaking and Goldstone's theorem in the context of a squeezed coherent variational wave function and present the associated Ward identity. We show that squeezing of the condensate mode is absent at the mean field Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov level and emerges as a result of fluctuations about mean field as a finite volume effect, which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. On the other hand, the squeezing of the excitations about the condensate survives the thermodynamic limit and is interpreted in terms of density-phase variables using a number-conserving formulation of the interacting Bose gas.
An investigation of squeeze-cast alloy 718
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gamwell, W. R.
1993-01-01
Alloy 718 billets produced by the squeeze-cast process have been evaluated for use as potential replacements for propulsion engine components which are normally produced from forgings. Alloy 718 billets were produced using various processing conditions. Structural characterizations were performed on 'as-cast' billets. As-cast billets were then homogenized and solution treated and aged according to conventional heat-treatment practices for this alloy. Mechanical property evaluations were performed on heat-treated billets. As-cast macrostructures and microstructures varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters. Mechanical properties varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters and heat treatments. One billet exhibited a defect free, refined microstructure, with mechanical properties approaching those of wrought alloy 718 bar, confirming the feasibility of squeeze-casting alloy 718. However, further process optimization is required, and further structural and mechanical property improvements are expected with process optimization.
Resonance fluorescence from an atom in a squeezed vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmichael, H. J.; Lane, A. S.; Walls, D. F.
1987-06-01
The fluorescent spectrum for a two-level atom which is damped by a squeezed vacuum shows striking differences from the spectrum for ordinary resonance fluorescence. For strong coherent driving fields the Mollow triplet depends on the relative phase of the driving field and the squeezed vacuum field. The central peak may have either subnatural linewidth or supernatural linewidth depending on this phase. The mean atomic polarization also shows a phase sensitivity.
Generation of energy-entangled W states via parametric fluorescence in integrated devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menotti, M.; Maccone, L.; Sipe, J. E.; Liscidini, M.
2016-07-01
Tripartite entangled states, such as Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states, are typically generated by manipulating two pairs of polarization-entangled photons in bulk optics. Here we propose a scheme to generate W states that are entangled in the energy degree of freedom in an integrated optical circuit. Our approach employs photon pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a microring resonator. We also present a feasible procedure for demonstrating the generation of such a state, and we compare polarization-entangled and energy-entangled schemes for the preparation of W states.
Grote, Hartmut; Weinert, Michael; Adhikari, Rana X; Affeldt, Christoph; Kringel, Volker; Leong, Jonathan; Lough, James; Lück, Harald; Schreiber, Emil; Strain, Kenneth A; Vahlbruch, Henning; Wittel, Holger
2016-09-01
Current laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors employ a self-homodyne readout scheme where a comparatively large light power (5-50 mW) is detected per photosensitive element. For best sensitivity to gravitational waves, signal levels as low as the quantum shot noise have to be measured as accurately as possible. The electronic noise of the detection circuit can produce a relevant limit to this accuracy, in particular when squeezed states of light are used to reduce the quantum noise. We present a new electronic circuit design reducing the electronic noise of the photodetection circuit in the audio band. In the application of this circuit at the gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 the shot-noise to electronic noise ratio was permanently improved by a factor of more than 4 above 1 kHz, while the dynamic range was improved by a factor of 7. The noise equivalent photocurrent of the implemented photodetector and circuit is about 5μA/Hz above 1 kHz with a maximum detectable photocurrent of 20 mA. With the new circuit, the observed squeezing level in GEO 600 increased by 0.2 dB. The new circuit also creates headroom for higher laser power and more squeezing to be observed in the future in GEO 600 and is applicable to other optics experiments. PMID:27607619
Grote, Hartmut; Weinert, Michael; Adhikari, Rana X; Affeldt, Christoph; Kringel, Volker; Leong, Jonathan; Lough, James; Lück, Harald; Schreiber, Emil; Strain, Kenneth A; Vahlbruch, Henning; Wittel, Holger
2016-09-01
Current laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors employ a self-homodyne readout scheme where a comparatively large light power (5-50 mW) is detected per photosensitive element. For best sensitivity to gravitational waves, signal levels as low as the quantum shot noise have to be measured as accurately as possible. The electronic noise of the detection circuit can produce a relevant limit to this accuracy, in particular when squeezed states of light are used to reduce the quantum noise. We present a new electronic circuit design reducing the electronic noise of the photodetection circuit in the audio band. In the application of this circuit at the gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 the shot-noise to electronic noise ratio was permanently improved by a factor of more than 4 above 1 kHz, while the dynamic range was improved by a factor of 7. The noise equivalent photocurrent of the implemented photodetector and circuit is about 5μA/Hz above 1 kHz with a maximum detectable photocurrent of 20 mA. With the new circuit, the observed squeezing level in GEO 600 increased by 0.2 dB. The new circuit also creates headroom for higher laser power and more squeezing to be observed in the future in GEO 600 and is applicable to other optics experiments.
Logan Generating Plant: State of the art, environmentally friendly
Vanvick, T.W.
1995-12-31
The Logan Generating Plant (formerly Keystone Cogeneration Project) is a 230 MW (gross) pulverized coal cogeneration facility located on the Delaware River in Logan Township, New Jersey, off Route 130. Owned and operated by U.S. Generating Company, the plant was built by Bechtel Corporation, which provided engineering, procurement, construction, and startup services. Power from the plant is furnished to Atlantic Electric, and approximately 50,000 pounds of process steam per hour is provided to Monsanto`s adjacent facility. U.S. Generating Company is committed to operating plants with close attention to the environment and has developed a specific Environmental Mission Statement. This paper addresses some of the key environmental features at the Logan Generating Plant.
The Next Generation of State Assessment and Accountability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rothman, Robert; Marion, Scott F.
2016-01-01
A pilot program in New Hampshire models innovative ways creating and applying state assessments and educator accountability. A study of New Hampshire's new system, which has already received approval by the U.S. Department of Education under a waiver from NCLB, finds some positive results and also suggests challenges states might face in putting…
Computerized power supply analysis: State equation generation and terminal models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrett, S. J.
1978-01-01
To aid engineers that design power supply systems two analysis tools that can be used with the state equation analysis package were developed. These tools include integration routines that start with the description of a power supply in state equation form and yield analytical results. The first tool uses a computer program that works with the SUPER SCEPTRE circuit analysis program and prints the state equation for an electrical network. The state equations developed automatically by the computer program are used to develop an algorithm for reducing the number of state variables required to describe an electrical network. In this way a second tool is obtained in which the order of the network is reduced and a simpler terminal model is obtained.
Li, Wenfang; Du, Jinjin; Wen, Ruijuan; Li, Gang; Zhang, Tiancai
2014-03-28
We have investigated the transmission spectra of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with squeezed vacuum state injection and non-Gaussian detection, including photon number resolving detection and parity detection. In order to show the suitability of the system, parallel studies were made of the performance of two other light sources: coherent state of light and Fock state of light either with classical mean intensity detection or with non-Gaussian detection. This shows that by using the squeezed vacuum state and non-Gaussian detection simultaneously, the resolution of the FPI can go far beyond the cavity standard bandwidth limit based on the current techniques. The sensitivity of the scheme has also been explored and it shows that the minimum detectable sensitivity is better than that of the other schemes.
Squeezing out the entropy of fermions in optical lattices
Ho, Tin-Lun; Zhou, Qi
2009-01-01
At present, there is considerable interest in using atomic fermions in optical lattices to emulate the mathematical models that have been used to study strongly correlated electronic systems. Some of these models, such as the 2-dimensional fermion Hubbard model, are notoriously difficult to solve, and their key properties remain controversial despite decades of studies. It is hoped that the emulation experiments will shed light on some of these long-standing problems. A successful emulation, however, requires reaching temperatures as low as 10−12 K and beyond, with entropy per particle far lower than what can be achieved today. Achieving such low-entropy states is an essential step and a grand challenge of the whole emulation enterprise. In this article, we point out a method to literally squeeze the entropy out from a Fermi gas into a surrounding Bose–Einstein condensed gas, which acts as a heat reservoir. This method allows one to reduce the entropy per particle of a lattice Fermi gas to a few percent of the lowest value obtainable today. PMID:19365065
Mikami, Hideharu; Li Yongmin; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2004-11-01
We propose two interesting methods of generating the four-photon W state. These methods use parametric down-conversion processes, linear optical elements, and commercial photon detectors, which are readily feasible under current technology. They can also be used to generate the three-photon W state, the three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and the three-photon maximally entangled photon-number state (a typical photon-number entanglement state) by simply changing some experimental components or their parameters. Moreover, assuming we have photon number-resolving detectors, these methods can develop into methods that generate a general n-photon W state. They are expected to become powerful tools for experimental investigations of multipartite entanglement and its applications to quantum information processing.
Diffraction gratings generating orders with selective states of polarization.
Davis, Jeffrey A; Moreno, Ignacio; Sánchez-López, María M; Badham, Katherine; Albero, Jorge; Cottrell, Don M
2016-01-25
We propose specially designed double anisotropic polarization diffraction gratings capable of producing a selective number of diffraction orders and with selective different states of polarization. Different polarization diffraction gratings are demonstrated, including linear polarization with horizontal, vertical and ± 45° orientations, and circular R and L polarization outputs. When illuminated with an arbitrary state of polarization, the system acts as a complete polarimeter where the intensities of the diffraction orders allow measurement of the Stokes parameters with a single shot. Experimental proof-of-concept is presented using a parallel-aligned liquid crystal display operating in a double pass architecture.
Spek, Anthony L
2015-01-01
treatable by SQUEEZE. The details of a SQUEEZE calculation are now automatically included in the CIF archive file, along with the unmerged reflection data. The current implementation of the SQUEEZE procedure is described, and discussed and illustrated with three examples. Two of them are based on the reflection data of published structures and one on synthetic reflection data generated for a published structure.
Spek, Anthony L
2015-01-01
treatable by SQUEEZE. The details of a SQUEEZE calculation are now automatically included in the CIF archive file, along with the unmerged reflection data. The current implementation of the SQUEEZE procedure is described, and discussed and illustrated with three examples. Two of them are based on the reflection data of published structures and one on synthetic reflection data generated for a published structure. PMID:25567569
Spin squeezing and entanglement for an arbitrary spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitagliano, Giuseppe; Apellaniz, Iagoba; Egusquiza, Iñigo L.; Tóth, Géza
2014-03-01
A complete set of generalized spin-squeezing inequalities is derived for an ensemble of particles with an arbitrary spin. Our conditions are formulated with the first and second moments of the collective angular momentum coordinates. A method for mapping the spin-squeezing inequalities for spin-1/2 particles to entanglement conditions for spin-j particles is also presented. We apply our mapping to obtain a generalization of the original spin-squeezing inequality to higher spins. We show that, for large particle numbers, a spin-squeezing parameter for entanglement detection based on one of our inequalities is strictly stronger than the original spin-squeezing parameter defined in Sørensen et al. [Nature (London) 409, 63 (2001), 10.1038/35051038]. We present a coordinate system independent form of our inequalities that contains, besides the correlation and covariance tensors of the collective angular momentum operators, the nematic tensor appearing in the theory of spin nematics. Finally, we discuss how to measure the quantities appearing in our inequalities in experiments.
Squeezing-out dynamics in free-standing smectic films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
S̀liwa, Izabela; Vakulenko, A. A.; Zakharov, A. V.
2016-05-01
We have carried out a theoretical study of the dynamics of the squeezing-out of one layer from the N-layer free-standing smectic film (FSSF) coupled with a meniscus, during the layer-thinning process. Squeezing-out is initiated by a thermally activated nucleation process in which a density fluctuation forms a small void in the center of the circular FSSF. The pressure gradient develops between the squeezed-out and nonsqueezed-out areas and is responsible for the driving out of one or several layer(s) from the N-layer smectic film. The dynamics of the boundary between these areas in the FSSF is studied by the use of the conservation laws for mass and linear momentum with accounting for the coupling between the meniscus and the smectic film. This coupling has a strong effect on the dynamics of the squeezing-out process and may significantly change the time which is needed to completely squeezed-out one or several layer(s) from the N-layer smectic film.
Progress towards Generating Rydberg State, One Electron Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreiling, Joan; Fogwell Hoogerheide, Shannon; Naing, Aung; Tan, Joseph
2016-05-01
We report on progress towards producing hydrogen-like ions in Rydberg states from bare nuclei. Fully stripped neon atoms (Ne10+) are produced by the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at NIST. These ions are extracted via a beamline from the EBIT into a second apparatus where they are captured at low energy in a unitary Penning trap. The second apparatus has a cross-beam configuration, with a perpendicular beam of laser excited Rb atoms intersecting the ion beam at the Penning trap. While stored in the trap, the ions can interact with the Rb and, through charge exchange interactions, the bare nuclei can capture one or more electrons from the Rb. The ions are then analyzed by dumping the trap to a time-of-flight detector, which allows determination of the ion charge state evolution. This work builds towards laser spectroscopy on hydrogen-like ions in circular Rydberg states to obtain a value for the Rydberg constant independent of nuclear size effects. Such a measurement could shed some light on the proton radius puzzle.
Experimental generation of a high-fidelity four-photon linear cluster state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chao; Huang, Yun-Feng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-06-01
Cluster state plays a crucial role in one-way quantum computation. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to prepare an ultrahigh-fidelity four-photon linear cluster state via a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. The state fidelity is measured to be 0.9517 ±0.0027 . Our scheme can be directly extended to more photons to generate an N -qubit linear cluster state. Furthermore, our scheme is optimal for generating photonic linear cluster states in the sense of achieving the maximal success probability and having the simplest strategy. The key idea is that the photon pairs are prepared in some special nonmaximally entangled states instead of the normal Bell states. To generate a 2 N -qubit linear cluster state from N pairs of entangled photons, only (N -1 ) Hong-Ou-Mandel interferences are needed and a success probability of (1/4) N -1 is achieved.
Nonperturbative methods in the problem of multiphoton excitation of atom by squeezed light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belousov, A. V.; Kovarsky, V. A.
1993-01-01
Multiphoton detectors for the strong squeezed light vacuum are considered. The result is compared with the perturbation theory. It is shown that as the degree of squeezing is increased the statistical factor decreases.
Molecular confinement accelerates deformation of entangled polymers during squeeze flow.
Rowland, Harry D; King, William P; Pethica, John B; Cross, Graham L W
2008-10-31
The squeezing of polymers in narrow gaps is important for the dynamics of nanostructure fabrication by nanoimprint embossing and the operation of polymer boundary lubricants. We measured stress versus strain behavior while squeezing entangled polystyrene films to large strains. In confined conditions where films were prepared to a thickness less than the size of the bulk macromolecule, resistance to deformation was markedly reduced for both solid-glass forging and liquid-melt molding. For melt flow, we further observed a complete inversion of conventional polymer viscosity scaling with molecular weight. Our results show that squeeze flow is accelerated at small scales by an unexpected influence of film thickness in polymer materials. PMID:18832609
Indirect evidence for Levy walks in squeeze film damping
Schlamminger, S.; Hagedorn, C. A.; Gundlach, J. H.
2010-06-15
Molecular flow gas damping of mechanical motion in confined geometries, and its associated noise, is important in a variety of fields, including precision measurement, gravitational wave detection, and microelectromechanical systems devices. We used two torsion balance instruments to measure the strength and distance-dependence of 'squeeze film' damping. Measured quality factors derived from free decay of oscillation are consistent with gas particle superdiffusion in Levy walks and inconsistent with those expected from traditional Gaussian random walk particle motion. The distance-dependence of squeeze film damping observed in our experiments is in agreement with a parameter-free Monte Carlo simulation. The squeeze film damping of the motion of a plate suspended a distance d away from a parallel surface scales with a fractional power between d{sup -1} and d{sup -2}.
Topological phase transitions and chiral inelastic transport induced by the squeezing of light.
Peano, Vittorio; Houde, Martin; Brendel, Christian; Marquardt, Florian; Clerk, Aashish A
2016-03-02
There is enormous interest in engineering topological photonic systems. Despite intense activity, most works on topological photonic states (and more generally bosonic states) amount in the end to replicating a well-known fermionic single-particle Hamiltonian. Here we show how the squeezing of light can lead to the formation of qualitatively new kinds of topological states. Such states are characterized by non-trivial Chern numbers, and exhibit protected edge modes, which give rise to chiral elastic and inelastic photon transport. These topological bosonic states are not equivalent to their fermionic (topological superconductor) counterparts and, in addition, cannot be mapped by a local transformation onto topological states found in particle-conserving models. They thus represent a new type of topological system. We study this physics in detail in the case of a kagome lattice model, and discuss possible realizations using nonlinear photonic crystals or superconducting circuits.
Topological phase transitions and chiral inelastic transport induced by the squeezing of light
Peano, Vittorio; Houde, Martin; Brendel, Christian; Marquardt, Florian; Clerk, Aashish A.
2016-01-01
There is enormous interest in engineering topological photonic systems. Despite intense activity, most works on topological photonic states (and more generally bosonic states) amount in the end to replicating a well-known fermionic single-particle Hamiltonian. Here we show how the squeezing of light can lead to the formation of qualitatively new kinds of topological states. Such states are characterized by non-trivial Chern numbers, and exhibit protected edge modes, which give rise to chiral elastic and inelastic photon transport. These topological bosonic states are not equivalent to their fermionic (topological superconductor) counterparts and, in addition, cannot be mapped by a local transformation onto topological states found in particle-conserving models. They thus represent a new type of topological system. We study this physics in detail in the case of a kagome lattice model, and discuss possible realizations using nonlinear photonic crystals or superconducting circuits. PMID:26931620
Storage of Spin Squeezing in a Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate
Jin, Guang-Ri; Kim, Sang Wook
2007-10-26
A simple scheme for storage of spin squeezing in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated by considering rapidly turning-off the external field at a time that maximal spin squeezing occurs. We show that strong reduction of spin fluctuation can be maintained in a nearly fixed direction. We explain the underlying physics using the phase model and present analytical expressions of the maximal-squeezing time and the corresponding squeezing parameter.
Storage of spin squeezing in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate.
Jin, Guang-Ri; Kim, Sang Wook
2007-10-26
A simple scheme for storage of spin squeezing in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated by considering rapidly turning-off the external field at a time that maximal spin squeezing occurs. We show that strong reduction of spin fluctuation can be maintained in a nearly fixed direction. We explain the underlying physics using the phase model and present analytical expressions of the maximal-squeezing time and the corresponding squeezing parameter.
Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.
Pitamber, S; Osama, S
1994-06-01
Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they
Generating Entangled Spin States for Quantum Metrology by Single-Photon Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McConnell, Robert; Zhang, Hao; Cuk, Senka; Hu, Jiazhong; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Vuletic, Vladan
2014-05-01
We present a proposal and latest experimental results on a probabilistic but heralded scheme to generate non-Gaussian entangled states of collective spin in large atomic ensembles by means of single-photon detection. One photon announces the preparation of a Dicke state, while two or more photons announce Schrödinger cat states. The entangled states thus produced allow interferometry below the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL). The method produces nearly pure states even for finite photon detection efficiency and weak atom-photon coupling. The entanglement generation can be made quasi-deterministic by means of repeated trial and feedback.
Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states
Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van
2011-04-15
We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.
Strong squeezing in periodically modulated optical parametric oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamyan, Hayk H.; Bergou, János A.; Gevorgyan, Narine T.; Kryuchkyan, Gagik Yu.
2015-11-01
We consider specific signatures of squeezing for time-modulated light fields and propose the scheme of an optical parametric oscillator driven by a continuously modulated pump field. The application of a periodically modulated driving field instead of a continuous wave field drastically improves the degree of quadrature integral squeezing. This quantity goes below the standard limit of 50% relative to the level of vacuum fluctuations. We develop semiclassical and quantum theories of an optical parametric oscillator under the influence of a pump field with harmonically modulated amplitude for all operational regimes, including numerical simulations at the threshold point. The results can be directly applied in time-resolved quantum communication protocols.
Transient dynamics of a flexible rotor with squeeze film dampers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buono, D. F.; Schlitzer, L. D.; Hall, R. G., III; Hibner, D. H.
1978-01-01
A series of simulated blade loss tests are reported on a test rotor designed to operate above its second bending critical speed. A series of analyses were performed which predicted the transient behavior of the test rig for each of the blade loss tests. The scope of the program included the investigation of transient rotor dynamics of a flexible rotor system, similar to modern flexible jet engine rotors, both with and without squeeze film dampers. The results substantiate the effectiveness of squeeze film dampers and document the ability of available analytical methods to predict their effectiveness and behavior.
Coherence and Squeezing of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Double Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Xiao-jie
2016-05-01
We investigate coherence and squeezing of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential. By analytically deriving the form of coherence and numerically calculating the squeezing parameter, we show that the coherence and the squeezing may be controlled by adjusting some parameters of the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate.
Macroscopic squeezing from a regular array of three-level atoms
D'Souza, R.; Jayarao, A.S.; Lawande, S.V. )
1992-02-28
In this paper it is shown that the resonance fluorescence from N regularly arrayed three-level atoms in V-configuration could be a source of macroscopic squeezing. The V-configuration exhibits squeezing in both the transitions, whereas the cascade and the Raman configurations shown squeezing only in the lower and Rayleigh transitions respectively.
Generation of Cluster-Type Entangled Coherent States via Cavity QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Qiu-Bo; Zhou, Ling
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a scheme for generating cluster-type entangled coherent states via cavity QED. The scheme is based on the off-resonant interaction between one atom and N cavities, so the spontaneous emission of the atom can be ignored. The initial states of the N cavities are all prepared in vacuum states. We also discuss the experimental feasibility.
Quantum-network generation based on four-wave mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yin; Feng, Jingliang; Wang, Hailong; Ferrini, Giulia; Xu, Xinye; Jing, Jietai; Treps, Nicolas
2015-01-01
We present a scheme to realize versatile quantum networks by cascading several four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in warm rubidium vapors. FWM is an efficient χ(3 ) nonlinear process, already used as a resource for multimode quantum state generation and which has been proved to be a promising candidate for applications to quantum information processing. We analyze theoretically the multimode output of cascaded FWM systems, derive its independent squeezed modes, and show how, with phase controlled homodyne detection and digital postprocessing, they can be turned into a versatile source of continuous variable cluster states.
Automated Generation of Tabular Equations of State with Uncertainty Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpenter, John H.; Robinson, Allen C.; Debusschere, Bert J.; Mattsson, Ann E.
2015-06-01
As computational science pushes toward higher fidelity prediction, understanding the uncertainty associated with closure models, such as the equation of state (EOS), has become a key focus. Traditional EOS development often involves a fair amount of art, where expert modelers may appear as magicians, providing what is felt to be the closest possible representation of the truth. Automation of the development process gives a means by which one may demystify the art of EOS, while simultaneously obtaining uncertainty information in a manner that is both quantifiable and reproducible. We describe our progress on the implementation of such a system to provide tabular EOS tables with uncertainty information to hydrocodes. Key challenges include encoding the artistic expert opinion into an algorithmic form and preserving the analytic models and uncertainty information in a manner that is both accurate and computationally efficient. Results are demonstrated on a multi-phase aluminum model. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Thermal Entanglement Properties in two Kinds of Two-qubit Spin Squeezing Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo-Hui, Yang
2016-07-01
Using the concurrence (C) criterion, we investigate the thermal entanglement properties in two-qubit spin squeezing model for two kinds of squeezing interaction: one-axis twisting model (OATM) and two-axis countertwisting model (TACM) with a transverse field. To the OATM, in the limit case of T→0, the ground state entanglement is initially increased from zero to the maximum value, then decreased in a period of time and suddenly disappeared finally with further enhancing the external magnetic field Ω. One interesting thing is that instead of decaying slowly to zero the entanglement is sudden disappeared with further enhancing Ω or μ (the spin squeezing interaction in X direction), and decreasing the parameter μ or Ω can obviously broaden the scope of entanglement exists. For the finite temperature case, a novelty point is the sudden birth phenomenon occured in the behaviors of entanglement, it is initially to be zero (persists for some time), with further improving Ω and μ the entanglement will be suddenly appeared, and the time interval (persists to be zero) before sudden birth is obviously prolonged with decreasing two parameters. The temperature range of entanglement exists can be extended evidently with increasing μ or Ω, and one can obtain entanglement at higher temperature through changing them. When to the TACM, the ground state entanglement is initially decreased from the maximum value and then suddenly disappeared with increasing Ω. While increasing γ the ground state entanglement is increased initially from zero to the maximum value and then sudden disappeared with further improving γ (the spin squeezing interaction in XY plane), proper tuing γ or Ω can prolong the lives of entanglement evidently. For the finite temperature case, the sudden birth phenomenon also occured in the the evoluted concurrence, the variation of parameters Ω and γ can reduce the time interval before sudden birth. The influence of the temperature T on thermal
Teleportation and spin squeezing utilizing multimode entanglement of light with atoms
Hammerer, K.; Cirac, J. I.; Polzik, E. S.
2005-11-15
We present a protocol for the teleportation of the quantum state of a pulse of light onto the collective spin state of an atomic ensemble. The entangled state of light and atoms employed as a resource in this protocol is created by probing the collective atomic spin, Larmor precessing in an external magnetic field, off resonantly with a coherent pulse of light. We take here full account of the effects of Larmor precession and show that it gives rise to a qualitatively different type of multimode entangled state of light and atoms. The protocol is shown to be robust against the dominating sources of noise and can be implemented with an atomic ensemble at room temperature interacting with free-space light. We also provide a scheme to perform the readout of the Larmor precessing spin state enabling the verification of successful teleportation as well as the creation of spin squeezing.
Quantum Discord Behaviors in Two Qubits Spin Squeezing Model with Intrinsic Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo-Hui, Yang; Bing-Bing, Zhang
2016-05-01
By taking into account the intrinsic decoherence and the external magnetic field, quantum discord(QD) behaviors in two-qubit spin squeezing model are investigated in detail. It is found that the magnitude of quantum discord is strongly dependent on the initial states, the squeezing interaction μ, the magnetic field Ω and the purity r of initial states. With t → ∞, one can obtain the steady quantum discord (SQD) value, the environmental decoherence cannot entirely destroy the quantum correlation. Based on the analysis of the SQD, the conditions about the existence of SQD are obtained with different initial states. Varying the parameters μ, Ω and r not only can weaken the effects of decoherence but also can improve the magnitude of QD and SQD. The effects of the parameters μ and Ω on the QD and SQD display so different and complicated features that one cannot get an uniform law about them, while the values of QD and SQD are improved with increasing r. Properly tuning the parameters μ, Ω and r, one can obtain a larger value of QD or SQD.
Strong Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement from a single squeezed light source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman
2011-05-01
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement is a criterion that is more demanding than just certifying entanglement. We theoretically and experimentally analyze the low-resource generation of bipartite continuous-variable entanglement, as realized by mixing a squeezed mode with a vacuum mode at a balanced beam splitter, i.e., the generation of so-called vacuum-class entanglement. We find that in order to observe EPR entanglement the total optical loss must be smaller than 33.3 %. However, arbitrarily strong EPR entanglement is generally possible with this scheme. We realize continuous-wave squeezed light at 1550 nm with up to 9.9 dB of nonclassical noise reduction, which is the highest value at a telecom wavelength so far. Using two phase-controlled balanced homodyne detectors we observe an EPR covariance product of 0.502±0.006<1, where 1 is the critical value. We discuss the feasibility of strong Gaussian entanglement and its application for quantum key distribution in a short-distance fiber network.
Strong Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement from a single squeezed light source
Eberle, Tobias; Haendchen, Vitus; Schnabel, Roman; Duhme, Joerg; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F.
2011-05-15
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement is a criterion that is more demanding than just certifying entanglement. We theoretically and experimentally analyze the low-resource generation of bipartite continuous-variable entanglement, as realized by mixing a squeezed mode with a vacuum mode at a balanced beam splitter, i.e., the generation of so-called vacuum-class entanglement. We find that in order to observe EPR entanglement the total optical loss must be smaller than 33.3 %. However, arbitrarily strong EPR entanglement is generally possible with this scheme. We realize continuous-wave squeezed light at 1550 nm with up to 9.9 dB of nonclassical noise reduction, which is the highest value at a telecom wavelength so far. Using two phase-controlled balanced homodyne detectors we observe an EPR covariance product of 0.502{+-}0.006<1, where 1 is the critical value. We discuss the feasibility of strong Gaussian entanglement and its application for quantum key distribution in a short-distance fiber network.
Experimentally determined stiffness and damping of an inherently compensated air squeeze-film damper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, R. E.
1975-01-01
Values of damping and stiffness were determined experimentally for an externally pressurized, inherently compensated, compressible squeeze-film damper up to excitation frequencies of 36,000 cycles per minute. Experimental damping values were higher than theory predicted at low squeeze numbers and less than predicted at high squeeze numbers. Experimental values of air film stiffness were less than theory predicted at low squeeze numbers and much greater at higher squeeze numbers. Results also indicate sufficient damping to attenuate amplitudes and forces at the critical speed when using three dampers in the flexible support system of a small, lightweight turborotor.
Dynamic localization of light in squeezed-like photonic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nezhad, M. Khazaei; Golshani, M.; Mahdavi, S. M.; Bahrampour, A. R.; Langari, A.
2016-05-01
We investigate the dynamic localization of light in the sinusoidal bent squeezed-like photonic lattices, a class of inhomogeneous semi-infinite waveguide arrays. Our findings show that, dynamic localization takes place for the normalized amplitude of sinusoidal profile (α) above a critical value αc. In this regime, for any normalized amplitude α >αc, there is a specific spatial period (ℓ) of waveguides, in which the dynamical oscillation, with the same spatial period occurs. Moreover, the specific spatial period is a decreasing function of the normalized amplitude α. Accordingly, the dynamical oscillation and self-imaging is realized, in spite of the existence of inhomogeneous coupling coefficients and semi-infinite nature of the squeezed-like photonic lattices. In addition, a comparison between the dynamic localization and Bloch oscillation in squeezed-like photonic lattices reveals that for the same values of α (>αc), the variation in the width and the mean center of the Bloch oscillation profile are less than the corresponding values of the dynamic localization. Also, we propose the experimental conditions to observation of dynamic localization in squeezed photonic lattices.
Equilibrium temperature of laser cooled atoms in squeezed vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shevy, Y.
1992-01-01
It is shown that by squeezing the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field the quantum fluctuations of the optical forces exerted on laser cooled two-level atoms, can be dramatically modified. Under certain conditions, this modification in concert with the enhanced average forces can lead to equilibrium temperatures below those attained under normal vacuum fluctuations.
Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection
Uskov, D. B.; Alsing, P. M.; Fanto, M. L.; Kaplan, L.; Kim, R.; Szep, A.; Smith, A. M.
2015-01-30
Here we report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2^{n-1}; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4^{m-1}.
Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection
Uskov, D. B.; Alsing, P. M.; Fanto, M. L.; Kaplan, L.; Kim, R.; Szep, A.; Smith, A. M.
2015-01-30
Here we report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneousmore » detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2n-1; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4m-1.« less
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Quantum spatial propagation of squeezed light in a degenerate parametric amplifier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deutsch, Ivan H.; Garrison, John C.
1992-01-01
Differential equations which describe the steady state spatial evolution of nonclassical light are established using standard quantum field theoretic techniques. A Schroedinger equation for the state vector of the optical field is derived using the quantum analog of the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). The steady state solutions are those that satisfy the time independent Schroedinger equation. The resulting eigenvalue problem then leads to the spatial propagation equations. For the degenerate parametric amplifier this method shows that the squeezing parameter obey nonlinear differential equations coupled by the amplifier gain and phase mismatch. The solution to these differential equations is equivalent to one obtained from the classical three wave mixing steady state solution to the parametric amplifier with a nondepleted pump.
Generation of Symmetric Dicke States of Remote Qubits with Linear Optics
Thiel, C.; Zanthier, J. von; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.; Agarwal, G. S.
2007-11-09
We propose a method for generating all symmetric Dicke states, either in the long-lived internal levels of N massive particles or in the polarization degrees of freedom of photonic qubits, using linear optical tools only. By means of a suitable multiphoton detection technique, erasing Welcher-Weg information, our proposed scheme allows the generation and measurement of an important class of entangled multiqubit states.
Squeezing Alters Frequency Tuning of WGM Optical Resonator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute
2010-01-01
Mechanical squeezing has been found to alter the frequency tuning of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator that has an elliptical shape and is made of lithium niobate. It may be possible to exploit this effect to design reconfigurable optical filters for optical communications and for scientific experiments involving quantum electrodynamics. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the squeezing-induced alteration of frequency tuning: The spectrum of a WGM resonator is represented by a comblike plot of intensity versus frequency. Each peak of the comblike plot corresponds to an electromagnetic mode represented by an integer mode number, and the modes are grouped into sets represented by integer mode indices. Because lithium niobate is an electro-optically active material, the WGM resonator can be tuned (that is, the resonance frequencies can be shifted) by applying a suitable bias potential. The frequency shift of each mode is quantified by a tuning rate defined as the ratio between the frequency shift and the applied potential. In the absence of squeezing, all modes exhibit the same tuning rate. This concludes the background information. It has been demonstrated experimentally that when the resonator is squeezed along part of either of its two principal axes, tuning rates differ among the groups of modes represented by different indices (see figure). The differences in tuning rates could be utilized to configure the resonance spectrum to obtain a desired effect; for example, through a combination of squeezing and electrical biasing, two resonances represented by different mode indices could be set at a specified frequency difference something that could not be done through electrical biasing alone.
Generating multi-photon W-like states for perfect quantum teleportation and superdense coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ke; Kong, Fan-Zhen; Yang, Ming; Ozaydin, Fatih; Yang, Qing; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2016-08-01
An interesting aspect of multipartite entanglement is that for perfect teleportation and superdense coding, not the maximally entangled W states but a special class of non-maximally entangled W-like states are required. Therefore, efficient preparation of such W-like states is of great importance in quantum communications, which has not been studied as much as the preparation of W states. In this paper, we propose a simple optical scheme for efficient preparation of large-scale polarization-based entangled W-like states by fusing two W-like states or expanding a W-like state with an ancilla photon. Our scheme can also generate large-scale W states by fusing or expanding W or even W-like states. The cost analysis shows that in generating large-scale W states, the fusion mechanism achieves a higher efficiency with non-maximally entangled W-like states than maximally entangled W states. Our scheme can also start fusion or expansion with Bell states, and it is composed of a polarization-dependent beam splitter, two polarizing beam splitters and photon detectors. Requiring no ancilla photon or controlled gate to operate, our scheme can be realized with the current photonics technology and we believe it enable advances in quantum teleportation and superdense coding in multipartite settings.
Resolution of regional seismic models: Squeezing the Iceland anomaly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Richard M.; Tromp, Jeroen
2005-05-01
We present a resolution study of the velocity structure beneath Iceland as constrained by teleseismic traveltime tomography using data from the HOTSPOT seismic network. This temporary PASSCAL network and the tomographic technique that was used to generate the ICEMAN velocity models are typical of regional seismic studies. Therefore, this study also provides a basis for understanding the resolution of other regional seismic experiments. A suite of tests is used to constrain the range of velocity models that satisfy the traveltime observations on Iceland. These include ray-theoretical squeezing experiments, which attempt to force velocity anomalies into specific geometries while still satisfying the data set, and finite-frequency experiments, which use the spectral-element method (SEM) to simulate full waveform propagation through various 3-D velocity models. The use of the SEM allows the verification of the ray-theoretical ICEMAN models without the assumption of ray theory. The tests show that the ICEMAN models represent an end-member of the range of velocity models that satisfy the data set. The 200-km-width Gaussian-shaped upwelling beneath Iceland, imaged in the ICEMAN models, is at the broadest end of the allowed model range; the peak -2 per cent compressional and -4 per cent shear wave perturbations are lower bounds on the amplitude of the velocity model. Such broadening and lowering of velocity anomalies is the product of data coverage, the ray-theory approximation and regularization of the inversion. Comparison of the traveltime delays produced by a 100-km-diameter conduit as measured at short (1 s) and long (~20 s) periods demonstrate that such a conduit cannot satisfy the observed traveltime delays. Thus the width of the upwelling conduit beneath Iceland must lie in the range of 100 to 200 km. Separate tests on the minimum depth extent of the anomaly show that significant low velocities are required to 350 km depth. Should the true conduit be at the
On-chip generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states with arbitrary symmetry
Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2015-05-04
We experimentally demonstrate a method for integrated-optical generation of two-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states featuring arbitrary symmetries. In our setting, we employ detuned directional couplers to impose a freely tailorable phase between the two modes of the state. Our results allow to mimic the quantum random walk statistics of bosons, fermions, and anyons, particles with fractional exchange statistics.
Entanglement dynamics of quantum states generated by a Kerr medium and a beam splitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohith, M.; Sudheesh, C.; Rajeev, R.
2016-01-01
We study theoretically the dynamics of entangled states created in a beam splitter with a nonlinear Kerr medium placed into one input arm. Entanglement dynamics of initial classical and nonclassical states are studied and compared. Signatures of revival and fractional revival phenomena exhibited during the time evolution of states in the Kerr medium are captured in the entangled states produced by the beam splitter. Dynamics of entanglement shows local minima at the instants of fractional revivals. These minima correspond to the generation of two-component Schrödinger cat states or multi-component Schrödinger cat-like states if the initial state considered is a coherent state. Maximum entanglement is obtained at the instants of collapses of wave packets in the medium. Our analysis shows increase in entanglement with increase in the degree of nonclassicality of the initial states considered. We show that the states generated at the output of the beam splitter using initial nonclassical states are more robust against decoherence due to photon absorption by an environment than those formed by an initial classical state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Jinlong; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Kailiang; Yang, Zhongming; Wang, Shuai; Yuan, Qun
2015-10-01
Multi-beam interference will exist in the cavity of Fizeau interferometer due to the high reflectivity of test optics. The random phase shift error will be generated by some factors such as the environmental vibration, air turbulence, etc. Both these will cause phase retrieving error. We proposed a non-iterative approach called Carrier Squeezing Multi-beam Interferometry (CSMI) algorithm, which is based on the Carrier squeezing interferometry (CSI) technique to retrieve the phase distribution from multiple-beam interferograms with random phase shift errors. The intensity of multiple-beam interference was decomposed into fundamental wave and high-order harmonics, by using the Fourier series expansion. Multi-beam phase shifting interferograms with linear carrier were rearranged by row or column, to fuse one frame of spatial-temporal fringes. The lobe of the fundamental component related to the phase and the lobes of high-order harmonics and phase shift errors were separated in the frequency domain, so the correct phase was extracted by filtering out the fundamental component. Suppression of the influence from high-order harmonic components, as well as random phase shift error is validated by numerical simulations. Experiments were also executed by using the proposed CSMI algorithm for mirror with high reflection coefficient, showing its advantage comparing with normal phase retrieving algorithms.
Generation of multiphoton Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and its two kinds of teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jia-Min; Chang, Di; Huang, Yong-Chang
2012-02-01
We propose a comprehensive experimental scheme to generate and teleport GHZ states of any number of photons as well as to accomplish the process of open-destination teleportation of a single photon's arbitrary state. The equipment and techniques which are used in our scheme are all feasible under current technology. Moreover, we make a direct extension of the above cases and investigate the open-destination teleportation of any M-photon general GHZ states with a brief diagram.
A proposal to generate entangled compass states with sub-Planck structure
Choudhury, Sayan; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2011-09-23
We illustrate a procedure to generate a bipartite, entangled compass state, which shows sub-Planck structure. The proposed method uses the interaction of a standing wave laser field, with two, two-level atoms and relies on the ability of this system to choose certain mesoscopic bipartite states to couple with the internal degrees of freedom. An appropriate measurement on the internal degrees of freedom then leads to the entangled state, which shows sub-Planck structures, desired for quantum metrology.
Photon-number entangled states generated in Kerr media with optical parametric pumping
Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.; Perina, Jan Jr.
2011-05-15
Two nonlinear Kerr oscillators mutually coupled by parametric pumping are studied as a source of states entangled in photon numbers. Temporal evolution of entanglement quantified by negativity shows the effects of sudden death and birth of entanglement. Entanglement is preserved even in asymptotic states under certain conditions. The role of reservoirs at finite temperature in entanglement evolution is elucidated. Relation between generation of entangled states and violation of Cauchy-Schwartz inequality for oscillator intensities is found.
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The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States
Fink, Sari; Porter, Kevin; Rogers, Jennifer
2010-10-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.
Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States
Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.
2010-10-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.
Transitionless-based shortcuts for the fast and robust generation of W states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ye-Hong; Huang, Bi-Hua; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan
2016-12-01
We propose a scheme to generate W states based on transitionless-based shortcuts technique in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system. In light of quantum Zeno dynamics, we first effectively design a system whose effective Hamiltonian is equivalent to the counter-diabatic driving Hamiltonian constructed by transitionless quantum driving, then, realize the W states' generation within this framework. For the sake of clearness, we describe two stale schemes for W states' generation via traditional methods: the adiabatic dark-state evolution and the quantum Zeno dynamics. The comparison among these three schemes shows the shortcut scheme is closely related to the other two but better than them. That is, numerical investigation demonstrates that the shortcut scheme is faster than the adiabatic one, and more robust against operational imperfection than the Zeno one. What is more, the present scheme is also robust against decoherence caused by spontaneous emission and photon loss.
A Kind of New Three-Mode Coherent-Entangled State and Its Application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong-Qi; Ren, Ting-Qi; Zhang, Yun-Hai; Xu, Xing-Lei
2011-11-01
A kind of new continuous variable three-mode coherent-entangled state (CV-CES) is proposed in Fock space by the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP), which exhibits both the properties of coherent state and entangled state, and spans a complete and orthonormal representation. The conjugate state of CV-CES is derived by Fourier transformation. Moreover, the simple experimental protocol of generating a CV-CES is proposed by beam-splitters. As applications of this CV-CES, a three-mode entangled state and a three-mode squeezing-Fresnel operator are constructed.
Some properties and applications of biphoton states of three-mode light
Gorbachev, V. N.; Kulik, S. P. Trubilko, A. I.
2008-09-15
Statistical properties, generation, and applications of three-mode biphoton fields with no more than one photon in each mode are discussed. Such field states have sub-Poissonian photon statistics and can be squeezed and entangled. The modes that simultaneously exhibit these properties in measurements are indicated. Two setups for generating such states via spontaneous parametric down-conversion are described. It is shown that the field states discussed in this study provide a quantum channel for teleportation, dense coding, and quantum key distribution.
Robust and compact entanglement generation from diode-laser-pumped four-wave mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawrie, B. J.; Yang, Y.; Eaton, M.; Black, A. N.; Pooser, R. C.
2016-04-01
Four-wave-mixing processes are now routinely used to demonstrate multi-spatial-mode Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and intensity difference squeezing. Diode-laser-pumped four-wave mixing processes have recently been shown to provide an affordable, compact, and stable source for intensity difference squeezing, but it was unknown if excess phase noise present in power amplifier pump configurations would be an impediment to achieving quadrature entanglement. Here, we demonstrate the operating regimes under which these systems are capable of producing entanglement and under which excess phase noise produced by the amplifier contaminates the output state. We show that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement in two mode squeezed states can be generated by a four-wave-mixing source deriving both the pump field and the local oscillators from a tapered-amplifier diode-laser. This robust continuous variable entanglement source is highly scalable and amenable to miniaturization, making it a critical step toward the development of integrated quantum sensors and scalable quantum information processors, such as spatial comb cluster states.
Fast and simple scheme for generating NOON states of photons in circuit QED.
Su, Qi-Ping; Yang, Chui-Ping; Zheng, Shi-Biao
2014-01-01
The generation, manipulation and fundamental understanding of entanglement lies at very heart of quantum mechanics. Among various types of entangled states, the NOON states are a kind of special quantum entangled states with two orthogonal component states in maximal superposition, which have a wide range of potential applications in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Here, we propose a fast and simple scheme for generating NOON states of photons in two superconducting resonators by using a single superconducting transmon qutrit. Because only one superconducting qutrit and two resonators are used, the experimental setup for this scheme is much simplified when compared with the previous proposals requiring a setup of two superconducting qutrits and three cavities. In addition, this scheme is easier and faster to implement than the previous proposals, which require using a complex microwave pulse, or a small pulse Rabi frequency in order to avoid nonresonant transitions.
Saturation: An efficient iteration strategy for symbolic state-space generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ciardo, Gianfranco; Luettgen, Gerald; Siminiceanu, Radu; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper presents a novel algorithm for generating state spaces of asynchronous systems using Multi-valued Decision Diagrams. In contrast to related work, the next-state function of a system is not encoded as a single Boolean function, but as cross-products of integer functions. This permits the application of various iteration strategies to build a system's state space. In particular, this paper introduces a new elegant strategy, called saturation, and implements it in the tool SMART. On top of usually performing several orders of magnitude faster than existing BDD-based state-space generators, the algorithm's required peak memory is often close to the nal memory needed for storing the overall state spaces.
Atom-chip-based generation of entanglement for quantum metrology.
Riedel, Max F; Böhi, Pascal; Li, Yun; Hänsch, Theodor W; Sinatra, Alice; Treutlein, Philipp
2010-04-22
Atom chips provide a versatile quantum laboratory for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. They have been used in diverse experiments involving low-dimensional quantum gases, cavity quantum electrodynamics, atom-surface interactions, and chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers. However, a severe limitation of atom chips is that techniques to control atomic interactions and to generate entanglement have not been experimentally available so far. Such techniques enable chip-based studies of entangled many-body systems and are a key prerequisite for atom chip applications in quantum simulations, quantum information processing and quantum metrology. Here we report the experimental generation of multi-particle entanglement on an atom chip by controlling elastic collisional interactions with a state-dependent potential. We use this technique to generate spin-squeezed states of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate; such states are a useful resource for quantum metrology. The observed reduction in spin noise of -3.7 +/- 0.4 dB, combined with the spin coherence, implies four-partite entanglement between the condensate atoms; this could be used to improve an interferometric measurement by -2.5 +/- 0.6 dB over the standard quantum limit. Our data show good agreement with a dynamical multi-mode simulation and allow us to reconstruct the Wigner function of the spin-squeezed condensate. The techniques reported here could be directly applied to chip-based atomic clocks, currently under development.
Unsteady Squeezing Flow of Carbon Nanotubes with Convective Boundary Conditions
Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Khursheed; Farooq, Muhammad; Alsaedi, Ahmad
2016-01-01
Unsteady flow of nanofluids squeezed between two parallel plates is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation. Heat transfer phenomenon is disclosed via convective boundary conditions. Carbon nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall) are used as nanoparticles which are homogeneously distributed in the base fluid (water). A system of non-linear differential equations for the flow is obtained by utilizing similarity transformations through the conservation laws. Influence of various emerging parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are sketched graphically and discussed comprehensively. Analyses of skin fraction coefficient and Nusselt number are also elaborated numerically. It is found out that velocity is smaller for squeezing parameter in the case of multi-wall carbon nanotubes when compared with single-wall carbon nanotubes. PMID:27149208
Luminescence and squeezing of a superconducting light-emitting diode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hlobil, Patrik; Orth, Peter P.
2015-05-01
We investigate a semiconductor p -n junction in contact with superconducting leads that is operated under forward bias as a light-emitting diode. The presence of superconductivity results in a significant increase of the electroluminescence in a sharp frequency window. We demonstrate that the tunneling of Cooper pairs induces an additional luminescence peak on resonance. There is a transfer of superconducting to photonic coherence that results in the emission of entangled photon pairs and squeezing of the fluctuations in the quadrature amplitudes of the emitted light. We show that the squeezing angle can be electrically manipulated by changing the relative phase of the order parameters in the superconductors. We finally derive the conditions for lasing in the system and show that the laser threshold is reduced due to superconductivity. This reveals how the macroscopic coherence of a superconductor can be used to control the properties of light.
Squeezing-out dynamics in free-standing smectic films.
Zakharov, A V; Sliwa, Izabela
2015-06-01
We have carried out a theoretical study of the dynamics of the removal of one smectic layer from the N-layer free-standing smectic film during the layer-thinning process. Squeezing-out is initiated by a thermally activated nucleation process in which a density fluctuation forms a small hole. The dynamics of the bounding area during the layer-thinning transition N → N - 1, when the nucleation occurs in the center of the circular smectic film and the squeezed-out area increases up to the edge of the circular smectic area, is studied by the use of the conservation laws for mass and linear momentum. The disjoining pressure is the main factor that is responsible for the driving out of one smectic layer from the N-layer smectic film.
Squeezing-out dynamics in free-standing smectic films.
Zakharov, A V; Sliwa, Izabela
2015-06-01
We have carried out a theoretical study of the dynamics of the removal of one smectic layer from the N-layer free-standing smectic film during the layer-thinning process. Squeezing-out is initiated by a thermally activated nucleation process in which a density fluctuation forms a small hole. The dynamics of the bounding area during the layer-thinning transition N → N - 1, when the nucleation occurs in the center of the circular smectic film and the squeezed-out area increases up to the edge of the circular smectic area, is studied by the use of the conservation laws for mass and linear momentum. The disjoining pressure is the main factor that is responsible for the driving out of one smectic layer from the N-layer smectic film. PMID:26049512
Unsteady Squeezing Flow of Carbon Nanotubes with Convective Boundary Conditions.
Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Khursheed; Farooq, Muhammad; Alsaedi, Ahmad
2016-01-01
Unsteady flow of nanofluids squeezed between two parallel plates is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation. Heat transfer phenomenon is disclosed via convective boundary conditions. Carbon nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall) are used as nanoparticles which are homogeneously distributed in the base fluid (water). A system of non-linear differential equations for the flow is obtained by utilizing similarity transformations through the conservation laws. Influence of various emerging parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are sketched graphically and discussed comprehensively. Analyses of skin fraction coefficient and Nusselt number are also elaborated numerically. It is found out that velocity is smaller for squeezing parameter in the case of multi-wall carbon nanotubes when compared with single-wall carbon nanotubes. PMID:27149208
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Peloso, Marco; Barnaby, Neil E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: barnaby@physics.umn.edu
2013-05-01
The bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations in the squeezed configuration, in which one wavenumber, k{sub 3}, is much smaller than the other two, k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}, plays a special role in constraining the physics of inflation. In this paper we study a new phenomenological signature in the squeezed-limit bispectrum: namely, the amplitude of the squeezed-limit bispectrum depends on an angle between k{sub 1} and k{sub 3} such that B{sub ζ}(k{sub 1},k{sub 2},k{sub 3}) → 2Σ{sub L}c{sub L}P{sub L}( k-circumflex {sub 1}· k-circumflex {sub 3})P{sub ζ}(k{sub 1})P{sub ζ}(k{sub 3}), where P{sub L} are the Legendre polynomials. While c{sub 0} is related to the usual local-form f{sub NL} parameter as c{sub 0} = 6f{sub NL}/5, the higher-multipole coefficients, c{sub 1}, c{sub 2}, etc., have not been constrained by the data. Primordial curvature perturbations sourced by large-scale magnetic fields generate non-vanishing c{sub 0}, c{sub 1}, and c{sub 2}. Inflation models whose action contains a term like I(φ){sup 2}F{sup 2} generate c{sub 2} = c{sub 0}/2. A recently proposed ''solid inflation'' model generates c{sub 2} >> c{sub 0}. A cosmic-variance-limited experiment measuring temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background up to l{sub max} = 2000 is able to measure these coefficients down to δc{sub 0} = 4.4, δc{sub 1} = 61, and δc{sub 2} = 13 (68% CL). We also find that c{sub 0} and c{sub 1}, and c{sub 0} and c{sub 2}, are nearly uncorrelated. Measurements of these coefficients will open up a new window into the physics of inflation such as the existence of vector fields during inflation or non-trivial symmetry structure of inflaton fields. Finally, we show that the original form of the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality does not apply to the case involving higher-spin fields, but a generalized form does.
Dong Yunxia; Zhang Xiangdong
2010-03-15
A rigorous quantum theory for the generation of multiphoton entangled states based on two consecutive three-frequency interactions of waves in a one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal is developed using the field expansion and differentiation methods. The three-photon correlation coefficient and the average photon numbers generated in the structure are calculated. All order expansion terms are included in the calculation. The generation conditions for multiphoton entangled states in such a structure are also analyzed. It is shown that the created photons in the present structures obey the super-Poisson statistics at the interacting frequencies and are in a multiparticle entangled state. This means the nonlinear photonic crystal can be applied as a highly efficient source of an entangled multiphoton for highly integrated all-optical circuits.
MHD unsteady squeezing flow over a porous stretching plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, T.; Qayyum, A.; Alsaedi, A.
2013-12-01
This article is concerned with the unsteady squeezing flow of non-Newtonian fluid between two parallel plates. A rheological equation of second grade fluid is used. The fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a magnetic field. A transformation procedure reduces the partial differential equations into the ordinary differential equations. A series solution is developed using a modern mathematical scheme. The solution expressions for velocity components are computed and discussed. In addition, the skin friction coefficient is analyzed through tabulated values.
Ocular barotrauma caused by mask squeeze during a scuba dive.
Rudge, F W
1994-07-01
I describe the case of a 25-year-old man who, after a scuba dive, had ocular barotrauma caused by mask squeeze. As in most cases, the condition occurred because the patient failed to exhale into the mask during descent to equalize the pressure within the mask. Although alarming in appearance, the condition is generally mild and self-limited. Patients should be instructed in the proper technique of mask clearing before they return to diving to prevent a recurrence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
H, R. Baghshahi; M, K. Tavassoly; A, Behjat
2014-07-01
The interaction between a two-level atom and a single-mode field in the k-photon Jaynes—Cummings model (JCM) in the presence of the Stark shift and a Kerr medium is studied. All terms in the Hamiltonian, such as the single-mode field, its interaction with the atom, the contribution of the Stark shift and the Kerr medium effects are considered to be f-deformed. In particular, the effect of the initial state of the radiation field on the dynamical evolution of some physical properties such as atomic inversion and entropy squeezing are investigated by considering different initial field states (coherent, squeezed and thermal states).
Storage and retrieval of squeezing in multimode resonant quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tikhonov, K.; Samburskaya, K.; Golubeva, T.; Golubev, Yu.
2014-01-01
In this article the ability to record, store, and read out the quantum properties of light is studied. The discussion is based on high-speed and adiabatic models of quantum memory in λ configuration and in the limit of strong resonance. We show that in this case the equality between efficiency and squeezing ratio, predicted by the simple beam-splitter model, is broken. The requirement of the maximum squeezing in the output pulse should not be accompanied by the requirement of maximum efficiency of memory, as in the beam-splitter model. We have demonstrated that for the same optical depth a high output pulse squeezing can be reached earlier than the high efficiency. Comprehension of this "paradox" is achieved on the basis of mode analysis. The memories eigenmodes, which have an impact on the memory process, are found numerically. Also, the spectral analysis of modes was performed to match the spectral width of the input signal to the capacities of the memories.
REPLY TO COMMENT: Reply to Comment on 'Generation of cluster-type entangled coherent states'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Li
2010-10-01
We respond to the criticism of our paper 'Generation of cluster-type entangled coherent states'. In the original paper, we remove the explicit time dependence from the interaction Hamiltonian by transforming to a rotating frame for the field operators, which is also done to quantum dots embedded in a microcavity (Djuric and Search 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 155307). We thank Wei Haihong and Wang Faqiang for pointing out that cluster-type entangled coherent states (CTECS) cannot be obtained with the original time-dependent Hamiltonian under certain parameter condition λ Lt |χ|. For the original field operators, we present a new method to generate CTECS in the same system.
Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs.
Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Roztocki, Piotr; Wetzel, Benjamin; Grazioso, Fabio; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Johnston, Tudor; Bromberg, Yaron; Caspani, Lucia; Moss, David J; Morandotti, Roberto
2016-03-11
Complex optical photon states with entanglement shared among several modes are critical to improving our fundamental understanding of quantum mechanics and have applications for quantum information processing, imaging, and microscopy. We demonstrate that optical integrated Kerr frequency combs can be used to generate several bi- and multiphoton entangled qubits, with direct applications for quantum communication and computation. Our method is compatible with contemporary fiber and quantum memory infrastructures and with chip-scale semiconductor technology, enabling compact, low-cost, and scalable implementations. The exploitation of integrated Kerr frequency combs, with their ability to generate multiple, customizable, and complex quantum states, can provide a scalable, practical, and compact platform for quantum technologies.
Squeezed from All Sides: The CSU Crisis and California's Future
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2011
2011-01-01
California long enjoyed rapid growth, abundant jobs, and expanding college opportunity--key elements of the California dream. Now the state is struggling to recover from its worst economic crisis in generations, a demographic slowdown, a devastating collapse of the wealth of the state' families from the housing crisis, and severe cutbacks in…